WorldWideScience

Sample records for global snow product

  1. Antarctic snow and global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granberg, H.B.

    2001-01-01

    Global circulation models (GCM) indicate that global warming will be most pronounced at polar regions and high latitudes, causing concern about the stability of the Antarctic ice cap. A project entitled the Seasonal Snow in Antarctica examined the properties of the near surface snow to determine the current conditions that influence snow cover development. The goal was to assess the response of the snow cover in Queen Maud Land (QML) to an increased atmospheric carbon dioxide content. The Antarctic snow cover in QML was examined as part of the FINNARP expeditions in 1999 and 2000 which examined the processes that influence the snow cover. Its energy and mass balance were also assessed by examining the near surface snow strata in shallow (1-2 m) pits and by taking measurements of environmental variables. This made it possible to determine if the glacier is in danger of melting at this northerly location in the Antarctic. The study also made it possible to determine which variables need to change and by how much, for significant melting to occur. It was shown that the Antarctic anticyclone creates particular conditions that protect the snow cover from melting. The anticyclone brings dry air from the stratosphere during most of the year and is exempt from the water vapour feedback. It was concluded that even a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide will not produce major snow melt runoff. 8 refs

  2. MODIS Snow and Sea Ice Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the suite of Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua snow and sea ice products. Global, daily products, developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, are archived and distributed through the National Snow and Ice Data Center at various resolutions and on different grids useful for different communities Snow products include binary snow cover, snow albedo, and in the near future, fraction of snow in a 5OO-m pixel. Sea ice products include ice extent determined with two different algorithms, and sea ice surface temperature. The algorithms used to develop these products are described. Both the snow and sea ice products, available since February 24,2000, are useful for modelers. Validation of the products is also discussed.

  3. Rand Corporation Mean Monthly Global Snow Depth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All available monthly snow depth climatologies were integrated by the Rand Corporation, in the early 1980s, into one global (excluding Africa and South America)...

  4. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory Falling Snow Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skofronick Jackson, G.; Kulie, M.; Milani, L.; Munchak, S. J.; Wood, N.; Levizzani, V.

    2017-12-01

    Retrievals of falling snow from space represent an important data set for understanding and linking the Earth's atmospheric, hydrological, and energy cycles. Estimates of falling snow must be captured to obtain the true global precipitation water cycle, snowfall accumulations are required for hydrological studies, and without knowledge of the frozen particles in clouds one cannot adequately understand the energy and radiation budgets. This work focuses on comparing the first stable falling snow retrieval products (released May 2017) for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory (GPM-CO), which was launched February 2014, and carries both an active dual frequency (Ku- and Ka-band) precipitation radar (DPR) and a passive microwave radiometer (GPM Microwave Imager-GMI). Five separate GPM-CO falling snow retrieval algorithm products are analyzed including those from DPR Matched (Ka+Ku) Scan, DPR Normal Scan (Ku), DPR High Sensitivity Scan (Ka), combined DPR+GMI, and GMI. While satellite-based remote sensing provides global coverage of falling snow events, the science is relatively new, the different on-orbit instruments don't capture all snow rates equally, and retrieval algorithms differ. Thus a detailed comparison among the GPM-CO products elucidates advantages and disadvantages of the retrievals. GPM and CloudSat global snowfall evaluation exercises are natural investigative pathways to explore, but caution must be undertaken when analyzing these datasets for comparative purposes. This work includes outlining the challenges associated with comparing GPM-CO to CloudSat satellite snow estimates due to the different sampling, algorithms, and instrument capabilities. We will highlight some factors and assumptions that can be altered or statistically normalized and applied in an effort to make comparisons between GPM and CloudSat global satellite falling snow products as equitable as possible.

  5. Global warming: Sea ice and snow cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of differences among global climate simulations under scenarios where atmospheric CO 2 is doubled, all models indicate at least some amplification of greenouse warming at the polar regions. Several decades of recent data on air temperature, sea ice, and snow cover of the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are summarized to illustrate the general compatibility of recent variations in those parameters. Despite a data void over the Arctic Ocean, some noteworthy patterns emerge. Warming dominates in winter and spring, as projected by global climate models, with the warming strongest over subpolar land areas of Alaska, northwestern Canada, and northern Eurasia. A time-longitude summary of Arctic sea ice variations indicates that timescales of most anomalies range from several months to several years. Wintertime maxima of total sea ice extent contain no apparent secular trends. The statistical significance of trends in recent sea ice variations was evaluated by a Monte Carlo procedure, showing a statistically significant negative trend in the summer. Snow cover data over the 20-y period of record show a noticeable decrease of Arctic snow cover in the late 1980s. This is of potential climatic significance since the accompanying decrease of surface albedo leads to a rapid increase of solar heating. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Water losses during technical snow production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    These days, the production of technical snow can be seen as a prerequisite for winter tourism. Huge amounts of water are used for technical snow production by ski resorts, especially in the beginning of the winter season. The aim is to guarantee an appropriate amount of snow to reliably provide optimal ski runs until the date of season opening in early December. Technical snow is generated by pumping pressurized water through the nozzles of a snow machine and dispersing the resulting spray of small water droplets which freeze during their travel to the ground. Cooling and freezing of the droplets can only happen if energy is emitted to the air mass surrounding the droplets. This heat transfer is happening through convective cooling and though evaporation and sublimation of water droplets and ice particles. This means that also mass is lost from the droplets and added in form of vapor to the air. It is important to note that not all water that is pumped through the snow machine is converted to snow distributed on the ground. Significant amounts of water are lost due to wind drift, sublimation and evaporation while droplets are traveling through the air or to draining of water which is not fully frozen when arriving at the ground. Studies addressing this question are sparse and the quantity of the water losses is still unclear. In order to assess this question in more detail, we obtained several systematic field observations at a test site near Davos, Switzerland. About a dozen of snow making tests had been performed during the last winter seasons. We compare the amount of water measured at the intake of the snow machine with the amount of snow accumulating at the ground during a night of snow production. The snow mass was calculated from highly detailed repeated terrestrial laser scanning measurements in combination with manually gathered snow densities. In addition a meteorological station had been set up in the vicinity observing all relevant meteorological

  7. Snow and Ice Products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Riggs, George A.; Klein, Andrew G.

    2003-01-01

    Snow and sea ice products, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, flown on the Terra and Aqua satellites, are or will be available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The algorithms that produce the products are automated, thus providing a consistent global data set that is suitable for climate studies. The suite of MODIS snow products begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map that is then projected onto a sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to daily and 8-day composite climate-modeling grid (CMG) products at 0.05 resolution. A daily snow albedo product will be available in early 2003 as a beta test product. The sequence of sea ice products begins with a swath product at 1-km resolution that provides sea ice extent and ice-surface temperature (IST). The sea ice swath products are then mapped onto the Lambert azimuthal equal area or EASE-Grid projection to create a daily and 8-day composite sea ice tile product, also at 1 -km resolution. Climate-Modeling Grid (CMG) sea ice products in the EASE-Grid projection at 4-km resolution are planned for early 2003.

  8. Inorganic carbon addition stimulates snow algae primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T. L.; Havig, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Earth has experienced glacial/interglacial oscillations throughout its history. Today over 15 million square kilometers (5.8 million square miles) of Earth's land surface is covered in ice including glaciers, ice caps, and the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, most of which are retreating as a consequence of increased atmospheric CO2. Glaciers are teeming with life and supraglacial snow and ice surfaces are often red due to blooms of photoautotrophic algae. Recent evidence suggests the red pigmentation, secondary carotenoids produced in part to thrive under high irradiation, lowers albedo and accelerates melt. However, there are relatively few studies that report the productivity of snow algae communities and the parameters that constrain their growth on snow and ice surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that snow algae primary productivity can be stimulated by the addition of inorganic carbon. We found an increase in light-dependent carbon assimilation in snow algae microcosms amended with increasing amounts of inorganic carbon. Our snow algae communities were dominated by typical cosmopolitan snow algae species recovered from Alpine and Arctic environments. The climate feedbacks necessary to enter and exit glacial/interglacial oscillations are poorly understood. Evidence and models agree that global Snowball events are accompanied by changes in atmospheric CO2 with increasing CO2 necessary for entering periods of interglacial time. Our results demonstrate a positive feedback between increased CO2 and snow algal productivity and presumably growth. With the recent call for bio-albedo effects to be considered in climate models, our results underscore the need for robust climate models to include feedbacks between supraglacial primary productivity, albedo, and atmospheric CO2.

  9. Operational satellites and the global monitoring of snow and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John E.

    1991-01-01

    The altitudinal dependence of the global warming projected by global climate models is at least partially attributable to the albedo-temperature feedback involving snow and ice, which must be regarded as key variables in the monitoring for global change. Statistical analyses of data from IR and microwave sensors monitoring the areal coverage and extent of sea ice have led to mixed conclusions about recent trends of hemisphere sea ice coverage. Seasonal snow cover has been mapped for over 20 years by NOAA/NESDIS on the basis of imagery from a variety of satellite sensors. Multichannel passive microwave data show some promise for the routine monitoring of snow depth over unforested land areas.

  10. The assessment of EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Products for mountainuos areas in the eastern part of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Beser, O.; Bolat, K.; Erturk, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring the snow parameters (e.g. snow cover area, snow water equivalent) is a challenging work. Because of its natural physical properties, snow highly affects the evolution of weather from daily basis to climate on a longer time scale. The derivation of snow products over mountainous regions has been considered very challenging. This can be done by periodic and precise mapping of the snow cover. However inaccessibility and scarcity of the ground observations limit the snow cover mapping in the mountainous areas. Today, it is carried out operationally by means of optical satellite imagery and microwave radiometry. In retrieving the snow cover area from satellite images bring the problem of topographical variations within the footprint of satellite sensors and spatial and temporal variation of snow characteristics in the mountainous areas. Most of the global and regional operational snow products use generic algorithms for flat and mountainous areas. However the non-uniformity of the snow characteristics can only be modeled with different algorithms for mountain and flat areas. In this study the early findings of Satellite Application Facilities on Hydrology (H-SAF) project, which is financially supported by EUMETSAT, will be presented. Turkey is a part of the H-SAF project, both in product generation (eg. snow recognition, fractional snow cover and snow water equivalent) for mountainous regions for whole Europe, cal/val of satellite-derived snow products with ground observations and cal/val studies with hydrological modeling in the mountainous terrain of Europe. All the snow products are operational on a daily basis. For the snow recognition product (H10) for mountainous areas, spectral thresholding methods were applied on sub pixel scale of MSG-SEVIRI images. The different spectral characteristics of cloud, snow and land determined the structure of the algorithm and these characteristics were obtained from subjective classification of known snow cover features

  11. Translating Chicana Rap: Snow Tha Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Onita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This project examines rap lyrics, interviews, and music videos by Chicana artist Snow Tha Product to show how rap has been culturally translated, performed, and appropriated by females in order to “flip the script,” or subvert the dichotomous model of female sexuality that has been imposed upon them. Weaving insights from three academic fields (cultural translation, Chican@ studies, and hip-hop feminism, this paper also aims to creatively expand the definition of translation by positioning rap music as a performative language in its own right, capable of encoding and translating complex cultural issues related to race, gender, and sexuality.

  12. A snow cover climatology for the Pyrenees from MODIS snow products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoin, S.; Hagolle, O.; Huc, M.; Jarlan, L.; Dejoux, J.-F.; Szczypta, C.; Marti, R.; Sanchez, R.

    2015-05-01

    The seasonal snow in the Pyrenees is critical for hydropower production, crop irrigation and tourism in France, Spain and Andorra. Complementary to in situ observations, satellite remote sensing is useful to monitor the effect of climate on the snow dynamics. The MODIS daily snow products (Terra/MOD10A1 and Aqua/MYD10A1) are widely used to generate snow cover climatologies, yet it is preferable to assess their accuracies prior to their use. Here, we use both in situ snow observations and remote sensing data to evaluate the MODIS snow products in the Pyrenees. First, we compare the MODIS products to in situ snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) measurements. We estimate the values of the SWE and SD best detection thresholds to 40 mm water equivalent (w.e.) and 150 mm, respectively, for both MOD10A1 and MYD10A1. κ coefficients are within 0.74 and 0.92 depending on the product and the variable for these thresholds. However, we also find a seasonal trend in the optimal SWE and SD thresholds, reflecting the hysteresis in the relationship between the depth of the snowpack (or SWE) and its extent within a MODIS pixel. Then, a set of Landsat images is used to validate MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 for 157 dates between 2002 and 2010. The resulting accuracies are 97% (κ = 0.85) for MOD10A1 and 96% (κ = 0.81) for MYD10A1, which indicates a good agreement between both data sets. The effect of vegetation on the results is analyzed by filtering the forested areas using a land cover map. As expected, the accuracies decrease over the forests but the agreement remains acceptable (MOD10A1: 96%, κ = 0.77; MYD10A1: 95%, κ = 0.67). We conclude that MODIS snow products have a sufficient accuracy for hydroclimate studies at the scale of the Pyrenees range. Using a gap-filling algorithm we generate a consistent snow cover climatology, which allows us to compute the mean monthly snow cover duration per elevation band and aspect classes. There is snow on the ground at least 50% of the

  13. Observational evidence of changes in global snow and ice cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Sources of observational data on recent variations in the seasonal extent of snow cover and sea ice, of the terminal position and volume of alpine glaciers, and of ground temperature profiles in areas of permafrost are briefly reviewed. Recent evidence of changes in these variables is then examined. The extent of seasonal snow cover in the Northern hemisphere and of sea ice in both hemispheres has fluctuated irregularly over the last 15-20 years with a range of about 10-15% in each case. There is no clear evidence of any recent trends, despite general global warming. In contrast, most glaciers retreated and thinned from before the turn of the century until the 1960s and alaskan permafrost temperatures have risen 2-4 C per century. Recently, glacier advances have been noted, perhaps in response to increased accumulation. Problems of linking climate forcing and snow/ice responses are discussed

  14. Snow Cover Mapping at the Continental to Global Scale Using Combined Visible and Passive Microwave Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Brodzik, M.; Savoie, M. H.

    2007-12-01

    Over the past several decades both visible and passive microwave satellite data have been utilized for snow mapping at the continental to global scale. Snow mapping using visible data has been based primarily on the magnitude of the surface reflectance, and in more recent cases on specific spectral signatures, while microwave data can be used to identify snow cover because the microwave energy emitted by the underlying soil is scattered by the snow grains resulting in a sharp decrease in brightness temperature and a characteristic negative spectral gradient. Both passive microwave and visible data sets indicate a similar pattern of inter-annual variability, although the maximum snow extents derived from the microwave data are consistently less than those provided by the visible satellite data and the visible data typically show higher monthly variability. We describe the respective problems as well as the advantages and disadvantages of these two types of satellite data for snow cover mapping and demonstrate how a multi-sensor approach is optimal. For the period 1978 to present we combine data from the NOAA weekly snow charts with snow cover derived from the SMMR and SSM/I brightness temperature data. For the period since 2002 we blend NASA EOS MODIS and AMSR-E data sets. Our current product incorporates MODIS data from the Climate Modelers Grid (CMG) at approximately 5 km (0.05 deg.) with microwave-derived snow water equivalent (SWE) at 25 km, resulting in a blended product that includes percent snow cover in the larger grid cell whenever the microwave SWE signal is absent. Validation of AMSR-E at the brightness temperature level is provided through the comparison with data from the well-calibrated heritage SSM/I sensor over large homogeneous snow-covered surfaces (e.g. Dome C region, Antarctica). We also describe how the application of the higher frequency microwave channels (85 and 89 GHz)enhances accurate mapping of shallow and intermittent snow cover.

  15. Dynamics of actual aggregation of petroleum products in snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begunova, L. A.; Kuznetsova, O. V.; Begunov, D. A.; Kuznetsova, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents issues of snow cover pollution by petroleum products. Petroleum products content was determined using the fluorimetric method of analysis. The samples of snow were selected on the territory of Angarsk and Irkutsk cities. According to the obtained data, the content of petroleum products in the analyzed samples exceeds the background value up to 6 times. Analysis of the reference data for similar research confirms need for creation of an environmental monitoring centralized system to monitor atmospheric precipitation and, particularly, snow cover.

  16. CREST-SAFE: Snow LST validation, wetness profiler creation, and depth/SWE product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Diaz, C. L.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Munoz Barreto, J.; Yu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    CREST-SAFE: Snow LST validation, wetness profiler creation, and depth/SWE product development The Field Snow Research Station (also referred to as Snow Analysis and Field Experiment, SAFE) is operated by the NOAA Center for Earth System Sciences and Remote Sensing Technologies (CREST) in the City University of New York (CUNY). The field station is located within the premises of the Caribou Municipal Airport (46°52'59'' N, 68°01'07'' W) and in close proximity to the National Weather Service (NWS) Regional Forecast Office. The station was established in 2010 to support studies in snow physics and snow remote sensing. The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST product (provided by the Terra and Aqua Earth Observing System satellites) were validated using in situ LST (T-skin) and near-surface air temperature (T-air) observations recorded at CREST-SAFE for the winters of 2013 and 2014. Results indicate that T-air correlates better than T-skin with VIIRS LST data and that the accuracy of nighttime LST retrievals is considerably better than that of daytime. Several trends in the MODIS LST data were observed, including the underestimation of daytime values and night-time values. Results indicate that, although all the data sets showed high correlation with ground measurements, day values yielded slightly higher accuracy ( 1°C). Additionally, we created a liquid water content (LWC)-profiling instrument using time-domain reflectometry (TDR) at CREST-SAFE and tested it during the snow melt period (February-April) immediately after installation in 2014. Results displayed high agreement when compared to LWC estimates obtained using empirical formulas developed in previous studies, and minor improvement over wet snow LWC estimates. Lastly, to improve on global snow cover mapping, a snow product capable of estimating snow depth and snow water

  17. The AMSR2 Satellite-based Microwave Snow Algorithm (SMSA) to estimate regional to global snow depth and snow water equivalent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R. E. J.; Saberi, N.; Li, Q.

    2017-12-01

    With moderate to high spatial resolution (observation approaches yet to be fully scoped and developed, the long-term satellite passive microwave record remains an important tool for cryosphere-climate diagnostics. A new satellite microwave remote sensing approach is described for estimating snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE). The algorithm, called the Satellite-based Microwave Snow Algorithm (SMSA), uses Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - 2 (AMSR2) observations aboard the Global Change Observation Mission - Water mission launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in 2012. The approach is unique since it leverages observed brightness temperatures (Tb) with static ancillary data to parameterize a physically-based retrieval without requiring parameter constraints from in situ snow depth observations or historical snow depth climatology. After screening snow from non-snow surface targets (water bodies [including freeze/thaw state], rainfall, high altitude plateau regions [e.g. Tibetan plateau]), moderate and shallow snow depths are estimated by minimizing the difference between Dense Media Radiative Transfer model estimates (Tsang et al., 2000; Picard et al., 2011) and AMSR2 Tb observations to retrieve SWE and SD. Parameterization of the model combines a parsimonious snow grain size and density approach originally developed by Kelly et al. (2003). Evaluation of the SMSA performance is achieved using in situ snow depth data from a variety of standard and experiment data sources. Results presented from winter seasons 2012-13 to 2016-17 illustrate the improved performance of the new approach in comparison with the baseline AMSR2 algorithm estimates and approach the performance of the model assimilation-based approach of GlobSnow. Given the variation in estimation power of SWE by different land surface/climate models and selected satellite-derived passive microwave approaches, SMSA provides SWE estimates that are independent of real or near real

  18. Data Fusion of Gridded Snow Products Enhanced with Terrain Covariates and a Simple Snow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauffer, A. M.; Hsieh, W. W.; Cannon, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic planning requires accurate estimates of regional snow water equivalent (SWE), particularly areas with hydrologic regimes dominated by spring melt. While numerous gridded data products provide such estimates, accurate representations are particularly challenging under conditions of mountainous terrain, heavy forest cover and large snow accumulations, contexts which in many ways define the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. One promising avenue of improving SWE estimates is a data fusion approach which combines field observations with gridded SWE products and relevant covariates. A base artificial neural network (ANN) was constructed using three of the best performing gridded SWE products over BC (ERA-Interim/Land, MERRA and GLDAS-2) and simple location and time covariates. This base ANN was then enhanced to include terrain covariates (slope, aspect and Terrain Roughness Index, TRI) as well as a simple 1-layer energy balance snow model driven by gridded bias-corrected ANUSPLIN temperature and precipitation values. The ANN enhanced with all aforementioned covariates performed better than the base ANN, but most of the skill improvement was attributable to the snow model with very little contribution from the terrain covariates. The enhanced ANN improved station mean absolute error (MAE) by an average of 53% relative to the composing gridded products over the province. Interannual peak SWE correlation coefficient was found to be 0.78, an improvement of 0.05 to 0.18 over the composing products. This nonlinear approach outperformed a comparable multiple linear regression (MLR) model by 22% in MAE and 0.04 in interannual correlation. The enhanced ANN has also been shown to estimate better than the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model calibrated and run for four BC watersheds, improving MAE by 22% and correlation by 0.05. The performance improvements of the enhanced ANN are statistically significant at the 5% level across the province and

  19. Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia: regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Lyngdoh

    Full Text Available The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2 globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica, blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, argali (Ovis ammon and marmots (Marmota spp. The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation.

  20. Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia): regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngdoh, Salvador; Shrotriya, Shivam; Goyal, Surendra P; Clements, Hayley; Hayward, Matthew W; Habib, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2) globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica), blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), argali (Ovis ammon) and marmots (Marmota spp). The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation.

  1. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

    2012-04-01

    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy

  2. Response of snow-dependent hydrologic extremes to continued global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University; Scherer, Martin [Stanford University; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Snow accumulation is critical for water availability in the Northern Hemisphere1,2, raising concern that global warming could have important impacts on natural and human systems in snow-dependent regions1,3. Although regional hydrologic changes have been observed (for example, refs 1,3 5), the time of emergence of extreme changes in snow accumulation and melt remains a key unknown for assessing climate- change impacts3,6,7. We find that the CMIP5 global climate model ensemble exhibits an imminent shift towards low snow years in the Northern Hemisphere, with areas of western North America, northeastern Europe and the Greater Himalaya showing the strongest emergence during the near- termdecadesandat2 Cglobalwarming.Theoccurrenceof extremely low snow years becomes widespread by the late twenty-first century, as do the occurrences of extremely high early-season snowmelt and runoff (implying increasing flood risk), and extremely low late-season snowmelt and runoff (implying increasing water stress). Our results suggest that many snow-dependent regions of the Northern Hemisphere are likely to experience increasing stress from low snow years within the next three decades, and from extreme changes in snow-dominated water resources if global warming exceeds 2 C above the pre-industrial baseline.

  3. Globalization and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Machikita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Recent empirical studies which utilize plant- or establishment-level data to examine globalization's impact on productivity have discovered many causal mechanisms involved in globalization's impact on firms’ productivity. Because these pathways have been broad, there have been few attempts...

  4. Performance of the Falling Snow Retrieval Algorithms for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Munchak, Stephen J.; Ringerud, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Retrievals of falling snow from space represent an important data set for understanding the Earth's atmospheric, hydrological, and energy cycles, especially during climate change. Estimates of falling snow must be captured to obtain the true global precipitation water cycle, snowfall accumulations are required for hydrological studies, and without knowledge of the frozen particles in clouds one cannot adequately understand the energy and radiation budgets. While satellite-based remote sensing provides global coverage of falling snow events, the science is relatively new and retrievals are still undergoing development with challenges remaining). This work reports on the development and testing of retrieval algorithms for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Core Satellite, launched February 2014.

  5. Enhancement of the MODIS Snow and Ice Product Suite Utilizing Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.

    2006-01-01

    A problem has been noticed with the current NODIS Snow and Ice Product in that fringes of certain snow fields are labeled as "cloud" whereas close inspection of the data indicates that the correct labeling is a non-cloud category such as snow or land. This occurs because the current MODIS Snow and Ice Product generation algorithm relies solely on the MODIS Cloud Mask Product for the labeling of image pixels as cloud. It is proposed here that information obtained from image segmentation can be used to determine when it is appropriate to override the cloud indication from the cloud mask product. Initial tests show that this approach can significantly reduce the cloud "fringing" in modified snow cover labeling. More comprehensive testing is required to determine whether or not this approach consistently improves the accuracy of the snow and ice product.

  6. Snow fracture: From micro-cracking to global failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Achille; Reiweger, Ingrid; Schweizer, Jürg

    2017-04-01

    Slab avalanches are caused by a crack forming and propagating in a weak layer within the snow cover, which eventually causes the detachment of the overlying cohesive slab. The gradual damage process leading to the nucleation of the initial failure is still not entirely understood. Therefore, we studied the damage process preceding snow failure by analyzing the acoustic emissions (AE) generated by bond failure or micro-cracking. The AE allow studying the ongoing progressive failure in a non-destructive way. We performed fully load-controlled failure experiments on snow samples presenting a weak layer and recorded the generated AE. The size and frequency of the generated AE increased before failure revealing an acceleration of the damage process with increased size and frequency of damage and/or microscopic cracks. The AE energy was power-law distributed and the exponent (b-value) decreased approaching failure. The waiting time followed an exponential distribution with increasing exponential coefficient λ before failure. The decrease of the b-value and the increase of λ correspond to a change in the event distribution statistics indicating a transition from homogeneously distributed uncorrelated damage producing mostly small AE to localized damage, which cause larger correlated events which leads to brittle failure. We observed brittle failure for the fast experiment and a more ductile behavior for the slow experiments. This rate dependence was reflected also in the AE signature. In the slow experiments the b value and λ were almost constant, and the energy rate increase was moderate indicating that the damage process was in a stable state - suggesting the damage and healing processes to be balanced. On a shorter time scale, however, the AE parameters varied indicating that the damage process was not steady but consisted of a sum of small bursts. We assume that the bursts may have been generated by cascades of correlated micro-cracks caused by localization of

  7. When Models and Observations Collide: Journeying towards an Integrated Snow Depth Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, M.; Petty, A.; Boisvert, L.; Markus, T.; Kurtz, N. T.; Kwok, R.; Perovich, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of snow depth is essential for assessing changes in sea ice mass balance due to snow's insulating and reflective properties. In remote sensing applications, the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrievals from altimetry crucially depends on snow depth. Despite the need for snow depth data, we currently lack continuous observations that capture the basin-scale snow depth distribution and its seasonal evolution. Recent in situ and remote sensing observations are sparse in space and time, and contain uncertainties, caveats, and/or biases that often require careful interpretation. Likewise, using model output for remote sensing applications is limited due to uncertainties in atmospheric forcing and different treatments of snow processes. Here, we summarize our efforts in bringing observational and model data together to develop an approach for an integrated snow depth product. We start with a snow budget model and incrementally incorporate snow processes to determine the effects on snow depth and to assess model sensitivity. We discuss lessons learned in model-observation integration and ideas for potential improvements to the treatment of snow in models.

  8. Prey Preferences of the Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia): Regional Diet Specificity Holds Global Significance for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Lyngdoh, Salvador; Shrotriya, Shivam; Goyal, Surendra P.; Clements, Hayley; Hayward, Matthew W.; Habib, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2) globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based o...

  9. Global warming in the context of 2000 years of Australian alpine temperature and snow cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Hamish; Callow, John Nikolaus; Soderholm, Joshua; McGrath, Gavan; Campbell, Micheline; Zhao, Jian-Xin

    2018-03-13

    Annual resolution reconstructions of alpine temperatures are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere, while no snow cover reconstructions exist. These records are essential to place in context the impact of anthropogenic global warming against historical major natural climate events such as the Roman Warm Period (RWP), Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Here we show for a marginal alpine region of Australia using a carbon isotope speleothem reconstruction, warming over the past five decades has experienced equivalent magnitude of temperature change and snow cover decline to the RWP and MCA. The current rate of warming is unmatched for the past 2000 years and seasonal snow cover is at a minimum. On scales of several decades, mean maximum temperatures have undergone considerable change ≈ ± 0.8 °C highlighting local scale susceptibility to rapid temperature change, evidence of which is often masked in regional to hemisphere scale temperature reconstructions.

  10. State of the Climate Monthly Overview - Global Snow & Ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The State of the Climate is a collection of periodic summaries recapping climate-related occurrences on both a global and national scale. The State of the Climate...

  11. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    . The NOHRSC NSA products are used operationally by NOAA's National Weather Service field offices when issuing hydrologic forecasts and warnings including river and flood forecasts, water supply forecasts, and spring flood outlooks for the nation. Additionally, the NOHRSC NSA products are used by a wide variety of federal, state, local, municipal, private-sector, and general-public end-users with a requirement for real-time snowpack information. The paper discusses, in detail, the techniques and procedures used to create the NOHRSC NSA products and gives a number of examples of the real-time snow products generated and distributed over the NOHRSC web site (www.nohrsc.noaa.gov). Also discussed are major limitations of the approach, the most notable being deficiencies in observation of snow water equivalent. Snow observation networks generally lack the consistency and coverage needed to significantly improve confidence in snow model states through updating. Many regions of the world simply lack snow water equivalent observations altogether, a significant constraint on global application of the NSA approach.

  12. ESA GlobSnow Snow Water Equivalent (SWE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The European Space Agency (ESA) Global Snow Monitoring for Climate Research (GlobSnow) snow water equivalent (SWE) v2.0 data record contains snow information derived...

  13. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2016-01-01

    Selecting key performance indicators in conventional product development is a challenging task for project management and is compound by global product development. Informed from the findings of two in depth case studies conducted with large Danish manufacturing companies, in this paper we develo...

  14. Co-production of Snow Projections for a Study of Snow Persistence Projections for the American Wolverine Gulo gulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A. J.; Barsugli, J. J.; Guinotte, J. M.; Livneh, B.; Dewes, C.; Rangwala, I.; Heldmyer, A.; Torbit, S.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will describe the efforts of climate scientists to work with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to provide analysis of future snow persistence to support a Species Status Assessment (SSA) for the American wolverine (Gulo gulo), under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The project has been a research to application (R2A) study, aimed directly at the FWS needs, and in regular collaboration with FWS Region 6 personnel to discuss and agree on the choice downscaled projections to represent a range of plausible futures, and other methodological choices including use of high resolution (250m) physical hydrology modeling. FWS sought improved information on which to base a court-ordered re-evaluation of the conclusions of a previous SSA, due in 12 months, necessitating a quick turn-around for the snow research. The goal was to improve upon the the previous evaluation of snow persistence, both in understanding of the range of uncertainty and by using new snow modeling at spatial scales intended to be more relevant to both physical snowpack processes and to making inferences about potential wolverine denning opportunity. This project was embedded both in a specific legal/regulatory process and also in a broader FWS interest in building body of science for snow-dependent species that might support other ESA processes. Results of the co-production included new scientific questions and analytic approaches that arose from the interaction between climate scientists and ecologists. The fine spatial scales of the analysis compared to previous work allowed new hypotheses to be articulated, but also led to significant issues in the interpretation of the snow model output. This presentation will discuss key issues that arose in the collaboration between scientists and the managers developing the SSA, including the managing the independence of the science while remaining in a co-production mode, the challenges of the rapid time frame, and the challenges

  15. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation has enabled companies to globalise their product development process. Today, everything from manufacturing to R&D can be globally distributed. This has led to a more complex and disintegrated product development process. This paper investigates the impacts companies have experienced...... operational solutions to counteract the negative impacts with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a unique look into global product development through an investigation of its impact on the organisation, the product development process, and the product. Furthermore, it shows the solutions...... as a result of this, and how they have been addressed. Data was collected through case studies of five Danish multinational corporations. The findings showed that the companies experienced several challenges when they globalised their product development process. They consequently implemented various...

  16. Evaluating MODIS snow products for modelling snowmelt runoff: Case study of the Rio Grande headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Caitriana; Dialesandro, John; James, Darren; Elias, Emile; Rango, Albert; Bleiweiss, Max

    2017-12-01

    Snow-covered area (SCA) is a key variable in the Snowmelt-Runoff Model (SRM) and in other models for simulating discharge from snowmelt. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM +) or Operational Land Imager (OLI) provide remotely sensed data at an appropriate spatial resolution for mapping SCA in small headwater basins, but the temporal resolution of the data is low and may not always provide sufficient cloud-free dates. The coarser spatial resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers better temporal resolution and in cloudy years, MODIS data offer the best alternative for mapping snow cover when finer spatial resolution data are unavailable. However, MODIS' coarse spatial resolution (500 m) can obscure fine spatial patterning in snow cover and some MODIS products are not sensitive to end-of-season snow cover. In this study, we aimed to test MODIS snow products for use in simulating snowmelt runoff from smaller headwater basins by a) comparing maps of TM and MODIS-based SCA and b) determining how SRM streamflow simulations are changed by the different estimates of seasonal snow depletion. We compared gridded MODIS snow products (Collection 5 MOD10A1 fractional and binary SCA; SCA derived from Collection 6 MOD10A1 Normalised Difference Snow Index (NDSI) Snow Cover), and the MODIS Snow Covered-Area and Grain size retrieval (MODSCAG) canopy-corrected fractional SCA (SCAMG), with reference SCA maps (SCAREF) generated from binary classification of TM imagery. SCAMG showed strong agreement with SCAREF; excluding true negatives (where both methods agreed no snow was present) the median percent difference between SCAREF and SCAMG ranged between -2.4% and 4.7%. We simulated runoff for each of the four study years using SRM populated with and calibrated for snow depletion curves derived from SCAREF. We then substituted in each of the MODIS-derived depletion curves. With efficiency coefficients ranging between 0.73 and 0.93, SRM

  17. A Citizen Science Campaign to Validate Snow Remote-Sensing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikstrom Jones, K.; Wolken, G. J.; Arendt, A. A.; Hill, D. F.; Crumley, R. L.; Setiawan, L.; Markle, B.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to quantify seasonal water retention and storage in mountain snow packs has implications for an array of important topics, including ecosystem function, water resources, hazard mitigation, validation of remote sensing products, climate modeling, and the economy. Runoff simulation models, which typically rely on gridded climate data and snow remote sensing products, would be greatly improved if uncertainties in estimates of snow depth distribution in high-elevation complex terrain could be reduced. This requires an increase in the spatial and temporal coverage of observational snow data in high-elevation data-poor regions. To this end, we launched Community Snow Observations (CSO). Participating citizen scientists use Mountain Hub, a multi-platform mobile and web-based crowdsourcing application that allows users to record, submit, and instantly share geo-located snow depth, snow water equivalence (SWE) measurements, measurement location photos, and snow grain information with project scientists and other citizen scientists. The snow observations are used to validate remote sensing products and modeled snow depth distribution. The project's prototype phase focused on Thompson Pass in south-central Alaska, an important infrastructure corridor that includes avalanche terrain and the Lowe River drainage and is essential to the City of Valdez and the fisheries of Prince William Sound. This year's efforts included website development, expansion of the Mountain Hub tool, and recruitment of citizen scientists through a combination of social media outreach, community presentations, and targeted recruitment of local avalanche professionals. We also conducted two intensive field data collection campaigns that coincided with an aerial photogrammetric survey. With more than 400 snow depth observations, we have generated a new snow remote-sensing product that better matches actual SWE quantities for Thompson Pass. In the next phase of the citizen science portion of

  18. Technical snow production in skiing areas: conditions, practice, monitoring and modelling. A case study in Mayrhofen/Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Hanzer, Florian; Marke, Thomas; Rothleitner, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The production of technical snow today is a self-evident feature of modern alpine skiing resort management. Millions of Euros are invested every year for the technical infrastructure and its operation to produce a homogeneous and continuing snow cover on the skiing slopes for the winter season in almost every larger destination in the Alps. In Austria, skiing tourism is a significant factor of the national economic structure. We present the framing conditions of technical snow production in the mid-size skiing resort of Mayrhofen (Zillertal Alps/Austria, 136 km slopes, elevation range 630 - 2.500 m a.s.l.). Production conditions are defined by the availability of water, the planned date for the season opening, and the climatic conditions in the weeks before. By means of an adapted snow production strategy an attempt is made to ecologically and economically optimize the use of water and energy resources. Monitoring of the snow cover is supported by a network of low-cost sensors and mobile snow depth recordings. Finally, technical snow production is simulated with the spatially distributed, physically based hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN. The model explicitly considers individual snow guns and distributes the produced snow along the slopes. The amount of simulated snow produced by each device is a function of its type, of actual wet-bulb temperature at the location, of ski area infrastructure (in terms of water supply and pumping capacity), and of snow demand.

