WorldWideScience

Sample records for global stopping role

  1. How to stop global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenberg, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on how to stop global warming. At the Toronto Conference on Climate Change in 1988, the world's industrialized nations agreed on a goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions 20 percent by the year 2005. This would not stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases but would at least slow their accumulation. Although difficult to achieve, the Toronto goal is certainly reachable. Newer, more efficient technologies can lower energy consumption without effecting economic output. CFC- substitutes can provide refrigeration. In fact, an international carbon tax of just $1 per barrel of oil, or $6 per ton of coal, would generate more than enough revenue to pay for the necessary fuel-saving measures. This tax could result from an international agreement similar to the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which obliges its signatories to cut down on production of CFCs

  2. Can Global Warming be Stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US

  3. Lifespan changes in global and selective stopping and performance adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Van De Laar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined stopping and performance adjustments in four age groups (M ages: 8, 12, 21, and 76 years. All participants performed on three tasks, a standard two-choice task and the same task in which stop-signal trials were inserted requiring either the suppression of the response activated by the choice stimulus (global stop task or the suppression of the response when one stop signal was presented but not when the other stop signal occurred (selective stop task. The results showed that global stopping was faster than selective stopping in all age groups. Global stopping matured more rapidly than selective stopping. The developmental gain in stopping was considerably more pronounced compared to the loss observed during senescence. All age groups slowed the response on trials without a stop signal in the stop task compared to trials in the choice task, the elderly in particular. In addition, all age groups slowed on trials following stop-signal trials, except the elderly who did not slow following successful inhibits. By contrast, the slowing following failed inhibits was disproportionally larger in the elderly compared to young adults. Finally, sequential effects did not alter the pattern of performance adjustments. The results were interpreted in terms of developmental change in the balance between proactive and reactive control.

  4. Lifespan Changes in Global and Selective Stopping and Performance Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Laar, Maria C.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; van Boxtel, Geert J. M.; van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined stopping and performance adjustments in four age groups (M ages: 8, 12, 21, and 76 years). All participants performed on three tasks, a standard two-choice task and the same task in which stop-signal trials were inserted requiring either the suppression of the response activated by the choice stimulus (global stop task) or the suppression of the response when one stop-signal was presented but not when the other stop-signal occurred (selective stop task). The results showed that global stopping was faster than selective stopping in all age groups. Global stopping matured more rapidly than selective stopping. The developmental gain in stopping was considerably more pronounced compared to the loss observed during senescence. All age groups slowed the response on trials without a stop-signal in the stop task compared to trials in the choice task, the elderly in particular. In addition, all age groups slowed on trials following stop-signal trials, except the elderly who did not slow following successful inhibits. By contrast, the slowing following failed inhibits was disproportionally larger in the elderly compared to young adults. Finally, sequential effects did not alter the pattern of performance adjustments. The results were interpreted in terms of developmental change in the balance between proactive and reactive control. PMID:22180746

  5. Can the Paris Agreement stop global warming?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howalt Owe, Selina; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    in the year 2030 of about 55 Gt Carbon to 40 Gt Carbon. This can be compared to an approximate emission of 35 Gt in 2014 and thus means that a global rise in emission of only 5 Gt Carbon is allowed over the next 15 years Using the Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS)model [1] we have investigated...... how large an emission reduction is necessary to keep the global temperatures below these targets.The DCESS model is a low order Earth system box model which includes atmosphere, ocean, ocean sediment, land biosphere and lithosphere components, and using the year 1765 as the preindustriallevel. We have...... examined different emission scenarios and the national commitments and find that even if the Paris Agreement is fulfilled, global temperatures will have increased by 1.5 degree C in 2030, and then only a yearly percentage reduction of 5% or more will be sufficient to keep temperatures below 2 degree C...

  6. Summary the race to reinvent energy and stop global warming

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Complete summary of Fred Krupp and Miriam Horn's book: ""Earth: The Sequel: The Race to Reinvent Energy and Stop Global Warming"". This summary of the ideas from Fred Krupp and Miriam Horn's book ""Earth: The Sequel"" explains how capitalism, as the most powerful economic force in the world, is the only engine of change that has the strength to stop global warming. In their book, the authors demonstrate how this can be achieved by installing a cap-and-trade initiative, providing genuine economic incentives for companies and reducing their carbon footprint. This summary explains their theory in

  7. The Stop Transmission of Polio Data Management (STOP DM) assignment and its role in polio eradication and immunization data improvement in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benke, Amalia; Williams, Alford Joseph; MacNeil, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The availability and use of high quality immunization and surveillance data are crucial for monitoring all components of the Global Polio Eradication Program (GPEI). The Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program was initiated in 1999 to train and mobilize human resources to provide technical support to polio endemic and at-risk countries and in 2002 the STOP data management (STOP DM) deployment was created to provide capacity development in the area of data management for immunization and surveillance data for these countries. Since 2002, Africa has received the majority of support from the STOP DM program, with almost 80% of assignments being placed in African countries. The STOP DM program has played a valuable role in improving the quality and use of data for the GPEI and has increasingly supported other immunization program data needs. In this report we provide an overview of the history, current status, and future of the STOP DM program, with a specific focus on the African continent.

  8. The global polio eradication initiative Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program - 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    In 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established through a partnership between the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, CDC, and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). By 2012, the annual incidence of polio had decreased by >99%, compared with 1988, and the number of countries in which wild poliovirus (WPV) circulation has never been interrupted was reduced to three: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. However, because of the persistence of endemic WPV transmission and recurring outbreaks in polio-free countries after the original polio eradication target date of 2000, the World Health Assembly in 2012 declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency. A key component of GPEI is the Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program, which was developed and initiated by CDC with WHO in 1999 to mobilize additional human resources and technical assistance for countries affected by WPV transmission. During 1999-2013, 1,563 volunteers were identified, trained, and deployed for 2,221 assignments in 69 countries. The number of volunteers increased from 90-120 per year during 1999-2011 to 287 in 2012 and 378 in 2013, and the number of volunteer person-months in the field per year increased from 273 in 1999 to 1,456 in 2012. The STOP program has aided GPEI by strengthening the capacity of country-level immunization programs and by allowing a large cohort of volunteers to gain valuable field experience that prepares them well for subsequent work as staff members of WHO, UNICEF, and other public health agencies.

  9. Global warming: What should we do to stop or slow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenalp, B.

    2006-01-01

    Earth is warming much faster than had been predicted. 2005 was the warmest year on record, surpassing 1998. The multinational Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) report recently concluded that in Alaska, western Canada, and eastern Russia, average temperatures have increased 3 to 4 degrees Celsius in the past 50 years. Rising temperatures have a dramatic impact on Arctic ice. Since 1978 Arctic sea ice area has shrunk by some 9 percent per decade, and thinned as well. There are three specific events especially worrisome and potentially imminent, although the time frames are a matter of dispute: dramatic sea level rise by the end of the century that would take tens of thousand years to reverse; widespread coral bleaching that could be damage the world's fisheries within three decades; and, within 200 years, a shutdown of the ocean current that moderates temperatures in northern Europe. Global warming is caused by human activities such as burning nature's vast store of coal, oil and nature gas which releases billions of tones carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) every year. If current trends continue, we will raise atmospheric CO 2 concentrations to double pre-industrial levels during this century. That will probably be enough to raise global temperatures by around 2 degree C to 5 degree C. Even if humans stop burning oil and coal tomorrow we have already spewed enough greenhouse gases into the atmosphere to cause temperatures to warm and sea levels to rise for at least another century. So what should we do? We can not continue drawing energy from fossil fuels and there is no chance that the renewable, wind, tide, and water power can provide enough energy and in time. Nuclear energy is the only one immediately available source does not cause global warming. In this presentation consequences and risks of global warming, as well as nuclear power comparisons will be discussed comprehensively

  10. Negative emissions from stopping deforestation and forest degradation, globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Richard A; Nassikas, Alexander A

    2018-01-01

    Forest growth provides negative emissions of carbon that could help keep the earth's surface temperature from exceeding 2°C, but the global potential is uncertain. Here we use land-use information from the FAO and a bookkeeping model to calculate the potential negative emissions that would result from allowing secondary forests to recover. We find the current gross carbon sink in forests recovering from harvests and abandoned agriculture to be -4.4 PgC/year, globally. The sink represents the potential for negative emissions if positive emissions from deforestation and wood harvest were eliminated. However, the sink is largely offset by emissions from wood products built up over the last century. Accounting for these committed emissions, we estimate that stopping deforestation and allowing secondary forests to grow would yield cumulative negative emissions between 2016 and 2100 of about 120 PgC, globally. Extending the lifetimes of wood products could potentially remove another 10 PgC from the atmosphere, for a total of approximately 130 PgC, or about 13 years of fossil fuel use at today's rate. As an upper limit, the estimate is conservative. It is based largely on past and current practices. But if greater negative emissions are to be realized, they will require an expansion of forest area, greater efficiencies in converting harvested wood to long-lasting products and sources of energy, and novel approaches for sequestering carbon in soils. That is, they will require current management practices to change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Stop Transmission of Polio Data Management (STOP DM) assignment and its role in polio eradication and immunization data improvement in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Benke, Amalia; Williams, Alford Joseph; MacNeil, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The availability and use of high quality immunization and surveillance data are crucial for monitoring all components of the Global Polio Eradication Program (GPEI). The Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program was initiated in 1999 to train and mobilize human resources to provide technical support to polio endemic and at-risk countries and in 2002 the STOP data management (STOP DM) deployment was created to provide capacity development in the area of data management for immunization and sur...

  12. Implementing the global plan to stop TB, 2011-2015 - optimizing allocations and the global fund's contribution: A scenario projections study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Korenromp (Eline); P. Glaziou (Philippe); C. Fitzpatrick (Christopher); K. Floyd (Katherine); M. Hosseini (Mehran); M.C. Raviglione (Mario); R. Atun (Rifat); B. Williams (Brian)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Global Plan to Stop TB estimates funding required in low- and middle-income countries to achieve TB control targets set by the Stop TB Partnership within the context of the Millennium Development Goals. We estimate the contribution and impact of Global Fund investments

  13. Possible global strategies for stopping polio vaccination and how they could be harmonized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochi, S L; Sutter, R W; Aylward, R B

    2001-01-01

    One of the challenges of the polio eradication initiative over the next few years will be the formulation of an optimal strategy for stopping poliovirus vaccination after global certification of polio eradication has been accomplished. This strategy must maximize the benefits and minimize the risks. A number of strategies are currently under consideration, including: (i) synchronized global discontinuation of use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); (ii) regional or subregional coordinated OPV discontinuation; and (iii) moving from trivalent to bivalent or monovalent OPV. Other options include moving from OPV to global use of IPV for an interim period before cessation of IPV use (to eliminate circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus, if necessary) or development of new OPV strains that are not transmissible. Each of these strategies is associated with specific advantages (financial benefits for OPV discontinuation) and disadvantages (cost of switch to IPV) and inherent uncertainties (risk of continued poliovirus circulation in certain populations or prolonged virus replication in immunodeficient persons). An ambitious research agenda addresses the remaining questions and issues. Nevertheless, several generalities are already clear. Unprecedented collaboration between countries, regions, and indeed the entire world will be required to implement a global OPV discontinuation strategy Regulatory approval will be needed for an interim bivalent OPV or for monovalent OPV in many countries. Manufacturers will need sufficient lead time to produce sufficient quantities of IPV Finally, the financial implications for any of these strategies need to be considered. Whatever strategy is followed it will be necessary to stockpile supplies of a poliovirus-containing vaccine (most probably all three types of monovalent OPV), and to develop contingency plans to respond should an outbreak of polio occur after stopping vaccination.

  14. The role of stop-signal probability and expectation in proactive inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Matthijs; Kaldewaij, Reinoud; Zandbelt, Bram B; Pas, Pascal; du Plessis, Stefan

    The subjective belief of what will happen plays an important role across many cognitive domains, including response inhibition. However, tasks that study inhibition do not distinguish between the processing of objective contextual cues indicating stop-signal probability and the subjective

  15. World's first ejector cycle for mobile refrigerators to stop global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Hirotsugu [Denso Corporation, Kariya (Japan); Gyoeroeg, Tibor [DENSO AUTOMOTIVE Deutschland GmbH, Eching (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The development of energy-saving technologies is in great demand recently to stop global warming. We are committed to developing the Ejector Cycle as an energy-saving technology for refrigerators and air conditioners. The ejector, which is an energy-saving technological innovation, improves the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle by effectively using the expansion energy that is lost in the conventional vapor-compression cycle, and is applicable to almost all vapor-compression refrigerating air conditioners, thus improving the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle. Concerning the application of the Ejector Cycle in truck-transport refrigerators, we released Ejector Cycle products for large and medium-size freezer trucks, which have been favorably accepted by customers in 2003. Simultaneously we also developed the domestic water supply system using heat pump with natural refrigerant (CO{sub 2}). We developed a new Ejector Cycle, completed in 2007 a cool box which uses the refrigeration cycle of the mobile air-conditioning system to cool drinks and the commercial compact refrigerator. In 2008 a domestic water supply heat pump system using a heat pump with the natural refrigerant CO{sub 2} and the next-generation Ejector Cycle II that substantially improves performance was brought to the market. A new generation of Ejector Cycle is under development which will significantly improve the efficiency of mobile air conditioning systems (orig.)

  16. STOP-EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS FROM INTRACRANIAL ELECTRODES REVEAL A KEY ROLE OF PREMOTOR AND MOTOR CORTICES IN STOPPING ONGOING MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio eMattia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In humans, the ability to withhold manual motor responses seems to rely on a right-lateralized frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network, including the pre-supplementary motor area and the inferior frontal gyrus. These areas should drive subthalamic nuclei to implement movement inhibition via the hyperdirect pathway. The output of this network is expected to influence those cortical areas underlying limb movement preparation and initiation, i.e. premotor (PMA and primary motor (M1 cortices. Electroencephalographic (EEG studies have shown an enhancement of the N200/P300 complex in the event-related potentials (ERPs when a planned reaching movement is successfully stopped after the presentation of an infrequent stop-signal. PMA and M1 have been suggested as possible neural sources of this ERP complex but, due to the limited spatial resolution of scalp EEG, it is not yet clear which cortical areas contribute to its generation. To elucidate the role of motor cortices, we recorded epicortical ERPs from the lateral surface of the fronto-temporal lobes of five pharmacoresistant epileptic patients performing a reaching version of the countermanding task while undergoing presurgical monitoring. We consistently found a stereotyped ERP complex on a single-trial level when a movement was successfully cancelled. These ERPs were selectively expressed in M1, PMA and Brodmann's area (BA 9 and their onsets preceded the end of the stop process, suggesting a causal involvement in this executive function. Such ERPs also occurred in unsuccessful-stop trials, that is, when subjects moved despite the occurrence of a stop-signal, mostly when they had long reaction times. These findings support the hypothesis that motor cortices are the final target of the inhibitory command elaborated by the frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network.

  17. Global Trafficking Prevalence Data Distorts Efforts to Stop Patterns of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Dottridge

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For everyone engaged in efforts to stop the exploitation and harm associated with human trafficking, it always sounds helpful to know how many people are being exploited in particular places and where they come from. Finding out should help us assess whether efforts to cut down these numbers are effective or not.

  18. Decision-making interventions to stop the global atrial fibrillation-related stroke tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasuolo, Joshua O; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Ibañez, Agustin; Doocy, Shannon; Lip, Gregory Yh; Sposato, Luciano A

    2017-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation affects 33.5 million people worldwide and its prevalence is expected to double by 2050 because of the aging population. Atrial fibrillation confers a 5-fold higher risk of ischemic stroke compared to sinus rhythm. We present our view of the role of shared medical decision-making to combat global underutilization of oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation patients. Oral anticoagulation underuse is widespread as it is present within atrial fibrillation patients of all risk strata and in countries across all income levels. Reasons for oral anticoagulation underuse include but are probably not limited to poor risk stratification, over-interpretation of contraindications, and discordance between physician prescription preferences and actual administration. By comparing a catastrophic event to the consequences of atrial fibrillation related strokes, it may help physicians and patients understand the negative outcomes associated with oral anticoagulation under-utilization and the magnitude to which oral anticoagulations neutralize atrial fibrillation burden.

  19. Brazilian Role in the Global Value Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim José Martins Guilhoto; Denise Imori

    2014-01-01

    In recent past, the global value chains have increasingly become more pervasive in the productive processes around the world and thus decisively affect how each country is integrated in a reshaped global economy. Understanding the role of the economies in the global value chains can help national and local governments to develop more effective responses to the challenges that are imposed by globalization. The present paper focuses Brazil, whose rate of economic openness is generally considere...

  20. Implementing the global plan to stop TB, 2011-2015--optimizing allocations and the Global Fund's contribution: a scenario projections study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline L Korenromp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Global Plan to Stop TB estimates funding required in low- and middle-income countries to achieve TB control targets set by the Stop TB Partnership within the context of the Millennium Development Goals. We estimate the contribution and impact of Global Fund investments under various scenarios of allocations across interventions and regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Global Plan assumptions on expected cases and mortality, we estimate treatment costs and mortality impact for diagnosis and treatment for drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB, including antiretroviral treatment (ART during DOTS for HIV-co-infected patients, for four country groups, overall and for the Global Fund investments. In 2015, China and India account for 24% of funding need, Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA for 33%, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA for 20%, and other low- and middle-income countries for 24%. Scale-up of MDR-TB treatment, especially in EECA, drives an increasing global TB funding need--an essential investment to contain the mortality burden associated with MDR-TB and future disease costs. Funding needs rise fastest in SSA, reflecting increasing coverage need of improved TB/HIV management, which saves most lives per dollar spent in the short term. The Global Fund is expected to finance 8-12% of Global Plan implementation costs annually. Lives saved through Global Fund TB support within the available funding envelope could increase 37% if allocations shifted from current regional demand patterns to a prioritized scale-up of improved TB/HIV treatment and secondly DOTS, both mainly in Africa--with EECA region, which has disproportionately high per-patient costs, funded from alternative resources. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings, alongside country funding gaps, domestic funding and implementation capacity and equity considerations, should inform strategies and policies for international donors, national governments and

  1. Mass gatherings: A one-stop opportunity to complement global disease surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habida Elachola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infections including those resulting from the bioterrorist use of infectious agents have indicated the need for global health surveillance. This paper reviews multiple surveillance opportunities presented by mass gatherings (MGs that align with fundamental questions in epidemiology (why, what, who, where, when and how. Some MGs bring together large, diverse population groups coming from countries with high prevalence of communicable diseases and disparate surveillance capacities. MGs have the potential to exacerbate the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases due to various factors including the high population density and rigor of events, increase in number of people with underlying diseases that predisposes them to disease acquisition, mixing of people from countries or regions with and without efficient disease control efforts, and varying endemicity or existence of communicable diseases in home countries. MGs also have the potential to increase the opportunities for mechanical and even heat-related injuries, morbidity or deaths from accidents, alcohol use, deliberate terrorist attacks with biological agents and/or with explosives and from exacerbation of pre-existing conditions. Responding to these wider range of events may require the use of novel bio-surveillance systems designed to collect data from different sources including electronic and non-electronic medical records from emergency departments and hospitalisations, laboratories, medical examiners, emergency call centres, veterinary, food processors, drinking water systems and even other non-traditional sources such as over-the-counter drug sales and crowd photographs. Well-structured, interoperable real-time surveillance and reporting systems should be integral to MG planning. The increase in magnitude of participants exceeding millions and diversity of people attending MGs can be proactively used to conduct active surveillance of communicable and non

  2. Global supply chain: The consolidators’ role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Caiazza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenges and opportunities of the global market lead agro-food small and medium firms (SMEs to focus their source of value on production of high quality goods and implementation of flexible and robust supply chains. Despite the relevance of consolidators in the supply chain, few articles demonstrate their role in internationalization strategies of SMEs. In order to fill this literature gap, this article shows factors that affect global success of SMEs and offers some advice to decision makers.

  3. Asia's changing role in global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Toufiq A

    2008-10-01

    Asia's role in global climate change has evolved significantly from the time when the Kyoto Protocol was being negotiated. Emissions of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas, from energy use in Asian countries now exceed those from the European Union or North America. Three of the top five emitters-China, India, and Japan, are Asian countries. Any meaningful global effort to address global climate change requires the active cooperation of these and other large Asian countries, if it is to succeed. Issues of equity between countries, within countries, and between generations, need to be tackled. Some quantitative current and historic data to illustrate the difficulties involved are provided, and one approach to making progress is suggested.

  4. Localizing women's role in a globalized world

    OpenAIRE

    Pesses , Abigaël

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Based on ethnographic data collected among Karen communities and indigenous associations of Chiang Mai province within the past 15 years, this presentation aims at questioning the opportunities and limits of women's empowerment through the strategies driven by development actors into the local arena. By integrating gender issues in the development discourse, the role and abilities assigned to indigenous women has been embedded into national and global political frames:...

  5. A Data-Driven Evaluation of the Stop TB Global Partnership Strategy of Targeting Key Populations at Greater Risk for Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Zoë M; Schnippel, Kathryn; Sharp, Alana

    2016-01-01

    Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB) is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care. To achieve operational targets, the global health community needs effective, low cost, and large-scale strategies for identifying key populations. Using South Africa as a test case, we assess the feasibility and effectiveness of targeting active case finding to populations with TB risk factors identified from regularly collected sources of data. Our approach is applicable to all countries with TB testing and census data. It allows countries to tailor their outreach activities to the particular risk factors of greatest significance in their national context. We use a national database of TB test results to estimate municipality-level TB infection prevalence, and link it to Census data to measure population risk factors for TB including rates of urban households, informal settlements, household income, unemployment, and mobile phone ownership. To examine the relationship between TB prevalence and risk factors, we perform linear regression analysis and plot the set of population characteristics against TB prevalence and TB testing rate by municipality. We overlay lines of best fit and smoothed curves of best fit from locally weighted scatter plot smoothing. Higher TB prevalence is statistically significantly associated with more urban municipalities (slope coefficient β1 = 0.129, p informal settlement households (β1 = 0.021, p = 0.136, R2 = 0.014). These analyses reveal that the set of characteristics identified by the Global Plan as defining key populations do not adequately predict

  6. No Global War? A Role for Democratic Global Federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myron J. Frankman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In fact, the issue is not whether we shall be governed globally, but rather by whom and on what basis. The international realm is not one of anarchy as the realists would have us believe, but rather one of order: of rules, procedures and accepted norms of behavior associated in part with what are termed "international regimes" (Krasner 1983, each dedicated in principle to a separate functional domain. Global governance is not something that is to be created, but rather something to be altered in the public interest. The governance of the globe is currently configured by a shifting set of ill-coordinated actors: among them the one remaining super-power and, to a lesser extent, other strong states, as well as powerful individuals and a number of large transnational corporations and financial institutions. Whereas Le Monde Diplomatique (1995 speaks oflcs nouveaux maitres du monde, Robert Cox has summed up our current system of global governance with the phrase nebuleuse: "There is, in effect, no explicit political or authority structure for the global economy. There is, nevertheless, something there that remains to be deciphered, something that could be described by the French word nebulcuse or by the notion of 'governance without government."'

  7. Using Student Writing and Lexical Analysis to Reveal Student Thinking about the Role of Stop Codons in the Central Dogma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Luanna B.; Smith, Michelle K.; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has shown that students have persistent difficulties in understanding how central dogma processes can be affected by a stop codon mutation. To explore these difficulties, we modified two multiple-choice questions from the Genetics Concept Assessment into three open-ended questions that asked students to write about how a stop codon…

  8. A Data-Driven Evaluation of the Stop TB Global Partnership Strategy of Targeting Key Populations at Greater Risk for Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë M McLaren

    Full Text Available Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care. To achieve operational targets, the global health community needs effective, low cost, and large-scale strategies for identifying key populations. Using South Africa as a test case, we assess the feasibility and effectiveness of targeting active case finding to populations with TB risk factors identified from regularly collected sources of data. Our approach is applicable to all countries with TB testing and census data. It allows countries to tailor their outreach activities to the particular risk factors of greatest significance in their national context.We use a national database of TB test results to estimate municipality-level TB infection prevalence, and link it to Census data to measure population risk factors for TB including rates of urban households, informal settlements, household income, unemployment, and mobile phone ownership. To examine the relationship between TB prevalence and risk factors, we perform linear regression analysis and plot the set of population characteristics against TB prevalence and TB testing rate by municipality. We overlay lines of best fit and smoothed curves of best fit from locally weighted scatter plot smoothing.Higher TB prevalence is statistically significantly associated with more urban municipalities (slope coefficient β1 = 0.129, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.133, lower mobile phone access (β1 = -0.053, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.089, lower unemployment rates (β1 = -0.020, p = 0.003, R2 = 0.048, and a lower proportion of low-income households

  9. Administering the Global Trap: The Role of Educational Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role of educational leaders in a global society. Explains the globalization of technology, finance, production, and culture. Other topics include the withering away of the state, rebalancing states and markets, development as freedom, and the development as freedom for educational leaders. (Contains 32 references.) (PKP)

  10. Role of biomass in global energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, G.; Christensen, R.; Christensen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Bioenergy is energy of biological and renewable origin, normally in the form of purpose-grown energy crops or by-products from agriculture, forestry or fisheries. Biomass provides approximately 11-14% of the world's energy, but there are significant differences between industrialised and developing countries. In many developing countries biomass is the most important energy source. As a global average, biomass provides approximately 35% of developing countries' energy, but there are large regional differences. Many sub-Saharan African countries depend on biomass for up to 90% of their energy indicating that they have little in the way of industry or other modern activities. In the last decade interest in bioenergy has increased in industrialised countries partly due to growing concern about climate change, technological advances in biomass conversion, increasing focus on security of energy supply, and increasing interest in renewable energy generally. Two trends emerge: The developing countries will in general aim to reduce their dependence on traditional bioenergy. The relative share of bioenergy in the energy balance will therefore go down, though the number of people depending on traditional bioenergy probably will remain constant, with corresponding consequences for health and resources. Industrialised countries, plus a number of developing countries, will aim to increase their use of modern bioenergy technologies. With the traditional association of bioenergy as old fashioned and for the poor, the recent interest in biomass resources has invented a new term 'modern bioenergy' which covers a number of technological areas from combustion at domestic, industrial or power plant scale, gasification, hydrolysis, pyrolysis, extraction, digestion etc. There are some barriers to the increased use of bioenergy, but they can be overcome through dedicated interventions by public and private sector entities. (BA)

  11. Using Student Writing and Lexical Analysis to Reveal Student Thinking about the Role of Stop Codons in the Central Dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Luanna B; Smith, Michelle K; Knight, Jennifer K

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has shown that students have persistent difficulties in understanding how central dogma processes can be affected by a stop codon mutation. To explore these difficulties, we modified two multiple-choice questions from the Genetics Concept Assessment into three open-ended questions that asked students to write about how a stop codon mutation potentially impacts replication, transcription, and translation. We then used computer-assisted lexical analysis combined with human scoring to categorize student responses. The lexical analysis models showed high agreement with human scoring, demonstrating that this approach can be successfully used to analyze large numbers of student written responses. The results of this analysis show that students' ideas about one process in the central dogma can affect their thinking about subsequent and previous processes, leading to mixed models of conceptual understanding. © 2016 L. B. Prevost et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. Changing roles of academic societies due to globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Shigeru; Aoki, Shigeki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Because of the globalization of environment around the academic society, the expected roles have changed significantly. In this short communication, we present the current situation in our international activities of the Japan Radiological Society, particularly in the academic activities and clinical practice. Establishing and reinforcing international network is one process of their promotion.

  13. Canada's global health role: supporting equity and global citizenship as a middle power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Stephanie A; Lee, Kelley; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Blanchard, James; Haddad, Slim; Hoffman, Steven J; Tugwell, Peter

    2018-02-22

    Canada's history of nation building, combined with its status as a so-called middle power in international affairs, has been translated into an approach to global health that is focused on equity and global citizenship. Canada has often aspired to be a socially progressive force abroad, using alliance building and collective action to exert influence beyond that expected from a country with moderate financial and military resources. Conversely, when Canada has primarily used economic self-interest to define its global role, the country's perceived leadership in global health has diminished. Current Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's Liberal federal government has signalled a return to progressive values, driven by appreciation for diversity, equality, and Canada's responsibility to be a good global citizen. However, poor coordination of efforts, limited funding, and the unaddressed legacy of Canada's colonisation of Indigenous peoples weaken the potential for Canadians to make meaningful contributions to improvement of global health equity. Amid increased nationalism and uncertainty towards multilateral commitments by some major powers in the world, the Canadian federal government has a clear opportunity to convert its commitments to equity and global citizenship into stronger leadership on the global stage. Such leadership will require the translation of aspirational messages about health equity and inclusion into concrete action at home and internationally. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Asia's growing role in the global energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Three articles are drawn together in this special Petroleum Economist survey on the growing role played by Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian Pacific area; the second describes the growth of Asia's natural gas industry and the third item celebrates the product surplus produced due to recent refinery expansion programs. (UK)

  15. Global citizenship is key to securing global health: the role of higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Lee; Perry, Lane; Wadsworth, Daniel; Stoner, Krystina R; Tarrant, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    Despite growing public awareness, health systems are struggling under the escalating burden of non-communicable diseases. While personal responsibility is crucial, alone it is insufficient. We argue that one must place themselves within the broader/global context to begin to truly understand the health implications of personal choices. Global citizenship competency has become an integral part of the higher education discourse; this discourse can and should be extended to include global health. A global citizen is someone who is (1) aware of global issues, (2) socially responsible, and (3) civically engaged. From this perspective, personal health is not solely an individual, self-serving act; rather, the consequences of our lifestyle choices and behaviors have far-reaching implications. This paper will argue that, through consciously identifying global health within the constructs of global citizenship, institutions of higher education can play an instrumental role in fostering civically engaged students capable of driving social change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing the public health role of a front line clinical service: integrating stop smoking advice into routine podiatry services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jackie; Eden, Gary; Williams, Maria

    2007-06-01

    Although smoking is a major public health problem, many clinicians do not routinely provide evidence-based health improvement advice to smokers to help them to quit. Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycle methodology was used to design and implement a service development so that health improvement advice for smokers featured in all podiatry consultations provided by a Primary Care Trust in North East England. IT systems were developed to record the number and proportion of patients for whom smoking status was assessed, and the number and proportion of smokers who were given advice to quit and referred for specialist support. A questionnaire to staff explored their perceptions of the development on their clinics and consultations. During a 6-month period, smoking status was recorded for all 8831 (100%) patients attending podiatry clinics; 83% of smokers were given brief advice to quit; 7% of smokers were given help to access specialist stop smoking support services. Improvements were introduced within existing budgets and did not prolong clinics. It is straightforward and inexpensive to develop clinical services so that public health guidance is routinely implemented. More widespread implementation of similar service developments could lead to national improvements in public health.

  17. The role of NGOs in global health research for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Lori

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global health research is essential for development. A major issue is the inequitable distribution of research efforts and funds directed towards populations suffering the world's greatest health problems. This imbalance is fostering major attempts at redirecting research to the health problems of low and middle income countries. Following the creation of the Coalition for Global Health Research – Canada (CGHRC in 2001, the Canadian Society for International Health (CSIH decided to review the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs in global health research. This paper highlights some of the prevalent thinking and is intended to encourage new thinking on how NGOs can further this role. Approach This paper was prepared by members of the Research Committee of the CSIH, with input from other members of the Society. Persons working in various international NGOs participated in individual interviews or group discussions on their involvement in different types of research activities. Case studies illustrate the roles of NGOs in global health research, their perceived strengths and weaknesses, and the constraints and opportunities to build capacity and develop partnerships for research. Highlights NGOs are contributing at all stages of the research cycle, fostering the relevance and effectiveness of the research, priority setting, and knowledge translation to action. They have a key role in stewardship (promoting and advocating for relevant global health research, resource mobilization for research, the generation, utilization and management of knowledge, and capacity development. Yet, typically, the involvement of NGOs in research is downstream from knowledge production and it usually takes the form of a partnership with universities or dedicated research agencies. Conclusion There is a need to more effectively include NGOs in all aspects of health research in order to maximize the potential benefits of research. NGOs

  18. The role stratification on Indian ocean mixing under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, V.; Valsala, V.; Ravindran, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of changes in Indian ocean stratification on mixing under global warming is examined. Previous studies on global warming and associated weakening of winds reported to increase the stratification of the world ocean leading to a reduction in mixing, increased acidity, reduced oxygen and there by a reduction in productivity. However this processes is not uniform and are also modulated by changes in wind pattern of the future. Our study evaluate the role of stratification and surface fluxes on mixing focusing northern Indian ocean. A dynamical downscaling study using Regional ocean Modelling system (ROMS) forced with stratification and surface fluxes from selected CMIP5 models are presented. Results from an extensive set of historical and Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (rcp8.5) scenario simulations are used to quantify the distinctive role of stratification on mixing.

  19. GMSB with light stops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Antonio [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame,225 Nieuwland Science Hall, IN 46556, Notre Dame (United States); Theory Division, Physics Department CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Garcia-Pepin, Mateo [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Quiros, Mariano [ICREA at Institut de Física d’Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-08-31

    Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) is an elegant mechanism to transmit supersymmetry breaking from the hidden to the MSSM observable sector, which solves the supersymmetric flavor problem. However, the smallness of the generated stop mixing requires superheavy stops to reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass. A possible way out is to extend the MSSM Higgs sector with singlets and/or triplets providing extra tree-level corrections to the Higgs mass. Singlets will not get any soft mass from GMSB and triplets will contribute to the ρ parameter which could be an issue. In this paper we explore the second possibility by introducing extra supersymmetric triplets with hypercharges Y=(0,±1), with a tree-level custodial SU(2){sub L}⊗SU(2){sub R} global symmetry in the Higgs sector protecting the ρ parameter: a supersymmetric generalization of the Georgi-Machacek model, dubbed as supersymmetric custodial triplet model (SCTM). The renormalization group running from the messenger to the electroweak scale mildly breaks the custodial symmetry. We will present realistic low-scale scenarios (with the NLSP being a Bino-like neutralino or the right-handed stau) based on general (non-minimal) gauge mediation and consistent with all present experimental data. Their main features are: i) Light (∼1 TeV) stops; ii) Exotic couplings (H{sup ±}W{sup ∓}Z and H{sup ±±}W{sup ∓}W{sup ∓}) absent in the MSSM and proportional to the triplets VEV, v{sub Δ}; and, iii) A possible (measurable) universality breaking of the Higgs couplings λ{sub WZ}=r{sub WW}/r{sub ZZ}≠1.

  20. GMSB with Light Stops

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, Antonio; Quiros, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) is an elegant mechanism to transmit supersymmetry breaking from the hidden to the MSSM observable sector, which solves the supersymmetric flavor problem. However the smallness of the generated stop mixing requires superheavy stops to reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass. Two possible ways out are: i) To extend GMSB by direct superpotential messenger-MSSM Yukawa couplings to generate sizeable mixing, thus reintroducing the flavor problem; ii) To extend the MSSM Higgs sector with singlets and/or triplets providing extra tree-level corrections to the Higgs mass. Singlets will not get any soft mass from GMSB and triplets will contribute to the $\\rho$ parameter which could be an issue. In this paper we explore the second way by introducing extra supersymmetric triplets with hypercharges $Y=(0,\\pm 1)$, with a tree-level custodial $SU(2)_L\\otimes SU(2)_R$ global symmetry in the Higgs sector protecting the $\\rho$ parameter: a supersymmetric generalization of ...

  1. Global Sustainable Development: The Role of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, Stanley R.

    1990-01-01

    The inevitable growth in the world's population and the need for a reasonable standard of living for all nations will drive the demand for energy to much higher levels than the world has yet experienced. A radical improvement in energy efficiency and conservation could limit the global annual demand to 100 GJ per person. consumption of North America. With the developing nations achieving a standard of living commensurate with this level, the global energy demand would increase by a factor of 2.5 to 1000 EJ per year. Concern over the impact of CO 2 emissions on global warming will likely lead to an international consensus on some reduction in the use of fossil fuels. To maintain environmental sustainability, all nations of the world would need to limit their fossil fuel consumption, particularly those in North America and Europe. Other energy sources will play an important role in all regions. However, the main burden is likely to fall upon nuclear energy as an essential element of the total energy supply. The danger eliminated while sustaining global development if the governments of the world commit to the use of nuclear power on a global scale. The industrial intrastucture can be put in place for such a major international program. A more difficult question is the availability of the necessary financing. On a global scale the financial requirement is within the range of current military expenditures. However, it is clear that not all the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will be able to finance their own needs. A new international cooperative program will be necessary. The needed change in energy patterns is dramatic and will take time to implement. The change should be underway by the beginning of the next century. Otherwise the world faces the prospect of environmental disaster and social disruption as the nations struggle to improve their living standards through the increased use of fossil fuels. The role of nuclear power in providing the energy for

  2. Globalization and health care: global justice and the role of physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Rabee

    2014-02-01

    In today's globalized world, nations cannot be totally isolated from or indifferent to their neighbors, especially in regards to medicine and health. While globalization has brought prosperity to millions, disparities among nations and nationals are growing raising once again the question of justice. Similarly, while medicine has developed dramatically over the past few decades, health disparities at the global level are staggering. Seemingly, what our humanity could achieve in matters of scientific development is not justly distributed to benefit everyone. In this paper, it will be argued that a global theoretical agreement on principles of justice may prove unattainable; however, a grass-roots change is warranted to change the current situation. The UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights will be considered as a starting point to achieve this change through extracting the main values embedded in its principles. These values, namely, respecting human dignity and tending to human vulnerability with a hospitable attitude, should then be revived in medical practice. Medical education will be one possible venue to achieve that, especially through role models. Future physicians will then become the fervent advocates for a global and just distribution of health care.

  3. THE ROLE AND PLACE TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS IN GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytvynenko Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. At present, transnational corporations (TNCs are leading the world economy. Each year, the number of TNCs increases, which increases their share in the global economy as a whole. The largest investment projects in the world are concentrated in such corporations, which are a major impetus for the development of countries in which all the capacities of transnational corporations are located. Through the structure of TNCs there are financial and commodity flows that are crucial for the development and improvement of the world economy. The above shows that the study and further research of transnational corporations in the globalization processes is an actual topic of the present. Purpose. The purpose of the paper is to study the peculiarities and trends of the activities of transnational corporations in the conditions of globalization of the world economy. Results. The basis of the new global economic system are TNCs that have large financial resources, implement advanced technologies, have significant spatial markets and conduct an active, globally, investment policy. Conclusions. A transnational corporation is part of the world economy, which is subject to the laws of the development of TNCs and reflects the reciprocal impact on the world economy, a product of globalization processes. The direct relationship between TNCs and the process of globalization comes from the study of the stages of the evolution of transnational corporations. The role of TNCs in the modern world is intensifying, in this connection, the role of national economies is falling, which leads to a conflict of interest between multinational corporations and states. Such conflicts can have a bad effect on the state of the economy and the stability of the state. Therefore, it is necessary to regulate the activities of TNCs. Modern activity of transnationalization has acquired many new features, it can affect not only the world economy, but also the country

  4. THE ROLE OF INTERNET IN THE BORN GLOBAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of internationalization of global companies occurs connected to the high integration through the nets of computers, especially the Internet. The technological advances have revolutionized the forms of transacting products and services. Innovation becomes the key word for this new phase established in the economy by the computer science in which the Internet is able to establish a larger integration among the enterprises, consumers and suppliers. How can the Internet contribute to the process of Internationalization of Born Globals? This theoretical paper aims to discuss the role of innovations with internet in Born Globals firms to the process of internationalization. The literature review on the subject shows that the advances of technology will require new studies about the internationalization’s process. In spite of that, the influence of the electronic business has progressed in commercial transactions. The global world requires workers who are more and more prepared to face such reality. The enterprises will have to adapt, otherwise they may fail to reduce costs and to improve their logistics. The consumers can have personalized products, while their needs are met in a more comfortable, immediate way and with less intermediates. The electronic markets revolutionize the economy by meeting old needs in a more modern and practical way.

  5. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  6. Role of coral reefs in global ocean production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossland, C J; Hatcher, B G; Smith, S V [CSIRO Institute of Natural Resources and Environment, Dickson, ACT (Australia)

    1991-01-01

    Coral reefs cover some 600 thousand square kilometres of the earth's surface (0.17% of the ocean surface). First order estimates show coral reefs to contribute about 0.05% of the estimated net CO{sub 2} fixation rate of the global oceans. Gross CO{sub 2} fixation is relatively high (of the order 700 x 10{sup 12}g C year{sup -1}), but most of this material is recycled within the reefs. Excess (net) production of organic material (E) is much smaller, of the order 20 x 10{sup 12}g C year{sup -1}. 75% of E is available for export from coral reefs to adjacent areas. Comparison of estimates for net production by reefs and their surrounding oceans indicates that the excess production by coral reefs is similar to new production in the photic zone of oligotrophic oceans. Consequently, estimates for global ocean production should as a first approximation include reefal areas with the surrounding ocean when assigning average net production rates. It can be concluded that organic production by reefs plays a relatively minor role in the global scale of fluxes and storage of elements. In comparison, the companion process of biologically-mediated inorganic carbon precipitation represents a major role for reefs. While reef production does respond on local scales to variation in ocean climate, neither the absolute rates nor the amount accumulated into organic pools appear to be either sensitive indicators or accurate recorders of climatic change in most reef systems. Similarly, the productivity of most reefs should be little affected by currently predicted environmental changes resulting from the greenhouse effect. 86 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Nuclear energy role and potential for global sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Matsui, K.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term energy supply simulation that optimizes the energy system cost until 2100 for the world is being performed, by using the energy module of GRAPE model, where energy demand under the C02 emission constraint etc. is assumed. The model has been taken up for the trial calculation in I PCC the third report . Role and potential of nuclear energy system in the energy options is discussed here from the viewpoint of sustainable development with protecting from global warming. Taking the effort for energy conservation as major premise, carbon-sequestration for fossil fuel, renewable energy and nuclear energy should be altogether developed under the C02 constraint. Especially, fast breeder reactor will be attached importance to, as the 22nd century is approaching, due to its carbon free and resource limitless features when the nuclear generation cost is cheap as a current light water reactor level. It takes time around 30 years in order for breeding of Pu, a fast breeder reactor will begin to be introduced from around 2030. If the period for the technology establish of nuclear fuel cycle is assumed to be 30 years, it is necessary to start technical development right now. If the Kyoto Protocol, the emission constraint on only the developed countries, is extended in 21st century, it will promote the growth of nuclear power in the developed countries in the first half of the century. After 2050, the developing countries will face the shortage of uranium and plutonium. Carbon emission constraint should be covered all countries in the World not only for the developed countries but also for the developing countries. Therefore, it is important that the developing countries will use nuclear power effectively from the viewpoint of harmonization of energy growth and global environment. The policy that nuclear power is considered as Clean Development Mechanism would mitigate such global warming problems

  8. The Role of Discrete Global Grid Systems in the Global Statistical Geospatial Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purss, M. B. J.; Peterson, P.; Minchin, S. A.; Bermudez, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    the 6th Session of the UN-GGIM in August 2016 the role of DGGS in the context of the GSGF was formally acknowledged. This paper proposes to highlight the synergies and role of DGGS in the Global Statistical Geospatial Framework and to show examples of the use of DGGS to combine geospatial statistics with traditional geoscientific data.

  9. Agutaynen Glottal Stop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quakenbush, J. Stephen

    A study investigated the phonemic and morphophonemic patterning of the glottal stop in Agutaynen, a Meso-Philippine language, and some comparison with two northern Philippine languages. Agutaynen glottal stop has as its sole origin a neutralization of contrast rule, the operation of which can be noted in three different linguistic environments.…

  10. Role of social science in global environmental change: case of urbanisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Njiro, E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available the role of social scientists in global environmental change by examining urbanisation and other environmental changes as suggested in the science plan of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP 2005)...

  11. Role of volcanic forcing on future global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Tjiputra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a fully coupled global climate-carbon cycle model, we assess the potential role of volcanic eruptions on future projection of climate change and its associated carbon cycle feedback. The volcanic-like forcings are applied together with a business-as-usual IPCC-A2 carbon emissions scenario. We show that very large volcanic eruptions similar to Tambora lead to short-term substantial global cooling. However, over a long period, smaller eruptions similar to Pinatubo in amplitude, but set to occur frequently, would have a stronger impact on future climate change. In a scenario where the volcanic external forcings are prescribed with a five-year frequency, the induced cooling immediately lower the global temperature by more than one degree before it returns to the warming trend. Therefore, the climate change is approximately delayed by several decades, and by the end of the 21st century, the warming is still below two degrees when compared to the present day period. Our climate-carbon feedback analysis shows that future volcanic eruptions induce positive feedbacks (i.e., more carbon sink on both the terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle. The feedback signal on the ocean is consistently smaller than the terrestrial counterpart and the feedback strength is proportionally related to the frequency of the volcanic eruption events. The cooler climate reduces the terrestrial heterotrophic respiration in the northern high latitude and increases net primary production in the tropics, which contributes to more than 45 % increase in accumulated carbon uptake over land. The increased solubility of CO2 gas in seawater associated with cooler SST is offset by a reduced CO2 partial pressure gradient between the ocean and the atmosphere, which results in small changes in net ocean carbon uptake. Similarly, there is nearly no change in the seawater buffer capacity simulated between the different volcanic scenarios. Our study shows that even

  12. Role of Mineral Deposits in Global Geochemical Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Wilkinson, B.

    2009-12-01

    Mineral deposits represent the most extreme degree of natural concentration for most elements and their formation and destruction are important parts of global geochemical cycles. Quantitative estimates of the role that mineral deposits play in these geochemical cycles has been limited, however, by the lack of information on actual amounts of elements that are concentrated in these deposits, and their rates of formation and destruction at geologic time scales. Recent use of a “tectonic diffusion” model for porphyry copper deposits, the most important source of world copper, in conjunction with estimates of their copper content (Kesler and Wilkinson, 2008), allows an assessment of the role of copper deposits in Earth’s global copper cycles. These results indicate that ~4.5*10^8 Gg of Cu have been concentrated in porphyry copper deposits through Phanerozoic time, that deposits containing ~2.8*10^8 Gg of Cu have been removed by uplift and erosion over the same time period, and that deposits containing ~1.7*10^8 Gg remain in Earth’s crust. If styles of formation and destruction of other copper-bearing mineral deposits are similar, then all crustal deposits contain ~3*10^8 Gg of copper. This constitutes about 0.03% of the copper that resides in crustal rocks and provides a first-ever estimate of the rate at which natural geochemical cycles produce the extreme concentrations that constitute mineral deposits. Another ~8*10^8 Gg of copper have been destroyed during the uplift and erosion of mineral deposits over Phanerozoic time, a flux amounting to an annual contribution of about 1.5 Gg of copper to the near-surface environment. This amount is similar in magnitude to copper released by volcanic outgassing, but only ~2.5% of the 56 Gg of copper estimated to be released annually by weathering of average crustal rocks (Rauch and Graedel, 2007). The amount of copper removed from mineral deposits by mining, 1.1*10^4 Gg/year, is much larger than any natural

  13. Global warming---The role for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E. Jr.; Fulkerson, W.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power is currently making an important contribution to our energy requirements. It provides 17% of the world's electricity today --- almost 20% in the US. Reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide over the next 30 to 50 years sufficiently to address the issue of global warming can only be accomplished by a combination of much improved energy efficiency, substantial growth in use of nuclear power, and substantial growth in use of renewable energy. This paper discusses new initiatives in the major nuclear technologies (LWR, HTGR, LMR) which are emerging from a fundamental reexamination of nuclear power in response to the challenges and opportunities in the 21st century. To fulfill its role, nuclear power must gain worldwide acceptance as a viable energy option. The use of modern technology and ''passive'' safety features in next-generation nuclear power plants offers the potential to simplify their design and operation, enhance their safety, and reduce the cost of electricity. With such improvements, we believe nuclear power can regain public confidence and make a significant contribution to our energy future. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Framing the Role of the Faith Community in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Strand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has brought many people and organizations together. Healthcare is one of the fields that has been the most prominent in global collaboration. Healthcare professionals working from the framework of Christian faith have been participants and leaders in global health for many years. The current challenges in global health call for the active involvement of all concerned players, Christian healthcare professionals among them. In this paper, the authors suggest a unique framework for Christians involved in global health to make contributions to research, scholarship, and practice innovation in this field.

  15. Luminescent beam stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Diane; Morton, Simon A.

    2017-10-25

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to beam stops. In one aspect, a device comprises a luminescent material, a beam stop plate, and an optical fiber. The luminescent material is a parallelepiped having a first side and a second side that are squares and having a third side that is a rectangle or a square. The first side and the second side are perpendicular to the third side. The beam stop plate is attached to the first side of the luminescent material. The optical fiber has a first end and a second end, with the first end of the optical fiber attached to the third side of the luminescent material.

  16. The role of the Arctic in future global petroleum supply

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Lindholt; Solveig Glomsrød

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic has a substantial share of global petroleum resources, but at higher costs than in most other petroleum provinces. Arctic states and petroleum companies are carefully considering the potential for future extraction in the Arctic. This paper studies the oil and gas supply from 6 arctic regions during 2010-2050 along with global economic growth and different assumptions regarding petroleum prices and resource endowments. Supply is calculated based on a global model of oil and gas mar...