  19. GLOBAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The most significant transformations that globalization produces occur in production. Since the '60s, a new division of labor has made its presence felt in the world, arising from the "de-industrialization" of the developed and transfer production capacity of resource-intensive industries and pollutants from these countries to the developing world. "Dislocation" industry had the interim foreign direct investment made in the new industrialized countries, the latter becoming, in turn, sources of direct foreign investment, taking its capital in other countries in developing handsets. Currently, FDI destination is no longer a priority in developing countries, yet they are increasingly leaning towards the developed countries, due to the attractiveness offered by their economies.

  20. The economic aspects of artificial snow production in the perspective of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonseth, C.

    2012-04-01

    Snowmaking is now used by ski resorts worldwide as a measure to cope with both natural snow reduction and variability. This extensive recourse casts doubt on its sustainability mainly because of the large amount of natural resources being used (energy, water). In the middle to long run, this problem is expected to increase with future climate change triggering the production of more snow. The research field that focuses on the economic aspects of artificial snow production is still in its infancy but potentially covers a wide array of issues. Among these issues, benefits and costs of snowmaking are important ones. On the one hand, benefits arise as snowmaking extends or preserves the operating period of ski areas. Several empirical studies speculate or show that snowmaking considerably reduces the sensitivity of tourism consumption to variations in snow conditions. These benefits have long been neglected in studies analyzing the consequences of climate change for the winter tourism sector. While failing to introduce these benefits, many studies have generated overly high costs of climate change. On the other hand, investments and operating costs of artificial snow production depend upon several factors, such as technology and local conditions. Consequently, costs vary considerably from one location to another and over time, yet indicative values can be found in the literature. In addition, artificial snow production generates external costs, i.e. costs that are not born by those producing it. Typical of these external costs are environmental ones that are related to CO2 emissions or biodiversity losses. To our knowledge, very little has been done so far to integrate these costs in economic studies. To the extent that vertical integration is absent, it may happen as well that snow production generates important external benefits for different stakeholders at a given ski resort. From an economic point of view, both types of externalities could lead to investment

  1. A Supplementary Clear-Sky Snow and Ice Recognition Technique for CERES Level 2 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkevich, Alexander; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Rutan, David; Kato, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Identification of clear-sky snow and ice is an important step in the production of cryosphere radiation budget products, which are used in the derivation of long-term data series for climate research. In this paper, a new method of clear-sky snow/ice identification for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is presented. The algorithm's goal is to enhance the identification of snow and ice within the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data after application of the standard CERES scene identification scheme. The input of the algorithm uses spectral radiances from five MODIS bands and surface skin temperature available in the CERES Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) product. The algorithm produces a cryosphere rating from an aggregated test: a higher rating corresponds to a more certain identification of the clear-sky snow/ice-covered scene. Empirical analysis of regions of interest representing distinctive targets such as snow, ice, ice and water clouds, open waters, and snow-free land selected from a number of MODIS images shows that the cryosphere rating of snow/ice targets falls into 95% confidence intervals lying above the same confidence intervals of all other targets. This enables recognition of clear-sky cryosphere by using a single threshold applied to the rating, which makes this technique different from traditional branching techniques based on multiple thresholds. Limited tests show that the established threshold clearly separates the cryosphere rating values computed for the cryosphere from those computed for noncryosphere scenes, whereas individual tests applied consequently cannot reliably identify the cryosphere for complex scenes.

  2. The impact of organochlorines cycling in the cryosphere on global distributions and fate – 2. Land ice and temporary snow cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Lorenz; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Global fate and transport of γ-HCH and DDT was studied using a global multicompartment chemistry-transport model, MPI-MCTM, with and without inclusion of land ice (in Antarctica and Greenland) or snow cover (dynamic). MPI-MCTM is based on coupled ocean and atmosphere general circulation models. After a decade of simulation 4.2% γ-HCH and 2.3% DDT are stored in land ice and snow. Neglection of land ice and snow in modelling would underestimate the total environmental residence time, τ ov , of γ-HCH and overestimate τ ov for DDT, both on the order of 1% and depending on actual compartmental distribution. Volatilisation of DDT from boreal, seasonally snow covered land is enhanced throughout the year, while volatilisation of γ-HCH is only enhanced during the snow-free season. Including land ice and snow cover in modelling matters in particular for the Arctic, where higher burdens are predicted to be stored. - Highlights: ► Land ice and snow hosts 2–4% of the global environmental burden of γ-HCH and DDT. ► Inclusion of land ice and snow cover matters for global environmental residence time. ► Including of land ice and snow cover matters in particular for the Arctic. - The inclusion of cycling in temporary snow cover and land ice in the model is found relevant for predicted POPs multicompartmental distribution and fate in the Arctic and on the global scale.

  3. Spring snow albedo feedback over northern Eurasia: Comparing in situ measurements with reanalysis products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wegmann

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study uses daily observations and modern reanalyses in order to evaluate reanalysis products over northern Eurasia regarding the spring snow albedo feedback (SAF during the period from 2000 to 2013. We used the state-of-the-art reanalyses from ERA-Interim/Land and the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications version 2 (MERRA-2 as well as an experimental set-up of ERA-Interim/Land with prescribed short grass as land cover to enhance the comparability with the station data while underlining the caveats of comparing in situ observations with gridded data. Snow depth statistics derived from daily station data are well reproduced in all three reanalyses. However day-to-day albedo variability is notably higher at the stations than for any reanalysis product. The ERA-Interim grass set-up shows improved performance when representing albedo variability and generates comparable estimates for the snow albedo in spring. We find that modern reanalyses show a physically consistent representation of SAF, with realistic spatial patterns and area-averaged sensitivity estimates. However, station-based SAF values are significantly higher than in the reanalyses, which is mostly driven by the stronger contrast between snow and snow-free albedo. Switching to grass-only vegetation in ERA-Interim/Land increases the SAF values up to the level of station-based estimates. We found no significant trend in the examined 14-year time series of SAF, but interannual changes of about 0.5 % K−1 in both station-based and reanalysis estimates were derived. This interannual variability is primarily dominated by the variability in the snowmelt sensitivity, which is correctly captured in reanalysis products. Although modern reanalyses perform well for snow variables, efforts should be made to improve the representation of dynamic albedo changes.

  4. Global production through 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two companion studies released recently should provide great food for thought among geo-political strategists and various national governments. If predictions contained in these Petroconsultants studies of oil and gas production trends for the next 10 years are realized, there will be great repercussions for net exporters and importers, alike. After analyzing and predicting trends within each of the world's significant producing nations for the 1996--2005 period, the crude oil and condensate report concludes tat global production will jump nearly 24%. By contrast, worldwide gas output will leap 40%. The cast of characters among producers and exporters that will benefit from these increases varies considerably for each fuel. On the oil side, Russia and the OPEC members, particularly the Persian Gulf nations, will be back in the driver's seat in terms of affecting export and pricing patterns. On the gas side, the leading producers will be an interesting mix of mostly non-OPEC countries. The reemergence of Persian Gulf oil producers, coupled with an anticipated long-term decline among top non-OPEC producing nations should present a sobering picture to government planners within large net importers, such as the US. They are likely to find themselves in much the same supply trap as was experienced in the 1970s, only this time the dependence on foreign oil supplies will be much worse. Gas supplies will not be similarly constrained, and some substitution for oil is probable. Here, two articles, ''World oil industry is set for transition'' and ''Worldwide gas surges forward in next decade,'' present a summary of the findings detailed in Petroconsultants' recent studies

  5. Evaluation of the global MODIS 30 arc-second spatially and temporally complete snow-free land surface albedo and reflectance anisotropy dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingsong; Wang, Zhuosen; Li, Zhan; Erb, Angela; Schaaf, Crystal B.

    2017-06-01

    Land surface albedo is an essential variable for surface energy and climate modeling as it describes the proportion of incident solar radiant flux that is reflected from the Earth's surface. To capture the temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity of the land surface, satellite remote sensing must be used to monitor albedo accurately at a global scale. However, large data gaps caused by cloud or ephemeral snow have slowed the adoption of satellite albedo products by the climate modeling community. To address the needs of this community, we used a number of temporal and spatial gap-filling strategies to improve the spatial and temporal coverage of the global land surface MODIS BRDF, albedo and NBAR products. A rigorous evaluation of the gap-filled values shows good agreement with original high quality data (RMSE = 0.027 for the NIR band albedo, 0.020 for the red band albedo). This global snow-free and cloud-free MODIS BRDF and albedo dataset (established from 2001 to 2015) offers unique opportunities to monitor and assess the impact of the changes on the Earth's land surface.

  6. Anthropogenic osmium in rain and snow reveals global-scale atmospheric contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cynthia; Sedwick, Peter N; Sharma, Mukul

    2009-05-12

    Osmium is one of the rarer elements in seawater, with typical concentration of approximately 10 x 10(-15) g g(-1) (5.3 x 10(-14) mol kg(-1)). The osmium isotope composition ((187)Os/(188)Os ratio) of deep oceans is 1.05, reflecting a balance between inputs from continental crust (approximately 1.3) and mantle/cosmic dust (approximately 0.13). Here, we show that the (187)Os/(188)Os ratios measured in rain and snow collected around the world range from 0.16 to 0.48, much lower than expected (>1), but similar to the isotope composition of ores (approximately 0.2) that are processed to extract platinum and other metals to be used primarily in automobile catalytic converters. Present-day surface seawater has a lower (187)Os/(188)Os ratio (approximately 0.95) than deep waters, suggesting that human activities have altered the isotope composition of the world's oceans and impacted the global geochemical cycle of osmium. The contamination of the surface ocean is particularly remarkable given that osmium has few industrial uses. The pollution may increase with growing demand for platinum-based catalysts.

  7. Snowscape Ecology: Linking Snow Properties to Wildlife Movements and Demography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugh, L.; Verbyla, D.; van de Kerk, M.; Mahoney, P.; Sivy, K. J.; Liston, G. E.; Nolin, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    Snow enshrouds up to one third of the global land mass annually and exerts a major influence on animals that reside in these "snowscapes," (landscapes covered in snow). Dynamic snowscapes may have especially strong effects in arctic and boreal regions where dry snow persists for much of the year. Changes in temperature and hydrology are transforming northern regions, with profound implications for wildlife that are not well understood. We report initial findings from a NASA ABoVE project examining effects of snow properties on Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli). We used the MODSCAG snow fraction product to map spring snowline elevations and snow-off dates from 2000-2015 throughout the global range of Dall sheep in Alaska and northwestern Canada. We found a negative effect of spring snow cover on Dall sheep recruitment that increased with latitude. Using meteorological data and a daily freeze/thaw status product derived from passive microwave remote sensing from 1983-2012, we found that sheep survival rates increased in years with higher temperatures, less winter precipitation, fewer spring freeze-thaw events, and more winter freeze-thaw events. To examine the effects of snow depth and density on sheep movements, we used location data from GPS-collared sheep and a snowpack evolution model (SnowModel). We found that sheep selected for shallow, fluffy snow at high elevations, but they selected for denser snow as depth increased. Our field measurements identified a critical snow density threshold of 329 (± 18 SE) kg/m3 to support the weight of Dall sheep. Thus, sheep may require areas of shallow, fluffy snow for foraging, while relying on hard-packed snow for winter travel. These findings highlight the importance of multiple snowscape properties on wildlife movements and demography. The integrated study of snow properties and ecological processes, which we call snowscape ecology, will greatly improve global change forecasting.

  8. Supply chains in global production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii Mazaraki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Analyzing the current processes of global sales and sales interaction over the past two decades shows that the world’s system of exchanges has undergone significant changes that have been caused by a multitude of factors. The formation of a complex model of global production, determined by the peculiarities of the transformation of individual economies’ growth models, the specifics of their industrialization and the forms of development of their national production business, its institutional and market-wise restructuring and the degree of inclusion in the system of international division of labor. The change in the level and depth of the specialization of individual countries in the field of production and sale of products, in turn, has accelerated the overcoming of economic distance (which is measured by the cost of transport and information services. Based on the above, namely, within the framework of forming a new model of global production, the issue of studying the role and value of supply chains in this model is made relevant. Aim and tasks. The purpose of the article is to study the modern transformation of supply chains within the global production system. The findings will allow to determine what exactly needs to be done in the direction of further redeveloping the regulatory tools of global supply chain management. Research results. The article presents the results of studying the transformation of supply chains’ role in global production. It is determined that taking into account the existing specificity of industrialization and fragmentation of national production, as well as the rapid spread of the results of scientific and technological progress in the world economy, there is a need for a more thorough study of this change. As a result of analyzing open source statistical data, a conclusion was reached regarding the transition from the competition of individual business entities to the competition of global

  9. Snow fraction products evaluation with Landsat-8/OLI data and its spatial scale effects over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.

    2016-12-01

    Snow cover is one of important elements in the water supply of large populations, especially in those downstream from mountainous watershed. The cryosphere process in the Tibetan Plateau is paid much attention due to rapid change of snow amount and cover extent. Snow mapping from MODIS has been increased attention in the study of climate change and hydrology. But the lack of intensive validation of different snow mapping methods especially at Tibetan Plateau hinders its application. In this work, we examined three MODIS snow products, including standard MODIS fractional snow product (MOD10A1) (Kaufman et al., 2002; Salomonson & Appel, 2004, 2006), two other fractional snow product, MODSCAG (Painter et al., 2009) and MOD_MESMA (Shi, 2012). Both these two methods are based on spectral mixture analysis. The difference between MODISCAG and MOD_MESMA was the endmember selection. For MODSCAG product, snow spectral endmembers of varying grain size was obtained both from a radiative transfer model and spectra of vegetation, rock and soil collected in the field and laboratory. MOD_MESMA was obtained from automated endmember extraction method using linear spectral mixture analysis. Its endmembers are selected in each image to enhance the computational efficiency of MESMA (Multiple Endmember Spectral Analysis). Landsat-8 Operatinal Land Imager (OLI) data from 2013-2015 was used to evaluate the performance of these three snow fraction products in Tibetan Plateau. The effect of land cover types including forest, grass and bare soil was analyzed to evaluate three products. In addition, the effects of relatively flat surface in internal plateau and high mountain areas of Himalaya were also evaluated on the impact of these snow fraction products. From our comparison, MODSCAG and MOD10A1 overestimated snow cover, while MOD_MESMA underestimated snow cover. And RMSE of MOD_MESMA at each land cover type including forest, grass and mountain area decreased with the spatial resolution

  10. Labour in Global Production Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Nadvi, Khalid; Chan, Anita

    A critical challenge facing developing country producers is to meet international labour standards and codes of conduct in order to engage in global production networks. Evidence of gains for workers from compliance with such standards and codes remains limited and patchy. This paper focuses...... on the global football industry, a sector dominated by leading global brands who manage dispersed global production networks. It assesses the work conditions for football stitchers engaged in different forms of work organisation, factories, stitching centres, and home-based settings, in Pakistan, India......, and China. It draws on detailed qualitative primary field research with football stitching workers and producers in these three countries. The paper explains how, and why, work conditions of football stitchers differ across these locations through an analytical framework that interweaves both global...

  11. Past and future of the Austrian snow cover - results from the CC-Snow project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Marke, Thomas; Hanzer, Florian; Ragg, Hansjörg; Kleindienst, Hannes; Wilcke, Renate; Gobiet, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    This study has the goal to simulate the evolution of the Austrian snow cover from 1971 to 2050 by means of a coupled modelling scheme, and to estimate the effect of climate change on the evolution of the natural snow cover. The model outcomes are interepreted with focus on both the future natural snow conditions, and the effects on winter skiing tourism. Therefore the regional temperature-index snow model SNOWREG is applied, providing snow maps with a spatial resolution of 250 m. The model is trained by means of assimilating local measurements and observed natural snow cover patterns. Meteorological forcing consists of the output of four realizations of the ENSEMBLES project for the A1B emission scenario. The meteorological variables are downscaled and error corrected with a quantile based empirical-statistical method on a daily time basis. The control simulation is 1971-2000, and the scenario simulation 2021-2050. Spatial interpolation is performed on the basis of parameter-elevation relations. We compare the four different global/regional climate model combinations and their effect on the snow modelling, and we explain the patterns of the resulting snow cover by means of regional climatological characteristics. The provinces Tirol and Styria serve as test regions, being typical examples for the two climatic subregions of Austria. To support the interpretation of the simulation results we apply indicators which enable to define meaningful measures for the comparison of the different periods and regions. Results show that the mean duration of the snow cover will decrease by 15 to 30 days per winter season, mostly in elevations between 2000 and 2500 m. Above 3000 m the higher winter precipitation can compensate this effect, and mean snow cover duration may even slightly increase. We also investigate the local scale by application of the physically based mountain snow model AMUNDSEN. This model is capable of producing 50 m resolution output maps for indicators

  12. Glocalized Production: The Evolution of Global Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavez, Marianna; Bilberg, Arne

    In light of the challenges of the current globalized production model, four global Danish companies were interviewed with the purpose of exploring “glocalized production” as the new step and solution to the challenges of the “global village.” The research sought to gauge the interest on “glocalized...... production” by key managers of these companies, and test three hypotheses: that a definition could be established from “glocalization” aspects, that it will reduce supply chain complexity, and that it can affect organizational trust levels. The results are presented along with suggestions to pave the way...

  13. A Distributed Snow Evolution Modeling System (SnowModel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, G. E.; Elder, K.

    2004-12-01

    A spatially distributed snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) has been specifically designed to be applicable over a wide range of snow landscapes, climates, and conditions. To reach this goal, SnowModel is composed of four sub-models: MicroMet defines the meteorological forcing conditions, EnBal calculates surface energy exchanges, SnowMass simulates snow depth and water-equivalent evolution, and SnowTran-3D accounts for snow redistribution by wind. While other distributed snow models exist, SnowModel is unique in that it includes a well-tested blowing-snow sub-model (SnowTran-3D) for application in windy arctic, alpine, and prairie environments where snowdrifts are common. These environments comprise 68% of the seasonally snow-covered Northern Hemisphere land surface. SnowModel also accounts for snow processes occurring in forested environments (e.g., canopy interception related processes). SnowModel is designed to simulate snow-related physical processes occurring at spatial scales of 5-m and greater, and temporal scales of 1-hour and greater. These include: accumulation from precipitation; wind redistribution and sublimation; loading, unloading, and sublimation within forest canopies; snow-density evolution; and snowpack ripening and melt. To enhance its wide applicability, SnowModel includes the physical calculations required to simulate snow evolution within each of the global snow classes defined by Sturm et al. (1995), e.g., tundra, taiga, alpine, prairie, maritime, and ephemeral snow covers. The three, 25-km by 25-km, Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) mesoscale study areas (MSAs: Fraser, North Park, and Rabbit Ears) are used as SnowModel simulation examples to highlight model strengths, weaknesses, and features in forested, semi-forested, alpine, and shrubland environments.

  14. Spatiotemporal variability of snow cover and snow water equivalent in the last three decades over Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinsheng; Ma, Ning

    2018-04-01

    Changes in the extent and amount of snow cover in Eurasia are of great interest because of their vital impacts on the global climate system and regional water resource management. This study investigated the spatial and temporal variability of the snow cover extent (SCE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) of the continental Eurasia using the Northern Hemisphere Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) Weekly SCE data for 1972-2006 and the Global Monthly EASE-Grid SWE data for 1979-2004. The results indicated that, in general, the spatial extent of snow cover significantly decreased during spring and summer, but varied little during autumn and winter over Eurasia in the study period. The date at which snow cover began to disappear in spring has significantly advanced, whereas the timing of snow cover onset in autumn did not vary significantly during 1972-2006. The snow cover persistence period declined significantly in the western Tibetan Plateau as well as partial area of Central Asia and northwestern Russia, but varied little in other parts of Eurasia. "Snow-free breaks" (SFBs) with intermittent snow cover in the cold season were principally observed in the Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia, causing a low sensitivity of snow cover persistence period to the timings of snow cover onset and disappearance over the areas with shallow snow. The averaged SFBs were 1-14 weeks during the study period and the maximum intermittence could even reach 25 weeks in certain years. At a seasonal scale, SWE usually peaked in February or March, but fell gradually since April across Eurasia. Both annual mean and annual maximum SWE decreased significantly during 1979-2004 in most parts of Eurasia except for eastern Siberia as well as northwestern and northeastern China. The possible cross-platform inconsistencies between two passive microwave radiometers may cause uncertainties in the detected trends of SWE here, suggesting an urgent need of producing a long-term, more homogeneous SWE

  15. Groundwater dynamics mediate low-flow response to global warming in snow-dominated alpine regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina Tague; Gordon E. Grant

    2009-01-01

    In mountain environments, spatial and temporal patterns of snow accumulation and melt are dominant controls on hydrologic responses to climate change. In this paper, we develop a simple conceptual model that links the timing of peak snowmelt with geologically mediated differences in rate of streamflow recession. This model demonstrates that within the western United...

  16. Improving snow cover mapping in forests through the use of a canopy reflectance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.G.; Hall, D.K.; Riggs, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    MODIS, the moderate resolution imaging spectro radiometer, will be launched in 1998 as part of the first earth observing system (EOS) platform. Global maps of land surface properties, including snow cover, will be created from MODIS imagery. The MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm that will be used to produce daily maps of global snow cover extent at 500 m resolution is currently under development. With the exception of cloud cover, the largest limitation to producing a global daily snow cover product using MODIS is the presence of a forest canopy. A Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) time-series of the southern Boreal Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) study area in Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, was used to evaluate the performance of the current MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm in varying forest types. A snow reflectance model was used in conjunction with a canopy reflectance model (GeoSAIL) to model the reflectance of a snow-covered forest stand. Using these coupled models, the effects of varying forest type, canopy density, snow grain size and solar illumination geometry on the performance of the MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm were investigated. Using both the TM images and the reflectance models, two changes to the current MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm are proposed that will improve the algorithm's classification accuracy in forested areas. The improvements include using the normalized difference snow index and normalized difference vegetation index in combination to discriminate better between snow-covered and snow-free forests. A minimum albedo threshold of 10% in the visible wavelengths is also proposed. This will prevent dense forests with very low visible albedos from being classified incorrectly as snow. These two changes increase the amount of snow mapped in forests on snow-covered TM scenes, and decrease the area incorrectly identified as snow on non-snow-covered TM scenes. (author)

  17. Chemical elements contamination of snow cover in region of coal production 'Karazhyra'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evlampieva, E.P.; Panin, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Peculiarities of space distribution of chemical elements in hardphase and water-soluble falls of snow cover in region of coal deposit 'Karazhyra' are investigated. The maximal, minimal and background areas of elements accumulation in the snow of this region and distribution of their cumulative rates are determined. The main pollutants of snow cover unto background level are revealed.

  18. The impact of the snow cover on sea-ice thickness products retrieved by Ku-band radar altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, R.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.; Perovich, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Snow on sea ice is a relevant polar climate parameter related to ocean-atmospheric interactions and surface albedo. It also remains an important factor for sea-ice thickness products retrieved from Ku-band satellite radar altimeters like Envisat or CryoSat-2, which is currently on its mission and the subject of many recent studies. Such satellites sense the height of the sea-ice surface above the sea level, which is called sea-ice freeboard. By assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and that the main scattering horizon is given by the snow-ice interface, the freeboard can be transformed into sea-ice thickness. Therefore, information about the snow load on hemispherical scale is crucial. Due to the lack of sufficient satellite products, only climatological values are used in current studies. Since such values do not represent the high variability of snow distribution in the Arctic, they can be a substantial contributor to the total sea-ice thickness uncertainty budget. Secondly, recent studies suggest that the snow layer cannot be considered as homogenous, but possibly rather featuring a complex stratigraphy due to wind compaction and/or ice lenses. Therefore, the Ku-band radar signal can be scattered at internal layers, causing a shift of the main scattering horizon towards the snow surface. This alters the freeboard and thickness retrieval as the assumption that the main scattering horizon is given by the snow-ice interface is no longer valid and introduces a bias. Here, we present estimates for the impact of snow depth uncertainties and snow properties on CryoSat-2 sea-ice thickness retrievals. We therefore compare CryoSat-2 freeboard measurements with field data from ice mass-balance buoys and aircraft campaigns from the CryoSat Validation Experiment. This unique validation dataset includes airborne laser scanner and radar altimeter measurements in spring coincident to CryoSat-2 overflights, and allows us to evaluate how the main scattering horizon is altered by the

  19. Inducing Water Productivity from Snow Cover for Sustainable Water Management in Ibrahim River Basin, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Darwish , Talal; SHABAN , Amin; Portoghese , Ivan; Vurro , Michele; Khadra , Roula; Saqallah , Sagedah; Drapeau , Laurent; Gascoin , Simon; Amacha , Nabil

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this paper is to explore the effects and linkages between snow cover areas, distribution, probability and measured water discharge along east Mediterranean coastal watershed using moderate-resolution satellite images (MODIS-Terra). The Nahr Ibrahim River is a typical Lebanese watershed with an area of 326 km2 stretching between the sea and mountainous terrain to the east. The largest snow cover often exists in January-February with snow-free conditions betwe...

  20. Evaluation of snow cover and snow depth on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau derived from passive microwave remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Snow cover on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP plays a significant role in the global climate system and is an important water resource for rivers in the high-elevation region of Asia. At present, passive microwave (PMW remote sensing data are the only efficient way to monitor temporal and spatial variations in snow depth at large scale. However, existing snow depth products show the largest uncertainties across the QTP. In this study, MODIS fractional snow cover product, point, line and intense sampling data are synthesized to evaluate the accuracy of snow cover and snow depth derived from PMW remote sensing data and to analyze the possible causes of uncertainties. The results show that the accuracy of snow cover extents varies spatially and depends on the fraction of snow cover. Based on the assumption that grids with MODIS snow cover fraction > 10 % are regarded as snow cover, the overall accuracy in snow cover is 66.7 %, overestimation error is 56.1 %, underestimation error is 21.1 %, commission error is 27.6 % and omission error is 47.4 %. The commission and overestimation errors of snow cover primarily occur in the northwest and southeast areas with low ground temperature. Omission error primarily occurs in cold desert areas with shallow snow, and underestimation error mainly occurs in glacier and lake areas. With the increase of snow cover fraction, the overestimation error decreases and the omission error increases. A comparison between snow depths measured in field experiments, measured at meteorological stations and estimated across the QTP shows that agreement between observation and retrieval improves with an increasing number of observation points in a PMW grid. The misclassification and errors between observed and retrieved snow depth are associated with the relatively coarse resolution of PMW remote sensing, ground temperature, snow characteristics and topography. To accurately understand the variation in snow

  1. Anoxia in the snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Laura A.

    2018-04-01

    Substantial amounts of denitrification and other anaerobic metabolisms can occur in anoxic microenvironments within marine snow particles, according to model simulations. This microbial activity may have a global impact on nitrogen cycling.

  2. Application of the MODIS “snow cover” product for identification of the snow cover pattern in Gis-Baikal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Istomina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Validation of remote sensing data MODIS «snow cover» in the period from September to May 2000/01, 2007/08, 2008/09 is realized on the base of weather stations data. Good repeatability of weather stations data and snow cover data is shown (more than 80% when snow depth is exceeds 2 cm. The minimum accuracy is in May and October for the variety of snowfall winters. Remote sensing data give possibility to extend the dot information of hydrometeorological stations network on the spatial snow distribution to the mountainous area of Predbajkalje where ground-based observations are absent. According to remote sensing earlier appearance and later melting of snow in mountain areas were identified. The plains and basins areas are characterized by later appearance and earlier melting of snow.

  3. Snow Cover Monitoring Using MODIS Data in Liaoning Province, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of snow cover monitoring studies in Liaoning Province, northeastern China, using MODIS data. Snow cover plays an important role in both the regional water balance and soil moisture properties during the early spring in northeastern China. In addition, heavy snowfalls commonly trigger hazards such as flooding, caused by rapid snow melt, or crop failure, resulting from fluctuations in soil temperature associated with changes in the snow cover. The latter is a function of both regional, or global, climatic changes, as well as fluctuations in the albedo resulting from variations in the Snow Covered Area (SCA. These impacts are crucial to human activities, especially to those living in middle-latitude areas such as Liaoning Province. Thus, SCA monitoring is currently an important tool in studies of global climate change, particularly because satellite remote sensing data provide timely and efficient snow cover information for large areas. In this study, MODIS L1B data, MODIS Daily Snow Products (MOD10A1 and MODIS 8-day Snow Products (MOD10A2 were used to monitor the SCA of Liaoning Province over the winter months of November–April, 2006–2008. The effects of cloud masking and forest masking on the snow monitoring results were also assessed. The results show that the SCA percentage derived from MODIS L1B data is relatively consistent, but slightly higher than that obtained from MODIS Snow Products. In situ data from 25 snow stations were used to assess the accuracy of snow cover monitoring from the SCA compared to the results from MODIS Snow Products. The studies found that the SCA results were more reliable than MODIS Snow Products in the study area.

  4. Improving gridded snow water equivalent products in British Columbia, Canada: multi-source data fusion by neural network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauffer, Andrew M.; Hsieh, William W.; Cannon, Alex J.; Schnorbus, Markus A.

    2018-03-01

    Estimates of surface snow water equivalent (SWE) in mixed alpine environments with seasonal melts are particularly difficult in areas of high vegetation density, topographic relief, and snow accumulations. These three confounding factors dominate much of the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. An artificial neural network (ANN) was created using as predictors six gridded SWE products previously evaluated for BC. Relevant spatiotemporal covariates were also included as predictors, and observations from manual snow surveys at stations located throughout BC were used as target data. Mean absolute errors (MAEs) and interannual correlations for April surveys were found using cross-validation. The ANN using the three best-performing SWE products (ANN3) had the lowest mean station MAE across the province. ANN3 outperformed each product as well as product means and multiple linear regression (MLR) models in all of BC's five physiographic regions except for the BC Plains. Subsequent comparisons with predictions generated by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model found ANN3 to better estimate SWE over the VIC domain and within most regions. The superior performance of ANN3 over the individual products, product means, MLR, and VIC was found to be statistically significant across the province.

  5. Independent evaluation of the SNODAS snow depth product using regional scale LiDAR-derived measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, A.; Marshall, H.-P.; Winstral, A.; Elder, K.; Yueh, S.; Cline, D.

    2014-06-01

    Repeated Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) surveys are quickly becoming the de facto method for measuring spatial variability of montane snowpacks at high resolution. This study examines the potential of a 750 km2 LiDAR-derived dataset of snow depths, collected during the 2007 northern Colorado Cold Lands Processes Experiment (CLPX-2), as a validation source for an operational hydrologic snow model. The SNOw Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) model framework, operated by the US National Weather Service, combines a physically-based energy-and-mass-balance snow model with satellite, airborne and automated ground-based observations to provide daily estimates of snowpack properties at nominally 1 km resolution over the coterminous United States. Independent validation data is scarce due to the assimilating nature of SNODAS, compelling the need for an independent validation dataset with substantial geographic coverage. Within twelve distinctive 500 m × 500 m study areas located throughout the survey swath, ground crews performed approximately 600 manual snow depth measurements during each of the CLPX-2 LiDAR acquisitions. This supplied a dataset for constraining the uncertainty of upscaled LiDAR estimates of snow depth at the 1 km SNODAS resolution, resulting in a root-mean-square difference of 13 cm. Upscaled LiDAR snow depths were then compared to the SNODAS-estimates over the entire study area for the dates of the LiDAR flights. The remotely-sensed snow depths provided a more spatially continuous comparison dataset and agreed more closely to the model estimates than that of the in situ measurements alone. Finally, the results revealed three distinct areas where the differences between LiDAR observations and SNODAS estimates were most drastic, suggesting natural processes specific to these regions as causal influences on model uncertainty.

  6. Independent evaluation of the SNODAS snow depth product using regional-scale lidar-derived measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, A.; Marshall, H.-P.; Winstral, A.; Elder, K.; Yueh, S.; Cline, D.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys are quickly becoming the de facto method for measuring spatial variability of montane snowpacks at high resolution. This study examines the potential of a 750 km2 lidar-derived data set of snow depths, collected during the 2007 northern Colorado Cold Lands Processes Experiment (CLPX-2), as a validation source for an operational hydrologic snow model. The SNOw Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) model framework, operated by the US National Weather Service, combines a physically based energy-and-mass-balance snow model with satellite, airborne and automated ground-based observations to provide daily estimates of snowpack properties at nominally 1 km resolution over the conterminous United States. Independent validation data are scarce due to the assimilating nature of SNODAS, compelling the need for an independent validation data set with substantial geographic coverage. Within 12 distinctive 500 × 500 m study areas located throughout the survey swath, ground crews performed approximately 600 manual snow depth measurements during each of the CLPX-2 lidar acquisitions. This supplied a data set for constraining the uncertainty of upscaled lidar estimates of snow depth at the 1 km SNODAS resolution, resulting in a root-mean-square difference of 13 cm. Upscaled lidar snow depths were then compared to the SNODAS estimates over the entire study area for the dates of the lidar flights. The remotely sensed snow depths provided a more spatially continuous comparison data set and agreed more closely to the model estimates than that of the in situ measurements alone. Finally, the results revealed three distinct areas where the differences between lidar observations and SNODAS estimates were most drastic, providing insight into the causal influences of natural processes on model uncertainty.

  7. The Snow Must Go On: Ground Ice Encasement, Snow Compaction and Absence of Snow Differently Cause Soil Hypoxia, CO2 Accumulation and Tree Seedling Damage in Boreal Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Françoise; Vuosku, Jaana; Ovaskainen, Anu; Stark, Sari; Rautio, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    At high latitudes, the climate has warmed at twice the rate of the global average with most changes observed in autumn, winter and spring. Increasing winter temperatures and wide temperature fluctuations are leading to more frequent rain-on-snow events and freeze-thaw cycles causing snow compaction and formation of ice layers in the snowpack, thus creating ice encasement (IE). By decreasing the snowpack insulation capacity and restricting soil-atmosphere gas exchange, modification of the snow properties may lead to colder soil but also to hypoxia and accumulation of trace gases in the subnivean environment. To test the effects of these overwintering conditions changes on plant winter survival and growth, we established a snow manipulation experiment in a coniferous forest in Northern Finland with Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. In addition to ambient conditions and prevention of IE, we applied three snow manipulation levels: IE created by artificial rain-on-snow events, snow compaction and complete snow removal. Snow removal led to deeper soil frost during winter, but no clear effect of IE or snow compaction done in early winter was observed on soil temperature. Hypoxia and accumulation of CO2 were highest in the IE plots but, more importantly, the duration of CO2 concentration above 5% was 17 days in IE plots compared to 0 days in ambient plots. IE was the most damaging winter condition for both species, decreasing the proportion of healthy seedlings by 47% for spruce and 76% for pine compared to ambient conditions. Seedlings in all three treatments tended to grow less than seedlings in ambient conditions but only IE had a significant effect on spruce growth. Our results demonstrate a negative impact of winter climate change on boreal forest regeneration and productivity. Changing snow conditions may thus partially mitigate the positive effect of increasing growing season temperatures on boreal forest productivity.

  8. Design of a High Resolution Open Access Global Snow Cover Web Map Service Using Ground and Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, J.; Ames, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the presented work is creating a freely accessible, dynamic and re-usable snow cover map of the world by combining snow extent and snow depth datasets from multiple sources. The examined data sources are: remote sensing datasets (MODIS, CryoLand), weather forecasting model outputs (OpenWeatherMap, forecast.io), ground observation networks (CUAHSI HIS, GSOD, GHCN, and selected national networks), and user-contributed snow reports on social networks (cross-country and backcountry skiing trip reports). For adding each type of dataset, an interface and an adapter is created. Each adapter supports queries by area, time range, or combination of area and time range. The combined dataset is published as an online snow cover mapping service. This web service lowers the learning curve that is required to view, access, and analyze snow depth maps and snow time-series. All data published by this service are licensed as open data; encouraging the re-use of the data in customized applications in climatology, hydrology, sports and other disciplines. The initial version of the interactive snow map is on the website snow.hydrodata.org. This website supports the view by time and view by site. In view by time, the spatial distribution of snow for a selected area and time period is shown. In view by site, the time-series charts of snow depth at a selected location is displayed. All snow extent and snow depth map layers and time series are accessible and discoverable through internationally approved protocols including WMS, WFS, WCS, WaterOneFlow and WaterML. Therefore they can also be easily added to GIS software or 3rd-party web map applications. The central hypothesis driving this research is that the integration of user contributed data and/or social-network derived snow data together with other open access data sources will result in more accurate and higher resolution - and hence more useful snow cover maps than satellite data or government agency produced data by

  9. Decision making in global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Erik Stefan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    Many engineering companies experience new challenges when globalising product development. Global product development (GPD) is a relatively nascent research area, and previous research reveals the need for decision support frameworks. This research investigates how decisions are made when compani...

  10. Evidence of global-scale As, Mo, Sb, and Tl atmospheric pollution in the antarctic snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungmin; Soyol-Erdene, Tseren-Ochir; Hwang, Hee Jin; Hong, Sang Bum; Hur, Soon Do; Motoyama, Hidaeki

    2012-11-06

    We report the first comprehensive and reliable time series for As, Mo, Sb, and Tl in the snowpack from Dome Fuji in the central East Antarctic Plateau. Our results show significant enrichment of these elements due to either anthropogenic activities or large volcanic eruptions during the past 50 years. With respect to the values reported from 1960 to 1964, we observed the maximum increases in crustal enrichment factors (EFs) for As (a factor of ~15), Mo (~4), Sb (~4), and Tl (~2) during the period between the 1970s and 1990s, reflecting the global dispersion of anthropogenic pollutants of these elements, even to the most remote areas on Earth. Such enrichments are likely related to emissions of trace elements from nonferrous metal smelting and fossil fuel combustion processes in South America, especially in Chile. A drastic decrease in the As concentration and its EF values was observed after the year 2000 in response to the introduction of environmental regulations in the 1990s to reduce As emissions from the copper industry, primarily in Chile. The observed decrease suggests that governmental regulations for pollution control are effective in reducing air pollution at both the regional and global level.

  11. MODIS Snow Cover Mapping Decision Tree Technique: Snow and Cloud Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, George A.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mapping of snow cover continues to challenge cryospheric scientists and modelers. The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow data products have been used since 2000 by many investigators to map and monitor snow cover extent for various applications. Users have reported on the utility of the products and also on problems encountered. Three problems or hindrances in the use of the MODIS snow data products that have been reported in the literature are: cloud obscuration, snow/cloud confusion, and snow omission errors in thin or sparse snow cover conditions. Implementation of the MODIS snow algorithm in a decision tree technique using surface reflectance input to mitigate those problems is being investigated. The objective of this work is to use a decision tree structure for the snow algorithm. This should alleviate snow/cloud confusion and omission errors and provide a snow map with classes that convey information on how snow was detected, e.g. snow under clear sky, snow tinder cloud, to enable users' flexibility in interpreting and deriving a snow map. Results of a snow cover decision tree algorithm are compared to the standard MODIS snow map and found to exhibit improved ability to alleviate snow/cloud confusion in some situations allowing up to about 5% increase in mapped snow cover extent, thus accuracy, in some scenes.

  12. Snow cover variability in a forest ecotone of the Oregon Cascades via MODIS Terra products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihomir Sabinov Kostadinov; Todd R. Lookingbill

    2015-01-01

    Snowcover pattern and persistence have important implications for planetary energy balance, climate sensitivity to forcings, and vegetation structure, function, and composition. Variability in snow cover within mountainous regions of the Pacific Northwest, USA is attributable to a combination of anthropogenic climate change and climate oscillations. However,...

  13. Production of heterotrophic bacteria inhabiting macroscopic organic aggregates (marine snow) from surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alldredge, A.L.; Cole, J.J.; Caron, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Macroscopic detrital aggregates, known as marine snow, are a ubiquitous and abundant component of the marine pelagic zone. Descriptions of microbial communities occurring at densities 2-5 orders of magnitude higher on these particles than in the surrounding seawater have led to the suggestion that marine snow may be a site of intense heterotrophic activity. The authors tested this hypothesis using incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into macromolecules as a measure of bacterial growth occurring on marine snow from oceanic waters in the North Atlantic and from neritic waters off southern California. Abundances of marine snow ranged from 0.1 to 4.3 aggregates per liter. However, only 0.1-4% ration per cell on aggregates was generally equal to or lower than that of bacteria found free-living in the surrounding seawater, indicating that attached bacteria were not growing more rapidly than free-living bacteria. Bacteria inhabiting aggregates were up to 25 times larger than free-living forms

  14. The New Product Development Improvement Motives and Practices of Miles and Snow's Prospectors, Analysers and Defenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugen, Bjørge Timenes; Boer, Harry; Acur, Nuran

    2006-01-01

    , twenty-seven analysers and seven defenders (Miles and Snow, 1978) suggests that the NPD improvement motives and practices of these three types of strategies are less different than we expected. Our explanation for this finding is that the three strategic types are growing towards each other, forced...

  15. Integration of snow management practices into a detailed snow pack model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandre, Pierre; Morin, Samuel; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Lejeune, Yves; François, Hugues; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle

    2016-04-01

    The management of snow on ski slopes is a key socio-economic and environmental issue in mountain regions. Indeed the winter sports industry has become a very competitive global market although this economy remains particularly sensitive to weather and snow conditions. The understanding and implementation of snow management in detailed snowpack models is a major step towards a more realistic assessment of the evolution of snow conditions in ski resorts concerning past, present and future climate conditions. Here we describe in a detailed manner the integration of snow management processes (grooming, snowmaking) into the snowpack model Crocus (Spandre et al., Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., in press). The effect of the tiller is explicitly taken into account and its effects on snow properties (density, snow microstructure) are simulated in addition to the compaction induced by the weight of the grooming machine. The production of snow in Crocus is carried out with respect to specific rules and current meteorological conditions. Model configurations and results are described in detail through sensitivity tests of the model of all parameters related to snow management processes. In-situ observations were carried out in four resorts in the French Alps during the 2014-2015 winter season considering for each resort natural, groomed only and groomed plus snowmaking conditions. The model provides realistic simulations of the snowpack properties with respect to these observations. The main uncertainty pertains to the efficiency of the snowmaking process. The observed ratio between the mass of machine-made snow on ski slopes and the water mass used for production was found to be lower than was expected from the literature, in every resort. The model now referred to as "Crocus-Resort" has been proven to provide realistic simulations of snow conditions on ski slopes and may be used for further investigations. Spandre, P., S. Morin, M. Lafaysse, Y. Lejeune, H. François and E. George

  16. The New Global Gapless GLASS Albedo Product from 1981 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, B.; Liu, Q.; Qu, Y.; Wang, L.; Feng, Y.; Nie, A.; Li, X.; Zhang, J.; Niu, H.; Cai, E.; Zhao, L.

    2016-12-01

    Long-time series and various spatial resolution albedo products are needed for climate change and environmental studies at both global and regional scale. To meet these requirements, GLASS (Global LAnd Surface Satellites) gapless albedo product from 1981 to 2010 was firstly released in 2012 and widely used in long-term earth change researches. However, only shortwave albedo product in spatial resolution of 0.05 degree and 1 km were provided, which limits extensive applications for visible and near-infrared bands. Thus, new GLASS albedo product are produced and comprehensively enhanced in time series, algorithm and product content. Five major updates are conducted: 1) Time region is expanded from 1981-2010 to 1981-2014; 2) Physically ART (radiative transfer theory) and TCOWA (Three-Component Ocean Water Albedo) models rather than previous RTLSR (Rose-Thick Li-Sparse Reciprocal kernel combination) model are adopted for snow and inland water albedo estimation, respectively; 3) global shortwave, visible, and near-infrared albedos in spatial resolution of 0.05 degree and 1 km are released; 4) Clear-sky albedo is provided beyond the traditional black-sky albedo and white sky-albedo for amateurish user; 5) 250 m albedo product is provided in part of global for regional application. In this study, we firstly detail the updates of this inspiring product. Then the product is compared with the previous GLASS albedo product and preliminary assessed against field measurements under various land covers. Significant improvements are reported for snow and water albedo. The results demonstrate that the new GLASS albedo product is a gapless, long-term continuous, and self-consistent data-set. Comparing to previous GLASS albedo product, lower black-sky albedo and higher white-sky albedo are proved for permanent snow-cover region. Moreover, higher albedo of inland water and seasonal snow-cover mountain are captured. This product brings new chance and view to understanding long

  17. Snow Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2018-01-01

    attribute of high altitude mountain destinations. Hitherto, researchers mostly engaged with snowclad landscapes as a backstage; trying to deconstruct the complex symbolism and representational qualities of this elusive substance. Despite snow being a strategically crucial condition for tourism in the Alps......This chapter explores the performative potential of snow for Alpine tourism, by drawing attention to its material and nonrepresentational significance for tourism practices. European imagination has been preoccupied with snow since medieval times and even today, snow features as the sine que non...

  18. Sentinels for snow science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoin, S.; Grizonnet, M.; Baba, W. M.; Hagolle, O.; Fayad, A.; Mermoz, S.; Kinnard, C.; Fatima, K.; Jarlan, L.; Hanich, L.

    2017-12-01

    Current spaceborne sensors do not allow retrieving the snow water equivalent in mountain regions, "the most important unsolved problem in snow hydrology" (Dozier, 2016). While the NASA is operating an airborne mission to survey the SWE in the western USA, elsewhere, however, snow scientists and water managers do not have access to routine SWE measurements at the scale of a mountain range. In this presentation we suggest that the advent of the Copernicus Earth Observation programme opens new perspectives to address this issue in mountain regions worldwide. The Sentinel-2 mission will provide global-scale multispectral observations at 20 m resolution every 5-days (cloud permitting). The Sentinel-1 mission is already imaging the global land surface with a C-band radar at 10 m resolution every 6 days. These observations are unprecedented in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. However, the nature of the observation (radiometry, wavelength) is in the continuity of previous and ongoing missions. As a result, it is relatively straightforward to re-use algorithms that were developed by the remote sensing community over the last decades. For instance, Sentinel-2 data can be used to derive maps of the snow cover extent from the normalized difference snow index, which was initially proposed for Landsat. In addition, the 5-days repeat cycle allows the application of gap-filling algorithms, which were developed for MODIS based on the temporal dimension. The Sentinel-1 data can be used to detect the wet snow cover and track melting areas as proposed for ERS in the early 1990's. Eventually, we show an example where Sentinel-2-like data improved the simulation of the SWE in the data-scarce region of the High Atlas in Morocco through assimilation in a distributed snowpack model. We encourage snow scientists to embrace Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data to enhance our knowledge on the snow cover dynamics in mountain regions.

  19. The PCR-GLOBWB global hydrological reanalysis product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Niko; Bierkens, Marc; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; van Beek, Rens

    2014-05-01

    fields with consideration of local topographic and orographic effects. Results show that the model parameters can be successfully calibrated, while corrections to the forcing precipitation fields are substantial. Topography has the largest impact on the corrected precipitation and globally the precipitation is reduced by 3%. The calibrated model output is compared to the reference run of PCR-GLOBWB before calibration showing significant improvement in simulation of the global terrestrial water cycle. The RMSE is reduced by 10% on average, leading to improved discharge simulations, especially under base flow situations. The main outcome of this work is a 1960-2010 global reanalysis dataset that includes extensive daily hydrological components, such as precipitation, evaporation and transpiration, snow, soil moisture, groundwater storage and discharge. This reanalysis product may be used for understanding land surface memory processes, initializing regional studies and operational forecasts, as well as evaluating and improving our understanding of spatio-temporal variation of meteorological and hydrological processes. Moreover, The PCR-GLOBWB data assimilation framework developed in this work can also be extended by including more observational data, including remotely sensed data reflecting the distribution of energy and water (e.g., heat fluxes and soil moisture storage).

  20. US forest products in the global economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave N Wear; Jeff Prestemon; Michaela O. Foster

    2015-01-01

    The United States’ shares of global industrial roundwood production and derivative products have declined precipitously since the 1990s. We evaluate the extent of these declines compared with those of major producing countries from 1961 to 2013. We find that the US global share of industrial roundwood peaked at 28% in 1999 but by 2013 was at 17%, with the decline...

  1. Evaluation of MODIS albedo product (MCD43A) over grassland, agriculture and forest surface types during dormant and snow-covered periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuosen Wang; Crystal B. Schaaf; Alan H. Strahler; Mark J. Chopping; Miguel O. Román; Yanmin Shuai; Curtis E. Woodcock; David Y. Hollinger; David R. Fitzjarrald

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF/albedo 8 day standard product and products from the daily Direct Broadcast BRDF/albedo algorithm, and shows that these products agree well with ground-based albedo measurements during the more difficult periods of vegetation dormancy and snow cover. Cropland, grassland, deciduous and...

  2. Key performance indicators: Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    The decision to globalise parts of product development is a consequence of an increasingly competitive world market. The variety of risks and opportunities as a result of the decision make it difficult for management to evaluate if global product development has been successful. This paper invest...

  3. SWEAT: Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agten, Dries; Benninga, Harm-Jan; Diaz Schümmer, Carlos; Donnerer, Julia; Fischer, Georg; Henriksen, Marie; Hippert Ferrer, Alexandre; Jamali, Maryam; Marinaci, Stefano; Mould, Toby JD; Phelan, Liam; Rosker, Stephanie; Schrenker, Caroline; Schulze, Kerstin; Emanuel Telo Bordalo Monteiro, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    To study how the water cycle changes over time, satellite and airborne remote sensing missions are typically employed. Over the last 40 years of satellite missions, the measurement of true water inventories stored in sea and land ice within the cryosphere have been significantly hindered by uncertainties introduced by snow cover. Being able to determine the thickness of this snow cover would act to reduce such error, improving current estimations of hydrological and climate models, Earth's energy balance (albedo) calculations and flood predictions. Therefore, the target of the SWEAT (Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry) mission is to directly measure the surface Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on sea and land ice within the polar regions above 60°and below -60° latitude. There are no other satellite missions currently capable of directly measuring SWE. In order to achieve this, the proposed mission will implement a novel combination of Ka- and Ku-band radioaltimeters (active microwave sensors), capable of penetrating into the snow microstructure. The Ka-band altimeter (λ ≈ 0.8 cm) provides a low maximum snow pack penetration depth of up to 20 cm for dry snow at 37 GHz, since the volume scattering of snow dominates over the scattering caused by the underlying ice surface. In contrast, the Ku-band altimeter (λ ≈ 2 cm) provides a high maximum snowpack penetration depth of up to 15 m in high latitudes regions with dry snow, as volume scattering is decreased by a factor of 55. The combined difference in Ka- and Ku-band signal penetration results will provide more accurate and direct determination of SWE. Therefore, the SWEAT mission aims to improve estimations of global SWE interpreted from passive microwave products, and improve the reliability of numerical snow and climate models.

  4. Decision Making Processes for Global Product Development - a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Erik Stefan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Global Product Development (GPD), outsourcing and offshoring of product development is a widespread phenomenon on today’s global economy, and consequently most engineering manufacturing companies will have to make decisions regarding how to organise their product development activities globally...

  5. Snow driven Radiative Forcing in High Latitude Areas of Disturbance Using Higher Resolution Albedo Products from Landsat and Sentinel-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, A.; Li, Z.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Rogers, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface albedo plays an important role in the surface energy budget and radiative forcing by determining the proportion of absorbed incoming solar radiation available to drive photosynthesis and surface heating. In Arctic regions, albedo is particularly sensitive to land cover and land use change (LCLUC) and modeling efforts have shown it to be the primary driver of effective radiative forcing from the biogeophysical effects of LCLUC. In boreal forests, the effects of these changes are complicated during snow covered periods when newly exposed, highly reflective snow can serve as the primary driver of radiative forcing. In Arctic biomes disturbance scars from fire, pest and harvest can remain in the landscape for long periods of time. As such, understanding the magnitude and persistence of these disturbances, especially in the shoulder seasons, is critical. The Landsat and Sentinel-2 Albedo Products couple 30m and 20m surface reflectances with concurrent 500m BRDF Products from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The 12 bit radiometric fidelity of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 allow for the inclusion of high-quality, unsaturated albedo calculations over snow covered surfaces at scales more compatible with fragmented landscapes. Recent work on the early spring albedo of fire scars has illustrated significant post-fire spatial heterogeneity of burn severity at the landscape scale and highlights the need for a finer spatial resolution albedo record. The increased temporal resolution provided by multiple satellite instruments also allows for a better understanding of albedo dynamics during the dynamic shoulder seasons and in historically difficult high latitude locations where persistent cloud cover limits high quality retrievals. Here we present how changes in the early spring albedo of recent boreal forest disturbance in Alaska and central Canada affects landscape-scale radiative forcing. We take advantage of the long historical Landsat record

  6. Remote sensing, hydrological modeling and in situ observations in snow cover research: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunyu

    2018-06-01

    Snow is an important component of the hydrological cycle. As a major part of the cryosphere, snow cover also represents a valuable terrestrial water resource. In the context of climate change, the dynamics of snow cover play a crucial role in rebalancing the global energy and water budgets. Remote sensing, hydrological modeling and in situ observations are three techniques frequently utilized for snow cover investigations. However, the uncertainties caused by systematic errors, scale gaps, and complicated snow physics, among other factors, limit the usability of these three approaches in snow studies. In this paper, an overview of the advantages, limitations and recent progress of the three methods is presented, and more effective ways to estimate snow cover properties are evaluated. The possibility of improving remotely sensed snow information using ground-based observations is discussed. As a rapidly growing source of volunteered geographic information (VGI), web-based geotagged photos have great potential to provide ground truth data for remotely sensed products and hydrological models and thus contribute to procedures for cloud removal, correction, validation, forcing and assimilation. Finally, this review proposes a synergistic framework for the future of snow cover research. This framework highlights the cross-scale integration of in situ and remotely sensed snow measurements and the assimilation of improved remote sensing data into hydrological models.

  7. Global CO2 emissions from cement production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Robbie M.

    2018-01-01

    The global production of cement has grown very rapidly in recent years, and after fossil fuels and land-use change, it is the third-largest source of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. The required data for estimating emissions from global cement production are poor, and it has been recognised that some global estimates are significantly inflated. Here we assemble a large variety of available datasets and prioritise official data and emission factors, including estimates submitted to the UNFCCC plus new estimates for China and India, to present a new analysis of global process emissions from cement production. We show that global process emissions in 2016 were 1.45±0.20 Gt CO2, equivalent to about 4 % of emissions from fossil fuels. Cumulative emissions from 1928 to 2016 were 39.3±2.4 Gt CO2, 66 % of which have occurred since 1990. Emissions in 2015 were 30 % lower than those recently reported by the Global Carbon Project. The data associated with this article can be found at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.831455.

  8. Global oceanic production of nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freing, Alina; Wallace, Douglas W. R.; Bange, Hermann W.

    2012-01-01

    We use transient time distributions calculated from tracer data together with in situ measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) to estimate the concentration of biologically produced N2O and N2O production rates in the ocean on a global scale. Our approach to estimate the N2O production rates integrates the effects of potentially varying production and decomposition mechanisms along the transport path of a water mass. We estimate that the oceanic N2O production is dominated by nitrification with a contribution of only approximately 7 per cent by denitrification. This indicates that previously used approaches have overestimated the contribution by denitrification. Shelf areas may account for only a negligible fraction of the global production; however, estuarine sources and coastal upwelling of N2O are not taken into account in our study. The largest amount of subsurface N2O is produced in the upper 500 m of the water column. The estimated global annual subsurface N2O production ranges from 3.1 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.9 Tg N yr−1. This is in agreement with estimates of the global N2O emissions to the atmosphere and indicates that a N2O source in the mixed layer is unlikely. The potential future development of the oceanic N2O source in view of the ongoing changes of the ocean environment (deoxygenation, warming, eutrophication and acidification) is discussed. PMID:22451110

  9. Global oceanic production of nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freing, Alina; Wallace, Douglas W R; Bange, Hermann W

    2012-05-05

    We use transient time distributions calculated from tracer data together with in situ measurements of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) to estimate the concentration of biologically produced N(2)O and N(2)O production rates in the ocean on a global scale. Our approach to estimate the N(2)O production rates integrates the effects of potentially varying production and decomposition mechanisms along the transport path of a water mass. We estimate that the oceanic N(2)O production is dominated by nitrification with a contribution of only approximately 7 per cent by denitrification. This indicates that previously used approaches have overestimated the contribution by denitrification. Shelf areas may account for only a negligible fraction of the global production; however, estuarine sources and coastal upwelling of N(2)O are not taken into account in our study. The largest amount of subsurface N(2)O is produced in the upper 500 m of the water column. The estimated global annual subsurface N(2)O production ranges from 3.1 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.9 Tg N yr(-1). This is in agreement with estimates of the global N(2)O emissions to the atmosphere and indicates that a N(2)O source in the mixed layer is unlikely. The potential future development of the oceanic N(2)O source in view of the ongoing changes of the ocean environment (deoxygenation, warming, eutrophication and acidification) is discussed.

  10. Snow Leopard

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    adult females (dimorphic); a male on average weighing between. 45–55 kg, while a .... performance of wild prey, eventually leading to a decline in their population. Research .... working towards enhancing knowledge on snow leopard ecology.

  11. Twenty-four year record of Northern Hemisphere snow cover derived from passive microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard L.; Brodzik, Mary Jo

    2003-04-01

    Snow cover is an important variable for climate and hydrologic models due to its effects on energy and moisture budgets. Seasonal snow can cover more than 50% of the Northern Hemisphere land surface during the winter resulting in snow cover being the land surface characteristic responsible for the largest annual and interannual differences in albedo. Passive microwave satellite remote sensing can augment measurements based on visible satellite data alone because of the ability to acquire data through most clouds or during darkness as well as to provide a measure of snow depth or water equivalent. It is now possible to monitor the global fluctuation of snow cover over a 24 year period using passive microwave data (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) 1978-1987 and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), 1987-present). Evaluation of snow extent derived from passive microwave algorithms is presented through comparison with the NOAA Northern Hemisphere snow extent data. For the period 1978 to 2002, both passive microwave and visible data sets show a smiliar pattern of inter-annual variability, although the maximum snow extents derived from the microwave data are consistently less than those provided by the visible statellite data and the visible data typically show higher monthly variability. During shallow snow conditions of the early winter season microwave data consistently indicate less snow-covered area than the visible data. This underestimate of snow extent results from the fact that shallow snow cover (less than about 5.0 cm) does not provide a scattering signal of sufficient strength to be detected by the algorithms. As the snow cover continues to build during the months of January through March, as well as on into the melt season, agreement between the two data types continually improves. This occurs because as the snow becomes deeper and the layered structure more complex, the negative spectral gradient driving the passive microwave algorithm

  12. Evaluation and Application of Gridded Snow Water Equivalent Products for Improving Snowmelt Flood Predictions in the Red River Basin of the North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R.; Jacobs, J. M.; Vuyovich, C.; Cho, E.; Tuttle, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Each spring the Red River basin (RRB) of the North, located between the states of Minnesota and North Dakota and southern Manitoba, is vulnerable to dangerous spring snowmelt floods. Flat terrain, low permeability soils and a lack of satisfactory ground observations of snow pack conditions make accurate predictions of the onset and magnitude of major spring flood events in the RRB very challenging. This study investigated the potential benefit of using gridded snow water equivalent (SWE) products from passive microwave satellite missions and model output simulations to improve snowmelt flood predictions in the RRB using NOAA's operational Community Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS). Level-3 satellite SWE products from AMSR-E, AMSR2 and SSM/I, as well as SWE computed from Level-2 brightness temperatures (Tb) measurements, including model output simulations of SWE from SNODAS and GlobSnow-2 were chosen to support the snowmelt modeling exercises. SWE observations were aggregated spatially (i.e. to the NOAA North Central River Forecast Center forecast basins) and temporally (i.e. by obtaining daily screened and weekly unscreened maximum SWE composites) to assess the value of daily satellite SWE observations relative to weekly maximums. Data screening methods removed the impacts of snow melt and cloud contamination on SWE and consisted of diurnal SWE differences and a temperature-insensitive polarization difference ratio, respectively. We examined the ability of the satellite and model output simulations to capture peak SWE and investigated temporal accuracies of screened and unscreened satellite and model output SWE. The resulting SWE observations were employed to update the SNOW-17 snow accumulation and ablation model of CHPS to assess the benefit of using temporally and spatially consistent SWE observations for snow melt predictions in two test basins in the RRB.

  13. Spatial analysis and statistical modelling of snow cover dynamics in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, Johannes; Gerlitz, Lars; Böhner, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    General circulation models are able to predict large scale climate variations in global dimensions, however small scale dynamic characteristics, such as snow cover and its temporal variations in high mountain regions, are not represented sufficiently. Detailed knowledge about shifts in seasonal ablation times and spatial distribution of snow cover are crucial for various research interests. Since high mountain areas, for instance the Central Himalayas in Nepal, are generally remote, it is difficult to obtain data in high spatio-temporal resolutions. Regional climate models and downscaling techniques are implemented to compensate coarse resolution. Furthermore earth observation systems, such as MODIS, also permit bridging this gap to a certain extent. They offer snow (cover) data in daily temporal and medium spatial resolution of around 500 m, which can be applied as evaluation and training data for dynamical hydrological and statistical analyses. Within this approach two snow distribution models (binary snow cover and fractional snow cover) as well as one snow recession model were implemented for a research domain in the Rolwaling Himal in Nepal, employing the random forest technique, which represents a state of the art machine learning algorithm. Both bottom-up strategies provide inductive reasoning to derive rules for snow related processes out of climate (temperature, precipitation and irradiance) and climate-related topographic data sets (elevation, aspect and convergence index) obtained by meteorological network stations, remote sensing products (snow cover - MOD10-A1 and land surface temperatures - MOD11-A1) along with GIS. Snow distribution is predicted reliably on a daily basis in the research area, whereas further effort is necessary for predicting daily snow cover recession processes adequately. Swift changes induced by clear sky conditions with high insolation rates are well represented, whereas steady snow loss still needs continuing effort. All

  14. PACKAGING ARTISTIC PRODUCTS FOR THE GLOBAL VILLAGE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since its inauguration through the electronic connectedness of the whole world, Globalism has miniaturized the spatial immensity of the world by the conquest and ... our artistic products (just as our industrial manufactures) endure or survive this arena of sophisticated competition overhauled by the trade punditry and politics ...

  15. Assessment of dynamic probabilistic methods for mapping snow cover in Québec Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Seve, D.; Perreault, L.; Vachon, F.; Guay, F.; choquette, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Hydro-Quebec is the leader in electricity production in North America and uses hydraulic resources to generate 97% of its overall production where snow represents 30% of its annual energy reserve. Information on snow cover extent (SC) and snow water equivalent (SWE) is crucial for hydrological forecasting, particularly in Nordic regions where a majority of total precipitations falls as snow. Accurate estimation of the spatial distribution of snow cover variables is required to measure the extent of this resource but snow surveys are expensive due to inaccessibility factors and to the large extent nature of the Quebec geography. Consequently, the follow-up of snowmelt is particularly challenging for operational forecasting resulting in the need to develop a new approach to assist forecasters. For improved understanding of the dynamics of snow melting over watersheds and to generate optimized power production, Hydro-Québec's Research Institute (IREQ) has developed expertise in in-situ, remote sensing monitoring and statistical treatment of such data. The main goal of this Hydro-Quebec project is to develop an automatic and dynamic snow mapping system providing a daily snow map by merging remote sensing (AVHRR and SSMI) and in situ data. This paper focuses on the work accomplished on passive microwave SSM/I data to follow up snow cover. In our problematic, it is highly useful to classify snow, more specifically during the snowmelt period. The challenge is to be able to discriminate ground from wet snow as it will react as a black body, therefore, adding noise to global brightness temperature. Two dynamic snow classifiers were developed and tested. For this purpose, channels at 19 and 37 GHz in vertical polarization have been used to feed each model. SWE values from gamma ray in situ stations (GMON) and data snow depth from ultrasonic sensor (SR50) were used to validate the output models. The first algorithm is based on a standard K-mean clustering approach, combined

  16. Overview of NASA's MODIS and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) snow-cover Earth System Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, George A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Román, Miguel O.

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the distribution, extent, duration and timing of snowmelt is critical for characterizing the Earth's climate system and its changes. As a result, snow cover is one of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) essential climate variables (ECVs). Consistent, long-term datasets of snow cover are needed to study interannual variability and snow climatology. The NASA snow-cover datasets generated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft and the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are NASA Earth System Data Records (ESDR). The objective of the snow-cover detection algorithms is to optimize the accuracy of mapping snow-cover extent (SCE) and to minimize snow-cover detection errors of omission and commission using automated, globally applied algorithms to produce SCE data products. Advancements in snow-cover mapping have been made with each of the four major reprocessings of the MODIS data record, which extends from 2000 to the present. MODIS Collection 6 (C6; https://nsidc.org/data/modis/data_summaries) and VIIRS Collection 1 (C1; https://doi.org/10.5067/VIIRS/VNP10.001) represent the state-of-the-art global snow-cover mapping algorithms and products for NASA Earth science. There were many revisions made in the C6 algorithms which improved snow-cover detection accuracy and information content of the data products. These improvements have also been incorporated into the NASA VIIRS snow-cover algorithms for C1. Both information content and usability were improved by including the Normalized Snow Difference Index (NDSI) and a quality assurance (QA) data array of algorithm processing flags in the data product, along with the SCE map. The increased data content allows flexibility in using the datasets for specific regions and end-user applications. Though there are important differences between the MODIS and VIIRS instruments (e.g., the VIIRS 375

  17. Overview of NASA's MODIS and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) snow-cover Earth System Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, George A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Roman, Miguel O.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution, extent, duration and timing of snowmelt is critical for characterizing the Earth's climate system and its changes. As a result, snow cover is one of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) essential climate variables (ECVs). Consistent, long-term datasets of snow cover are needed to study interannual variability and snow climatology. The NASA snow-cover datasets generated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft and the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are NASA Earth System Data Records (ESDR). The objective of the snow-cover detection algorithms is to optimize the accuracy of mapping snow-cover extent (SCE) and to minimize snow-cover detection errors of omission and commission using automated, globally applied algorithms to produce SCE data products. Advancements in snow-cover mapping have been made with each of the four major reprocessings of the MODIS data record, which extends from 2000 to the present. MODIS Collection 6 (C6) and VIIRS Collection 1 (C1) represent the state-of-the-art global snow cover mapping algorithms and products for NASA Earth science. There were many revisions made in the C6 algorithms which improved snow-cover detection accuracy and information content of the data products. These improvements have also been incorporated into the NASA VIIRS snow cover algorithms for C1. Both information content and usability were improved by including the Normalized Snow Difference Index (NDSI) and a quality assurance (QA) data array of algorithm processing flags in the data product, along with the SCE map.The increased data content allows flexibility in using the datasets for specific regions and end-user applications.Though there are important differences between the MODIS and VIIRS instruments (e.g., the VIIRS 375m native resolution compared to MODIS 500 m), the snow detection algorithms and data

  18. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including Teleworkers Reporting to... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit...). Since eligible workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles...

  19. Estimating Net Primary Productivity Beneath Snowpack Using Snowpack Radiative Transfer Modeling and Global Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D. E.; Peterson, M. C.

    2002-05-01

    Sufficient photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) penetrates snow for plants to grow beneath snowpack during late winter or early spring in tundra ecosystems. During the spring in this ecosystem, the snowpack creates an environment with higher humidity and less variable and milder temperatures than on the snow-free land. Under these conditions, the amount of PAR available is likely to be the limiting factor for plant growth. Current methods for determining net primary productivity (NPP) of tundra ecosystems do not account for this plant growth beneath snowpack, apparently resulting in underestimating plant production there. We are currently in the process of estimating the magnitude of this early growth beneath snow for tundra ecosystems. Our method includes a radiative transfer model that simulates diffuse and direct PAR penetrating snowpack based on downwelling PAR values and snow depth data from global satellite databases. These PAR levels are convolved with plant growth for vegetation that thrives beneath snowpacks, such as lichen. We expect to present the net primary production for Cladonia species (a common Arctic lichen) that has the capability of photosynthesizing at low temperatures beneath snowpack. This method may also be used to study photosynthesis beneath snowpacks in other hardy plants. Lichens are used here as they are common in snow-covered regions, flourish under snowpack, and provide an important food source for tundra herbivores (e.g. caribou). In addition, lichens are common in arctic-alpine environments and our results can be applied to these ecosystems as well. Finally, the NPP of lichen beneath snowpack is relatively well understood compared to other plants, making it ideal vegetation for this first effort at estimating the potential importance of photosynthesis at large scales. We are examining other candidate plants for their photosynthetic potential beneath snowpack at this time; however, little research has been done on this topic. We

  20. The bright side of snow cover effects on PV production - How to lower the seasonal mismatch between electricity supply and demand in a fully renewable Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Annelen; Dujardin, Jérôme; Dupuis, Sonia; Lehning, Michael

    2017-04-01

    One of the major problems with solar PV in the context of a fully renewable electricity production at mid-latitudes is the trend of higher production in summer and lower production in winter. This trend is most often exactly opposite to demand patterns, causing a seasonal mismatch that requires extensive balancing power from other production sources or large storage capacities. Which possibilities do we have to bring PV production into closer correlation with demand? This question motivated our research and in response we investigated the effects of placing PV panels at different tilt angles in regions with extensive snow cover to increase winter production from ground reflected short wave radiation. The aim of this project is therefore to quantify the effect of varying snow cover duration (SCD) and of panel tilt angle on the annual total production and on production during winter months when electricity is most needed. We chose Switzerland as ideal test site, because it has a wide range of snow cover conditions and a high potential for renewable electricity production. But methods can be applied to other regions of comparable conditions for snow cover and irradiance. Our analysis can be separated into two steps: 1. A systematic, GIS and satellite-based analysis for all of Switzerland: We use time series of satellite-derived irradiance, and snow cover characteristics together with land surface cover types and elevation information to quantify the environmental conditions and to estimate potential production and ideal tilt angles. 2. A scenario-based analysis that contrasts the production patterns of different placement scenarios for PV panels in urban, rural and mountainous areas. We invoke a model of a fully renewable electricity system (including Switzerland's large hydropower system) at national level to compute the electricity import and storage capacity that will be required to balance the remaining mismatch between production and demand to further illuminate

  1. An Assessment of Existing Methodologies to Retrieve Snow Cover Fraction from MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théo Masson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of snow extent is critical for a wide range of applications. Since 1966, snow maps at different spatial resolutions have been produced using various satellite sensor images. Nowadays, the most widely used products are likely those derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data, which cover the whole Earth at a near-daily frequency. There are a variety of snow mapping methods for MODIS data, based on different methodologies and applied at different spatial resolutions. Up to now, all these products have been tested and evaluated separately. This study aims to compare the methods currently available for retrieving snow from MODIS data. The focus is on fractional snow cover, which represents the snow cover area at the subpixel level. We examine the two main approaches available for generating such products from MODIS data; namely, linear regression of the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI and spectral unmixing (SU. These two approaches have resulted in several methods, such as MOD10A1 (the NSIDC MODIS snow product for NDSI regression, and MODImLAB for SU. The assessment of these approaches was carried out using higher resolution binary snow maps (i.e., showing the presence or absence of snow at spatial resolutions of 10, 20, and 30 m, produced by SPOT 4, SPOT 5, and LANDSAT-8, respectively. Three areas were selected in order to provide landscape diversity: the French Alps (117 dates, the Pyrenees (30 dates, and the Moroccan Atlas (24 dates. This study investigates the impact of reference maps on accuracy assessments, and it is suggested that NDSI-based high spatial resolution reference maps advantage NDSI medium-resolution snow maps. For MODIS snow maps, the results show that applying an NDSI approach to accurate surface reflectance corrected for topographic and atmospheric effects generally outperforms other methods for the global retrieval of snow cover area. The improvements to the newer version

  2. Assimilation of snow cover and snow depth into a snow model to estimate snow water equivalent and snowmelt runoff in a Himalayan catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Stigter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Snow is an important component of water storage in the Himalayas. Previous snowmelt studies in the Himalayas have predominantly relied on remotely sensed snow cover. However, snow cover data provide no direct information on the actual amount of water stored in a snowpack, i.e., the snow water equivalent (SWE. Therefore, in this study remotely sensed snow cover was combined with in situ observations and a modified version of the seNorge snow model to estimate (climate sensitivity of SWE and snowmelt runoff in the Langtang catchment in Nepal. Snow cover data from Landsat 8 and the MOD10A2 snow cover product were validated with in situ snow cover observations provided by surface temperature and snow depth measurements resulting in classification accuracies of 85.7 and 83.1 % respectively. Optimal model parameter values were obtained through data assimilation of MOD10A2 snow maps and snow depth measurements using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF. Independent validations of simulated snow depth and snow cover with observations show improvement after data assimilation compared to simulations without data assimilation. The approach of modeling snow depth in a Kalman filter framework allows for data-constrained estimation of snow depth rather than snow cover alone, and this has great potential for future studies in complex terrain, especially in the Himalayas. Climate sensitivity tests with the optimized snow model revealed that snowmelt runoff increases in winter and the early melt season (December to May and decreases during the late melt season (June to September as a result of the earlier onset of snowmelt due to increasing temperature. At high elevation a decrease in SWE due to higher air temperature is (partly compensated by an increase in precipitation, which emphasizes the need for accurate predictions on the changes in the spatial distribution of precipitation along with changes in temperature.