  17. "Stop Diabetes Now!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Stop Diabetes Now!" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... Tips for Seniors at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle changes that lead to weight loss—such ...

  18. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  19. The role of philosophy in global bioethics: introducing four trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsten, Sirkku K

    2015-04-01

    This article examines the relationship between philosophy and culture in global bioethics. First, it studies what is meant by the term "global" in global bioethics. Second, the author introduces four different types, or recognizable trends, in philosophical inquiry in bioethics today. The main argument is that, in order to make better sense of the complexity of the ethical questions and challenges we face today across the globe, we need to embrace the universal nature of self-critical and analytical philosophical analysis and argumentation, rather than using seemingly philosophical approaches to give unjustified normative emphasis on different cultural approaches to bioethics.

  20. China's evolving role in global production networks: Implications for Trump's trade war

    OpenAIRE

    Athukorala, Prema-chandra

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines China's evolving role in global production networks and its implications for assessing the potential impact of the "trade war" declared by President Trump. The analysis, which is based on a systematic disaggregation of trade based on global production sharing into components and final assembly, suggests that the Sino-US trade gap is a structural phenomenon driven by the pivotal role played by China within East Asia cantered production networks. The global competitiveness o...

  1. The Role of Functional Interdependencies in Global Operations Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2011-01-01

    The existing studies do not adequately address the complex interplay between co-evolving production, innovation and service networks. The widening geographical and cognitive gap between these networks means that managing their interfaces in global operations context is becoming strategically...

  2. Globalization and social determinants of health: The role of the global marketplace (part 2 of 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrecker Ted

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Globalization is a key context for the study of social determinants of health (SDH: broadly stated, SDH are the conditions in which people live and work, and that affect their opportunities to lead healthy lives. In the first article in this three part series, we described the origins of the series in work conducted for the Globalization Knowledge Network of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health and in the Commission's specific concern with health equity. We identified and defended a definition of globalization that gives primacy to the drivers and effects of transnational economic integration, and addressed a number of important conceptual and methodological issues in studying globalization's effects on SDH and their distribution, emphasizing the need for transdisciplinary approaches that reflect the complexity of the topic. In this second article, we identify and describe several, often interacting clusters of pathways leading from globalization to changes in SDH that are relevant to health equity. These involve: trade liberalization; the global reorganization of production and labour markets; debt crises and economic restructuring; financial liberalization; urban settings; influences that operate by way of the physical environment; and health systems changed by the global marketplace.

  3. The role of urbanization in the global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina eChurkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas account for more than 70% of CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. Urban expansion in tropics is responsible for 5% of the annual emissions from land use change. Here I show that the effect of urbanization on the global carbon cycle extends beyond these emissions. I quantify the contribution of urbanization to the major carbon fluxes and pools globally and identify gaps crucial for predicting the evolution of the carbon cycle in the future. Urban residents currently control ~22 (12-40 % of the land carbon uptake (112 PgC/yr and ~24 (15-39 % of the carbon emissions (117 PgC/yr from land globally. Urbanization resulted in the creation of new carbon pools on land such as buildings (~6.7 PgC and landfills (~30 PgC. Together these pools store 1.6 (±0.3 % of the total vegetation and soil carbon pools globally. The creation and maintenance of these new pools has been associated with high emissions of CO2, which are currently better understood than the processes associated with the dynamics of these pools and accompanying uptake of carbon. Predictions of the future trajectories of the global carbon cycle will require a much better understanding of how urban development affects the carbon cycle over the long term.

  4. Aid alignment for global health research: the role of HIROs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viergever Roderik F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lack of a mechanism that aligns financial flows for global health research towards public health priorities limits the impact of health research on health and health equity. Collaborative groups of health research funders appear to be particularly well situated to ameliorate this situation and to initiate discussion on aid alignment for global health research. One such group is the Heads of International Research Organizations (HIROs, which brings together a large number of major government and philanthropic funders of biomedical research. Surprisingly, there is hardly any information publicly available on HIROs' objectives, or on how it aims to achieve more harmonization in the field of research for health. Greater transparency on HIROs' objectives and on its current efforts towards addressing the gap between global health research needs and investments would be desirable, given the enormous potential benefits of more coordination by this group.

  5. Understanding the Roles of Non-State Actors in Global Governance: Evidence from the Global Partnership for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashy, Francine

    2016-01-01

    The study detailed in this paper examines the growing role of non-state actors in the transnational policy-making landscape through a case study of the Global Partnership for Education (GPE)--a partnership of donor and developing country governments, multilateral organizations, civil society, private companies and foundations, dedicated to…

  6. The European Union's Role in the Development of Global Environmental Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the role that the European Union (EU) is playing as a global actor when it is using its 'internal' regulatory power as well as its parallel market power 'externally' to strengthen and to fill out gaps in the global environmental law.......This article is focused on the role that the European Union (EU) is playing as a global actor when it is using its 'internal' regulatory power as well as its parallel market power 'externally' to strengthen and to fill out gaps in the global environmental law....

  7. WHO's role in the global health system: what can be learned from global R&D debates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Suerie

    2014-02-01

    Recent global debates on the research and development (R&D) of health technologies, such as drugs, diagnostics and vaccines, can be seen as a microcosm of discussions on the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the global health system more broadly. The global R&D system has come under heightened scrutiny with the publication of a 2012 report by the WHO Consultative Expert Working Group on Research and Development (CEWG), which made a number of recommendations to more equitably meet global health needs. The CEWG report followed a decade-long process of debate at the WHO on the weaknesses of the global R&D system, which include problems of affordability, limited research where market returns are small or uncertain (such as the 'neglected diseases' that predominantly affect the world's poorest), inefficient overlap of research efforts, and overuse of medicines such as antibiotics. The CEWG report called on WHO Member States to develop a global framework to improve monitoring, coordination and financing of R&D efforts through the establishment of a Global Health R&D Observatory and the negotiation of a binding treaty on R&D. While the treaty option has been put on the back-burner for several years, Member States nevertheless agreed at the 2013 World Health Assembly (WHA) on concrete steps towards a global framework. Progress at the 2013 WHA reaffirmed the central role of WHO as a convener, and the WHA's decision to create the Observatory within the WHO Secretariat underscored the organization's role as a source of strategic knowledge in the global health system. However, despite WHO's constitutional mandate as the 'directing and coordinating authority on international health work', in reality it faces major challenges in coordinating autonomous R&D actors such as states, firms and foundations in the global system. Strengthening its ability to do so requires, at a minimum, reforming its financing arrangements to provide it with a greater degree of

  8. The role of the Arctic in future global petroleum supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholt, Lars; Glomsroed, Solveig

    2011-07-01

    The Arctic has a substantial share of global petroleum resources, but at higher costs than in most other petroleum provinces. Arctic states and petroleum companies are carefully considering the potential for future extraction in the Arctic. This paper studies the oil and gas supply from 6 arctic regions during 2010-2050 along with global economic growth and different assumptions regarding petroleum prices and resource endowments. Supply is calculated based on a global model of oil and gas markets. The data on undiscovered resources for the Arctic is based on the estimates by USGS. Sensitivity studies are carried out for two alternative price scenarios and for a 50 per cent reduction of arctic undiscovered resources compared with the USGS 2008 resource estimate. Although a major part of the undiscovered arctic petroleum resources is natural gas, our results show that the relative importance of the Arctic as a world gas supplier will decline, while its importance as a global oil producer may be maintained. We also show that less than full access to undiscovered oil resources will have minor effect on total arctic oil production and a marginal effect on arctic gas extraction. The reason is that Arctic Russia is an important petroleum producer with a sufficiently large stock of already discovered resources to support their petroleum production before 2050. (Author)

  9. The role of research to shape local and global engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen

    2017-01-01

    University research has the potential to help solve the grand challenges of the 21st century through local and global engagement. Universities are quintessentially socially engaged institutions that have been supported by external patrons because their activities are socially useful, and that has

  10. Philippines: The Role of Language and Education in Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Consuelo A.

    2012-01-01

    International education has never been discussed in-depth by many citizens of the Philippines. International education refers to a study abroad program or an approach to prepare students to function in a global society. The focus of discussion is more on primary, secondary, and tertiary education. In any level of education, language plays a vital…

  11. The role of trees and plantation agriculture in mitigating global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change refers to a paradigm shift in the climatic pattern of a location, region or planet which is linked with average weather components, such as temperature, wind patterns and precipitations. Climate change results in erratic events such as rising global temperature, intensified drought, flooding, cyclones, low or ...

  12. Stopping the unstoppable

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    How do you stop two very high energy proton beams circulating in opposite directions around a 27-kilometre ring? The answer is the beam dumps. Two tunnels, pointing in opposite directions, are being constructed at point 6 of the LHC. These will allow the beams to be directed into two large beam dumps housed at the ends of the tunnels.

  13. Ready to stop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molitoris, Joseph; Dribe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    the Roteman Database for Stockholm, Sweden between 1878 and 1926 to examine the association of socioeconomic status and fertility and the adoption of stopping behaviour during the city's transition. Using piecewise constant hazard models and logistic regression, we find that a clear class pattern arises...

  14. Oversight role of the Independent Monitoring Board of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Paul D; Donaldson, Liam J

    2014-11-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) established its Independent Monitoring Board (IMB) in 2010 to monitor and guide its progress toward stopping polio transmission globally. The concept of an IMB is innovative, with no clear analogue in the history of the GPEI or in any other global health program. The IMB meets with senior program officials every 3-6 months. Its reports provide analysis and recommendations about individual polio-affected countries. The IMB also examines issues affecting the global program as a whole. Its areas of focus have included escalating the level of priority afforded to polio eradication (particularly by recommending a World Health Assembly resolution to declare polio eradication a programmatic emergency, which was enacted in May 2012), placing greater emphasis on people factors in the delivery of the program, encouraging innovation, strengthening focus on the small number of so-called sanctuaries where polio persists, and continuous quality improvement to reach every missed child with vaccination. The IMB's true independence from the agencies and countries delivering the program has enabled it to raise difficult issues that others cannot. Other global health programs might benefit from establishing similar independent monitoring mechanisms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Role of Civil Society Organizations in Monitoring the Global AIDS Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia; Mallouris, Christoforos; Lee, Kelley; Alfvén, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) are recognized as playing an exceptional role in the global AIDS response. However, there is little detailed research to date on how they contribute to specific governance functions. This article uses Haas' framework on global governance functions to map CSO's participation in the monitoring of global commitments to the AIDS response by institutions and states. Drawing on key informant interviews and primary documents, it focuses specifically on CSO participation in Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting and in Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria processes. It argues that the AIDS response is unique within global health governance, in that CSOs fulfill both formal and informal monitoring functions, and considers the strengths and weaknesses of these contributions. It concludes that future global health governance arrangements should include provisions and resources for monitoring by CSOs because their participation creates more inclusive global health governance and contributes to strengthening commitments to human rights.

  16. THE GLOBAL GOVERNANCE PROBLEM AND THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorova E. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, globalization begins to permeate more and more areas of human activity, therefore it is important question of the complex mechanisms and principles of global governance formation.The article analyzes the essence, subjects and mechanisms for the implementation of the global economic governance. Moreover, it investigates the role and current state of the International Monetary Fund (IMF in the global economy. In conclusion, it clarifies the relationship of the IMF and processes of global governance. Research has shown that it is necessary to create within the IMF more representative, economically and politically balanced system of global governance of the world monetary and financial relations as part of the emerging mechanisms of global economic governance. This article extends the knowledge about the features of the IMF in the forming global governance.

  17. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND IN PROMOTING GLOBAL ECONOMIC STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role that the International Monetary Fund performs in promoting global economic stability. Global economic and financial stability plays a key role in the financial system and the economy as a whole. The increase in the importance of the concept of financial stability by supervisors at both European and global level was concretized by defining a framework for the operationalization of macroprudential policy, together with the establishment of coordination bodies in this field, thus recognizing its role in the mix of established economic policies such as monetary, fiscal or competitive policy.

  18. The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffert, M.I.

    1992-12-01

    During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, ''Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature''. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales

  19. CERN’s role in the scientific global village

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    We’re proud of saying that there are over 100 nationalities at CERN, proof that people can overcome cultural boundaries in pursuit of common goals. We’re also proud of saying that our goals are noble ones: the understanding of the Universe, training of the highest quality, pushing the frontiers of technology and bringing nations together. For over 50 years, CERN has pursued these goals as part of the global scientific village. We have enjoyed healthy collaboration, and competition, with other laboratories in other regions of the world. The flow of scientists around the world has been balanced, enriching all regions. Today, however, the landscape is changing for particle physics, and as responsible citizens of our global village, we also have to evolve. The research facilities for CERN’s melting pot of nationalities are supported financially largely by the Organization’s 20 Member States. Other countries that make significant c...

  20. The global change challenge: the role of science

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity Outlook 3,(2011) ?Deletions from the ?book of life ?Less resilent ecosystems ?Reduction in ecosystem services ?the era during which humans are the dominant influence on the functioning of the Earth System The roots of the problem? I = P x... usable ? Human health ? Heat stress, vector-borne diseases ? Global food insecurity: pressure on South Africa ? Reductions of cereal, deciduous fruit and livestock production mainly due to rising temperatures ? More frequent natural hazard extreme...

  1. The Role of Special Operations Forces in Global Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    adversary to achieve its objectives. 10 Gray Zone and competition short of armed conflict The concept of a gray area between peace and war...and distract, or a prolific arsonist in a region may achieve all of the escalatory objectives. Summary of actions: global competition options For...place today. COMPETITION CONTROL/ ADVANTAGE U.S. NEAR PEER STATES ASPIRING STATES NON-STATE ACTORS D DOD NORTHCOM SOUTHCOM EUCOM AFRICOM CENTCOM

  2. The role of scarcity in global virtual water flows

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzen, Manfred; Bhaduri, Anik; Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Bekchanov, Maksud

    2012-01-01

    Recent analyses of the evolution and structure of trade in virtual water revealed that the number of trade connections and volume of virtual water trade have more than doubled over the past two decades, and that developed countries increasingly draw on the rest of the world to alleviate the pressure on their domestic water resources. Our work builds on these studies, but fills three important gaps in the research on global virtual water trade. First, we note that in previous studies virtual w...

  3. The Role of Volcanic Activity in Climate and Global Change

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2015-09-23

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are magnificent events that in many ways affect the Earth\\'s natural processes and climate. They cause sporadic perturbations of the planet\\'s energy balance, activating complex climate feedbacks and providing unique opportunities to better quantify those processes. We know that explosive eruptions cause cooling in the atmosphere for a few years, but we have just recently realized that volcanic signals can be seen in the subsurface ocean for decades. The volcanic forcing of the previous two centuries offsets the ocean heat uptake and diminishes global warming by about 30%. The explosive volcanism of the twenty-first century is unlikely to either cause any significant climate signal or to delay the pace of global warming. The recent interest in dynamic, microphysical, chemical, and climate impacts of volcanic eruptions is also excited by the fact that these impacts provide a natural analogue for climate geoengineering schemes involving deliberate development of an artificial aerosol layer in the lower stratosphere to counteract global warming. In this chapter we aim to discuss these recently discovered volcanic effects and specifically pay attention to how we can learn about the hidden Earth-system mechanisms activated by explosive volcanic eruptions. To demonstrate these effects we use our own model results when possible along with available observations, as well as review closely related recent publications.

  4. The role of prostaglandins in livestock production | Okon | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... synthesized) fashion. Prostaglandins are therefore regarded as essential mediators of female reproductive processes, hence, this paper seeks to review the role of Prostaglandins which is exploited in livestock production especially oestrus synchronization and induced parturition. KEYWORDS: Prostaglandins, Production ...

  5. Role of beekeeping in the conservation of forests | Agera | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beekeeeping preserves nature, agriculture, sustains livelihoods and provides food security. These important roles of beekeeping notwithstanding, the potentials of ... These conservation projects are encouraged by the World Wide Fund for ...

  6. From City-States to Global Cities: the role of Cities in Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Martins Vaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Global governance has altered institutional architecture and the systemic and institutional conditions under which power is exercised, as well as the characteristics of the political system, the form of government, and the system of intermediation of interests. However, although it has surpassed the State’s dimension of power, it created new interstate dimensions and new relations between powers, particularly at the level of cities. Cities have helped to solve common problems in a more efficient and effective way by facilitating the exchange of knowledge, sharing of solutions and resources, and building capacity to implement and monitor progress in order to achieve collectively agreed goals, in a bottom-up approach. Cities have the virtue of securing the most direct social and political contract between societies and the notion of authority. This study, therefore, aims to reflect on this emerging, less hierarchical and rigid governance and address complex global challenges such as climate and demographic change; increasing crime rates; disruptive technology; and pressures on resources, infrastructure and energy. As a global/local interface, cities can ensure effective solutions to current challenges and act together in areas where the global agenda has stalled.

  7. Conclusion: the role of the EU in the legal dimension of global governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vooren, B.; Blockmans, S.; Wouters, J.; Van Vooren, B.; Blockmans, S.; Wouters, J.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter revisits the main themes of the preceding discussions on the EU's role in global governance. These include rule law based collective governance, security governance, trade governance, environmental governance, financial governance, and social governance. Across different areas of

  8. Managing the tensions in integrating global organisations : The role of performance management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busco, C.; Giovannoni, E.; Scapens, R.W.

    The paper explores the role of performance management systems (PMSs) in integrating global organisations (GOs). It investigates the ways in which the diverse entities that comprise a GO can be co-ordinated and integrated to achieve a global unity of effort, while leaving space for local adaptation,

  9. Role of innovative technologies under the global zero emissions scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokimatsu, Koji; Konishi, Satoshi; Ishihara, Keiichi; Tezuka, Tetsuo; Yasuoka, Rieko; Nishio, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We modeled a zero emissions scenario based on the A1T scenario of IPCC-SRES. • We conducted global modeling by minimizing costs of energy, biomass, and materials. • A variety of advanced technology innovations were considered and incorporated. • Results suggest that zero emissions scenario may be possible in this century. • We revealed energy supply structure under the zero emissions scenarios. - Abstract: This study investigated zero emissions scenarios with following two originalities compared to various existing studies. One is that we based on A1T society of SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenario) of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) compared to existing studies on those of B1 or B2. The second one is that various innovative technologies were considered and incorporated, such as biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), and advanced nuclear technologies including hydrogen or synfuel production. We conducted global modeling over the period 2010–2150 in which energy, materials, and biomass and foods supply costs were minimized by linear programming. We found following features of energy supply structure in A1T scenario. Since the electric demand in A1T scenario in 2100 is two times larger than the others, (1) renewable energy which solely produce electricity, nuclear, and fossil energy with CCS (FECCS) especially coal are main sources of electricity, (2) renewable which can supply heat, namely BECCS and geothermal, satisfies the sector, and (3) hydrogen from coal is introduced in transport sector. It can be concluded that the zero emission energy systems with global economic growth will be possible, by development and deployment of ambitious advanced energy technologies.

  10. Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2014-06-19

    Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

  11. Investigation of RADTRAN Stop Model input parameters for truck stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griego, N.R.; Smith, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    RADTRAN is a computer code for estimating the risks and consequences as transport of radioactive materials (RAM). RADTRAN was developed and is maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy (DOE). For incident-free transportation, the dose to persons exposed while the shipment is stopped is frequently a major percentage of the overall dose. This dose is referred to as Stop Dose and is calculated by the Stop Model. Because stop dose is a significant portion of the overall dose associated with RAM transport, the values used as input for the Stop Model are important. Therefore, an investigation of typical values for RADTRAN Stop Parameters for truck stops was performed. The resulting data from these investigations were analyzed to provide mean values, standard deviations, and histograms. Hence, the mean values can be used when an analyst does not have a basis for selecting other input values for the Stop Model. In addition, the histograms and their characteristics can be used to guide statistical sampling techniques to measure sensitivity of the RADTRAN calculated Stop Dose to the uncertainties in the stop model input parameters. This paper discusses the details and presents the results of the investigation of stop model input parameters at truck stops

  12. What role can nuclear power play in mitigating global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to look at nuclear fission, as one of the available options, and evaluate qualitatively the extent to which it can play a role in greenhouse gas reduction strategies during the next three decades. No attempt will be made here to make a quantitative comparison with alternative energy supplies, or with energy efficiency measures

  13. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR ROLE IN THE GLOBAL INNOVATION ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Burkow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with analysis of role of the informative communicational technologies sector in modern economic. The mechanism of its infl uence on increasing economic in developed and developing countries is shown and increasing of services providing effectiveness in social sphere of developing countries is demonstrated.

  14. Optimally Stopped Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel

    We combine the fields of heuristic optimization and optimal stopping. We propose a strategy for benchmarking randomized optimization algorithms that minimizes the expected total cost for obtaining a good solution with an optimal number of calls to the solver. To do so, rather than letting the objective function alone define a cost to be minimized, we introduce a further cost-per-call of the algorithm. We show that this problem can be formulated using optimal stopping theory. The expected cost is a flexible figure of merit for benchmarking probabilistic solvers that can be computed when the optimal solution is not known, and that avoids the biases and arbitrariness that affect other measures. The optimal stopping formulation of benchmarking directly leads to a real-time, optimal-utilization strategy for probabilistic optimizers with practical impact. We apply our formulation to benchmark the performance of a D-Wave 2X quantum annealer and the HFS solver, a specialized classical heuristic algorithm designed for low tree-width graphs. On a set of frustrated-loop instances with planted solutions defined on up to N = 1098 variables, the D-Wave device is between one to two orders of magnitude faster than the HFS solver.

  15. Atmospheric methane: Sources, sinks, and role in global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric methane is thought to be the most important trace gas involved in man-made climate change. It may be second only to carbon dioxide in causing global warming. Methane affects also the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere by controlling tropospheric OH radicals and creating O 3 , and it affects the ozone layer in the stratosphere by contributing water vapor and removing chlorine atoms. In the long term, methane is a natural product of life on earth, reaching high concentrations during warm and biologically productive epochs. Yet the scientific understanding of atmospheric methane has evolved mostly during the past decade after it was shown that concentrations were rapidly rising. Because of the environmental importance of methane, North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Scientific and Environmental Affairs Division commissioned an Advanced Research Workshop. This book is the result of such a conference held during the week of 6 October 1991 at Timberline Lodge on Mount Hood near Portland, Oregon. (orig./KW)

  16. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español How Can I Stop Cutting? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Can I Stop Cutting? ... in a soft, cozy blanket Substitutes for the Cutting Sensation You'll notice that all the tips ...

  17. Role of stranded gas in increasing global gas supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This report synthesizes the findings of three regional studies in order to evaluate, at the global scale, the contribution that stranded gas resources can make to global natural gas supplies. Stranded gas, as defined for this study, is natural gas in discovered conventional gas and oil fields that is currently not commercially producible for either physical or economic reasons. The regional studies evaluated the cost of bringing the large volumes of undeveloped gas in stranded gas fields to selected markets. In particular, stranded gas fields of selected Atlantic Basin countries, north Africa, Russia, and central Asia are screened to determine whether the volumes are sufficient to meet Europe’s increasing demand for gas imports. Stranded gas fields in Russia, central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia are also screened to estimate development, production, and transport costs and corresponding gas volumes that could be supplied to Asian markets in China, India, Japan, and South Korea. The data and cost analysis presented here suggest that for the European market and the markets examined in Asia, the development of stranded gas provides a way to meet projected gas import demands for the 2020-to-2040 period. Although this is a reconnaissance-type appraisal, it is based on volumes of gas that are associated with individual identified fields. Individual field data were carefully examined. Some fields were not evaluated because current technology was insufficient or it appeared the gas was likely to be held off the export market. Most of the evaluated stranded gas can be produced and delivered to markets at costs comparable to historical prices. Moreover, the associated volumes of gas are sufficient to provide an interim supply while additional technologies are developed to unlock gas diffused in shale and hydrates or while countries transition to making a greater use of renewable energy sources.

  18. Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pay (RSLSP), providing $500 for each month/partial month served in stop loss status. Service members served under stop loss must submit a claim for the special pay. Throughout the year, the services have or extension of service, became ineligible to receive retroactive stop loss special pay. There may be

  19. Canadian forests: A vulnerable resource with a global role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.F.W.

    1990-01-01

    Impending climatic change could jeopardize the national and global values of Canada's forests, and creates a new and urgent dimension to the objectives of the World Conservation Strategy. The first objective is the maintenance of essential ecological processes and life-support systems. The first priority requirement, reservation of prime crop lands, could bear directly on the forest sector in certain regions of Canada if new areas of prime crop land develop under improving climatic conditions. The second priority, maintenance of productive land capabilities, may be a more serious matter, although in the long run climate change should increase the productivity of much of Canada's land base. The second objective, preservation of genetic diversity, is significant due to the question of whether there is sufficient plasticity within the forest ecosystems, and particularly within their gene pools, for them to withstand changes envisaged over coming decades. The objective of sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems is especially pertinent to Canada, whose forest sector is based on native species in managed and unmanaged ecosystems. In response to the threat of widespread forest dieback resulting from stress and infestation, foresters might engage in premature harvesting followed by planting of more adapted genotypes. 14 refs

  20. Bystanders Are the Key to Stopping Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Sharon; Notar, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is the dominance over another. Bullying occurs when there is an audience. Peer bystanders provide an audience 85% of instances of bullying. If you remove the audience bullying should stop. The article is a review of literature (2002-2013) on the role of bystanders; importance of bystanders; why bystanders behave as they do; resources to…

  1. The role of solar energy in resolving global problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    Solar energy, and other alternate energy sources, including improved energy efficiency, can play a significant role in the solution of the cluster of ''great problems'' that face the present generation. These problems are related to, first, environmental damage, second, management of critical resources, and lastly, spiraling population growth. Some aspects of these linked difficulties are not yet well comprehended, even within the environmental community, though their neglect could prove to be very serious. It was the principal purpose of the paper to address those hidden risks. Seeking prompt and effective solutions to these problems is now a most urgent matter. On November 18, 1992, the Union of Concerned Scientists released a document called ''World Scientists'' ''Warning to Humanity''. The document outlined the most important challenges and set out the principal elements required to deal with them. It was signed by some 1,600 scientists from around the world, including the leaders of a substantial number of national honorary, scientific societies. In what follows, relevant elements of that statement are reviewed to set the stage for a description of solar energy's role in dealing with the situation that the world faces

  2. The Role of Communication and Trust in Global Virtual Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarker, Saonee; Ahuja, Manju; Sarker, Suprateek

    2011-01-01

    in prior research. Our results indicate that the "mediating" model best explains how communication and trust work together to influence performance. Overall, the study contributes to the existing body of knowledge on virtual teams by empirically reconciling conflicting views regarding...... to contribute some clarity to the understanding of the theoretical linkages among trust, communication, and member performance in virtual teams. To this end, we identify and test three proposed models (additive, interaction, and mediation) describing the role of trust in its relationship with communication...... the interrelationships between key constructs in the literature. Further, the study, through its adoption of the social network analysis approach, provides awareness within the IS research community of the strengths of applying network approaches in examining new organizational forms....

  3. Our global energy future and the role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    An extension in the use of energy, on even a fairly moderate basis, will, for several decades at least, require the use of all our present energy sources at rates that are a natural extension of historical rates, trending toward maximum practicable exploitation for all but nuclear energy. Regardless of what happens with the fossil hydrocarbons nuclear energy will play a major role in the supply of energy. When the fossil hydrocarbons have run their course nuclear and possibly some solar energy, through the media of electricity, hydrogen and synthetic hydrocarbons, will provide the bulk of the world's controlled energy and in sufficient quantity to provide ample energy for all. The burning question, however, is what will happen in the next few decades. There is a wonderful opportunity for nuclear energy, as the world requirement for energy, and particularly electrical energy, grows

  4. Role of Glycolytic Intermediates in Global Regulation and Signal Transduction. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, J.C.

    2000-05-08

    The goal of this project is to determine the role of glycolytic intermediates in regulation of cell physiology. It is known that many glycolytic intermediates are involved in regulation of enzyme activities at the kinetic level. However, little is known regarding the role of these metabolites in global regulation and signal transduction. This project aims to investigate the role of glycolytic intermediates in the regulation of gene expression.

  5. Book Review: Stop, Write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long”. The book teaches the reader how to actually write a grounded theory by “simply” writing up the sorted memos. This requires efficient sorting that is dealt with in chapter two on Sorting Memos, which includes precious repetition from Theoretical Sensitivity (1978. How writing can be done effectively is outlined in chapter three The Working Paper. Then follows chapter four on how to rework the first draft with the different tasks of editing for language and professionalism. Thereafter Dr. Glaser discusses Writing Problems in chapter five where he gives useful guidance on how to overcome writing blocks and problems with supervisors and dissertation committees. The book also deals with publishing and with collaboration as experienced between Barney Glaser and the cofounder of grounded theory, Anselm Strauss.

  6. Peranan Riset untuk Entreprenuership dalam Menghadapi Persaingan Global ( Research For Role In Dealing Entreprenuership Global Competition )

    OpenAIRE

    Sujarwo

    2012-01-01

    Research is said to give a role if used in the production process to improve the quality of human life. To be used, the research should be developed to identify potential users in advance. In the context of efforts to achieve this there are the primary users and secondary users. Primary users are users who directly memamfaatkan research developed a technology to produce products, is the secondary user is a supporter of the user's primary users. Factors causing the utilization of research is d...

  7. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B. [eds.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with the polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; and (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks, (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosol and trace gases.

  8. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B. [eds.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks; (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosols and trace gases.

  9. WHAT FIRMS ARE REWARDED AFTER GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS? THE ROLE OF INNOVATION AND GLOBALIZATION STRATEGIES IN RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Golikova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to conduct an empirical investigation and reveal what types of globalization and innovation strategies in turbulent and unfavorable regional institutional environment are most likely to be associated with different trajectories of Russian manufacturing firms’ performance in 2007- 2012. We employ the results of empirical survey of 1000 medium and large enterprises in manufacturing (2009 linked to financial data from Amadeus database and the data on the regional institutional environment. We test that (1 introduction of innovations before the crisis ceteris paribus helped the firms to successfully pass the crisis and recover. We expect that (2 companies that became globalized before the crisis (via importing of intermediate and capital goods; exporting; FDI; establishment of partner linkages with foreign firms ceteris paribus are more likely to successfully pass the crisis and grow. And (3 propose the positive effect of synergy of innovation efforts and globalization strategy of the firm. We expect that the abovementioned factors are complimentary and reinforce the ability of the firm to recover after crisis shock. We found strong support for the hypothesis that firms financing introduction of new products before the crisis and simultaneously managed to promote and sell them on the global market were rewarded by quick return to the growing path after global crisis. Other strategies, i.e. solely innovations without exporting play insignificant role while exporting without attempts to introduce new products contribute even negatively to post-crisis recover. Institutional environment also matters: in the regions with less level of corruption firms were more likely to grow after the crisis.

  10. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: RE ACTUALIZATION OF THE ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN GLOBAL ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Kružić, Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The paper investigates the process of re actualization of the role of entrepreneurship in global economy. Under the influence of global economy changes, the position of the entrepreneurship has been drastically altered –the entrepreneurship is increasingly seen as a generator of the economic growth. The exhaustion of most of the types of the economic and social protection, which were ensured in the economies of prosperity countries, indicates the fact that the era of looking for n...

  11. The role of global data identification standards for supply chain visibility: the case of GS1

    OpenAIRE

    Semianiaka, Natallia; Silina, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Supply chain visibility is among the top concerns expressed by many supply chain leaders. While the traditional enablers of supply chain visibility are information sharing, IT implementation, and relationships between supply chain partners; the role of global supply chain standards as an integral part of each of these enablers is often underestimated. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the adoption and applicability of global supply chain standards within the provisions of ...

  12. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  13. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  14. Advancing the right to health through global organizations: The potential role of a Framework Convention on Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Eric A; Gostin, Lawrence O; Buse, Kent

    2013-06-14

    Organizations, partnerships, and alliances form the building blocks of global governance. Global health organizations thus have the potential to play a formative role in determining the extent to which people are able to realize their right to health. This article examines how major global health organizations, such as WHO, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, UNAIDS, and GAVI approach human rights concerns, including equality, accountability, and inclusive participation. We argue that organizational support for the right to health must transition from ad hoc and partial to permanent and comprehensive. Drawing on the literature and our knowledge of global health organizations, we offer good practices that point to ways in which such agencies can advance the right to health, covering nine areas: 1) participation and representation in governance processes; 2) leadership and organizational ethos; 3) internal policies; 4) norm-setting and promotion; 5) organizational leadership through advocacy and communication; 6) monitoring and accountability; 7) capacity building; 8) funding policies; and 9) partnerships and engagement. In each of these areas, we offer elements of a proposed Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), which would commit state parties to support these standards through their board membership and other interactions with these agencies. We also explain how the FCGH could incorporate these organizations into its overall financing framework, initiate a new forum where they collaborate with each other, as well as organizations in other regimes, to advance the right to health, and ensure sufficient funding for right to health capacity building. We urge major global health organizations to follow the leadership of the UN Secretary-General and UNAIDS to champion the FCGH. It is only through a rights-based approach, enshrined in a new Convention, that we can expect to achieve health for all in our lifetimes. Copyright © 2013 Friedman, Gostin

  15. One-Stop Dispensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlind, Morten Baltzer; McNulty, Helle Bach Ølgaard; Treldal, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    (1) Objective: To assess hospital medication costs and staff time between One-Stop Dispensing (OSD) and the Traditional Medication System (TMS), and to evaluate patient perspectives on OSD. (2) Methods: The study was conducted at Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark in an elective...... gastric surgery and acute orthopedic surgery department. This study consists of three sub-studies including adult patients able to self-manage medication. In Sub-study 1, staff time used to dispense and administer medication in TMS was assessed. Medication cost and OSD staff time were collected in Sub......-study 2, while patient perspectives were assessed in Sub-study 3. Medication costs with two days of discharge medication were compared between measured OSD cost and simulated TMS cost for the same patients. Measured staff time in OSD was compared to simulated staff time in TMS for the same patients...

  16. Current stopping power analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    Modified Bethe-Bloch stopping power theory permits fairly accurate calculation of energy losses over a broad interval of projectile velocity v = νc insofar as several parameters appearing in the revised Bethe-Bloch formula have been corectly evaluated. Since the parameters cannot in general be ascertained by calculation from first principles, fits of theory to measurement remain the best method of evaluation. The parameters alluded to are: the target mean excitation energy; the shell correction scaling parameters; the composite single free parameter of the Barkas (projectile-z 3 ) effect correction formalism, and the strength of the correction term; the high velocity density effect correction parameter; and the low velocity charge state parameter. These parameters are discussed

  17. Acetone in theGlobal Troposphere: Its Possible Role as a Global Source of PAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H. B.; Kanakidou, M.

    1994-01-01

    Oxygenated hydrocarbons are thought to be important components of the atmosphere but, with the exception of formaldehyde, very little about their distribution and fate is known. Aircraft measurements of acetone (CH3COCH3), PAN (CH3CO3NO2) and other organic species (e. g. acetaldehyde, methanol and ethanol) have been performed over the Pacific, the southern Atlantic, and the subarctic atmospheres. Sampled areas extended from 0 to 12 km altitude over latitudes of 70 deg N to 40 deg S. All measurements are based on real time in-situ analysis of cryogenically preconcentrated air samples. Substantial concentrations of these oxygenated species (10-2000 ppt) have been observed at all altitudes and geographical locations in the troposphere. Important sources include, emissions from biomass burning, plant and vegetation, secondary oxidation of primary non-methane hydrocarbons, and man-made emissions. Direct measurements within smoke plumes have been used to estimate the biomass burning source. Photochemistry studies are used to suggest that acetone could provide a major source of peroxyacetyl radicals in the atmosphere and play an important role in sequestering reactive nitrogen. Model calculations show that acetone photolysis contributes significantly to PAN formation in the middle and upper troposphere.

  18. Stopping the greenhouse effect - recommendations submitted by the Bundestag Enquete Commission. - Why nuclear energy cannot solve the global-warming problem - on the urgency of a low-risk, efficient future energy economy. - The latest cancer statistics of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki A-bomb survivors - a higher radiation risk at dose rates below 50cGy (rad) - consequences for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, W.; Kohler, S.; Koehnlein, W.

    1991-01-01

    The report compiles three contributions two of which discuss the issues of global warming, trace gases and ozone depletion. The measures proposed by a German enquete commision to stop the greenhouse effect, i.e. utilization of renewable energy sources, nuclear phaseout because nuclear power is not supposed to solve the global-warming problem, are described. The third contribution gives the latest cancer statistics of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki a-bomb survivors while taking into account the higher radiation risk due to low dose rates. (DG) [de

  19. The Role of Strategic Partnerships in the Internationalisation of Small Born Global Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Capik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The article discusses motives driving the internationalisation of small born global firms and explores the role strategic partnerships play in the process. It argues that born globals are forced into international markets soon after their foundation due to limited domestic market capacity. Furthermore, they attempt to prevent competition on international markets and secure first mover advantages. Research Design & Methods: Based on primary data gathered in the course of interviews with founders and senior managers of British born globals operating in different industry sectors, the article offers new insights into the role of partnerships during early stages of internationalisation. Findings: The article reveals that beside serendipitous opportunities, the motivation and opportunity recognition of the founder/manager play a vital role in firms’ early internationalisation. Strategic partnerships appear to help born globals in overcoming resource constraints and their liability of newness and smallness. Also other factors, such as increasing brand recognition and the enhancement of the firm’s credibility motivate born globals to engage in strategic partnerships from an early stage. Implications & Recommendations: The research results lead to a conclusion that strategic partnerships are suitable only for a particular period of time, which begins shortly after the firm’s inception and ends when the born global firm becomes more established. Contribution & Value Added: The article provides novel understanding of the role of strategic partnerships play in the early internationalisation of born globals. Furthermore, it adds new insights into the evolution of such partnerships.

  20. Lessons learned from recruiting socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers into a pilot randomized controlled trial to explore the role of Exercise Assisted Reduction then Stop (EARS) smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tom P; Greaves, Colin J; Ayres, Richard; Aveyard, Paul; Warren, Fiona C; Byng, Richard; Taylor, Rod S; Campbell, John L; Ussher, Michael; Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Taylor, Adrian H

    2015-02-12

    Research is needed on what influences recruitment to smoking reduction trials, and how to increase their reach. The present study aimed to i) assess the feasibility of recruiting a disadvantaged population, ii) examine the effects of recruitment methods on participant characteristics, iii) identify resource requirements for different recruitment methods, and iv) to qualitatively assess the acceptability of recruitment. This was done as part of a pilot two-arm trial of the effectiveness of a novel behavioral support intervention focused on increasing physical activity and reducing smoking, among disadvantaged smokers not wishing to quit. Smokers were recruited through mailed invitations from three primary care practices (62 participants) and one National Health Stop Smoking Service (SSS) database (31 participants). Six other participants were recruited via a variety of other community-based approaches. Data were collected through questionnaires, field notes, work sampling, and databases. Chi-squared and t-tests were used to compare baseline characteristics of participants. We randomized between 5.1 and 11.1% of those invited through primary care and SSS, with associated researcher time to recruit one participant varying from 18 to 157 minutes depending on time and intensity invested.Only six participants were recruited through a wide variety of other community-based approaches, with an associated researcher time of 469 minutes to recruit one participant. Targets for recruiting a disadvantaged population were met, with 91% of the sample in social classes C2 to E (NRS social grades, UK), and 41% indicating mental health problems. Those recruited from SSS were more likely to respond to an initial letter, had used cessation aids before, and had attempted to quit in the past year. Overall, initial responders were more likely to be physically active than those who were recruited via follow-up telephone calls. No other demographics or behaviour characteristics were

  1. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  2. The Role of Global and Local Visual Information during Gaze-Cued Orienting of Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, Nicolette M; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Hooge, Ignace T C; Kemner, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Gaze direction is an important social communication tool. Global and local visual information are known to play specific roles in processing socially relevant information from a face. The current study investigated whether global visual information has a primary role during gaze-cued orienting of attention and, as such, may influence quality of interaction. Adults performed a gaze-cueing task in which a centrally presented face cued (valid or invalid) the location of a peripheral target through a gaze shift. We measured brain activity (electroencephalography) towards the cue and target and behavioral responses (manual and saccadic reaction times) towards the target. The faces contained global (i.e. lower spatial frequencies), local (i.e. higher spatial frequencies), or a selection of both global and local (i.e. mid-band spatial frequencies) visual information. We found a gaze cue-validity effect (i.e. valid versus invalid), but no interaction effects with spatial frequency content. Furthermore, behavioral responses towards the target were in all cue conditions slower when lower spatial frequencies were not present in the gaze cue. These results suggest that whereas gaze-cued orienting of attention can be driven by both global and local visual information, global visual information determines the speed of behavioral responses towards other entities appearing in the surrounding of gaze cue stimuli.

  3. Politics of Ebola and the critical role of global health diplomacy for the CARICOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 Ebola epidemic was the largest in history, affecting Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, and Mali in West Africa. The International Health Regulations are legally binding in 194 countries including all the member states of WHO “to prevent, protect against, control, and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease.” Since the Caribbean Community region heavily depends on tourism, a single case of the disease anywhere in the region could have serious negative consequences for the rest of the region's tourism industry. Global health diplomacy brings together the disciplines of public health, international affairs, management, law, and economics and focuses on negotiations that shape and manage the global policy environment for health. The regional institutes such as Caribbean Public Health Agency should play a more proactive and pivotal role in the creation of regional response teams in all the island nations collaborating with the departments of public health and epidemiology at the regional campuses of The University of the West Indies. The role of global health diplomacy and its practice should be encouraged to reach a consensus among the stakeholders considering the threat to the health security in the region. There is a need for the cadre of global health diplomats who has a critical understanding of health and also the practice of diplomacy since such serious health issues have implications at the global level in this globalized world.

  4. The Evolving Roles of Language Teachers: Trained Coders, Local Researchers, Global Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Language teachers are working in a world which has changed in the past decades in fundamentally disruptive ways, through profound changes in the role that networked computers play in everyday life and through the social and demographic shifts brought on by an increasingly globalized society, bringing together more than ever before people from…

  5. Global Family Concerns and the Role of Family Life Education: An Ecosystemic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Carol A.; Turkki, Kaija

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed colleagues from 4 international professional organizations involved with families in order to examine global family concerns and the role of family life education from an ecosystemic perspective. Our sample represented 6 continents and 50 countries. Survey results indicated that family education and related coursework were available in…

  6. Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Coughlin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global coverage of first and second doses of measles-containing vaccine, leading to a decrease in global incidence of measles, and through improved case based surveillance supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. Improved vaccine delivery methods will likely play an important role in achieving measles elimination goals as these delivery methods circumvent many of the logistic issues associated with subcutaneous injection. This review highlights the status of global measles epidemiology, novel measles vaccination strategies, and describes the pathway toward measles elimination.

  7. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  8. UDI STOP Femminicidio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Crivelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available L'UDI, Unione Donne in Italia, ha collaborato con l'Osservatorio dei Processi Comunicativi a un numero monografico della rivista scientifica M@gm@ dal titolo "Violenza maschile e femminicidio". Il numero monografico vuole mettere a disposizione le analisi, l’esperienza e la storia nostra e delle nostre interlocutrici, come contributo al nostro comune lavoro di sensibilizzazione, contrasto alla violenza maschile sulle donne – femminicidio. “UDI STOP femminicidio” è da anni la nostra campagna contro la violenza di genere, la collaborazione con l’Osservatorio dei Processi Comunicativi è parte integrante di questo sforzo. Il primo e dichiarato dei nostri progetti politici è il contrasto alla cultura e al potere ideologico che consente il femminicidio, la subordinazione culturale e sociale, la percezione della donna come oggetto di dominio, la riduzione in schiavitù di tante donne, comprese molte donne prostitute... Sappiamo di non voler tradire una “responsabilità di genere” che deve necessariamente concretizzarsi in tanti “gesti responsabili”, nella lunga pazienza quotidiana che consente la sedimentazione di un cambiamento radicale nelle coscienze. Vogliamo continuare ad essere l’associazione che coniuga insieme la soggettività personale e l'assunzione diretta di responsabilità, della progettualità a lungo termine che non trova “contraddittorio” misurarsi con la solidarietà concreta e quotidiana con le altre donne, nel tentativo di far nascere le nuove maniere di pensare.

  9. A Global Civilian Power? The Future Role of the European Union in International Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Questions about the future of the European Union as an international actor continue to puzzle students of international relations and particularly students of EU foreign policy. What kind of predictions can we make about the future role of the EU in international politics? While the question is often framed in terms of military versus normative and/or global civilian power Europe, there are indications that ambitions in both directions may very well coincide. However, despite the EU’s development towards deepened defense integration since the 1990s, such developments are by far outweighed by developments pointing in the direction of the EU consolidating its role as a global civilian power. In this article, we analyze the union’s civilian policies and contrast the findings of our analysis with developments in the field of Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP. Based on our analysis of EU enlargement policy, external aid, global environmental policy and the union’s commitment to multilateralism, our conclusion is that the EU’s international role in the next decades will continue to be best described in terms of a global civilian power.

  10. Nitrogen Research Programme STOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.; Van der Eerden, L.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen pollution is one of the main threats to the environment now in the Netherlands as well as other parts of Europe. In order to address the main gaps on the issues of nitrogen pollution related to the local scale, the Ministries of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment (VROM) and of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries (LNV) have initiated a research programme, the Dutch Nitrogen Research Programme (STOP), which aims to provide a scientific basis to develop and implement policy on a local scale for the realisation and conservation of the EHS ('Dutch Mainframe of Natural Landscapes'). The results of the programme show that the description of emissions from manure in the field is difficult to describe and show large uncertainties. On the contrary, emissions from housings could be modelled well, if local actual data were available. The OPS model to describe the dispersion and deposition was evaluated with the measurements and the limitations were quantified. It appears that the model works well on the long term, whereas on the short term (hours) and short distance (tenths of meters) there is large uncertainty, especially in complex terrain. Critical loads for nitrogen for ecosystems were evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of management options was quantified. A method to determine critical loads as a function of soil conditions, such as acidification and water availability was derived. This resulted in a combination of the soil model SMART and the so-called 'nature planner' (Natuurplanner). It was concluded that the combination of SMART, the nature planner and OPS provide a good tool to develop and support policy on the local scale. 4 refs

  11. The future role of nuclear power in the global energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, B.A.; Guthrie, D.; Tatsuta, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A sound judgement on the role of nuclear power in the global energy balance within the time span of the next 30 years should logically be based on the consideration of at least a number of factors such as global trends in energy and electricity demand, practically available or estimated sources of supply, major requirements that these energy sources should meet, nuclear power's own potential, a realistic assessment of nuclear power's present status, and problems related to nuclear power. The conclusion of such an analysis is that nuclear power will retain, and may even enhance, its position as an important element in the world's energy supply mix

  12. Slow, stopped and stored light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, G.; Scully, M.

    2005-01-01

    Light that can been slowed to walking pace could have applications in telecommunications, optical storage and quantum computing. Whether we use it to estimate how far away a thunderstorm is, or simply take it for granted that we can have a conversation with someone on the other side of the world, we all know that light travels extremely fast. Indeed, special relativity teaches us that nothing in the universe can ever move faster than the speed of light in a vacuum: 299 792 458 ms sup - sup 1. However, there is no such limitation on how slowly light can travel. For the last few years, researchers have been routinely slowing light to just a few metres per second, and have recently even stopped it dead in its tracks so that it can be stored for future use. Slow-light has considerable popular appeal, deriving perhaps from the importance of the speed of light in relativity and cosmology. If everyday objects such as cars or people can travel faster than 'slow' light, for example, then it might appear that relativistic effects could be observed at very low speeds. Although this is not the case, slow light nonetheless promises to play an important role in optical technology because it allows light to be delayed for any period of time desired. This could lead to all-optical routers that would increase the bandwidth of the Internet, and applications in optical data storage, quantum information and even radar. (U.K.)

  13. LHC Availability 2017: Technical Stop 1 to Technical Stop 2

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea; Walsh, David John; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period of Technical Stop 1 (TS1) to Technical Stop 2 (TS2) in 2017. This period was dedicated to proton physics with a bunch spacing of 25ns. This note has been produced and ratified by the Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  14. [The role of Sabin inactivated poliovirus vaccine in the final phase of global polio eradication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S Z; Zhu, W B

    2016-12-06

    Global polio eradication has entered its final phase, but still faces enormous challenges. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (2013-2018) set the target for making the world polio-free by 2018. Meanwhile, the World Heath Organization Global Action Plan (GAP Ⅲ) recommended that polioviruses be stored under strict conditions after eradication of the wild poliovirus. At least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) would be required for each newborn baby in the world to ensure successful completion of the final strategy and GAP Ⅲ. The Sabin IPV has a high production safety and low production cost, compared with the wild-virus IPV and, therefore, can play an important role in the final stage of global polio eradication.