  3. Rising Temperatures Reduce Global Wheat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Martre, P.; Rötter, R. P.; Lobell, D. B.; Cammarano, D.; Kimball, B. A.; Ottman, M. J.; Wall, G. W.; White, J. W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Crop models are essential tools for assessing the threat of climate change to local and global food production. Present models used to predict wheat grain yield are highly uncertain when simulating how crops respond to temperature. Here we systematically tested 30 different wheat crop models of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project against field experiments in which growing season mean temperatures ranged from 15 degrees C to 32? degrees C, including experiments with artificial heating. Many models simulated yields well, but were less accurate at higher temperatures. The model ensemble median was consistently more accurate in simulating the crop temperature response than any single model, regardless of the input information used. Extrapolating the model ensemble temperature response indicates that warming is already slowing yield gains at a majority of wheat-growing locations. Global wheat production is estimated to fall by 6% for each degree C of further temperature increase and become more variable over space and time.

  4. Performance Measurement in Global Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2013-01-01

    there is a requirement for the process to be monitored and measured relative to the business strategy of an organisation. It was found that performance measurement is a process that helps achieve sustainable business success, encouraging a learning culture within organisations. To this day, much of the research into how...... performance is measured has focussed on the process of product development. However, exploration of performance measurement related to global product development is relatively unexplored and a need for further research is evident. This paper contributes towards understanding how performance is measured...

  5. Global Metabolic Regulation of the Snow Alga Chlamydomonas nivalis in Response to Nitrate or Phosphate Deprivation by a Metabolome Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Chen, Jun-Hui; Wei, Dong; Chen, Feng; Chen, Gu

    2016-05-10

    In the present work, Chlamydomonas nivalis, a model species of snow algae, was used to illustrate the metabolic regulation mechanism of microalgae under nutrient deprivation stress. The seed culture was inoculated into the medium without nitrate or phosphate to reveal the cell responses by a metabolome profile analysis using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). One hundred and seventy-one of the identified metabolites clustered into five groups by the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model. Among them, thirty of the metabolites in the nitrate-deprived group and thirty-nine of the metabolites in the phosphate-deprived group were selected and identified as "responding biomarkers" by this metabolomic approach. A significant change in the abundance of biomarkers indicated that the enhanced biosynthesis of carbohydrates and fatty acids coupled with the decreased biosynthesis of amino acids, N-compounds and organic acids in all the stress groups. The up- or down-regulation of these biomarkers in the metabolic network provides new insights into the global metabolic regulation and internal relationships within amino acid and fatty acid synthesis, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and the Calvin cycle in the snow alga under nitrate or phosphate deprivation stress.

  6. Snow clearance

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2005-01-01

    In reply to the numerous questions received, we should like to inform you of the actions and measures taken in an effort to maintain the movements of vehicles and pedestrians since the heavy snow fall on Sunday 23 January. Our contractor's employees began clearing the snow during the morning of Sunday 23 January on the main CERN sites (Meyrin, Prévessin), but an accident prevented them from continuing. The vehicle in question was repaired by Monday morning when two other vehicles joined it to resume snow clearing; priority was given to access points to the main sites and the LHC sites, as well as to the main roads inside the sites. The salt sprinklers were also brought into action that same day; the very low temperature during the night from Monday to Tuesday prevented the snow from melting and compacted the ice; the continuing cold during the day on Tuesday (-6°C at 10:00 on the Meyrin site) meant that all efforts to remove the ice were doomed to failure. In order to ensure more efficie...

  7. Global Malmquist indices of productivity change in Egyptian wheat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elasraag, Y.H.; Alarcón, S.

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to measure the total factor productivity of the main govern orates of wheat production in Egypt during the time period 1990-2012 and decompose it into technical change, efficiency change and scale change. We used Global Malmquist TFP index as a non-parametric approach. The results indicated that the contribution of technical change component is more important than the efficiency change component. In fact technical change rose, 25.7%, while efficiency change presented a little decline, 3.7%. The decomposition of efficiency change indicated that the main problem of wheat production in Egypt was scale efficiency that worsened by 5.5%.

  8. Meeting the Global Challenge through Production Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij

    to the current debates about how these firms could assert themselves in a world of far-reaching transformation. As the title of the study suggests, this contribution is made through focusing the discussion upon production offshoring, which is currently commanding attention of so many practitioners, academics...... and policy makers. Building on ground that is already well trodden within the academic literature, the study searches for novel multidisciplinary explanations about how the production function can be organised by lead firms on a global scale and, more importantly, what the strategic implications...... of this process are. While the study concentrates on the production function, the implications of the discussion stretch much wider; the study also reveals implications for other functions and the company as a whole, as well as it points towards broader societal implications. The study employs a qualitative...

  9. Ultratrace analysis for organolead compounds in Greenland snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobinski, R.; Szpunar-Lobinska, J.; Adams, F.C.

    1994-01-01

    The degradation products of tetraalkyllead compounds used as antiknock additives are unique indicators of automotive environmental pollution by lead. Recent dramatic improvements in species-specific ultrasensitive analytical procedures enabled the identification and quantification of organolead compounds in ancient Greenland snow which is considered as the archives of northern hemispheric pollution records. Organolead species determined in fresh and ancient polar snow demonstrate unambiguously the global range of petrol-related pollution not only with ionic Pb 2+ but also with more toxic metalloorganic compounds. (authors). 9 refs., 5 figs

  10. Spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow density

    KAUST Repository

    Bormann, Kathryn J.

    2013-03-01

    Snow density is a fundamental physical property of snowpacks used in many aspects of snow research. As an integral component in the remote sensing of snow water equivalent and parameterisation of snow models, snow density may be used to describe many important features of snowpack behaviour. The present study draws on a significant dataset of snow density and climate observations from the United States, Australia and the former Soviet Union and uses regression-based techniques to identify the dominant climatological drivers for snow densification rates, characterise densification rate variability and estimate spring snow densities from more readily available climate data. Total winter precipitation was shown to be the most prominent driver of snow densification rates, with mean air temperature and melt-refreeze events also found to be locally significant. Densification rate variance is very high at Australian sites, very low throughout the former Soviet Union and between these extremes throughout much of the US. Spring snow densities were estimated using a statistical model with climate variable inputs and best results were achieved when snow types were treated differently. Given the importance of snow density information in many snow-related research disciplines, this work has implications for current methods of converting snow depths to snow water equivalent, the representation of snow dynamics in snow models and remote sensing applications globally. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow density

    KAUST Repository

    Bormann, Kathryn J.; Westra, Seth; Evans, Jason P.; McCabe, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Snow density is a fundamental physical property of snowpacks used in many aspects of snow research. As an integral component in the remote sensing of snow water equivalent and parameterisation of snow models, snow density may be used to describe many important features of snowpack behaviour. The present study draws on a significant dataset of snow density and climate observations from the United States, Australia and the former Soviet Union and uses regression-based techniques to identify the dominant climatological drivers for snow densification rates, characterise densification rate variability and estimate spring snow densities from more readily available climate data. Total winter precipitation was shown to be the most prominent driver of snow densification rates, with mean air temperature and melt-refreeze events also found to be locally significant. Densification rate variance is very high at Australian sites, very low throughout the former Soviet Union and between these extremes throughout much of the US. Spring snow densities were estimated using a statistical model with climate variable inputs and best results were achieved when snow types were treated differently. Given the importance of snow density information in many snow-related research disciplines, this work has implications for current methods of converting snow depths to snow water equivalent, the representation of snow dynamics in snow models and remote sensing applications globally. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Development of technology for gourmet smoked products from cod species using enzyme preparation from hepatopancreas of snow crab Chionoecetes opilio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Shkuratova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Food Production Department of Murmansk State Technical University (MSTU was developed a technology of production of smoked fish products with the use of air-flue mixture, produced in an infrared smoke generator under conditions of low-temperature pyrolysis of wood chips with an initial moisture content of 40 to 60% and a bulk density of from 104 to 154 kg/m3. A method of producing smoke and its hardware design enabled to securely control the temperature of the smoke receiving smoking environment, which guarantees a minimum content of threat to human health of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (РАНs. The developed technology involves short cycle smoked salted semi – fish fillets and allows to obtain finished products with excellent organoleptic properties. The content of РАНs in finished products less than 0.0002 microgram/kg, which is significantly below the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC according to the requirements of SаnРiN 2.3.2.1078 (less than 0.001 mg/kg product and according to the requirements of TR CU 021/2011 (0.005 mg/kg product. This technology successfully implemented in production at fish processing plants in Murmansk region. However, marketing research has shown that the market for smoked fish in the Murmansk region is characterized by a narrow range, which affects consumer demand and reduces the competitiveness of the regional enterprises-manufacturers of smoked products. To solve this problem it is offered to expand the range of smoked fish products due to use of non-traditional Smoking techniques raw materials – fillet of cod fish (saithe, haddock, cod. To improve consumer properties of products, in particular, to improve the indicator of “consistency: and "juiciness" of the proposed use on the stage of the salting of prefabricated enzyme preparation from hepatopancreas of snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio, added to brine with density of 1.18 to 1.2 g/сm3 at a dosage of 0.04%, the curing time of

  13. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

  14. Enhanced hemispheric-scale snow mapping through the blending of optical and microwave satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Brodzik, M. J.; Savoie, M.; Knowles, K.

    2003-04-01

    Snow cover is an important variable for climate and hydrologic models due to its effects on energy and moisture budgets. Seasonal snow can cover more than 50% of the Northern Hemisphere land surface during the winter resulting in snow cover being the land surface characteristic responsible for the largest annual and interannual differences in albedo. Passive microwave satellite remote sensing can augment measurements based on visible satellite data alone because of the ability to acquire data through most clouds or during darkness as well as to provide a measure of snow depth or water equivalent. Global snow cover fluctuation can now be monitored over a 24 year period using passive microwave data (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) 1978-1987 and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), 1987-present). Evaluation of snow extent derived from passive microwave algorithms is presented through comparison with the NOAA Northern Hemisphere weekly snow extent data. For the period 1978 to 2002, both passive microwave and visible data sets show a similar pattern of inter-annual variability, although the maximum snow extents derived from the microwave data are consistently less than those provided by the visible satellite data and the visible data typically show higher monthly variability. Decadal trends and their significance are compared for the two data types. During shallow snow conditions of the early winter season microwave data consistently indicate less snow-covered area than the visible data. This underestimate of snow extent results from the fact that shallow snow cover (less than about 5.0 cm) does not provide a scattering signal of sufficient strength to be detected by the algorithms. As the snow cover continues to build during the months of January through March, as well as throughout the melt season, agreement between the two data types continually improves. This occurs because as the snow becomes deeper and the layered structure more complex, the

  15. MODIS Snow Cover Recovery Using Variational Interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H.; Nguyen, P.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud obscuration is one of the major problems that limit the usages of satellite images in general and in NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global Snow-Covered Area (SCA) products in particular. Among the approaches to resolve the problem, the Variational Interpolation (VI) algorithm method, proposed by Xia et al., 2012, obtains cloud-free dynamic SCA images from MODIS. This method is automatic and robust. However, computational deficiency is a main drawback that degrades applying the method for larger scales (i.e., spatial and temporal scales). To overcome this difficulty, this study introduces an improved version of the original VI. The modified VI algorithm integrates the MINimum RESidual (MINRES) iteration (Paige and Saunders., 1975) to prevent the system from breaking up when applied to much broader scales. An experiment was done to demonstrate the crash-proof ability of the new algorithm in comparison with the original VI method, an ability that is obtained when maintaining the distribution of the weights set after solving the linear system. After that, the new VI algorithm was applied to the whole Contiguous United States (CONUS) over four winter months of 2016 and 2017, and validated using the snow station network (SNOTEL). The resulting cloud free images have high accuracy in capturing the dynamical changes of snow in contrast with the MODIS snow cover maps. Lastly, the algorithm was applied to create a Cloud free images dataset from March 10, 2000 to February 28, 2017, which is able to provide an overview of snow trends over CONUS for nearly two decades. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSWe would like to acknowledge NASA, NOAA Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD) National Weather Service (NWS), Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites (CICS), Army Research Office (ARO), ICIWaRM, and UNESCO for supporting this research.

  16. The value of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    Snow is the natural resource, like soil and water. It has specific properties which allow its use not just for skiing but also for houses cooling in summer (Swedish experience), for air fields construction (Arctic and Antarctic), for dams (north of Russia), for buildings (not only snow-houses of some Polar peoples but artistic hotel attracting tourists in Sweden), and as art material (Sapporo snow festival, Finnish events), etc. "Adjustment" of snow distribution and amount is not only rather common practice (avalanche-protection constructions keeping snow on slopes) but also the practice with long history. So-called "snow irrigation" was used in Russia since XIX century to protect winter crop. What is now named "artificial snow production", is part of much larger pattern. What makes it special—it is unavoidable in present climate and economy situation. 5% of national income in Austria is winter tourism. 50% of the economy in Savoy relay on winter tourism. In terms of money this can be less, but in terms of jobs and income involved this would be even more considerable in Switzerland. As an example—the population of Davos is 14000 in Summer and 50000 in Winter. Skiing is growing business. In present time you can find ski slopes in Turkey and Lebanon. To keep a cite suitable for attracting tourists you need certain amount of sunny days and certain amount of snow. The snow cannons are often the only way to keep a place running. On the other hand, more artificial snow does not necessary attract more tourists, while heavy natural snowfall does attract them. Artificial snow making is costly and requires infrastructure (ponds and electric lines) with very narrow range of weather conditions. Related companies are searching for alternatives and one of them can be "weather regulation" by distribution of some chemical components in clouds. It did not happen yet, but can happen soon. The consequences of such interference in Nature is hardly known. The ski tourism is not the

  17. New Approach for Snow Cover Detection through Spectral Pattern Recognition with MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeong-Sang Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow cover plays an important role in climate and hydrology, at both global and regional scales. Most previous studies have used static threshold techniques to detect snow cover, which can lead to errors such as misclassification of snow and clouds, because the reflectance of snow cover exhibits variability and is affected by several factors. Therefore, we present a simple new algorithm for mapping snow cover from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data using dynamic wavelength warping (DWW, which is based on dynamic time warping (DTW. DTW is a pattern recognition technique that is widely used in various fields such as human action recognition, anomaly detection, and clustering. Before performing DWW, we constructed 49 snow reflectance spectral libraries as reference data for various solar zenith angle and digital elevation model conditions using approximately 1.6 million sampled data. To verify the algorithm, we compared our results with the MODIS swath snow cover product (MOD10_L2. Producer’s accuracy, user’s accuracy, and overall accuracy values were 92.92%, 78.41%, and 92.24%, respectively, indicating good overall classification accuracy. The proposed algorithm is more useful for discriminating between snow cover and clouds than threshold techniques in some areas, such as those with a high viewing zenith angle.

  18. Empirical and theoretical evidence concerning the response of the earth's ice and snow cover to a global temperature increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollin, J T; Barry, R G

    1979-01-01

    As a guide to the possible effects of a CO/sub 2/-induced warming on the cryosphere, we review the effects of three warm periods in the past, and our theoretical understanding of fluctuations in mountain glaciers, the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, ground ice, sea ice and seasonal snow cover. Between 1890 and 1940 A.D. the glaciated area in Switzerland was reduced by over 25%. In the Hypsithermal, at about 6000 BP, ground ice in Eurasia retreated northward by several hundred kilometers. In the interglacial Stage 5e, at about 120 000 BP, glocal sea-level rose by over 6 m. Fluctuations of mountain glaciers depend on mesoscale weather and on their mechanical response to it. Any melting of the Greenland ice sheet is likely to be slow in human terms. The West Antarctic ice sheet (its base below sea-level) is susceptible to an ungrounding, and such an event may have been the cause of the sea-level rise above. The East Antarctic ice sheet is susceptible to mechanical surges, which might be triggered by a warming at its margin. Both an ungrounding and a surge might occupy less than 100 yr, and are potentially the most important ice changes in human terms. Modeling studies suggest that a 5/sup 0/C warming would remove the Arctic pack ice in summer. and this may be the most significant effect for further climatic change.

  19. High fidelity remote sensing of snow properties from MODIS and the Airborne Snow Observatory: Snowflakes to Terabytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, T.; Mattmann, C. A.; Brodzik, M.; Bryant, A. C.; Goodale, C. E.; Hart, A. F.; Ramirez, P.; Rittger, K. E.; Seidel, F. C.; Zimdars, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    The response of the cryosphere to climate forcings largely determines Earth's climate sensitivity. However, our understanding of the strength of the simulated snow albedo feedback varies by a factor of three in the GCMs used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, mainly caused by uncertainties in snow extent and the albedo of snow-covered areas from imprecise remote sensing retrievals. Additionally, the Western US and other regions of the globe depend predominantly on snowmelt for their water supply to agriculture, industry and cities, hydroelectric power, and recreation, against rising demand from increasing population. In the mountains of the Upper Colorado River Basin, dust radiative forcing in snow shortens snow cover duration by 3-7 weeks. Extended to the entire upper basin, the 5-fold increase in dust load since the late-1800s results in a 3-week earlier peak runoff and a 5% annual loss of total runoff. The remotely sensed dynamics of snow cover duration and melt however have not been factored into hydrological modeling, operational forecasting, and policymaking. To address these deficiencies in our understanding of snow properties, we have developed and validated a suite of MODIS snow products that provide accurate fractional snow covered area and radiative forcing of dust and carbonaceous aerosols in snow. The MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size (MODSCAG) and MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) algorithms, developed and transferred from imaging spectroscopy techniques, leverage the complete MODIS surface reflectance spectrum. The two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing are the spatial and temporal distributions of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow albedo. We have created the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and scanning LiDAR system, to quantify SWE and snow albedo, generate unprecedented knowledge of snow properties, and provide complete

  20. MODIS snow cover mapping accuracy in a small mountain catchment – comparison between open and forest sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Blöschl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous global and regional validation studies have examined MODIS snow mapping accuracy by using measurements at climate stations, which are mainly at open sites. MODIS accuracy in alpine and forested regions is, however, still not well understood. The main objective of this study is to evaluate MODIS (MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 snow cover products in a small experimental catchment by using extensive snow course measurements at open and forest sites. The MODIS accuracy is tested in the Jalovecky creek catchment (northern Slovakia in the period 2000–2011. The results show that the combined Terra and Aqua images enable snow mapping at an overall accuracy of 91.5%. The accuracies at forested, open and mixed land uses at the Červenec sites are 92.7%, 98.3% and 81.8%, respectively. The use of a 2-day temporal filter enables a significant reduction in the number of days with cloud coverage and an increase in overall snow mapping accuracy. In total, the 2-day temporal filter decreases the number of cloudy days from 61% to 26% and increases the snow mapping accuracy to 94%. The results indicate three possible factors leading to misclassification of snow as land: patchy snow cover, limited MODIS geolocation accuracy and mapping algorithm errors. Out of a total of 27 misclassification cases, patchy snow cover, geolocation issues and mapping errors occur in 12, 12 and 3 cases, respectively.

  1. Bacterial-based additives for the production of artificial snow: what are the risks to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagriffoul, A; Boudenne, J L; Absi, R; Ballet, J J; Berjeaud, J M; Chevalier, S; Creppy, E E; Gilli, E; Gadonna, J P; Gadonna-Widehem, P; Morris, C E; Zini, S

    2010-03-01

    For around two decades, artificial snow has been used by numerous winter sports resorts to ensure good snow cover at low altitude areas or more generally, to lengthen the skiing season. Biological additives derived from certain bacteria are regularly used to make artificial snow. However, the use of these additives has raised doubts concerning the potential impact on human health and the environment. In this context, the French health authorities have requested the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) to assess the health risks resulting from the use of such additives. The health risk assessment was based on a review of the scientific literature, supplemented by professional consultations and expertise. Biological or chemical hazards from additives derived from the ice nucleation active bacterium Pseudomonas syringae were characterised. Potential health hazards to humans were considered in terms of infectious, toxic and allergenic capacities with respect to human populations liable to be exposed and the means of possible exposure. Taking into account these data, a qualitative risk assessment was carried out, according to four exposure scenarios, involving the different populations exposed, and the conditions and routes of exposure. It was concluded that certain health risks can exist for specific categories of professional workers (mainly snowmakers during additive mixing and dilution tank cleaning steps, with risks estimated to be negligible to low if workers comply with safety precautions). P. syringae does not present any pathogenic capacity to humans and that the level of its endotoxins found in artificial snow do not represent a danger beyond that of exposure to P. syringae endotoxins naturally present in snow. However, the risk of possible allergy in some particularly sensitive individuals cannot be excluded. Another important conclusion of this study concerns use of poor microbiological water quality to make artificial snow.

  2. Bacterial-based additives for the production of artificial snow: What are the risks to human health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagriffoul, A.; Boudenne, J.L.; Absi, R.; Ballet, J.J.; Berjeaud, J.M.; Chevalier, S.; Creppy, E.E.; Gilli, E.; Gadonna, J.P.; Gadonna-Widehem, P.; Morris, C.E.; Zini, S.

    2010-01-01

    For around two decades, artificial snow has been used by numerous winter sports resorts to ensure good snow cover at low altitude areas or more generally, to lengthen the skiing season. Biological additives derived from certain bacteria are regularly used to make artificial snow. However, the use of these additives has raised doubts concerning the potential impact on human health and the environment. In this context, the French health authorities have requested the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) to assess the health risks resulting from the use of such additives. The health risk assessment was based on a review of the scientific literature, supplemented by professional consultations and expertise. Biological or chemical hazards from additives derived from the ice nucleation active bacterium Pseudomonas syringae were characterised. Potential health hazards to humans were considered in terms of infectious, toxic and allergenic capacities with respect to human populations liable to be exposed and the means of possible exposure. Taking into account these data, a qualitative risk assessment was carried out, according to four exposure scenarios, involving the different populations exposed, and the conditions and routes of exposure. It was concluded that certain health risks can exist for specific categories of professional workers (mainly snowmakers during additive mixing and dilution tank cleaning steps, with risks estimated to be negligible to low if workers comply with safety precautions). P. syringae does not present any pathogenic capacity to humans and that the level of its endotoxins found in artificial snow do not represent a danger beyond that of exposure to P. syringae endotoxins naturally present in snow. However, the risk of possible allergy in some particularly sensitive individuals cannot be excluded. Another important conclusion of this study concerns use of poor microbiological water quality to make artificial snow.

  3. Bacterial-based additives for the production of artificial snow: What are the risks to human health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagriffoul, A. [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire de l' Environnement et du Travail, 253, avenue du General Leclerc, 94701 Maisons-Alfort (France); Boudenne, J.L. [Universite de Provence, Laboratoire Chimie Provence, UMR6264, 3 Place Victor Hugo case 29 13331 Marseille CEDEX 3 (France); Absi, R. [Institut Polytechnique Saint-Louis, Ecole de Biologie Industrielle, Laboratoire EBInnov, 32 Boulevard du Port, 95094 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Ballet, J.J. [Laboratoire d' immunologie et immunopathologie, Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Caen, avenue de la cote de nacre 14000 Caen (France); Berjeaud, J.M. [Universite de Poitiers, Laboratoire de Chimie et Microbiologie de l' Eau, UMR6008, 40 avenue du recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers CEDEX (France); Chevalier, S. [Universite de Rouen, Laboratoire de Microbiologie du Froid, Signaux et Micro-Environnement, EA 4312, Normandie Securite Sanitaire, 55 rue St Germain, 27000 Evreux (France); Creppy, E.E. [Universite Bordeaux 2, UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Laboratoire de Toxicologie, 146, rue Leo-Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux CEDEX (France); Gilli, E. [Universite Paris 8, Departement de geographie, 2, rue de la Liberte, 93526 Saint Denis CEDEX (France); UMR Espace 6012, 98 bd Edouard Herriot, 06204, Nice, CEDEX 3 (France); Gadonna, J.P. [Institut Polytechnique Saint-Louis, Ecole de Biologie Industrielle, Laboratoire EBInnov, 32 Boulevard du Port, 95094 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Gadonna-Widehem, P. [Institut Polytechnique LaSalle Beauvais, departement STAI, rue P. Waguet BP 30313, 60026 Beauvais CEDEX (France); Morris, C.E. [INRA, Unite de Pathologie Vegetale UR407, F-84140 Montfavet (France); Zini, S., E-mail: sylvie.zini@afsset.fr [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire de l' Environnement et du Travail, 253, avenue du General Leclerc, 94701 Maisons-Alfort (France)

    2010-03-01

    For around two decades, artificial snow has been used by numerous winter sports resorts to ensure good snow cover at low altitude areas or more generally, to lengthen the skiing season. Biological additives derived from certain bacteria are regularly used to make artificial snow. However, the use of these additives has raised doubts concerning the potential impact on human health and the environment. In this context, the French health authorities have requested the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) to assess the health risks resulting from the use of such additives. The health risk assessment was based on a review of the scientific literature, supplemented by professional consultations and expertise. Biological or chemical hazards from additives derived from the ice nucleation active bacterium Pseudomonas syringae were characterised. Potential health hazards to humans were considered in terms of infectious, toxic and allergenic capacities with respect to human populations liable to be exposed and the means of possible exposure. Taking into account these data, a qualitative risk assessment was carried out, according to four exposure scenarios, involving the different populations exposed, and the conditions and routes of exposure. It was concluded that certain health risks can exist for specific categories of professional workers (mainly snowmakers during additive mixing and dilution tank cleaning steps, with risks estimated to be negligible to low if workers comply with safety precautions). P. syringae does not present any pathogenic capacity to humans and that the level of its endotoxins found in artificial snow do not represent a danger beyond that of exposure to P. syringae endotoxins naturally present in snow. However, the risk of possible allergy in some particularly sensitive individuals cannot be excluded. Another important conclusion of this study concerns use of poor microbiological water quality to make artificial snow.

  4. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,671] Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including Teleworkers Reporting to... Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston...

  5. Globally sustainable manganese metal production and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelstein, Karen

    2009-09-01

    The "cradle to grave" concept of managing chemicals and wastes has been a descriptive analogy of proper environmental stewardship since the 1970s. The concept incorporates environmentally sustainable product choices-such as metal alloys utilized steel products which civilization is dependent upon. Manganese consumption is related to the increasing production of raw steel and upgrading ferroalloys. Nonferrous applications of manganese include production of dry-cell batteries, plant fertilizer components, animal feed and colorant for bricks. The manganese ore (high grade 35% manganese) production world wide is about 6 million ton/year and electrolytic manganese metal demand is about 0.7 million ton/year. The total manganese demand is consumed globally by industries including construction (23%), machinery (14%), and transportation (11%). Manganese is recycled within scrap of iron and steel, a small amount is recycled within aluminum used beverage cans. Recycling rate is 37% and efficiency is estimated as 53% [Roskill Metals and Minerals Reports, January 13, 2005. Manganese Report: rapid rise in output caused by Chinese crude steel production. Available from: http://www.roskill.com/reports/manganese.]. Environmentally sustainable management choices include identifying raw material chemistry, utilizing clean production processes, minimizing waste generation, recycling materials, controlling occupational exposures, and collecting representative environmental data. This paper will discuss two electrolytically produced manganese metals, the metal production differences, and environmental impacts cited to date. The two electrolytic manganese processes differ due to the addition of sulfur dioxide or selenium dioxide. Adverse environmental impacts due to use of selenium dioxide methodology include increased water consumption and order of magnitude greater solid waste generation per ton of metal processed. The use of high grade manganese ores in the electrolytic process also

  6. Monitoring Snow and Land Ice Using Satellite data in the GMES Project CryoLand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bippus, Gabriele; Nagler, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The main objectives of the project "CryoLand - GMES Service Snow and Land Ice" are to develop, implement and validate services for snow, glaciers and lake and river ice products as a Downstream Service within the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) program of the European Commission. CryoLand exploits Earth Observation data from current optical and microwave sensors and of the upcoming GMES Sentinel satellite family. The project prepares also the basis for the cryospheric component of the GMES Land Monitoring services. The CryoLand project team consists of 10 partner organisations from Austria, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Romania and is funded by the 7th Framework Program of the European Commission. The CryoLand baseline products for snow include fractional snow extent from optical satellite data, the extent of melting snow from SAR data, and coarse resolution snow water equivalent maps from passive microwave data. Experimental products include maps of snow surface wetness and temperature. The products range from large scale coverage at medium resolution to regional products with high resolution, in order to address a wide user community. Medium resolution optical data (e.g. MODIS, in the near future Sentinel-3) and SAR (ENVISAT ASAR, in the near future Sentinel-1) are the main sources of EO data for generating large scale products in near real time. For generation of regional products high resolution satellite data are used. Glacier products are based on high resolution optical (e.g. SPOT-5, in the near future Sentinel-2) and SAR (TerraSAR-X, in the near future Sentinel-1) data and include glacier outlines, mapping of glacier facies, glacier lakes and ice velocity. The glacier products are generated on users demand. Current test areas are located in the Alps, Norway, Greenland and the Himalayan Mountains. The lake and river ice products include ice extent and its temporal changes and snow extent on ice. The algorithms for these

  7. Validation of Airborne FMCW Radar Measurements of Snow Thickness Over Sea Ice in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galin, Natalia; Worby, Anthony; Markus, Thorsten; Leuschen, Carl; Gogineni, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Antarctic sea ice and its snow cover are integral components of the global climate system, yet many aspects of their vertical dimensions are poorly understood, making their representation in global climate models poor. Remote sensing is the key to monitoring the dynamic nature of sea ice and its snow cover. Reliable and accurate snow thickness data are currently a highly sought after data product. Remotely sensed snow thickness measurements can provide an indication of precipitation levels, predicted to increase with effects of climate change in the polar regions. Airborne techniques provide a means for regional-scale estimation of snow depth and distribution. Accurate regional-scale snow thickness data will also facilitate an increase in the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite altimeter freeboard estimates. The airborne data sets are easier to validate with in situ measurements and are better suited to validating satellite algorithms when compared with in situ techniques. This is primarily due to two factors: better chance of getting coincident in situ and airborne data sets and the tractability of comparison between an in situ data set and the airborne data set averaged over the footprint of the antennas. A 28-GHz frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar loaned by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets to the Australian Antarctic Division is used to measure snow thickness over sea ice in East Antarctica. Provided with the radar design parameters, the expected performance parameters of the radar are summarized. The necessary conditions for unambiguous identification of the airsnow and snowice layers for the radar are presented. Roughnesses of the snow and ice surfaces are found to be dominant determinants in the effectiveness of layer identification for this radar. Finally, this paper presents the first in situ validated snow thickness estimates over sea ice in Antarctica derived from an FMCW radar on a helicopterborne platform.

  8. An integrated modeling system for estimating glacier and snow melt driven streamflow from remote sensing and earth system data products in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Racoviteanu, A. E.; Tarboton, D. G.; Gupta, A. Sen; Nigro, J.; Policelli, F.; Habib, S.; Tokay, M.; Shrestha, M. S.; Bajracharya, S.; Hummel, P.; Gray, M.; Duda, P.; Zaitchik, B.; Mahat, V.; Artan, G.; Tokar, S.

    2014-11-01

    Quantification of the contribution of the hydrologic components (snow, ice and rain) to river discharge in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is important for decision-making in water sensitive sectors, and for water resources management and flood risk reduction. In this area, access to and monitoring of the glaciers and their melt outflow is challenging due to difficult access, thus modeling based on remote sensing offers the potential for providing information to improve water resources management and decision making. This paper describes an integrated modeling system developed using downscaled NASA satellite based and earth system data products coupled with in-situ hydrologic data to assess the contribution of snow and glaciers to the flows of the rivers in the HKH region. Snow and glacier melt was estimated using the Utah Energy Balance (UEB) model, further enhanced to accommodate glacier ice melt over clean and debris-covered tongues, then meltwater was input into the USGS Geospatial Stream Flow Model (GeoSFM). The two model components were integrated into Better Assessment Science Integrating point and Nonpoint Sources modeling framework (BASINS) as a user-friendly open source system and was made available to countries in high Asia. Here we present a case study from the Langtang Khola watershed in the monsoon-influenced Nepal Himalaya, used to validate our energy balance approach and to test the applicability of our modeling system. The snow and glacier melt model predicts that for the eight years used for model evaluation (October 2003-September 2010), the total surface water input over the basin was 9.43 m, originating as 62% from glacier melt, 30% from snowmelt and 8% from rainfall. Measured streamflow for those years were 5.02 m, reflecting a runoff coefficient of 0.53. GeoSFM simulated streamflow was 5.31 m indicating reasonable correspondence between measured and model confirming the capability of the integrated system to provide a quantification of

  9. An Integrated Modeling System for Estimating Glacier and Snow Melt Driven Streamflow from Remote Sensing and Earth System Data Products in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Racoviteanu, A. E.; Tarboton, D. G.; Sen Gupta, A.; Nigro, J.; Policelli, F.; Habib, S.; Tokay, M.; Shrestha, M. S.; Bajracharya, S.

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of the contribution of the hydrologic components (snow, ice and rain) to river discharge in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is important for decision-making in water sensitive sectors, and for water resources management and flood risk reduction. In this area, access to and monitoring of the glaciers and their melt outflow is challenging due to difficult access, thus modeling based on remote sensing offers the potential for providing information to improve water resources management and decision making. This paper describes an integrated modeling system developed using downscaled NASA satellite based and earth system data products coupled with in-situ hydrologic data to assess the contribution of snow and glaciers to the flows of the rivers in the HKH region. Snow and glacier melt was estimated using the Utah Energy Balance (UEB) model, further enhanced to accommodate glacier ice melt over clean and debris-covered tongues, then meltwater was input into the USGS Geospatial Stream Flow Model (Geo- SFM). The two model components were integrated into Better Assessment Science Integrating point and Nonpoint Sources modeling framework (BASINS) as a user-friendly open source system and was made available to countries in high Asia. Here we present a case study from the Langtang Khola watershed in the monsoon-influenced Nepal Himalaya, used to validate our energy balance approach and to test the applicability of our modeling system. The snow and glacier melt model predicts that for the eight years used for model evaluation (October 2003-September 2010), the total surface water input over the basin was 9.43 m, originating as 62% from glacier melt, 30% from snowmelt and 8% from rainfall. Measured streamflow for those years were 5.02 m, reflecting a runoff coefficient of 0.53. GeoSFM simulated streamflow was 5.31 m indicating reasonable correspondence between measured and model confirming the capability of the integrated system to provide a quantification

  10. New nitrogen uptake strategy: specialized snow roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Makarov, Mikhail I; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Ivanov, Viktor B; Akhmetzhanova, Assem A; Tekeev, Dzhamal K; Ermak, Anton A; Salpagarova, Fatima S; Kozhevnikova, Anna D; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2009-08-01

    The evolution of plants has yielded a wealth of adaptations for the acquisition of key mineral nutrients. These include the structure, physiology and positioning of root systems. We report the discovery of specialized snow roots as a plant strategy to cope with the very short season for nutrient uptake and growth in alpine snow-beds, i.e. patches in the landscape that remain snow-covered well into the summer. We provide anatomical, chemical and experimental (15)N isotope tracking evidence that the Caucasian snow-bed plant Corydalis conorhiza forms extensive networks of specialized above-ground roots, which grow against gravity to acquire nitrogen directly from within snow packs. Snow roots capture nitrogen that would otherwise partly run off down-slope over a frozen surface, thereby helping to nourish these alpine ecosystems. Climate warming is changing and will change mountain snow regimes, while large-scale anthropogenic N deposition has increased snow N contents. These global changes are likely to impact on the distribution, abundance and functional significance of snow roots.

  11. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) Collection maps the net amount of solar...

  12. IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY DISCLOSURE ON GLOBAL PRODUCTION NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bo; Dan Shen; Jin Jun Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss effectiveness of social responsibility disclosure in promoting global production network. Through a critical review on the theoretical development from supply chain to global production network, the global supply chain management of Apple Inc., as a case, is investigated, with focus on corporate and NGOs’ social disclosure on the environmental and labor rights' issues of its suppliers in China. The paper concludes that effectiveness of corporate social disclosure on...

  13. Levels of Product Differentiation in the Global Mobile Phones Market

    OpenAIRE

    Andonov, Stanimir

    2006-01-01

    The sixth product level called compliant product is a connecting element between the physical product characteristics and the strategy of the producer company. The article discusses the differentiation among the product offers of companies working in the global markets, as well as the strategies which they use and could use in that respect.

  14. Supporting Hydrometeorological Research and Applications with Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Products and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Deshong, B.; MacRitchie, K.; Greene, M.; Kempler, S.

    2016-01-01

    Precipitation is an important dataset in hydrometeorological research and applications such as flood modeling, drought monitoring, etc. On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data. The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). GPM products currently available include the following:1. Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products2. Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products (Level-2 and Level-3)3. GPM dual-frequency precipitation radar and their combined products (Level-2 and Level-3)4. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final run)GPM data can be accessed through a number of data services (e.g., Simple Subset Wizard, OPeNDAP, WMS, WCS, ftp, etc.). A newly released Unified User Interface or UUI is a single interface to provide users seamless access to data, information and services. For example, a search for precipitation products will not only return TRMM and GPM products, but also other global precipitation products such as MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation Systems), etc.New features and capabilities have been recently added in GIOVANNI to allow exploring and inter-comparing GPM IMERG (Integrated Multi-satelliE Retrievals for GPM) half-hourly and monthly precipitation

  15. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  16. Climate change and agricultural production | Offiong | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From a policy viewpoint, however, it is also difficult to understand the level to which agriculturally related activities may contribute to global-scale environmental change and the extent to which policies to prevent, mitigate, or adapt to environmental change may affect agriculture and hunger. These issues are likely to become ...

  17. Global nitrogen requirement for increased biofuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, Joris

    2008-01-01

    Biofuels are thought to be one of the options to substitute fossil fuels and prevent global warming by the greenhouse gas (GHG) effect as they are seen as a renewable form of energy. However, biofuels are almost solely subjected to criticism from an energ

  18. Deriving Snow Cover Metrics for Alaska from MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuck Lindsay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS daily snow cover products provide an opportunity for determining snow onset and melt dates across broad geographic regions; however, cloud cover and polar darkness are limiting factors at higher latitudes. This study presents snow onset and melt dates for Alaska, portions of western Canada and the Russian Far East derived from Terra MODIS snow cover daily 500 m grid data (MOD10A1 and evaluates our method for filling data gaps caused by clouds or polar darkness. Pixels classified as cloud or no data were reclassified by: spatial filtering using neighboring pixel values; temporal filtering using pixel values for days before/after cloud cover; and snow-cycle filtering based on a time series assessment of a pixel’s position within snow accumulation, cover or melt periods. During the 2012 snow year, these gap-filling methods reduced cloud pixels from 27.7% to 3.1%. A total of 12 metrics (e.g., date of first and last snow, date of persistent snow cover and periods of intermittence for each pixel were calculated by snow year. A comparison of MODIS-derived snow onset and melt dates with in situ observations from 244 weather stations generally showed an early bias in MODIS-derived dates and an effect of increasing cloudiness exacerbating bias. Our results show that mean regional duration of seasonal snow cover is 179–311 days/year and that snow cover is often intermittent, with 41% of the area experiencing ≥2 snow-covered periods during a snow season. Other regional-scale patterns in the timing of snow onset and melt are evident in the yearly 500 m gridded products publically available at http://static.gina.alaska.edu/NPS_products/MODIS_snow/.

  19. A distributed snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen E. Liston; Kelly. Elder

    2006-01-01

    SnowModel is a spatially distributed snow-evolution modeling system designed for application in landscapes, climates, and conditions where snow occurs. It is an aggregation of four submodels: MicroMet defines meteorological forcing conditions, EnBal calculates surface energy exchanges, SnowPack simulates snow depth and water-equivalent evolution, and SnowTran-3D...

  20. Globalization, structural change, and productivity growth:

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, Margaret; Rodrik, Dani

    2012-01-01

    Large gaps in labor productivity between the traditional and modern parts of the economy are a fundamental reality of developing societies. In this paper, we document these gaps and emphasize that labor flows from low-productivity activities to high-productivity activities are a key driver of development. Our results show that since 1990 structural change has been growth-reducing in both Africa and Latin America, with the most striking changes taking place in Latin America. The bulk of the di...

  1. A 50-year record of platinum, iridium, and rhodium in Antarctic snow: volcanic and anthropogenic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyol-Erdene, Tseren-Ochir; Huh, Youngsook; Hong, Sungmin; Hur, Soon Do

    2011-07-15

    Antarctic snow preserves an atmospheric archive that enables the study of global atmospheric changes and anthropogenic disturbances from the past. We report atmospheric deposition rates of platinum group elements (PGEs) in Antarctica during the last ∼ 50 years based on determinations of Pt, Ir, and Rh in snow samples collected from Queen Maud Land, East Antarctica to evaluate changes in the global atmospheric budget of these noble metals. The 50-year average PGE concentrations in Antarctic snow were 17 fg g(-1) (4.7-76 fg g(-1)) for Pt, 0.12 fg g(-1) (pollution for Pt and probably for Rh since the 1980s, which may be attributed to the increasing emissions of these metals from anthropogenic sources such as automobile catalysts and metal production processes.

  2. Water and life from snow: A trillion dollar science question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Matthew; Goldstein, Michael A.; Parr, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Snow provides essential resources/services in the form of water for human use, and climate regulation in the form of enhanced cooling of the Earth. In addition, it supports a thriving winter outdoor recreation industry. To date, the financial evaluation of the importance of snow is incomplete and hence the need for accelerated snow research is not as clear as it could be. With snow cover changing worldwide in several worrisome ways, there is pressing need to determine global, regional, and local rates of snow cover change, and to link these to financial analyses that allow for rational decision making, as risks related to those decisions involve trillions of dollars.

  3. Snow snake performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    A recent study, Three-Dimensional Roughness Elements for Snow Retention (FHWA-WY-06/04F) (Tabler 2006), demonstrated : positive evidence for the effectiveness of Snow Snakes, a new type of snow fence suitable for use within the highway right-of...

  4. Modelling of snow exceedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Pavlina K.; Sadovský, Zoltán; Stehlík, Milan

    2017-07-01

    Modelling of snow exceedances is of great importance and interest for ecology, civil engineering and general public. We suggest the favorable fit for exceedances related to the exceptional snow loads from Slovakia, assuming that the data is driven by Generalised Pareto Distribution or Generalized Extreme Value Distribution. Further, the statistical dependence between the maximal snow loads and the corresponding altitudes is studied.

  5. Generation and Evaluation of a Global Land Surface Phenology Product from Suomi-NPP VIIRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Liu, L.; Yan, D.; Moon, M.; Liu, Y.; Henebry, G. M.; Friedl, M. A.; Schaaf, C.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface phenology (LSP) datasets have been produced from a variety of coarse spatial resolution satellite observations at both regional and global scales and spanning different time periods since 1982. However, the LSP product generated from NASA's MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data at a spatial resolution of 500m, which is termed Land Cover Dynamics (MCD12Q2), is the only global product operationally produced and freely accessible at annual time steps from 2001. Because MODIS instrument is aging and will be replaced by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), this research focuses on the generation and evaluation of a global LSP product from Suomi-NPP VIIRS time series observations that provide continuity with the MCD12Q2 product. Specifically, we generate 500m VIIRS global LSP data using daily VIIRS Nadir BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function)-Adjusted reflectances (NBAR) in combination with land surface temperature, snow cover, and land cover type as inputs. The product provides twelve phenological metrics (seven phenological dates and five phenological greenness magnitudes), along with six quality metrics characterizing the confidence and quality associated with phenology retrievals at each pixel. In this paper, we describe the input data and algorithms used to produce this new product, and investigate the impact of VIIRS data time series quality on phenology detections across various climate regimes and ecosystems. As part of our analysis, the VIIRS LSP is evaluated using PhenoCam imagery in North America and Asia, and using higher spatial resolution satellite observations from Landsat 8 over an agricultural area in the central USA. We also explore the impact of high frequency cloud cover on the VIIRS LSP product by comparing with phenology detected from the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) onboard Himawari-8. AHI is a new geostationary sensor that observes land surface every 10 minutes, which increases

  6. The production of places in the globalized world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Walther

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Books about globalization that describe a world characterized by convergence, without also assuming homogeneity, are quite rare. The Production of Places in the Globalized World (Les Lieux de la Mondialisation by geographer Denis Retaillé is one notable exception. Faced with the challenge of studying ten places in the world, the author has developed a conceptual framework that situates each in terms of their global networks and flows and demonstrates how they continue to be substantially dif...

  7. Global Rice Atlas: Disaggregated seasonal crop calendar and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balanza, Jane Girly; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Villano, Lorena; Nelson, A.D.; Zwart, S.J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Koo, Jawoo; Reinke, Russell; Murty, M. V.R.; Laborte, Alice G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Rice is an important staple crop cultivated in more than 163 million ha globally. Although information on the distribution of global rice production is available by country and, at times, at subnational level, information on its distribution within a year is often lacking in different rice

  8. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection maps the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through...

  9. Quantifying forest mortality with the remote sensing of snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emily Hewitt

    Greenhouse gas emissions have altered global climate significantly, increasing the frequency of drought, fire, and pest-related mortality in forests across the western United States, with increasing area affected each year. Associated changes in forests are of great concern for the public, land managers, and the broader scientific community. These increased stresses have resulted in a widespread, spatially heterogeneous decline of forest canopies, which in turn exerts strong controls on the accumulation and melt of the snowpack, and changes forest-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water, and energy. Most satellite-based retrievals of summer-season forest data are insufficient to quantify canopy, as opposed to the combination of canopy and undergrowth, since the signals of the two types of vegetation greenness have proven persistently difficult to distinguish. To overcome this issue, this research develops a method to quantify forest canopy cover using winter-season fractional snow covered area (FSCA) data from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow covered area and grain size (MODSCAG) algorithm. In areas where the ground surface and undergrowth are completely snow-covered, a pixel comprises only forest canopy and snow. Following a snowfall event, FSCA initially rises, as snow is intercepted in the canopy, and then falls, as snow unloads. A select set of local minima in a winter F SCA timeseries form a threshold where canopy is snow-free, but forest understory is snow-covered. This serves as a spatially-explicit measurement of forest canopy, and viewable gap fraction (VGF) on a yearly basis. Using this method, we determine that MODIS-observed VGF is significantly correlated with an independent product of yearly crown mortality derived from spectral analysis of Landsat imagery at 25 high-mortality sites in northern Colorado. (r =0.96 +/-0.03, p =0.03). Additionally, we determine the lag timing between green-stage tree mortality and

  10. Carbon and environmental footprinting of global biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Geoff P.; Seth, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon and environmental footprints associated with the global production of biofuels have been computed from a baseline of 2007-2009 out until 2019. Estimates of future global biofuel production were adopted from OECD-FAO and related projections. In order to determine the footprints associated with these (essentially 'first generation') biofuel resources, the overall environmental footprint was disaggregated into bioproductive land, built land, carbon, embodied energy, materials and wast...

  11. [Analysis of influencing factors of snow hyperspectral polarized reflections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-Qiu; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Qian; Ning, Yan-Ling; Zhong, Gui-Xin

    2010-02-01

    Due to the need of snow monitoring and the impact of the global change on the snow, on the basis of the traditional research on snow, starting from the perspective of multi-angle polarized reflectance, we analyzed the influencing factors of snow from the incidence zenith angles, the detection zenith angles, the detection azimuth angles, polarized angles, the density of snow, the degree of pollution, and the background of the undersurface. It was found that these factors affected the spectral reflectance values of the snow, and the effect of some factors on the polarization hyperspectral reflectance observation is more evident than in the vertical observation. Among these influencing factors, the pollution of snow leads to an obvious change in the snow reflectance spectrum curve, while other factors have little effect on the shape of the snow reflectance spectrum curve and mainly impact the reflection ratio of the snow. Snow reflectance polarization information has not only important theoretical significance, but also wide application prospect, and provides new ideas and methods for the quantitative research on snow using the remote sensing technology.

  12. Global maize production, utilization, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranum, Peter; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays), also called corn, is believed to have originated in central Mexico 7000 years ago from a wild grass, and Native Americans transformed maize into a better source of food. Maize contains approximately 72% starch, 10% protein, and 4% fat, supplying an energy density of 365 Kcal/100 g and is grown throughout the world, with the United States, China, and Brazil being the top three maize-producing countries in the world, producing approximately 563 of the 717 million metric tons/year. Maize can be processed into a variety of food and industrial products, including starch, sweeteners, oil, beverages, glue, industrial alcohol, and fuel ethanol. In the last 10 years, the use of maize for fuel production significantly increased, accounting for approximately 40% of the maize production in the United States. As the ethanol industry absorbs a larger share of the maize crop, higher prices for maize will intensify demand competition and could affect maize prices for animal and human consumption. Low production costs, along with the high consumption of maize flour and cornmeal, especially where micronutrient deficiencies are common public health problems, make this food staple an ideal food vehicle for fortification. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  13. Product innovation and commercialization in lean global start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the distinctive characteristics of product innovation and commercialization in Lean Global Start-up (LGS) – new technology firms which have adopted a lean and global path from or near to their inception. It suggests an uncertainty vs risk framework which allows integrating two...... research streams – Born Global (BG) firms and lean start-ups. In addition to its integrative theoretical value, the paper offers insights for lean start-up managers dealing with the challenges of a global start....

  14. Landsat-8: Science and product vision for terrestrial global change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, David P.; Wulder, M.A.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Woodcock, C.E.; Allen, R. G.; Anderson, M. C.; Helder, D.; Irons, J.R.; Johnson, D.M.; Kennedy, R.; Scambos, T.A.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Schott, J.R.; Sheng, Y.; Vermote, E. F.; Belward, A.S.; Bindschadler, R.; Cohen, W.B.; Gao, F.; Hipple, J. D.; Hostert, Patrick; Huntington, J.; Justice, C.O.; Kilic, A.; Kovalskyy, Valeriy; Lee, Z. P.; Lymburner, Leo; Masek, J.G.; McCorkel, J.; Shuai, Y.; Trezza, R.; Vogelmann, James; Wynne, R.H.; Zhu, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Landsat 8, a NASA and USGS collaboration, acquires global moderate-resolution measurements of the Earth's terrestrial and polar regions in the visible, near-infrared, short wave, and thermal infrared. Landsat 8 extends the remarkable 40 year Landsat record and has enhanced capabilities including new spectral bands in the blue and cirrus cloud-detection portion of the spectrum, two thermal bands, improved sensor signal-to-noise performance and associated improvements in radiometric resolution, and an improved duty cycle that allows collection of a significantly greater number of images per day. This paper introduces the current (2012–2017) Landsat Science Team's efforts to establish an initial understanding of Landsat 8 capabilities and the steps ahead in support of priorities identified by the team. Preliminary evaluation of Landsat 8 capabilities and identification of new science and applications opportunities are described with respect to calibration and radiometric characterization; surface reflectance; surface albedo; surface temperature, evapotranspiration and drought; agriculture; land cover, condition, disturbance and change; fresh and coastal water; and snow and ice. Insights into the development of derived ‘higher-level’ Landsat products are provided in recognition of the growing need for consistently processed, moderate spatial resolution, large area, long-term terrestrial data records for resource management and for climate and global change studies. The paper concludes with future prospects, emphasizing the opportunities for land imaging constellations by combining Landsat data with data collected from other international sensing systems, and consideration of successor Landsat mission requirements.

  15. Carbon emission intensity in electricity production: A global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Su, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We study changes in the aggregate carbon intensity (ACI) for electricity at the global and country levels. The ACI is defined as the energy-related CO_2 emissions in electricity production divided by the electricity produced. It is a performance indicator since a decrease in its value is a desirable outcome from the environmental and climate change viewpoints. From 1990 to 2013, the ACI computed at the global level decreased only marginally. However, fairly substantial decreases were observed in many countries. This apparent anomaly arises from a geographical shift in global electricity production with countries having a high ACI increasingly taking up a larger electricity production share. It is found that globally and in most major electricity producing countries, reduction in their ACI was due mainly to improvements in the thermal efficiency of electricity generation rather than to fuel switching. Estimates of the above-mentioned effects are made using LMDI decomposition analysis. Our study reveals several challenges in reducing global CO_2 emissions from the electricity production sector although technically the reduction potential for the sector is known to be great. - Highlights: •Variations of aggregate carbon intensity (ACI) for electricity of world countries are analysed. •Main drivers of changes in ACI of major electricity producing countries are studied using index decomposition analysis. •Geographical shift in electricity production had a significant impact on global ACI. •Improvements in the thermal efficiency of generation were the main driver of reduction in ACI.

  16. The sustainable utilization of human resources in global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2010-01-01

    This empirical paper investigates the challenges global product development faces in regard to a sustainable utilization of resources through case studies and interviews in six Danish multinational corporations. Findings revealed 3 key challenges, which relates to increased rework in product...... development and production, overlapping work and a lack of utilization of knowledge and information at the supplier or subsidiary. The authors suggest the use of strategic simulation in order to gain greater transparency in the global network and thus utilize resources better. Strategic simulation...

  17. On difference and capital: gender and the globalization of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article is both a review of, and an intervention in, the literature on gender and the globalization of production. Via a discussion of six key texts analyzing export-oriented manufacturing, ranging from Maria Mies's Lace Makers of Narsapur to Melissa Wright's Disposable Women and Other Myths of Global Capitalism, I show that, over time, the focus has shifted from an emphasis on the feminization of manufacturing as a defining feature of globalization to an appreciation of the diverse and contingent ways in which gender matters for offshore production. While this recent scholarship highlights variability in gendered labor regimes at the global-local nexus, I argue that it is also critically important to ask what is similar about the many locations on the global assembly line that have been studied. Specifically, we must look to how gender, as a set of context-specific meanings and practices, works within the macrostructure of the global economy and its systemic logic of capital accumulation. In other words, while capitalism does not determine the concrete modalities of gender that exist in a given locale, it is essential for explaining the gendered dimension of transnational production as a patterned regularity of contemporary globalization.

  18. Impacts of 1, 1.5, and 2 Degree Warming on Arctic Terrestrial Snow and Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, C.; Mudryk, L.; Howell, S.; Flato, G. M.; Fyfe, J. C.; Gillett, N. P.; Sigmond, M.; Kushner, P. J.; Dawson, J.; Zwiers, F. W.; Lemmen, D.; Duguay, C. R.; Zhang, X.; Fletcher, C. G.; Dery, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established the global temperature goal of "holding the increase in the global average temperature to below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels." In this study, we utilize multiple gridded snow and sea ice products (satellite retrievals; assimilation systems; physical models driven by reanalyses) and ensembles of climate model simulations to determine the impacts of observed warming, and project the relative impacts of the UNFCC future warming targets on Arctic seasonal terrestrial snow and sea ice cover. Observed changes during the satellite era represent the response to approximately 1°C of global warming. Consistent with other studies, analysis of the observational record (1970's to present) identifies changes including a shorter snow cover duration (due to later snow onset and earlier snow melt), significant reductions in spring snow cover and summer sea ice extent, and the loss of a large proportion of multi-year sea ice. The spatial patterns of observed snow and sea ice loss are coherent across adjacent terrestrial/marine regions. There are strong pattern correlations between snow and temperature trends, with weaker association between sea ice and temperature due to the additional influence of dynamical effects such wind-driven redistribution of sea ice. Climate model simulations from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5(CMIP-5) multi-model ensemble, large initial condition ensembles of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2) , and warming stabilization simulations from CESM were used to identify changes in snow and ice under further increases to 1.5°C and 2°C warming. The model projections indicate these levels of warming will be reached over the coming 2-4 decades. Warming to 1.5°C results in an increase in the

  19. Snow Precipitation and Snow Cover Climatic Variability for the Period 1971–2009 in the Southwestern Italian Alps: The 2008–2009 Snow Season Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Fratianni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Snow cover greatly influences the climate in the Alpine region and is one of the most relevant parameters for the climate change analysis. Nevertheless, snow precipitation variability is a relatively underexplored field of research because of the lack of long-term, continuous and homogeneous time series. After a historical research aiming to recover continuous records, three high quality time series of snow precipitation and snow depth recorded in the southwestern Italian Alps were analyzed. The comparison between the climatological indices over the 30 years reference period 1971–2000 and the decade 2000–2009 outlined a general decrease in the amount of snow precipitation, and a shift in the seasonal distribution of the snow precipitation in the most recent period. In the analysis of the last decade snow seasons characteristics, the attention was focused on the heavy snowfalls that occurred in Piedmont during the 2008–2009 snow season: MODerate resolution Imager Spectroradiometer (MODIS snow cover products were used to evaluate snow cover extension at different times during the snow season, and the results were set in relation to the temperatures.

  20. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-12

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  1. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M.; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  2. Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Crowther, Thomas W; Picard, Nicolas; Wiser, Susan; Zhou, Mo; Alberti, Giorgio; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; McGuire, A David; Bozzato, Fabio; Pretzsch, Hans; de-Miguel, Sergio; Paquette, Alain; Hérault, Bruno; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Barrett, Christopher B; Glick, Henry B; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Viana, Helder; Vibrans, Alexander C; Ammer, Christian; Schall, Peter; Verbyla, David; Tchebakova, Nadja; Fischer, Markus; Watson, James V; Chen, Han Y H; Lei, Xiangdong; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Lu, Huicui; Gianelle, Damiano; Parfenova, Elena I; Salas, Christian; Lee, Eungul; Lee, Boknam; Kim, Hyun Seok; Bruelheide, Helge; Coomes, David A; Piotto, Daniel; Sunderland, Terry; Schmid, Bernhard; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Sonké, Bonaventure; Tavani, Rebecca; Zhu, Jun; Brandl, Susanne; Vayreda, Jordi; Kitahara, Fumiaki; Searle, Eric B; Neldner, Victor J; Ngugi, Michael R; Baraloto, Christopher; Frizzera, Lorenzo; Bałazy, Radomir; Oleksyn, Jacek; Zawiła-Niedźwiecki, Tomasz; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bussotti, Filippo; Finér, Leena; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Jucker, Tommaso; Valladares, Fernando; Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Peri, Pablo L; Gonmadje, Christelle; Marthy, William; O'Brien, Timothy; Martin, Emanuel H; Marshall, Andrew R; Rovero, Francesco; Bitariho, Robert; Niklaus, Pascal A; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Chamuya, Nurdin; Valencia, Renato; Mortier, Frédéric; Wortel, Verginia; Engone-Obiang, Nestor L; Ferreira, Leandro V; Odeke, David E; Vasquez, Rodolfo M; Lewis, Simon L; Reich, Peter B

    2016-10-14

    The biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on ecosystem functioning. Understanding BPR is critical for the accurate valuation and effective conservation of biodiversity. Using ground-sourced data from 777,126 permanent plots, spanning 44 countries and most terrestrial biomes, we reveal a globally consistent positive concave-down BPR, showing that continued biodiversity loss would result in an accelerating decline in forest productivity worldwide. The value of biodiversity in maintaining commercial forest productivity alone-US$166 billion to 490 billion per year according to our estimation-is more than twice what it would cost to implement effective global conservation. This highlights the need for a worldwide reassessment of biodiversity values, forest management strategies, and conservation priorities. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Validation of the MODIS Collection 6 MCD64 Global Burned Area Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Giglio, L.; Stehman, S. V.; Humber, M. L.; Sathyachandran, S. K.; Zubkova, M.; Melchiorre, A.; Huang, H.; Huo, L. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on rigorously assessing their accuracy. A number of NASA, ESA and EU funded global and continental burned area products have been developed using coarse spatial resolution satellite data, and have the potential to become part of a long-term fire Essential Climate Variable. These products have usually been validated by comparison with reference burned area maps derived by visual interpretation of Landsat or similar spatial resolution data selected on an ad hoc basis. More optimally, a design-based validation method should be adopted, characterized by the selection of reference data via probability sampling. Design based techniques have been used for annual land cover and land cover change product validation, but have not been widely used for burned area products, or for other products that are highly variable in time and space (e.g. snow, floods, other non-permanent phenomena). This has been due to the challenge of designing an appropriate sampling strategy, and to the cost and limited availability of independent reference data. This paper describes the validation procedure adopted for the latest Collection 6 version of the MODIS Global Burned Area product (MCD64, Giglio et al, 2009). We used a tri-dimensional sampling grid that allows for probability sampling of Landsat data in time and in space (Boschetti et al, 2016). To sample the globe in the spatial domain with non-overlapping sampling units, the Thiessen Scene Area (TSA) tessellation of the Landsat WRS path/rows is used. The TSA grid is then combined with the 16-day Landsat acquisition calendar to provide tri-dimensonal elements (voxels). This allows the implementation of a sampling design where not only the location but also the time interval of the reference data is explicitly drawn through stratified random sampling. The novel sampling approach was used for the selection of a reference dataset consisting of 700

  4. The Global Burden of Potential Productivity Loss from Uncorrected Presbyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Kevin D; Joy, Susan M; Wilson, David A; Naidoo, Kovin S; Holden, Brien A

    2015-08-01

    The onset of presbyopia in middle adulthood results in potential losses in productivity among otherwise healthy adults if uncorrected or undercorrected. The economic burden could be significant in lower-income countries, where up to 94% of cases may be uncorrected or undercorrected. This study estimates the global burden of potential productivity lost because of uncorrected functional presbyopia. Population data from the US Census Bureau were combined with the estimated presbyopia prevalence, age of onset, employment rate, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in current US dollars, and near vision impairment disability weights from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study to estimate the global loss of productivity from uncorrected and undercorrected presbyopia in each country in 2011. To allow comparison with earlier work, we also calculated the loss with the conservative assumption that the contribution to productivity extends only up to 50 years of age. The economic modeling did not require the use of subjects. We estimated the number of cases of uncorrected or undercorrected presbyopia in each country among the working-age population. The number of working-age cases was multiplied by the labor force participation rate, the employment rate, a disability weight, and the GDP per capita to estimate the potential loss of GDP due to presbyopia. The outcome being measured is the lost productivity in 2011 US dollars resulting from uncorrected or undercorrected presbyopia. There were an estimated 1.272 billion cases of presbyopia worldwide in 2011. A total of 244 million cases, uncorrected or undercorrected among people aged productivity loss of US $11.023 billion (0.016% of global GDP). If all those people aged productive, the potential productivity loss would be US $25.367 billion or 0.037% of global GDP. Correcting presbyopia to the level achieved in Europe would reduce the burden to US $1.390 billion (0.002% of global GDP). Even with conservative assumptions

  5. Developing a Support Tool for Global Product Development Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Erik Stefan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how global product development decisions are made through a multiple-case study in three Danish engineering. The paper identifies which information and methods are applied for making decisions and how decision-making can be supported based on previous experience. The paper...... presents results from 51 decisions made in the three companies, and based on the results of the studies a framework for a decision-support tool is outlined and discussed. The paper rounds off with an identification of future research opportunities in the area of global product development and decision-making....

  6. Impact of the snow cover scheme on snow distribution and energy budget modeling over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhipeng; Hu, Zeyong; Xie, Zhenghui; Jia, Binghao; Sun, Genhou; Du, Yizhen; Song, Haiqing

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the impact of two snow cover schemes (NY07 and SL12) in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) on the snow distribution and surface energy budget over the Tibetan Plateau. The simulated snow cover fraction (SCF), snow depth, and snow cover days were evaluated against in situ snow depth observations and a satellite-based snow cover product and snow depth dataset. The results show that the SL12 scheme, which considers snow accumulation and snowmelt processes separately, has a higher overall accuracy (81.8%) than the NY07 (75.8%). The newer scheme performs better in the prediction of overall accuracy compared with the NY07; however, SL12 yields a 15.1% underestimation rate while NY07 overestimated the SCF with a 15.2% overestimation rate. Both two schemes capture the distribution of the maximum snow depth well but show large positive biases in the average value through all periods (3.37, 3.15, and 1.48 cm for NY07; 3.91, 3.52, and 1.17 cm for SL12) and overestimate snow cover days compared with the satellite-based product and in situ observations. Higher altitudes show larger root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) in the simulations of snow depth and snow cover days during the snow-free period. Moreover, the surface energy flux estimations from the SL12 scheme are generally superior to the simulation from NY07 when evaluated against ground-based observations, in particular for net radiation and sensible heat flux. This study has great implications for further improvement of the subgrid-scale snow variations over the Tibetan Plateau.

  7. SnowCloud - a Framework to Predict Streamflow in Snowmelt-dominated Watersheds Using Cloud-based Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproles, E. A.; Crumley, R. L.; Nolin, A. W.; Mar, E.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow in snowy mountain regions is extraordinarily challenging to forecast, and prediction efforts are hampered by the lack of timely snow data—particularly in data sparse regions. SnowCloud is a prototype web-based framework that integrates remote sensing, cloud computing, interactive mapping tools, and a hydrologic model to offer a new paradigm for delivering key data to water resource managers. We tested the skill of SnowCloud to forecast monthly streamflow with one month lead time in three snow-dominated headwaters. These watersheds represent a range of precipitation/runoff schemes: the Río Elqui in northern Chile (200 mm/yr, entirely snowmelt); the John Day River, Oregon, USA (635 mm/yr, primarily snowmelt); and the Río Aragon in the northern Spain (850 mm/yr, snowmelt dominated). Model skill corresponded to snowpack contribution with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies of 0.86, 0.52, and 0.21 respectively. SnowCloud does not require the user to possess advanced programming skills or proprietary software. We access NASA's MOD10A1 snow cover product to calculate the snow metrics globally using Google Earth Engine's geospatial analysis and cloud computing service. The analytics and forecast tools are provided through a web-based portal that requires only internet access and minimal training. To test the efficacy of SnowCloud we provided the tools and a series of tutorials in English and Spanish to water resource managers in Chile, Spain, and the United States. Participants assessed their user experience and provided feedback, and the results of our multi-cultural assessment are also presented. While our results focus on SnowCloud, they outline methods to develop cloud-based tools that function effectively across cultures and languages. Our approach also addresses the primary challenges of science-based computing; human resource limitations, infrastructure costs, and expensive proprietary software. These challenges are particularly problematic in developing

  8. Estimation of Global Vegetation Productivity from Global LAnd Surface Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurately estimating vegetation productivity is important in research on terrestrial ecosystems, carbon cycles and climate change. Eight-day gross primary production (GPP and annual net primary production (NPP are contained in MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS products (MOD17, which are considered the first operational datasets for monitoring global vegetation productivity. However, the cloud-contaminated MODIS leaf area index (LAI and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR retrievals may introduce some considerable errors to MODIS GPP and NPP products. In this paper, global eight-day GPP and eight-day NPP were first estimated based on Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS LAI and FPAR products. Then, GPP and NPP estimates were validated by FLUXNET GPP data and BigFoot NPP data and were compared with MODIS GPP and NPP products. Compared with MODIS GPP, a time series showed that estimated GLASS GPP in our study was more temporally continuous and spatially complete with smoother trajectories. Validated with FLUXNET GPP and BigFoot NPP, we demonstrated that estimated GLASS GPP and NPP achieved higher precision for most vegetation types.

  9. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Primary Production at a Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Cecile Severine; Gregg, Watson W.

    2013-01-01

    We used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of four phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. First, we assessed the contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production at a global scale for the period 1998-2011. Globally, diatoms contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production ((is)approximately 50%, the equivalent of 20 PgC·y1). Coccolithophores and chlorophytes each contributed approximately 20% ((is) approximately 7 PgC·y1) of the total primary production and cyanobacteria represented about 10% ((is) approximately 4 PgC·y1) of the total primary production. Primary production by diatoms was highest in the high latitudes ((is) greater than 40 deg) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We then assessed interannual variability of this group-specific primary production over the period 1998-2011. Globally the annual relative contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production varied by maximum 4% (1-2 PgC·y1). We assessed the effects of climate variability on group-specific primary production using global (i.e., Multivariate El Niño Index, MEI) and "regional" climate indices (e.g., Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability as indicated by significant correlation (p (is) less than 0.05) between the MEI and the group-specific primary production from all groups except coccolithophores. In the Atlantic, climate variability as indicated by NAO was significantly correlated to the primary production of 2 out of the 4 groups in the North Central Atlantic (diatoms/cyanobacteria) and in the North Atlantic (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). We found that climate variability as indicated by SAM had only a limited effect

  10. Global quantum discord and matrix product density operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Lin; Cheng, Hong-Guang; Guo, Xiao; Zhang, Duo; Wu, Yuyin; Xu, Jian; Sun, Zhao-Yu

    2018-06-01

    In a previous study, we have proposed a procedure to study global quantum discord in 1D chains whose ground states are described by matrix product states [Z.-Y. Sun et al., Ann. Phys. 359, 115 (2015)]. In this paper, we show that with a very simple generalization, the procedure can be used to investigate quantum mixed states described by matrix product density operators, such as quantum chains at finite temperatures and 1D subchains in high-dimensional lattices. As an example, we study the global discord in the ground state of a 2D transverse-field Ising lattice, and pay our attention to the scaling behavior of global discord in 1D sub-chains of the lattice. We find that, for any strength of the magnetic field, global discord always shows a linear scaling behavior as the increase of the length of the sub-chains. In addition, global discord and the so-called "discord density" can be used to indicate the quantum phase transition in the model. Furthermore, based upon our numerical results, we make some reliable predictions about the scaling of global discord defined on the n × n sub-squares in the lattice.