  15. Role of Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) in Accelerating Inactivated Polio Vaccine Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Naveen; Thacker, Deep; Pathak, Ashish

    2016-08-07

    Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance) is an international organization built through public-private partnership. GAVI has supported more than 200 vaccine introductions in the last 5 years by financing major proportion of costs of vaccine to 73 low-income countries using a co-financing model. GAVI has worked in close co-ordination with Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) since 2013, to strengthen health systems in countries so as to accelerate introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). GAVI is involved in many IPV related issues like demand generation, supply, market shaping, communications, country readiness etc. Most of the 73 GAVI eligible countries are also high priority countries for GPEI. GAVI support has helped India to accelerate introduction of IPV in all its states. However, GAVI faces challenges in IPV supply-related issues in the near future. It also needs to play a key role in global polio legacy planning and implementation.

  16. Towards Global De-Carbonization: Examining the Role of Freight Forwarders in Green Logistics in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofi Wireko, Joseph; Owusu, Mavis

    2015-01-01

    The problem of carbon emission is a global phenomenon and cross-border in nature. There is almost a dearth of literature on the practice of green logistics by freight forwarders in Ghana and for that matter in most countries within the West African sub-region. This paper examines the role...... of freight forwarders in reducing carbon emissions by adopting “green logistics” as part of the global efforts in addressing global warming. The study employs a pre-test and case study method, to ensure sufficient collection of relevant material, taking into account the lack of research in this subject...... in Ghana. Materials obtained from the interviews and the questionnaires were used to explore the knowledge of employees regarding green logistics, examine the challenges in implementing green logistics, and assess the internal and external pressures that impact on freight forwarders and the needed...

  17. Fugitive Emissions from the Bakken Shale Illustrate Role of Shale Production in Global Ethane Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Murray, L. T.; Gvakharia, A.; Brandt, A. R.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sweeney, C.; Travis, K.

    2016-01-01

    Ethane is the second most abundant atmospheric hydrocarbon, exerts a strong influence on tropospheric ozone, and reduces the atmosphere's oxidative capacity. Global observations showed declining ethane abundances from 1984 to 2010, while a regional measurement indicated increasing levels since 2009, with the reason for this subject to speculation. The Bakken shale is an oil and gas-producing formation centered in North Dakota that experienced a rapid increase in production beginning in 2010. We use airborne data collected over the North Dakota portion of the Bakken shale in 2014 to calculate ethane emissions of 0.23 +/- 0.07 (2 sigma) Tg/yr, equivalent to 1-3% of total global sources. Emissions of this magnitude impact air quality via concurrent increases in tropospheric ozone. This recently developed large ethane source from one location illustrates the key role of shale oil and gas production in rising global ethane levels.

  18. Communications satellites in the national and global health care information infrastructure: their role, impact, and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzek, J. E.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1996-01-01

    Health care services delivered from a distance, known collectively as telemedicine, are being increasingly demonstrated on various transmission media. Telemedicine activities have included diagnosis by a doctor at a remote location, emergency and disaster medical assistance, medical education, and medical informatics. The ability of communications satellites to offer communication channels and bandwidth on demand, connectivity to mobile, remote and under served regions, and global access will afford them a critical role for telemedicine applications within the National and Global Information Infrastructure (NII/GII). The importance that communications satellites will have in telemedicine applications within the NII/GII the differences in requirements for NII vs. GII, the major issues such as interoperability, confidentiality, quality, availability, and costs, and preliminary conclusions for future usability based on the review of several recent trails at national and global levels are presented.

  19. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  20. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  1. Schistosomiasis elimination strategies and potential role of a vaccine in achieving global health goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Annie X; Agosti, Jan M; Walson, Judd L; Hall, B Fenton; Gordon, Lance

    2014-01-01

    In March 2013, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation co-sponsored a meeting entitled "Schistosomiasis Elimination Strategy and Potential Role of a Vaccine in Achieving Global Health Goals" to discuss the potential role of schistosomiasis vaccines and other tools in the context of schistosomiasis control and elimination strategies. It was concluded that although schistosomiasis elimination in some focal areas may be achievable through current mass drug administration programs, global control and elimination will face several significant scientific and operational challenges, and will require an integrated approach with other, additional interventions. These challenges include vector (snail) control; environmental modification; water, sanitation, and hygiene; and other future innovative tools such as vaccines. Defining a clear product development plan that reflects a vaccine strategy as complementary to the existing control programs to combat different forms of schistosomiasis will be important to develop a vaccine effectively.

  2. Exploring the role of instant messaging in a global software development project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Y.; Giuffrida, Rosalba

    2011-01-01

    Communication plays a vital role in software devel- opment projects. Globally distributed teams use a mix of dif- ferent communication channels to get the work done. In this paper, we report on an empirical study of a team distributed across Denmark and India. This paper explores the integration...... documentation. Our analysis provides an indication that IM can play a special role in such socio-technical communication systems: IM acts as a real time glue between different chan- nels. The communication through IM also provides a means to build trust and social relationships with co-workers....

  3. The Gulf Cooperation Council countries – economic structures, recent developments and role in the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Sturm; Jan Strasky; Petra Adolf; Dominik Peschel

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of high and rising oil prices since 2003, the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) have seen dynamic economic development, enhancing their role in the global economy as investors and trade partners. Real GDP growth has been buoyant, with non-oil activity expanding faster than oil GDP. Macroeconomic developments have also been characterised by large fiscal and current account surpluses as a result of rising oil revenues, notwithstanding fiscal expansion and rapid imp...

  4. The Role of the Agulhas System in Regional and Global Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P. M.; Beal, Lisa; Biastoch, Arne; Zahn, Rainer

    2013-03-01

    The AGU Chapman Conference on the Agulhas system was the first held on the African continent. There was a feeling of excitement among participants about the great diversity of ongoing research related to the Agulhas Current system, including its role in global and regional climate, its possible influence on human origins in southern Africa, its link to the Madagascar phytoplankton bloom, and its influence on South Atlantic hurricane development (Catarina) through warming related to Agulhas leakage over the past decades.

  5. The role of trust and leadership in the global marketing driven organization

    OpenAIRE

    Chmielewski, Krzysztof J.

    2011-01-01

    The role of trust and leadership in the global marketing driven organization is discussed in this paper. The author analyzed the essence of trust, levels of trust, performance effects of trust and challenges of trust. Further, the characteristics of leadership is described as well as the essence of leadership. Current challenges facing this topic are analyzed and trends for the near future are indicated. Moreover, the author discusses the main impacts which will drive leadership in the future...

  6. The Role of Teams as Organizational Structures in a Global Organizational Context

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltan Raluca

    2012-01-01

    The flexibility that modern companies must show in regard to global market entails the recourse to work teams which are multicultural adapted and aware of their role and place in the overall structure of the organization. The technological changes along with the customer needs diversification require the awareness of the influence of organizational structure on team members as well as the influence of teams on organizational structures and organizational context. The present paper aims to poi...

  7. IMPACTS OF BUS STOP IMPROVEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    Improving bus stops by providing shelters, seating, signage, and sidewalks is relatively inexpensive and popular among riders and local officials. Making such improvements, however, is not often a priority for U.S. transit providers because of compet...

  8. The role of natural climatic variation in perturbing the observed global mean temperature trend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, B.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, VIC (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Controversy continues to prevail concerning the reality of anthropogenically-induced climatic warming. One of the principal issues is the cause of the hiatus in the current global warming trend. There appears to be a widely held view that climatic change warming should exhibit an inexorable upwards trend, a view that implies there is no longer any input by climatic variability in the existing climatic system. The relative roles of climatic change and climatic variability are examined here using the same coupled global climatic model. For the former, the model is run using a specified CO{sub 2} growth scenario, while the latter consisted of a multi-millennial simulation where any climatic variability was attributable solely to internal processes within the climatic system. It is shown that internal climatic variability can produce global mean surface temperature anomalies of {+-}0.25 K and sustained positive and negative anomalies sufficient to account for the anomalous warming of the 1940s as well as the present hiatus in the observed global warming. The characteristics of the internally-induced negative temperature anomalies are such that if this internal natural variability is the cause of the observed hiatus, then a resumption of the observed global warming trend is to be expected within the next few years. (orig.)

  9. Role of Global Food Security in the Common Agrarian Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor N. Shcherbak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author devoted his research to the role of the global food security in the priorities of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (CAP. The research sheds light on the parameters of the Common Agricultural Policy and the basic steps on the path of its reform. The research demonstrates that the priorities of the EC are mainly concentrated on achieving food security for the member-states of the EC, its population and the interests of the agricultural sector. The modern challenges to the Global Food Security (global food crises of 2007-2009, acute food shortages and hunger in crises regions of Africa and chronic malnutrition are placed high on the agenda of the CAP. In this situation, the EU is trying in the interests of stabilization of the world agricultural market to solve simultaneously the tasks of providing assistance for development and mitigation of the threats to the Global Food security. The deepening rift between the strategy of the CAP oriented towards promotion of agricultural export and real contribution of the EC to the Global Food Security and assistance for development is becoming more and more the most «vulnerable» place of the CAP.

  10. THE ROLE OF NAVIGATIONAL AIDS IN FLIGHT SAFETY MANAGEMENT WITHIN ICAO GLOBAL AIR NAVIGATION PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim V. Vurobyov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the global civil aviation is provided on the basis of the ICAO Communication and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management Concept, which has determined the basic strategy for further commercial flight management effectiveness improvement. On the basis of this concept a Global Air Navigation Plan has been developed by ICAO recently. The core strategies of CNS/ATM concept were specified and combined into so-called blocks. Thus the term Global Aviation System block upgrade has been introduced. At the same time, GANP states that the introduction of new procedures and flight management systems will inevitably affect flight safety. Accordingly, there is a task of flight safety management level maintaining, or even increasing within the Global Air Navigation Plan implementation. Various air navigational aids play a significant role in the process as they are directly associated with the new systems and structures introduction.This breeds the new global challenge of flight safety management level change assessment during the introduction of new procedures and systems connected with the use of both navigational aids and instruments. Some aspects of this problem solution are covered in the article.

  11. A whistle-stop tour of statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everitt, Brian

    2012-01-01

    "Preface according to my Penguin English dictionary, whistle-stop, used before a noun means 'consisting of brief stops in several places' and this whistle-stop tour of statistics does just that, with...

  12. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  13. Probing Light Stops with Stoponium

    CERN Document Server

    Batell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We derive new limits on light stops from diboson resonance searches in the $\\gamma\\gamma$, $Z \\gamma$, $ZZ$, $WW$ and $hh$ channels from the first run of the LHC. If the two-body decays of the light stop are mildly suppressed or kinematically forbidden, stoponium bound states will form in $pp$ collisions and subsequently decay via the pair annihilation of the constituent stops to diboson final states, yielding striking resonance signatures. Remarkably, we find that stoponium searches are highly complementary to direct collider searches and indirect probes of light stops such as Higgs coupling measurements. Using an empirical quarkonia potential model and including the first two $S$-wave stoponium states, we find that in the decoupling limit $m_{\\widetilde t_1} \\lesssim 130$ GeV is excluded for any value of the stop mixing angle and heavy stop mass by the combination of the latest resonance searches and the indirect constraints. The $\\gamma \\gamma$ searches are the most complementary to the indirect constraint...

  14. The role of forest disturbance in global forest mortality and terrestrial carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Thomas; Arneth, Almut; Smith, Benjamin; Poulter, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale forest disturbance dynamics such as insect outbreaks, wind-throw and fires, along with anthropogenic disturbances such as logging, have been shown to turn forests from carbon sinks into intermittent sources, often quite dramatically so. There is also increasing evidence that disturbance regimes in many regions are changing as a result of climatic change and human land-management practices. But how these landscape-scale events fit into the wider picture of global tree mortality is not well understood. Do such events dominate global carbon turnover, or are their effects highly regional? How sensitive is global terrestrial carbon exchange to realistic changes in the occurrence rate of such disturbances? Here, we combine recent advances in global satellite observations of stand-replacing forest disturbances and in compilations of forest inventory data, with a global terrestrial ecosystem model which incorporates an explicit representation of the role of disturbance in forest dynamics. We find that stand-replacing disturbances account for a fraction of wood carbon turnover that varies spatially from less than 5% in the tropical rainforest to ca. 50% in the mid latitudes, and as much as 90% in some heavily-managed regions. We contrast the size of the land-atmosphere carbon flux due to this disturbance with other components of the terrestrial carbon budget. In terms of sensitivity, we find a quasi log-linear relationship of disturbance rate to total carbon storage. Relatively small changes in disturbance rates at all latitudes have marked effects on vegetation carbon storage, with potentially very substantial implications for the global terrestrial carbon sink. Our results suggest a surprisingly small effect of disturbance type on large-scale forest vegetation dynamics and carbon storage, with limited evidence of widespread increases in nitrogen limitation as a result of increasing future disturbance. However, the influence of disturbance type on soil carbon

  15. Second stop and sbottom searches with a stealth stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Li, Lingfeng; Qin, Qin [Department of Physics, University of California,Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-29

    The top squarks (stops) may be the most wanted particles after the Higgs boson discovery. The searches for the lightest stop have put strong constraints on its mass. However, there is still a search gap in the low mass region if the spectrum of the stop and the lightest neutralino is compressed. In that case, it may be easier to look for the second stop since naturalness requires both stops to be close to the weak scale. The current experimental searches for the second stop are based on the simplified model approach with the decay modes t̃{sub 2}→t̃{sub 1}Z and t̃{sub 2}→t̃{sub 1}h. However, in a realistic supersymmetric spectrum there is always a sbottom lighter than the second stop, hence the decay patterns are usually more complicated than the simplified model assumptions. In particular, there are often large branching ratios of the decays t̃{sub 2}→b̃{sub 1}W and b̃{sub 1}→t̃{sub 1}W as long as they are open. The decay chains can be even more complex if there are intermediate states of additional charginos and neutralinos in the decays. By studying several MSSM benchmark models at the 14 TeV LHC, we point out the importance of the multi-W final states in the second stop and the sbottom searches, such as the same-sign dilepton and multilepton signals, aside from the traditional search modes. The observed same-sign dilepton excesses at LHC Run 1 and Run 2 may be explained by some of our benchmark models. We also suggest that the vector boson tagging and a new kinematic variable may help to suppress the backgrounds and increase the signal significance for some search channels. Due to the complex decay patterns and lack of the dominant decay channels, the best reaches likely require a combination of various search channels at the LHC for the second stop and the lightest sbottom.

  16. The role of law and governance reform in the global response to non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S; Patterson, David

    2014-06-05

    Addressing non-communicable diseases ("NCDs") and their risk-factors is one of the most powerful ways of improving longevity and healthy life expectancy for the foreseeable future - especially in low- and middle-income countries. This paper reviews the role of law and governance reform in that process. We highlight the need for a comprehensive approach that is grounded in the right to health and addresses three aspects: preventing NCDs and their risk factors, improving access to NCD treatments, and addressing the social impacts of illness. We highlight some of the major impediments to the passage and implementation of laws for the prevention and control of NCDs, and identify important practical steps that governments can take as they consider legal and governance reforms at country level.We review the emerging global architecture for NCDs, and emphasise the need for governance structures to harness the energy of civil society organisations and to create a global movement that influences the policy agenda at the country level. We also argue that the global monitoring framework would be more effective if it included key legal and policy indicators. The paper identifies priorities for technical legal assistance in implementing the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020. These include high-quality legal resources to assist countries to evaluate reform options, investment in legal capacity building, and global leadership to respond to the likely increase in requests by countries for technical legal assistance. We urge development agencies and other funders to recognise the need for development assistance in these areas. Throughout the paper, we point to global experience in dealing with HIV and draw out some relevant lessons for NCDs.

  17. The Clinical Nurse Leader--new nursing role with global implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baernholdt, M; Cottingham, S

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the development of the Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL ©) role and education, the CNL's impact and potential to improve quality globally. The need for clinical nurse leadership to improve the quality of health care systems while controlling costs is recognized in reports internationally. In the USA, a new nursing role, the CNL, was developed in response to such reports. CNLs are master's level nurse graduates (although not necessarily recruited from a nursing background) with the skills and knowledge to create change within complex systems and improve outcomes while they remain direct care providers. This innovative role can be adapted worldwide to improve the quality of health care systems. © 2010 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2010 International Council of Nurses.

  18. The future of nuclear power worldwide and the role of the global nuclear energy partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurgeon, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation is entitled, 'The Future of Nuclear Power Worldwide and the Role of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership', and the core message in one sentence is: When we look at the challenges of meeting our growing energy demands, providing for energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, we must conclude that nuclear power has to play a significant and growing role in meeting these challenges. Similarly, the mission of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership is to foster the safe and secure worldwide expansion of nuclear energy. GNEP comes at a crucial time in the burgeoning expansion of nuclear power. It is the only comprehensive proposal to close the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States, and engage the international community to minimize proliferation risks as well as provide and benefit from cooperation in policy formation, technical support, and technology and infrastructure development. Nuclear power's poised renaissance is encouraging, but it will require public support, expanded R and D activities and facilities, and increases in human capital needed for wide-scale construction and operation of new nuclear plants. Despite recent political currents, Germany can, too, become a part of this renaissance and become a full partner in the global partnership that shares a common vision for nuclear power's expansion. (orig.)

  19. Exploring SETAC's roles in the global dialogue on sustainability--an opening debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Ron; Kapustka, Larry; Stahl, Cynthia; Fava, Jim; Lavoie, Emma; Robertson, Cory; Sanderson, Hans; Scott, Heidi; Seager, Tom; Vigon, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A combination platform-debate session was held at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America annual meeting in Boston (November 2011). The session was organized by members of the Advisory Group on Sustainability, newly formed and approved as a global entity by the SETAC World Council just prior to the meeting. The platform portion of the session provided a historical backdrop for the debate that was designed to explore SETAC's role in the sustainability dialogue. The debate portion presented arguments for and against the proposition that "Science is the primary contribution of SETAC to the global dialogue on sustainability." Although the debate was not designed to achieve a definitive sustainability policy for SETAC, the audience clearly rejected the proposition, indicating a desire from the SETAC membership for an expanded role in global sustainability forums. This commentary details the key elements of the session, identifies the contribution the Advisory Group will have at the World Congress in Berlin (May 2012), and invites interested persons to become active in the Advisory Group. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  20. Banking for health: the role of financial sector actors in investing in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krech, Rüdiger; Kickbusch, Ilona; Franz, Christian; Wells, Nadya

    2018-01-01

    The world faces multiple health financing challenges as the global health burden evolves. Countries have set an ambitious health policy agenda for the next 15 years with prioritisation of universal health coverage under the Sustainable Development Goals. The scale of investment needed for equitable access to health services means global health is one of the key economic opportunities for decades to come. New financing partnerships with the private sector are vital. The aim of this study is to unlock additional financing sources, acknowledging the imperative to link financial returns to the providers of capital, and create profitable, sustainable financing structures. This paper outlines the global health investment opportunity exploring intersections of financial and health sector interests, and the role investment in health can play in economic development. Considering increasing demand for impact investments, the paper explores responsible financing initiatives and expansion of the global movement for sustainable capital markets. Adding an explicit health component (H) to the Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) investment criteria, creating the ESG+H initiative, could serve as catalyst for the inclusion of health criteria into mainstream financial actors' business practices and investment objectives. The conclusion finds that health considerations directly impact profitability of the firm and therefore should be incorporated into financial analysis. Positive assessment of health impact, at a broad societal or environmental level, as well as for a firm's employees can become a value enhancing competitive advantage. An ESG+H framework could incorporate this into mainstream financial decision-making and into scalable investment products.

  1. ROLE OF MEGALOPOLISES IN SOCIO-PHILOSOPHICAL COMPREHENSION OF GLOBALIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistarova Anna Aleksandrovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In her article the author tries to establish linkage between the events that took place at the turn of the 20th – 21st centuries and the aspiration of some countries for negating or limiting their jurisdiction with respect to international law due to the international bipolar system disintegration. It should be noted that the globalization, regionalization and glocalization processes are detected as new phenomenon that arouse as a result of international relations system evolution. The article reveals socio-philosophical content of globalization phenomenon in the nature of both spatial and civilization development of the modern world. The author highlights the necessity of theoretical basis generation so that to favour scientific discourse on the globalization issues in the light of new actors (megalopolises in the international relations system. Laying stress on the major cities as the international activity centers, the author emphasizes the requirement for comprehensive analysis of their involvement into the transformation processes. The intensification of local against global actors’ position is indicated by the author in the article. It points to the research of their social and political role as a new not yet generated investigation form within the bounds of philosophical science, and it favors preservation of peace integrity.

  2. ROLE OF MEGALOPOLISES IN SOCIO-PHILOSOPHICAL COMPREHENSION OF GLOBALIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Александровна Нистарова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In her article the author tries to establish linkage between the events that took place at the turn of the 20th – 21st centuries and the aspiration of some countries for negating or limiting their jurisdiction with respect to international law due to the international bipolar system disintegration. It should be noted that the globalization, regionalization and glocalization processes are detected as new phenomenon that arouse as a result of international relations system evolution. The article reveals socio-philosophical content of globalization phenomenon in the nature of both spatial and civilization development of the modern world. The author highlights the necessity of theoretical basis generation so that to favour scientific discourse on the globalization issues in the light of new actors (megalopolises in the international relations system. Laying stress on the major cities as the international activity centers, the author emphasizes the requirement for comprehensive analysis of their involvement into the transformation processes. The intensification of local against global actors’ position is indicated by the author in the article. It points to the research of their social and political role as a new not yet generated investigation form within the bounds of philosophical science, and it favors preservation of peace integrity.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-4

  3. Global Public Goods and The Role of Emerging Power: Considering the Concept of Impure Public Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rieshøj Yi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing analysis of global public goods over-emphasizes the significance of public. Great power as a main provider has played an active role in these strategic initiatives, which may be ignored. In fact, main power has thought about the possible free-riders when providing public goods and making its foreign strategic plan. China’s announcement to “welcome the neighbouring countries to be a free-rider and benefit from China’s rise” is a good example. It is necessary to think about the theory of public goods and take another look at the free-riding phenomenon. The concept of impure public goods may be useful and effective when we understand the reason why global public goods are being provided and are relatively efficient. As an emerging power, China should have a clear strategy on global public goods with a possible “marketing” viewpoint, including more initiatives and specific measures, so that the global public goods provision may be more diverse and well-planned.

  4. The role of bioethics in the international prescription drug market: economics and global justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Shelby E

    2006-01-01

    In terms of health care access, bioethics has an important role to inform and shape policy issues and develop interdisciplinary ideas and interventions. The rising price of prescription drugs presents one of the most looming barriers to health care access in the world today. Including both theoretical and practical features of the pharmaceutical industry's behavior is necessary to find ethical solutions towards increasing access. Bioethics can evaluate global justice by weighing human rights theory and future innovation at the macro level, and by addressing market forces and responsibilities at the micro level. Inherent structural features of pharmaceuticals, such as its reliance on research and development, cause the industry to employ pricing strategies that seem counter-intuitive to conventional wisdom, but that result in producing a just allocation as defined by market forces. Parallel trade and drug exportation/reimportation threaten the saliency of the industry's differential pricing scheme; a case-study of a single "Euro-price" within the European Union illustrates how this will actually create harm to the most needy member states. This complex situation requires solutions weighing arguments from human rights theory with those from economic theory to arrive at the most globally just allocation of prescription drugs in the global marketplace, as well as to ensure future innovation and scientific progress. Bioethicists as well as economists need to partake urgently in this discourse for the betterment of the global injustices in the international prescription drug market.

  5. Investing to end epidemics: the role of the Global Fund to control TB by 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, Osamu; Yassin, Mohammed A; Wandwalo, Eliud

    2016-03-01

    The Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria provides over three-quarters of all international financing towards TB programs with US$4.7 billion disbursed, supporting provision of treatment for 13.2 million patients with smear-positive TB and 210 000 patients with multidrug-resistant TB in over 100 countries since 2002. In 2013, the Global Fund launched a new funding model that, among others, is advancing strategic investments to maximize impact, addressing 'missing' TB cases, enhancing a synergistic response to TB/HIV dual epidemics, and building resilient and sustainable systems for health. A new Global Fund Strategy is under development through consultation with various stakeholders, with which the Global Fund will work to play a more catalytic role and foster innovations to end the TB epidemic. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A review of the role of temperate forests in the global CO2 balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musselman, R.C.; Fox, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The role of temperate forests in the global carbon balance is difficult to determine because many uncertainties exist in the data, and many assumptions must be made in these determinations. Still, there is little doubt that increases in atmospheric CO 2 and global warming would have major effects on temperate forest ecosystems. Increases in atmospheric CO 2 may result in increases in photosynthesis, changes in water and nitrogen use efficiency, and changes in carbon allocation. Indirect effects of changes in global carbon balance on regional climate and on microenvironmental conditions, particularly temperature and moisture, may be more important then direct effects of increased CO 2 on vegetation. Increased incidence of forest perturbations might also be expected. The evidence suggests that conditions favorable to forest growth and development may exist in the northern latitudes, while southern latitude forests may undergo drought stress. Current harvest of temperate and world forests contributes substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere, possibly as much as 3 gigatons (Gt) per year. Return of this carbon to forest storage may require decades. Forest managers should be aware of the global as well as local impact their management decisions will have on the atmospheric carbon balance of the ecosystems they oversee

  7. Role of Stratospheric Water Vapor in Global Warming from GCM Simulations Constrained by MLS Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Stek, P. C.; Su, H.; Jiang, J. H.; Livesey, N. J.; Santee, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past century, global average surface temperature has warmed by about 0.16°C/decade, largely due to anthropogenic increases in well-mixed greenhouse gases. However, the trend in global surface temperatures has been nearly flat since 2000, raising a question regarding the exploration of the drivers of climate change. Water vapor is a strong greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Previous studies suggested that the sudden decrease of stratospheric water vapor (SWV) around 2000 may have contributed to the stall of global warming. Since 2004, the SWV observed by Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on Aura satellite has shown a slow recovery. The role of recent SWV variations in global warming has not been quantified. We employ a coupled atmosphere-ocean climate model, the NCAR CESM, to address this issue. It is found that the CESM underestimates the stratospheric water vapor by about 1 ppmv due to limited representations of the stratospheric dynamic and chemical processes important for water vapor variabilities. By nudging the modeled SWV to the MLS observation, we find that increasing SWV by 1 ppmv produces a robust surface warming about 0.2°C in global-mean when the model reaches equilibrium. Conversely, the sudden drop of SWV from 2000 to 2004 would cause a surface cooling about -0.08°C in global-mean. On the other hand, imposing the observed linear trend of SWV based on the 10-year observation of MLS in the CESM yields a rather slow surface warming, about 0.04°C/decade. Our model experiments suggest that SWV contributes positively to the global surface temperature variation, although it may not be the dominant factor that drives the recent global warming hiatus. Additional sensitivity experiments show that the impact of SWV on surface climate is mostly governed by the SWV amount at 100 hPa in the tropics. Furthermore, the atmospheric model simulations driven by observed sea surface temperature (SST) show that the inter-annual variation of SWV follows that of SST

  8. City Under Siege: Narrating Mumbai Through NonStop Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Ibrahim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available When Mumbai became the target of terror in the 26/11 attack in 2008, the events in that city, like other tragic global events in recent years, were narrated through new media platforms. The increasing convergence of technologies and mobile telephony enabled new forms of gaze and the ability to bear witness through these new media technologies. The non-stop capture of events through recording equipment embedded in mobile phones and their connectivity to the World Wide Web constructed Mumbai through civilian narratives and images, and this phe-nomenon was described as the "coming of age of Twitter". Conversely the event raised fundamental questions about the role of broadcasting and protocols in live telecasts of terrorist attacks which have consequences for national security. In narrating the city through the civilian gaze and traditional media the spectacle of suffering in postmodernity becomes an open-ended exercise where the city is both a canvas for showcasing the risks of modernity and new forms of visibilities which emerge from social media and the "act of sharing" content on global plat-forms.

  9. The IAEA stopping power database, following the trends in stopping power of ions in matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, C. C.; Dimitriou, P.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to present an overview of the state of art of the energy loss of ions in matter, based on the new developments in the stopping power database of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This exhaustive collection of experimental data, graphs, programs and comparisons, is the legacy of Helmut Paul, who made it accessible to the global scientific community, and has been extensively employed in theoretical and experimental research during the last 25 years. The field of stopping power in matter is evolving, with new trends in materials of interest, including oxides, nitrides, polymers, and biological targets. Our goal is to identify areas of interest and emerging data needs to meet the requirements of a continuously developing user community.

  10. The role of emotion in global warming policy support and opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Developing leaders' strategic thinking through global work experience: the moderating role of cultural distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, Lisa; Oh, In-Sue; Tesluk, Paul E; Moore, Ozias A; VanKatwyk, Paul; Hazucha, Joy

    2014-09-01

    To respond to the challenge of how organizations can develop leaders who can think strategically, we investigate the relation of leaders' global work experiences--that is, those experiences that require the role incumbent to transcend national boundaries--to their competency in strategic thinking. We further examine whether leaders' exposure to a country whose culture is quite distinct from the culture of their own country (i.e., one that is culturally distant) moderates these relationships. Our analyses of 231 upper level leaders reveals that the time they have spent in global work experiences positively relates to their strategic thinking competency, particularly for leaders who have had exposure to a more culturally distant country. We discuss these findings in light of the research on international work experiences and leader development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. The Role of Urban Financial Centers within the Economy of Global Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mionel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is no doubt that state economy refers to city economy. In other words, the most part of a state‘s GDP is given by the urban environment, especially by capitals, which are often the economic engine of this environment. There are also cities having great economic importance abroad, beyond the state and even continental borders. These are the so-called global cities where the financial activities play an important role. There are a few cities (New York, London, Hong Kong etc. centering financial activities which are influential for large geographic areas. This research highlights the importance of the financial sector within urban economy and, subsequently, how it consolidates the status of global city. These cities are the engine of the international financial system as they host the headquarters of the most important and famous international stock exchange markets, financial supervision institutions, law firms and consulting companies.

  13. Stop. Write! Writing Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.

  14. Could stops lighten the top?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, A.; Ellis, J.; Fogli, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the presently available electroweak data including radiative corrections in the standard model suggests that the top quark weighs more than the Z 0 . We examine whether squark loops in the minimal supersymmetric model, particularly those involving stops (partners of the top quark), could reduce substantially the preferred range of top quark masses. Given the present lower bounds on squark masses, we find that stop effects can reduce the central value of m t by at most a few GeV, although they do make a very heavy top quark increasingly unlikely. (orig.)

  15. Global developments for advanced reactors and the role of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, Juergen; Cleveland, John

    1999-01-01

    To assure that nuclear power can meet world energy needs in the near and medium term, considerable development activities are being carried out for each major reactor line, building on the large experience base. The programmes of global development activities for advanced nuclear power plants, and nuclear desalination are described. As an international forum for exchange of scientific and technical information, the IAEA plays a role in bringing together experts for a world-wide exchange of information about national programmes, trends in safety and user requirements, the impact of safety objectives on plant design, and the co-ordination of research programmes in advanced reactor technology. 15 refs

  16. Bacteria in the greenhouse: Modeling the role of oceanic plankton in the global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducklow, H.W.; Fasham, M.J.R.

    1992-01-01

    To plan effectively to deal with the greenhouse effect, a fundamental understanding is needed of the biogeochemical and physical machinery that cycles carbon in the global system; in addition, models are needed of the carbon cycle to project the effects of increasing carbon dioxide. In this chapter, a description is given of efforts to simulate the cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the upper ocean, concentrating on the model's treatment of marine phytoplankton, and what it reveals of their role in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon between the ocean and atmosphere. The focus is on the upper ocean because oceanic uptake appears to regulate the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

  17. Global and local "teachable moments": The role of Nobel Prize and national pride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Segev, Elad

    2018-05-01

    This study examined to what extent Nobel Prize announcements and awards trigger global and local searches or "teachable moments" related to the laureates and their discoveries. We examined the longitudinal trends in Google searches for the names and discoveries of Nobel laureates from 2012 to 2017. The findings show that Nobel Prize events clearly trigger more searches for laureates, but also for their respective discoveries. We suggest that fascination with the Nobel prize creates a teachable moment not only for the underlying science, but also about the nature of science. Locality also emerged as playing a significant role in intensifying interest.

  18. Stop search in the compressed region via semileptonic decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Gao, Christina; Li, Lingfeng; Neill, Nicolás A. [Department of Physics, University of California,Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2016-05-05

    In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the superpartners of the top quark (stops) play the crucial role in addressing the naturalness problem. For direct pair-production of stops with each stop decaying into a top quark plus the lightest neutralino, the standard stop searches have difficulty finding the stop for a compressed spectrum where the mass difference between the stop and the lightest neutralino is close to the top quark mass, because the events look too similar to the large tt̄ background. With an additional hard ISR jet, the two neutralinos from the stop decays are boosted in the opposite direction and they can give rise to some missing transverse energy. This may be used to distinguish the stop decays from the backgrounds. In this paper we study the semileptonic decay of such signal events for the compressed mass spectrum. Although the neutrino from the W decay also produces some missing transverse energy, its momentum can be reconstructed from the kinematic assumptions and mass-shell conditions. It can then be subtracted from the total missing transverse momentum to obtain the neutralino contribution. Because it suffers from less backgrounds, we show that the semileptonic decay channel has a better discovery reach than the fully hadronic decay channel along the compressed line m{sub t̃}−m{sub χ̃}≈m{sub t}. With 300 fb{sup −1}, the 13 TeV LHC can discover the stop up to 500 GeV, covering the most natural parameter space region.

  19. Robert A. Millikan Award Lecture (August 2002): Global Study of the Role of the Laboratory in Physics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Presents the lecture given by the Millikan Award winner on a global study of the role of the laboratory in physics education. Discusses physics education in India, Malaysia, Great Britain, and the United States. (NB)

  20. Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in solving the most important issues of globalization process' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Present collection comprises of materials of Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in solving the most important issues of globalization process'. Present collection is intended for scientific and technical staff, postgraduates, and students of institutes of higher education.

  1. FirstAED emergency dispatch, global positioning of community first responders with distinct roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Finn Lund; Schorling, Per; Hansen, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    their roles in a team structure to reduce response times, ensure citizens' safety and offer equal possibility of early defibrillation. First aid is provided by community first responders who use their smartphone. FirstAED global positioning system (GPS)-tracks the nine nearby first responders and enables......FirstAED is a supplement to the existing emergency response systems. The aim is to shorten the community first responder response times at emergency calls to below five minutes in a bridge connected island area. FirstAED defines a way to dispatch the nearby three first responders and organise...... the emergency dispatcher to send an organised team of three first responders with distinct roles to the scene automatically. During the first 24 months the FirstAED system was used 718 times. Three first responders arrived in ∼89% of the cases, and they arrived before the ambulance in ∼94% of the cases. First...

  2. NOAA's Role in Sustaining Global Ocean Observations: Future Plans for OAR's Ocean Observing and Monitoring Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, James; Legler, David; Piotrowicz, Stephen; Raymond, Megan; Smith, Emily; Tedesco, Kathy; Thurston, Sidney

    2017-04-01

    The Ocean Observing and Monitoring Division (OOMD, formerly the Climate Observation Division) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Program Office provides long-term, high-quality global observations, climate information and products for researchers, forecasters, assessments and other users of environmental information. In this context, OOMD-supported activities serve a foundational role in an enterprise that aims to advance 1) scientific understanding, 2) monitoring and prediction of climate and 3) understanding of potential impacts to enable a climate resilient society. Leveraging approximately 50% of the Global Ocean Observing System, OOMD employs an internationally-coordinated, multi-institution global strategy that brings together data from multiple platforms including surface drifting buoys, Argo profiling floats, flux/transport moorings (RAMA, PIRATA, OceanSITES), GLOSS tide gauges, SOOP-XBT and SOOP-CO2, ocean gliders and repeat hydrographic sections (GO-SHIP). OOMD also engages in outreach, education and capacity development activities to deliver training on the social-economic applications of ocean data. This presentation will highlight recent activities and plans for 2017 and beyond.

  3. Role and potential of renewable energy and energy efficiency for global energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Nienhaus, Kristina [German Aerospace Center e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany); Klessmann, Corinna; Capone, Carolin; Stricker, Eva [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Graus, Wina; Hoogwijk, Monique [Ecofys Netherlands BV, Utrecht (Netherlands); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Winterfeld, Uta von; Samadi, Sascha [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The analysis of different global energy scenarios in part I of the report confirms that the exploitation of energy efficiency potentials and the use of renewable energies play a key role in reaching global CO2 reduction targets. An assessment on the basis of a broad literature research in part II shows that the technical potentials of renewable energy technologies are a multiple of today's global final energy consumption. The analysis of cost estimates for renewable electricity generation technologies and even long term cost projections across the key studies in part III demonstrates that assumptions are in reasonable agreement. In part IV it is shown that by implementing technical potentials for energy efficiency improvements in demand and supply sectors by 2050 can be limited to 48% of primary energy supply in IEA's ''Energy Technology Perspectives'' baseline scenario. It was found that a large potential for cost-effective measures exists, equivalent to around 55-60% of energy savings of all included efficiency measures (part V). The results of the analysis on behavioural changes in part VI show that behavioural dimensions are not sufficiently included in energy scenarios. Accordingly major research challenges are revealed. (orig.)

  4. Roles of nuclear power system in the presence of uncertainties from global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Iwata, Shuichi

    2005-01-01

    Environmental 'bads' like carbon dioxide are not simply incorporated in the market system. The costs involved, however, do not really reflect the inherent value of the environment, or what it is worth to them. This study focuses on the uncertainty of CO 2 emission credits. Assigning economic values to environmental goods and services is complex, but it is an area that is receiving considerable attention from environmental economists. The purpose of this study is to analyze the value of an investment in power generation assets that do not emit CO 2 . To deal with the CO 2 emission credit, we built new models based on the real option model by Pindyck (2000). In the modern, market-based financial systems that dominate the global economy, the value of a resource is represented by the price that an individual or a group is willing to pay for it. Managing CO 2 emission limitations will be a critical aspect of power generation systems. And it will be increasingly so as the emphasis on global environmental issues continues to rise. In order to secure the effectiveness of measures against global warming, we should reconsider the role of nuclear power systems. (author)

  5. The role of boreal forests and forestry in the global carbon budget : a synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyles, I.H.; Shaw, C.H.; Apps, M.J.; Karjalainen, T.; Stocks, B.J.; Running, S.W.; Kurz, W.A.; Weyerhaeuser, G.Jr.; Jarvis, P.G.

    2002-10-01

    This paper provides a synthesis of all papers presented at the conference on the role of boreal forests in the global carbon budget. The scientific community is recognizing the critical links between boreal forest ecosystems, carbon dynamics and global climate change. This paper addresses the five main topics discussed at the conference including: (1) carbon stocks and fluxes, (2) the effects of natural disturbances on carbon dynamics, (3) effects of management practices on carbon dynamics, (4) afforestation and carbon sequestration, and (5) effects of climate change and elevated carbon dioxide concentration on carbon dynamics. Large-scale model simulations suggest that increased global temperatures will result in increased net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Several model simulations also indicate that net primary productivity (NPP) will increase. While most forest stands are currently carbon sinks, disturbances such as fire, insects and tree harvesting make forests susceptible to becoming a source of carbon. In contrast, some studies suggest that climate change will cause shifting vegetation patterns, increased soil carbon and higher forest productivity that may result in higher sequestration of carbon in the boreal forest. 84 refs.

  6. Nuclear stopping in transmission experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, Lev G.; Sigmund, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Energy-loss spectra, mean and peak energy loss, and straggling due to elastic nuclear scattering have been studied theoretically as a function of target thickness and deflection angle of an initially monochromatic and well-collimated ion beam. The goal of this work has been to provide a generally valid scheme for nuclear-stopping corrections, allowing to determine electronic-stopping forces from energy-loss spectra measured in transmission geometry. Calculations have been based on the generalized Bothe-Landau theory of energy loss and multiple scattering. Our peak energy losses at zero emergence angle show close (∼10%) agreement with predictions of Fastrup et al. on the basis of the Bohr-Williams theory. However, predicted mean and peak energy losses are found to more sensitively depend on the underlying interatomic potential than unrestricted, i.e. angle-integrated mean or peak energy losses. Both elastic energy loss and multiple scattering are known to obey scaling laws involving only two combinations of the pertinent variables and atomic parameters. The dependence on deflection angle and foil thickness of mean and peak energy loss obeys a simple combination of these scaling laws. Comments are made on potential errors due to uncertainties in the nuclear-stopping correction applied in the literature with specific reference to central papers in low-velocity stopping

  7. Stop searches in flavourful supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas; Tunstall, Lewis C.

    2016-01-01

    Natural realisations of supersymmetry require light stops ${\\tilde t}_1$, making them a prime target of LHC searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Depending on the kinematic region, the main search channels are ${\\tilde t_1}\\to t \\tilde \\chi^0_1$, ${\\tilde t_1}\\to W b \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ and ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$. We first examine the interplay of these decay modes with ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ in a model-independent fashion, revealing the existence of large regions in parameter space which are excluded for any ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ branching ratio. This effect is then illustrated for scenarios with stop-scharm mixing in the right-handed sector, where it has previously been observed that the stop mass limits can be significantly weakened for large mixing. Our analysis shows that once the LHC bounds from ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ searches are taken into account, non-zero stop-scharm mixing leads only to a modest increase in the allowed regions of parameter...

  8. Correlated ion stopping in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicknagel, G.; Deutsch, C.

    1997-01-01

    The basic features of correlated ion stopping in plasmas are demonstrated by employing two opposite extremes of cluster structures, a statistical model with a spatial ion distribution of Gaussian shape and the highly regular configuration of N-ion chains and cubic boxes. In the case of the ion chains the resonant character of correlated stopping due to the interference of the excited wake fields is discussed in detail. The general behavior of correlation effects is summarized and its dependence on the ratio of cluster size and interion spacing to the screening length in the plasma, as well as the ratio of the cluster velocity to the mean electron velocity in the target, is stressed out. The validity and applicability of the dielectric response formalism used for describing correlated stopping is critically reviewed. A scheme is presented to extend the linear formalism to weak nonlinear situations that occur, in particular, for small highly charged clusters at moderate or low velocities. For the Gaussian cluster a fit formula is given, which allows a fast and accurate calculation of the enhancement of stopping due to correlation effects and applies for all degrees of degeneracy of the electrons and arbitrary cluster velocities. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Remote Shutoff Stops Runaway Lawnmower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambo, Alan A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how electronics students at Central Nine Career Center designed a kill switch circuit to stop a runaway lawnmower. This project is ideal for a career center since the electronics/robotics, small engines and horticulture classes can all work together on their respective parts of the modification, installation…

  10. Reparametrizations with given stop data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In [1] we performed a systematic investigation of reparametrizations of continuous paths in a Hausdorff space that relies crucially on a proper understanding of stop data of a (weakly increasing) reprametrizations of the unit interval. I am grateful to Marco Grandis (Genova) for pointing out to me...

  11. Reparametrizations with given stop data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    In [1], we performed a systematic investigation of reparametrizations of continuous paths in a Hausdorff space that relies crucially on a proper understanding of stop data of a (weakly increasing) reparametrization of the unit interval. I am indebted to Marco Grandis (Genova) for pointing out tome...

  12. Stopping Power for Degenerate Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-16

    This is a first attempt at calculating the BPS stopping power with electron degeneracy corrections. Section I establishes some notation and basic facts. Section II outlines the basics of the calculation, and in Section III contains some brief notes on how to proceed with the details of the calculation. The remaining work for the calculation starts with Section III.

  13. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  14. Stop researching transformational leadership! Now!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Intro__ Researchers all over the world, stop with your research on transformational leadership! Now! This could be the provocative conclusion after reading the recent article of Profs. Daan van Knippenberg and Sim Sitkin in The Academy of Management Annals (2013). These

  15. Stop researching transformational leadership! Now!

    OpenAIRE

    Tummers, Lars

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Intro__ Researchers all over the world, stop with your research on transformational leadership! Now! This could be the provocative conclusion after reading the recent article of Profs. Daan van Knippenberg and Sim Sitkin in The Academy of Management Annals (2013). These leadership professors write about the problems surrounding transformational leadership.

  16. Persisting roughness when deposition stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Moshe; Edwards, S F

    2004-12-01

    Useful theories for growth of surfaces under random deposition of material have been developed by several authors. The simplest theory is that introduced by Edwards and Wilkinson (EW), which is linear and soluble. Its nonlinear generalization by Kardar, Parisi, and Zhang (KPZ) resulted in many subsequent studies. Yet both EW and KPZ theories contain an unphysical feature. When deposition of material is stopped, both theories predict that as time tends to infinity, the surface becomes flat. In fact, of course, the final surface is not flat, but simply has no gradients larger than the gradient related to the angle of repose. We modify the EW and KPZ theories to accommodate this feature and study the consequences for the simpler system which is a modification of the EW equation. In spite of the fact that the equation describing the evolution of the surface is not linear, we find that the steady state in the presence of noise is not very different in the long-wavelength limit from that of the linear EW equation. The situation is quite different from that of EW when deposition stops. Initially there is still some rearrangement of the surface, but that stops as everywhere on the surface the gradient is less than that related to the angle of repose. The most interesting feature observed after deposition stops is the emergence of history-dependent steady-state distributions.

  17. Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work on Tourette Syndrome Tourette Association information on bullying What it’s like to have Tourette – Mary tells her story What children wish people knew about Tourette Syndrome CDC Children’s Mental Health StopBullying.gov Features Media Sign up for Features ...

  18. Defining a Leader Role curriculum for radiation oncology: A global Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sandra; Seel, Matthew; Trotter, Theresa; Giuliani, Meredith; Benstead, Kim; Eriksen, Jesper G; Poortmans, Philip; Verfaillie, Christine; Westerveld, Henrike; Cross, Shamira; Chan, Ming-Ka; Shaw, Timothy

    2017-05-01

    The need for radiation oncologists and other radiation oncology (RO) professionals to lead quality improvement activities and contribute to shaping the future of our specialty is self-evident. Leadership knowledge, skills and behaviours, like other competencies, can be learned (Blumenthal et al., 2012). The objective of this study was to define a globally applicable competency set specific to radiation oncology for the CanMEDS Leader Role (Frank et al., 2015). A modified Delphi consensus process delivering two rounds of on-line surveys was used. Participants included trainees, radiation/clinical oncologists and other RO team members (radiation therapists, physicists, and nurses), professional educators and patients. 72 of 95 (76%) invitees from nine countries completed the Round 1 (R1) survey. Of the 72 respondents to RI, 70 completed Round 2 (R2) (97%). In R1, 35 items were deemed for 'inclusion' and 21 for 'exclusion', leaving 41 'undetermined'. After review of items, informed by participant comments, 14 competencies from the 'inclusion' group went into the final curriculum; 12 from the 'undetermined' group went to R2. In R2, 6 items reached consensus for inclusion. This process resulted in 20 RO Leader Role competencies with apparent global applicability. This is the first step towards developing learning, teaching and assessment tools for this important area of training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An empirical study of the role of the corporate HR function in global talent management in professional and financial service firms in the global financial crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparrow, P.; Farndale, E.; Scullion, H.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an empirical exploration of a theory-driven framework of corporate human resource (CHR) roles in global talent management (GTM). Specifically, it expands our knowledge of the process of GTM in two sectors: financial and professional services. Based on in-depth interview data from

  20. The Role of Cultural Power and Its Influence on Global Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mortazavi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the culture power in international politics is very complicated and difficult matter because it has been less explicitly used in the analyses and theorizing of cultural elements, hence the role of culture like political, security and economic factors, is not apparent in the theory of international relations. Many researchers have found that it is not possible to achieve the depth of the relations between nations only by relying on the pure political and economic factors. They prescribe to focus on cultural issues and special attention to the field of culture in order to achieve a realistic cognition of international relations. What doubles the importance of the issue, is the design of some new theories and new intellectual schools, and its effect on global politics. Including, the theory of the clash of civilizations, the dialogue of civilizations, cultural fluidity and postmodernist attitude towards the category of identity and culture, that each of them in some way recommends a particular action framework, according to its noetic framework. Hence, the fundamental question is that: What is the role of culture (soft power in foreign policy and what impact does it have on global changes and developments trend? In response to this, the hypothesis is raised in such a way (trying to produce, procure and persuade values, attitudes, and trends and common attitudes lead to achieve cultural power and, as a result, facilitate the achievement of the national goals and interests of the countries, and promote the foreign policy of the countries and, on the other hand, the use of cultural power, creates a culture of resistance in the field of global politics.