  11. Role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Dajun; Yin, Hang; Zhaxi, Duojie; Jiagong, Zhala; Schaller, George B; Mishra, Charudutt; McCarthy, Thomas M; Wang, Hao; Wu, Lan; Xiao, Lingyun; Basang, Lamao; Zhang, Yuguang; Zhou, Yunyun; Lu, Zhi

    2014-02-01

    The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits the rugged mountains in 12 countries of Central Asia, including the Tibetan Plateau. Due to poaching, decreased abundance of prey, and habitat degradation, it was listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1972. Current conservation strategies, including nature reserves and incentive programs, have limited capacities to protect snow leopards. We investigated the role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation in the Sanjiangyuan region in China's Qinghai Province on the Tibetan Plateau. From 2009 to 2011, we systematically surveyed snow leopards in the Sanjiangyuan region. We used the MaxEnt model to determine the relation of their presence to environmental variables (e.g., elevation, ruggedness) and to predict snow leopard distribution. Model results showed 89,602 km(2) of snow leopard habitat in the Sanjiangyuan region, of which 7674 km(2) lay within Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve's core zones. We analyzed the spatial relation between snow leopard habitat and Buddhist monasteries and found that 46% of monasteries were located in snow leopard habitat and 90% were within 5 km of snow leopard habitat. The 336 monasteries in the Sanjiangyuan region could protect more snow leopard habitat (8342 km(2) ) through social norms and active patrols than the nature reserve's core zones. We conducted 144 household interviews to identify local herders' attitudes and behavior toward snow leopards and other wildlife. Most local herders claimed that they did not kill wildlife, and 42% said they did not kill wildlife because it was a sin in Buddhism. Our results indicate monasteries play an important role in snow leopard conservation. Monastery-based snow leopard conservation could be extended to other Tibetan Buddhist regions that in total would encompass about 80% of the global range of snow leopards. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Improving Global Precipitation Product Access at the GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Vollmer, B.; Savtchenko, A.; Ostrenga, D.; DeShong, B.; Fang, F.; Albayrak, R,; Sherman, E.; Greene, M.; Li, A.; hide

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has been actively and continually engaged in improving the access to and use of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), Tropical Precipitation Measuring Mission (TRMM), and other precipitation data, including the following new services and Ongoing development activities: Updates on GPM products and data services, New features in Giovanni, Ongoing development activities; and Precipitation product and service outreach activities.

  13. Loropetalum chinense 'Snow Panda'

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Loropetalum chinense, ‘Snow Panda’, developed at the U.S. National Arboretum is described. ‘Snow Panda’ (NA75507, PI660659) originated from seeds collected near Yan Chi He, Hubei, China in 1994 by the North America-China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC). Several seedlings from this trip w...

  14. GLOBALIZATION AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT CONSTRUCTION IN ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sri Wahyudi Suliswanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no more doubt about the importance of economic growth, which can be calculated fromGross Domestic Product (GDP. This research analyzes the role of globalization on GDP inASEAN-5 by estimating panel data. It uses a fixed effect approach to accommodate various characteristicsin the countries. To accommodate such variation, it assumes that the intercepts variesacross these countries, while the slopes remain similar. Based on the estimation result, it suggeststhat net export and foreign direct investment represent the globalization process. Both have positiveand significant influences on GDP in the corresponding countries.Keywords: Globalization, international trade, foreign direct investment, gross domestic productJEL classification numbers: E01, F51, F43

  15. Integrating forest products with ecosystem services: a global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Rachel. White

    2012-01-01

    Around the world forests provide a broad range of vital ecosystem services. Sustainable forest management and forest products play an important role in global carbon management, but one of the major forestry concerns worldwide is reducing the loss of forestland from development. Currently, deforestation accounts for approximately 20% of total greenhouse gas emissions....

  16. The yield gap of global grain production: A spatial analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, K.; Verburg, P.H.; Stehfest, E.; Muller, C.

    2010-01-01

    Global grain production has increased dramatically during the past 50 years, mainly as a consequence of intensified land management and introduction of new technologies. For the future, a strong increase in grain demand is expected, which may be fulfilled by further agricultural intensification

  17. Global Water Availability and Requirements for Future Food Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Hoff, H.; Biemans, H.; Fader, M.; Waha, K.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares, spatially explicitly and at global scale, per capita water availability and water requirements for food production presently (1971-2000) and in the future given climate and population change (2070-99). A vegetation and hydrology model Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land (LPJmL) was

  18. Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Background The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. Discussions An a...

  19. Role of coral reefs in global ocean production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossland, C J; Hatcher, B G; Smith, S V [CSIRO Institute of Natural Resources and Environment, Dickson, ACT (Australia)

    1991-01-01

    Coral reefs cover some 600 thousand square kilometres of the earth's surface (0.17% of the ocean surface). First order estimates show coral reefs to contribute about 0.05% of the estimated net CO{sub 2} fixation rate of the global oceans. Gross CO{sub 2} fixation is relatively high (of the order 700 x 10{sup 12}g C year{sup -1}), but most of this material is recycled within the reefs. Excess (net) production of organic material (E) is much smaller, of the order 20 x 10{sup 12}g C year{sup -1}. 75% of E is available for export from coral reefs to adjacent areas. Comparison of estimates for net production by reefs and their surrounding oceans indicates that the excess production by coral reefs is similar to new production in the photic zone of oligotrophic oceans. Consequently, estimates for global ocean production should as a first approximation include reefal areas with the surrounding ocean when assigning average net production rates. It can be concluded that organic production by reefs plays a relatively minor role in the global scale of fluxes and storage of elements. In comparison, the companion process of biologically-mediated inorganic carbon precipitation represents a major role for reefs. While reef production does respond on local scales to variation in ocean climate, neither the absolute rates nor the amount accumulated into organic pools appear to be either sensitive indicators or accurate recorders of climatic change in most reef systems. Similarly, the productivity of most reefs should be little affected by currently predicted environmental changes resulting from the greenhouse effect. 86 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Effects of dirty snow in nuclear winter simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelmann, A.M.; Robock, A.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    A large-scale nuclear war would inject smoke into the atmosphere from burning forests, cities, and industries in targeted areas. This smoke could fall out onto snow and ice and would lower cryospheric albedos by as much as 50%. A global energy balance climate model is used to investigate the maximum effect these ''dirty snow'' albedos have on the surface temperature in nuclear winter simulations which span several years. These effects are investigated for different nuclear winter scenarios, snow precipitation rates, latitudinal distributions of smoke, and seasonal timings. We find that dirty snow, in general, would have a small temperature effect at mid- and low latitudes but could have a large temperature effect at polar latitudes, particularly if the soot is able to reappear significantly in later summers. Factors which limit the climatic importance of the dirty snow are (1) the dirty snow albedo is lowest when the atmosphere still contains a large amount of light-absorbing smoke; (2) even with dirty snow, sea ice areas can still increase, which helps maintain colder temperatures through the sea ice thermal inertial feedback; (3) the snow and ice areas affected by the dirty snow albedos are largest when there is little seasonal solar insolation; and (4) the area affected by the dirty snow is relatively small under all circumstances. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  1. Snow observations in Mount Lebanon (2011-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; Fanise, Pascal; Drapeau, Laurent; Somma, Janine; Fadel, Ali; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    We present a unique meteorological and snow observational dataset in Mount Lebanon, a mountainous region with a Mediterranean climate, where snowmelt is an essential water resource. The study region covers the recharge area of three karstic river basins (total area of 1092 km2 and an elevation up to 3088 m). The dataset consists of (1) continuous meteorological and snow height observations, (2) snowpack field measurements, and (3) medium-resolution satellite snow cover data. The continuous meteorological measurements at three automatic weather stations (MZA, 2296 m; LAQ, 1840 m; and CED, 2834 m a.s.l.) include surface air temperature and humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction, incoming and reflected shortwave irradiance, and snow height, at 30 min intervals for the snow seasons (November-June) between 2011 and 2016 for MZA and between 2014 and 2016 for CED and LAQ. Precipitation data were filtered and corrected for Geonor undercatch. Observations of snow height (HS), snow water equivalent, and snow density were collected at 30 snow courses located at elevations between 1300 and 2900 m a.s.l. during the two snow seasons of 2014-2016 with an average revisit time of 11 days. Daily gap-free snow cover extent (SCA) and snow cover duration (SCD) maps derived from MODIS snow products are provided for the same period (2011-2016). We used the dataset to characterize mean snow height, snow water equivalent (SWE), and density for the first time in Mount Lebanon. Snow seasonal variability was characterized with high HS and SWE variance and a relatively high snow density mean equal to 467 kg m-3. We find that the relationship between snow depth and snow density is specific to the Mediterranean climate. The current model explained 34 % of the variability in the entire dataset (all regions between 1300 and 2900 m a.s.l.) and 62 % for high mountain regions (elevation 2200-2900 m a.s.l.). The dataset is suitable for the investigation of snow dynamics and for the forcing

  2. Decadal Changes in Global Ocean Annual Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson; Conkright, Margarita E.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Ginoux, Paul; Casey, Nancy W.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) has produced the first multi-year time series of global ocean chlorophyll observations since the demise of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) in 1986. Global observations from 1997-present from SeaWiFS combined with observations from 1979-1986 from the CZCS should in principle provide an opportunity to observe decadal changes in global ocean annual primary production, since chlorophyll is the primary driver for estimates of primary production. However, incompatibilities between algorithms have so far precluded quantitative analysis. We have developed and applied compatible processing methods for the CZCS, using modern advances in atmospheric correction and consistent bio-optical algorithms to advance the CZCS archive to comparable quality with SeaWiFS. We applied blending methodologies, where in situ data observations are incorporated into the CZCS and SeaWiFS data records, to provide improvement of the residuals. These re-analyzed, blended data records provide maximum compatibility and permit, for the first time, a quantitative analysis of the changes in global ocean primary production in the early-to-mid 1980's and the present, using synoptic satellite observations. An intercomparison of the global and regional primary production from these blended satellite observations is important to understand global climate change and the effects on ocean biota. Photosynthesis by chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton is responsible for biotic uptake of carbon in the oceans and potentially ultimately from the atmosphere. Global ocean annual primary decreased from the CZCS record to SeaWiFS, by nearly 6% from the early 1980s to the present. Annual primary production in the high latitudes was responsible for most of the decadal change. Conversely, primary production in the low latitudes generally increased, with the exception of the tropical Pacific. The differences and similarities of the two data records provide evidence

  3. Snow depth manipulation experiments in a dry and a moist tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, M. J.; Czimczik, C. I.; Jung, J. Y.; Kim, M.; Lee, Y. K.; Nam, S.; Wagner, I.

    2017-12-01

    As a result of global warming, precipitation in the Arctic is expected to increase by 25-50% by the end of this century, mostly in the form of snow. However, precipitation patterns vary considerable in space and time, and future precipitation patterns are highly uncertain at local and regional scales. The amount of snowfall (or snow depth) influences a number of ecosystem properties in Arctic ecosystems, such as soil temperature over winter and soil moisture in the following growing season. These modifications then affect rates of carbon-related soil processes and photosynthesis, thus CO2 exchange rates between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this study, we investigate the effects of snow depth on the magnitude, sources and temporal dynamics of CO2 fluxes. We installed snow fences in a dry dwarf-shrub (Cambridge Bay, Canada; 69° N, 105° W) and a moist low-shrub (Council, Alaska, USA; 64° N, 165° W) tundra in summer 2017, and established control, and increased and reduced snow depth plots at each snow fence. Summertime CO2 flux rates (net ecosystem exchange, ecosystem respiration, gross primary production) and the fractions of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration to ecosystem respiration were measured using manual chambers and radiocarbon signatures. Wintertime CO2 flux rates will be measured using soda lime adsorption technique and forced diffusion chambers. Soil temperature and moisture at multiple depths, as well as changes in soil properties and microbial communities will be also observed, to research whether these changes affect CO2 flux rates or patterns. Our study will elucidate how future snow depth and its impact on soil physical and biogeochemical properties influence the magnitude and sources of tundra-atmosphere CO2 exchange in the rapidly warming Arctic.

  4. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann; Smith, Pete; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we...... estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements...... to increase food security whilst reducing emissions. The identity approach presented here could be used as a methodological framework for more holistic food systems analysis....

  5. MODIS 3km Aerosol Product: Algorithm and Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Levy, R. C.; Munchak, L.

    2013-01-01

    After more than a decade of producing a nominal 10 km aerosol product based on the dark target method, the MODIS aerosol team will be releasing a nominal 3 km product as part of their Collection 6 release. The new product differs from the original 10 km product only in the manner in which reflectance pixels are ingested, organized and selected by the aerosol algorithm. Overall, the 3 km product closely mirrors the 10 km product. However, the finer resolution product is able to retrieve over ocean closer to islands and coastlines, and is better able to resolve fine aerosol features such as smoke plumes over both ocean and land. In some situations, it provides retrievals over entire regions that the 10 km product barely samples. In situations traditionally difficult for the dark target algorithm, such as over bright or urban surfaces the 3 km product introduces isolated spikes of artificially high aerosol optical depth (AOD) that the 10 km algorithm avoids. Over land, globally, the 3 km product appears to be 0.01 to 0.02 higher than the 10 km product, while over ocean, the 3 km algorithm is retrieving a proportionally greater number of very low aerosol loading situations. Based on collocations with ground-based observations for only six months, expected errors associated with the 3 km land product are determined to be greater than for the 10 km product: 0.05 0.25 AOD. Over ocean, the suggestion is for expected errors to be the same as the 10 km product: 0.03 0.05 AOD. The advantage of the product is on the local scale, which will require continued evaluation not addressed here. Nevertheless, the new 3 km product is expected to provide important information complementary to existing satellite-derived products and become an important tool for the aerosol community.

  6. Maize production in terms of global climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekavac Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes and expected variability of climatic parameters represent a serious concern of the 21st century agriculture. At the global level, the further rise in temperature, changed quantity and distribution of precipitation, increased variability of climate parameters and the occurrence of extreme climate events are expected. In order to avoid, or at least reduce the negative effects of global climate change, several adaptation strategies are proposed. Adjustment of production technology and breeding for tolerance to changed environment are proposed as two most important adaptation measures.

  7. Nitrate photolysis in salty snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, D. J.; Morenz, K.; Shi, Q.; Murphy, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate photolysis from snow can have a significant impact on the oxidative capacity of the local atmosphere, but the factors affecting the release of gas phase products are not well understood. Here, we report the first systematic study of the amounts of NO, NO2, and total nitrogen oxides (NOy) emitted from illuminated snow samples as a function of both nitrate and total salt (NaCl and Instant Ocean) concentration. We show that the release of nitrogen oxides to the gas phase is directly related to the expected nitrate concentration in the brine at the surface of the snow crystals, increasing to a plateau value with increasing nitrate, and generally decreasing with increasing NaCl or Instant Ocean (I.O.). In frozen mixed nitrate (25 mM) - salt (0-500 mM) solutions, there is an increase in gas phase NO2 seen at low added salt amounts: NO2 production is enhanced by 35% at low prefreezing [NaCl] and by 70% at similar prefreezing [I.O.]. Raman microscopy of frozen nitrate-salt solutions shows evidence of stronger nitrate exclusion to the air interface in the presence of I.O. than with added NaCl. The enhancement in nitrogen oxides emission in the presence of salts may prove to be important to the atmospheric oxidative capacity in polar regions.

  8. Iron snow in the Martian core?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christopher J.; Pommier, Anne

    2018-01-01

    The decline of Mars' global magnetic field some 3.8-4.1 billion years ago is thought to reflect the demise of the dynamo that operated in its liquid core. The dynamo was probably powered by planetary cooling and so its termination is intimately tied to the thermochemical evolution and present-day physical state of the Martian core. Bottom-up growth of a solid inner core, the crystallization regime for Earth's core, has been found to produce a long-lived dynamo leading to the suggestion that the Martian core remains entirely liquid to this day. Motivated by the experimentally-determined increase in the Fe-S liquidus temperature with decreasing pressure at Martian core conditions, we investigate whether Mars' core could crystallize from the top down. We focus on the "iron snow" regime, where newly-formed solid consists of pure Fe and is therefore heavier than the liquid. We derive global energy and entropy equations that describe the long-timescale thermal and magnetic history of the core from a general theory for two-phase, two-component liquid mixtures, assuming that the snow zone is in phase equilibrium and that all solid falls out of the layer and remelts at each timestep. Formation of snow zones occurs for a wide range of interior and thermal properties and depends critically on the initial sulfur concentration, ξ0. Release of gravitational energy and latent heat during growth of the snow zone do not generate sufficient entropy to restart the dynamo unless the snow zone occupies at least 400 km of the core. Snow zones can be 1.5-2 Gyrs old, though thermal stratification of the uppermost core, not included in our model, likely delays onset. Models that match the available magnetic and geodetic constraints have ξ0 ≈ 10% and snow zones that occupy approximately the top 100 km of the present-day Martian core.

  9. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  10. International Production and Global Logistics Operations : Management Issues in Global Logistics with Offshored Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Korrmann, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    This paper is directed at discussing some of the management issues, problems and solutions of logistics in the context of offshored productive activities The introduction includes a discussion of the logistics topics and an introduction of the economic logic of offshoring. The main part analyses the logistics topics with regard to the internationally fragmented production. The topics of logistics include: Information flow and integration, transportation, inventory management, warehousing and ...

  11. Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., Snow Algae: Snow albedo changes, algal-bacterial interrelationships and ultraviolet radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.H.; Duval, B.

    1995-01-01

    In the Tioga Pass area (upper LeeVining Creek watershed) of the Sierra Nevada (California), snow algae were prevalent in the early summers of 1993 and 1994. Significant negative correlations were found between snow water content. However, red snow caused by algal blooms did not decrease mean albedos in representative snowfields. This was due to algal patchiness; mean albedos would not decrease over the whole water catchment basin; and water supplies would not be affected by the presence of algae. Albedo was also reduced by dirt on the snow, and wind-blown dirt may provide a source of allochthonous organic matter for snow bacteria. However, several observations emphasize the importance of an autochthonous source for bacterial nutrition. Bacterial abundances and production rates were higher in red snow containing algae than in noncolored snow. Bacterial production was about two orders-of-magnitude lower than photosynthetic algal production. Bacteria were also sometimes attached to algal cells. In experiments where snow algae were contained in UV-transmitting quartz tubes, ultraviolet radiation inhibited red snow (collected form open, sunlit areas) photosynthesis about 25%, while green snow (collected from forested, shady locations) photosynthesis was inhibited by 85%. Methanol extracts of red snow algae had greater absorbances in blue and UV spectral regions than did algae from green snow. These differences in UV responses and spectra may be due to habitat (sun vs shade) differences, or may be genetic, since different species were found in the two snow types. However, both habitat and genetic mechanisms may be operating together to cause these differences. 53 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Global modelling to predict timber production and prices: the GFPM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2014-01-01

    Timber production and prices are determined by the global demand for forest products, and the capability of producers from many countries to grow and harvest trees, transform them into products and export. The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) simulates how this global demand and supply of multiple products among many countries determines prices and attendant...

  13. Global net primary production and heterotrophic respiration for 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.E. Jr.; Piper, S.C.; Nemani, R. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)]|[Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    An ecosystem process model, BIOME-BGC, was parameterized and used to simulate the actual net primary production and heterotrophic respiration using daily climatic data, land cover type, leaf area index gridded to 1{degree} latitude by 1{degree} longitude grid cells for the year 1987. Global net primary production was 52 Pg C. These estimates were validated directly by two different methods. First, the grid cells were aggregated and used as inputs to a 3D atmospheric transport model, to compare CO{sub 2} station data with predictions. We simulated the intra-annual variation of atmospheric CO{sub 2} well for the northern hemisphere, but not for the southern hemisphere. Second, we calculated the net {sup 13}C uptake of vegetation, which is a function of water use efficiency. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios agreed with measured data, indicating a strong limitation of global primary processes by the hydrologic cycle, especially precipitation. These are different from other global carbon models as we can simulate the year-to-year variation of climate, including El Nino, on the global carbon cycle.

  14. Snow and ice: Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Jeremy; McAfee, Stephanie A.; O'Neel, Shad; Sass, Louis; Burgess, Evan; Colt, Steve; Clark, Paul; Hayward, Gregory D.; Colt, Steve; McTeague, Monica L.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.

    2017-01-01

    Temperature and precipitation are key determinants of snowpack levels. Therefore, climate change is likely to affect the role of snow and ice in the landscapes and hydrology of the Chugach National Forest region.Downscaled climate projections developed by Scenarios Network for Alaska and Arctic Planning (SNAP) are useful for examining projected changes in snow at relatively fine resolution using a variable called “snowday fraction (SDF),” the percentage of days with precipitation falling as snow.We summarized SNAP monthly SDF from five different global climate models for the Chugach region by 500 m elevation bands, and compared historical (1971–2000) and future (2030–2059) SDF. We found that:Snow-day fraction and snow-water equivalent (SWE) are projected to decline most in late autumn (October to November) and at lower elevations.Snow-day fraction is projected to decrease 23 percent (averaged across five climate models) from October to March, between sea level and 500 m. Between sea level and 1000 m, SDF is projected to decrease by 17 percent between October and March.Snow-water equivalent is projected to decrease most in autumn (October and November) and at lower elevations (below 1500 m), an average of -26 percent for the 2030–2059 period compared to 1971– 2000. Averaged across the cool season and the entire domain, SWE is projected to decrease at elevations below 1000 m because of increased temperature, but increase at higher elevations because of increased precipitation.Compared to 1971–2000, the percentage of the landscape that is snowdominant in 2030–2059 is projected to decrease, and the percentage in which rain and snow are co-dominant (transient hydrology) is projected to increase from 27 to 37 percent. Most of this change is at lower elevations.Glaciers on the Chugach National Forest are currently losing about 6 km3 of ice per year; half of this loss comes from Columbia Glacier (Berthier et al. 2010).Over the past decade, almost all

  15. Monitoring Areal Snow Cover Using NASA Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshburger, Brian J.; Blandford, Troy; Moore, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop products and tools to assist in the hydrologic modeling process, including tools to help prepare inputs for hydrologic models and improved methods for the visualization of streamflow forecasts. In addition, this project will facilitate the use of NASA satellite imagery (primarily snow cover imagery) by other federal and state agencies with operational streamflow forecasting responsibilities. A GIS software toolkit for monitoring areal snow cover extent and producing streamflow forecasts is being developed. This toolkit will be packaged as multiple extensions for ArcGIS 9.x and an opensource GIS software package. The toolkit will provide users with a means for ingesting NASA EOS satellite imagery (snow cover analysis), preparing hydrologic model inputs, and visualizing streamflow forecasts. Primary products include a software tool for predicting the presence of snow under clouds in satellite images; a software tool for producing gridded temperature and precipitation forecasts; and a suite of tools for visualizing hydrologic model forecasting results. The toolkit will be an expert system designed for operational users that need to generate accurate streamflow forecasts in a timely manner. The Remote Sensing of Snow Cover Toolbar will ingest snow cover imagery from multiple sources, including the MODIS Operational Snowcover Data and convert them to gridded datasets that can be readily used. Statistical techniques will then be applied to the gridded snow cover data to predict the presence of snow under cloud cover. The toolbar has the ability to ingest both binary and fractional snow cover data. Binary mapping techniques use a set of thresholds to determine whether a pixel contains snow or no snow. Fractional mapping techniques provide information regarding the percentage of each pixel that is covered with snow. After the imagery has been ingested, physiographic data is attached to each cell in the snow cover image. This data

  16. Water requirements for livestock production: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, A C; Nguyen, M L; Viljoen, G J

    2010-12-01

    Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock, and the social and cultural aspects of livestock farming in various countries.

  17. Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence, William T.

    2004-06-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, energy flows within food webs and the provision of important ecosystem services. Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production `supply' and `demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production `imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  18. Firm Productivity, Organizational Choice and Global Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Giunta; Domenico Scalera; Francesco Trivieri; Jeffrey B. Nugent; Mariarosaria Agostino

    2011-01-01

    Based upon insights of the global value chain literature, the aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of being a supplier firm on labour productivity. The country of analysis is Italy, historically characterized by a very strong division of labour among firms. We make use of a unique database, which collects information on several organizational, structural and performance variables of a representative sample of more than 3000 Italian manufacturing firms, spanning the period 1998-2006....

  19. The global potential of local peri-urban food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriewald, Steffen; Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Sterzel, Till; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    One big challenge for the rest of the 21st century will be the massive urbanisation. It is expected that more than 7 out of 10 persons will live in a city by the year 2050. Crucial developments towards a sustainable future will therefore take place in cities. One important approach for a sustainable city development is to re-localize food production and to close urban nutrient cycles through better waste management. The re-location of food production avoids CO2 emissions from transportation of food to cities and can also generate income for inhabitants. Cities are by definition locations where fertility accumulates. As cities are often built along rivers, their soils are often fertile. Furthermore, labour force and the possibility of producing fertilizer from human fecal matter within the city promises sustainable nutrients cycles. Although urban and peri-urban agriculture can be found in many cities worldwide and already have a substantial contribution to food supply, it has not jet been comprehensibly structured by research. We combine several worldwide data sets to determine the supply of cities with regional food production, where regional is defined as a production that occurs very close to the consumption within the peri-urban area. Therefore, urban areas are not defined by administrative boundaries but by connected built-up urban areas, and peri-urban area by the surrounding area with the same size multiplied with a scaling parameter. Both together accumulate to an urban-bio-region (UBR). With regard to national food consumption, a linear program achieves the best possible yield on agricultural areas and allows the computation of the fraction of population, which can be nourished. Additionally, several climate scenarios and different dietary patterns were considered. To close the gap between single case studies and to provide a quantitative overview of the global potential of peri-urban food production we used high resolution land-use data Global Land Cover

  20. Snow model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a new snow model and a database which warehouses geometric, weather and traffic : data on New Jersey highways. The complexity of the model development lies in considering variable road : width, different spreading/plowing pattern...

  1. A tradeoff frontier for global nitrogen use and cereal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Nathaniel D; West, Paul C; Gerber, James S; MacDonald, Graham K; Foley, Jonathan A; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer use across the world’s croplands enables high-yielding agricultural production, but does so at considerable environmental cost. Imbalances between nitrogen applied and nitrogen used by crops contributes to excess nitrogen in the environment, with negative consequences for water quality, air quality, and climate change. Here we utilize crop input-yield models to investigate how to minimize nitrogen application while achieving crop production targets. We construct a tradeoff frontier that estimates the minimum nitrogen fertilizer needed to produce a range of maize, wheat, and rice production levels. Additionally, we explore potential environmental consequences by calculating excess nitrogen along the frontier using a soil surface nitrogen balance model. We find considerable opportunity to achieve greater production and decrease both nitrogen application and post-harvest excess nitrogen. Our results suggest that current (circa 2000) levels of cereal production could be achieved with ∼50% less nitrogen application and ∼60% less excess nitrogen. If current global nitrogen application were held constant but spatially redistributed, production could increase ∼30%. If current excess nitrogen were held constant, production could increase ∼40%. Efficient spatial patterns of nitrogen use on the frontier involve substantial reductions in many high-use areas and moderate increases in many low-use areas. Such changes may be difficult to achieve in practice due to infrastructure, economic, or political constraints. Increases in agronomic efficiency would expand the frontier to allow greater production and environmental gains

  2. New Faces of Globalization: Market Integration, Production Disintegration, Genesis of New Global Organizational Structures for Production and Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiza Pencea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to trade liberalisation and ITC revolution, companies could imagine new and better ways of creating and delivering value. In search of higher efficiency, competitiveness and profits, they reorganise, choosing to focus on their core competencies and to globally outsource, or offshore non-core activities and functions. As a result, reorganisation and relocation became the new forces of change across economies, leading to the rise of new, more diverse and more efficient global organisational structures for investment, production and trade. A number of developing countries with adequate comparative advantages could better benefit from these processes, accelerating their own industralization and modernization, increasing their access to new technologies and managerial know-how and turning themselves into successful, high-rate growing, „ emerging” economies. The paper concludes that under such a global backdrop, taking part in global value chains (GVC and in international production networks (IPNs could be the best strategic option for both company strategies and governmental catch-up policies, provided that, or especially if companies enjoy high competences and tacit skills which make them capable of assuming complex tasks and of climbing further the technological ladder.

  3. Product Design Engineering--A Global Education Trend in Multidisciplinary Training for Creative Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering…

  4. Validation of MODIS snow cover images over Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Parajka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS snow cover product over the territory of Austria. The aims are (a to analyse the spatial and temporal variability of the MODIS snow product classes, (b to examine the accuracy of the MODIS snow product against in situ snow depth data, and (c to identify the main factors that may influence the MODIS classification accuracy. We use daily MODIS grid maps (version 4 and daily snow depth measurements at 754 climate stations in the period from February 2000 to December 2005. The results indicate that, on average, clouds obscured 63% of Austria, which may significantly restrict the applicability of the MODIS snow cover images to hydrological modelling. On cloud-free days, however, the classification accuracy is very good with an average of 95%. There is no consistent relationship between the classification errors and dominant land cover type and local topographical variability but there are clear seasonal patterns to the errors. In December and January the errors are around 15% while in summer they are less than 1%. This seasonal pattern is related to the overall percentage of snow cover in Austria, although in spring, when there is a well developed snow pack, errors tend to be smaller than they are in early winter for the same overall percent snow cover. Overestimation and underestimation errors balance during most of the year which indicates little bias. In November and December, however, there appears to exist a tendency for overestimation. Part of the errors may be related to the temporal shift between the in situ snow depth measurements (07:00 a.m. and the MODIS acquisition time (early afternoon. The comparison of daily air temperature maps with MODIS snow cover images indicates that almost all MODIS overestimation errors are caused by the misclassification of cirrus clouds as snow.

  5. Air Pollution Impacts on Global Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Depositio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, C. L.; Tai, A. P. K.; Val Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The biosphere is undeniably transformed by air pollution. Emissions, climate change, and land use change are all expected to substantially alter future air quality. In this presentation, we discuss near-term projections (2050) of air quality impacts on both crop productivity and nitrogen deposition. First, we contrast the relative impacts of ozone air pollution and a warming climate on global crop yields. To do so, we define statistical crop yield functions to a warming climate based on the historical record. We combine these relationships with ozone-damage estimates and apply these to future air quality and climate projections from a global coupled chemistry-climate model (CESM). We find substantial variability in the response, with certain regions or crops more sensitive to ozone pollution and others more sensitive to warming. This work demonstrates that air quality management is a key element to ensuring global food security. Second, we examine the relative impacts of anthropogenic emissions, climate change, and land use change on global nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen deposition has rapidly increased over the Anthropocene. Excess deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems can lead to eutrophication of waters, and a decrease in biodiversity. We use the CESM to investigate two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP8.5) and focus our analysis on the impacts on diverse ecoregions in North America, Europe, and Asia.

  6. Shifting mountain snow patterns in a changing climate from remote sensing retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedieu, J P; Lessard-Fontaine, A; Ravazzani, G; Cremonese, E; Shalpykova, G; Beniston, M

    2014-09-15

    Observed climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on environmental systems and society. In this context, many mountain regions seem to be particularly sensitive to a changing climate, through increases in temperature coupled with changes in precipitation regimes that are often larger than the global average (EEA, 2012). In mid-latitude mountains, these driving factors strongly influence the variability of the mountain snow-pack, through a decrease in seasonal reserves and earlier melting of the snow pack. These in turn impact on hydrological systems in different watersheds and, ultimately, have consequences for water management. Snow monitoring from remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to address the question of snow cover regime changes at the regional scale. This study outlines the results retrieved from the MODIS satellite images over a time period of 10 hydrological years (2000-2010) and applied to two case studies of the EU FP7 ACQWA project, namely the upper Rhone and Po in Europe and the headwaters of the Syr Darya in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia). The satellite data were provided by the MODIS Terra MOD-09 reflectance images (NASA) and MOD-10 snow products (NSIDC). Daily snow maps were retrieved over that decade and the results presented here focus on the temporal and spatial changes in snow cover. This paper highlights the statistical bias observed in some specific regions, expressed by the standard deviation values (STD) of annual snow duration. This bias is linked to the response of snow cover to changes in elevation and can be used as a signal of strong instability in regions sensitive to climate change: with alternations of heavy snowfalls and rapid snow melting processes. The interest of the study is to compare the methodology between the medium scales (Europe) and the large scales (Central Asia) in order to overcome the limits of the applied methodologies and to improve their performances. Results show that the yearly snow cover

  7. Estimating global cropland production from 1961 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengfei; Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Lin, Xiaohui

    2017-09-01

    Global cropland net primary production (NPP) has tripled over the last 50 years, contributing 17-45 % to the increase in global atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude. Although many regional-scale comparisons have been made between statistical data and modeling results, long-term national comparisons across global croplands are scarce due to the lack of detailed spatiotemporal management data. Here, we conducted a simulation study of global cropland NPP from 1961 to 2010 using a process-based model called Vegetation-Global Atmosphere-Soil (VEGAS) and compared the results with Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) statistical data on both continental and country scales. According to the FAO data, the global cropland NPP was 1.3, 1.8, 2.2, 2.6, 3.0, and 3.6 PgC yr-1 in the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and 2010s, respectively. The VEGAS model captured these major trends on global and continental scales. The NPP increased most notably in the US Midwest, western Europe, and the North China Plain and increased modestly in Africa and Oceania. However, significant biases remained in some regions such as Africa and Oceania, especially in temporal evolution. This finding is not surprising as VEGAS is the first global carbon cycle model with full parameterization representing the Green Revolution. To improve model performance for different major regions, we modified the default values of management intensity associated with the agricultural Green Revolution differences across various regions to better match the FAO statistical data at the continental level and for selected countries. Across all the selected countries, the updated results reduced the RMSE from 19.0 to 10.5 TgC yr-1 (˜ 45 % decrease). The results suggest that these regional differences in model parameterization are due to differences in socioeconomic development. To better explain the past changes and predict the future trends, it is important to calibrate key parameters on regional

  8. On the Linkage between Springtime Eurasian Snow Cover Retreat due to the Global Warming and Changes in Summertime Atmospheric Circulation over Japan and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, T.; Fujiwara, S.

    2017-12-01

    According to the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5), snow cover extent (SCE) over the northern hemisphere is greatly decreasing in spring. This change is expected to affect atmospheric circulation change via land-atmosphere interactions. In this study, we investigated relationships between spring SCE anomaly over the Eurasia and changes in atmospheric circulations, mainly analyzing the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55). Differences in composites of zonal winds at upper and middle levels between large and small SCE years over Western Siberia in spring show that, around Japan and East Asia, jet stream in small SCE years is shifted southward in April and June. We also analyzed surface temperature and soil moisture and find that, in small SCE years, surface temperature in Western Siberia and Central Asia is increased and soil moisture reduced significantly in June. The air temperature in the middle and low level atmosphere also significantly increased and have wave-like pattern in May. These results suggest that there are some linkages between the springtime Eurasian SCE reduction and changes in summertime jet stream over Japan and East Asia through land-atmosphere interactions.

  9. Transformations of rural production landscapes in the global network society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swaffield, Simon; Primdahl, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The concept of the global network society provides a basis for examination of current trends and policy issues in rural landscape change across a range of developed countries. Drivers of change include the demand for food and fibre to support the growing urban populations in developing conutries......, the rationalization and centralisation of supply chains under the open market angenda, and the global integration of information and control systems. These dynamics frequently conflict with place specific socio-cultural values and environmental integrity. The regional and local institutions through which...... these dynamics are managed often express conflicting aims and means, despite clearly stated intentions of 'policy integration'. Comparative analysis has highlighted the way production landscapes continue to intensify, and clear indications are found that these landscapes are converging in character under...

  10. Global effects of scalar matter production in quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvinskij, A.O.; Ponomarev, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    Within the framework of the geometrodynamical approach global effects of the production of scalar matter filling the closed uniform Friedman Universe are considered. The physical situation is discussed, which corresponds to such a scale of space-time intervals and energies, at which the matter is essentially quantum and the quantized gravitational field is within the quasi-classical limits when its spatial inhomogeneities are small and only global quantum effects are considerable. The only dynamic variable of the gravitational field is the Friedman Universe radius. The main principles of the formalism of the canonical superspace quantization of gravitational and material fields are considered. The method shows the applicability limits of the field theory on the background of classical geometry and leads to the principally new types of interaction

  11. Global Product and Local Consequences. Case of Barbie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Pilch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has turned various producers, such as international concerns, into leading actors on the global market. Their brands are recognised all around the world and their products are present in a significant number of households. An example of this can be the Barbie doll, created by Mattel, which is sold in 150 different countries. The concerns operate on a global scale but they have a local impact, which can be analysed in terms of individuals, groups or local communities. This applies to the Barbie doll as it affects its users, their environment, people related to the concern and its stakeholders. The aim of the article is to present these influences and assess their meaning.