  1. The role of surgery in global health: analysis of United States inpatient procedure frequency by condition using the Global Burden of Disease 2010 framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rose

    Full Text Available The role of surgical care in promoting global health is the subject of much debate. The Global Burden of Disease 2010 study (GBD 2010 offers a new opportunity to consider where surgery fits amongst global health priorities. The GBD 2010 reinforces the DALY as the preferred methodology for determining the relative contribution of disease categories to overall global burden of disease without reference to the likelihood of each category requiring surgery. As such, we hypothesize that the GBD framework underestimates the role of surgery in addressing the global burden of disease.We compiled International Classification of Diseases, Version 9, codes from the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2010. Using the primary diagnosis code for each hospital admission, we aggregated admissions into GBD 2010 disease sub-categories. We queried each hospitalization for a major operation to determine the frequency of admitted patients whose care required surgery. Major operation was defined according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ. In 2010, 10 million major inpatient operations were performed in the United States, associated with 28.6% of all admissions. Major operations were performed in every GBD disease subcategory (range 0.2%-84.0%. The highest frequencies of operation were in the subcategories of Musculoskeletal (84.0%, Neoplasm (61.4%, and Transport Injuries (43.2%. There was no disease subcategory that always required an operation; nor was there any disease subcategory that never required an operation.Surgical care cuts across the entire spectrum of GBD disease categories, challenging dichotomous traditional classifications of 'surgical' versus 'nonsurgical' diseases. Current methods of measuring global burden of disease do not reflect the fundamental role operative intervention plays in the delivery of healthcare services. Novel methodologies should be aimed at understanding the integration of surgical services into

  2. Banking for health: the role of financial sector actors in investing in global health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Franz, Christian; Wells, Nadya

    2018-01-01

    The world faces multiple health financing challenges as the global health burden evolves. Countries have set an ambitious health policy agenda for the next 15 years with prioritisation of universal health coverage under the Sustainable Development Goals. The scale of investment needed for equitable access to health services means global health is one of the key economic opportunities for decades to come. New financing partnerships with the private sector are vital. The aim of this study is to unlock additional financing sources, acknowledging the imperative to link financial returns to the providers of capital, and create profitable, sustainable financing structures. This paper outlines the global health investment opportunity exploring intersections of financial and health sector interests, and the role investment in health can play in economic development. Considering increasing demand for impact investments, the paper explores responsible financing initiatives and expansion of the global movement for sustainable capital markets. Adding an explicit health component (H) to the Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) investment criteria, creating the ESG+H initiative, could serve as catalyst for the inclusion of health criteria into mainstream financial actors’ business practices and investment objectives. The conclusion finds that health considerations directly impact profitability of the firm and therefore should be incorporated into financial analysis. Positive assessment of health impact, at a broad societal or environmental level, as well as for a firm’s employees can become a value enhancing competitive advantage. An ESG+H framework could incorporate this into mainstream financial decision-making and into scalable investment products. PMID:29736278

  3. Progress in understanding heavy-ion stopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigmund, P., E-mail: sigmund@sdu.dk [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Schinner, A. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    We report some highlights of our work with heavy-ion stopping in the energy range where Bethe stopping theory breaks down. Main tools are our binary stopping theory (PASS code), the reciprocity principle, and Paul’s data base. Comparisons are made between PASS and three alternative theoretical schemes (CasP, HISTOP and SLPA). In addition to equilibrium stopping we discuss frozen-charge stopping, deviations from linear velocity dependence below the Bragg peak, application of the reciprocity principle in low-velocity stopping, modeling of equilibrium charges, and the significance of the so-called effective charge.

  4. Progress in understanding heavy-ion stopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report some highlights of our work with heavy-ion stopping in the energy range where Bethe stopping theory breaks down. Main tools are our binary stopping theory (PASS code), the reciprocity principle, and Paul’s data base. Comparisons are made between PASS and three alternative theoretical schemes (CasP, HISTOP and SLPA). In addition to equilibrium stopping we discuss frozen-charge stopping, deviations from linear velocity dependence below the Bragg peak, application of the reciprocity principle in low-velocity stopping, modeling of equilibrium charges, and the significance of the so-called effective charge.

  5. Obesity as malnutrition: the role of capitalism in the obesity global epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2012-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic remains poorly understood, partly because it has emerged alongside persisting under-nutrition in many populations. At an abstract level, obesity develops from exposure to the "obesogenic niche," comprising diverse factors predisposing to weight gain. This article first explores how susceptibility to the obesogenic niche is influenced by developmental and life-history experience. Human growth is sensitive to early-life ecological conditions, under the transducing effect of maternal phenotype. Such plasticity is associated with subsequent variability in body composition and metabolism, impacting susceptibility to the obesogenic niche, albeit with heterogeneity across populations. Both nutritional constraint and nutritional excess during early life are associated with variability in relevant molecular pathways. The article then considers the fundamental contribution of capitalist economics to population under-nutrition and over-nutrition. Historically, capitalism contributed to the under-nutrition of many populations through demand for cheap labor. As the limiting factor for economic growth switched to consumption, capitalism has increasingly driven consumer behavior inducing widespread over-nutrition. In populations undergoing nutritional transition, many individuals encounter both under- and over-nutrition within the life course, elevating both susceptibility and exposure to the obesogenic niche. The interactions between global economic forces and nutritional shifts are distributed across generations, and are strongly transduced by maternal effects. The structural connections between undernourished and overnourished worldwide and between under- and over-nutrition within individual life-courses highlight the central role of capitalist economics in the global obesity epidemic. Prevention policies targeting individual behavior have proved ineffective and economic policies are arguably the optimal target for intervention. Copyright © 2012

  6. Crowdsourcing: Global search and the twisted roles of consumers and producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert M.; Gegenhuber, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Crowdsourcing spreads and morphs quickly, shaping areas as diverse as creating, organizing, and sharing knowledge; producing digital artifacts; providing services involving tangible assets; or monitoring and evaluating. Crowdsourcing as sourcing by means of ‘global search’ yields four types of values for sourcing actors: creative expertise, critical items, execution capacity, and bargaining power. It accesses cheap excess capacities at the work realm’s margins, channeling them toward production. Provision and utilization of excess capacities rationalize society while intimately connecting to a broader societal trend twisting consumers’ and producers’ roles: leading toward ‘working consumers’ and ‘consuming producers’ and shifting power toward the latter. Similarly, marketers using crowdsourcing’s look and feel to camouflage traditional approaches to bringing consumers under control preserve producer power. PMID:27524930

  7. THE SHADOW BANKING SYSTEM AND ITS ROLE IN TRIGGERING THE GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial innovation, the deficiencies of corporate governance, moral hazard, easy money policies, government inefficiency, and mainly the activity of the shadow banking system have all played a critical role in setting off the global financial crisis. Due to the imbalances it has triggered, the shadow banking system has been at the core of the most widespread and profound world crisis of all time, as the attempt to use financial capital as efficiently as possible by resorting to “innovative” products has significantly contributed to the advent of the financial crisis. The present crisis has already proved that the banking and financial activity can have a deeply disturbing impact on our economy, but the flexibility of lending mechanisms and the various reactions of the players on the market that are otherwise inherent in a dynamic economic system, cannot exist in the absence of banking mechanisms.

  8. Crowdsourcing: Global search and the twisted roles of consumers and producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert M; Gegenhuber, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Crowdsourcing spreads and morphs quickly, shaping areas as diverse as creating, organizing, and sharing knowledge; producing digital artifacts; providing services involving tangible assets; or monitoring and evaluating. Crowdsourcing as sourcing by means of 'global search' yields four types of values for sourcing actors: creative expertise, critical items, execution capacity, and bargaining power. It accesses cheap excess capacities at the work realm's margins, channeling them toward production. Provision and utilization of excess capacities rationalize society while intimately connecting to a broader societal trend twisting consumers' and producers' roles: leading toward 'working consumers' and 'consuming producers' and shifting power toward the latter. Similarly, marketers using crowdsourcing's look and feel to camouflage traditional approaches to bringing consumers under control preserve producer power.

  9. Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Ip, Hon S.

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses affect both poultry production and public health. A subtype H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4) virus, following an outbreak in poultry in South Korea in January 2014, rapidly spread worldwide in 2014–2015. Our analysis of H5N8 viral sequences, epidemiological investigations, waterfowl migration, and poultry trade showed that long-distance migratory birds can play a major role in the global spread of avian influenza viruses. Further, we found that the hemagglutinin of clade 2.3.4.4 virus was remarkably promiscuous, creating reassortants with multiple neuraminidase subtypes. Improving our understanding of the circumpolar circulation of avian influenza viruses in migratory waterfowl will help to provide early warning of threats from avian influenza to poultry, and potentially human, health.

  10. Uncertainty in Indian Ocean Dipole response to global warming: the role of internal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chang; Zheng, Xiao-Tong

    2018-01-01

    The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is one of the leading modes of interannual sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO). The response of IOD to global warming is quite uncertain in climate model projections. In this study, the uncertainty in IOD change under global warming, especially that resulting from internal variability, is investigated based on the community earth system model large ensemble (CESM-LE). For the IOD amplitude change, the inter-member uncertainty in CESM-LE is about 50% of the intermodel uncertainty in the phase 5 of the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP5) multimodel ensemble, indicating the important role of internal variability in IOD future projection. In CESM-LE, both the ensemble mean and spread in mean SST warming show a zonal positive IOD-like (pIOD-like) pattern in the TIO. This pIOD-like mean warming regulates ocean-atmospheric feedbacks of the interannual IOD mode, and weakens the skewness of the interannual variability. However, as the changes in oceanic and atmospheric feedbacks counteract each other, the inter-member variability in IOD amplitude change is not correlated with that of the mean state change. Instead, the ensemble spread in IOD amplitude change is correlated with that in ENSO amplitude change in CESM-LE, reflecting the close inter-basin relationship between the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean in this model.

  11. Establishing global policy recommendations: the role of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Philippe; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Salisbury, David

    2011-02-01

    The vaccine landscape has changed considerably over the last decade with many new vaccines and technological developments, unprecedented progress in reaching out to children and the development of new financing mechanisms. At the same time, there are more demands and additional expectations of national policy makers, donors and other interested parties for increased protection through immunization. The Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS), which broadens the previous scope of immunization efforts, sets a number of goals to be met by countries. The WHO has recently reviewed and adjusted both its policy making structure and processes for vaccines and immunization to include an enlarged consultation process to generate evidence-based recommendations, thereby ensuring the transparency of the decision making process and improving communications. This article describes the process of development of immunization policy recommendations at the global level and some of their impacts. It focuses on the roles and modes of operating of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, which is the overarching advisory group involved with the issuance of policy recommendations, monitoring and facilitating the achievement of the GIVS goals. The article also describes the process leading to the publication of WHO vaccine position papers, which provide WHO recommendations on vaccine use. WHO vaccine-related recommendations have become a necessary step in the pathway to the introduction and use of vaccines, especially in developing countries and, consequently, have a clear and significant impact.

  12. Canada's ongoing role in global medical isotope supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Canada has been a leader in the production of medical isotopes, most notably Molybednum-99 (Mo-99) and Cobalt-60 (Co-60) used for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disease, since the inception of the technology in the 1950s. These products have become critical components of healthcare, impacting the daily lives of millions of people around the world. The technological, political, social and commercial climate for production of these isotopes has changed dramatically over the many decades since their use began. Canada's role in assuring long-term stability of supply continues to evolve, and at Nordion we are identifying ways to meet the new and significant challenges associated with these changes. As a supplier to this global industry, Canada is presented with not only high expectations, but also unique opportunities for advancement of policy, science and technology in support of the longevity of the medical isotope and gamma sterilization industries. This paper will examine the current drivers for change in the global medical isotope supply chain, provide an overview of new and enhanced technology options, and identify the steps necessary for Canada to maintain and expand its strong position in this critical industry. (author)

  13. The Role of National Clusters in the Development of Global Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrovskaya Elena, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern economic literature there are many publications concerning innovative development of clusters and global value chains (GVCs. But still the interaction between these two structures is not studied completely. What are the main features and mechanisms of their interaction? Can clusters stimulate companies’ involvement in GVCs? Do they facilitate competition between participating companies and countries? These are just a few of those issues that are covered in the article. The efficiency of incorporation to GVCs depends both on the type of embedded cluster, and the management of particular links within the chain. In order to explain the cooperation between companies, the institutional approach is used, paying much attention to the issues of moral risks in the context of multiply goals, the effect of gauge, and the development of long-term relational contracts among agents. Thus, the recommendations concerning the role of clusters and GVCs for the raise of competitiveness of countries are provided with regard to the integrated research of global suppliers and customers’ motives.

  14. Climate change and the role of nuclear power - contributions to a global solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The threat of global climate change is a challenge to those who decide on energy policy. If we are complacent and the worst case scenario materializes, our descendants could be faced with unprecedented problems that would impose massive costs. On the other hand, it is our generation which would suffer if substantial resources were devoted to addressing a problem that did not turn out to be serious. Fortunately, the choice is not a stark as this. There are options such as increased energy efficiency and clean fuels that are economically justified before their environmental benefits are considered. These options are the first priority for addressing climate change. What will be the contribution of nuclear energy? In developing countries it is likely to be small. In the industrialized world, where the cost of capital is lower, the role of nuclear will depend on construction and operating performance of the industry, and the level of public confidence. New nuclear technologies that are inherently safe and small modular designs could transform the nuclear option if costs are competitive with other energy sources. The nuclear option is one that should be kept alive in case a global environmental crisis is forced upon us. (orig.)

  15. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your fingers and from your nails to your face and mouth. To help you stop biting your ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some ...

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources ... Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  17. Role of mesoscale eddies in the global ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouhair, Lachkar

    2007-02-01

    Mesoscale eddies play a fundamental role in ocean dynamics particularly in the Southern Ocean. Global-scale tracer simulations are typically made at coarse resolution without explicitly modeling eddies. Here we ask what role do eddies play in ocean uptake, storage, and meridional transport of anthropogenic CO 2 , CFC-11 and bomb Δ 14 C. We made global anthropogenic transient tracer simulations in coarse-resolution, ORCA2, and eddy-permitting, ORCA05 and ORCA025, versions of the ocean modelling system NEMO. We focus on the Southern Ocean where tracer air-sea fluxes are largest. Eddies have little effect on bomb Δ 14 C uptake and storage. Yet for CFC-11 and anthropogenic CO 2 , increased eddy activity reduces southern extra-tropical uptake by 28% and 25% respectively, thereby providing better agreement with observations. It is shown that the discrepancies in the equilibration times between the three tracers determine their respective sensitivities to the model horizontal resolution. Applying Gent and McWilliams (1990) (GM) parameterization of eddies in the non-eddying version of the model does improve results, but not enough. An in-depth investigation of the mechanisms by which eddies affect the uptake of the transient tracers shows that including mesoscale eddies leads to an overall reduction in the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) ventilation, and modifies substantially the spatial distribution of their source regions. This investigation reveals also that the GM parameterization still overestimates the ventilation and the subduction of AAIW in the Indian Ocean where the simulated mixed layer is particularly deep during the winter. This work suggests that most current coarse-resolution models may overestimate the ventilation of AAIW in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. This study shows also that the use of the GM parameterization may be of limited utility where mixed layer is relatively deep and confirms the general need for a more adequate

  18. Role and importance of leadership in the conditions of global business

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Ana

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses features of leaders and leadership in global enterprises. The key hypothesis is that in times of globalization a different approach to leadership is necessary than the one proposed by the traditional leadership theory. The paper also indicates some techniques for the management of global enterprises to promote and incite the development of global leadership.

  19. China's International Education Initiatives and View of Its Role in Global Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sharon X.

    2012-01-01

    China is becoming an increasingly important actor in global governance. This paper contends that China participates by promoting its own global governance concepts on the one hand and by complying with the established global norms on the other. The paper introduces several key global governance concepts of the Chinese government and argues that…

  20. Understanding the Role of the Master Regulator XYR1 in Trichoderma reesei by Global Transcriptional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Castro, Lilian; de Paula, Renato G.; Antoniêto, Amanda C. C.; Persinoti, Gabriela F.; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Roberto N.

    2016-01-01

    We defined the role of the transcriptional factor—XYR1—in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei during cellulosic material degradation. In this regard, we performed a global transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq of the Δxyr1 mutant strain of T. reesei compared with the parental strain QM9414 grown in the presence of cellulose, sophorose, and glucose as sole carbon sources. We found that 5885 genes were expressed differentially under the three tested carbon sources. Of these, 322 genes were upregulated in the presence of cellulose, while 367 and 188 were upregulated in sophorose and glucose, respectively. With respect to genes under the direct regulation of XYR1, 30 and 33 are exclusive to cellulose and sophorose, respectively. The most modulated genes in the Δxyr1 belong to Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), transcription factors, and transporters families. Moreover, we highlight the downregulation of transporters belonging to the MFS and ABC transporter families. Of these, MFS members were mostly downregulated in the presence of cellulose. In sophorose and glucose, the expression of these transporters was mainly upregulated. Our results revealed that MFS and ABC transporters could be new players in cellulose degradation and their role was shown to be carbon source-dependent. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of XYR1 to control cellulase gene expression in T. reesei in the presence of cellulosic material, thereby potentially enhancing its application in several biotechnology fields. PMID:26909077

  1. Important roles of Fischer-Tropsch synfuels in the global energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Takayuki; Yamaji, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the potential roles of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synfuels in the 21st century with a global energy model treating the entire fuel supply chain in detail. The major conclusions are the following. First, FT synfuels become a major alternative fuel regardless of CO 2 policy due to their low transportation costs and compatibility with existing petroleum infrastructure and vehicles. Secondly, the FT process brings stranded gas to world markets until around 2050. In a 550 ppm CO 2 stabilization case thereafter, producing FT synfuels from biomass, whose competitiveness is robust against its capital costs, and their interregional trade enable a worldwide diffusion of carbon-neutral fuels. This provides a significant source of income for developing regions, such as Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. Thirdly, FT synfuels play a crucial role in meeting the growing transportation energy demand and assuring diversified supplies of transportation fuels. Increasing portions of FT liquids are refined to FT-kerosene to be provided for the rapidly growing aviation sector in the second half of the century. Furthermore, upgrading FT-naphtha into FT-gasoline proves to be critically important. FT synfuels' participation could help the development in Africa through technological contributions of the South African leading companies in the world synfuel industry

  2. Global trends in advanced reactor developments, and the role of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.; Cleveland, J.

    2001-01-01

    Due to further increases in the world's population along with further industrialization and economic development, global energy demand will surely continue to increase in the 21 century. In the second half of 20 th century nuclear power has evolved from the research and development environment to an industry that supplies approximately 16.7% of the world's electricity. In these 50 years of nuclear development a great deal has been achieved and many lessons have been learned. at the end of 1999, according to data reported in the Power Reactor Information System, PRIS, of the IAEA, there were 436 nuclear power plants in operation and 39 under construction. About 9521 reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated by today. The continued contribution of nuclear energy to energy needs depends on several key issues. The degree of global commitment to sustainable energy strategies and recognition of the role of nuclear energy in sustainable strategies will impact its future use. Technological maturity, economic competitiveness and financing arrangements for new plants are key factors in decision making. Public perception of energy options and related environmental issues as well as public information and education will also play a key role in the introduction of advanced designs. Continued vigilance in nuclear power plant operation, and enhancement of safety culture and international co-operation are highly important in preserving the potential of nuclear power to contribute to future energy strategies. To assure that nuclear power remains a viable option in meeting energy demands in the near and medium terms, new reactor designs for all principle reactor lines and for different applications are being developed in a number of countries. Common goals for these new designs are high availability, user-friendly features, competitive economics and compliance with internationally recognized safety objectives. World-wide, considerable efforts are being made to

  3. The role of energy-service demand reduction in global climate change mitigation: Combining energy modelling and decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesicki, Fabian; Anandarajah, Gabrial

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce energy-related CO 2 emissions different options have been considered: energy efficiency improvements, structural changes to low carbon or zero carbon fuel/technologies, carbon sequestration, and reduction in energy-service demands (useful energy). While efficiency and technology options have been extensively studied within the context of climate change mitigation, this paper addresses the possible role of price-related energy-service demand reduction. For this analysis, the elastic demand version of the TIAM-UCL global energy system model is used in combination with decomposition analysis. The results of the CO 2 emission decomposition indicate that a reduction in energy-service demand can play a limited role, contributing around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. A look at the sectoral level reveals that the demand reduction can play a greater role in selected sectors like transport contributing around 16% at a global level. The societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. - Highlights: → A reduction in global energy-service demand can contribute around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. → The role of demand is a lot higher in transport than in the residential sector. → Contribution of demand reduction is higher in early periods of the 21st century. → Societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. → Regional shares in residual emissions vary under different elasticity scenarios.

  4. The role of energy-service demand reduction in global climate change mitigation: Combining energy modelling and decomposition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesicki, Fabian, E-mail: fabian.kesicki.09@ucl.ac.uk [UCL Energy Institute, University College London, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London, WC1H 0NN (United Kingdom); Anandarajah, Gabrial [UCL Energy Institute, University College London, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London, WC1H 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    In order to reduce energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions different options have been considered: energy efficiency improvements, structural changes to low carbon or zero carbon fuel/technologies, carbon sequestration, and reduction in energy-service demands (useful energy). While efficiency and technology options have been extensively studied within the context of climate change mitigation, this paper addresses the possible role of price-related energy-service demand reduction. For this analysis, the elastic demand version of the TIAM-UCL global energy system model is used in combination with decomposition analysis. The results of the CO{sub 2} emission decomposition indicate that a reduction in energy-service demand can play a limited role, contributing around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. A look at the sectoral level reveals that the demand reduction can play a greater role in selected sectors like transport contributing around 16% at a global level. The societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. - Highlights: > A reduction in global energy-service demand can contribute around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. > The role of demand is a lot higher in transport than in the residential sector. > Contribution of demand reduction is higher in early periods of the 21st century. > Societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. > Regional shares in residual emissions vary under different elasticity scenarios.

  5. Why does sleep stop migraine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigal, Marcelo E; Hargreaves, Richard J

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between sleep and migraine headaches is complex. Changes in sleep patterns can trigger migraine attacks, and sleep disorders may be associated with increased migraine frequency. Furthermore, migraine patients and their doctors very consistently report that sleep relieves already established migraine attacks. Herein we will try to answer the question, "Why does sleep stop migraine?" Since evidence for this relationship is largely based on empirical clinical observation, we will not provide a clinical review of the association. Instead, we will focus on the pathophysiology of migraine attacks and its intersections with sleep biology.

  6. Role of nuclear energy to a future society of shortage of energy resources and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Shinzo, E-mail: saito.shinzo@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Human society entered into the society of large energy consumption since the industrial revolution and consumes more than 10 billion tons of oil equivalent energy a year in the world in the present time, in which over 80% is provided by fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Total energy consumption is foreseen to increase year by year from now on due to significant economical and population growth in the developing countries such as China and India. However, fossil fuel resources are limited with conventional crude oil estimated to last about 40 years, and it is said that the peak oil production time has come now. On the other hand, global warming due to green house gases (GHG) emissions, especially carbon dioxide, has become a serious issue. Nuclear energy plays an important role as means to resolve energy security and global warming issues. Four hundred twenty-nine nuclear power plants are operating world widely producing 16% of the total electric power with total plant capacity of 386 GWe without emission of CO{sub 2} as of 2006. It is estimated that another 250 GWe nuclear power is needed to keep the same level contribution of electricity generation in 2030. On the other hand, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) developed the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) named high temperature gas-cooled engineering test reactor (HTTR) and carbon free hydrogen production process (IS process). Nuclear energy utilization will surely widen in, not only electricity generation, but also various industries such as steel making, chemical industries, together with hydrogen production for transportation by introduction of HTGRs. The details of development of the HTTR and IS process are also described.

  7. On the role of ozone feedback in the ENSO amplitude response under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, P. J.; Braesicke, P.; Abraham, N. L.; Pyle, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific is of key importance to global climate and weather. However, climate models still disagree on the ENSO's response under climate change. Here we show that typical model representations of ozone can have a first-order impact on ENSO amplitude projections in climate sensitivity simulations (i.e. standard abrupt 4xCO2). We mainly explain this effect by the lapse rate adjustment of the tropical troposphere to ozone changes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) under 4xCO2. The ozone-induced lapse rate changes modify the Walker circulation response to the CO2 forcing and consequently tropical Pacific surface temperature gradients. Therefore, not including ozone feedbacks increases the number of extreme ENSO events in our model. In addition, we demonstrate that even if ozone changes in the tropical UTLS are included in the simulations, the neglect of the ozone response in the middle-upper stratosphere still leads to significantly larger ENSO amplitudes (compared to simulations run with a fully interactive atmospheric chemistry scheme). Climate modeling studies of the ENSO often neglect changes in ozone. Our results imply that this could affect the inter-model spread found in ENSO projections and, more generally, surface climate change simulations. We discuss the additional complexity in quantifying such ozone-related effects that arises from the apparent model dependency of chemistry-climate feedbacks and, possibly, their range of surface climate impacts. In conclusion, we highlight the need to understand better the coupling between ozone, the tropospheric circulation, and climate variability. Reference: Nowack PJ, Braesicke P, Abraham NL, and Pyle JA (2017), On the role of ozone feedback in the ENSO amplitude response under global warming, Geophys. Res. Lett. 44, 3858-3866, doi:10.1002/2016GL072418.

  8. Perpetrators or Preventers? The Double Role of Corporations in Child Trafficking in a Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rodríguez-López

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the engagement of corporations in child trafficking has become a matter of growing importance. Many corporations have adopted global subcontracting systems and complex structures that boost their productivity and profits, but might also create more opportunities for trafficking and exploitation of both adults and children. Taking this context into account, the ways in which corporations can commit child trafficking will be explored and exemplified to highlight their diversity. This paper also offers a brief overview of the response given by international and European anti-trafficking instruments concerning corporate criminal liability for child trafficking. Moreover, the mechanisms adopted by some companies to prevent trafficking and promote transparency within their supply chains will also be addressed. Overall, this paper aims to illustrate the pivotal role of corporations from two perspectives: as potential perpetrators of this serious crime, and as necessary actors to prevent it.  El compromiso empresarial sobre el tráfico infantil es un asunto de creciente importancia. Muchas corporaciones han adoptado sistemas globales de subcontrataciones y complejas estructuras que incrementan su productividad y sus beneficios, pero que también podrían crear más oportunidades para la trata y la explotación de adultos y niños. Partiendo de este contexto, se exploran y ejemplifican las diversas formas en que las corporaciones pueden cometer tráfico infantil. El artículo repasa brevemente la respuesta de los instrumentos internacionales y europeos en lo tocante a la responsabilidad penal de las corporaciones por la trata infantil, y aborda los mecanismos adoptados por algunas empresas para prevenir la trata y promover la transparencia en sus cadenas de suministro. En suma, se pretende ilustrar el rol crucial de las corporaciones desde dos puntos de vista: como potenciales perpetradores de este grave crimen y como actores necesarios

  9. Public policy and risk financing strategies for global catastrophe risk management - the role of global risk initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, Patrick; Mitchell, Andrew; Anderson, Rebecca

    2010-05-01

    Decision-makers in both public and private organisations depend on accurate data and scientific understanding to adequately address climate change and the impact of extreme events. The financial impacts of catastrophes on populations and infrastructure can be offset through effective risk transfer mechanisms, structured to reflect the specific perils and levels of exposure to be covered. Optimal strategies depend on the likely socio-econonomic impact, the institutional framework, the overall objectives of the covers placed and the level of both the frequency and severity of loss potential expected. The diversity of approaches across different countries has been documented by the Spanish "Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros". We discuss why international public/private partnerships are necessary for addressing the risk of natural catastrophes. International initiatives such as the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) and the World Forum of Catastrophe Programmes (WFCP) can provide effective guidelines for constructing natural catastrophe schemes. The World Bank has been instrumental in the creation of many of the existing schemes such as the Turkish Catastrophe Insurance Pool, the Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility and the Mongolian Index-Based Livestock Insurance Program. We review existing schemes and report on best practice in relation to providing protection against natural catastrophe perils. The suitability of catastrophe modelling approaches to support schemes across the world are discussed and we identify opportunities to improve risk assessment for such schemes through transparent frameworks for quantifying, pricing, sharing and financing catastrophe risk on a local and global basis.

  10. The Role of Cis-Lunar Space in Future Global Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobskill, Marianne R.; Lupisella, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Cis-lunar space offers affordable near-term opportunities to help pave the way for future global human exploration of deep space, acting as a bridge between present missions and future deep space missions. While missions in cis-lunar space have value unto themselves, they can also play an important role in enabling and reducing risk for future human missions to the Moon, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), Mars, and other deep space destinations. The Cis-Lunar Destination Team of NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been analyzing cis-lunar destination activities and developing notional missions (or "destination Design Reference Missions" [DRMs]) for cis-lunar locations to inform roadmap and architecture development, transportation and destination elements definition, operations, and strategic knowledge gaps. The cis-lunar domain is defined as that area of deep space under the gravitational influence of the earth-moon system. This includes a set of earth-centered orbital locations in low earth orbit (LEO), geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), highly elliptical and high earth orbits (HEO), earth-moon libration or "Lagrange" points (E-ML1 through E-ML5, and in particular, E-ML1 and E-ML2), and low lunar orbit (LLO). To help explore this large possibility space, we developed a set of high level cis-lunar mission concepts in the form of a large mission tree, defined primarily by mission duration, pre-deployment, type of mission, and location. The mission tree has provided an overall analytical context and has helped in developing more detailed design reference missions that are then intended to inform capabilities, operations, and architectures. With the mission tree as context, we will describe two destination DRMs to LEO and GEO, based on present human space exploration architectural considerations, as well as our recent work on defining mission activities that could be conducted with an EML1 or EML2 facility, the latter of which will be an emphasis of this

  11. City Under Siege: Narrating Mumbai Through NonStop Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmin Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    When Mumbai became the target of terror in the 26/11 attack in 2008, the events in that city, like other tragic global events in recent years, were narrated through new media platforms. The increasing convergence of technologies and mobile telephony enabled new forms of gaze and the ability to bear witness through these new media technologies. The non-stop capture of events through recording equipment embedded in mobile phones and their connectivity to the World Wide Web constructed Mumbai th...

  12. Promoting Sustainable Food Provision; the Role of Networks in Global Food Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Food provision in contemporary societies is transforming due to challenges of globalization, sustainability and equity. The interactions between civil society organizations, governments, the food industry, consumers and producers constitute dynamic fields of environmental change in global food

  13. Optimal Stopping with Information Constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempa, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    We study the optimal stopping problem proposed by Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141–157, 2002). In this maximization problem of the expected present value of the exercise payoff, the underlying dynamics follow a linear diffusion. The decision maker is not allowed to stop at any time she chooses but rather on the jump times of an independent Poisson process. Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141–157, 2002), solve this problem in the case where the underlying is a geometric Brownian motion and the payoff function is of American call option type. In the current study, we propose a mild set of conditions (covering the setup of Dupuis and Wang in Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141–157, 2002) on both the underlying and the payoff and build and use a Markovian apparatus based on the Bellman principle of optimality to solve the problem under these conditions. We also discuss the interpretation of this model as optimal timing of an irreversible investment decision under an exogenous information constraint.

  14. Skill of a global seasonal streamflow forecasting system, relative roles of initial conditions and meteorological forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candogan Yossef, N.; Winsemius, H.C.; Weerts, A.; Van Beek, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relative contributions of initial conditions (ICs) and meteorological forcing (MF) to the skill of the global seasonal streamflow forecasting system FEWS-World, using the global hydrological model PCRaster Global Water Balance. Potential improvement in forecasting skill through

  15. Global Talent Management in Multinational Corporations and the Role of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Dresselhaus, Lena; Olivas-Lujan, M.R.; Bondarouk, T.V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose — Current global business challenges and circumstances are responsible for the need for global talent management (GTM) within multinational corporations (MNCs). Social media and networks are becoming key channels for global communication and collaboration. For GTM in MNCs, an effective usage

  16. Did large animals play an important role in global biogeochemical cycling in the past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, C.

    2014-12-01

    In the late Pleistocene (~50-10,000 years ago), ninety-seven genera of large animals (>44kg) (megafauna) went extinct, concentrated in the Americas and Australia. The loss of megafauna had major effects on ecosystem structure, seed dispersal and land surface albedo. However, the impact of this dramatic extinction on ecosystem nutrient biogeochemistry, through the lateral transport of dung and bodies, has never been explored. Here we explore these nutrient impacts using a novel mathematical framework that analyses this lateral transport as a diffusion-like process and demonstrates that large animals play a disproportionately large role in the horizontal transfer of nutrients across landscapes. For example, we estimate that the extinction of the Amazonian megafauna led to a >98% reduction in the lateral transfer flux of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P) with similar, though less extreme, decreases in all continents outside of Africa. This resulted in strong decreases in phosphorus availability in Eastern Amazonia away from fertile floodplains, a decline which may still be ongoing, and current P limitation in the Amazon basin may be partially a relic of an ecosystem without the functional connectedness it once had. More broadly, the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions resulted in major and ongoing disruptions to terrestrial biogeochemical cycling at continental scales and increased nutrient heterogeneity globally.

  17. Stem cell treatments in China: rethinking the patient role in the global bio-economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haidan; Gottweis, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The paper looks in detail at patients that were treated at one of the most discussed companies operating in the field of untried stem cell treatments, Beike Biotech of Shenzhen, China. Our data show that patients who had been treated at Beike Biotech view themselves as proactively pursuing treatment choices that are not available in their home countries. These patients typically come from a broad variety of countries: China, the United Kingdom, the United States, South Africa and Australia. Among the patients we interviewed there seemed to be both an awareness of the general risks involved in such experimental treatments and a readiness to accept those risks weighed against the possible benefits. We interpret this evidence as possibly reflecting the emergence of risk-taking patients as 'consumers' of medical options as well as the drive of patients to seek treatment options in the global arena, rather than being hindered by the ethical and regulatory constraints of their home countries. Further, we found that these patients tend to operate in more or less stable networks and groups in which they interact and cooperate closely and develop opinions and assessments of available treatment options for their ailments. These patients also perform a multiple role as patients, research subjects, and research funders because they are required to pay their way into treatment and research activities. This new social dynamics of patienthood has important implications for the ethical governance of stem cell treatments. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Global trends in advanced reactor developments, and the role of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.; Cleveland, J.

    2000-01-01

    Due to further increases in the world's population along with further industrialization and economic development, global energy demand will surely continue to increase in the 21 century. To assure that nuclear power remains a viable option in meeting energy demands in the near and medium terms, new reactor designs for all principle reactor lines and for different applications are being developed in a number of countries. Common goals for these new designs are high availability, user-friendly features, competitive economics and compliance with internationally recognized safety objectives. World-wide, considerable efforts are being made to develop advanced nuclear power Various organizations are involved, including governments, industries, utilities, universities, national laboratories, and research institutes. Expenditures for development of new designs, technology improvements, and the related research for the major reactor types combined is estimated to exceed US$ 2 billion per year. This paper gives an overview about nuclear power technology development programmes and projects in Member States and the role of the IAEA as a forum for informatics exchange and co-operative research. (author)

  19. The future of HIV vaccine research and the role of the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Yegor; Manrique, Amapola; Bernstein, Alan

    2010-09-01

    This review covers the role of the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise (the Enterprise), an alliance of independent organizations committed to development of a safe and effective HIV vaccine. It discusses the history, impact on the field, and future directions and initiatives of the alliance in the context of recent progress in HIV vaccine research and development. Significant progress has been made in the field since the release of the 2005 Scientific Strategic Plan (the Plan) of the Enterprise. Over the last year, the Enterprise embarked on an impact assessment of the 2005 Plan and the development of the 2010 Plan. Enterprise Working Groups identified key priorities in the field, several of which are discussed in this review, including changing the nature, purpose and process of clinical trials, increasing and facilitating data sharing, and optimizing existing and mobilizing new resources. This time is an important moment in HIV vaccine research. New clinical trial and laboratory results have created new opportunities to advance the search for an HIV vaccine and reinvigorated the field. The Enterprise will publish its 2010 Plan this year, providing a framework for setting new priorities and directions and encouraging new and existing partners to embark on a shared scientific agenda.

  20. The Role of Trust and Interaction in Global Positioning System Related Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris W.; Shea, Christine; Holloway, C. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses a network of satellites to calculate the position of a receiver over time. This technology has revolutionized a wide range of safety-critical industries and leisure applications. These systems provide diverse benefits; supplementing the users existing navigation skills and reducing the uncertainty that often characterizes many route planning tasks. GPS applications can also help to reduce workload by automating tasks that would otherwise require finite cognitive and perceptual resources. However, the operation of these systems has been identified as a contributory factor in a range of recent accidents. Users often come to rely on GPS applications and, therefore, fail to notice when they develop faults or when errors occur in the other systems that use the data from these systems. Further accidents can stem from the over confidence that arises when users assume automated warnings will be issued when they stray from an intended route. Unless greater attention is paid to the role of trust and interaction in GPS applications then there is a danger that we will see an increasing number of these failures as positioning technologies become integral in the functioning of increasing numbers of applications.

  1. Role of volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols in the recent global surface warming slowdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doug M.; Booth, Ben B. B.; Dunstone, Nick J.; Eade, Rosie; Hermanson, Leon; Jones, Gareth S.; Scaife, Adam A.; Sheen, Katy L.; Thompson, Vikki

    2016-10-01

    The rate of global mean surface temperature (GMST) warming has slowed this century despite the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Climate model experiments show that this slowdown was largely driven by a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), with a smaller external contribution from solar variability, and volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols. The prevailing view is that this negative PDO occurred through internal variability. However, here we show that coupled models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project robustly simulate a negative PDO in response to anthropogenic aerosols implying a potentially important role for external human influences. The recovery from the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 also contributed to the slowdown in GMST trends. Our results suggest that a slowdown in GMST trends could have been predicted in advance, and that future reduction of anthropogenic aerosol emissions, particularly from China, would promote a positive PDO and increased GMST trends over the coming years. Furthermore, the overestimation of the magnitude of recent warming by models is substantially reduced by using detection and attribution analysis to rescale their response to external factors, especially cooling following volcanic eruptions. Improved understanding of external influences on climate is therefore crucial to constrain near-term climate predictions.

  2. Role of rheology in reconstructing slab morphology in global mantle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Léa; Coltice, Nicolas; Tackley, Paul; Müller, Dietmar

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructing the 3D structure of the Earth's mantle has been a challenge for geodynamicists for about 40 years. Although numerical models and computational capabilities have incredibly progressed, parameterizations used for modeling convection forced by plate motions are far from being Earth-like. Among the set of parameters, rheology is fundamental because it defines in a non-linear way the dynamics of slabs and plumes, and the organization of the lithosphere. Previous studies have employed diverse viscosity laws, most of them being temperature and depth dependent with relatively small viscosity contrasts. In this study, we evaluate the role of the temperature dependence of viscosity (variations up to 6 orders of magnitude) on reconstructing slab evolution in 3D spherical models of convection driven by plate history models. We also investigate the importance of pseudo-plasticity in such models. We show that strong temperature dependence of viscosity combined with pseudo-plasticity produce laterally and vertically continuous slabs, and flat subduction where trench retreat is fast (North, Central and South America). Moreover, pseudo-plasticity allows a consistent coupling between imposed plate motions and global convection, which is not possible with temperature-dependent viscosity only. However, even our most sophisticated model is not able to reproduce unambiguously stagnant slabs probably because of the simplicity of material properties we use here. The differences between models employing different viscosity laws are very large, larger than the differences between two models with the same rheology but using two different plate reconstructions or initial conditions.

  3. On the role of ozone feedback in the ENSO amplitude response under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Peer J; Braesicke, Peter; Luke Abraham, N; Pyle, John A

    2017-04-28

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific Ocean is of key importance to global climate and weather. However, state-of-the-art climate models still disagree on the ENSO's response under climate change. The potential role of atmospheric ozone changes in this context has not been explored before. Here we show that differences between typical model representations of ozone can have a first-order impact on ENSO amplitude projections in climate sensitivity simulations. The vertical temperature gradient of the tropical middle-to-upper troposphere adjusts to ozone changes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, modifying the Walker circulation and consequently tropical Pacific surface temperature gradients. We show that neglecting ozone changes thus results in a significant increase in the number of extreme ENSO events in our model. Climate modeling studies of the ENSO often neglect changes in ozone. We therefore highlight the need to understand better the coupling between ozone, the tropospheric circulation, and climate variability.

  4. Formation of giant molecular clouds in global spiral structures: the role of orbital dynamics and cloud-cloud collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, W.W. Jr.; Stewart, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The different roles played by orbital dynamics and dissipative cloud-cloud collisions in the formation of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in a global spiral structure are investigated. The interstellar medium (ISM) is simulated by a system of particles, representing clouds, which orbit in a spiral-perturbed, galactic gravitational field. The overall magnitude and width of the global cloud density distribution in spiral arms is very similar in the collisional and collisionless simulations. The results suggest that the assumed number density and size distribution of clouds and the details of individual cloud-cloud collisions have relatively little effect on these features. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions play an important steadying role for the cloud system's global spiral structure. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions also damp the relative velocity dispersion of clouds in massive associations and thereby aid in the effective assembling of GMC-like complexes

  5. How can urbanization be sustainable? : a reflection on the role of city resources in global sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira Roders, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the debate on the role of city resources in global sustainable development. It discusses the evolution of models in which urbanization is defined to be sustainable, as well as, their relation to the conservation of city resources. Further, it provides an in-depth

  6. Banal cosmopolitanism and The Lord of the Rings: the limited role of national differences in global media consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.; de Kloet, J.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative reception studies are generally built around the expectation to find national cultural differences. Using data from a comparative study on The Lord of the Rings, Return of the King, this paper investigates the role of nationality in the reception of global media texts. Analysis of

  7. Reconstruction of the yeast Snf1 kinase regulatory network reveals its role as a global energy regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Soberano de Oliveira, Ana Paula

    2009-01-01

    Highly conserved among eukaryotic cells, the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of carbon metabolism. To map the complete network of interactions around AMPK in yeast (Snf1) and to evaluate the role of its regulatory subunit Snf4, we measured global mRNA, protein and metabolite...

  8. Beyond the first 25 years: The International AIDS Society and its role in the global response to AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClure Craig

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dr. Pedro Cahn, International AIDS Society (IAS President and Mr. Craig McClure, IAS Executive Director, provide their thoughts and analysis on the current and future role of the IAS as part of the global response to HIV/AIDS.

  9. Using interactive online role-playing simulations to develop global competency and to prepare engineering students for a globalised world

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Dominik; Wold, Kari; Moore, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    The world is changing significantly, and it is becoming increasingly globalised. This means that countries, businesses, and professionals must think and act globally to be successful. Many individuals, however, are not prepared with the global competency skills needed to communicate and perform effectively in a globalised system. To address this need, higher education institutions are looking for ways to instil these skills in their students. This paper explains one promising approach using current learning principles: transnational interactive online environments in engineering education. In 2011, the TU Dortmund and the University of Virginia initiated a collaboration in which engineering students from both universities took part in one online synchronous course and worked together on global topics. This paper describes how the course was designed and discusses specific research results regarding how interactive online role-playing simulations support students in gaining the global competency skills required to actively participate in today's international workforce.

  10. The role of non-governmental organizations in global health diplomacy: negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencucha, Raphael; Kothari, Anita; Labonté, Ronald

    2011-09-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is an exemplar result of global health diplomacy, based on its global reach (binding on all World Health Organization member nations) and its negotiation process. The FCTC negotiations are one of the first examples of various states and non-state entities coming together to create a legally binding tool to govern global health. They have demonstrated that diplomacy, once consigned to interactions among state officials, has witnessed the dilution of its state-centric origins with the inclusion of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the diplomacy process. To engage in the discourse of global health diplomacy, NGO diplomats are immediately presented with two challenges: to convey the interests of larger publics and to contribute to inter-state negotiations in a predominantly state-centric system of governance that are often diluted by pressures from private interests or mercantilist self-interest on the part of the state itself. How do NGOs manage these challenges within the process of global health diplomacy itself? What roles do, and can, they play in achieving new forms of global health diplomacy? This paper addresses these questions through presentation of findings from a study of the roles assumed by one group of non-governmental actors (the Canadian NGOs) in the FCTC negotiations. The findings presented are drawn from a larger grounded theory study. Qualitative data were collected from 34 public documents and 18 in-depth interviews with participants from the Canadian government and Canadian NGOs. This analysis yielded five key activities or roles of the Canadian NGOs during the negotiation of the FCTC: monitoring, lobbying, brokering knowledge, offering technical expertise and fostering inclusion. This discussion begins to address one of the key goals of global health diplomacy, namely 'the challenges facing health diplomacy and how they have been addressed by different groups and at different levels of

  11. Optimally stopped variational quantum algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Walter; Shabani, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    Quantum processors promise a paradigm shift in high-performance computing which needs to be assessed by accurate benchmarking measures. In this article, we introduce a benchmark for the variational quantum algorithm (VQA), recently proposed as a heuristic algorithm for small-scale quantum processors. In VQA, a classical optimization algorithm guides the processor's quantum dynamics to yield the best solution for a given problem. A complete assessment of the scalability and competitiveness of VQA should take into account both the quality and the time of dynamics optimization. The method of optimal stopping, employed here, provides such an assessment by explicitly including time as a cost factor. Here, we showcase this measure for benchmarking VQA as a solver for some quadratic unconstrained binary optimization. Moreover, we show that a better choice for the cost function of the classical routine can significantly improve the performance of the VQA algorithm and even improve its scaling properties.

  12. The Role of Organizational Leadership to Enhance Top 10 CSR Issues and Trends in The Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Rachmayanti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on leadership and its relationship with organizational performance have been carried out and not considered Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR performance, especially in the field of community development (Comdev and even done partially. This study aims to investigate the role of organizational leadership to enhance Top 10 CSR issues and trends in the global economy which defines roles and leadership competencies. Thirteen experts were involved in the Forum of Multi Stakeholder Corporate Social Responsibility (MSHCSR through Focus Group Discussion (FGD. Data by cluster random sampling were statistically analyzed with Assumption Surfacing and Testing Strategy (SAST. The results showed from FGD experts stating if eight roles and eight competencies of the organization’s leadership is very important and influential to enhance Top 10 CSR issues and trends in the global economy.

  13. Stop Negative Thinking Effects for Drug Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Windiarti, Sri Endang; Indriati, Indriati; Surachmi, Fajar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of therapy stop thinking negatively against drug addiction in Rehabilitation Orphanage Rumah Damai Gunung Pati Semarang. This research is quasy experiment with pretest - posttes without the control group design. Thirty respondents were taken to the reseach sujects. Stop thinking negative therapy before and after thebehavior of drug addiction there are differences (t = 0.00), so it can be stated that the therapy stop thinking negatively inf...

  14. Are Stopped Strings Preferred in Sad Music?

    OpenAIRE

    David Huron; Caitlyn Trevor

    2017-01-01

    String instruments may be played either with open strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a hard wooden nut) or with stopped strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a performer's finger pressed against the fingerboard). Compared with open strings, stopped strings permit the use of vibrato and exhibit a darker timbre. Inspired by research on the timbre of sad speech, we test whether there is a tendency to use stopped strings in nominally sad music. Specifica...

  15. New Aspects Regarding the Role of Banks in Economy in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren RADU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a concept of widespread international circulation, launched since the last decade of the previous century in all academic, financial and commercial environments. Globalization has been a subject of debate, both for and against, through its differentiation due to the economic progress of the various participants in the process. In this paper we aimed to address the evolution of the banking phenomenon in the context of globalization and to highlight the differences in the structure in banking according to the main global financial indicators.

  16. The Role of Information Professionals in Reducing the Effects of Global Warming through Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph. D. Priti Jain

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of global environmental change, global warming is the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century. It could lead to the ultimate end of existence of earth and man. Potential catastrophic effects on the environment and for human life are one of the biggest concerns and most widely discussed issues in the world. This paper will explore how Information Professionals can build knowledge management related to global warming and thus make their contribution towards a sustainable environment. With a brief discussion of causes, effects, solutions and challenges related to global warming, the conclusion suggests a way forward for librarians and information professionals.

  17. Measurement of stopping power of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Tetsuo

    1981-01-01

    The stopping power of heavy ions is discussed. In the low energy region, heavy ions keep some of their orbital electrons, and have equilibrium electron charge. The stopping power of penetrating particles depends on this effective charge. At present, it is hard to estimate this effective charge theoretically, accordingly, the estimation is made experimentally. Another difficulty in this estimation is that the Born approximation is not effective for heavy ions. In the low energy region, electronic stopping and nuclear stopping contribute to the stopping power. For the electronic stopping, a formula for the stopping power was given by Lindhard et al. The experimental values were obtained at GSI, and are inconsistent with the estimation by the Lindhard's formula. In the high energy region, where the Born approximation can be used, the Bethe's formula is applied, but the experimental data are scarce. Oscillations are seen in the Z dependence graph of the experimental stopping cross sections. Experimental works on the stopping power have been done. The differential and the integral methods were carried out. (Kato, T.)

  18. The Role of Reconciling Values in Efforts to Build Community Resilience to Global Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainie, S. C.; Ferguson, D. B.; Martinez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Global environmental change has increasingly forced researchers and policy makers to reckon with the practical and philosophical need to integrate Indigenous knowledge with western science to support sustainable, resilient communities. Despite the recognition that integration of different ways of knowing offers a compelling approach for building long-term resilience, balancing the power dynamic that favors mainstream epistemologies over other ways of knowing remains elusive. Indigenous scholars themselves often speak of "walking in two worlds," acknowledging the distinction between Indigenous knowledge and western science and the difficulty of weaving together the two approaches. Central to the distinction between different ways of knowing are the core values that drive development and application of new knowledge. The DIKW pyramid describes the hierarchical relationships between wisdom, knowledge, information, and data. In these relationships, values drive how one turns data into information, then knowledge and wisdom. Thus, if building community resilience relies on integrating Indigenous science and Western science, a central point of focus must be on establishing which of the core values from these different knowledge systems can contribute and which may impede the goal of supporting community resilience. For example, does the absence of Western science data collection protocols (a core value of empirical science) eliminate the utility of community observations of environmental change from efforts to understand system change? Indigenous data sovereignty, an emerging framework, asserts Indigenous rights to information and promotes the role of community knowledge in creating metrics, outcomes, and ultimately actions toward resilient communities. Indigenous data sovereignty acknowledges that context and values shape data in addition to providing a lens for interpreting data. Can principles for the governance of Indigenous data, such as recognizing and supporting

  19. Reconstruction of the yeast Snf1 kinase regulatory network reveals its role as a global energy regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usaite, Renata; Jewett, Michael C; Oliveira, Ana Paula; Yates, John R; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Highly conserved among eukaryotic cells, the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of carbon metabolism. To map the complete network of interactions around AMPK in yeast (Snf1) and to evaluate the role of its regulatory subunit Snf4, we measured global mRNA, protein and metabolite levels in wild type, Δsnf1, Δsnf4, and Δsnf1Δsnf4 knockout strains. Using four newly developed computational tools, including novel DOGMA sub-network analysis, we showed the benefits of three-level ome-data integration to uncover the global Snf1 kinase role in yeast. We for the first time identified Snf1's global regulation on gene and protein expression levels, and showed that yeast Snf1 has a far more extensive function in controlling energy metabolism than reported earlier. Additionally, we identified complementary roles of Snf1 and Snf4. Similar to the function of AMPK in humans, our findings showed that Snf1 is a low-energy checkpoint and that yeast can be used more extensively as a model system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying the global regulation of AMPK in mammals, failure of which leads to metabolic diseases. PMID:19888214

  20. Using the Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) Program to Develop a South Sudan Expanded Program on Immunization Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoualeu, Dieula D; Hercules, Margaret A; Mbabazi, William B; Kirbak, Anthony L; Usman, Abdulmumini; Bizuneh, Ketema; Sandhu, Hardeep S

    2017-07-01

    In 2009, the international Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program began supporting the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in the Republic of South Sudan to address shortages of human resources and strengthen acute flaccid paralysis surveillance. Workforce capacity support is provided to the South Sudan Expanded Program on Immunization by STOP volunteers, implementing partners, and non-governmental organizations. In 2013, the Polio Technical Advisory Group recommended that South Sudan transition key technical support from external partners to national staff as part of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan, 2013-2018. To assist in this transition, the South Sudan Expanded Program on Immunization human resources development project was launched in 2015. This 3-year project aims to build national workforce capacity as a legacy of the STOP program by training 56 South Sudanese at national and state levels with the intent that participants would become Ministry of Health staff on their successful completion of the project. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. An Analysis of Potential Contributions of the Host Country National Local Liaison Role in Global Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vance, Charles; Vaiman, Vlad; Andersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    This paper builds on the existing conceptualization of MNC knowledge transfer by exploring the all-important liaison role in global knowledge management played by host country nationals (HCNs), especially those working directly to with expatriate managers. We first discuss this proposed HCN local...... liaison role between expatriate and local employees within theoretical constructs of network theory and absorptive capacity. Then we consider several possible important components and related behavioral functions of this liaison role, including cultural interpreter, communication manager, information...... resource broker, talent developer, and internal change agent. We also consider benefits and limitations of this HCN local liaison role, as well as areas for future exploratory field research to help validate and elucidate this present model of the HCN local liaison role. This model also provides some...

  2. Redefining the Role of English as a Foreign Language in the Curriculum in the Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohong, Zhang; Zeegers, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The English language has become a global language, a development which has influenced English language teaching and learning throughout the world. This influence has occurred more impressively in China than in other parts of the world as a result of the breathtaking pace at which China has integrated with global economies. Increasing industrial,…

  3. The Role of Musical Experience in Hemispheric Lateralization of Global and Local Auditory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Emily; Stevenson, Jennifer L; Bish, Joel P

    2017-08-01

    The global precedence effect is a phenomenon in which global aspects of visual and auditory stimuli are processed before local aspects. Individuals with musical experience perform better on all aspects of auditory tasks compared with individuals with less musical experience. The hemispheric lateralization of this auditory processing is less well-defined. The present study aimed to replicate the global precedence effect with auditory stimuli and to explore the lateralization of global and local auditory processing in individuals with differing levels of musical experience. A total of 38 college students completed an auditory-directed attention task while electroencephalography was recorded. Individuals with low musical experience responded significantly faster and more accurately in global trials than in local trials regardless of condition, and significantly faster and more accurately when pitches traveled in the same direction (compatible condition) than when pitches traveled in two different directions (incompatible condition) consistent with a global precedence effect. In contrast, individuals with high musical experience showed less of a global precedence effect with regards to accuracy, but not in terms of reaction time, suggesting an increased ability to overcome global bias. Further, a difference in P300 latency between hemispheres was observed. These findings provide a preliminary neurological framework for auditory processing of individuals with differing degrees of musical experience.

  4. Communication Policies Reflection on Globalization Process and the Role of Advertisement in Integrated Communication Environment

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKAN, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Globalization process has created important changes and transformations across the world. These political, social, economic and cultural changes have considerably affected communication. The number of mass media instruments have increased, informatics has improved and also reaching information has become easier after the globalization of communication. New communication instruments and environments have been created. Globalised communication has also affected people, reaching the information ...

  5. Role of water management for global food production and poverty alleviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, E.; Tardieu, H.; Vidal, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the coming 25-30 years global food production will have to be doubled in order to maintain food security at the global level. With respect to this to a certain extent the advantage is that food prices have increased over the past seven to eight years, and especially during the past two years.

  6. Integrating global energy and climate governance: The changing role of the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubaum, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Despite the long-recognized interlinkages between global energy consumption and climate change, there has historically been only limited policy interaction, let alone integration, between the two fields. This compartmentalization is mirrored in scholarship, where much research has focused on the fragmentation of, respectively, global energy and global climate governance, but only little has been said about how these fields might be integrated. Our analysis of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) changing activities in recent years shows that governance integration – both within global energy governance and between global energy and climate governance – is now happening. The IEA has broadened its portfolio to embrace the full spectrum of energy issues, including renewable energy and climate change; it has built and is expanding key partnerships with both the UN climate convention and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA); and it has become an authoritative advocate for the inter-related goals of a low-carbon transition and climate change mitigation. We show that these developments are not the result of a top-down plan, but have rather emerged through the Agency’s various efforts to pursue its energy-centric mandate in a fast-changing global policy environment. - Highlights: • Assesses integration between global energy and global climate governance. • Analyzes organizational change in the IEA and its impact on governance integration. • Discusses recent activities and advocacy by the IEA in relation to climate change.

  7. Globalization and economic growth: empirical evidence on the role of complementarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Parisa; Jenatabadi, Hashem Salarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of economic globalization on economic growth in OIC countries. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of complementary policies on the growth effect of globalization. It also investigated whether the growth effect of globalization depends on the income level of countries. Utilizing the generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach, we provide evidence which suggests that economic globalization has statistically significant impact on economic growth in OIC countries. The results indicate that this positive effect is increased in the countries with better-educated workers and well-developed financial systems. Our finding shows that the effect of economic globalization also depends on the country's level of income. High and middle-income countries benefit from globalization whereas low-income countries do not gain from it. In fact, the countries should receive the appropriate income level to be benefited from globalization. Economic globalization not only directly promotes growth but also indirectly does so via complementary reforms.

  8. Globalization and economic growth: empirical evidence on the role of complementarities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Samimi

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of economic globalization on economic growth in OIC countries. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of complementary policies on the growth effect of globalization. It also investigated whether the growth effect of globalization depends on the income level of countries. Utilizing the generalized method of moments (GMM estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach, we provide evidence which suggests that economic globalization has statistically significant impact on economic growth in OIC countries. The results indicate that this positive effect is increased in the countries with better-educated workers and well-developed financial systems. Our finding shows that the effect of economic globalization also depends on the country's level of income. High and middle-income countries benefit from globalization whereas low-income countries do not gain from it. In fact, the countries should receive the appropriate income level to be benefited from globalization. Economic globalization not only directly promotes growth but also indirectly does so via complementary reforms.

  9. The Role of Frequent Short Exams in Improving Student Performance in Hybrid Global Business Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakos, George; Whiting, Anita

    2018-01-01

    The authors investigate whether frequent in class exams can improve the performance of students in hybrid global business courses. An experiment was conducted in three hybrid sections of a global business course exposing students to short in class exams. The expectation of a short exam forces students to watch the online lectures and study the…

  10. Brand Positioning Through Advertising in Asia, North America, and Europe : The Role of Global Consumer Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alden, D.L.; Steenkamp, J.E.B.M.; Batra, R.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the emergence of brand positioning strategies in advertising that parallel the growth of the global marketplace. A new construct, global consumer culture positioning (GCCP), is proposed, operationalized, and tested. This construct associates the brand with a widely

  11. Stopping atoms with diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, R.N.; Wieman, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The use of light pressure to cool and stop neutral atoms has been an area of considerable interest recently. Cooled neutral atoms are needed for a variety of interesting experiments involving neutral atom traps and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. Laser cooling of sodium has previously been demonstrated using elegant but quite elaborate apparatus. These techniques employed stabilized dye lasers and a variety of additional sophisticated hardware. The authors have demonstrated that a frequency chirp technique can be implemented using inexpensive diode lasers and simple electronics. In this technique the atoms in an atomic beam scatter resonant photons from a counterpropagating laser beam. The momentum transfer from the photons slows the atoms. The primary difficulty is that as the atoms slow their Doppler shift changes, and so they are no longer in resonance with the incident photons. In the frequency chirp technique this is solved by rapidly changing the laser frequency so that the atoms remain in resonance. To achieve the necessary frequency sweep with a dye laser one must use an extremely sophisticated high-speed electrooptic modulator. With a diode laser, however, the frequency can be smoothly and rapidly varied over many gigahertz simply by changing the injection current

  12. A conceptual framework to study the role of communication through social software for coordination in globally-distributed software teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background In Global Software Development (GSD) the lack of face-to-face communication is a major challenge and effective computer-mediated practices are necessary to mitigate the effect of physical distance. Communication through Social Software (SoSo) supports team coordination, helping to deal...... with geographical distance; however, in Software Engineering literature, there is a lack of suitable theoretical concepts to analyze and describe everyday practices of globally-distributed software development teams and to study the role of communication through SoSo. Objective The paper proposes a theoretical...... framework for analyzing how communicative and coordinative practices are constituted and maintained in globally-distributed teams. Method The framework is based on the concepts of communicative genres and coordination mechanisms; it is motivated and explicated through examples from two qualitative empirical...

  13. Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 7 NIST Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials (PC database for purchase)   The EPSTAR database provides rapid calculations of stopping powers (collisional, radiative, and total), CSDA ranges, radiation yields and density effect corrections for incident electrons or positrons with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 10 GeV, and for any chemically defined target material.

  14. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  15. Perceptual assessment of fricative--stop coarticulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, B H; Mann, V A

    1981-04-01

    The perceptual dependence of stop consonants on preceding fricatives [Mann and Repp, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 69, 548--558 (1981)] was further investigated in two experiments employing both natural and synthetic speech. These experiments consistently replicated our original finding that listeners, report velar stops following [s]. In addition, our data confirmed earlier reports that natural fricative noises (excerpted from utterances of [st alpha], [sk alpha], [(formula: see text)k alpha]) contain cues to the following stop consonants; this was revealed in subjects' identifications of stops from isolated fricative noises and from stimuli consisting of these noises followed by synthetic CV portions drawn from a [t alpha]--[k alpha] continuum. However, these cues in the noise portion could not account for the contextual effect of fricative identity ([formula: see text] versus [sp) on stop perception (more "k" responses following [s]). Rather, this effect seems to be related to a coarticulatory influence of a preceding fricative on stop production; Subjects' responses to excised natural CV portions (with bursts and aspiration removed) were biased towards a relatively more forward place of stop articulation when the CVs had originally been preceded by [s]; and the identification of a preceding ambiguous fricative was biased in the direction of the original fricative context in which a given CV portion had been produced. These findings support an articulatory explanation for the effect of preceding fricatives on stop consonant perception.

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of hangnails, or other triggers, such as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you to bite your nails, you can figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just knowing when you’re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting ...

  17. All in One Stop? The Accessibility of Work Support Programs at One-Stop Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Elise; Kubo, Hitomi; Frank, Abbey

    The accessibility of work support programs at one-stop centers was examined in a study during which 33 telephone directors or managers of one-stop centers in 22 states were interviewed by telephone. The interviews established the existence of extensive differences between one-stop centers from the standpoint of all aspects of their operation,…

  18. Implicit learning in transient global amnesia and the role of stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Nees

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a disorder with reversible anterograde disturbance of explicit memory, frequently preceded by an emotionally or physically stressful event. By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI following an episode of TGA, small hippocampal lesions have been observed. Hence it has been postulated that the disorder is caused by the stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. In experimental studies, stress has been shown to affect both explicit and implicit learning – the latter defined as learning and memory processes that lack conscious awareness of the information acquired. To test the hypothesis that impairment of implicit learning in TGA is present and related to stress, we determined the effect of experimental exposure to stress on hippocampal activation patterns during an implicit learning paradigm in patients who suffered a recent TGA and healthy matched control subjects. We used a hippocampus-dependent aversive learning procedure (context conditioning with the phases habituation, acquisition, and extinction during functional MRI following experimental stress exposure (socially evaluated cold pressor test. After a control procedure, controls showed successful learning during the acquisition phase, indicated by increased valence, arousal and contingency ratings to the paired (CON+ versus the non-paired (CON- conditioned stimulus, and successful extinction of the conditioned responses. Following stress, acquisition was still successful, however extinction was impaired with persistently increased contingency ratings. In contrast, TGA patients showed impairment of conditioned responses and insufficient extinction after the control procedure, indicated by a lack of significant differences between CON+ and CON- for valence and arousal ratings after the acquisition phase and by significantly increased contingency ratings after the extinction. After stress, aversive learning was not successful

  19. Engagement and role of surgical trainees in global surgery: Consensus statement and recommendations from the Association of Surgeons in Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Helen M; Fitzgerald, Edward; Gokani, Vimal; Sutton, Paul; Harries, Rhiannon; Bethune, Robert; McDermott, Frank D

    2018-04-01

    There is a wide chasm in access to essential and emergency surgery between high and low/middle income countries (LMICs). Surgeons worldwide are integral to solutions needed to address this imbalance. Involving surgical trainees, who represent the future of surgery, is vital to this endeavour. The Association of Surgeons in Training (ASiT) is an independent charity that support surgical trainees of all ten surgical specialties in the UK and Ireland. ASiT convened a consensus meeting at the ASiT conference in Liverpool 2016 to discuss trainee engagement with global surgery, including potential barriers and solutions. A face-to-face consensus meeting reviewed the engagement of, and roles for, surgical trainees in global surgery at the ASiT Conference (Liverpool, England), March 2016. Participants self-identified based on experience and interest in the field, and included trainees (residents and students) and consultants (attending grade). Following expert review, seven pre-determined core areas were presented for review and debate. Extensive discussion was facilitated by a consultant and a senior surgical trainee, with expertise in global surgery. The draft derived from these initial discussions was circulated to all those who had participated, and an iterative process of revision was undertaken until a final consensus and recommendations were reached. There is increasing interest from trainee surgeons to work in LMICs. There are however, ethical considerations, and it is important that trainees working in LMICs undertake work appropriate to their training stage and competencies. Visiting surgeons must consider the requirements of the hosting centres rather than just their own objectives. If appropriately organised, both short and long-term visits, can enable development of transferable clinical, organisational, research and education skills. A central repository of information on global surgery would be useful to trainees, to complement existing resources. Challenges

  20. Forces of Habit: Global SOF's Role in Countering Illicit Drug Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rexton Kan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Illicit drug trafficking is a prominent national security issue in a globalizing world. Drug trafficking intersects with major security issues such as rogue and narco-states, weak and failing states, insurgencies and terrorism, transnational organized crime and protracted intrastate conflicts. These are the same issues that sets the operational environment for the deployment of SOF. Rather than treating drug trafficking as a singular and separate security issue, global SOF counternarcotics operations must adapt previous approaches to new realities.

  1. Forces of Habit: Global SOF's Role in Countering Illicit Drug Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Rexton Kan

    2014-01-01

    Illicit drug trafficking is a prominent national security issue in a globalizing world. Drug trafficking intersects with major security issues such as rogue and narco-states, weak and failing states, insurgencies and terrorism, transnational organized crime and protracted intrastate conflicts. These are the same issues that sets the operational environment for the deployment of SOF. Rather than treating drug trafficking as a singular and separate security issue, global SOF counternarcotics op...

  2. The Role of Multicultural Marketing on Malay Consumers Perceptions towards Global vs. Local Ethnic Food Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Umair, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation combines two different elements of interest in International Marketing Research. The objective of this research is the comparison of global versus local brand within the context of ethnic marketing in the multicultural society of Malaysia. The product instant noodle in the category of ethnic food was chosen in the variant of Asam Laksa as the target sample focused specifically on Malay consumers. Comparison was done between Maggi (global) and Mamee (local). The sample compri...

  3. Communicating the Science of Global Warming — the Role of Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffrey

    2018-06-01

    Global Warming is one of the most important and issues of our times, yet it is widely misunderstood among the general public (and politicians!). The American Astronomical Society has already joined many other scientific organizations in advocating for action on global warming (by supporting the AGU statement on global warming), but we as astronomers can do much more. The high public profile of astronomy gives us a unique platform — and credibility as scientists — for doing our part to educate the public about the underlying science of global warming. And while astronomers are not climate scientists, we use the same basic physics, and many aspects of global warming science come directly from astronomy, including the ways in which we measure the heat-absorbing potential of carbon dioxide and the hard evidence of greenhouse warming provided by studies of Venus. In this session, I will briefly introduce a few methods for communicating about global warming that I believe you will find effective in your own education efforts.

  4. How to Stop the Bear: Strategy of Small States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    stressing the role of international law, and abstentionism from security alliance” (George J. Stein, 1990, p. 4). At the same time, the Dutch were reluctant...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited HOW TO STOP THE BEAR...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining

  5. The nexus between energy consumption and financial development: estimating the role of globalization in Next-11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish; Saud, Shah; Baloch, Muhammad Awais; Lodhi, Rab Nawaz

    2018-04-28

    In the modern era of globalization, the economic activities expand with the passage of time. This expansion may increase demand for energy both in developing and developed countries. Therefore, this study assesses the impact of financial development on energy consumption incorporating the role of globalization in Next-11 countries. A group of panel estimation techniques is used to analyze the panel data and time series data for the time 1990-2014. The empirical results of the study suggest that financial development stimulates energy consumption. Also, globalization increases demand for energy consumption, although the single country analysis suggests that the effect of globalization on energy demand is heterogeneous among N-11 countries. Furthermore, feedback hypothesis is confirmed between financial development and energy consumption. Also, bidirectional causality is found between economic growth and energy consumption. The findings urge for the attention of policymaker in emerging countries to develop a strategy to reduce the consequences of energy consumption by controlling resource transfer through globalization to the host country and by adopting energy conversation policies.

  6. Navy Role in Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) -- Background and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    ...). The Navy's role in the GWOT raises several potential oversight issues for Congress, including the need for an increased Navy role, and the amount of Navy personnel and funding associated with GWOT-related activities...

  7. Financing tuberculosis control: the role of a global financial monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Katherine; Pantoja, Andrea; Dye, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    Control of tuberculosis (TB), like health care in general, costs money. To sustain TB control at current levels, and to make further progress so that global targets can be achieved, information about funding needs, sources of funding, funding gaps and expenditures is important at global, regional, national and sub-national levels. Such data can be used for resource mobilization efforts; to document how funding requirements and gaps are changing over time; to assess whether increases in funding can be translated into increased expenditures and whether increases in expenditure are producing improvements in programme performance; and to identify which countries or regions have the greatest needs and funding gaps. In this paper, we discuss a global system for financial monitoring of TB control that was established in WHO in 2002. By early 2007, this system had accounted for actual or planned expenditures of more than US$ 7 billion and was systematically reporting financial data for countries that carry more than 90% of the global burden of TB. We illustrate the value of this system by presenting major findings that have been produced for the period 2002-2007, including results that are relevant to the achievement of global targets for TB control set for 2005 and 2015. We also analyse the strengths and limitations of the system and its relevance to other health-care programmes.

  8. The future role of nuclear power in addressing global environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, W.

    1995-01-01

    Decision makers have to increasingly balance the costs versus benefits of various energy choices against a background of global environmental deterioration. This is particularly so in the choice of long term electricity production strategies where these have to be balanced against the potential of a very severe disruption of the world's climate due to global warming. In this presentation, the threat of global warming is quantified and scenarios are developed of future predicted energy consumption patterns and their impact on international policies to curb global warming, are analyzed. The conclusion is reached that the threat of global warming is so severe that, on the macro level, an international accepted strategy of utilising a proper balance between all forms of electricity production, is a matter of priority and that all national energy choices should be taken against this framework. Such strategic decisions on the macro level must, however, also translate into the micro level of energy production on topics which include: - more efficient plant utilisation; - more effective risk management; correct choice and application of technology; and - better understanding of issues concerning safety, quality and environmental impact. (author)

  9. The role of size constancy for the integration of local elements into a global shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eRennig

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception depends on the visual context and is likely to be influenced by size constancy, which predicts a size and distance invariant perception of objects. However, size constancy can also result in optical illusions that allow the manipulation of the perceived size. We thus asked whether the integration of local elements into a global object can be influenced by manipulations of the visual context and size constancy? A set of stimuli was applied in healthy individuals that took advantage of the ‘Kanizsa’ illusion, in which three circles with open wedges oriented towards a center point are placed to form an illusionary perception of a triangle. In addition, a 3D-perspective view was implemented in which the global target (‘Kanizsa’ triangle was placed in combination with several distractor circles either in a close or a distant position. Subjects were engaged in a global recognition task on the location of the ‘Kanizsa’ triangle. Global recognition of ‘Kanizsa’ triangles improved with a decreasing length of the illusory contour. Interestingly, recognition of ‘Kanizsa’ triangles decreased when they were perceived as if they were located further away. We conclude that the integration of local elements into a global object is dependent on the visual context and dominated by size constancy.

  10. Spatial assessment of land degradation through key ecosystem services: The role of globally available data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretelli, Stefania; Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro; Yakob, Getahun; Boke, Shiferaw; Habte, Mulugeta; Coull, Malcolm; Peressotti, Alessandro; Black, Helaina

    2018-07-01

    Land degradation is a serious issue especially in dry and developing countries leading to ecosystem services (ESS) degradation due to soil functions' depletion. Reliably mapping land degradation spatial distribution is therefore important for policy decisions. The main objectives of this paper were to infer land degradation through ESS assessment and compare the modelling results obtained using different sets of data. We modelled important physical processes (sediment erosion and nutrient export) and the equivalent ecosystem services (sediment and nutrient retention) to infer land degradation in an area in the Ethiopian Great Rift Valley. To model soil erosion/retention capability, and nitrogen export/retention capability, two datasets were used: a 'global' dataset derived from existing global-coverage data and a hybrid dataset where global data were integrated with data from local surveys. The results showed that ESS assessments can be used to infer land degradation and identify priority areas for interventions. The comparison between the modelling results of the two different input datasets showed that caution is necessary if only global-coverage data are used at a local scale. In remote and data-poor areas, an approach that integrates global data with targeted local sampling campaigns might be a good compromise to use ecosystem services in decision-making. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The Problem and Goals Are Global, the Solutions Are Local: Revisiting Quality Measurements and the Role of the Private Sector in Global Health Professions Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Hossam

    2017-08-01

    The shortage of a competent health workforce is a global challenge. However, its manifestations and proposed solutions are very much context related (i.e., local). In addition to the shortage of health professionals, the quality of health professions education programs, institutions, and graduates, and how to measure quality, are also problematic. Commonly used metrics like the Credit Hours System and the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System have limitations (e.g., being more focused on quantity than quality).In this Invited Commentary, the author discusses the need to revisit quality measurements in health professions education and the issue of whether the private sector has a role to play in narrowing the ever-increasing gap between the demand for health care professionals and the health care workforce shortage.

  12. Stopping of hypervelocity clusters in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Christian; Ziegenhain, Gerolf; Urbassek, Herbert M; Bringa, Eduardo M

    2011-01-01

    Using molecular-dynamics simulations, we study the processes underlying the stopping of energetic clusters upon impact in matter. We investigate self-bombardment of both a metallic (Cu) and a van-der-Waals bonded (frozen Ar) target. Clusters with sizes up to N = 10 4 atoms and with energies per atom of E/N = 0.1-1600 eV atom -1 were studied. We find that the stopping force exerted on a cluster follows an N 2/3 -dependence with cluster size N; thus large clusters experience less stopping than equi-velocity atoms. In the course of being stopped, the cluster is strongly deformed and attains a roughly pancake shape. Due to the cluster inertia, maximum deformation occurs later than the maximum stopping force. The time scale of projectile stopping is set by t 0 , the time the cluster needs to cover its own diameter before impacting the target; it thus depends on both cluster size and velocity. The time when the cluster experiences its maximum stopping force is around (0.7-0.8)t 0 . We find that the cluster is deformed with huge strain rates of around 1/2t 0 ; this amounts to 10 11 -10 13 s -1 for the cases studied here. (paper)

  13. A light sneutrino rescues the light stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chala, M. [Departament de Física Tèorica, Universitat de València and IFIC, Universitat de València-CSIC,Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (València) (Spain); Delgado, A. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nardini, G. [Albert Einstein Center (AEC), Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP), University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Quirós, M. [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats - ICREA, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-04-18

    Stop searches in supersymmetric frameworks with R-parity conservation usually assume the lightest neutralino to be the lightest supersymmetric particle. In this paper we consider an alternative scenario in which the left-handed tau sneutrino is lighter than neutralinos and stable at collider scales, but possibly unstable at cosmological scales. Moreover the (mostly right-handed) stop t̃ is lighter than all electroweakinos, and heavier than the scalars of the third generation lepton doublet, whose charged component, τ̃, is heavier than the neutral one, ν̃. The remaining supersymmetric particles are decoupled from the stop phenomenology. In most of the parameter space, the relevant stop decays are only into tτ̃τ, tν̃ν and bν̃τ via off-shell electroweakinos. We constrain the branching ratios of these decays by recasting the most sensitive stop searches. Due to the “double invisible” kinematics of the t̃→tν̃ν process, and the low efficiency in tagging the tτ̃τ decay products, light stops are generically allowed. In the minimal supersymmetric standard model with ∼ 100 GeV sneutrinos, stops with masses as small as ∼ 350 GeV turn out to be allowed at 95% CL.

  14. Application of the RADTRAN 5 stop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, R.L.; Weiner, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    A number of environmental impact analyses with the RADTRAN computer code have shown that dose to persons at stops is one of the largest components of incident-free dose during overland carriage of spent fuel and other radioactive materials (e.g., USDOE, 1994). The input data used in these analyses were taken from a 1983 study that reports actual observations of spent fuel shipments by truck. Early RADTRAN stop models, however, were insufficiently flexible to take advantage of the detailed information in the study. A more recent study of gasoline service stations that specialize in servicing large trucks, which are the most likely stop locations for shipments of Type B packages in the United States, has provided additional, detailed data on refueling/meal stops. The RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis allows exposures at stops to be more fully modeled than have previous releases of the code and is able to take advantage of detailed data. It is the intent of this paper first to compare results from RADTRAN and RADTRAN 5 for the old, low-resolution form of input data, and then to demonstrate what effect the new data and input format have on stop-dose estimates for an individual stop and for a hypothetical shipment route. Finally, these estimated public doses will be contrasted with doses calculated for a special population group -- inspectors

  15. Application of the radtran 5 stop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, R.L.; Weiner, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    A number of environmental impact analyzes with the RADTRAN computer code have shown that dose to persons at stops is one of the largest components of incident-free dose during overland carriage of spent fuel and other radioactive materials. The input data used in these analyses were taken from a 1983 study that reports actual observations of spent fuel shipments by truck. Early RADTRAN stop models, however, were insufficiently flexible to take advantage of the detailed information in the study. A more recent study of gasoline service stations that specialize in servicing large trucks, which are the most likely stop locations for shipments of Type B packages in the United States, has provided additional, detailed data on refueling/meal stops. The RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis allows exposures at stops to be more fully modelled than have previous releases of the code and is able to take advantage of detailed data. It is the intent of this paper first to compare results from RADTRAN 4 and RADTRAN 5 for the old, low-resolution form of input data, and then to demonstrate what effect the new data and input format have on stop-dose estimates for an individual stop and for a hypothetical shipment route. Finally, these estimated public doses will be contrasted with doses calculated for a special population group-inspectors. (authors)

  16. The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffert, M.I.

    1996-10-01

    This research focuses on assessing connections between anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and global climatic change. it has been supported since the early 1990s in part by the DOE ``Quantitative Links`` Program (QLP). A three-year effort was originally proposed to the QLP to investigate effects f global cloudiness on global climate and its implications for cloud feedback; and to continue the development and application of climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by clouds and oceans. It is well-known that cloud and ocean processes are major sources of uncertainty in the ability to predict climatic change from humankind`s greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions. And it has always been the objective to develop timely and useful analytical tools for addressing real world policy issues stemming from anthropogenic climate change.

  17. Successful global assessments and monitoring: The roles of the international community and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Successful global assessments and monitoring of natural resources requires teamwork between participating nations and the international communities charged with the responsibility for collecting and disseminating information. In an attempt to identify emerging information needs and to promote coordination, the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO) and other national and international groups held a major conference and workshop in Venice, Italy, on global monitoring last September. The results of the meeting and subsequent events in Montreal indicated a need for more aggressive leadership at the international level and more cooperation at the national level. This paper reports on the outcome of the Venice conference and list some things that the international community and the United States must do to make global assessments and monitoring a reality

  18. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  19. Democracy or Informational Autocracy? The Internet's Role in the Global Society of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio Teixeira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Employing the deductive method, it analyzes the effects of the Internet, combined with the globalization context, in different sectors, from the economic aspect of the global ecommerce to the political consequences, which is inferred when ideological movements emerge on social networks. This incurs the current crisis scenario of state sovereignty, given the failure of states to regulate the virtual space, now marked by neoliberal practices and poorly distributed information. Finally, it contrasts with the Internet as an instrument of domination and social emancipation, in a scenario of excessive consumption of electronic devices and their use to achieve effective democracy.

  20. The Role of Therapy Education of Islamic Meaning to Overcome Today’s Global Human Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Aminah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern community are exposed to current issues related to the very complex personality. Islam offers a therapeutic meaning to overcome the global human crisis through the holy Qu’ran. This study aims to provide a qualitative analysis of logotherapy alternative to global human who experience critical conditions such as the door of death (sakaratul maut, acute illnesses, HIV Aids, kidney illness, stroke, coma, depression / stress, due to the hazards, and other refractory disease. The study showed that the therapy of Islamic meaning based on the holy Qur’an is broader and more comprehensive than the meaning therapy by Viktor E. Frankl.

  1. Politics and Power in Global Health: The Constituting Role of Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askheim, Clemet; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2016-01-01

    In a recent article, Gorik Ooms has drawn attention to the normative underpinnings of the politics of global health. We claim that Ooms is indirectly submitting to a liberal conception of politics by framing the politics of global health as a question of individual morality. Drawing on the theoretical works of Chantal Mouffe, we introduce a conflictual concept of the political as an alternative to Ooms’ conception. Using controversies surrounding medical treatment of AIDS patients in developing countries as a case we underline the opportunity for political changes, through political articulation of an issue, and collective mobilization based on such an articulation. PMID:26927399

  2. The role of “network of cities” in construction of global urban culture

    OpenAIRE

    Baycan-Levent, Tüzin; Kundak, Seda; Gülümser, Aliye Ahu

    2004-01-01

    The globalization process has led to an increased interaction between cities and to a new urban system/network in which they need to be competitive and complementary at the same time. “Network of cities”, such as World Cities, Eurocities or Sister Cities are among the well known examples of interaction and cooperation of the cities at the regional and global level. The cities of different regions and countries tend to share their experiences and their cultures within these networks in order t...

  3. Exploring the Role of Social Software in Global Software Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We present a PhD project that investigates the use of Social Software (SoSo) in Global Software Development (GSD) teams. Since SoSo in unstructured and informal in its own nature, we explore how informal communication, which is challenging in GSD, is supported by SoSo in distributed teams and how...

  4. Pathogens, prejudice, and politics: the role of the global health community in the European refugee crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mishal S; Osei-Kofi, Anna; Omar, Abbas; Kirkbride, Hilary; Kessel, Anthony; Abbara, Aula; Heymann, David; Zumla, Alimuddin; Dar, Osman

    2016-08-01

    Involuntary migration is a crucially important global challenge from an economic, social, and public health perspective. The number of displaced people reached an unprecedented level in 2015, at a total of 60 million worldwide, with more than 1 million crossing into Europe in the past year alone. Migrants and refugees are often perceived to carry a higher load of infectious diseases, despite no systematic association. We propose three important contributions that the global health community can make to help address infectious disease risks and global health inequalities worldwide, with a particular focus on the refugee crisis in Europe. First, policy decisions should be based on a sound evidence base regarding health risks and burdens to health systems, rather than prejudice or unfounded fears. Second, for incoming refugees, we must focus on building inclusive, cost-effective health services to promote collective health security. Finally, alongside protracted conflicts, widening of health and socioeconomic inequalities between high-income and lower-income countries should be acknowledged as major drivers for the global refugee crisis, and fully considered in planning long-term solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The critical role of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangermann, Rudolf H; Lamoureux, Christine; Tallis, Graham; Goel, Ajay

    2017-05-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance is a key strategy used by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) to measure progress towards reaching the global eradication goal. Supported by a global polio laboratory network, AFP surveillance is conducted in 179 of 194 WHO member states. Active surveillance visits to priority health facilities are used to assure all children polio laboratories. The quality of AFP surveillance is regularly monitored with standardized surveillance quality indicators. In highest risk countries and areas, the sensitivity of AFP surveillance is enhanced by environmental surveillance (testing of sewage samples). Genetic sequencing of detected poliovirus isolates yields programmatically important information on polio transmission pathways. AFP surveillance is one of the most valuable assets of the GPEI, with the potential to serve as a platform to build integrated disease surveillance systems. Continued support to maintain AFP surveillance systems will be essential, to reliably monitor the completion of global polio eradication, and to assure that a key resource for building surveillance capacity is transitioned post-eradication to support other health priorities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Educational Challenge of Korea in the Global Era: The Role of Family, School, and Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Shin; Kim, Uichol

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the psychological, social, and cultural factors essential for the educational achievements in Korea. Outlines a cross-cultural model and three major factors influencing adolescents' educational achievement. Reviews four empirical studies on academic achievement. Discusses challenges for Korea in the global era. (CMK)

  7. Role of zooplankton dynamics for Southern Ocean phytoplankton biomass and global biogeochemical cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Moriarty, Róisín

    2016-01-01

    zooplankton community, despite iron limitation of phytoplankton community growth rates. This result has implications for the representation of global biogeochemical cycles in models as zooplankton faecal pellets sink rapidly and partly control the carbon export to the intermediate and deep ocean....

  8. Globalization, Information Technology and Higher Education in Nigeria: The Roles of Library Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwhekadom, Ejimaji Emmanuel; Olawolu, Oladunni Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The influence of globalization and information technology on higher education in Nigeria was investigated through a descriptive survey design. Forty-five professional librarians from University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni Port Harcourt, Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku Rivers…

  9. The role of spatial heterogeneity in the evolution of local and global infections of viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koich Saeki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses have two modes spread in a host body, one is to release infectious particles from infected cells (global infection and the other is to infect directly from an infected cell to an adjacent cell (local infection. Since the mode of spread affects the evolution of life history traits, such as virulence, it is important to reveal what level of global and local infection is selected. Previous studies of the evolution of global and local infection have paid little attention to its dependency on the measures of spatial configuration. Here we show the evolutionarily stable proportion of global and local infection, and how it depends on the distribution of target cells. Using an epidemic model on a regular lattice, we consider the infection dynamics by pair approximation and check the evolutionarily stable strategy. We also conduct the Monte-Carlo simulation to observe evolutionary dynamics. We show that a higher local infection is selected as target cells become clustered. Surprisingly, the selected strategy depends not only on the degree of clustering but also the abundance of target cells per se.

  10. The Role of Policy in Constructing the Peripheral Scientist in the Era of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Karen; Uzuner-Smith, Sedef

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how the logic and values of globalization are manifested in international discourses of higher education in relation to scientific knowledge production and how those values are appropriated in national and institutional policies. This study also explores how this confluence of discourses and policies construct scientists in two…

  11. Trans-African Identity: Cultural Globalization and the Role of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization entails a process, in any case irreversible, of intensification of transnational, trans-societal and trans-cultural spaces, events, problems, economic transactions, conflicts and biographies, a process not necessarily unfolding in a centripetal, homogeneous and single way towards the formation of a single world ...

  12. Integration in the Global South: What Role for IBSA Dialogue Forum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖZKAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently we have seen that the middle-sized states are coming together inseveral forums. The WTO meetings and India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA dialogueforum are among those to be cited. Such groupings are mainly economyorientedand whether they will have political output needs to be seen, however,in the future if globalization goes in a similar way as today, we might see moregroupings. Those groupings should be seen as reactions to unjust and exclusiveglobalization. The IBSA Dialogue Forum members have enhanced their relationseconomically by signing bilateral trade agreements and acting together oneconomic issues in global forums. If they can hold together, they are creating amarket more than ¼ of global population and, if successful, it has a chance tobe the engine of growth in the South. Moreover if they can create the biggestmarket in the South, they would also be influential in the being of the voiceof the South. In that sense, this paper addresses the possible ways to developrelations between the IBSA members and economic development in the South,furthermore, implication of the IBSA on global governance and developmentcan be as critical as its contribution to economic development, since the globalgoverning bodies have legitimacy crisis.

  13. The critical role of ocean container transport in global supply chain performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransoo, J.C.; Lee, C.Y.

    2013-01-01

    With supply chains distributed across global markets, ocean container transport now is a critical element of any such supply chain. We identify key characteristics of ocean container transport from a supply chain perspective. We find that unlike continental (road) transport, service offerings tend

  14. Pilot survey of subway and bus stop noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Neitzel, Richard; Barrera, Marissa A; Akram, Muhammad

    2006-09-01

    Excessive noise exposure is a serious global urban health problem, adversely affecting millions of people. One often cited source of urban noise is mass transit, particularly subway systems. As a first step in determining risk within this context, we recently conducted an environmental survey of noise levels of the New York City transit system. Over 90 noise measurements were made using a sound level meter. Average and maximum noise levels were measured on subway platforms, and maximum levels were measured inside subway cars and at several bus stops for comparison purposes. The average noise level measured on the subway platforms was 86 +/- 4 dBA (decibel-A weighting). Maximum levels of 106, 112, and 89 dBA were measured on subway platforms, inside subway cars, and at bus stops, respectively. These results indicate that noise levels in subway and bus stop environments have the potential to exceed recommended exposure guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), given sufficient exposure duration. Risk reduction strategies following the standard hierarchy of control measures should be applied, where feasible, to reduce subway noise exposure.

  15. Challenges of coordinating global climate observations - Role of satellites in climate monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, C.

    2017-12-01

    Global observation of the Earth's atmosphere, ocean and land is essential for identifying climate variability and change, and for understanding their causes. Observation also provides data that are fundamental for evaluating, refining and initializing the models that predict how the climate system will vary over the months and seasons ahead, and that project how climate will change in the longer term under different assumptions concerning greenhouse gas emissions and other human influences. Long-term observational records have enabled the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to deliver the message that warming of the global climate system is unequivocal. As the Earth's climate enters a new era, in which it is forced by human activities, as well as natural processes, it is critically important to sustain an observing system capable of detecting and documenting global climate variability and change over long periods of time. High-quality climate observations are required to assess the present state of the ocean, cryosphere, atmosphere and land and place them in context with the past. The global observing system for climate is not a single, centrally managed observing system. Rather, it is a composite "system of systems" comprising a set of climate-relevant observing, data-management, product-generation and data-distribution systems. Data from satellites underpin many of the Essential Climate Variables(ECVs), and their historic and contemporary archives are a key part of the global climate observing system. In general, the ECVs will be provided in the form of climate data records that are created by processing and archiving time series of satellite and in situ measurements. Early satellite data records are very valuable because they provide unique observations in many regions which were not otherwise observed during the 1970s and which can be assimilated in atmospheric reanalyses and so extend the satellite climate data records back in time.

  16. Geoeconomic Uses of Global Warming: The “Green” Technological Revolution and the Role of the Semi-Periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Hurtado

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available While some semi-peripheral countries have seen renewable energies as an opportunity to build their industrial and technological capacities, core countries and global governance organizations have been promoting “green growth.” Since the 2008 global financial crisis, global warming has been used as a catalyst for big business. As the global economy may be entering the first stage of a “green” technology revolution, neo-Schumpeterian economists have regained visibility. We intend to show how, as a consequence of the lack of a world-systemic perspective, crucial inconsistencies arise in neo-Schumpeterian contributions that weaken their conceptualization of the role of non-core economies in technological change. We examine the case of the tortuous trajectory of wind energy in Argentina to show the specific organizational, institutional, and macroeconomic constraints faced by a semi-peripheral economy as it attempts to develop its own technological and industrial capacities. The neo-Schumpeterian view of the “green industrial revolution” must be understood as valid only for the core-economy subsystem, which seems to require as well polarization of the world-system through what we call “semi-peripheral neoliberalism,” a peripheralizing force upon the semi-periphery necessary in order to rejuvenate core economies.

  17. Understanding the Role and Impact of Effective Country and Community Leadership in Progress Toward the Global Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Charles; Pillay, Yogan

    2017-05-01

    Individual leadership and leaders have played pivotal roles in the history of efforts to end the AIDS epidemic. The goal of this article is to reflect on and understand how leadership and leaders have impacted and enabled the success of the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive (Global Plan). To accomplish this goal, multiple interviews were conducted with individuals in positions of leadership who had been identified as people whose actions drove progress. Interviewees were selected from all levels of traditional hierarchies and sectors to provide a more complete account and representation of leadership, with a particular emphasis on the community, district, and country levels. The leaders interviewed provide insight into their work, motivations, and approaches to effective leadership. Through their experiences, they shed light on the strategies they used to drive changes in policy, programs, practice, and communities that allowed for progress toward the goals of the Global Plan. Leaders also identify future challenges and areas of improvement in the effort to end the AIDS epidemic that they feel require leadership and urgent action. In conclusion, this article identifies common characteristics of effective leadership and reflects on the experiences of individuals who are leaders in the effort to end the AIDS epidemic, and how their lessons learned can be applied to help realize future global public health goals.

  18. The Role of Faculty in Global Society: Carving out the Public Purpose of Our Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Leslie D.; Rincones, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative analysis investigates the role of tenure-track faculty at Towne University (pseudonym), a regional institution with a long-standing public service mission. Towne has played an important role in the production and continued development of teachers for local schools through extensive K-20 collaboration. Recently, however, Towne…

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just knowing when you’ ... a doctor. If you bite your nails and develop a skin or nail infection, consult a board- ...

  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your nails to your face and mouth. To help you stop biting your nails, dermatologists recommend the ... stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help keep your hands busy and away from your ...

  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and away from your mouth. Identify your triggers: These could be physical triggers, such as the presence ... nails, you can figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just ...

  2. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a dermatologist Why ... how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just knowing when you’re inclined ...

  3. Port Authority of Allegheny County Transit Stops

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — All transit stops within the Port Authority of Allegheny County's service area for the November 20, 2016 - March (TBD) 2017 schedule period.

  4. Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... I have friends and loved ones suffering from Alzheimer's. But I can imagine… and hope for… a ...

  5. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated image library Board ... gradually stop biting your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try ...

  6. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  7. The global chemical systematics of arc front stratovolcanoes: Evaluating the role of crustal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Stephen J.; Langmuir, Charles H.

    2015-07-01

    Petrogenetic models for convergent margins should be consistent with the global systematics of convergent margin volcanic compositions. A newly developed tool for compiling and screening data from the GEOROC database was used to generate a global dataset of whole rock chemical analyses from arc front stratovolcano samples. Data from 227 volcanoes within 31 volcanic arc segments were first averaged by volcano and then by arc to explore global systematics. Three different methods of data normalization produce consistent results that persist across a wide range of Mg# [Mg# =Mg / (Mg +Fe) ]. Remarkably coherent systematics are present among major and trace element concentrations and ratios, with the exception of three arcs influenced by mantle plumes and Peru/N. Chile, which is built on exceptionally thick crust. Chemical parameters also correlate with the thickness of the overlying arc crust. In addition to previously established correlations of Na6.0 with Ca6.0 and crustal thickness, correlations are observed among major elements, trace elements, and trace element ratios (e.g. La/Yb, Dy/Yb, Zr/Sm, Zr/Ti). Positive correlations include "fluid mobile," "high field strength," and "large ion lithophile" element groups, with concentrations that vary by a factor of five in all groups. Incompatible element enrichments also correlate well with crustal thickness, with the greatest enrichment found at arcs with the thickest crust. Intra-crustal processes, however, do not reproduce the global variations. High pressure fractionation produces intermediate magmas enriched in aluminum, but such magmas are rare. Furthermore, differences among magma compositions at various volcanic arcs persist from primitive to evolved compositions, which is inconsistent with the possibility that global variations are produced by crystal fractionation at any pressure. Linear relationships among elements appear to be consistent with mixing between depleted primary magma and an enriched contaminant

  8. THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN THE POST-COLD WAR WORLD: A GLOBAL LEADER OR HEGEMON?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Jonev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper deal with the role of the USA in the post-Cold War world and their position from the standpoint of relevant indicators and theoretical considerations. This work also refers to path that the United States took from isolationism to the world domination and considers justification of the position of the USA in the period after the Cold War from the point of hegemonic stability theories, while at the end indicates the diversity of understanding of contemporary thinkers regarding the position of the United States as the hegemon or rather “just” a global leader. This paper does not prejudge the final definition of the position of the USA in international relations, but aims to launch discussions on the necessity and justification of the existence of such vision on a global scale.

  9. Empirical stopping powers for ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.F.; Biersack, J.P.; Littmark, U.

    1983-01-01

    The work of Brandt and collaborators on low energy ion stopping powers has been extended to create an empirical formulation for the stopping of ions in solids. The result is a simple computer program (about 60 lines of code) which calculates stopping powers from zero to 100 MeV/amu for all ions in all elemental solids. This code has been compared to the data in about 2000 papers, and has a standard error of 9% for energies above keV/amu. This approach includes high energy relativistic effects and shell-corrections. In the medium energy range it uses stopping theory based on the local-density approximation and Lindhard stopping in a free electron gas. This is applied to realistic Hartree-Fock charge distributions for crystalline solids. In the low energy range it uses the Brandt concepts of ion stripping relative to the Fermi velocity of solids, and also his formalism for the relation of projectile ionization to its effective charge. The details of the calculation are presented, and a broad comparison is shown with experiment. Special comparative examples are shown of both the low energy stopping power oscillations which depend on the atomic number of the ion, and also of the target

  10. The role of aerosols in cloud drop parameterizations and its applications in global climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The characteristics of the cloud drop size distribution near cloud base are initially determined by aerosols that serve as cloud condensation nuclei and the updraft velocity. We have developed parameterizations relating cloud drop number concentration to aerosol number and sulfate mass concentrations and used them in a coupled global aerosol/general circulation model (GCM) to estimate the indirect aerosol forcing. The global aerosol model made use of our detailed emissions inventories for the amount of particulate matter from biomass burning sources and from fossil fuel sources as well as emissions inventories of the gas-phase anthropogenic SO{sub 2}. This work is aimed at validating the coupled model with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program measurements and assessing the possible magnitude of the aerosol-induced cloud effects on climate.

  11. Fission nuclear power prospects and its role in meeting global energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power currently makes an important contribution to world's energy requirements providing 17% of its electricity. But as global warming becomes of greater concern, many ask whether nuclear power can and should contribute more. The author, who is involved in the nuclear power enterprise for 35 years, tries to answer this question affirmative. He holds the view that: a) nuclear fission power is essential to meeting world's energy needs without unduly impairing the global environment; b) by possessing the required attributes discussed in this paper, nuclear fission power can be made societally acceptable; c) the industrialized world should accelerate LMFR deployment while fostering more convenient energy alternatives for the developing world; and d) the HTGR is unique in its ability to augment non-electricity energy needs and could become the technology choice of developing countries for nuclear electricity production. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Industrialization in Globalizing World and The Changing Role Of The State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Balcı İzgi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available World economies are an integral part of a whole system that are inseperable . It is not wise to think the future of these economies seperately. If we assume that developed countries are going in the same trajectories, the outcomes for developing countries should be considered in economic policies. The scope of this study is to argue the industrialization concept with the globalization and to define the limits of government in developed and developing countries. In globalizing world the limits of the governments are also discussed. However states continue their position in governance and economy. In order to achieve a sustained and powerfull industrialization countries need a weel arranged industrial policiy and state intervention. However the important thing is to define the limits and responsibilities of the government.

  13. Spaceflight Alters Bacterial Gene Expression and Virulence and Reveals Role for Global Regulator Hfq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zuBentrup, K. Honer; Ramamurthy R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClellan, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; hide

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the spaceflight environment has never been accomplished due to significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of spaceflight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground based microgravity culture model. Spaceflight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during spaceflight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth.