  12. The Snow Darkening Effect and the Simulation of Extremes over Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, T. J.; Lau, W. K. M.; Kim, K. M.; Koster, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    We have recently completed an updated ensemble of NASA GEOS-5 simulations with a snow-darkening module (now officially named GOddard SnoW Impurity Module, or GOSWIM, and summarized in the published paper by Yasunari et al., SOLA, 2014; see at: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/sola/10/0/10_2014-011/_article). This ensemble ("snow-darkening case (SDC)"), consisting of ten parallel simulations (differing only in their initial conditions) spanning 2002-2011, is compared here to a corresponding ensemble with all snow-darkening effects disabled ("non-SDC"). We focus particularly on the production of extremes associated with snow darkening. To identify regions of interest over Eurasia, we first rank the 100 separate spring (MAM) or summer (JJA) values of a given quantity in each combined 100-yr data (i.e., 10-yr x 10-ensemble), and then compute the differences of the 90th percentile values between SDC and non-SDC. For spring, large differences are seen in a specific area of Europe and Central Asia (ECA), and for summer, they are seen for an area in the Russian Arctic (RA). The next step in our analysis addresses the month-by-month variation of the percentile differences within these identified regions - for each month, and for a given meteorological or hydrological variable, we determined the SDC percentile that corresponds to the 90th percentile value found for the non-SDC ensemble. For example, in the RA domain, the surface air temperature corresponding to the 90th percentile in the non-SDC ensemble has a consistently lower percentile in the SDC data - not only during spring and summer through the increased absorption of radiation by snow polluted with dust, black carbon, and organic carbon, but also in the post-snow season through some form of memory in the system. The temperature extremes in the SDC ensemble thus exceed those of the non-SDC ensemble throughout the year. This analysis supports the idea that the consideration of snow darkening effect in global

  13. A novel approach for automatic snow depth estimation using UAV-taken images without ground control points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizinski, Bartlomiej; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    Recent developments in snow depth reconstruction based on remote sensing techniques include the use of photographs of snow-covered terrain taken by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). There are several approaches that utilize visible-light photos (RGB) or near infrared images (NIR). The majority of the methods in question are based on reconstructing the digital surface model (DSM) of the snow-covered area with the use of the Structure-from-Motion (SfM) algorithm and the stereo-vision software. Having reconstructed the above-mentioned DSM it is straightforward to calculate the snow depth map which may be produced as a difference between the DSM of snow-covered terrain and the snow-free DSM, known as the reference surface. In order to use the aforementioned procedure, the high spatial accuracy of the two DSMs must be ensured. Traditionally, this is done using the ground control points (GCPs), either artificial or natural terrain features that are visible on aerial images, the coordinates of which are measured in the field using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver by qualified personnel. The field measurements may be time-taking (GCPs must be well distributed in the study area, therefore the field experts should travel over long distances) and dangerous (the field experts may be exposed to avalanche risk or cold). Thus, there is a need to elaborate methods that enable the above-mentioned automatic snow depth map production without the use of GCPs. One of such attempts is shown in this paper which aims to present the novel method which is based on real-time processing of snow-covered and snow-free dense point clouds produced by SfM. The two stage georeferencing is proposed. The initial (low accuracy) one assigns true geographic, and subsequently projected, coordinates to the two dense point clouds, while the said initially-registered dense point clouds are matched using the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm in the final (high accuracy) stage. The

  14. Future development of global regulations of Chinese herbal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tai-Ping; Deal, Greer; Koo, Hoi-Lun; Rees, Daryl; Sun, He; Chen, Shaw; Dou, Jin-Hui; Makarov, Valery G; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Shikov, Alexander N; Kim, Yeong Shik; Huang, Yi-Tsau; Chang, Yuan Shiun; Jia, William; Dias, Alberto; Wong, Vivian Chi-Woon; Chan, Kelvin

    2012-04-10

    GP-TCM is the first EU-funded Coordination Action consortium dedicated to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research. One of the key deliverables of the Work Package 7 in GP-TCM was to investigate information of the existing requirements for registration of TCM products listed by global regulatory bodies. The paper aims to collate data and draw comparison of these regulations. Case studies are also presented to illustrate the problems involved in registering TCM products in different regions worldwide. A collaborative network task force was established during the early stage of the GP-TCM project and operated through exchanges, teleconferences and focused discussions at annual meetings. The task force involved coordinators, academics who are actively involved with R&D of Chinese herbal medicines, experts on monographic standards of Chinese materia medica, representatives from regulatory agencies, experts from industries in marketing Chinese medicines/herbal medicines and natural products. The co-ordinators took turns to chair teleconferences, led discussions on specific issues at AGM discussion sessions, at joint workshops with other work-packages such as WP1 (quality issues), WP3 (toxicology issues) and WP6 (clinical trial issues). Collectively the authors were responsible for collating discussion outcomes and updating written information. A global overview of regulations on herbal registration has been compiled during the three years of the consortium. The regulatory requirements for registration of herbal products in the EU and China were compared, and this is extended to other regions/countries: Africa, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. A wide variation of the regulations for the categories of herbal products exists: food (functional food, novel foods, dietary food for special medical purpose, foods for particular nutritional use, food supplement); cosmetic, traditional herbal medicine products; herbal

  15. A New Estimate of North American Mountain Snow Accumulation From Regional Climate Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesien, Melissa L.; Durand, Michael T.; Pavelsky, Tamlin M.; Kapnick, Sarah B.; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Junyi; Shum, C. K.

    2018-02-01

    Despite the importance of mountain snowpack to understanding the water and energy cycles in North America's montane regions, no reliable mountain snow climatology exists for the entire continent. We present a new estimate of mountain snow water equivalent (SWE) for North America from regional climate model simulations. Climatological peak SWE in North America mountains is 1,006 km3, 2.94 times larger than previous estimates from reanalyses. By combining this mountain SWE value with the best available global product in nonmountain areas, we estimate peak North America SWE of 1,684 km3, 55% greater than previous estimates. In our simulations, the date of maximum SWE varies widely by mountain range, from early March to mid-April. Though mountains comprise 24% of the continent's land area, we estimate that they contain 60% of North American SWE. This new estimate is a suitable benchmark for continental- and global-scale water and energy budget studies.

  16. Soil Carbon Chemistry and Greenhouse Gas Production in Global Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, A. E.; Turner, B. L.; Lamit, L. J.; Smith, A. N.; Baiser, B.; Clark, M. W.; Hazlett, C.; Lilleskov, E.; Long, J.; Grover, S.; Reddy, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands play a critical role in the global carbon cycle because they contain approximately 30% of the 1500 Pg of carbon stored in soils worldwide. However, the stability of these vast stores of carbon is under threat from climate and land-use change, with important consequences for global climate. Ecosystem models predict the impact of peatland perturbation on carbon fluxes based on total soil carbon pools, but responses could vary markedly depending on the chemical composition of soil organic matter. Here we combine experimental and observational studies to quantify the chemical nature and response to perturbation of soil organic matter in peatlands worldwide. We quantified carbon functional groups in a global sample of 125 freshwater peatlands using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine the drivers of molecular composition of soil organic matter. We then incubated a representative subset of the soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions to determine how organic matter composition influences carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions following drainage or flooding. The functional chemistry of peat varied markedly at large and small spatial scales, due to long-term land use change, mean annual temperature, nutrient status, and vegetation, but not pH. Despite this variation, we found predictable responses of greenhouse gas production following drainage based on soil carbon chemistry, defined by a novel Global Peat Stability Index, with greater CO2 and CH4 fluxes from soils enriched in oxygen-containing organic carbon (O-alkyl C) and depleted in aromatic and hydrophobic compounds. Incorporation of the Global Peat Stability Index of peatland organic matter into earth system models and management strategies, which will improve estimates of GHG fluxes from peatlands and ultimately advance management to reduce carbon loss from these sensitive ecosystems.

  17. A Process-based Model of Global Lichen Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens and biotic crusts are abundant in most ecosystems of the world. They are the main autotrophic organisms in many deserts and at high altitudes and they can also be found in large amounts as epiphytes in some forests, especially in the boreal zone. They are characterised by a great variety of physiological properties, such as growth form, productivity or color. Due to the vast land surface areas covered by lichens, they may contribute significantly to the global terrestrial net carbon uptake. Furthermore, they potentially play an important role with respect to nutrient cycles in some ecosystems and they have the ability to enhance weathering at the surface on which they grow. A possible way to quantify these processes at the global scale is presented here in form of a process-based lichen model. This approach is based on the concepts used in many dynamical vegetation models and extends these methods to account for the specific properties of lichens. Hence, processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and water exchange are implemented as well as important trade-offs like photosynthetic capacity versus respiratory load and water content versus CO2 conductivity. The great physiological variability of lichens is incorporated directly into the model through ranges of possible parameter values, which are randomly sampled. In this way, many artificial lichen "species" are created and climate then acts as a filter to determine the species which are able to survive permanently. By averaging over the surviving "species", the model predicts lichen productivity as a function of climate input data such as temperature, radiation and precipitation at the global scale. Consequently, the contribution of lichens to the global carbon balance can be quantified. Moreover, global patterns of lichen biodiversity and other properties can be illustrated. The model can be extended to account for the nutrient dynamics of lichens, such as nitrogen fixation and the acquisition and

  18. Assessment of global precipitation measurement satellite products over Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohammed T.; Al-Zahrani, Muhammad A.; Sharif, Hatim O.

    2018-04-01

    Most hydrological analysis and modeling studies require reliable and accurate precipitation data for successful simulations. However, precipitation measurements should be more representative of the true precipitation distribution. Many approaches and techniques are used to collect precipitation data. Recently, hydrometeorological and climatological applications of satellite precipitation products have experienced a significant improvement with the emergence of the latest satellite products, namely, the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (IMERG) products, which can be utilized to estimate and analyze precipitation data. This study focuses on the validation of the IMERG early, late and final run rainfall products using ground-based rain gauge observations throughout Saudi Arabia for the period from October 2015 to April 2016. The accuracy of each IMERG product is assessed using six statistical performance measures to conduct three main evaluations, namely, regional, event-based and station-based evaluations. The results indicate that the early run product performed well in the middle and eastern parts as well as some of the western parts of the country; meanwhile, the satellite estimates for the other parts fluctuated between an overestimation and an underestimation. The late run product showed an improved accuracy over the southern and western parts; however, over the northern and middle parts, it showed relatively high errors. The final run product revealed significantly improved precipitation estimations and successfully obtained higher accuracies over most parts of the country. This study provides an early assessment of the performance of the GPM satellite products over the Middle East. The study findings can be used as a beneficial reference for the future development of the IMERG algorithms.

  19. Global challenges and perspectives of marketing of healthy food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with global trends of healthy food market growth, Serbian export potential as well as with the importance and role of positioning and other marketing strategies in this field. Secondary data will be used for identifying characteristics and range of healthy food market on a global level and key segments. In that context, the economic importance and export potential of this sector in Serbia will be discussed. Food sector accounts for high percentage of total Serbian export. Yet, those products are of low added value, neither branded nor packed. In order to position producers of healthy food on an international market successfully, strength and weaknesses of domestic production and export will be identified as well as measures for its promotion. In this paper, literature review in field of food positioning and marketing will be presented. Various positioning strategies of healthy food will be discussed from the aspect of branding, country of origin image, marketing mix instruments, with special emphasis on promotion and product labelling. Special part of paper will be dedicated to specific aspects of buying and food consumption behaviour. This behaviour is under the influence of numerous factors, both personal and sociodemographic, which will be analyzed in order to identify adequate positioning strategies. At the end, recommendations for successfully healthy food positioning on an international market will be given. We will present ways of improving marketing strategies regarding exploiting identified chances on an international market.

  20. Is cloud seeding in coastal Antarctica linked to bromine and nitrate variability in snow?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, Runa; Thamban, Meloth; Krishnan, K P; Mahalinganathan, K, E-mail: runa@ncaor.or [National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, Headland Sada, Vasco-da-Gama, Goa-403 804 (India)

    2010-01-15

    Considering the significance of methanesulfonate (MSA) in the sulfur cycle and global climate, we analyzed MSA and other ionic species in snow from the coastal Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica. MSA concentrations recorded were high (0.58 +- 0.7 {mu}M) with ice-cap regions showing significantly higher concentrations (df = 10, p < 0.001) than ice-free regions. High nutrient concentration in ice-cap snow appears to have favored algal growth (7.6 x 10{sup 2} cells l{sup -1}) with subsequent production of brominated compounds. The consequent elevated Br{sup -} (3.2 +- 2.2 {mu}M) in the ice-cap region could result in the release of Br atoms through photoactivated reactions on aerosols and the snow surface. Activated Br atoms in the atmosphere could react with ozone leading to BrO enhancement with subsequent dimethylsulfide (DMS) oxidation and production of sulfur aerosols. Since BrO based DMS oxidation is much faster than the OH/NO{sub 3} pathway, elevated Br{sup -} in ice-cap snow could contribute more than ice-free sites towards formation of cloud condensation nuclei at the expense of ozone.

  1. Satellite Remote Sensing of Snow Depth on Antarctic Sea Ice: An Inter-Comparison of Two Empirical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kern

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Snow on Antarctic sea ice plays a key role for sea ice physical processes and complicates retrieval of sea ice thickness using altimetry. Current methods of snow depth retrieval are based on satellite microwave radiometry, which perform best for dry, homogeneous snow packs on level sea ice. We introduce an alternative approach based on in-situ measurements of total (sea ice plus snow freeboard and snow depth, which we use to compute snow depth on sea ice from Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat total freeboard observations. We compare ICESat snow depth for early winter and spring of the years 2004 through 2006 with the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer aboard EOS (AMSR-E snow depth product. We find ICESat snow depths agree more closely with ship-based visual and air-borne snow radar observations than AMSR-E snow depths. We obtain average modal and mean ICESat snow depths, which exceed AMSR-E snow depths by 5–10 cm in winter and 10–15 cm in spring. We observe an increase in ICESat snow depth from winter to spring for most Antarctic regions in accordance with ground-based observations, in contrast to AMSR-E snow depths, which we find to stay constant or to decrease. We suggest satellite laser altimetry as an alternative method to derive snow depth on Antarctic sea ice, which is independent of snow physical properties.

  2. Online Assessment of Satellite-Derived Global Precipitation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S.

    2012-01-01

    inter-comparing both versions of TRMM products in their areas of interest. Making this service available to users will help them to better understand associated changes. We plan to implement this inter-comparison in TRMM standard monthly products with the IPWG algorithms. The plans outlined above will complement and accelerate the existing and ongoing validation activities in the community as well as enhance data services for TRMM and the future Global Precipitation Mission (GPM).

  3. Multi-Sensor Approach to Mapping Snow Cover Using Data From NASA's EOS Aqua and Terra Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Brodzik, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Snow cover is an important variable for climate and hydrologic models due to its effects on energy and moisture budgets. Over the past several decades both optical and passive microwave satellite data have been utilized for snow mapping at the regional to global scale. For the period 1978 to 2002, we have shown earlier that both passive microwave and visible data sets indicate a similar pattern of inter-annual variability, although the maximum snow extents derived from the microwave data are, depending on season, less than those provided by the visible satellite data and the visible data typically show higher monthly variability. Snow mapping using optical data is based on the magnitude of the surface reflectance while microwave data can be used to identify snow cover because the microwave energy emitted by the underlying soil is scattered by the snow grains resulting in a sharp decrease in brightness temperature and a characteristic negative spectral gradient. Our previous work has defined the respective advantages and disadvantages of these two types of satellite data for snow cover mapping and it is clear that a blended product is optimal. We present a multi-sensor approach to snow mapping based both on historical data as well as data from current NASA EOS sensors. For the period 1978 to 2002 we combine data from the NOAA weekly snow charts with passive microwave data from the SMMR and SSM/I brightness temperature record. For the current and future time period we blend MODIS and AMSR-E data sets. An example of validation at the brightness temperature level is provided through the comparison of AMSR-E with data from the well-calibrated heritage SSM/I sensor over a large homogeneous snow-covered surface (Dome C, Antarctica). Prototype snow cover maps from AMSR-E compare well with maps derived from SSM/I. Our current blended product is being developed in the 25 km EASE-Grid while the MODIS data being used are in the Climate Modelers Grid (CMG) at approximately 5 km

  4. Global estimates of evapotranspiration and gross primary production based on MODIS and global meteorology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Chen, J.; Davis, K.; Desai, A.R.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Gianelle, D.; Rossi, F.; Suyker, A.E.; Verma, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales remains a major challenge for quantifying the global carbon cycle. We developed a light use efficiency model, called EC-LUE, driven by only four variables: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature, and the Bowen ratio of sensible to latent heat flux. The EC-LUE model may have the most potential to adequately address the spatial and temporal dynamics of GPP because its parameters (i.e., the potential light use efficiency and optimal plant growth temperature) are invariant across the various land cover types. However, the application of the previous EC-LUE model was hampered by poor prediction of Bowen ratio at the large spatial scale. In this study, we substituted the Bowen ratio with the ratio of evapotranspiration (ET) to net radiation, and revised the RS-PM (Remote Sensing-Penman Monteith) model for quantifying ET. Fifty-four eddy covariance towers, including various ecosystem types, were selected to calibrate and validate the revised RS-PM and EC-LUE models. The revised RS-PM model explained 82% and 68% of the observed variations of ET for all the calibration and validation sites, respectively. Using estimated ET as input, the EC-LUE model performed well in calibration and validation sites, explaining 75% and 61% of the observed GPP variation for calibration and validation sites respectively.Global patterns of ET and GPP at a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 0.6° longitude during the years 2000–2003 were determined using the global MERRA dataset (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global estimates of ET and GPP agreed well with the other global models from the literature, with the highest ET and GPP over tropical forests and the lowest values in dry and high latitude areas. However, comparisons with observed

  5. Remediating Global Media in Recent Shakespeare Productions on Romanian Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaescu Mădălina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses recent Romanian Shakespeare productions of The Tempest and A Midsummer Night’s Dream in Bucharest. It argues that global mass culture, in the form of TV sitcoms and musicals, YouTube clips and computer games, is re-circulated on Romanian stages with the result of re-mediating the older forms of Romanian Shakespeare performances. The paper interrogates the popular character of the new type of productions, which are largely unpolitical and motivated by commercial reasons. The last part of the paper presents a radical deconstruction of Shakespeare’s text in the form of a computer game, which, however, re-introduces the political orientation of older, pre- 1989 performances.

  6. INTEGRATED PRODUCT AND ENTERPRISE DESIGN FOR GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Du Preez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presentsan overview of the challenge to integrate product and process life cycles in maintaining global competitiveness of an enterprise and proposes IEKOS as a possible solution . It provides the reader with a framework of two virtual life cycles which create a problem solving matrix for the industrial engineer. In this matrix, bordered by the virtual enterprise life cycle and the virtual product life cycles, the business functions of analyze, design deploy and operate are predominantly functions executed by the, industrial engineer. The different phases of each life cycle serves as a framework to a virtual industrial engineering toolkit providing access to detailed functions, formats, examples and a series of software and other "tools" available to the industrial engineer.
    In conclusion a brief overview is provided of the progress of the IEKOS toolkit which is under development at the department of Industrial Engineering at Stellenbosch University.

  7. Pavement Snow Melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2005-01-01

    The design of pavement snow melting systems is presented based on criteria established by ASHRAE. The heating requirements depends on rate of snow fall, air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity. Piping materials are either metal or plastic, however, due to corrosion problems, cross-linked polyethylene pipe is now generally used instead of iron. Geothermal energy is supplied to systems through the use of heat pipes, directly from circulating pipes, through a heat exchanger or by allowing water to flow directly over the pavement, by using solar thermal storage. Examples of systems in New Jersey, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Switzerland and Oregon are presented. Key words: pavement snow melting, geothermal heating, heat pipes, solar storage, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Klamath Falls.

  8. Assessing the controls of the snow energy balance and water available for runoff in a rain-an-snow environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam B. Mazurkiewicz; David G. Callery; Jeffrey J. McDonnell

    2008-01-01

    Rain-on-snow (ROS) melt production and its contribution to water available for runoff is poorly understood. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA, ROS drives many runoff events with turbulent energy exchanges dominating the snow energy balance (EB). While previous experimental work in the PNW (most notably the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA» has quantified...

  9. Application of radar polarimetry techniques for retrieval snow and rain characteristics in remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Darvishi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of snow cover has significant impacts on the both global and regional climate and water balance on earth. The accurate estimation of snow cover area can be used for forecasting runoff due to snow melt and output of hydroelectric power. With development of remote sensing techniques at different scopes in earth science, enormous algorithms for retrieval hydrometeor parameters have been developed. Some of these algorithms are used to provide snow cover map such as NLR with AVHRR/MODIS sensor for Norway, Finnish with AVHRR sensor for Finland and NASA with MODIS sensor for global maps. Monitoring snow cover at different parts of spectral electromagnetic is detectable (visible, near and thermal infrared, passive and active microwave. Recently, specific capabilities of active microwave remote sensing such as snow extent map, snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE, snow state (wet/dry and discrimination between rain and snow region were given a strong impetus for using this technology in snow monitoring, hydrology, climatology, avalanche research and etc. This paper evaluates the potentials and feasibility of polarimetric ground microwave measurements of snow in active remote sensing field. We will consider the behavior co- and cross-polarized backscattering coefficients of snowpack response with polarimetric scatterometer in Ku and L band at the different incident angles. Then we will show how to retrieve snow cover depth, snow permittivity and density parameters at the local scale with ground-based SAR (GB-SAR. Finally, for the sake of remarkable significant the transition region between rain and snow; the variables role of horizontal reflectivity (ZHH and differential reflectivity (ZDR in delineation boundary between snow and rain and some others important variables at polarimetric weather radar are presented.

  10. Production and global transport of Titan's sand particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Radebaugh, Jani; Hayes, Alexander G.; Arnold, Karl; Chandler, Clayton

    2015-06-01

    Previous authors have suggested that Titan's individual sand particles form by either sintering or by lithification and erosion. We suggest two new mechanisms for the production of Titan's organic sand particles that would occur within bodies of liquid: flocculation and evaporitic precipitation. Such production mechanisms would suggest discrete sand sources in dry lakebeds. We search for such sources, but find no convincing candidates with the present Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer coverage. As a result we propose that Titan's equatorial dunes may represent a single, global sand sea with west-to-east transport providing sources and sinks for sand in each interconnected basin. The sand might then be transported around Xanadu by fast-moving Barchan dune chains and/or fluvial transport in transient riverbeds. A river at the Xanadu/Shangri-La border could explain the sharp edge of the sand sea there, much like the Kuiseb River stops the Namib Sand Sea in southwest Africa on Earth. Future missions could use the composition of Titan's sands to constrain the global hydrocarbon cycle.

  11. Comparing Product Category Rules from Different Programs: Learned Outcomes Towards Global Alignment (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Product category rules (PCRs) provide category-specific guidance for estimating and reporting product life cycle environmental impacts, typically in the form of environmental product declarations and product carbon footprints. Lack of global harmonization between PCRs or ...

  12. Comparing Product Category Rules from Different Programs: Learned Outcomes Towards Global Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Product category rules (PCRs) provide category-specific guidance for estimating and reporting product life cycle environmental impacts, typically in the form of environmental product declarations and product carbon footprints. Lack of global harmonization between PCRs or ...

  13. The value of anticoccidials for sustainable global poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadykalo, Stefanie; Roberts, Tara; Thompson, Michelle; Wilson, Jeff; Lang, Marcelo; Espeisse, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    Coccidiosis is a self-limiting disease that is universally present in poultry operations, causing extensive damage to the intestinal lining of the bird. Global economic losses from coccidiosis are estimated to be $3 billion per year. In-feed anticoccidial use has been the predominant form of coccidiosis control. However, due to widespread emergence of antimicrobial resistance, concerns have been raised regarding the safety of anticoccidials and the potential impact on human, animal, and environmental health. To investigate the benefits, risks, and alternatives to anticoccidial use, a comprehensive review of recent literature was conducted. Several live vaccines are available, which, when used in combination with anticoccidials, have been shown to help restore sensitivity of infective parasites. However, their use has been limited because of increased cost; increased susceptibility to bacterial enteritis; challenges with consistent application; and slow development of immunity. Various alternative feed products are available, but do not have a direct anticoccidial effect, and few studies have demonstrated consistent field efficacy of these products. Consumer and environmental safety of anticoccidials is monitored and assessed by governing bodies. Furthermore, there is a lack of current evidence to indicate that bacterial resistance poses a public health concern. The findings from this review indicate that in the absence of alternatives, poultry production is optimized by using anticoccidials, benefiting all three pillars of sustainability, including social (bird health, welfare, and food safety), economic (production efficiency), and environmental aspects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. State of the Earth’s cryosphere at the beginning of the 21st century : glaciers, global snow cover, floating ice, and permafrost and periglacial environments: Chapter A in Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter is the tenth in a series of 11 book-length chapters, collectively referred to as “this volume,” in the series U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World. In the other 10 chapters, each of which concerns a specific glacierized region of Earth, the authors used remotely sensed images, primarily from the Landsat 1, 2, and 3 series of spacecraft, in order to analyze that glacierized region and to monitor changes in its glaciers. Landsat images, acquired primarily during the period 1972 through 1981, were used by an international team of glaciologists and other scientists to study the various glacierized regions and (or) to discuss related glaciological topics. In each glacierized region, the present distribution of glaciers within its geographic area is compared, wherever possible, with historical information about their past areal extent. The atlas provides an accurate regional inventory of the areal extent of glacier ice on our planet during the 1970s as part of an expanding international scientific effort to measure global environmental change on the Earth’s surface. However, this chapter differs from the other 10 in its discussion of observed changes in all four elements of the Earth’s cryosphere (glaciers, snow cover, floating ice, and permafrost) in the context of documented changes in all components of the Earth System. Human impact on the planet at the beginning of the 21st century is pervasive. The focus of Chapter A is on changes in the cryosphere and the importance of long-term monitoring by a variety of sensors carried on Earth-orbiting satellites or by a ground-based network of observatories in the case of permafrost. The chapter consists of five parts. The first part provides an introduction to the Earth System, including the interrelationships of the geosphere (cryosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere), the biosphere, climate processes, biogeochemical cycles, and the

  15. Early results from NASA's SnowEx campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Gatebe, Charles; Hall, Dorothy; Misakonis, Amy; Elder, Kelly; Marshall, Hans Peter; Hiemstra, Chris; Brucker, Ludovic; Crawford, Chris; Kang, Do Hyuk; De Marco, Eugenia; Beckley, Matt; Entin, Jared

    2017-04-01

    SnowEx is a multi-year airborne snow campaign with the primary goal of addressing the question: How much water is stored in Earth's terrestrial snow-covered regions? Year 1 (2016-17) focuses on the distribution of snow-water equivalent (SWE) and the snow energy balance in a forested environment. The year 1 primary site is Grand Mesa and the secondary site is the Senator Beck Basin, both in western, Colorado, USA. Ten core sensors on four core aircraft will make observations using a broad suite of airborne sensors including active and passive microwave, and active and passive optical/infrared sensing techniques to determine the sensitivity and accuracy of these potential satellite remote sensing techniques, along with models, to measure snow under a range of forest conditions. SnowEx also includes an extensive range of ground truth measurements—in-situ samples, snow pits, ground based remote sensing measurements, and sophisticated new techniques. A detailed description of the data collected will be given and some early results will be presented. Seasonal snow cover is the largest single component of the cryosphere in areal extent (covering an average of 46M km2 of Earth's surface (31 % of land areas) each year). This seasonal snow has major societal impacts in the areas of water resources, natural hazards (floods and droughts), water security, and weather and climate. The only practical way to estimate the quantity of snow on a consistent global basis is through satellites. Yet, current space-based techniques underestimate storage of snow water equivalent (SWE) by as much as 50%, and model-based estimates can differ greatly vs. estimates based on remotely-sensed observations. At peak coverage, as much as half of snow-covered terrestrial areas involve forested areas, so quantifying the challenge represented by forests is important to plan any future snow mission. Single-sensor approaches may work for certain snow types and certain conditions, but not for others

  16. Snow, ice and solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.

    2009-01-01

    The snow-covered ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland reflect most of the incoming solar radiation. The reflectivity, commonly called the albedo, of snow on these ice sheets has been observed to vary in space and time. In this thesis, temporal and spatial changes in snow albedo is found to depend

  17. Snow reliability in ski resorts considering artificial snowmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstätter, M.; Formayer, H.; Haas, P.

    2009-04-01

    Snow reliability is the key factor to make skiing on slopes possible and to ensure added value in winter tourism. In this context snow reliability is defined by the duration of a snowpack on the ski runs of at least 50 mm snow water equivalent (SWE), within the main season (Dec-Mar). Furthermore the snowpack should form every winter and be existent early enough in season. In our work we investigate the snow reliability of six Austrian ski resorts. Because nearly all Austrian resorts rely on artificial snowmaking it is of big importance to consider man made snow in the snowpack accumulation and ablation in addition to natural snow. For each study region observed weather data including temperature, precipitation and snow height are used. In addition we differentiate up to three elevations on each site (valley, intermediate, mountain top), being aware of the typical local winter inversion height. Time periods suitable for artificial snow production, for several temperature threshold (-6,-4 or -1 degree Celsius) are calculated on an hourly base. Depending on the actual snowpack height, man made snow can be added in the model with different defined capacities, considering different technologies or the usage of additives. To simulate natural snowpack accumulation and ablation we a simple snow model, based on daily precipitation and temperature. This snow model is optimized at each site separately through certain parameterization factors. Based on the local observations and the monthly climate change signals from the climate model REMO-UBA, we generate long term time series of temperature and precipitation, using the weather generator LARS. Thereby we are not only able to simulate the snow reliability under current, but also under future climate conditions. Our results show significant changes in snow reliability, like an increase of days with insufficient snow heights, especially at mid and low altitudes under natural snow conditions. Artificial snowmaking can partly

  18. "Snow Soup" Students Take on Animation Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of producing "Snow Soup"--the 2009 Adobe Flash animation produced by the Computer Game Development and Animation seniors of Washington County Technical High School in Hagerstown, Maryland, for libraries in their area. In addition to the Flash product, the students produced two related Game Maker games, a printed…

  19. Learn Mac OS X Snow Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, Scott

    2009-01-01

    You're smart and savvy, but also busy. This comprehensive guide to Apple's Mac OS X 10.6, Snow Leopard, gives you everything you need to know to live a happy, productive Mac life. Learn Mac OS X Snow Leopard will have you up and connected lickity split. With a minimum of overhead and a maximum of useful information, you'll cover a lot of ground in the time it takes other books to get you plugged in. If this isn't your first experience with Mac OS X, skip right to the "What's New in Snow Leopard" sections. You may also find yourself using this book as a quick refresher course or a way

  20. Snow-clearing operations

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate snow clearing operations, which commence at 4.30 in the morning, all drivers of CERN cars are kindly requested to park them together in groups. This will help us greatly assist us in our work. Thank-you for your help. Transport Group / EN-HE Tel. 72202

  1. Global unbalance in seaweed production, research effort and biotechnology markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarrasa, Inés; Olsen, Ylva S; Mayol, Eva; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    Exploitation of the world's oceans is rapidly growing as evidenced by a booming patent market of marine products including seaweed, a resource that is easily accessible without sophisticated bioprospecting technology and that has a high level of domestication globally. The investment in research effort on seaweed aquaculture has recently been identified to be the main force for the development of a biotechnology market of seaweed-derived products and is a more important driver than the capacity of seaweed production. Here, we examined seaweed patent registrations between 1980 and 2009 to assess the growth rate of seaweed biotechnology, its geographic distribution and the types of applications patented. We compare this growth with scientific investment in seaweed aquaculture and with the market of seaweed production. We found that both the seaweed patenting market and the rate of scientific publications are rapidly growing (11% and 16.8% per year respectively) since 1990. The patent market is highly geographically skewed (95% of all registrations belonging to ten countries and the top two holding 65% of the total) compared to the distribution of scientific output among countries (60% of all scientific publications belonging to ten countries and the top two countries holding a 21%), but more homogeneously distributed than the production market (with a 99.8% belonging to the top ten countries, and a 71% to the top two). Food industry was the dominant application for both the patent registrations (37.7%) and the scientific publications (21%) followed in both cases by agriculture and aquaculture applications. This result is consistent with the seaweed taxa most represented. Kelp, which was the target taxa for 47% of the patent registrations, is a traditional ingredient in Asian food and Gracilaria and Ulva, which were the focus of 15% and 13% of the scientific publications respectively, that are also used in more sophisticated applications such as cosmetics, chemical

  2. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  3. Snow water equivalent in the Alps as seen by gridded data sets, CMIP5 and CORDEX climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzago, Silvia; von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa; Provenzale, Antonello

    2017-07-01

    The estimate of the current and future conditions of snow resources in mountain areas would require reliable, kilometre-resolution, regional-observation-based gridded data sets and climate models capable of properly representing snow processes and snow-climate interactions. At the moment, the development of such tools is hampered by the sparseness of station-based reference observations. In past decades passive microwave remote sensing and reanalysis products have mainly been used to infer information on the snow water equivalent distribution. However, the investigation has usually been limited to flat terrains as the reliability of these products in mountain areas is poorly characterized.This work considers the available snow water equivalent data sets from remote sensing and from reanalyses for the greater Alpine region (GAR), and explores their ability to provide a coherent view of the snow water equivalent distribution and climatology in this area. Further we analyse the simulations from the latest-generation regional and global climate models (RCMs, GCMs), participating in the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment over the European domain (EURO-CORDEX) and in the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) respectively. We evaluate their reliability in reproducing the main drivers of snow processes - near-surface air temperature and precipitation - against the observational data set EOBS, and compare the snow water equivalent climatology with the remote sensing and reanalysis data sets previously considered. We critically discuss the model limitations in the historical period and we explore their potential in providing reliable future projections.The results of the analysis show that the time-averaged spatial distribution of snow water equivalent and the amplitude of its annual cycle are reproduced quite differently by the different remote sensing and reanalysis data sets, which in fact exhibit a large spread around the ensemble mean. We

  4. Combining snow depth and innovative skier flow measurements in order to improve snow grooming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmagnola, Carlo Maria; Albrecht, Stéphane; Hargoaa, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades, ski resort managers have massively improved their snow management practices, in order to adapt their strategies to the inter-annual variability in snow conditions and to the effects of climate change. New real-time informations, such as snow depth measurements carried out on the ski slopes by grooming machines during their daily operations, have become available, allowing high saving, efficiency and optimization gains (reducing for instance the groomer fuel consumption and operation time and the need for machine-made snow production). In order to take a step forward in improving the grooming techniques, it would be necessary to keep into account also the snow erosion by skiers, which depends mostly on the snow surface properties and on the skier attendance. Today, however, most ski resort managers have only a vague idea of the evolution of the skier flows on each slope during the winter season. In this context, we have developed a new sensor (named Skiflux) able to measure the skier attendance using an infrared beam crossing the slopes. Ten Skiflux sensors have been deployed during the 2016/17 winter season at Val Thorens ski area (French Alps), covering a whole sector of the resort. A dedicated software showing the number of skier passages in real time as been developed as well. Combining this new Skiflux dataset with the snow depth measurements from grooming machines (Snowsat System) and the snow and meteorological conditions measured in-situ (Liberty System from Technoalpin), we were able to create a "real-time skiability index" accounting for the quality of the surface snow and its evolution during the day. Moreover, this new framework allowed us to improve the preparation of ski slopes, suggesting new strategies for adapting the grooming working schedule to the snow quality and the skier attendance. In the near future, this work will benefit from the advances made within the H2020 PROSNOW project ("Provision of a prediction system allowing

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION SERVICES AND PRODUCTS IN UZBEKISTAN DURING GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feruza Khayrullaevna Sidikova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is investigation of the issues of development of information services and products in Uzbekistan during globalization role of information and communicative technologies in development international business and trade. As the results of the research there revealed a connection of introducing electronic commerce and business in practice of firms, corporation and banks there conducted changes in the character of carrying out commercial and financial transactions, interrelations with partners and clients, elaborations and introduction business strategies and competition itself. In the conclusion there offered the suggestions of joining and adjusting to each other varying legislation of different countries and developing international system of taxation of Internet commerce satisfying all participants of electronic trading transactions.