  14. The role of GLOBAL G.A.P.: In improving competitiveness of agro-food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešić Cariša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of food safety, standards and food quality represent a challenge for every food company which has to cope with in order to survive. The change in consumers attitudes has considerably been influenced by certain incidents related to food safety which clearly showed that more attention should be paid to food safety. Different actors should work together on this issue, from food producers (primary and final, consumer associations, international organizations, big retailers to the state. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current situation in implementation of certification schemes for agro-food industry in which GLOBAL G.A.P. has been recognized as a perspective one. A special attention is paid to two directions: (1 Comparison of implementing GLOBAL G.A.P. standard and other Certification schemes and (2 Overview and opportunities for Serbia and neighboring countries, in relation to its EU food law and food safety certification schemes harmonization efforts.

  15. The role of forest residues in the accounting for the global warming potential of bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Guest, Geoffrey; Cherubini, Francesco; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2013-01-01

    Bioenergy makes up a significant portion of the global primary energy pie, and its production from modernized technology is foreseen to substantially increase. The climate neutrality of biogenic CO2 emissions from bioenergy grown from sustainably managed biomass resource pools has recently been questioned. The temporary change caused in atmospheric CO2 concentration from biogenic carbon fluxes was found to be largely dependent on the length of biomass rotation period. In this work, we also sh...

  16. Global warming and carbon taxation. Optimal policy and the role of administration costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper develops a model relating CO 2 emissions to atmosphere concentrations, global temperature change and economic damages. For a variety of parameter assumptions, the model provides estimates of the marginal cost of emissions in various years. The optimal carbon tax is a function of the marginal emission cost and the costs of administering the tax. This paper demonstrates that under any reasonable assumptions, the optimal carbon tax is zero for at least several decades. (author)

  17. The role of electricity storage and hydrogen technologies in enabling global low-carbon energy transitions

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, M.; Johnson, N.; Strubegger, M.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have noted the importance of electricity storage and hydrogen technologies for enabling large-scale variable renewable energy (VRE) deployment in long-term climate change mitigation scenarios. However, global studies, which typically use integrated assessment models, assume a fixed cost trajectory for storage and hydrogen technologies; thereby ignoring the sensitivity of VRE deployment and/or mitigation costs to uncertainties in future storage and hydrogen technology costs. Y...

  18. Return spillovers between white precious metal ETFs: The role of oil, gold, and global equity

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Marco Chi Keung; Vigne, Samuel A.; Wang, Shixuan; Yarovaya, Larisa

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between white precious metals and gold, oil and global equity by means of spillovers and volatility transmission. Relying on the recently introduced ETFs, this study is the first to analyse return spillovers derived from an E-GARCH model and to take into account frequency dynamics to understand changes in connectedness across periods of time. Results uncover numerous channels of return transmission across the selected ETF markets over the last 10 years...

  19. The family farm in a globalizing world: the role of crop science in alleviating poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Lipton, Michael

    2005-01-01

    "The topic of family farms has been gaining prominence in the academic, policy, and donor communities in recent years. Small farms dominate the agricultural landscape in the developing world, providing the largest source of employment and income to the rural poor, yet smallholders remain highly susceptible to poverty and hunger. With the advance of globalization and greater integration of agricultural markets, the need for increases in agricultural productivity for family farms is particularl...

  20. The role of globalization in the evolution of welfare state functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Vasiliev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a set of problems of evolution of the modern state. Tendencies modification of the territorial state in the context of globalization. Explore the possibility of going to the institutions of the new world order, marked their shortcomings, not to effectively solve the accumulated social problems. It is shown that the crisis of the modern welfare state is not predetermined by the state as a social institution of society; the causes are genetic properties of a market economy.

  1. Legitimacy in global governance of sovereign default: the role of international investment agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Brahms, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the legitimacy of investor-state arbitration under international investment agreements in sovereign debt restructuring. The paper presents mechanisms governing sovereign default generally, namely collective action clauses and informal negotiation in the London and Paris clubs and then discusses how sovereign debt restructuring is governed by IIAs, looking at how the clauses affect restructuring. Taking the conception of legitimacy in global governance by Buchanan and Keoha...

  2. Book Review: IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, BEHAVIOR AND GENDER ROLE

    OpenAIRE

    YUZER, T. Volkan

    2012-01-01

    The "new" in new economy means a more stable and longer growth, with more jobs, lower inflation and interest rates, explosion of free markets worldwide, the unparalleled access to knowledge through the Internet and new type of organization which affects organizational change. Organizational change is the adoption of an organizational environment for the sake of survival. Namely, the old principles no longer work in the age of Globalization. Businesses have reached the old model's limits with ...

  3. Stock return predictability and market integration: The role of global and local information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. McMillan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the predictability of a range of international stock markets where we allow the presence of both local and global predictive factors. Recent research has argued that US returns have predictive power for international stock returns. We expand this line of research, following work on market integration, to include a more general definition of the global factor, based on principal components analysis. Results identify three global expected returns factors, one related to the major stock markets of the US, UK and Asia and one related to the other markets analysed. The third component is related to dividend growth. A single dominant realised returns factor is also noted. A forecasting exercise comparing the principal components based factors to a US return factor and local market only factors, as well as the historical mean benchmark finds supportive evidence for the former approach. It is hoped that the results from this paper will be informative on three counts. First, to academics interested in understanding the dynamics asset price movement. Second, to market participants who aim to time the market and engage in portfolio and risk management. Third, to those (policy makers and others who are interested in linkages across international markets and the nature and degree of integration.

  4. Improving global health - is tourism's role in poverty elimination perpetuating poverty, powerlessness and 'ill-being'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Irmgard L

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of challenges for public health in a global context is ever expanding. It is difficult for health professionals to keep informed about details of key issues affecting global health determinants such as poverty. Tourism is seen as one strategy to eliminate poverty in developing countries and to improve global health, but the industry struggles with keeping its promise. Apart from often negative impacts on the well-being of local communities, it also turns out not to be as altruistic as it appears at first sight. Discourses largely focus on power and control of the non-poor over the poor despite all the rhetoric to the contrary. Economic aspects still dictate the debate rather than local people's understanding of well-being. Only with a major shift in the approach to local populations, acknowledging the communities' right to self-determination and accepting them as equal partners with access to genuine benefits, will this disturbing imbalance be redressed and allow better health for more people possible. Public health professionals should question claims about the beneficial influence of tourism in poor regions and not lower their vigilance for poverty-related health problems, so that the poor are not overlooked when all other stakeholders are busy with their own agenda.

  5. Isolationism versus Geopolitics: The Dual Role of the Eurasian Economic Union in Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Bratersky

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article conceptualizes ongoing efforts to develop the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, initiated by Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan in 2011. Engaging with two major theoretical perspectives, it establishes to what extent the EEU’s construction and potential expansion is economic regionalism (interpreted also as an isolationist strategy driven by Russia led geopolitical motives. The political-economy debate of Eurasia goes beyond a common tariff area and a common market within the territory of the former USSR. Increasingly, it involves the establishment of a common monetary area. China’s Silk Road Economic Belt is building a foundation for a new Eurasia – one of the global economic and political players of this century. The economic reasons pursued by Russia in its Eurasian initiative are inseparable from economic problems of geopolitical significance. The overarching objective of Russian policy is to establish a regional economic fusion, with significant economic sovereignty and strong political influence; that is, to become the new centre of power in the global economy of the 21st century. Correspondingly, although Russian integration policy in Eurasia has not been formulated in an anti-American way, if it is successful the likely consequence will be the withdrawal of a significant segment of the global market from the economic dominance and political influence of western-led economic blocs.

  6. Coordination in International Manufacturing: The Role of Competitive Priorities and the Focus of Globally Dispersed Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sayem

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this era of globalization, network integration has received great attention, as it certainly has implications for the competitiveness in international manufacturing. A key issue in integration is to coordinate activities of dispersed facilities in a way to align the target of locating abroad and the priorities to be competitive. This study explores and clarifies the effect of competitive priority and focus of dispersed facilities on coordinating the activities in intra-firm network manufacturing. Based on a multiple case study involving four different companies manufacturing in globally dispersed facilities, the results confirm that both competitive priorities and specific focus of global manufacturing are important for selecting mechanisms to coordinate overseas facilities, with the competitive priorities ‘quality’ and ‘flexibility’ being the more important. Furthermore, the findings reveal that companies place emphasis on informal mechanisms to coordinate the low-cost focused facilities. In turn, the importance of formal mechanisms seems equal for coordinating both low-cost focused facilities and those focused on capturing a local market. Finally, the findings of this paper suggest that elements of competitive priority, as well as the focus of dispersed facilities, should be considered towards making the choice for mechanisms of coordination. The findings bear important implications for the effective coordination of activities in international manufacturing.

  7. Towards a global alcohol policy: alcohol, public health and the role of WHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, D. H.; Monteiro, M.; Room, R.; Saxena, S.

    2000-01-01

    In 1983 the World Health Assembly declared alcohol-related problems to be among the world's major health concerns. Since then, alcohol consumption has risen in developing countries, where it takes a heavy toll. Alcohol-related problems are at epidemic levels in the successor states of the Soviet Union and are responsible for 3.5% of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost globally. Substantial evidence exists of the relationship between the levels and patterns of alcohol consumption on the one hand and the incidence of alcohol-related problems on the other. Over the past 20 years, research has demonstrated the effectiveness of public policies involving, for example, taxation and restrictions on alcohol availability, in reducing alcohol-related problems. In the wake of rapid economic globalization, many of these policies at national and subnational levels have been eroded, often with the support of international financial and development organizations. Development agencies and international trade agreements have treated alcohol as a normal commodity, overlooking the adverse consequences of its consumption on productivity and health. WHO is in a strong position to take the lead in developing a global alcohol policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related problems, providing scientific and statistical support, capacity-building, disseminating effective strategies and collaborating with other international organizations. Such leadership can play a significant part in diminishing the health and social problems associated with alcohol use. PMID:10885168

  8. The U.S. Role in Global Security: The Mayo Clinic, Not the Emergency Room

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillen, John

    1998-01-01

    While many different proposals have been put forward outlining a post-Cold War security identity for the United States, most do not characterize an American role in terms of either excessive activism...

  9. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  10. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eMa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1 the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2 an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination results in a longer go reaction time (RT, a lower stop error rate, as well as a faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  11. Three lines of defence model and the role of internal audit activities as the response to the global economic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragičević Radičević, T.; Stojanović Trivanović, M.; Stanojević, Lj

    2017-05-01

    The existing framework of corporate governance has shown a number of weaknesses, and the result was a new economic crisis at the global level. The main problems were identified as: increased risk of investors, non-transparency of information, conflict of interest between corporation subjects. European Institute of Internal Auditors in response to the strengthening the trust in information, shareholders activism, better communication, which all will lead to the reduction of risks and restore investors confidence, proposed the Model Three Lines of Defence, where the key role has internal audit.

  12. Stopping, goal-conflict, trait anxiety and frontal rhythmic power in the stop-signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Phoebe S-H; Thurlow, Jane K; McNaughton, Neil

    2011-12-01

    The medial right frontal cortex is implicated in fast stopping of an initiated motor action in the stop-signal task (SST). To assess whether this region is also involved in the slower behavioural inhibition induced by goal conflict, we tested for effects of goal conflict (when stop and go tendencies are balanced) on low-frequency rhythms in the SST. Stop trials were divided, according to the delays at which the stop signal occurred, into short-, intermediate-, and long-delay trials. Consistent with goal-conflict processing, intermediate-delay trials were associated with greater 7-8 Hz EEG power than short- or long-delay trials at medial right frontal sites (Fz, F4, and F8). At F8, 7-8 Hz power was linked to high trait anxiety and neuroticism. A separate 4-7 Hz power increase was also seen in stop, relative to go, trials, but this was independent of delay, was maximal at the central midline site Cz, and predicted faster stopping. Together with previous data on the SST, these results suggest that the right frontal region could be involved in multiple inhibition mechanisms. We propose a hierarchical model of the control of stopping that integrates the literature on the neural control of fast motor stopping with that on slower, motive-directed behavioural inhibition.

  13. The critical role of the routing scheme in simulating peak river discharge in global hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F.; Veldkamp, T.; Frieler, K.; Schewe, J.; Ostberg, S.; Willner, S. N.; Schauberger, B.; Gosling, S.; Mueller Schmied, H.; Portmann, F. T.; Leng, G.; Huang, M.; Liu, X.; Tang, Q.; Hanasaki, N.; Biemans, H.; Gerten, D.; Satoh, Y.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Stacke, T.; Ciais, P.; Chang, J.; Ducharne, A.; Guimberteau, M.; Wada, Y.; Kim, H.; Yamazaki, D.

    2017-12-01

    Global hydrological models (GHMs) have been applied to assess global flood hazards, but their capacity to capture the timing and amplitude of peak river discharge—which is crucial in flood simulations—has traditionally not been the focus of examination. Here we evaluate to what degree the choice of river routing scheme affects simulations of peak discharge and may help to provide better agreement with observations. To this end we use runoff and discharge simulations of nine GHMs forced by observational climate data (1971-2010) within the ISIMIP2a project. The runoff simulations were used as input for the global river routing model CaMa-Flood. The simulated daily discharge was compared to the discharge generated by each GHM using its native river routing scheme. For each GHM both versions of simulated discharge were compared to monthly and daily discharge observations from 1701 GRDC stations as a benchmark. CaMa-Flood routing shows a general reduction of peak river discharge and a delay of about two to three weeks in its occurrence, likely induced by the buffering capacity of floodplain reservoirs. For a majority of river basins, discharge produced by CaMa-Flood resulted in a better agreement with observations. In particular, maximum daily discharge was adjusted, with a multi-model averaged reduction in bias over about 2/3 of the analysed basin area. The increase in agreement was obtained in both managed and near-natural basins. Overall, this study demonstrates the importance of routing scheme choice in peak discharge simulation, where CaMa-Flood routing accounts for floodplain storage and backwater effects that are not represented in most GHMs. Our study provides important hints that an explicit parameterisation of these processes may be essential in future impact studies.

  14. Global citizenship and the role of education in the twenty-first century

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to define concepts such as ‘citizenship’ and ‘global citizenship’ in a democracy and what it means to be ‘a good citizen’. It also seeks to explain that every individual can be ‘a good citizen’ in different situations and scenarios. Of the many agents responsible for the development of an individual, education, together with the home environment and culture, play an important part. Education is also the key to liberty and freedom, while the media is the key to accessing a ...

  15. The cultural policy of gender equality the role of women in global business

    OpenAIRE

    Jurčić, Ana; Vrcelj, Nikolina

    2013-01-01

    Our time, no matter how modern and liberal it seems, still raises the question: Does cultural policy of gender equality in the 21st century really exists or gender discrimination still prevails, both in some cultures and in business? Women advance slowly in the business world, they are paid less than their male counterparts and they need more time and effort to reach the desired positions. In business, especially a global one, women in high positions are very rare. The prejudice is that women...

  16. Processes of globalization, economic policy and the role of state in raw materials and energy complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vodzinský

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors dedicate this article to impacts of constrains in paradigm of potentials forming our society.As entire societies are assembled in certain pattern, this article is dedicated to reasoning why economical growth builton influence and a use of knowledge of the reasons would accelerate consumer orientation of reproduction cycle on the levelof ownership.Both of these, causes and reasons, result in aggravation of social order and ecological crises.End products of globalization and concomitant state economic policies do not lead to crisis solution nor do they lead to effectivedisappearance of their consequences.

  17. The role of global trade and transport network topology in the human-mediated dispersal of alien species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Natalie Clare; Paini, Dean Ronald; Bayliss, Kirsty Louise; Hodda, Michael

    2015-02-01

    More people and goods are moving further and more frequently via many different trade and transport networks under current trends of globalisation. These networks can play a major role in the unintended introduction of exotic species to new locations. With the continuing rise in global trade, more research attention is being focused on the role of networks in the spread of invasive species. This represents an emerging field of research in invasion science and the substantial knowledge being generated within other disciplines can provide ecologists with new tools with which to study invasions. For the first time, we synthesise studies from several perspectives, approaches and disciplines to derive the fundamental characteristics of network topology determining the likelihood of spread of organisms via trade and transport networks. These characteristics can be used to identify critical points of vulnerability within these networks and enable the development of more effective strategies to prevent invasions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Food Safety Management in a Global Environment: The Role of Risk Assessment Models

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes-Pila, Joaquin; Jimeno, Vicente; Manzano, Amparo; Rodriguez Monroy, Carlos; Mar Fernandez, Maria Del

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative risk assessment models are playing a minor role in the development of the new EU legal framework for food safety. There is a tendency of the EU institutions to apply the precautionary principle versus the predisposition of the USA institutions to rely on risk analysis. This paper provides a comparison of the role played by quantitative risk assessment models in the development of new policies on food safety in the EU and in the USA, focusing on a study case: the supply chain of s...

  19. [A global view of population health in Colombia: role of social macro-determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam

    2007-09-01

    The social environment is an important determinant of population and individual health. However, its impact is often not considered in national health policies and generally its attributes are considered as constants. For this reason, contemporary health policies place greater emphasis on individual risk factors. Colombias position in the world ranking is described with respect to several social macro-determinants of health, previously characterized as components of class/welfare regime model. The exploratory study included all countries with comparable data including the following: (1) economic development [gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity], (2) income inequality [Gini coefficient], (3) social capital corruption perceptions index and generalized trust, and (4) political regime index of freedom. First, correlations between these macro-determinants were estimated, and second, the relationship between them and life expectancy at birth was explored. Finally, the position of Colombia in global context was determined. Important correlations occurred among the macro-determinants. Colombia tended to have intermediate to low positions in the global context in all macro-determinants, with the exception of gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity. The macro-determinant of population health with the highest potential of effecting improvement in health conditions is to modify income inequality.

  20. Global aspirations, local realities: the role of social science research in controlling neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are both drivers and manifestations of poverty and social inequality. Increased advocacy efforts since the mid-2000s have led to ambitious new control and elimination targets set for 2020 by the World Health Organisation. While these global aspirations represent significant policy momentum, there are multifaceted challenges in controlling infectious diseases in resource-poor local contexts that need to be acknowledged, understood and engaged. However a number of recent publications have emphasised the "neglected" status of applied social science research on NTDs. In light of the 2020 targets, this paper explores the social science/NTD literature and unpacks some of the ways in which social inquiry can help support effective and sustainable interventions. Five priority areas are discussed, including on policy processes, health systems capacity, compliance and resistance to interventions, education and behaviour change, and community participation. The paper shows that despite the multifaceted value of having anthropological and sociological perspectives integrated into NTD programmes, contemporary efforts underutilise this potential. This is reflective of the dominance of top-down information flows and technocratic approaches in global health. To counter this tendency, social research needs to be more than an afterthought; integrating social inquiry into the planning, monitoring and evaluating process will help ensure that flexibility and adaptability to local realities are built into interventions. More emphasis on social science perspectives can also help link NTD control to broader social determinants of health, especially important given the major social and economic inequalities that continue to underpin transmission in endemic countries.

  1. The role of innovative global institutions in linking knowledge and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Szlezák, Nicole A

    2016-04-26

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that our collective ability to tackle complex problems will require the development of new, adaptive, and innovative institutional arrangements that can deal with rapidly changing knowledge and have effective learning capabilities. In this paper, we applied a knowledge-systems perspective to examine how institutional innovations can affect the generation, sharing, and application of scientific and technical knowledge. We report on a case study that examined the effects that one large innovative organization, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, is having on the knowledge dimensions of decision-making in global health. The case study shows that the organization created demand for new knowledge from a range of actors, but it did not incorporate strategies for meeting this demand into their own rules, incentives, or procedures. This made it difficult for some applicants to meet the organization's dual aims of scientific soundness and national ownership of projects. It also highlighted that scientific knowledge needed to be integrated with managerial and situational knowledge for success. More generally, the study illustrates that institutional change targeting implementation can also significantly affect the dynamics of knowledge creation (learning), access, distribution, and use. Recognizing how action-oriented institutions can affect these dynamics across their knowledge system can help institutional designers build more efficient and effective institutions for sustainable development.

  2. Sub-Saharan Africa at the global education market: role of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramil Ravilevich Asmyatullin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the development of the higher education in Sub-Saharan countries, particularly to the topic of internationalization of education. Most African countries have underdeveloped education systems. The quality and availability of higher education is a formidable obstacle for economic and social development. There is a growing demand for higher education in the SSA, but national education systems can’t cope fully with it. Hence many students go abroad, mostly in other African countries. The article focuses on the position of South Africa in the global and regional education market. As it’s a regional leader in this field South Africa attracts more than a half of international students within the Sub-Saharan Africa. The main reasons why African students choose South Africa are geographic proximity, familiar culture, lack of wanted higher education programs in their countries. However, there are as well disadvantages like xenophobia and race discrimination. South Africa has become a leader in Africa in the field of higher education, but it plays still small part at a global scale.

  3. An Assessment of Positive Organizational Behavior in Service Sector of Pakistan: Role of Organization Based Self-Esteem and Global Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Wafa Khurram; Kamariah Bte Ismail; Syed Khurram Ali Jafri; Khairiah Soehod

    2013-01-01

    This study is an attempt to investigate prevalence of positive organizational behavior in the organizations in the service sector of Pakistan. We tested effects of organization based self-esteem, role stressors (role conflict, role overload and role ambiguity), leader-member exchange and perceived organizational support on positive organizational behavior as well as mediation of organization-based-self-esteem in this regard. Moreover, moderation of global self-esteem was also estimated in rel...

  4. Health promotion competencies: providing a road map for health promotion to assume a prominent role in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Trevor

    2009-06-01

    Understanding of health and its determinants is rapidly expanding and changing. The emergence of chronic diseases as the leading cause of global disease burden and improved understanding of social determinants of health has brought greater focus to the role of prevention in health. The IUHPE has shown outstanding leadership through the Galway Consensus Statement. Its three recommendations appropriately focus on stimulating dialogue, developing global consensus and communicating the results to key stakeholders. The IUHPE can further enhance progress of the statement by developing participative processes to ensure engagement and ownership by its members. The Galway Consensus Statement can be used to advance professional standards in global health promotion by: (1) providing a common language by which health promotion and its meaning can be communicated to others; (2) providing a framework for building capacity in the health promotion workforce and in the health workforce in general; (3) providing international consensus for consistency in university health promotion courses; (4) providing a framework for credentialing in health promotion; (5) better informing health promotion engagement with other significant workforce sectors and advancing partnership as a key way of working. A vital further application of the Galway Consensus Statement is to inform advocacy. Advocacy is vital to ensure health promotion is better resourced and prioritized by policy makers. Advocacy and communication are vital tools to highlight the evidence, establish the policy fit and infrastructure requirements of health promotion, and present health promotion solutions based on evidence of effectiveness.

  5. Canada's role in the global energy picture: making the case for a more coherent national energy approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, Philip; Drexhage, John [International Institute for Sustainable Development (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Given Canada's position in the present global energy dynamic, there are opportunities for private sector economic actors to make large-scale investments in traditional energy resources such as oil, natural gas, hydropower and uranium. Canada, with so much to offer in terms of resources and potential for private investment, could play a leadership role in the push to develop clean energy. There is a need to articulate an overarching, coherent vision, not only in terms of Canada's stance on energy development but also in terms of national strategy. This is a critical moment, not only for Canada but for the whole world, when an effective, sustainable blueprint needs to be drawn up. If we can make a coherent case for a clean energy vision of the future, then Canada will make global progress in the energy field. Moreover, it seems clear that global governance with respect to energy issues will continue to be a topic of growing interest. Canada needs to give serious thought to what its position and its contribution will be with respect to a clean energy future.

  6. Turkey's role as a regional and global player and its power capacity: Turkey's engagement with other emerging states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Gürzel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey's role as a regional power has increased since Justice and Development Party (AKP came to power. AKP leadership not only aspired to become a regional power but also a global player. Turkey has, therefore, assumed different roles: the "natural leader" of the region; a historical "big brother;" and the "protector" of the Muslim minorities. Turkey has also assumed a "mediator" and a "facilitator" role by trying to negotiate a deal with an emerging power such as Brazil in order to attempt to resolve the controversial Iranian nuclear issue. By making use of recent developments, Turkey tried to solidify its long desired role as a "rising power" by increasing its influence in its neighborhood and engaging with other emerging powers. The concept "regional power" is a context-based notion. In other words, the location and geography are contesting and disputed approaches. Notwithstanding the fact that concepts such as "region" and "power" are social constructed reality, this paper analyzes the notion of 'regional power' as a subcategory of 'power'. In this context, this paper will make use of Stefan Schim's criteria while analyzing Turkey's power capacity in the region. Schim posits that the "regional power" needs to have a "role definition," and it should possess material power (hard power. It should also have economic as well as diplomatic and organizational capacity. Its power whether it is 'soft power' (attraction of ones idea's and or the ability to set the political agenda in a way that shapes the preferences of other actors or 'hard power' (material power that can be measured-economic and military power needs to be acknowledged by other actors in the region. It should also be accepted by great powers and emerging powers that are determinant in the international system. dditionally, the regional power (and/ or global power needs to have leverage, thus its power projection needs to yield results. Kalevi Holsti's role theory will be used as

  7. The Role of Global Understanding within Multicultural Teacher Education for Culturally Isolated and Threatened Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, June A.

    The role of international and comparative education in teacher education must be informed by the needs of American students which include overcoming cultural parochialism due to racial and cultural isolation and inadequate schooling. The urgency of economic and cultural survival for certain groups such as African-American, Appalachian, and Latino…

  8. The role of nuclear power in the global electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, V.A.; Chernilin, Yu.F.

    1992-01-01

    Basic conclusions and recommendations developed in the process of preparing and conducting the symposium discussed are presented. All methods of electric power production, their prospects and effects on man and environment were discussed during the symposium. This paper is devoted mainly to nuclear power engineering only, its prospects and possible role in general electric power generation

  9. Transmission of shocks across global financial markets : The role of contagion and investors' risk appetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Hermosillo Gonzalez, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the role of contagion in transmitting shocks across markets. One possible conduit for contagion is shifts in international investors’ risk appetite. The aim of this research is to propose a methodology to address the current gaps in the literature of contagion. The thesis

  10. Managing the workplace in a globalized world: The role of national culture in workplace management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plijter, EB; van der Voordt, Theo; Rocco de Campos Pereira, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: to provide a better insight into the role of national cultures on the management and design of workplaces of multinationals in different countries.
    Design/methodology/approach: This explorative study is based on an extensive literature review of dimensions of national culture in

  11. Evolution of Bacterial Global Modulators: Role of a Novel H-NS Paralogue in the Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Strain 042.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, A; Bernabeu, M; Aznar, S; Ruiz-Cruz, S; Bravo, A; Queiroz, M H; Juárez, A

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial genomes sometimes contain genes that code for homologues of global regulators, the function of which is unclear. In members of the family Enterobacteriaceae , cells express the global regulator H-NS and its paralogue StpA. In Escherichia coli , out of providing a molecular backup for H-NS, the role of StpA is poorly characterized. The enteroaggregative E. coli strain 042 carries, in addition to the hns and stpA genes, a third gene encoding an hns paralogue ( hns2 ). We present in this paper information about its biological function. Transcriptomic analysis has shown that the H-NS2 protein targets a subset of the genes targeted by H-NS. Genes targeted by H-NS2 correspond mainly with horizontally transferred (HGT) genes and are also targeted by the Hha protein, a fine-tuner of H-NS activity. Compared with H-NS, H-NS2 expression levels are lower. In addition, H-NS2 expression exhibits specific features: it is sensitive to the growth temperature and to the nature of the culture medium. This novel H-NS paralogue is widespread within the Enterobacteriaceae . IMPORTANCE Global regulators such as H-NS play key relevant roles enabling bacterial cells to adapt to a changing environment. H-NS modulates both core and horizontally transferred (HGT) genes, but the mechanism by which H-NS can differentially regulate these genes remains to be elucidated. There are several instances of bacterial cells carrying genes that encode homologues of the global regulators. The question is what the roles of these proteins are. We noticed that the enteroaggregative E. coli strain 042 carries a new hitherto uncharacterized copy of the hns gene. We decided to investigate why this pathogenic E. coli strain requires an extra H-NS paralogue, termed H-NS2. In our work, we show that H-NS2 displays specific expression and regulatory properties. H-NS2 targets a subset of H-NS-specific genes and may help to differentially modulate core and HGT genes by the H-NS cellular pool.

  12. Disruption of the Opal Stop Codon Attenuates Chikungunya Virus-Induced Arthritis and Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer E; Long, Kristin M; Whitmore, Alan C; Sanders, Wes; Thurlow, Lance R; Brown, Julia A; Morrison, Clayton R; Vincent, Heather; Peck, Kayla M; Browning, Christian; Moorman, Nathaniel; Lim, Jean K; Heise, Mark T

    2017-11-14

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus responsible for several significant outbreaks of debilitating acute and chronic arthritis and arthralgia over the past decade. These include a recent outbreak in the Caribbean islands and the Americas that caused more than 1 million cases of viral arthralgia. Despite the major impact of CHIKV on global health, viral determinants that promote CHIKV-induced disease are incompletely understood. Most CHIKV strains contain a conserved opal stop codon at the end of the viral nsP3 gene. However, CHIKV strains that encode an arginine codon in place of the opal stop codon have been described, and deep-sequencing analysis of a CHIKV isolate from the Caribbean identified both arginine and opal variants within this strain. Therefore, we hypothesized that the introduction of the arginine mutation in place of the opal termination codon may influence CHIKV virulence. We tested this by introducing the arginine mutation into a well-characterized infectious clone of a CHIKV strain from Sri Lanka and designated this virus Opal524R. This mutation did not impair viral replication kinetics in vitro or in vivo Despite this, the Opal524R virus induced significantly less swelling, inflammation, and damage within the feet and ankles of infected mice. Further, we observed delayed induction of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as reduced CD4 + T cell and NK cell recruitment compared to those in the parental strain. Therefore, the opal termination codon plays an important role in CHIKV pathogenesis, independently of effects on viral replication. IMPORTANCE Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes significant outbreaks of viral arthralgia. Studies with CHIKV and other alphaviruses demonstrated that the opal termination codon within nsP3 is highly conserved. However, some strains of CHIKV and other alphaviruses contain mutations in the opal termination codon. These mutations alter the virulence

  13. China’s Role at Global and Regional Levels from the Perspective of Trade and FDI Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Șincai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration its economic scale and growth potential, we can assert that China represents a regional as well a global player. Gradually, its growth model centred on exports becomes one based on innovation in which exports have a complementary role. Our objective is to reflect China’s role in the field of trade and FDI at regional and global level as well as its transformation into an economy centred on innovation. Following this rationale, the present paper is structured around four main sections, as follows. First, we bring to the forefront the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the Chinese economy and on two of its growth engines: the internal demand and exports. Second, we present China’s trade in goods as one of the main engines of its economic growth. Third, we demonstrate that China represents the linkage between the Eastern, Southern and South-Eastern Asian countries through FDI flows. Fourth, we reflect how China becomes gradually an economy centred on innovation.

  14. The role of pioneers as indicators of biogeographic range expansion caused by global change in southern African coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; James, Nicola C.; Lamberth, Stephen J.; Adams, Janine B.; Perissinotto, Renzo; Rajkaran, Anusha; Bornman, Thomas G.

    2016-04-01

    The South African coastline is just over 3000 km in length yet it covers three major biogeographic regions, namely subtropical, warm temperate and cool temperate. In this review we examine published information to assess the possible role of climate change in driving distributional changes of a wide variety of organisms around the subcontinent. In particular we focus on harmful algal blooms, seaweeds, eelgrass, mangroves, salt marsh plants, foraminiferans, stromatolites, corals, squid, zooplankton, zoobenthos, fish, birds, crocodiles and hippopotamus, but also refer to biota such as pathogens, coralline algae, jellyfish and otters. The role of pioneers or propagules as indicators of an incipient range expansion are discussed, with mangroves, zoobenthos, fishes and birds providing the best examples of actual and imminent distributional changes. The contraction of the warm temperate biogeographic region, arising from the intrusion of cool upwelled waters along the Western Cape shores, and increasingly warm Agulhas Current waters penetrating along the eastern parts of the subcontinent, are highlighted. The above features provide an ideal setting for the monitoring of biotic drivers and responses to global climate change over different spatial and temporal scales, and have direct relevance to similar studies being conducted elsewhere in the world. We conclude that, although this review focuses mainly on the impact of global climate change on South African coastal biodiversity, other anthropogenic drivers of change such as introduced alien invasive species may act synergistically with climate change, thereby compounding both short and long-term changes in the distribution and abundance of indigenous species.

  15. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  16. Global Role and Burden of Influenza in Pediatric Respiratory Hospitalizations, 1982-2012: A Systematic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Lafond

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of pediatric severe respiratory illness is substantial, and influenza viruses contribute to this burden. Systematic surveillance and testing for influenza among hospitalized children has expanded globally over the past decade. However, only a fraction of the data has been used to estimate influenza burden. In this analysis, we use surveillance data to provide an estimate of influenza-associated hospitalizations among children worldwide.We aggregated data from a systematic review (n = 108 and surveillance platforms (n = 37 to calculate a pooled estimate of the proportion of samples collected from children hospitalized with respiratory illnesses and positive for influenza by age group (<6 mo, <1 y, <2 y, <5 y, 5-17 y, and <18 y. We applied this proportion to global estimates of acute lower respiratory infection hospitalizations among children aged <1 y and <5 y, to obtain the number and per capita rate of influenza-associated hospitalizations by geographic region and socio-economic status. Influenza was associated with 10% (95% CI 8%-11% of respiratory hospitalizations in children <18 y worldwide, ranging from 5% (95% CI 3%-7% among children <6 mo to 16% (95% CI 14%-20% among children 5-17 y. On average, we estimated that influenza results in approximately 374,000 (95% CI 264,000 to 539,000 hospitalizations in children <1 y-of which 228,000 (95% CI 150,000 to 344,000 occur in children <6 mo-and 870,000 (95% CI 610,000 to 1,237,000 hospitalizations in children <5 y annually. Influenza-associated hospitalization rates were more than three times higher in developing countries than in industrialized countries (150/100,000 children/year versus 48/100,000. However, differences in hospitalization practices between settings are an important limitation in interpreting these findings.Influenza is an important contributor to respiratory hospitalizations among young children worldwide. Increasing influenza vaccination coverage among young

  17. Role of the upper ocean structure in the response of ENSO-like SST variability to global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Sang-Wook [Hanyang University, Department of Environmental Marine Science, Ansan (Korea); Dewitte, Boris [Laboratoire d' Etude en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale, Toulouse (France); Yim, Bo Young; Noh, Yign [Yonsei University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Global Environmental Laboratory, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    The response of El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-like variability to global warming varies comparatively between the two different climate system models, i.e., the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Coupled General Circulation Models (CGCMs). Here, we examine the role of the simulated upper ocean temperature structure in the different sensitivities of the simulated ENSO variability in the models based on the different level of CO{sub 2} concentrations. In the MRI model, the sea surface temperature (SST) undergoes a rather drastic modification, namely a tendency toward a permanent El Nino-like state. This is associated with an enhanced stratification which results in greater ENSO amplitude for the MRI model. On the other hand, the ENSO simulated by GFDL model is hardly modified although the mean temperature in the near surface layer increases. In order to understand the associated mechanisms we carry out a vertical mode decomposition of the mean equatorial stratification and a simplified heat balance analysis using an intermediate tropical Pacific model tuned from the CGCM outputs. It is found that in the MRI model the increased stratification is associated with an enhancement of the zonal advective feedback and the non-linear advection. In the GFDL model, on the other hand, the thermocline variability and associated anomalous vertical advection are reduced in the eastern equatorial Pacific under global warming, which erodes the thermocline feedback and explains why the ENSO amplitude is reduced in a warmer climate in this model. It is suggested that change in stratification associated with global warming impacts the equatorial wave dynamics in a way that enhances the second baroclinic mode over the gravest one, which leads to the change in feedback processes in the CGCMs. Our results illustrate that the upper ocean vertical structure simulated in the CGCMs is a key parameter of the sensitivity of ENSO

  18. China's role as a global health donor in Africa: what can we learn from studying under reported resource flows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grépin, Karen A; Fan, Victoria Y; Shen, Gordon C; Chen, Lucy

    2014-12-30

    There is a growing recognition of China's role as a global health donor, in particular in Africa, but there have been few systematic studies of the level, destination, trends, or composition of these development finance flows or a comparison of China's engagement as a donor with that of more traditional global health donors. Using newly released data from AidData on China's development finance activities in Africa, developed to track under reported resource flows, we identified 255 health, population, water, and sanitation (HPWS) projects from 2000-2012, which we descriptively analyze by activity sector, recipient country, project type, and planned activity. We compare China's activities to projects from traditional donors using data from the OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Creditor Reporting System. Since 2000, China increased the number of HPWS projects it supported in Africa and health has increased as a development priority for China. China's contributions are large, ranking it among the top 10 bilateral global health donors to Africa. Over 50% of the HPWS projects target infrastructure, 40% target human resource development, and the provision of equipment and drugs is also common. Malaria is an important disease priority but HIV is not. We find little evidence that China targets health aid preferentially to natural resource rich countries. China is an important global health donor to Africa but contrasts with traditional DAC donors through China's focus on health system inputs and on malaria. Although better data are needed, particularly through more transparent aid data reporting across ministries and agencies, China's approach to South-South cooperation represents an important and distinct source of financial assistance for health in Africa.

  19. The role of moisture transport between ground and atmosphere in global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rind, D.; Rosenzweig, C.; Stieglitz, M.

    1997-01-01

    Projections of the effect of climate change on future water availability are examined by reviewing the formulations used to calculate moisture transport between the ground and the atmosphere. General circulation models and climate change impact models have substantially different formulations for evapotranspiration, so their projections of future water availability often disagree, even though they use the same temperature and precipitation forecasts. General circulation models forecast little change in tropical and subtropical water availability, while impact models show severe water and agricultural shortages. A comparison of observations and modeling techniques shows that the parameterizations in general circulation models likely lead to an underestimate of the impacts of global warming on soil moisture and vegetation. Such errors would crucially affect the temperature and precipitation forecasts used in impact models. Some impact model evaporation formulations are probably more appropriate than those in general circulation models, but important questions remain. More observations are needed, especially in the vicinity of forests, to determine appropriate parameterizations

  20. The World Health Organization Global Health Emergency Workforce: What Role Will the United States Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-08-01

    During the May 2016 World Health Assembly of 194 member states, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the process of developing and launching emergency medical teams as a critical component of the global health workforce concept. Over 64 countries have either launched or are in the development stages of vetting accredited teams, both international and national, to provide surge support to national health systems through WHO Regional Organizations and the delivery of emergency clinical care to sudden-onset disasters and outbreak-affected populations. To date, the United States has not yet committed to adopting the emergency medical team concept in funding and registering an international field hospital level team. This article discusses future options available for health-related nongovernmental organizations and the required educational and training requirements for health care provider accreditation. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:531-535).

  1. Globalization, international trade and animal health: the new roles of OIE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, Alejandro B

    2005-02-01

    In order for countries and their stakeholders to maximize the benefits of globalization they must become familiar with, and must adhere to, the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization (WTO) under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS). For the purpose of trade in animals and animal products, they must also adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Countries are also encouraged to participate in this standard setting process of the OIE. Only after implementing these requirements and after strengthening the veterinary infrastructures and their surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from these new international trade rules.

  2. The Role of a Multidimensional Concept of Trust in the Performance of Global Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodensteiner, Nan Muir; Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the concept of trust as an important ingredient of effective global virtual team performance. Definitions of trust and virtual teams are presented. The concept of trust is developed from its unilateral application (trust, absence of trust) to a multidimensional concept including cognitive and affective components. The special challenges of a virtual team are then discussed with particular emphasis on how a multidimensional concept of trust impacts these challenges. Propositions suggesting the multidimensional concept of trust moderates the negative impacts of distance, cross cultural and organizational differences, the effects of electronically mediated communication, reluctance to share information and a lack of hi story/future on the performance of virtual teams are stated. The paper concludes with recommendations and a set of techniques to build both cognitive and affective trust in virtual teams.

  3. Mitigation of global warming and the role of identification of greenhouse gas sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST) is an organization supporting R and D of frontier science and technologies under the full sponsorship of the government of Japan. Under the umbrella of JST the author is in charge of a program called 'Environment friendly social systems' which includes more than 20 research projects for better environment (with as an average of 1 million US dollars per project per year). One of the projects in this program is on development of isotopomer technology and its use in identifying greenhouse gas (GHG) sources headed by Prof. N.Yoshida. JST earnestly hopes that it can contribute as much as possible to mitigation of global warming through the support of important research projects such as Yoshida's. (author)

  4. Role of nuclear energy in the global energy picture of the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizia, K.; Schwarz, D.

    1991-01-01

    Problems associated with fossil fuel (Gulf crisis, ecology, conservation, global warming) cannot be solved with saving and renewables alone. A larger nuclear share of electricity, electricity for more applications, and nuclear heat are needed. For the last, the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is best suited. Its most important contribution would be the production of methanol as a motor fuel. Also nuclear steel-making, H 2 and CO for chemistry and refineries, A1 2 O 3 kilns, process steam for industry, oil production and desalination, district heating or production of H 2 , substitute natural gas, and liquefied coal for space heating should be considered. Later on, nuclear current and HTGR heat can be used to split water to produce hydrogen. An international effort is recommended to exploit these possibilities. (Author)

  5. The Role of Media Pedagogy in Post-Crisis Societies within a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilia Stingl de Vasconcelos Guedes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although globalization as a phenomenon is perceived in everyday life as an economic process, it is strongly con-nected with culture, knowledge, communication and mediated information, forcing today's societies to face novel communicative challenges while trying to maintain stability. For post-crisis societies, these challenges repre-sent a new level of complexity to overcome. Many re-gions in the world still face conflicts and crises and will eventually face similar situations regarding their commu-nication, media and culture. This paper uses data from two empiric studies made in post-crisis societies (Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo; studies in Santos 2010 and Shahini-Hoxhaj 2014 and analyses them through the perspective of cultural science, social systems theory, and systems thinking to answer the question: What kind of system dynamics can be helpful to generate knowledge, assuming the interactive use of media and global connection, and how can media educa-tion be an active support for the self-organization of a community in a transitional process? The societies in question are not only moving away from dictatorship, but they are also moving towards democra-cy, and the media as means of communication are con-tributing to this process. From the point of view of cultural science, the media are no longer just the producer of content for recipients. Media is the venue, the place where information, values and structures can be ex-changed and discussed. Recipients and producers of in-formation are now one and the same.

  6. Roles of transport and chemistry processes in global ozone change on interannual and multidecadal time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, T.; Sudo, K.

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates ozone changes and the individual impacts of transport and chemistry on those changes. We specifically examine (1) variation related to El Niño Southern Oscillation, which is a dominant mode of interannual variation of tropospheric ozone, and (2) long-term change between the 2000s and 2100s. During El Niño, the simulated ozone shows an increase (1 ppbv/K) over Indonesia, a decrease (2-10 ppbv/K) over the eastern Pacific in the tropical troposphere, and an increase (50 ppbv/K) over the eastern Pacific in the midlatitude lower stratosphere. These variations fundamentally agree with those observed by Microwave Limb Sounder/Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer instruments. The model demonstrates that tropospheric chemistry has a strong impact on the variation over the eastern Pacific in the tropical lower troposphere and that transport dominates the variation in the midlatitude lower stratosphere. Between the 2000s and 2100s, the model predicts an increase in the global burden of stratospheric ozone (0.24%/decade) and a decrease in the global burden of tropospheric ozone (0.82%/decade). The increase in the stratospheric burden is controlled by stratospheric chemistry. Tropospheric chemistry reduces the tropospheric burden by 1.07%/decade. However, transport (i.e., stratosphere-troposphere exchange and tropospheric circulation) causes an increase in the burden (0.25%/decade). Additionally, we test the sensitivity of ozone changes to increased horizontal resolution of the representation of atmospheric circulation and advection apart from any aspects of the nonlinearity of chemistry sensitivity to horizontal resolution. No marked difference is found in medium-resolution or high-resolution simulations, suggesting that the increased horizontal resolution of transport has a minor impact.

  7. Recent changes in aquatic biota in subarctic Fennoscandia - the role of global and local environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckström, Jan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Sorvari, Sanna; Kaukolehto, Marjut; Weckström, Kaarina; Korhola, Atte

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic, representing a fifth of the earth's surface, is highly sensitive to the predicted future warming and it has indeed been warming up faster than most other regions. This makes the region critically important and highlights the need to investigate the earliest signals of global warming and its impacts on the arctic and subarctic aquatic ecosystems and their biota. It has been demonstrated that many Arctic freshwater ecosystems have already experienced dramatic and unpreceded regime shifts during the last ca. 150 years, primarily driven by climate warming. However, despite the indisputable impact of climate-related variables on freshwater ecosystems other, especially local-scale catchment related variables (e.g. geology, vegetation, human activities) may override the climate signal and become the primary factor in shaping the structure of aquatic ecosystems. Although many studies have contributed to an improved understanding of limnological and hydrobiological features of Artic and subarctic lakes, much information is still needed especially on the interaction between the biotic and abiotic components, i.e. on factors controlling the food web dynamics in these sensitive aquatic ecosystems. This is of special importance as these lakes are of great value in water storage, flood prevention, and maintenance of biodiversity, in addition to which they are vital resources for settlement patterns, food production, recreation, and tourism. In this study we compare the pre-industrial sediment assemblages of primary producers (diatoms and Pediastrum) and primary consumers (cladoceran and chironomids) with their modern assemblages (a top-bottom approach) from 50 subarctic Fennoscandian lakes. We will evaluate the recent regional pattern of changes in aquatic assemblages, and assess how coherent the lakes' responses are across the subarctic area. Moreover, the impact of global (e.g. climate, precipitation) and local (e.g. lake and its catchment characteristics) scale

  8. Global patterns in Earth's dynamic topography since the Jurassic: the role of subducted slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rubey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the spatial and temporal evolution of Earth's long-wavelength surface dynamic topography since the Jurassic using a series of high-resolution global mantle convection models. These models are Earth-like in terms of convective vigour, thermal structure, surface heat-flux and the geographic distribution of heterogeneity. The models generate a degree-2-dominated spectrum of dynamic topography with negative amplitudes above subducted slabs (i.e. circum-Pacific regions and southern Eurasia and positive amplitudes elsewhere (i.e. Africa, north-western Eurasia and the central Pacific. Model predictions are compared with published observations and subsidence patterns from well data, both globally and for the Australian and southern African regions. We find that our models reproduce the long-wavelength component of these observations, although observed smaller-scale variations are not reproduced. We subsequently define geodynamic rules for how different surface tectonic settings are affected by mantle processes: (i locations in the vicinity of a subduction zone show large negative dynamic topography amplitudes; (ii regions far away from convergent margins feature long-term positive dynamic topography; and (iii rapid variations in dynamic support occur along the margins of overriding plates (e.g. the western US and at points located on a plate that rapidly approaches a subduction zone (e.g. India and the Arabia Peninsula. Our models provide a predictive quantitative framework linking mantle convection with plate tectonics and sedimentary basin evolution, thus improving our understanding of how subduction and mantle convection affect the spatio-temporal evolution of basin architecture.

  9. Bubble formation after a 20-m dive: deep-stop vs. shallow-stop decompression profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Nico A. M.; Corstius, Jan-Jaap Brandt; Germonpré, Peter; Sterk, Wouter

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is claimed that performing a "deep stop," a stop at about half of maximal diving depth (MDD), can reduce the amount of detectable precordial bubbles after the dive and may thus diminish the risk of decompression sickness. In order to ascertain whether this reduction is caused by the

  10. The role of strategic missile defence in the global architecture de ballistic non proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Whereas some think that missile defence is a proliferation agent by nature and therefore undermines the already fragile regime of ballistic non proliferation, some others think that missile defence could underpin the non proliferation regime. The author thus discusses these issues and both points of view by commenting the ambiguous discursive relationships between missile defence and arms control, and by highlighting the various roles and missions given to missile defence, notably in treaties (like the ABM treaty) and postures adopted by concerned countries

  11. The extent of the stop coannihilation strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zheng, Jiaming [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Many supersymmetric models such as the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino χ is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle, the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic χ cold darkmatter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and we explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the t{sub 1} may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper. (orig.)

  12. The stopping rules for winsorized tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, Chee Keong; Mahat, Nor Idayu

    2017-11-01

    Winsorized tree is a modified tree-based classifier that is able to investigate and to handle all outliers in all nodes along the process of constructing the tree. It overcomes the tedious process of constructing a classical tree where the splitting of branches and pruning go concurrently so that the constructed tree would not grow bushy. This mechanism is controlled by the proposed algorithm. In winsorized tree, data are screened for identifying outlier. If outlier is detected, the value is neutralized using winsorize approach. Both outlier identification and value neutralization are executed recursively in every node until predetermined stopping criterion is met. The aim of this paper is to search for significant stopping criterion to stop the tree from further splitting before overfitting. The result obtained from the conducted experiment on pima indian dataset proved that the node could produce the final successor nodes (leaves) when it has achieved the range of 70% in information gain.

  13. Electron stopping powers for transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The reliability of radiation transport calculations depends on the accuracy of the input cross sections. Therefore, it is essential to review and update the cross sections from time to time. Even though the main interest of the author's group at NBS is in transport calculations and their applications, the group spends almost as much time on the analysis and preparation of cross sections as on the development of transport codes. Stopping powers, photon attenuation coefficients, bremsstrahlung cross sections, and elastic-scattering cross sections in recent years have claimed attention. This chapter deals with electron stopping powers (with emphasis on collision stopping powers), and reviews the state of the art as reflected by Report 37 of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements

  14. Global Partitioning of NOx Sources Using Satellite Observations: Relative Roles of Fossil Fuel Combustion, Biomass Burning and Soil Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegle, Lyatt; Steinberger, Linda; Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the following abstract for the paper "Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions." Satellite observations have been used to provide important new information about emissions of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are significant in atmospheric chemistry, having a role in ozone air pollution, acid deposition and climate change. We know that human activities have led to a three- to six-fold increase in NOx emissions since pre-industrial times, and that there are three main surface sources of NOx: fuel combustion, large-scale fires, and microbial soil processes. How each of these sources contributes to the total NOx emissions is subject to some doubt, however. The problem is that current NOx emission inventories rely on bottom-up approaches, compiling large quantities of statistical information from diverse sources such as fuel and land use, agricultural data, and estimates of burned areas. This results in inherently large uncertainties. To overcome this, Lyatt Jaegle and colleagues from the University of Washington, USA, used new satellite observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. As the spatial and seasonal distribution of each of the sources of NOx can be clearly mapped from space, the team could provide independent topdown constraints on the individual strengths of NOx sources, and thus help resolve discrepancies in existing inventories. Jaegle's analysis of the satellite observations, presented at the recent Faraday Discussion on "Atmospheric Chemistry", shows that fuel combustion dominates emissions at northern mid-latitudes, while fires are a significant source in the Tropics. Additionally, she discovered a larger than expected role for soil emissions, especially over agricultural regions with heavy fertilizer use. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  15. Background monitoring and its role in global estimation and forecast of the state of the biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izrael, Y A

    1982-12-01

    (1) Scientific grounds and the concept of monitoring as the system for observations, assessment and prediction of man-induced changes in the state of natural environment, the program and aims of the background monitoring were developed by the author in 1972-1980. These questions were discussed in detail at the International Symposium on Global Integrated Monitoring (Riga, U.S.S.R., December, 1978). It should be stressed that along with significant anthropogenic loading on large cities and industrial areas, natural ecosystems covering most of the Earth's territory are also exposed to quite extended, though insignificant anthropogenic effects. This paper proposes to consider the ways of the background information use for the biosphere state assessment and prediction. (2) Classification of objects for monitoring from the point of view of the consequences of the man-made impact, pollution in the first hand, is as follows: - population (public health); - ecosystem elements employed by man whose production is used by population (soil, water bodies, forest, etc.); - biotic elements of ecosystems (without the immediate consumed production); - abiotic constituents of natural ecosystems, considerable components of the biosphere, climatic system. (3) Historically, monitoring in all countries involves the first two spheres. The background monitoring also extends on the next two spheres. It should differentially take into account physical, chemical and biological factors of impacts. Indentification of biological effects is most complex and vital. Human impact at the background level proceeds indirectly through a general (global or regional) deterioration of the state of the biosphere. (4) Gradually the background monitoring is being practiced on a larger and larger scale. It is shown that the long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants in various regions leads to a gradual general increase of all the natural media pollution and to perceptible biological effects (soil and

  16. Stopping Power Measurements: Implications in Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Angulo; Thierry Delbar; Jean-Sebastien Graulich; Pierre Leleux

    1999-01-01

    The stopping powers of C, CH 2 , Al, Ni, and polyvinylchloride (PVC) for several light ions ( 9 Be, 11 B, 12 C, 14 N, 16 O, 19 F, 20 Ne) with an incident energy of 1 MeV/amu have been measured at the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility. Stopping powers are given relative to the one for 5.5 MeV 4 He ions with an uncertainty of less than 1%. We compare our results with two widely used semiempirical models and we discuss some implications in nuclear astrophysics studies

  17. Global Equity and Resource Sustainability: the Central Roles of Conservation and Enhanced Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2002-05-01

    The terrestrial biosphere arose at approximately 3.5 Ga, and since the early Archean, evolving life has maintained a dynamic equilibrium with solar energy and resources derived from the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. This well-integrated system persisted after the emergence of Homo sapiens while we remained in a hunter/gatherer mode. Beginning about 10,000 years ago, settled agriculture allowed for division of labor, and the rise of civilization. World population now exceeds six billion individuals, and is growing at about ninety million annually. By about 2050, demographic estimates put our numbers at 9-10 billion. Approximately 85 percent of humanity now reside in the Developing Nations. Most people desire the increased standard of living now confined to the Industrialized Nations (due largely to exploitation of the planet). The present distribution of wealth is grossly inequitable and politically destabilizing. But can all people be afforded reasonably comfortable lives without destroying planetary habitability? Of the Earth's net primary biological production, humans control about a third, and our share is increasing. The impact on the environment is largely adverse, resulting in heightened air and water pollution, accelerated loss of biodiversity, ecosystem services, topsoil, fisheries, tropical rain forests, and in global warming + sea-level rise. Implications for human welfare and for viability of the web of life are ominous. Modern societies are sustained by the extraction of energy, water, and other Earth materials far beyond renewal rates, limiting future global carrying capacity. Island communities (e. g., Easter Island, Haiti, Madagascar) provide sobering examples of the fate of cultures that overexploit their environments. The biological carrying capacity of the planet is unknown but finite, hence humanity eventually must reach a managed steady state involving efficient, universal resource recovery and world-wide conservation, while

  18. Power in global health agenda-setting: the role of private funding Comment on "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Ruth E

    2015-03-04

    The editorial by Jeremy Shiffman, "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health", highlights the influence on global health priority-setting of individuals and organizations that do not have a formal political mandate. This sheds light on the way key functions in global health depend on private funding, particularly from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  19. The Role Of Leadership Inside Organizations In The Context Of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Any organization, irrespective of the field, needs skilled leaders who have a vision and confidence in action.The leader plays various roles and the key issue is to determine how they influence the performance of the team they coordinate. The research method used was the mathematical modeling applied to the example of a team. The aim of the research is to identify the cooperation method in order to improve workers’ performance but also to minimize the possible conflicts which can affect the level of performance. The results of this research led us to conclusions regarding the characteristics of the team leader.

  20. Human factors in design modifications: panel alternative stop in Almaraz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Y.; Bote, J.

    2015-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering has acquired a crucial role in the development of any design modification (DM), where every aspect relative to any interaction with the human user has to be taken into account at any stage thereof. Considering this, during the last years, Almaraz Nuclear Powe Plants has developed a program of Human Factors Engineering in order to reach the internationally recognized standards or systematic collected on NUREG 0711 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NRC). One of the most important projects of this program at Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has been the implementation of the Alternative Stop Panel and their corresponding Transfer Panels. (Author)

  1. Assessing nutritional status in cancer: role of the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Ottery, Faith D

    2017-09-01

    The Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is used internationally as the reference method for proactive risk assessment (screening), assessment, monitoring and triaging for interventions in patients with cancer. This review aims to explain the rationale behind and data supporting the PG-SGA, and to provide an overview of recent developments in the utilization of the PG-SGA and the PG-SGA Short Form. The PG-SGA was designed in the context of a paradigm known as 'anabolic competence'. Uniquely, the PG-SGA evaluates the patient's status as a dynamic rather than static process. The PG-SGA has received new attention, particularly as a screening instrument for nutritional risk or deficit, identifying treatable impediments and guiding patients and professionals in triaging for interdisciplinary interventions. The international use of the PG-SGA indicates a critical need for high-quality and linguistically validated translations of the PG-SGA. As a 4-in-1 instrument, the PG-SGA can streamline clinic work flow and improve the quality of interaction between the clinician and the patient. The availability of multiple high-quality language versions of the PG-SGA enables the inclusion of the PG-SGA in international multicenter studies, facilitating meta-analysis and benchmarking across countries.

  2. The Key Role of Eyewitnesses in Rapid Impact Assessment of Global Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, R.; Steed, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Roussel, F.; Etivant, C.; Frobert, L.; Godey, S.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainties in rapid impact assessments of global earthquakes are intrinsically large because they rely on 3 main elements (ground motion prediction models, building stock inventory and related vulnerability) which values and/or spatial variations are poorly constrained. Furthermore, variations of hypocentral location and magnitude within their respective uncertainty domain can lead to significantly different shaking level for centers of population and change the scope of the disaster. We present the strategy and methods implemented at the Euro-Med Seismological Centre (EMSC) to rapidly collect in-situ observations on earthquake effects from eyewitnesses for reducing uncertainties of rapid earthquake impact assessment. It comprises crowdsourced information (online questionnaires, pics) as well as information derived from real time analysis of web traffic (flashourcing technique), and more recently deployment of QCN (Quake Catcher Network) low cost sensors. We underline the importance of merging results of different methods to improve performances and reliability of collected data.We try to better understand and respond to public demands and expectations after earthquakes through improved information services and diversification of information tools (social networks, smartphone app., browsers adds-on…), which, in turn, drive more eyewitnesses to our services and improve data collection. We will notably present our LastQuake Twitter feed (Quakebot) and smartphone applications (IOs and android) which only report earthquakes that matter for the public and authorities, i.e. felt and damaging earthquakes identified thanks to citizen generated information.

  3. The role of renewable energy in global warming mitigation - A critique of trusted assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rader, N.; Hamrin, J.

    1992-01-01

    Two recent Congressionally-commissioned studies - one by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and the other by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) - support the position that action should be taken now to reduce emissions causing global warming, and find that significant reductions can be achieved at relatively low cost. The authors accept these general conclusions, but take issue with the mix of energy options judged to be the most promising for reacting reduction targets. Specifically, they challenge the impression given in both reports that renewable energy will be, at best, an insignificant element in achieving greenhouse gas reductions. The OTA and NAS studies are important because it is generally assumed that they are based on rigorous, objective analysis and do not contain significant biases. Upon inspection of the recent greenhouse mitigation studies, however, several shortcomings are apparent, the most egregious of which was a general failure to re-evaluate renewables based on recent evidence. Over the last decade, advances in technology have reduced the costs of solar and wind electricity by 60-75% and increased reliability to the point where these resources, along with geothermal and biomass, can now compete with conventional electric plants in some markets, especially those in which environmental benefits are considered. These resources must be accurately valued to optimize carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reduction strategies. This article identifies the various ways in which these reports have failed in this task

  4. THE GLOBAL EVOLUTION OF GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE ROLE OF ACCRETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Matzner, Christopher D.; McKee, Christopher F.

    2011-01-01

    We present virial models for the global evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Focusing on the presence of an accretion flow and accounting for the amount of mass, momentum, and energy supplied by accretion and star formation feedback, we are able to follow the growth, evolution, and dispersal of individual GMCs. Our model clouds reproduce the scaling relations observed in both galactic and extragalactic clouds. We find that accretion and star formation contribute roughly equal amounts of turbulent kinetic energy over the lifetime of the cloud. Clouds attain virial equilibrium and grow in such a way as to maintain roughly constant surface densities, with typical surface densities of order 50-200 M sun pc -2 , in good agreement with observations of GMCs in the Milky Way and nearby external galaxies. We find that as clouds grow, their velocity dispersion and radius must also increase, implying that the linewidth-size relation constitutes an age sequence. Lastly, we compare our models to observations of GMCs and associated young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud and find good agreement between our model clouds and the observed relationship between H II regions, young star clusters, and GMCs.

  5. The Study of Government’s Role for Welfaring Rubber Farmer in The Globalization Vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahrudin HM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubber is a type of plant that has been cultivated by the people of Indonesia for long a time. Until now, farmers have become the largest party to cultivate rubber in Indonesia (85.10% and contribute greatly to the nation’s economy, but are still far from prosperous. Rubber products produced by farmers are priced cheap so that they incomes are very small and create income inequality. As an export commodity, rubber is highly dependent with overseas which determines the price. In this context, the government through the bureaucratic system serves to produce a series of innovative-solutive development program in order to keep the people from the negative impacts of globalization. This effort can be run by the government with adopting The New Public Service Paradigm as part of efforts to better public services for the people. It is implementation in the form of domestic rubber needs priorities, bringing the industry to the center of rubber, training of rubber farmers, and improvement of transportation infrastructures.

  6. The advanced fuel cycle facility (AFCF) role in the global nuclear energy partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), launched in February, 2006, proposes to introduce used nuclear fuel recycling in the United States with improved proliferation-resistance and a more effective waste management approach. This program is evaluating ways to close the fuel cycle in a manner that builds on recent laboratory breakthroughs in U.S. national laboratories and draws on international and industry partnerships. Central to moving this advanced fuel recycling technology from the laboratory to commercial implementation is a flexible research, development and demonstration facility, called the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF was introduced as one of three projects under GNEP and will provide the U.S. with the capabilities to evaluate technologies that separate used fuel into reusable material and waste in a proliferation-resistant manner. The separations technology demonstration capability is coupled with a remote transmutation fuel fabrication demonstration capability in an integrated manner that demonstrates advanced safeguard technologies. This paper will discuss the key features of AFCF and its support of the GNEP objectives. (author)

  7. The role of industrial nitrogen in the global nitrogen biogeochemical cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Baojing; Chang, Jie; Min, Yong; Ge, Ying; Zhu, Qiuan; Galloway, James N.; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Haber-Bosch nitrogen (N) has been increasingly used in industrial products, e.g., nylon, besides fertilizer. Massive numbers of species of industrial reactive N (Nr) have emerged and produced definite consequences but receive little notice. Based on a comprehensive inventory, we show that (1) the industrial N flux has increased globally from 2.5 to 25.4 Tg N yr−1 from 1960 through 2008, comparable to the NOx emissions from fossil fuel combustion; (2) more than 25% of industrial products (primarily structural forms, e.g., nylon) tend to accumulate in human settlements due to their long service lives; (3) emerging Nr species define new N-assimilation and decomposition pathways and change the way that Nr is released to the environment; and (4) the loss of these Nr species to the environment has significant negative human and ecosystem impacts. Incorporating industrial Nr into urban environmental and biogeochemical models could help to advance urban ecology and environmental sciences. PMID:23999540

  8. Is there any cardioprotective role of Taurine during cold ischemic period following global myocardial ischemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamsizkan Mehmet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect of Taurine on the donor hearts during cold ischemic period. Methods 32 rats were divided into four groups (sham, taurine, ischemia, treatment group, 8 rats in each. All rats were fed with rat food for three weeks. Taurine and treatment groups were given a 200 mg/kg/day dose of Taurine by oral gavage besides rat feed. Cardiectomy was performed in all rats after three weeks. In ischemia and treatment groups, harvested hearts were kept in 0.9% sodium chloride at +4 degrees C for 5 hours. Tissue samples were taken from left ventricle in all groups. These samples were evaluated by histopathologic and biochemical examination. Results In the present study results of the biochemical and histopathological examination reveals the protective effects of Taurine. As a marker of lipid peroxidation, Malondialdehyde (MDA levels in ischemia group were significantly higher than both Sham and Taurine groups. MDA values were recorded; 3.62 ± 0.197 in the sham group, 2.07 ± 0.751 in the Taurine group, 9.71 ± 1.439 in the ischemia group and 7.68 ± 1.365 in the treatment group. MDA levels decreased in treatment group. (p Conclusion Taurine decreased myocardial damage during cold ischemic period following global myocardial ischemia.

  9. Lessons Learned and Legacy of the Stop Transmission of Polio Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Yinka; Mailhot, Melinda; Williams, Alford A J; Swezy, Virginia; Quick, Linda; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Ward, Kirsten; Benke, Amalia; Callaghan, Anna; Clark, Kathleen; Emery, Brian; Nix, Jessica; Aydlotte, Eleanor; Newman, Charlotte; Nkowane, Benjamin

    2017-07-01

    In 1988, the by the World Health Assembly established the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, which consisted of a partnership among the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the United Nations Children's Fund. By 2016, the annual incidence of polio had decreased by >99.9%, compared with 1988, and at the time of writing, only 3 countries in which wild poliovirus circulation has never been interrupted remain: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. A key strategy for polio eradication has been the development of a skilled and deployable workforce to implement eradication activities across the globe. In 1999, the Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program was developed and initiated by the CDC, in collaboration with the WHO, to train and mobilize additional human resources to provide technical assistance to polio-endemic countries. STOP has also informed the development of other public health workforce capacity to support polio eradication efforts, including national STOP programs. In addition, the program has diversified to address measles and rubella elimination, data management and quality, and strengthening routine immunization programs. This article describes the STOP program and how it has contributed to polio eradication by building global public health workforce capacity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  10. Evaluating the Effects of Traffic on Driver Stopping and Turn Signal Use at a Stop Sign: A Systematic Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebbon, Angela R.; Austin, John; Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, Louis E.

    2007-01-01

    The current analyses of observational data found that oncoming traffic substantially affected driver stopping patterns and turn signal use at the target stop sign. The percentage of legal stops and turn signal use by drivers in the presence and absence of traffic was analyzed using a multi-element design. The results showed that legal stops were…

  11. Global differences in dialysis modality mix: the role of patient characteristics, macroeconomics and renal service indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Luijtgaarden, Moniek W M; Jager, Kitty J; Stel, Vianda S; Kramer, Anneke; Cusumano, Ana; Elliott, Robert F; Geue, Claudia; MacLeod, Alison M; Stengel, Benedicte; Covic, Adrian; Caskey, Fergus J

    2013-05-01

    An increase in the dialysis programme expenditure is expected in most countries given the continued rise in the number of people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) globally. Since chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy is relatively less expensive compared with haemodialysis (HD) and because there is no survival difference between PD and HD, identifying factors associated with PD use is important. Incidence counts for the years 2003-05 were available from 36 countries worldwide. We studied associations of population characteristics, macroeconomic factors and renal service indicators with the percentage of patients on PD at Day 91 after starting dialysis. With linear regression models, we obtained relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The median percentage of incident patients on PD was 12% (interquartile range: 7-26%). Determinants independently associated with lower percentages of patients on PD were as follows: patients with diabetic kidney disease (per 5% increase) (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.89-0.97), health expenditure as % gross domestic product (per 1% increase) (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.87-0.98), private-for-profit share of HD facilities (per 1% increase) (RR 0.996; 95% CI 0.99-1.00; P = 0.04), costs of PD consumables relative to staffing (per 0.1 increase) (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.95-0.99). The factors associated with a lower percentage of patients on PD include higher diabetes prevalence, higher healthcare expenditures, larger share of private-for-profit centres and higher costs of PD consumables relative to staffing. Whether dialysis modality mix can be influenced by changing healthcare organization and funding requires additional studies.

  12. Electric energy: global perspective, the brazilian desires and the nuclear generation role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Dieguez, Jose Antonio Diaz; Imakuma, Kengo

    2003-01-01

    An evaluation of nuclear power perspectives considering the concepts of sustainable development and energy needs for developed and under development countries was made. It is clear that the role of nuclear energy - as an economical, safe and emissions-free source of electric energy - will depend on the solution of some fundamental questions. Expanding capacity of nuclear energy should focus primarily on the need for innovation in nuclear fuel cycles and nuclear power plants. In connection with these evaluations a foresight study on the nuclear area was conducted in Brazil with a small group of experts in order to find out the requirements for the future reactors. This paper describes the purpose, methodology, results and conclusions of this prospective exercise. A comparison is also made with the preliminary results obtained by GIF and INPRO international initiatives whose main objective is to identify the mos promising technologies for future generations of nuclear reactors. (author)

  13. The role and importance of ECB's monetary policy in the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stakić Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role and importance of the European Central Bank (ECB in the context of measures and effects that are being taken to repair the consequences of the current economic crisis. The ECB, together with the European single currency, the euro, symbolizes long-lasting monetary integration of the EU states. Such form of integration has created the possibility of a supranational action of ECB in the banking sector and financial markets in general. Along with the other most important central banks in the world, the ECB applies various unconventional instruments of monetary policy to stimulate economic growth and development. In this context, the paper explains the nature and mechanism of such measures in order to influence on the insufficient liquidity in the financial markets.

  14. The Role of Divine Revelation and Religious Teachings in Human Rights System: Security and Global Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghayyoum Zadeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Peace and security have always been considered as one of man’s concerns. The basis of peace and security should be sought in the theoretical foundations. However, the drafters of universal human rights have struggled to attain peace and security away from religious principles. The present article intends to introduce universal human rights in the light of religious teachings and elaborate on the related religious principles. It also deals with the distinctions between the principles governing the present world with regard to human rights and religious principles to show that if religious principles are seriously followed in the international relations, they will bring about perpetual peace and security for mankind. Therefore, Religion has a unique role in peace and security.

  15. The role of calcifying organisms in the global CO sub 2 cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayanne, H; Miyachi, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1991-11-01

    The increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} is recognised as a serious problem. The coral reefs of the Japanese islands fix 2.2 kg CO{sub 2}/m per year as organic carbon and 2.1 kg CO{sub 2}/m per year as calcium carbonate. The potential CO{sub 2} fixation of the Ryukyu reefs is 1.4 per cent of CO{sub 2} emission from Japan. Technology is being established to enhance the rate of CO{sub 2} fixation. Calcareous algae also play an important role in the calcification, and the mass culture of marine unicellular coccolith former is under investigation in Japan. 4 refs., 3 boxes.

  16. Role of exercise in the management of diabetes mellitus: the global scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thent, Zar Chi; Das, Srijit; Henry, Leonard Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training programs have emerged as a useful therapeutic regimen for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Majority of the Western studies highlighted the effective role of exercise in T2DM. Therefore, the main aim was to focus on the extent, type of exercise and its clinical significance in T2DM in order to educate the clinicians from developing countries, especially in Asians. Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google scholar were searched using the terms "type 2 diabetes mellitus," "type 2 DM," "exercise," and/or "physical activity," and "type 2 diabetes mellitus with exercise." Only clinical or human studies published in English language between 2000 and 2012 were included. Certain criteria were assigned to achieve appropriate results. Twenty five studies met the selected criteria. The majority of the studies were randomized controlled trial study design (65%). Most of the aerobic exercise based studies showed a beneficial effect in T2DM. Resistance exercise also proved to have positive effect on T2DM patients. Minimal studies related to other types of exercises such as yoga classes, joba riding and endurance-type exercise were found. On the other hand, United States of America (USA) showed strong interest of exercise management towards T2DM. Aerobic exercise is more common in clinical practice compared to resistance exercise in managing T2DM. Treatment of T2DM with exercise training showed promising role in USA. A large number of researches are mandatory in the developing countries for incorporating exercise in the effective management of T2DM.

  17. Global Proteomic Analysis Reveals an Exclusive Role of Thylakoid Membranes in Bioenergetics of a Model Cyanobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberton, Michelle; Saha, Rajib; Jacobs, Jon M.; Nguyen, Amelia Y.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Smith, Richard D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2016-04-07

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microbes with highly differentiated membrane systems. These organisms contain an outer membrane, plasma membrane, and an internal system of thylakoid membranes where the photosynthetic and respiratory machinery are found. This existence of compartmentalization and differentiation of membrane systems poses a number of challenges for cyanobacterial cells in terms of organization and distribution of proteins to the correct membrane system. Proteomics studies have long sought to identify the components of the different membrane systems, and to date about 450 different proteins have been attributed to either the plasma membrane or thylakoid membrane. Given the complexity of these membranes, many more proteins remain to be identified in these membrane systems, and a comprehensive catalog of plasma membrane and thylakoid membrane proteins is needed. Here we describe the identification of 635 proteins in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by quantitative iTRAQ isobaric labeling; of these, 459 proteins were localized to the plasma membrane and 176 were localized to the thylakoid membrane. Surprisingly, we found over 2.5 times the number of unique proteins identified in the plasma membrane compared to the thylakoid membrane. This suggests that the protein composition of the thylakoid membrane is more homogeneous than the plasma membrane, consistent with the role of the plasma membrane in diverse cellular processes including protein trafficking and nutrient import, compared to a more specialized role for the thylakoid membrane in cellular energetics. Overall, the protein composition of the Synechocystis 6803 plasma membrane and thylakoid membrane is quite similar to the E.coli plasma membrane and Arabidopsis thylakoid membrane, respectively. Synechocystis 6803 can therefore be described as a gram-negative bacterium that has an additional internal membrane system that fulfils the energetic requirements of the cell.

  18. Role of exercise in the management of diabetes mellitus: the global scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Chi Thent

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exercise training programs have emerged as a useful therapeutic regimen for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Majority of the Western studies highlighted the effective role of exercise in T2DM. Therefore, the main aim was to focus on the extent, type of exercise and its clinical significance in T2DM in order to educate the clinicians from developing countries, especially in Asians. METHODS: Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google scholar were searched using the terms "type 2 diabetes mellitus," "type 2 DM," "exercise," and/or "physical activity," and "type 2 diabetes mellitus with exercise." Only clinical or human studies published in English language between 2000 and 2012 were included. Certain criteria were assigned to achieve appropriate results. RESULTS: Twenty five studies met the selected criteria. The majority of the studies were randomized controlled trial study design (65%. Most of the aerobic exercise based studies showed a beneficial effect in T2DM. Resistance exercise also proved to have positive effect on T2DM patients. Minimal studies related to other types of exercises such as yoga classes, joba riding and endurance-type exercise were found. On the other hand, United States of America (USA showed strong interest of exercise management towards T2DM. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise is more common in clinical practice compared to resistance exercise in managing T2DM. Treatment of T2DM with exercise training showed promising role in USA. A large number of researches are mandatory in the developing countries for incorporating exercise in the effective management of T2DM.

  19. Global increases in allergic respiratory disease: the possible role of diesel exhaust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B; Saxon, A

    1996-10-01

    Reading this article will enable the readers to recognize and evaluate i e potential relationship between allergic respiratory disease and polyaromatic hydrocarbons as air pollutants from industrial and automotive fuel sources. In this article we review the long-term trends in the prevalence of allergic airway diseases (rhinitis and asthma). We then examine the epidemiologic and other research data relating to the role that hydrocarbon fuel emissions may have had on allergic respiratory disease. Published literature on the relationship between specific air pollutants and trends in allergic respiratory disease were reviewed. Reports of research on pollutant effects on allergic antibody (IgE) were also studied. In both cases, the Melvyl-Medline database since 1975 was used for literature searches. Older references were identified from the bibliographies of relevant articles and books and with the help of the rare books collection at UCLA's Louis M. Darling Biomedical library. Examination of the historical record indicates that allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma have significantly increased in prevalence over the past two centuries. Although the reasons for this increase are not fully elucidated, epidemiologic data suggest that certain pollutants such as those produced from the burning of fossil fuels may have played an important role in the prevalence changes. Also important are studies showing that diesel exhaust, a prototypical fossil fuel, is able to enhance in vitro and in vivo IgE production. Increased levels of the compounds resulting from fossil fuel combustion may be partly responsible for the increased prevalence of allergic respiratory disease. If the nature of these compounds and the mechanisms by which they exacerbate allergic disease can be identified, steps can be taken to reduce the production or the impact of these allergy producing compounds.

  20. Global Proteomic Analysis Reveals an Exclusive Role of Thylakoid Membranes in Bioenergetics of a Model Cyanobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberton, Michelle; Saha, Rajib; Jacobs, Jon M.; Nguyen, Amelia Y.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Smith, Richard D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2016-04-07

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microbes with highlydifferentiated membrane systems. These organisms contain an outer membrane, plasma membrane, and an internal system of thylakoid membranes where the photosynthetic and respiratory machinery are found. This existence of compartmentalization and differentiation of membrane systems poses a number of challenges for cyanobacterial cells in terms of organization and distribution of proteins to the correct membrane system. Proteomics studies have long sought to identify the components of the different membrane systems in cyanobacteria, and to date about 450 different proteins have been attributed to either the plasma membrane or thylakoid membrane. Given the complexity of these membranes, many more proteins remain to be identified, and a comprehensive catalogue of plasma membrane and thylakoid membrane proteins is needed. Here we describe the identification of 635 differentially localized proteins in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by quantitative iTRAQ isobaric labeling; of these, 459 proteins were localized to the plasma membrane and 176 were localized to the thylakoid membrane. Surprisingly, we found over 2.5 times the number of unique proteins identified in the plasma membrane compared with the thylakoid membrane. This suggests that the protein composition of the thylakoid membrane is more homogeneous than the plasma membrane, consistent with the role of the plasma membrane in diverse cellular processes including protein trafficking and nutrient import, compared with a more specialized role for the thylakoid membrane in cellular energetics. Thus, our data clearly define the two membrane systems with distinct functions. Overall, the protein compositions of the Synechocystis 6803 plasma membrane and thylakoid membrane are quite similar to that of the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli and thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis chloroplasts, respectively. Synechocystis 6803 can therefore be described as a Gram

  1. Seismic stops for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloud, R.L.; Leung, J.S.M.; Anderson, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the regulated world of nuclear power, the need to have analytical proof of performance in hypothetical design-basis events such as earth quakes has placed a premium on design configurations that are mathematically tractable and easily analyzed. This is particularly true for the piping design. Depending on how the piping analyses are organized and on how old the plant is, there may be from 200 to 1000 separate piping runs to be designed, analyzed, and qualified. In this situation, the development of snubbers seemed like the answer to a piping engineer's prayer. At any place where seismic support was required but thermal motion had to be accommodated, a snubber could be specified. But, as experience has now shown, the program was solved only on paper. This article presents an alternative to conventional snubbers. These new devices, termed Seismic Stops are designed to replace snubbers directly and look like snubbers on the outside. But their design is based on a completely different principle. The original concept has adapted from early seismic-resistant pipe support designs used on fossil power plants in California. The fundamental idea is to provide a space envelope in which the pipe can expand freely between the hot and cold positions, but cannot move outside the envelope. Seismic Stops are designed to transmit any possible impact load, as would occur in an earthquake, away from the pipe itself to the Seismic Stop. The Seismic Stop pipe support is shown

  2. Are Stopped Strings Preferred in Sad Music?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available String instruments may be played either with open strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a hard wooden nut or with stopped strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a performer's finger pressed against the fingerboard. Compared with open strings, stopped strings permit the use of vibrato and exhibit a darker timbre. Inspired by research on the timbre of sad speech, we test whether there is a tendency to use stopped strings in nominally sad music. Specifically, we compare the proportion of potentially open-to-stopped strings in a sample of slow, minor-mode movements with matched major-mode movements. By way of illustration, a preliminary analysis of Samuel Barber's famous Adagio from his Opus 11 string quartet shows that the selected key (B-flat minor provides the optimum key for minimizing open string tones. However, examination of a broader controlled sample of quartet movements by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven failed to exhibit the conjectured relationship. Instead, major-mode movements were found to avoid possible open strings more than slow minor-mode movements.

  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gloves to prevent biting. Replace the nail-biting habit with a good habit: When you feel like biting your nails, try ... recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting one set of nails, ...

  4. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  5. Brownian Optimal Stopping and Random Walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberton, D.

    2002-01-01

    One way to compute the value function of an optimal stopping problem along Brownian paths consists of approximating Brownian motion by a random walk. We derive error estimates for this type of approximation under various assumptions on the distribution of the approximating random walk

  6. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, Rajko; Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are

  7. Stop-loss premiums under dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    1999-01-01

    Stop-loss premiums are typically calculated under the assumption that the insured lives in the underlying portfolio are independent. Here we study the effects of small departures from this assumption. Using Edgeworth expansions, it is made transparent which configurations of dependence parameters

  8. The role of new information technology meeting the global need and gap of education in pediatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ure, Benno; Zoeller, Christoph; Lacher, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, pediatric surgical education consisted of exposure to patients, textbooks, lectures, team-based education, congresses, and workshops. Over the last decades, however, new information technology (IT) and the internet revolutionized the sharing of information and communication. IT has become relevant in particular for the younger generation of pediatric surgeons. Today, gaps in children's health and the quality of pediatric surgical education persist between countries and regions. Advances in health care are not shared equitably. The use of IT for resource libraries, teleconferences, virtual symposiums, and telementoring has great potential in closing this gap and meeting the global needs for pediatric surgical education. This article focuses on the potential role of IT in this respect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of a Human Factor and Psychological Contract in Managing the Knowledge in Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rębisz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The modern business world is characterized by dynamic, changing markets and continuous technological advance. This article focuses on an issue related to a definition of the meaning of a man and his location in an organization that works in conditions of globalization. Certainly, the meaning of human as the source of knowledge in the development of organization is not a new subject. Knowledge is intrinsically linked to people and enables them to act. Modern organizations base their theory on the knowledge they can exploit to improve the competence of the employee, his loyalty and commitment to the company which aims at the competitive predominance. The identification of knowledge is necessary for the effective implementation of knowledge management system. Above all, presented theoretical analysis pinpoints mainly on discussing a mans role and psychological contract in managing the knowledge.

  10. The role of extreme orbits in the global organization of periodic regions in parameter space for one dimensional maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Diogo Ricardo; Hansen, Matheus; Guarise, Gustavo; Medrano-T, Rene O.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-04-01

    We show that extreme orbits, trajectories that connect local maximum and minimum values of one dimensional maps, play a major role in the parameter space of dissipative systems dictating the organization for the windows of periodicity, hence producing sets of shrimp-like structures. Here we solve three fundamental problems regarding the distribution of these sets and give: (i) their precise localization in the parameter space, even for sets of very high periods; (ii) their local and global distributions along cascades; and (iii) the association of these cascades to complicate sets of periodicity. The extreme orbits are proved to be a powerful indicator to investigate the organization of windows of periodicity in parameter planes. As applications of the theory, we obtain some results for the circle map and perturbed logistic map. The formalism presented here can be extended to many other different nonlinear and dissipative systems.

  11. China’s role in global competition in the wine industry: A new contestant and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl J Mitry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Darryl J Mitry1,2, David E Smith2,3, Per V Jenster3,41Norwich University, Graduate School Faculty, Northfield, VT, USA; 2National University, San Diego, California, USA; 3Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4China Europe International Business School, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The producers in the wine industry are competing in an increasingly global marketplace. More specifically this article is interested in China’s wine market and the role of China in global competitive strategies. The phenomenal growth of the Chinese economy over the past decade has encouraged international suppliers to enter the Chinese market. International wine suppliers lust after a huge potential market in a country of over 1,300,000,000 people. Simultaneously, there has also been a significant growth of production and marketing of wines by Chinese-owned wineries. This contribution explores the implications of China’s marketplace and also China as a creative and strategic producer.Keywords: China, wine, competition

  12. Ab initio electronic stopping power in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri, Abdullah-Atef

    2015-01-01

    The average energy loss of an ion per unit path length when it is moving through the matter is named the stopping power. The knowledge of the stopping power is essential for a variety of contemporary applications which depend on the transport of ions in matter, especially ion beam analysis techniques and ion implantation. Most noticeably, the use of proton or heavier ion beams in radiotherapy requires the knowledge of the stopping power. Whereas experimental data are readily available for elemental solids, the data are much more scarce for compounds. The linear response dielectric formalism has been widely used in the past to study the electronic stopping power. In particular, the famous pioneering calculations due to Lindhard evaluate the electronic stopping power of a free electron gas. In this thesis, we develop a fully ab initio scheme based on linear response time-dependent density functional theory to predict the impact parameter averaged quantity named the random electronic stopping power (RESP) of materials without any empirical fitting. The purpose is to be capable of predicting the outcome of experiments without any knowledge of target material besides its crystallographic structure. Our developments have been done within the open source ab initio code named ABINIT, where two approximations are now available: the Random-Phase Approximation (RPA) and the Adiabatic Local Density Approximation (ALDA). Furthermore, a new method named 'extrapolation scheme' have been introduced to overcome the stringent convergence issues we have encountered. These convergence issues have prevented the previous studies in literature from offering a direct comparison to experiment. First of all, we demonstrate the importance of describing the realistic ab initio electronic structure by comparing with the historical Lindhard stopping power evaluation. Whereas the Lindhard stopping power provides a first order description that captures the general features of the

  13. One World, One Standard for Burn Care: Nursing's Role in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl A Ramstad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1978, a landmark United Nations conference in Alma-Ata declared the goal of health for all by the year 2000 (WHO, 1978. Yet, today significant disparities exist between the health care afforded individuals in resource-limited countries and those in the industrialized world. Nursing, as a global profession, can become a powerful force for change so that better health is universally achieved. Problem/Background: This project started with a partnership between a burn center in the United States and a pediatric burn center (Burn Center in Peru, a country in which it is estimated that 15,000 children endure burn injuries each year (Huby-Vidaurre, 2016. Most are under the age of five, and suffer scald burns from pots with hot liquids left to cool on the floors of their homes. Pressure garment therapy (PGT is a major treatment to reduce scarring for pediatric burn survivors in the United States since the early 1970s, but is unavailable in Peru. Strategy: The Doctor of Nursing Practice project leader worked with the Burn Center team to develop a plan to use PGT as an intervention to address disfiguring scarring among pediatric burn survivors, utilizing the twinning approach. Methods: This quality improvement project involved interdisciplinary collaboration and international partnerships between resource-rich and resource-challenged nations. Obtaining supplies needed to promote PGT in Peru required cultivating relationships with many people in the United States, including translators and interpreters to assist in overcoming language barriers among the participants, manufacturers and distributors of pressure garments to donate fabrics, and people regularly traveling to Peru who transported the donated PGT materials. It also involved working closely with the Burn Center team on developing a culture conducive to conforming to an international standard of practice. Results: Resources were successfully leveraged to build a sustainable PGT program for all

  14. Global warming yearbook: 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arris, L. [ed.

    1999-02-01

    The report brings together a year`s worth of global warming stories - over 280 in all - in one convenient volume. It provides a one-stop report on the scientific, political and industrial implications of global warming. The report includes: detailed coverage of negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol; scientific findings on carbon sources and sinks, coral bleaching, Antarctic ice shelves, plankton, wildlife and tree growth; new developments on fuel economy, wind power, fuel cells, cogeneration, energy labelling and emissions trading.

  15. Global Asset Pricing: Is There a Role for Long-run Consumption Risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper; Schmelling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    We estimate long-run consumption-based asset pricing models using a comprehensive set of international test assets, including broad equity market portfolios, international value/growth portfolios, and international bond portfolios. We find that differences in returns across assets within a countr...... that consumption growth is more predictable over short to medium-run horizons than over longer horizons and that empirical evidence of a de- clining risk aversion parameter estimate in long-run risk models has to be interpreted with care....... are sometimes (and most prominently for the U.S.) better captured by the assets' exposure to long-run consumption risk as opposed to their exposure to one-period changes in consumption (the canonical consumption CAPM). Across countries, however, exposure to long-run consumption risk does not provide a better...... fit than the canonical consumption CAPM. Thus, when characterizing the cross-country distribution of returns, long-run consumption risk does not seem to play any particular role, even if long-run risk is important for explaining the cross section of expected returns in the U.S. Furthermore, we show...

  16. The Role of International Human Rights Norms in the Liberalization of Abortion Laws Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Johanna B.; Mayall, Katherine; Sepúlveda, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract International and regional human rights norms have evolved significantly to recognize that the denial of abortion care in a range of circumstances violates women’s and girls’ fundamental human rights. These increasingly progressive standards have played a critical role in transforming national-level abortion laws by both influencing domestic high court decisions on abortion and serving as a critical resource in advancing law and policy reform. Courts in countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, and Nepal have directly incorporated these standards into groundbreaking cases liberalizing abortion laws and increasing women’s access to safe abortion services, demonstrating the influence of these human rights standards in advancing women’s reproductive freedom. These norms have also underpinned national-level abortion law and policy reform, including in countries such as Spain, Rwanda, Uruguay, and Peru. As these human rights norms further evolve and increasingly recognize abortion as a human rights imperative, these standards have the potential to bolster transformative jurisprudence and law and policy reform advancing women’s and girls’ full reproductive autonomy. PMID:28630542

  17. The role of health professional associations in the promotion of global women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, André B; Menendez, Hector; Perron, Liette

    2010-11-01

    Health professional associations, especially those from countries with the highest maternal death burden, have vital roles to play in improving maternal and newborn health and in achieving the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Possessing the knowledge, skills, and influence to positively impact practice at the service delivery level, they can also advocate for change at the policy level and lobby for higher priority and greater investment in the maternal and newborn health field at the national level. The ability of professional associations to assume this leadership is nevertheless contingent on their institutional capacities to achieve planned goals and objectives in support of their organizational mission and strategic priorities. Since 1998, the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) has been supporting the capacity development efforts of peer professional associations in low-resource countries. SOGC's work in this specific area has led it to develop and pilot an Organization Capacity Improvement Framework (OCIF) that guides professional associations, incrementally, in successive cycles of capacity development. Building on capacity developed within previous capacity-building cycles, this article summarizes and reports on the recent outcomes of the Asociación de Gynecoloígia y Obstetricia de Guatemala's (AGOG) organizational development efforts and the impact they have had in positioning the association as an important contributor in national efforts to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes in the country.

  18. Global trends in advanced reactor developments, and the role of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.; Cleveland, J.

    2000-01-01

    In the second half of the 20 t 'h century nuclear power has evolved from the research and development environment to an industry that supplies approximately 16% of the world's electricity. In these 50 years of nuclear development a great deal has been achieved and many lessons have been learned. At the end of 1998, according to data reported in the Power Reactor Information System, PRlS, of the IAEA, there were 434 nuclear power plants in operation and 36 under construction. About 9500 reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated by today. World-wide, considerable efforts are being made to develop advanced nuclear power. Various organizations are involved, including governments, industries, utilities, universities, national laboratories, and research institutes. Expenditures for development of new designs, technology improvements, and the related research for the major reactor types combined is estimated to exceed US$ 2 billion per year. This paper gives an overview about nuclear power technology development programmes and projects in Member States and the role of the IAEA as a forum for informatics exchange and co-operative research. (authors)

  19. The role of riverine particulate material on the global cycles of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelkers, Eric H.; Gislason, Sigurdur R.; Eiriksdottir, Eydis Salome; Jones, Morgan; Pearce, Christopher R.; Jeandel, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Particulate transport dominates dissolved transport of the elements to the ocean. → Particulate material readily dissolves in sea water releasing its elements. → Particulate element release can rapidly affect the isotopic composition of seawater. → Ocean Nd, Fe, Si, and Sr isotopic ratios are likely affected strongly by this process. - Abstract: A review of the relative masses of continental weathering products transported to the oceans indicates that particulate fluxes dominate dissolved fluxes for most elements. The degree to which this particulate material plays a role in the compositional evolution of seawater depends on its dissolution rate, which appears to be rapid due to its high surface area. Consideration of the results of batch experiments and mineral saturation state calculations suggest that much of the mass dissolved into seawater from particulate material dissolution is rapidly removed by the precipitation of secondary minerals. Although this process limits the degree to which the overall concentration of elements in seawater are affected by the addition of particulate material, the dissolution of isotopically distinct particulate phases may affect the isotopic composition of seawater over remarkably short timescales.

  20. Which role for nuclear power in the battle against global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ducroux, R.

    2000-01-01

    The climatic impact of massive releases of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels has become a major international issue. Atmospheric CO 2 concentration continually increases. At the present rate, it is predicted that by 2040 it will have doubled with respect to its pre-industrial level. In a growing world economy, now dependent on fossil fuels for 90% of its energy, only a drastic change in energy policy involving extensive use of CO 2 -free energies can make it possible to stabilize atmospheric CO 2 levels. With 35 % of its primary energy from nuclear reactors, France sets a good example for the greenhouse gas reduction. Using this energy has resulted in a 20% reduction in releases since 1973. During the same period, world emissions have increased by 45%. In view of the French experience in 25 years of managing a large number of nuclear reactors in respecting safety requirements and environmental impact, it appears that nuclear energy has an important role to play in the battle against greenhouse gases. (authors)

  1. Trade law and alcohol regulation: what role for a global Alcohol Marketing Code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew D; Casben, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Following calls for restrictions and bans on alcohol advertising, and in light of the tobacco industry's challenge to Australia's tobacco plain packaging measure, a tobacco control measure finding support in the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, this paper considers what role, if any, an international alcohol marketing code might have in preventing or reducing the risk of challenges to domestic alcohol marketing restrictions under trade rules. Narrative review of international trade and health instruments and international trade court judgements regarding alcohol products and marketing restrictions. The experience of European trade courts in the litigation of similar measures suggests that World Trade Organization rules have sufficient flexibility to support the implementation of alcohol marketing restrictions. However, the experience also highlights the possibility that public health measures have disproportionate and unjustifiable trade effects and that the ability of a public health measure to withstand a challenge under trade rules will turn on its particular design and implementation. Measures implemented pursuant to international public health instruments are not immune to trade law challenges. Close collaboration between health policymakers, trade officials and lawyers, from as early as the research stage in the development of a measure to ensure a robust evidence base, will ensure the best chance of regulatory survival for an international marketing code. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Isolating the Roles of Different Forcing Agents in Global Stratospheric Temperature Changes Using Model Integrations with Incrementally Added Single Forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, V.; Swartz, W. H.; Waugh, D. W.; Colarco, P. R.; Pawson, S.; Polvani, L. M.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite instruments show a cooling of global stratospheric temperatures over the whole data record (1979-2014). This cooling is not linear and includes two descending steps in the early 1980s and mid-1990s. The 1979-1995 period is characterized by increasing concentrations of ozone depleting substances (ODS) and by the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichon (1982) and Mount Pinatubo (1991). The 1995-present period is characterized by decreasing ODS concentrations and by the absence of major volcanic eruptions. Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations increase over the whole time period. In order to isolate the roles of different forcing agents in the global stratospheric temperature changes, we performed a set of AMIP-style simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM). We find that in our model simulations the cooling of the stratosphere from 1979 to present is mostly driven by changes in GHG concentrations in the middle and upper stratosphere and by GHG and ODS changes in the lower stratosphere. While the cooling trend caused by increasing GHGs is roughly constant over the satellite era, changing ODS concentrations cause a significant stratospheric cooling only up to the mid-1990s, when they start to decrease because of the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. Sporadic volcanic events and the solar cycle have a distinct signature in the time series of stratospheric temperature anomalies but do not play a statistically significant role in the long-term trends from 1979 to 2014. Several factors combine to produce the step-like behavior in the stratospheric temperatures: in the lower stratosphere, the flattening starting in the mid-1990s is due to the decrease in ozone-depleting substances; Mount Pinatubo and the solar cycle cause the abrupt steps through the aerosol-associated warming and the volcanically induced ozone depletion. In the middle and upper stratosphere, changes in solar irradiance are largely

  3. Can Brazil play a more important role in global tuberculosis drug production? An assessment of current capacity and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemal, Andre; Keravec, Joel; Menezes, Alexandre; Trajman, Anete

    2013-03-27

    Despite the existence of effective treatment, tuberculosis is still a global public health issue. The World Health Organization recommends a six-month four-drug regimen in fixed-dose combination formulation to treat drug sensitive tuberculosis, and long course regimens with several second-line drugs to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. To achieve the projected tuberculosis elimination goal by 2050, it will be essential to ensure a non-interrupted supply of quality-assured tuberculosis drugs. However, quality and affordable tuberculosis drug supply is still a significant challenge for National Tuberculosis Programs. Quality drug production requires a combination of complex steps. The first challenge is to guarantee the quality of tuberculosis active pharmaceutical ingredients, then ensure an adequate manufacturing process, according to international standards, to guarantee final product's safety, efficacy and quality. Good practices for storage, transport, distribution and quality control procedures must follow. In contrast to other high-burden countries, Brazil produces tuberculosis drugs through a strong network of public sector drug manufacturers regulated by a World Health Organization-certified national sanitary authority. The installed capacity for production surpasses the 71,000 needed treatments in the country. However, in order to be prepared to act as a global supplier, important bottlenecks are to be overcome. This article presents an in-depth analysis of the current status of production of tuberculosis drugs in Brazil and the bottlenecks and opportunities for the country to sustain national demand and play a role as a potential global supplier. Raw material and drug production, quality control, international certification and pre-qualification, political commitment and regulatory aspects are discussed, as well recommendations for tackling these bottlenecks. This discussion becomes more important as new drugs and regimens to treat tuberculosis are

  4. Global environmental health and sustainable development: the role at Rio+20 Saúde ambiental global e desenvolvimento sustentável: o papel na Rio+20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg Lawrence Furie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development represents a crucial opportunity to place environmental health at the forefront of the sustainable development agenda. Billions of people living in low- and middle-income countries continue to be afflicted by preventable diseases due to modifiable environmental exposures, causing needless suffering and perpetuating a cycle of poverty. Current processes of economic development, while alleviating many social and health problems, are increasingly linked to environmental health threats, ranging from air pollution and physical inactivity to global climate change. Sustainable development practices attempt to reduce environmental impacts and should, in theory, reduce adverse environmental health consequences compared to traditional development. Yet these efforts could also result in unintended harm and impaired economic development if the new "Green Economy" is not carefully assessed for adverse environmental and occupational health impacts. The environmental health community has an essential role to play in underscoring these relationships as international leaders gather to craft sustainable development policies.A Conferência da ONU Rio +20 sobre desenvolvimento sustentável representa uma oportunidade crucial para colocar a saúde ambiental à frente da agenda de desenvolvimento sustentável. Bilhões de pessoas que vivem em países de baixa e média renda continuarão a ser afligidas por doenças evitáveis devido a exposições ambientais modificáveis causando sofrimento desnecessário e perpetuando um ciclo de pobreza. Processos de desenvolvimento econômico atuais, enquanto aliviam muitos problemas de saúde e sociais, estão cada vez mais ligados a ameaças de saúde ambiental, abrangendo desde poluição do ar e inatividade física até mudanças climáticas globais. Práticas de desenvolvimento sustentável tentam reduzir o impacto ambiental e deveriam, em teoria, reduzir as

  5. Explosive developments in biotechnology and the role of BTWC in strengthening a global biosecurity - biosafety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Conference States Parties of the BWC formalized the new approach and recognized the importance of safety and security of biological resources and started cooperation with the scientific, medical, commercial and educational communities. So called 2007-2010 BWC inter sessional process of the work started with significant involvement of NGOs, the scientific community, academics, commercial industry and civil society. New synergy among key international organizations as WHO, OIE, FAO and OPCW, and actors dealing with the BWC directly or indirectly is crucial in the areas of disease surveillance, fighting chemical weapons, and opposing the threat of bioterrorism. In such a vision, the BWC will be key, both as a clear and fundamental legal norm, and as a forum for coordination of the various activities. Biological Weapons Convention will play an ever more important role in efforts to maximize the benefits offered by biotechnology while minimizing its potential for malign and hostile use.(author)

  6. Global gene expression analysis of canine osteosarcoma stem cells reveals a novel role for COX-2 in tumour initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Lisa Y; Gatenby, Emma L; Kamida, Ayako; Whitelaw, Bruce A; Hupp, Ted R; Argyle, David J

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumour of both children and dogs. It is an aggressive tumour in both species with a rapid clinical course leading ultimately to metastasis. In dogs and children distant metastasis occurs in >80% of individuals treated by surgery alone. Both canine and human osteosarcoma has been shown to contain a sub-population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which may drive tumour growth, recurrence and metastasis, suggesting that naturally occurring canine osteosarcoma could act as a preclinical model for the human disease. Here we report the successful isolation of CSCs from primary canine osteosarcoma, as well as established cell lines. We show that these cells can form tumourspheres, and demonstrate relative resistance to chemotherapy. We demonstrate similar results for the human osteosarcma cell lines, U2OS and SAOS2. Utilizing the Affymetrix canine microarray, we are able to definitively show that there are significant differences in global gene expression profiles of isolated osteosarcoma stem cells and the daughter adherent cells. We identified 13,221 significant differences (p = 0.05), and significantly, COX-2 was expressed 141-fold more in CSC spheres than daughter adherent cells. To study the role of COX-2 expression in CSCs we utilized the COX-2 inhibitors meloxicam and mavacoxib. We found that COX-2 inhibition had no effect on CSC growth, or resistance to chemotherapy. However inhibition of COX-2 in daughter cells prevented sphere formation, indicating a potential significant role for COX-2 in tumour initiation.

  7. Global gene expression analysis of canine osteosarcoma stem cells reveals a novel role for COX-2 in tumour initiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Y Pang

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumour of both children and dogs. It is an aggressive tumour in both species with a rapid clinical course leading ultimately to metastasis. In dogs and children distant metastasis occurs in >80% of individuals treated by surgery alone. Both canine and human osteosarcoma has been shown to contain a sub-population of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which may drive tumour growth, recurrence and metastasis, suggesting that naturally occurring canine osteosarcoma could act as a preclinical model for the human disease. Here we report the successful isolation of CSCs from primary canine osteosarcoma, as well as established cell lines. We show that these cells can form tumourspheres, and demonstrate relative resistance to chemotherapy. We demonstrate similar results for the human osteosarcma cell lines, U2OS and SAOS2. Utilizing the Affymetrix canine microarray, we are able to definitively show that there are significant differences in global gene expression profiles of isolated osteosarcoma stem cells and the daughter adherent cells. We identified 13,221 significant differences (p = 0.05, and significantly, COX-2 was expressed 141-fold more in CSC spheres than daughter adherent cells. To study the role of COX-2 expression in CSCs we utilized the COX-2 inhibitors meloxicam and mavacoxib. We found that COX-2 inhibition had no effect on CSC growth, or resistance to chemotherapy. However inhibition of COX-2 in daughter cells prevented sphere formation, indicating a potential significant role for COX-2 in tumour initiation.

  8. The expanding role of civil society in the global HIV/AIDS response: what has the President's Emergency Program For AIDS Relief's role been?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Alex; Roxo, Uchechi; Epino, Henry; Muganzi, Alex; Dorward, Emily; Pick, Billy

    2012-08-15

    Civil society has been part of the HIV/AIDS response from the very beginning of the epidemic, often becoming engaged before national governments. Traditional roles of civil society--advocacy, activism, serving as government watchdog, and acting as community caretaker--have been critical to the response. In addition, civil society organizations (CSOs) play an integral part in providing world-class HIV prevention and treatment services and helping to ensure continuity of care. The President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has significantly increased the global scale-up of combination antiretroviral therapy reaching for more than 5 million people in developing countries, as well as implementation of effective evidence-based combination prevention approaches. PEPFAR databases in 5 countries and annual reports from a centrally managed initiative were mined and analyzed to determine the numbers and types of CSOs funded by PEPFAR over a 5-year period (2006-2011). Data are also presented from Uganda showing the overall resource growth in CSO working for HIV. Case studies document the evolution of 3 indigenous CSOs that increased the capacity to implement activities with PEPFAR funding. A legacy of PEPFAR has been the growth of civil society to address social and health issues as well as recognition by governments that partnerships with beneficiaries and civil society result in better outcomes. Scale-up of the global response could not have happened without the involvement of civil society and people living with HIV. This game changing partnership to jointly tackle the problems that countries face may well be the greatest benefit emerging from the HIV epidemic.

  9. Stop feeling: Inhibition of emotional interference following stop-signal trials

    OpenAIRE

    Eyal eKalanthroff; Noga eCohen; Avishai eHenik

    2013-01-01

    Although a great deal of literature has been dedicated to the mutual links between emotion and the selective attention component of executive control, there is very little data regarding the links between emotion and the inhibitory component of executive control. In the current study we employed an emotional stop-signal task in order to examine whether emotion modulates and is modulated by inhibitory control. Results replicated previous findings showing reduced inhibitory control [longer stop...

  10. Evaluation of Effective Factors on Travel Time in Optimization of Bus Stops Placement Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargegol, Iraj; Ghorbanzadeh, Mahyar; Ghasedi, Meisam; Rastbod, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    In congested cities, locating and proper designing of bus stops according to the unequal distribution of passengers is crucial issue economically and functionally, since this subject plays an important role in the use of bus system by passengers. Location of bus stops is a complicated subject; by reducing distances between stops, walking time decreases, but the total travel time may increase. In this paper, a specified corridor in the city of Rasht in north of Iran is studied. Firstly, a new formula is presented to calculate the travel time, by which the number of stops and consequently, the travel time can be optimized. An intended corridor with specified number of stops and distances between them is addressed, the related formulas to travel time are created, and its travel time is calculated. Then the corridor is modelled using a meta-heuristic method in order that the placement and the optimal distances of bus stops for that are determined. It was found that alighting and boarding time along with bus capacity are the most effective factors affecting travel time. Consequently, it is better to have more concentration on indicated factors for improving the efficiency of bus system.

  11. How do the BRIC countries play their roles in the global innovation arena? A study based on USPTO patents during 1990–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new taxonomy for the internationalization patterns of innovation of the BRIC countries within the global innovation landscape during the period 1990–2009. Based on the BRICs’ patents granted by the USPTO, we find (1) the BRICs gradually increased their roles in the global...... innovation arena with various degrees of internationalization; (2) the domestic-dominant pattern has widely countered the foreign dominance of innovation, while the collaborative multi-dominant pattern has increased; (3) a divergence of the BRICs’ global innovation output growth emerged, while...

  12. Simulations of enhanced ion stopping power experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, T.A.; Maenchen, J.E.; Olsen, J.N.; Johnson, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    As the material in an ICF target is heated and ionized by an intense ion beam, the ion stopping power changes from that of neutral atoms. This changes the energy deposition characteristics of the ion beam and thereby can profoundly influence the target dynamics. An accurate ion energy deposition model is important for designing ICF targets that perform in an optimal fashion. An experiment to measure a time-resolved ion stopping power history in a partially ionized target is being fielded on the PROTO I accelerator at Sandia Labs. This experiment utilizes a voltage ramped Thomson parabola to provide a time-history of the ion energy incident upon and exiting from a cylindrical target foil

  13. Measurement of stopping power of light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Naoki

    1981-01-01

    The stopping power of light ions penetrating various materials has been measured. The data of proton stopping power and the mean ionization potentials are presented. The experiments were made by using the 6.75 MeV protons from a cyclotron and the protons in the energy range from 3 to 9 MeV from a tandem Van de Graaff. The windows with and without sample-foils were rotated in front of a semiconductor detector, and the measured energy loss and the thickness of the sample foils were used to estimate the energy loss at the mean energy of protons in the samples. The analyses were made by considering the inner shell correction, Z 1 3 correction and the Bloch correction. The mean ionization potentials were derived from the data. (Kato, T.)

  14. Nuclear stopping power at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, S.; Gyulassy, M.; Sumiyoshi, H.

    1985-03-01

    Recent p + A → p + X data are analyzed within the context of the multi-chain and additive quark models. We deduce the average energy loss of a baryon as a function of distance traversed in nuclear matter. Consistency of the multi-chain model is checked by comparing the predictions for p + A → π +- + X with data. We discuss the space-time development of baryon stopping and show how longitudinal growth limits the energy deposition per unit length. Predictions are made for the proton spectra to be measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN and BNL. Finally, we conclude that the stopping domain for central collisions of heavy ions extends up to center of mass kinetic energies KEsub(em) asymptotically equals 3 +- 1 AGev. (author)

  15. Single start multiple stop time digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, P.A.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    A single start multiple stop time digitizer has been developed which can digitize the time between a start pulse and multiple stop pulses. The system has been designed as a PC add on card. The resolution of the instrument is 10 nSecs and the maximum length of time that it can measure is 1.28 milliseconds. Apart from time digitization, it can also resolve the height of the incoming pulses into 64 levels. After each input pulse the system dead time is less than 300 nSecs. The driver software for this card has been developed on DOS platform. It uses graphical user interface to provide a user friendly environment. The system is intended to be used in time of flight mass spectroscopy experiments. It can also be used for time of flight experiments in nuclear physics. (author). 2 figs

  16. Finite Optimal Stopping Problems: The Seller's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Mehdi; Smith, J. Cole

    2011-01-01

    We consider a version of an optimal stopping problem, in which a customer is presented with a finite set of items, one by one. The customer is aware of the number of items in the finite set and the minimum and maximum possible value of each item, and must purchase exactly one item. When an item is presented to the customer, she or he observes its…

  17. Electron mass stopping power in H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursa, Dmitry V.; Zammit, Mark C.; Threlfall, Robert L.; Savage, Jeremy S.; Bray, Igor

    2017-08-01

    Calculations of electron mass stopping power (SP) of electrons in H2 have been performed using the convergent close-coupling method for incident electron energies up to 2000 eV. Convergence of the calculated SP has been established by increasing the size of the close-coupling expansion from 9 to 491 states. Good agreement was found with the SP measurements of Munoz et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 433, 253 (2007), 10.1016/j.cplett.2006.10.114].

  18. The TRIUMF stopped π-μ channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qazzaz, N.M.M.; Beer, G.A.; Mason, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The TRIUMF π-μ channel (M9) is described and the measured optical paramters are compared with design values. Measured beam characteristics of pions and muons for several different momenta are reported for protons incident on Be and Cu production targets. A beam of cloud muons at the channel momentum, from π decays near the production target, has been obtained having a high stopping density and small spot size. (auth)

  19. Relativistic theory of stopping for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhard, J.; So/rensen, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the electronic stopping power and the corresponding straggling for ions of arbitrary charge number, penetrating matter at any relativistic energy. The stopping powers are calculated by a simple method. Its starting point is the deviation of the precise theory from first-order quantum perturbation. We show that this deviation can be expressed in terms of the transport cross section, σ tr , for scattering of a free electron by the ion. In the nonrelativistic case the deviation is precisely the Bloch correction to Bethe close-quote s formula; we look into the nonrelativistic case in order to clarify both some features of our method and a seeming paradox in Rutherford scattering. The corresponding relativistic correction is obtained from σ tr for scattering of a Dirac electron in the ion potential. Here, the major practical advantage of the method shows up; we need not find the scattering distribution, but merely a single quantity, σ tr , determined by differences of successive phase shifts. For a point nucleus our results improve and extend those of Ahlen. Our final results, however, are based on atomic nuclei with standard radii. Thereby, the stopping is changed substantially already for moderate values of γ=(1-v 2 /c 2 ) -1/2 . An asymptotic saturation in stopping is obtained. Because of finite nuclear size, recoil corrections remain negligible at all energies. The average square fluctuation in energy loss is calculated as a simple fluctuation cross section for a free electron. The fluctuation in the relativistic case is generally larger than that of the perturbation formula, by a factor of ∼2 endash 3 for heavy ions. But the finite nuclear radius leads to a strong reduction at high energies and the elimination of the factor γ 2 belonging to point nuclei. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Spectroscopy of hypernuclei with stopped kaons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, H.; Brueckner, W.; Doebbeling, H.

    1987-09-01

    Pion momentum spectra from K - absorption at rest on various nuclear targets were measured by means of a magnetic spectrometer with wide momentum range (100 ∼ 300 MeV/c). The ground state of Σ - hypernucleus, if well bound with a narrow width, is expected to be populated in 12 C(stopped K - , π + ) inclusive (untagged) spectrum, but such a peak was not observed. The spectrum is compared with the DWIA calculations by Morimatsu and Yazaki, indicating that the depth of the nuclear potential of Σ - is shallower than 12 MeV, and that its imaginary part is larger than 5 MeV if the potential depth is about 10 MeV. In the 12 C(stopped K - , π - ) spectrum, the ground state ((p3/2) n -1 (s1/2) Λ ) and the excited states ((p3/2) n -1 (p) Λ ) of Λ 12 C were observed, and their formation probabilities were roughly in agreement with the results of DWIA calculations. In the π - spectra on 12 C, 9 Be, and 7 Li targets a distinct peak was observed at 132.1 ± 0.7 MeV/c. It is ascribed to π - from the mesic decay of Λ 4 H; Λ 4 H → 4 He π - . The formation probability of Λ 4 H on C, Be, or Li target is much larger than those of the discrete states of Λ 12 C via the direct (stopped K - , π - ) reaction. (author)

  1. What Role for Humans in Global Land Cover Change over the Holocene? Insights from Models and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J. O.; Krumhardt, K. M.; Davis, B. A. S.; Zanon, M.

    2014-12-01

    Did humans affect global climate over the before the Industrial Era? While this question is hotly debated, the co-evolution of humans and the natural environment over the last 11,700 years had an undisputed role in influencing the development and present state of terrestrial ecosystems, many of which are highly valued today as economic, cultural, and ecological resources. Yet we still have a very incomplete picture of human-environment interactions over the Holocene. In order to address this, we combined a global dynamic vegetation model with a new model of preindustrial anthropogenic land cover change. We drive this integrated model a new synthesis of demographic, technological, and economic development over preindustrial time, and a database of historical urbanization covering the last 8000 years. We simulate natural vegetation and anthropogenic land use from 11,700 years before present to AD 1850 and compare these results with regional syntheses of pollen-based reconstructions of land cover. Our model results show that climate and tectonics controlled global land cover in the early Holocene. Shifts in forest biomes on the northern continents show an expansion of temperate tree types far to the north of their present day limits. By the early Iron Age (1000 BC), however, humans in Europe, East Asia, and Mesoamerica had a larger influence than natural processes on the landscape. Anthropogenic deforestation was widespread with most areas of temperate Europe and southwest Asia, east-central China, northern India, and Mesoamerica occupied by a matrix of natural vegetation, cropland and pastures. While we simulate fluctuations in human impact on the landscape, including periods of widespread land abandonment, e.g., during the Migration Period in Europe that following the end of the Western Roman Empire, approaching the Industrial Revolution nearly all of the landmasses of Europe and south and East Asia are dominated by anthropogenic activities. In contrast, the

  2. USABC Development of 12 Volt Battery for Start-Stop Application: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tataria, H.; Gross, O.; Bae, C.; Cunningham, B.; Barnes, J. A.; Deppe, J.; Neubauer, J.

    2015-02-01

    Global automakers are accelerating the development of fuel efficient vehicles, as a part of meeting regional regulatory CO2 emissions requirements. The micro hybrid vehicles with auto start-stop functionality are considered economical solutions for the stringent European regulations. Flooded lead acid batteries were initially considered the most economical solution for idle-stop systems. However, the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at lower state-of-charge (SOC) was limiting the life of the batteries. While improved lead-acid batteries with AGM and VRLA features have improved battery longevity, they do not last the life of the vehicle. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (or USABC, a consortium of GM, Ford, and Chrysler) analyzed energy storage needs for a micro hybrid automobile with start-stop capability, and with a single power source. USABC has analyzed the start-stop behaviors of many drivers and has developed the requirements for the start-stop batteries (Table 3). The testing procedures to validate the performance and longevity were standardized and published. The guideline for the cost estimates calculations have also been provided, in order to determine the value of the newly developed modules. The analysis effort resulted in a set of requirements which will help the battery manufacturers to develop a module to meet the automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) micro hybrid vehicle requirements. Battery developers were invited to submit development proposals and two proposals were selected for 50% cost share with USABC/DOE.

  3. Help Stop the Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Help Stop the Flu Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table ... CDC recommends that Americans do the following to help stop the flu: Cover nose and mouth with ...

  4. CDC Vital Signs: New Hope for Stopping HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 27 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips New Hope for Stopping HIV Testing and Medical Care Save ... acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) and early death. There's new hope today for stopping HIV in the US. Medicines ( ...

  5. Optimal Stopping and Policyholder Behaviour in Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Kamille Sofie Tågholt

    . Below, I give a brief overview of the results of each of the chapters. A more thorough overview is presented in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 we consider a general geometric Lévy process and solve the non-linear optimal stopping problem of maximizing the variance at the stopping time. For solving this problem...... we solve an auxiliary quadratic optimal stopping problem. We show that the solution to maximizing variance depends on whether randomized stopping times are included in the set of stopping times we maximize over. For some problems the inclusion of randomized stopping times increase the value function...... and for some it does not. Even when the value function is not affected by inclusion of randomized stopping times, a solution may be easier to identify when they are. In Chapter 3 we consider the non-linear optimal stopping problem of maximizing the mean minus a positive constant times the variance...

  6. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Razi Iqbal; Muhammad Usman Ghani

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT), the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming ...

  7. The Role of Global University Rankings in the Process of Increasing the Competitiveness of Russian Education in the Context of Globalization and the Export of Educational Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avralev, Nikita; Efimova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Article is devoted to the new conditions for the development of society characterized by the reconstruction of the course of higher education by increasing the competitiveness of Russian universities in the world scientific and educational space and the global university rankings as indicators of the implementation of the integration process and…

  8. Role of global stress in the health-related quality of life of caregivers: evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzelman, Kristin; Skinner, Halcyon G; Gangnon, Ronald E; Nieto, F Javier; Malecki, Kristen; Witt, Whitney P

    2014-06-01

    Informal caregivers play a critical role in the care of individuals who are aging or have disabilities and are at increased risk for poor health outcomes. This study sought to determine whether and to what extent: (1) global stress and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) differed between caregivers and non-caregivers; (2) global stress mediated the relationship between caregiving status and HRQoL; and (3) caregiver strain (i.e., stress attributable to caregiving) was associated with worse HRQoL after accounting for global stress. Cross-sectional data were from the 2008-2010 Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, a representative sample of adults aged 21-74 years. Participants (n = 1,364) completed questionnaires about caregiving status, sociodemographics, global stress, and HRQoL. Staged generalized additive models assessed the impact of caregiving on HRQoL and the role of caregiver strain and global stress in this relationship. In the last 12 months, 17.2% of the sample reported caregiving. Caregivers reported worse mental HRQoL than non-caregivers (β -1.88, p = 0.02); global stress mediated this relationship (p stress (p stress, rather than caregiving per se, contributes to poor HRQoL among caregivers, above and beyond the effect of caregiving strain. Screening, monitoring, and reducing stress in multiple life domains presents an opportunity to improve HRQoL outcomes for caregivers.

  9. Start-Stop Test Procedures on the PEMFC Stack Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Nygaard, Frederik; Veltzé, Sune

    The test is addressed to investigate the influence on stack durability of a long stop followed by a restart of a stack. Long stop should be defined as a stop in which the anodic compartment is fully filled by air due to stack leakages. In systems, leakage level of the stack is low and time to fil...

  10. Biobjective Optimization and Evaluation for Transit Signal Priority Strategies at Bus Stop-to-Stop Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new optimization framework for the transit signal priority strategies in terms of green extension, red truncation, and phase insertion at the stop-to-stop segment of bus lines. The optimization objective is to minimize both passenger delay and the deviation from bus schedule simultaneously. The objective functions are defined with respect to the segment between bus stops, which can include the adjacent signalized intersections and downstream bus stops. The transit priority signal timing is optimized by using a biobjective optimization framework considering both the total delay at a segment and the delay deviation from the arrival schedules at bus stops. The proposed framework is evaluated using a VISSIM model calibrated with field traffic volume and traffic signal data of Caochangmen Boulevard in Nanjing, China. The optimized TSP-based phasing plans result in the reduced delay and improved reliability, compared with the non-TSP scenario under the different traffic flow conditions in the morning peak hour. The evaluation results indicate the promising performance of the proposed optimization framework in reducing the passenger delay and improving the bus schedule adherence for the urban transit system.

  11. On the Role of Situational Stressors in the Disruption of Global Neural Network Stability during Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengting; Amey, Rachel C; Forbes, Chad E

    2017-12-01

    When individuals are placed in stressful situations, they are likely to exhibit deficits in cognitive capacity over and above situational demands. Despite this, individuals may still persevere and ultimately succeed in these situations. Little is known, however, about neural network properties that instantiate success or failure in both neutral and stressful situations, particularly with respect to regions integral for problem-solving processes that are necessary for optimal performance on more complex tasks. In this study, we outline how hidden Markov modeling based on multivoxel pattern analysis can be used to quantify unique brain states underlying complex network interactions that yield either successful or unsuccessful problem solving in more neutral or stressful situations. We provide evidence that brain network stability and states underlying synchronous interactions in regions integral for problem-solving processes are key predictors of whether individuals succeed or fail in stressful situations. Findings also suggested that individuals utilize discriminate neural patterns in successfully solving problems in stressful or neutral situations. Findings overall highlight how hidden Markov modeling can provide myriad possibilities for quantifying and better understanding the role of global network interactions in the problem-solving process and how the said interactions predict success or failure in different contexts.

  12. The role of extreme orbits in the global organization of periodic regions in parameter space for one dimensional maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Diogo Ricardo da, E-mail: diogo_cost@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Hansen, Matheus [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Univ. São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Cidade Universitária, 05314-970, São Paulo – SP (Brazil); Guarise, Gustavo [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Medrano-T, Rene O. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP – Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua São Nicolau, 210, Centro, 09913-030, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Leonel, Edson D. [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-04-22

    We show that extreme orbits, trajectories that connect local maximum and minimum values of one dimensional maps, play a major role in the parameter space of dissipative systems dictating the organization for the windows of periodicity, hence producing sets of shrimp-like structures. Here we solve three fundamental problems regarding the distribution of these sets and give: (i) their precise localization in the parameter space, even for sets of very high periods; (ii) their local and global distributions along cascades; and (iii) the association of these cascades to complicate sets of periodicity. The extreme orbits are proved to be a powerful indicator to investigate the organization of windows of periodicity in parameter planes. As applications of the theory, we obtain some results for the circle map and perturbed logistic map. The formalism presented here can be extended to many other different nonlinear and dissipative systems. - Highlights: • Extreme orbits and the organization of periodic regions in parameter space. • One-dimensional dissipative mappings. • The circle map and also a time perturbed logistic map were studied.

  13. Role of orbital dynamics and cloud-cloud collisions in the formation of giant molecular clouds in global spiral structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, W.W. Jr.; Stewart, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The role of orbit crowding and cloud-cloud collisions in the formation of GMCs and their organization in global spiral structure is investigated. Both N-body simulations of the cloud system and a detailed analysis of individual particle orbits are used to develop a conceptual understanding of how individual clouds participate in the collective density response. Detailed comparisons are made between a representative cloud-particle simulation in which the cloud particles collide inelastically with one another and give birth to and subsequently interact with young star associations and stripped down simulations in which the cloud particles are allowed to follow ballistic orbits in the absence of cloud-cloud collisions or any star formation processes. Orbit crowding is then related to the behavior of individual particle trajectories in the galactic potential field. The conceptual picture of how GMCs are formed in the clumpy ISMs of spiral galaxies is formulated, and the results are compared in detail with those published by other authors. 68 references

  14. Partners or donors: The perceived roles of Global Fund Principal Recipient NGOs in HIV prevention programmes in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana McGill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine has one of Europe's fastest growing HIV rates and in 2003–2012 was one of the largest recipients of funding from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GF. Doctoral research recently completed by the author investigates the conduct and practice of international and national nongovernmental organisations (NGOs as Principal Recipients (PRs of GF grants in Ukraine from 2003 to 2012. An ethnographic enquiry including 50 participant interviews was conducted in three oblasts in Ukraine, and in its capital, Kyiv. The paper presents some of the findings that emerged from the analysis. Discussing the PR NGOs roles and practices in delivering HIV prevention programmes funded by GF, the author argues that the anticipated benefits of NGO partnerships between PR NGOs and their Sub-Recipients (SRs have not been achieved. Rather, PRs acted as donors and ran highly discretionary policies in channelling GF funding to SRs that installed competition and vertical relations between NGO-grantors and NGO-grantees. The outcome was a servile civil society that is dependent on external funding and is unable to genuinely represent their communities. With an anticipated GF phasing out from Ukraine, there is a critical lack of advocacy potential of the civil society to articulate and defend the needs of PLHIV when transferring HIV services into state funding.

  15. The role of Imperial Oil Limited in the global priorities and local initiatives of Exxon Corporation R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin-Dulude, L.; Desranleau, C.; Fortier, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Research and development expenditures by Exxon Corporation, one of the major multi-national oil companies, was studied in an effort to demonstrate the manner in which research and development is planned, managed and financed on a global scale, and to discern the role played in the worldwide network of Exxon Corporation laboratories by Exxon's main Canadian affiliate, Imperial Oil Limited of Sarnia. The findings are based upon close examination of all public documents regarding Exxon and its affiliates since 1882 to 1975, and interviews with research personnel. It was described how in the 1920s, the Sarnia research centre of Imperial Oil began to develop its expertise in lubricant research, earning a world research mandate in 1967 with exclusive rights in this area for the entire Exxon Corporation. It is evident that by being able to concentrate in areas that took advantage of their technological competence and expertise while, on the other hand, ensuring that the processes and products generated by the whole network of laboratories were available and adapted to the Canadian context, the commercial impact of Imperial's research and development efforts have been greatly enhanced by its affiliation with the large multinational company. 27 refs

  16. The role of extreme orbits in the global organization of periodic regions in parameter space for one dimensional maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Diogo Ricardo da; Hansen, Matheus; Guarise, Gustavo; Medrano-T, Rene O.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-01-01

    We show that extreme orbits, trajectories that connect local maximum and minimum values of one dimensional maps, play a major role in the parameter space of dissipative systems dictating the organization for the windows of periodicity, hence producing sets of shrimp-like structures. Here we solve three fundamental problems regarding the distribution of these sets and give: (i) their precise localization in the parameter space, even for sets of very high periods; (ii) their local and global distributions along cascades; and (iii) the association of these cascades to complicate sets of periodicity. The extreme orbits are proved to be a powerful indicator to investigate the organization of windows of periodicity in parameter planes. As applications of the theory, we obtain some results for the circle map and perturbed logistic map. The formalism presented here can be extended to many other different nonlinear and dissipative systems. - Highlights: • Extreme orbits and the organization of periodic regions in parameter space. • One-dimensional dissipative mappings. • The circle map and also a time perturbed logistic map were studied.

  17. Impact of global warming on tropical cyclone genesis in coupled and forced simulations: role of SST spatial anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Jean-François; Chauvin, Fabrice; Daloz, Anne-Sophie

    2010-05-01

    The response of tropical cyclones (TC) activity to global warming has not yet reached a clear consensus in the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) or in the recent scientific literature. Observed series are neither long nor reliable enough for a statistically significant detection and attribution of past TC trends, and coupled climate models give widely divergent results for the future evolution of TC activity in the different ocean basins. The potential importance of the spatial structure of the future SST warming has been pointed out by Chauvin et al. (2006) in simulations performed at CNRM with the ARPEGE-Climat GCM. The current presentation describes a new set of simulations that have been performed with the ARPEGE-Climat model to try to understand the possible role of SST patterns in the TC cyclogenesis response in 15 CMIP3 coupled simulations analysed by Royer et al (2009). The new simulations have been performed with the atmospheric component of the ARPEGE-Climat GCM forced in 10 year simulations by the SST patterns from each of 15 CMIP3 simulations with different climate model at the end of the 21st century according to scenario A2. The TC analysis is based on the computation of a Convective Yearly Genesis Parameter (CYGP) and the Genesis Potential Index (GPI). The computed genesis indices for each of the ARPEGE-Climat forced simulations is compared with the indices computed directly from the initial coupled simulation. The influence of SST patterns can then be more easily assessed since all the ARPEGE-Climat simulations are performed with the same atmospheric model, whereas the original simulations used models with different parameterization and resolutions. The analysis shows that CYGP or GPI anomalies obtained with ARPEGE are as variable between each other as those obtained originally by the different IPCC models. The variety of SST patterns used to force ARPEGE explains a large part of

  18. Energy globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierno Andres

    1997-01-01

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum

  19. Reasons behind current gender imbalances in senior global health roles and the practice and policy changes that can catalyze organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, C; Chama, P K; Mugisha, M; Matsiko, C W; Oketcho, V

    2017-01-01

    The paper distils results from a review of relevant literature and two gender analyses to highlight reasons for gender imbalances in senior roles in global health and ways to address them. Organizations, leadership, violence and discrimination, research and human resource management are all gendered. Supplementary materials from gender analyses in two African health organizations demonstrate how processes such as hiring, deployment and promotion, and interpersonal relations, are not 'gender-neutral' and that gendering processes shape privilege, status and opportunity in these health organizations. Organizational gender analysis, naming stereotypes, substantive equality principles, special measures and enabling conditions to dismantle gendered disadvantage can catalyze changes to improve women's ability to play senior global health roles in gendered organizations. Political strategies and synergies with autonomous feminist movements can increase women's full and effective participation and equal opportunities. The paper also presents organizational development actions to bring about more gender egalitarian global health organizations.

  20. Why Do Policy-Makers Adopt Global Education Policies? Toward a Research Framework on the Varying Role of Ideas in Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…

  1. Global power production scenarios to 2100 and the dual role of forests: accelerated climate damage or regulating and provisioning ecosystem services?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg

    The worlds' electrical power production is depending on the current energy infrastructure, and future investments in new power supply facilities using renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Continued growth in power production in the 21st century will cause global environmental change (GEC......). GEC with climate change as an important driver will affect the environment and the economy in multiple ways that can be summarized as losses of biodiversity and changing ecosystem services (ES), but with very diverse temporal and spatial impacts. In a simple global growth model for power production......, including non-renewable and renewable energy sources, the potential role of forest biomass is investigated. The demands for forest ecosystem services imposed by the global power production are assessed in the present study. Three global power supply scenarios to 2050 with different emphasis...

  2. Stop feeling: inhibition of emotional interference following stop-signal trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Cohen, Noga; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    Although a great deal of literature has been dedicated to the mutual links between emotion and the selective attention component of executive control, there is very little data regarding the links between emotion and the inhibitory component of executive control. In the current study we employed an emotional stop-signal task in order to examine whether emotion modulates and is modulated by inhibitory control. Results replicated previous findings showing reduced inhibitory control [longer stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)] following negative, compared to neutral pictures. Most importantly, results show decreased emotional interference following stop-signal trials. These results show that the inhibitory control component of executive control can serve to decrease emotional effects. We suggest that inhibitory control and emotion have a two-way connection in which emotion disrupts inhibitory control and activation of inhibitory control disrupts emotion.

  3. Stop feeling: Inhibition of emotional interference following stop-signal trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal eKalanthroff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although a great deal of literature has been dedicated to the mutual links between emotion and the selective attention component of executive control, there is very little data regarding the links between emotion and the inhibitory component of executive control. In the current study we employed an emotional stop-signal task in order to examine whether emotion modulates and is modulated by inhibitory control. Results replicated previous findings showing reduced inhibitory control (longer stop-signal reaction time following negative, compared to neutral pictures. Most importantly, results show decreased emotional interference following stop-signal trials. These results show that the inhibitory control component of executive control can serve to decrease emotional effects. We suggest that inhibitory control and emotion have a two-way connection in which emotion disrupts inhibitory control and activation of inhibitory control disrupts emotion.

  4. Stopping-power ratios for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of the absorbed dose at a specified location in a medium irradiated with an electron or photon beam normally consists of two steps: (1) the determination of the mean absorbed dose to a detector by using a calibration factor or performing an absolute measurement, (2) the determination of the absorbed dose to the medium at the point of interest by calculations based on the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the detector and the different stopping and scattering properties of the medium and the detector material. When the influence of the detector is so small that the electron fluence in the medium is not modified, the ratio of the mass collision stopping power of the two materials accounts for the differences in energy deposition, and provides a conversion factor to relate the absorbed dose in both materials. Today, all national and international dosimetry protocols and codes of practice are based on such procedures, and the user easily can carry out these steps using tabulated data to convert a measured quantity to absorbed dose in the irradiated medium at the location of interest. Effects due to the spatial extension of the detector are taken into account using perturbation correction factors. The Monte Carlo method has become the most common and powerful calculational technique for determining the electron fluence (energy spectra) under different irradiation conditions. Cavity theory is then used to calculate stopping-power ratios. In this chapter, the different steps needed to evaluate s-ratios will be considered, emphasizing the different types of cavity-theory integrals and the Monte Carlo techniques used to derive the necessary electron spectra in the range of energies commonly used in radiation dosimetry, i.e., photon and electron beams with energies up to 50 MeV

  5. Brand Building in Born Global Firms : The role of digitalization in brand building in young B2B Born Global companies internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellstrand, Johan; Samar, Ouf

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to create a deeper understanding of the impact of digitalization on branding and brand building in the internationalization of B2B Born Global SMEs. Design/methodology: The methods used were a mixed qualitative methodology including both interviews and open-ended surveys. With an explorative and descriptive purpose, this study aimed to deliver depth and specific knowledge. The sample companies were young SME, B2B companies in northern Sweden that either ...

  6. End-Stop Exemplar Based Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren I.

    2003-01-01

    An approach to exemplar based recognition of visual shapes is presented. The shape information is described by attributed interest points (keys) detected by an end-stop operator. The attributes describe the statistics of lines and edges local to the interest point, the position of neighboring int...... interest points, and (in the training phase) a list of recognition names. Recognition is made by a simple voting procedure. Preliminary experiments indicate that the recognition is robust to noise, small deformations, background clutter and partial occlusion....

  7. Jojoba could stop the desert creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-25

    The Sahara desert is estimated to be expanding at a rate of 5km a year. The Sudanese government is experimenting with jojoba in six different regions as the bush has the potential to stop this ''desert creep''. The plant, a native to Mexico, is long known for its resistance to drought and for the versatile liquid wax that can be extracted from its seeds. It is estimated that one hectare of mature plants could produce 3000 kg of oil, currently selling at $50 per litre, and so earn valuable foreign currency.

  8. Early Stop Criterion from the Bootstrap Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan; Fog, Torben L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of generalization error estimation in neural networks. A new early stop criterion based on a Bootstrap estimate of the generalization error is suggested. The estimate does not require the network to be trained to the minimum of the cost function, as required...... by other methods based on asymptotic theory. Moreover, in contrast to methods based on cross-validation which require data left out for testing, and thus biasing the estimate, the Bootstrap technique does not have this disadvantage. The potential of the suggested technique is demonstrated on various time...

  9. Frame by frame stop motion non-traditional approaches to stop motion animation

    CERN Document Server

    Gasek, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In a world that is dominated by computer images, alternative stop motion techniques like pixilation, time-lapse photography and down-shooting techniques combined with new technologies offer a new, tangible and exciting approach to animation. With over 25 years professional experience, industry veteran, Tom Gasek presents a comprehensive guide to stop motion animation without the focus on puppetry or model animation. With tips, tricks and hands-on exercises, Frame by Frame will help both experienced and novice filmmakers get the most effective results from this underutilized branch of animation

  10. Review of stopping power and Coulomb explosion for molecular ion in plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqiu Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We summarize our theoretical studies for stopping power of energetic heavy ion, diatomic molecular ions and small clusters penetrating through plasmas. As a relevant research field for the heavy ion inertial confinement fusion (HICF, we lay the emphasis on the dynamic polarization and correlation effects of the constituent ion within the molecular ion and cluster for stopping power in order to disclose the role of the vicinage effect on the Coulomb explosion and energy deposition of molecules and clusters in plasma. On the other hand, as a promising scheme for ICF, both a strong laser field and an intense ion beam are used to irradiate a plasma target. So the influence of a strong laser field on stopping power is significant. We discussed a large range of laser and plasma parameters on the coulomb explosion and stopping power for correlated-ion cluster and C60 cluster. Furthermore, in order to indicate the effects of different cluster types and sizes on the stopping power, a comparison is made for hydrogen and carbon clusters. In addition, the deflection of molecular axis for diatomic molecules during the Coulomb explosion is also given for the cases both in the presence of a laser field and laser free. Finally, a future experimental scheme is put forward to measure molecular ion stopping power in plasmas in Xi'an Jiaotong University of China. Keywords: Molecules, Stopping power, Coulomb explosion, Vicinage effect, Laser, PACS Codes: 34.50.Bw, 52.40.Mj, 61.85.+p, 34.50.Dy

  11. Impact Of The Oil Trade On The Global Economy And The Role Of Giant Fields In Predicting Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Wayne; Bishop, Richard

    2010-09-15

    Confusion about global oil supply ('peak oil') is a distraction from the economic issue of massive wealth transfer associated with oil trading and its potential to destabilize the world economy. Without an accurate forecast of oil volumes (resources, reserves and supply), timing and cost, there is no reliable way to model the consequences of the oil trade on the global economy. This paper illustrates why it is imperative to improve our understanding of the oil trade on the global economy and proposes a method of forecasting oil supply for input into a credible global economic model.

  12. Interaction between two stopped light pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi-Hsin, E-mail: yhchen920@gmail.com; Lee, Meng-Jung, E-mail: yhchen920@gmail.com; Hung, Weilun, E-mail: yhchen920@gmail.com; Yu, Ite A., E-mail: yu@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics and Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ying-Cheng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan and Department of Physics and Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yong-Fan [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-05

    The efficiency of a nonlinear optical process is proportional to the interaction time. We report a scheme of all-optical switching based on two motionless light pulses via the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. One pulse was stopped as the stationary light pulse (SLP) and the other was stopped as stored light. The time of their interaction via the medium can be prolonged and, hence, the optical nonlinearity is greatly enhanced. Using a large optical density (OD) of 190, we achieved a very long interaction time of 6.9 μs. This can be analogous to the scheme of trapping light pulses by an optical cavity with a Q factor of 8×10{sup 9}. With the approach of using moving light pulses in the best situation, a switch can only be activated at 2 photons per atomic absorption cross section. With the approach of employing a SLP and a stored light pulse, a switch at only 0.56 photons was achieved and the efficiency is significantly improved. Moreover, the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data and show that the efficiency can be further improved by increasing the OD of the medium. Our work advances the technology in quantum information manipulation utilizing photons.

  13. Seismic stops vs. snubbers, a reliable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloud, R.L.; Anderson, P.H.; Leung, J.S.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Seismic Stops methodology has been developed to provide a reliable alternative for providing seismic support to nuclear power plant piping. The concept is based on using rigid passive supports with large clearances. These gaps permit unrestrained thermal expansion while limiting excessive seismic displacements. This type of restraint has performed successfully in fossil fueled power plants. A simplified production analysis tool has been developed which evaluates the nonlinear piping response including the effect of the gapped supports. The methodology utilizes the response spectrum approach and has been incorporated into a piping analysis computer program RLCA-GAP. Full scale shake table tests of piping specimens were performed to provide test correlation with the developed methodology. Analyses using RLCA-GAP were in good agreement with test results. A sample piping system was evaluated using the Seismic Stops methodology to replace the existing snubbers with passive gapped supports. To provide further correlation data, the sample system was also evaluated using nonlinear time history analysis. The correlation comparisons showed RLCA-GAP to be a viable methodology and a reliable alternative for snubber optimization and elimination. (orig.)

  14. Contrast effects on stop consonant identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, R L; Elman, J L; McCusker, S B

    1978-11-01

    Changes in the identification of speech sounds following selective adaptation are usually attributed to a reduction in sensitivity of auditory feature detectors. An alternative explanation of these effects is based on the notion of response contrast. In several experiments, subjects identified the initial segment of synthetic consonant-vowel syllables as either the voiced stop [b] or the voiceless stop [ph]. Each test syllable had a value of voice onset time (VOT) that placed it near the English voiced-voiceless boundary. When the test syllables were preceded by a single clear [b] (VOT = -100 msec), subjects tended to identify them as [ph], whereas when they were preceded by an unambiguous [ph] (VOT = 100 msec), the syllables were predominantly labeled [b]. This contrast effect occurred even when the contextual stimuli were velar and the test stimuli were bilabial, which suggests a featural rather than a phonemic basis for the effect. To discount the possibility that these might be instances of single-trial sensory adaptation, we conducted a similar experiment in which the contextual stimuli followed the test items. Reliable contrast effects were still obtained. In view of these results, it appears likely that response contrast accounts for at least some component of the adaptation effects reported in the literature.

  15. Interaction between two stopped light pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi-Hsin; Lee, Meng-Jung; Hung, Weilun; Yu, Ite A.; Chen, Ying-Cheng; Chen, Yong-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of a nonlinear optical process is proportional to the interaction time. We report a scheme of all-optical switching based on two motionless light pulses via the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. One pulse was stopped as the stationary light pulse (SLP) and the other was stopped as stored light. The time of their interaction via the medium can be prolonged and, hence, the optical nonlinearity is greatly enhanced. Using a large optical density (OD) of 190, we achieved a very long interaction time of 6.9 μs. This can be analogous to the scheme of trapping light pulses by an optical cavity with a Q factor of 8×10 9 . With the approach of using moving light pulses in the best situation, a switch can only be activated at 2 photons per atomic absorption cross section. With the approach of employing a SLP and a stored light pulse, a switch at only 0.56 photons was achieved and the efficiency is significantly improved. Moreover, the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data and show that the efficiency can be further improved by increasing the OD of the medium. Our work advances the technology in quantum information manipulation utilizing photons

  16. Age differences in emotional responses to daily stress: the role of timing, severity, and global perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stacey B; Sliwinski, Martin J; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2013-12-01

    Research on age differences in emotional responses to daily stress has produced inconsistent findings. Guided by recent theoretical advances in aging theory (S. T. Charles, 2010, Strength and vulnerability integration: A model of emotional well-being across adulthood, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 136, pp. 1068-1091) that emphasize the importance of context for predicting when and how age is related to affective well-being, the current study examined age differences in emotional responses to everyday stressors. The present study examined how three contextual features (e.g., timing of exposure, stressor severity, global perceived stress [GPS]) moderate age differences in emotional experience in an ecological momentary assessment study of adults (N = 190) aged 18-81 years. Results indicated that older adults' negative affect (NA) was less affected by exposure to recent stressors than younger adults, but that there were no age differences in the effects of stressor exposure 3-6 hr afterward. Higher levels of GPS predicted amplified NA responses to daily stress, and controlling for GPS eliminated age differences in NA responses to stressors. No age differences in NA responses as a function of stressor severity were observed. In contrast, older age was associated with less of a decrease in PA when exposed to recent stressors or with more severe recent stressors. There were no age differences in the effect of previous stressor exposure or severity on PA, or any interactions between momentary or previous stress and GPS on PA. Together, these results support the notion that chronic stress plays a central role in emotional experience in daily life. We discuss the implications of these results for emotion theories of aging. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of various stopping gases for {sup 3}He-based position sensitive neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doumas, A. [United States Merchant Marine Academy, Steamboat Road, Kings Point, NY 11024 (United States); Smith, G.C., E-mail: gsmith@bnl.gov [Instrumentation Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2012-05-21

    A range of solid state, scintillator and gas based detectors are being developed for use at the next generation of high flux neutron facilities. Since gas detectors are expected to continue to play a key role in future specific thermal neutron experiments, a comparison of the performance characteristics of prospective stopping gases is beneficial. Gas detectors typically utilize the reaction {sup 3}He(n,p)t to detect thermal neutrons; the {sup 3}He gas is used in a mixture containing a particular stopping gas in order to maintain relatively short ranges for the proton and triton pair emitted from the n-{sup 3}He reaction. Common stopping gases include hydrocarbons (e.g. propane), carbon tetrafluoride, and noble gases such as argon and xenon. For this study, we utilized the Monte Carlo simulation code 'Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter' to analyze the expected behavior of argon, xenon, carbon dioxide, difluoroethane and octafluoropropane as stopping gases for thermal neutron detectors. We also compare these findings to our previously analyzed performance of propane, butane and carbon tetrafluoride. A discussion of these gases includes their behavior in terms of proton and triton range, ionization distribution and straggle.

  18. Comparison of various stopping gases for 3He-based position sensitive neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumas, A.; Smith, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    A range of solid state, scintillator and gas based detectors are being developed for use at the next generation of high flux neutron facilities. Since gas detectors are expected to continue to play a key role in future specific thermal neutron experiments, a comparison of the performance characteristics of prospective stopping gases is beneficial. Gas detectors typically utilize the reaction 3 He(n,p)t to detect thermal neutrons; the 3 He gas is used in a mixture containing a particular stopping gas in order to maintain relatively short ranges for the proton and triton pair emitted from the n- 3 He reaction. Common stopping gases include hydrocarbons (e.g. propane), carbon tetrafluoride, and noble gases such as argon and xenon. For this study, we utilized the Monte Carlo simulation code “Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter” to analyze the expected behavior of argon, xenon, carbon dioxide, difluoroethane and octafluoropropane as stopping gases for thermal neutron detectors. We also compare these findings to our previously analyzed performance of propane, butane and carbon tetrafluoride. A discussion of these gases includes their behavior in terms of proton and triton range, ionization distribution and straggle.

  19. Comparison of various stopping gases for 3He-based position sensitive neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, A.; Smith, G. C.

    2012-05-01

    A range of solid state, scintillator and gas based detectors are being developed for use at the next generation of high flux neutron facilities. Since gas detectors are expected to continue to play a key role in future specific thermal neutron experiments, a comparison of the performance characteristics of prospective stopping gases is beneficial. Gas detectors typically utilize the reaction 3He(n,p)t to detect thermal neutrons; the 3He gas is used in a mixture containing a particular stopping gas in order to maintain relatively short ranges for the proton and triton pair emitted from the n-3He reaction. Common stopping gases include hydrocarbons (e.g. propane), carbon tetrafluoride, and noble gases such as argon and xenon. For this study, we utilized the Monte Carlo simulation code "Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter" to analyze the expected behavior of argon, xenon, carbon dioxide, difluoroethane and octafluoropropane as stopping gases for thermal neutron detectors. We also compare these findings to our previously analyzed performance of propane, butane and carbon tetrafluoride. A discussion of these gases includes their behavior in terms of proton and triton range, ionization distribution and straggle.

  20. Predictors of 3-month abstinence in smokers attending stop-smoking clinics in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Lei Hum; West, Robert; Bulgiba, Awang; Shahab, Lion

    2011-02-01

    Much is known about the predictors of success in quitting smoking. In particular, nicotine dependence, but not strength of motivation to stop, appears to predict abstinence. However, to date, studies have come almost exclusively from Western countries. More data are needed on the cross-cultural generalizability of these findings. One hundred and ninety-eight smokers attending 5 stop-smoking clinics in Malaysia completed a questionnaire prior to their target quit date and were followed up 3 months after this date. Predictors included sociodemographic variables, smoking patterns, past history of quitting, characteristics of current quit attempt, and smoking motives as well as nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence [FTND]) and self-rated strength of motivation of stop. At 3-month follow-up, 35.4% (95% CI: 28.7-42.0) of participants reported being abstinent. A backward elimination multiple logistic regression identified a number of significant predictors of success, including strength of motivation to stop (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 3.05, 95% CI: 1.28-7.25). FTND did not predict success. Motivation and nicotine dependence may play different roles in explaining variation in ability to stop smoking in different cultures.