  6. Next Generation Snow Cover Mapping: Can Future Hyperspectral Satellite Spectrometer Systems Improve Subpixel Snow-covered Area and Grain Size in the Sierra Nevada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R.; Calvin, W. M.; Harpold, A.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain snow storage is the dominant source of water for humans and ecosystems in western North America. Consequently, the spatial distribution of snow-covered area is fundamental to both hydrological, ecological, and climate models. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were collected along the entire Sierra Nevada mountain range extending from north of Lake Tahoe to south of Mt. Whitney during the 2015 and 2016 snow-covered season. The AVIRIS dataset used in this experiment consists of 224 contiguous spectral channels with wavelengths ranging 400-2500 nanometers at a 15-meter spatial pixel size. Data from the Sierras were acquired on four days: 2/24/15 during a very low snow year, 3/24/16 near maximum snow accumulation, and 5/12/16 and 5/18/16 during snow ablation and snow loss. Building on previous retrieval of subpixel snow-covered area algorithms that take into account varying grain size we present a model that analyzes multiple endmembers of varying snow grain size, vegetation, rock, and soil in segmented regions along the Sierra Nevada to determine snow-cover spatial extent, snow sub-pixel fraction, and approximate grain size. In addition, varying simulated models of the data will compare and contrast the retrieval of current snow products such as MODIS Snow-Covered Area and Grain Size (MODSCAG) and the Airborne Space Observatory (ASO). Specifically, does lower spatial resolution (MODIS), broader resolution bandwidth (MODIS), and limited spectral resolution (ASO) affect snow-cover area and grain size approximations? The implications of our findings will help refine snow mapping products for planned hyperspectral satellite spectrometer systems such as EnMAP (slated to launch in 2019), HISUI (planned for inclusion on the International Space Station in 2018), and HyspIRI (currently under consideration).

  7. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  8. Wet Snow Mapping in Southern Ontario with Sentinel-1A Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Kelly, R. E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Wet snow is defined as snow with liquid water present in an ice-water mix. It is can be an indicator for the onset of the snowmelt period. Knowledge about the extent of wet snow area can be of great importance for the monitoring of seasonal snowmelt runoff with climate-induced changes in snowmelt duration having implications for operational hydrological and ecological applications. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing has been used to observe seasonal snow under all-weather conditions. Active microwave observations of snow at C-band are sensitive to wet snow due to the high dielectric contrast with non-wet snow surfaces and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is now openly available to identify and map the wet snow areas globally at relatively fine spatial resolutions ( 100m). In this study, a semi-automated workflow is developed from the change detection method of Nagler et al. (2016) using multi-temporal Sentinel-1A (S1A) dual-polarization observations of Southern Ontario. Weather station data and visible-infrared satellite observations are used to refine the wet snow area estimates. Wet snow information from National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) is used to compare with the S1A estimates. A time series of wet snow maps shows the variations in backscatter from wet snow on a pixel basis. Different land cover types in Southern Ontario are assessed with respect to their impacts on wet snow estimates. While forests and complex land surfaces can impact the ability to map wet snow, the approach taken is robust and illustrates the strong sensitivity of the approach to wet snow backscattering characteristics. The results indicate the feasibility of the change detection method on non-mountainous large areas and address the usefulness of Sentinel-1A data for wet snow mapping.

  9. SWITCHING FROM THE GLOBALIZATION OF MARKETS TO THE GLOBALIZATION OF PRODUCTION AND SERVICES IN A SEMIGLOBALIZED WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    Serghei M RGULESCU; Elena M RGULESCU

    2009-01-01

    The retrospective of the theoretical approaches of the phenomenon of economic globalization in the last three decades emphasizes the movement of attention from the globalization of markets, from the\\'80s, to the globalization of production and services in the current decade. This trend is essentially the result of implementing new strategies by multinational companies. It also requires accepting the idea that the current status of the world economy is in reality one of semiglobalization and n...

  10. The impact of atmospheric mineral aerosol deposition on the albedo of snow and sea ice: are snow and sea ice optical properties more important than mineral aerosol optical properties?

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Lamare; J. Lee-Taylor; M. D. King

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the albedo of polar regions is crucial for understanding a range of climatic processes that have an impact on a global scale. Light absorbing impurities in atmospheric aerosols deposited on snow and sea ice by aeolian transport absorb solar radiation, reducing albedo. Here, the effects of five mineral aerosol deposits reducing the albedo of polar snow and sea ice are considered. Calculations employing a coupled atmospheric and snow/sea ice radiative-transfer model (TUV-snow) show...

  11. Brazilian Coffee Production as Function of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, A. M. H. D.; Pinto, H. S.; Alfonsi, E. L., Sr.; Alfonsi, W. M. V.; Pereira, V. R.

    2016-12-01

    According to the Brazilian Government the actual area of coffee production in the country is close to 2.25 million hectares. The sector involves 290.000 of farmers with a production of 44 million of 60 Kg bags in 2015. The Arabica Coffee specie is cultivated in the country where the climate condition are characterized by a year mean temperatures between 18°C and 22°C. Temperatures higher than 33°C can cause abortion of flowers during the spring season and reduce the production while lower than 18°C can be affected by frost during winter when the minimum temperature can be lower than 2°C in the shelter. For a better quality of the final product the winter, between July and August, must be dry with rainfall lower than 50 mm/month. The Ministry of Agriculture defines those conditions for the Official Coffee Climatic Risk Zoning. In 2002, a partnership with the British Embassy and 2 Brazilian institutions, i. e. the State University of Campinas - UNICAMP and the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa, published the study "Global Warming and the New Geography of Agricultural Production in Brazil" (Pinto and Assad, 2002). This study was based on the PRECIS/Hadley Centre Regional Climate Model future projections. The crop simulations indicated a decrease in the grain production due to temperature rise. Later in 2012, a new study was developed in cooperation with the World Bank to evaluate the future of nine main commodities in Brazil under climate change, including the Arabica coffee. The worst scenario considering any mitigation and adaptation action indicated that the two most affected crops would be the soybean and coffee, with a reduction of 22% and 6.7 % in the yield respectively. Field surveys to evaluate the historical spatial dynamic and migration of Arabica coffee cultivated areas confirmed the results of the previous studies and indicated a recent increase in the search for cooler altitude areas to plant coffee. Also the field observations

  12. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD), Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD) product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the...

  13. Bibliometric Assessment of the Global Scientific Production of Nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Martinez-Pulgarin, Dayron F; Muñoz-Urbano, Marcela; Gómez-Suta, Daniela; Sánchez-Duque, Jorge A; Machado-Alba, Jorge E

    2017-05-01

    Nitazoxanide is a member of a new class of drug, thiazolides, and it was discovered in 1984 with antimicrobial activity effect against anaerobic bacteria, Hepatitis virus, protozoa, and helminths. A bibliometric study on four databases (1984-2016) - Medline, Scopus, LILACS, and SciELO - characterizing the global scientific production of nitazoxanide. We determined the quantity, quality (number of citations), and types of studies developed by each country, characterizing them by years, international cooperation, development, place of publication, authors (with its H-index), and groups with higher impact. There were 512 articles in Medline - the higher scientific production is from the USA (19.71%), Switzerland (7.51%), and Mexico (7.27%). There were 1,440 articles in Scopus - from the USA (8.98%), Mexico (2.13%), and India (1.65%). There were 405 articles in LILACS - from Mexico (4.69%), the USA (4.2%), and Peru (2.47%). There were 47 articles in SciELO - from Brazil (34.04%), Venezuela (21.28%), and Colombia (14.89%). The H-index of nitazoxanide is 75 - the USA (26), Egypt (12), and Canada (10) were the countries contributing more with that. Nitazoxanide research has been highly important. Nevertheless, it is relatively limited when compared with other drugs. Its research has been led by the USA, as revealed in this bibliometric assessment. Although some developing countries, where it is used especially for protozoa and helminths, probably have its influence, and this explains the fact that Mexico and India, among others, are the top countries in the scientific production of this anti-infective agent. This bibliometric study evidenced a relatively low number of publications, however, it has been increased in recent years.

  14. Spectral Profiler Probe for In Situ Snow Grain Size and Composition Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisford, Daniel F.; Molotch, Noah P.; Painter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    An ultimate goal of the climate change, snow science, and hydrology communities is to measure snow water equivalent (SWE) from satellite measurements. Seasonal SWE is highly sensitive to climate change and provides fresh water for much of the world population. Snowmelt from mountainous regions represents the dominant water source for 60 million people in the United States and over one billion people globally. Determination of snow grain sizes comprising mountain snowpack is critical for predicting snow meltwater runoff, understanding physical properties and radiation balance, and providing necessary input for interpreting satellite measurements. Both microwave emission and radar backscatter from the snow are dominated by the snow grain size stratigraphy. As a result, retrieval algorithms for measuring snow water equivalents from orbiting satellites is largely hindered by inadequate knowledge of grain size.

  15. Aromatic VOCs global influence in the ozone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Perez, David; Pozzer, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are a subgroup of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) of special interest in the atmosphere of urban and semi-urban areas. Aromatics form a high fraction of VOCs, are highly reactive and upon oxidation they are an important source of ozone. These group of VOCs are released to the atmosphere by processes related to biomass burning and fossil fuel consumption, while they are removed from the atmosphere primarily by OH reaction and by dry deposition. In addition, a branch of aromatics (ortho-nitrophenols) produce HONO upon photolysis, which is responsible of certain amount of the OH recycling. Despite their importance in the atmosphere in anthropogenic polluted areas, the influence of aromatics in the ozone production remains largely unknown. This is of particular relevance, being ozone a pollutant with severe side effects on air quality, health and climate. In this work the atmospheric impacts at global scale of the most emitted aromatic VOCs in the gas phase (benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene, phenol, benzaldehyde and trimethylbenzenes) are analysed and assessed. Specifically, the impact on ozone due to aromatic oxidation is estimated, as this is of great interest in large urban areas and can be helpful for developing air pollution control strategies. Further targets are the quantification of the NOx loss and the OH recycling due to aromatic oxidation. In order to investigate these processes, two simulations were performed with the numerical chemistry and climate simulation ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. The simulations compare two cases, one with ozone concentrations when aromatics are present or the second one when they are missing. Finally, model simulated ozone is compared against a global set of observations in order to better constrain the model accuracy.

  16. Decision making in Global Product Development: Case studies from Danish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Erik Stefan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation leads engineering firms to replace traditional co-located development with global distributed development activities. They make decisions regarding global product development; often with limited experience and information available. Previous research points towards a need for better...

  17. Introduction to snow rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmollin, Vincent de

    1978-01-01

    The tests described in the thesis are rotating shearing tests, with rotational constant speed ranging between 0.00075 rpm and 0.75 rpm. The results obtained are similar to those observed with compression tests at constant speed, except that shearing tests are carried out with densities nearly constant. So, we show three different domains when the rotation speed increases: 1) viscous (without failure) 2) brittle of first type (cycles of brittle failures) and 3) brittle of second type (only one brittle failure and solid friction). These results show clearly that the fundamental mechanism that rules the mechanisms of snow, is fast metamorphosis of bonds, binding ice grains: this metamorphosis is important when solicitation speeds are low (permanent rate of shearing in viscous domain, regeneration of the failure surfaces in the brittle domain of the first type) and this metamorphosis does not exist when speed increases (only one failure and solid friction in the brittle domain of second type). It is also included an important bibliographic analysis of the snow mechanics, and an experimental and theoretical study about shock wave propagation in natural snow covers. (author) [fr

  18. Snow accretion on overhead wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Y. [Meteorological Research Inst. for Technology Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tachizaki, S.; Sudo, N. [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd., Miyagi (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Wet snow accretion can cause extensive damage to transmission systems. This paper reviewed some of the difficulties faced by researchers in the study of wet snow accretion on overhead lines in Japan. The study of snow accretion phenomena is complicated by the range of phase changes in water. Snowflakes produced in an upper atmospheric layer with a temperature below freezing do not melt when they go through a lower atmospheric layer with a temperature above freezing, but are in a mixed state of solid and liquid due to the latent heat of melting. The complicated properties of water make studies of snow accretion difficult, as well as the fact that snow changes its physical properties rapidly, due to the effects of ambient temperature, rainfall, and solar radiation. The adhesive forces that cause snow accretion include freezing; bonding through freezing; sintering; condensation and freezing of vapor in the air; mechanical intertwining of snowflakes; capillary action due to liquids; coherent forces between ice particles and water formed through the metamorphosis of snowflakes. In addition to these complexities, differences in laboratory room environments and natural snow environments can also pose difficulties for researchers. Equations describing the relationship between the density of accreted snow and the meteorological parameters involved were presented, as well as empirical equations which suggested that snow accretion efficiency has a dependency on air temperature. An empirical model for estimating snow loads in Japan was outlined, as well as various experiments observing show shedding. Correlations for wet snow accretion included precipitation intensity; duration of precipitation; air temperature; wind speed and wind direction in relation to the overhead line. Issues concerning topography and wet snow accretion were reviewed. It was concluded that studies of snow accretion will benefit by the collection of data in each matrix of the relevant parameters. 12 refs

  19. The Theoretical Aspects of the Development of Global Production Networks and Value Chains: the New Paradigm of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkas Nataliia I.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at systematizing the contemporary perceptions of the changing paradigms of globalization and international competition as a result of the spread of global networks and value chains. The development of global value chains (GVC occurred as a result of two distributions of globalization: (1 global competition is manifested at the level of sectors and companies (from the mid-nineteenth century (2 the concept of trade in tasks arises (at the end of XX century. The publication analyzes the impact of globalization on the international competitiveness of both the EU and the developing countries in the trade of final products and tasks. The model takes into consideration differences in wages, technology gap and trade costs, and provides for assessing the comparative advantages of individual sectors or segments of GVC. Features of the conception of global production networks have been identified as: «imports for production» and «imports for exports», which define international competitiveness on the basis of creation of the intrinsic value added. It is determined that the competitiveness of the economy is determined by the country’s positions in the GVC, and the increase in productivity of companies depends on their involvement in the segments (tasks with a high level of value added.

  20. Combining low-cost GPS receivers with upGPR to derive continuously liquid water content, snow height and snow water equivalent in Alpine snow covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Franziska; Schmid, Lino; Prasch, Monika; Heilig, Achim; Eisen, Olaf; Schweizer, Jürg; Mauser, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    The temporal evolution of Alpine snowpacks is important for assessing water supply, hydropower generation, flood predictions and avalanche forecasts. Especially in high mountain regions with an extremely varying topography, it is until now often difficult to derive continuous and non-destructive information on snow parameters. Since autumn 2012, we are running a new low-cost GPS (Global Positioning System) snow measurement experiment at the high alpine study site Weissfluhjoch (2450 m a.s.l.) in Switzerland. The globally and freely broadcasted GPS L1-band (1.57542 GHz) was continuously recorded with GPS antennas, which are installed at the ground surface underneath the snowpack. GPS raw data, containing carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0) as well as elevation and azimuth angle information for each time step of 1 s, was stored and analyzed for all 32 GPS satellites. Since the dielectric permittivity of an overlying wet snowpack influences microwave radiation, the bulk volumetric liquid water content as well as daily melt-freeze cycles can be derived non-destructively from GPS signal strength losses and external snow height information. This liquid water content information is qualitatively in good accordance with meteorological and snow-hydrological data and quantitatively highly agrees with continuous data derived from an upward-looking ground-penetrating radar (upGPR) working in a similar frequency range. As a promising novelty, we combined the GPS signal strength data with upGPR travel-time information of active impulse radar rays to the snow surface and back from underneath the snow cover. This combination allows determining liquid water content, snow height and snow water equivalent from beneath the snow cover without using any other external information. The snow parameters derived by combining upGPR and GPS data are in good agreement with conventional sensors as e.g. laser distance gauges or snow pillows. As the GPS sensors are cheap, they can easily

  1. Snow water equivalent in the Alps as seen by gridded data sets, CMIP5 and CORDEX climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Terzago

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of the current and future conditions of snow resources in mountain areas would require reliable, kilometre-resolution, regional-observation-based gridded data sets and climate models capable of properly representing snow processes and snow–climate interactions. At the moment, the development of such tools is hampered by the sparseness of station-based reference observations. In past decades passive microwave remote sensing and reanalysis products have mainly been used to infer information on the snow water equivalent distribution. However, the investigation has usually been limited to flat terrains as the reliability of these products in mountain areas is poorly characterized.This work considers the available snow water equivalent data sets from remote sensing and from reanalyses for the greater Alpine region (GAR, and explores their ability to provide a coherent view of the snow water equivalent distribution and climatology in this area. Further we analyse the simulations from the latest-generation regional and global climate models (RCMs, GCMs, participating in the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment over the European domain (EURO-CORDEX and in the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5 respectively. We evaluate their reliability in reproducing the main drivers of snow processes – near-surface air temperature and precipitation – against the observational data set EOBS, and compare the snow water equivalent climatology with the remote sensing and reanalysis data sets previously considered. We critically discuss the model limitations in the historical period and we explore their potential in providing reliable future projections.The results of the analysis show that the time-averaged spatial distribution of snow water equivalent and the amplitude of its annual cycle are reproduced quite differently by the different remote sensing and reanalysis data sets, which in fact exhibit a large spread around

  2. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  3. 78 FR 1277 - International Product Change-Global Expedited Package Services-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published...-- Non-Published Rates 4 (GEPS-NPR 4) to the Competitive Products List. DATES: Effective date: January 8... add Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates 4 (GEPS-NPR 4) to the Competitive Products...

  4. Sustainable energy consumption and production - a global view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernes, H.

    1995-12-31

    The paper gives a global view of sustainable energy consumption and production both in developed and developing countries. There is a need of replacing fossil fuel sources with renewable energy at a speed parallel to the depletion of the oil and gas sources. According to the author, the actual growth in developing countries` use of oil, coal and other sources of energy has almost tripled since 1970. Future population growth alone will spur a further 70% jump in energy use in 30 years, even if per capita consumption remains at current levels. For the OECD countries, energy use rose one fifth as much as economic growth between 1973 and 1989. Countries like China and India, and other developing countries, have huge coal reserves and energy needs. Policy makers have to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels, energy technologies and stricter environmental standards. Life cycle analyses can contribute to the development of overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies. According to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced by more than 60% in order to stabilize the CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere. 8 refs.

  5. FEATURES OF THE LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS IN TURBULENCE CHANGING GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg M. Tolmachev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject / topic: The level of development of any country is currently determined by the proportion of high technologies in the GDP. Logistics – the basis for efficient management of modern knowledge-intensive production. Given the adverse conditions in the global economy, greatly enhanced the relevance of the study of logistical aspects in the management of high-tech products.Subject of research: The logistics management of production of high technology products in turbulence changing global economy. In this paper we apply scientific methods: the dialectic, comparisons and analogies, analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction, abstract , logical, historical and retrospective. The purpose of this article is to identify the characteristics and problems of logistics management of production of high technology products in the countries of the Customs Union and the Eastern Partnership. Also consider the role of clusters in the formation of innovation infrastructure in the countries of the Customs Union.Results: As part of the presentation was the author of the present article the urgency of application of CALS-technologies as a tool for organization and information support for the creation, production and operation of the product at the enterprises of the national economy.Conclusions / significance: Management of enterprises in the real sector of the economy in modern conditions should be based on synergies methodological principles of market and state regulation, with increased use of methods focused on the long term. By such methods, in particular, should include the methods of logistic management of production of high technology products. The importance of these technologies has increased steadily, and in modern conditions gets a new quality content that refl ects the phased development plan targeted action to ensure that the desired state of the enterprise as a socio-economic system. This in turn points to the need to ensure that new

  6. A Bayesian spatial assimilation scheme for snow coverage observations in a gridded snow model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kolberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for assimilating remotely sensed snow covered area (SCA into the snow subroutine of a grid distributed precipitation-runoff model (PRM is presented. The PRM is assumed to simulate the snow state in each grid cell by a snow depletion curve (SDC, which relates that cell's SCA to its snow cover mass balance. The assimilation is based on Bayes' theorem, which requires a joint prior distribution of the SDC variables in all the grid cells. In this paper we propose a spatial model for this prior distribution, and include similarities and dependencies among the grid cells. Used to represent the PRM simulated snow cover state, our joint prior model regards two elevation gradients and a degree-day factor as global variables, rather than describing their effect separately for each cell. This transformation results in smooth normalised surfaces for the two related mass balance variables, supporting a strong inter-cell dependency in their joint prior model. The global features and spatial interdependency in the prior model cause each SCA observation to provide information for many grid cells. The spatial approach similarly facilitates the utilisation of observed discharge. Assimilation of SCA data using the proposed spatial model is evaluated in a 2400 km2 mountainous region in central Norway (61° N, 9° E, based on two Landsat 7 ETM+ images generalized to 1 km2 resolution. An image acquired on 11 May, a week before the peak flood, removes 78% of the variance in the remaining snow storage. Even an image from 4 May, less than a week after the melt onset, reduces this variance by 53%. These results are largely improved compared to a cell-by-cell independent assimilation routine previously reported. Including observed discharge in the updating information improves the 4 May results, but has weak effect on 11 May. Estimated elevation gradients are shown to be sensitive to informational deficits occurring at high altitude, where snowmelt has not started

  7. China's evolving role in global production networks: Implications for Trump's trade war

    OpenAIRE

    Athukorala, Prema-chandra

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines China's evolving role in global production networks and its implications for assessing the potential impact of the "trade war" declared by President Trump. The analysis, which is based on a systematic disaggregation of trade based on global production sharing into components and final assembly, suggests that the Sino-US trade gap is a structural phenomenon driven by the pivotal role played by China within East Asia cantered production networks. The global competitiveness o...

  8. [Research on hyperspectral remote sensing in monitoring snow contamination concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xu-guang; Liu, Dian-wei; Zhang, Bai; Du, Jia; Lei, Xiao-chun; Zeng, Li-hong; Wang, Yuan-dong; Song, Kai-shan

    2011-05-01

    Contaminants in the snow can be used to reflect regional and global environmental pollution caused by human activities. However, so far, the research on space-time monitoring of snow contamination concentration for a wide range or areas difficult for human to reach is very scarce. In the present paper, based on the simulated atmospheric deposition experiments, the spectroscopy technique method was applied to analyze the effect of different contamination concentration on the snow reflectance spectra. Then an evaluation of snow contamination concentration (SCC) retrieval methods was conducted using characteristic index method (SDI), principal component analysis (PCA), BP neural network and RBF neural network method, and the estimate effects of four methods were compared. The results showed that the neural network model combined with hyperspectral remote sensing data could estimate the SCC well.

  9. Long-term analyses of snow dynamics within the french Alps on the 1900-2100 period. Analyses of historical snow water equivalent observations, modelisations and projections of a hundred of snow courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevet, T.; Joel, G.; Gottardi, F.; Nemoz, B.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this communication is to present analyses of climate variability and change on snow water equivalent (SWE) observations, reconstructions (1900-2016) and scenarii (2020-2100) of a hundred of snow courses dissiminated within the french Alps. This issue became particularly important since a decade, in regions where snow variability had a large impact on water resources availability, poor snow conditions in ski resorts and artificial snow production. As a water resources manager in french mountainuous regions, EDF (french hydropower company) has developed and managed a hydrometeorological network since 1950. A recent data rescue research allowed to digitize long term SWE manual measurments of a hundred of snow courses within the french Alps. EDF have been operating an automatic SWE sensors network, complementary to the snow course network. Based on numerous SWE observations time-series and snow accumulation and melt model (Garavaglia et al., 2017), continuous daily historical SWE time-series have been reconstructed within the 1950-2016 period. These reconstructions have been extented to 1900 using 20 CR reanalyses (ANATEM method, Kuentz et al., 2015) and up to 2100 using GIEC Climate Change scenarii. Considering various mountainous areas within the french Alps, this communication focuses on : (1) long term (1900-2016) analyses of variability and trend of total precipitation, air temperature, snow water equivalent, snow line altitude, snow season length , (2) long term variability of hydrological regime of snow dominated watersheds and (3) future trends (2020 -2100) using GIEC Climate Change scenarii. Comparing historical period (1950-1984) to recent period (1984-2016), quantitative results within a region in the north Alps (Maurienne) shows an increase of air temperature by 1.2 °C, an increase of snow line height by 200m, a reduction of SWE by 200 mm/year and a reduction of snow season length by 15 days. These analyses will be extended from north to south

  10. Effects of snow grain shape on climate simulations: sensitivity tests with the Norwegian Earth System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Räisänen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, snow grains are often treated as spherical. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4, both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM. In this study, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH is compared with another (NONSPH in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of three non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (0.77–0.78 in the visible region than in the spherical case ( ≈  0.89. Therefore, for the same effective snow grain size (or equivalently, the same specific projected area, the snow broadband albedo is higher when assuming non-spherical rather than spherical snow grains, typically by 0.02–0.03. Considering the spherical case as the baseline, this results in an instantaneous negative change in net shortwave radiation with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ca. −0.22 W m−2. Although this global-mean radiative effect is rather modest, the impacts on the climate simulated by NorESM are substantial. The global annual-mean 2 m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further demonstrated that the effect of snow grain shape could be largely offset by adjusting the snow grain size. When assuming non-spherical snow grains with the parameterized grain

  11. Effects of snow grain shape on climate simulations: sensitivity tests with the Norwegian Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Petri; Makkonen, Risto; Kirkevåg, Alf; Debernard, Jens B.

    2017-12-01

    Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, snow grains are often treated as spherical. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4), both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). In this study, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH) is compared with another (NONSPH) in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of three non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (0.77-0.78 in the visible region) than in the spherical case ( ≈ 0.89). Therefore, for the same effective snow grain size (or equivalently, the same specific projected area), the snow broadband albedo is higher when assuming non-spherical rather than spherical snow grains, typically by 0.02-0.03. Considering the spherical case as the baseline, this results in an instantaneous negative change in net shortwave radiation with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ca. -0.22 W m-2. Although this global-mean radiative effect is rather modest, the impacts on the climate simulated by NorESM are substantial. The global annual-mean 2 m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further demonstrated that the effect of snow grain shape could be largely offset by adjusting the snow grain size. When assuming non-spherical snow grains with the parameterized grain size increased by ca. 70 %, the

  12. Global warming threatens agricultural productivity in Africa and South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Christensen et al 2007) has, with greater confidence than previous reports, warned the international community that the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions will result in global climate change. One of the most direct and threatening impacts it may have on human societies is the potential consequences on global crop production. Indeed agriculture is considered as the most weather-dependent of all human activities (Hansen 2002) since climate is a primary determinant for agricultural productivity. The potential impact of climate change on crop productivity is an additional strain on the global food system which is already facing the difficult challenge of increasing food production to feed a projected 9 billion people by 2050 with changing consumption patterns and growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington 2010). In some regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia that are already food insecure and where most of the population increase and economic development will take place, climate change could be the additional stress that pushes systems over the edge. A striking example, if needed, is the work from Collomb (1999) which estimates that by 2050 food needs will more than quintuple in Africa and more than double in Asia. Better knowledge of climate change impacts on crop productivity in those vulnerable regions is crucial to inform policies and to support adaptation strategies that may counteract the adverse effects. Although there is a growing literature on the impact of climate change on crop productivity in tropical regions, it is difficult to provide a consistent assessment of future yield changes because of large uncertainties in regional climate change projections, in the response of crops to environmental change (rainfall, temperature, CO2 concentration), in the coupling between climate models and crop productivity functions, and in the adaptation of

  13. Snow Extent Variability in Lesotho Derived from MODIS Data (2000–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wunderle

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Lesotho, snow cover is not only highly relevant to the climate system, but also affects socio-economic factors such as water storage for irrigation or hydro-electricity. However, while sound knowledge of annual and inter-annual snow dynamics is strongly required by local stakeholders, in-situ snow information remains limited. In this study, satellite data are used to generate a time series of snow cover and to provide the missing information on a national scale. A snow retrieval method, which is based on MODIS data and considers the concept of a normalized difference snow index (NDSI, has been implemented. Monitoring gaps due to cloud cover are filled by temporal and spatial post-processing. The comparison is based on the use of clear sky reference images from Landsat-TM and ENVISAT-MERIS. While the snow product is considered to be of good quality (mean accuracy: 68%, a slight bias towards snow underestimation is observed. Based on the daily product, a consistent time series of snow cover for Lesotho from 2000–2014 was generated for the first time. Analysis of the time series showed that the high annual variability of snow coverage and the short duration of single snow events require daily monitoring with a gap-filling procedure.

  14. Early Spring Post-Fire Snow Albedo Dynamics in High Latitude Boreal Forests Using Landsat-8 OLI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Erb, Angela M.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingsong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yun; Shuai, Yanmin; Casey, Kimberly A.; Roman, Miguel O.

    2016-01-01

    Taking advantage of the improved radiometric resolution of Landsat-8 OLI which, unlike previous Landsat sensors, does not saturate over snow, the progress of fire recovery progress at the landscape scale (less than 100 m) is examined. High quality Landsat-8 albedo retrievals can now capture the true reflective and layered character of snow cover over a full range of land surface conditions and vegetation densities. This new capability particularly improves the assessment of post-fire vegetation dynamics across low- to high-burn severity gradients in Arctic and boreal regions in the early spring, when the albedos during recovery show the greatest variation. We use 30 m resolution Landsat-8 surface reflectances with concurrent coarser resolution (500 m) MODIS high quality full inversion surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) products to produce higher resolution values of surface albedo. The high resolution full expression shortwave blue sky albedo product performs well with an overall RMSE of 0.0267 between tower and satellite measures under both snow-free and snow-covered conditions. While the importance of post-fire albedo recovery can be discerned from the MODIS albedo product at regional and global scales, our study addresses the particular importance of early spring post-fire albedo recovery at the landscape scale by considering the significant spatial heterogeneity of burn severity, and the impact of snow on the early spring albedo of various vegetation recovery types. We found that variations in early spring albedo within a single MODIS gridded pixel can be larger than 0.6. Since the frequency and severity of wildfires in Arctic and boreal systems is expected to increase in the coming decades, the dynamics of albedo in response to these rapid surface changes will increasingly impact the energy balance and contribute to other climate processes and physical feedback mechanisms. Surface radiation products derived from Landsat-8 data will

  15. Global evaluation of new GRACE mascon products for hydrologic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Zhang, Zizhan; Save, Himanshu; Wiese, David N.; Landerer, Felix W.; Long, Di; Longuevergne, Laurent; Chen, Jianli

    2016-12-01

    Recent developments in mascon (mass concentration) solutions for GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data have significantly increased the spatial localization and amplitude of recovered terrestrial Total Water Storage anomalies (TWSA); however, land hydrology applications have been limited. Here we compare TWSA from April 2002 through March 2015 from (1) newly released GRACE mascons from the Center for Space Research (CSR-M) with (2) NASA JPL mascons (JPL-M), and with (3) CSR Tellus gridded spherical harmonics rescaled (sf) (CSRT-GSH.sf) in 176 river basins, ˜60% of the global land area. Time series in TWSA mascons (CSR-M and JPL-M) and spherical harmonics are highly correlated (rank correlation coefficients mostly >0.9). The signal from long-term trends (up to ±20 mm/yr) is much less than that from seasonal amplitudes (up to 250 mm). Net long-term trends, summed over all 176 basins, are similar for CSR and JPL mascons (66-69 km3/yr) but are lower for spherical harmonics (˜14 km3/yr). Long-term TWSA declines are found mostly in irrigated basins (-41 to -69 km3/yr). Seasonal amplitudes agree among GRACE solutions, increasing confidence in GRACE-based seasonal fluctuations. Rescaling spherical harmonics significantly increases agreement with mascons for seasonal fluctuations, but less for long-term trends. Mascons provide advantages relative to spherical harmonics, including (1) reduced leakage from land to ocean increasing signal amplitude, and (2) application of geophysical data constraints during processing with little empirical postprocessing requirements, making it easier for nongeodetic users. Results of this product intercomparison should allow hydrologists to better select suitable GRACE solutions for hydrologic applications.

  16. Snow and SMOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    In the midst of Vienna's hottest weather spell this year, members of the Agency's headquarters laboratory staff found themselves unpacking a consignment of fresh snow from the Antarctic. It had been sent by air through Los Angeles, not for cooling purposes, but to assist in making more accurate measurements as part of the study of the world's water distribution and movement. The same research also involves SMOW (Standard Mean Ocean Water) and samples of water from the mid-Pacific will also soon arrive for scientific examination

  17. Winter ecology of a subalpine grassland: Effects of snow removal on soil respiration, microbial structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazov, Konstantin; Ingrisch, Johannes; Hasibeder, Roland; Mills, Robert T E; Buttler, Alexandre; Gleixner, Gerd; Pumpanen, Jukka; Bahn, Michael

    2017-07-15

    Seasonal snow cover provides essential insulation for mountain ecosystems, but expected changes in precipitation patterns and snow cover duration due to global warming can influence the activity of soil microbial communities. In turn, these changes have the potential to create new dynamics of soil organic matter cycling. To assess the effects of experimental snow removal and advanced spring conditions on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics, and on the biomass and structure of soil microbial communities, we performed an in situ study in a subalpine grassland in the Austrian Alps, in conjunction with soil incubations under controlled conditions. We found substantial winter C-mineralisation and high accumulation of inorganic and organic N in the topsoil, peaking at snowmelt. Soil microbial biomass doubled under the snow, paralleled by a fivefold increase in its C:N ratio, but no apparent change in its bacteria-dominated community structure. Snow removal led to a series of mild freeze-thaw cycles, which had minor effects on in situ soil CO 2 production and N mineralisation. Incubated soil under advanced spring conditions, however, revealed an impaired microbial metabolism shortly after snow removal, characterised by a limited capacity for C-mineralisation of both fresh plant-derived substrates and existing soil organic matter (SOM), leading to reduced priming effects. This effect was transient and the observed recovery in microbial respiration and SOM priming towards the end of the winter season indicated microbial resilience to short-lived freeze-thaw disturbance under field conditions. Bacteria showed a higher potential for uptake of plant-derived C substrates during this recovery phase. The observed temporary loss in microbial C-mineralisation capacity and the promotion of bacteria over fungi can likely impede winter SOM cycling in mountain grasslands under recurrent winter climate change events, with plausible implications for soil nutrient availability and

  18. Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to mention a few. Plus, someone has to shovel the snow, right? Once outdoors, however, take precautions ... re going to get the family outside to shovel the snow? Fine, but take care. Snow shoveling ...

  19. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Rapid Clock Product Summary from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Rapid Clock Product Summary from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS)....

  20. Global animal production and nitrogen and phosphorus flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Jingmeng; Bai, Zhaohai; Ma, Lin; Oenema, Oene

    2017-01-01

    Animal production systems provide nutritious food for humans, income and survivability for numerous smallholder farms and transform residues to valuable products. However, animal production is implicated in human health issues (diet-related diseases, zoonosis, antimicrobial resistance) and

  1. Analyses of newly digitised and reconstructed snow series over the last 100+ years in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, S. C.; Wüthrich, C.; Croci-Maspoli, M.; Appenzeller, C.

    2010-09-01

    Snow is an important socio-economic factor in the Swiss Alpine region (tourism, hydro-electricity, drinking water) and responsible for considerable natural hazards such as avalanches. In addition, high-quality long-term snow series can be used as an excellent indicator of climate change. The objectives of this study are threefold. First, suitable long-term snow series from different altitudes and regions in Switzerland have been selected, missing data digitized and the entire series quality checked. Second, the long-term snow series have been used for trend analyses over a time period >100 years. Third, snow depth series have been reconstructed using daily new snow, temperature and precipitation as input variables. This made it possible to analyse snow depth related variables such as days with snow pack. Results show that the snow cover is varying substantially on seasonal and decadal time scales. The analyses of the decadal new snow trends during the last 100 years shows unprecedented low new snow sums in the winter seasons (DJF) of the 1990s. The 100 year trend of days with snow pack reveals a significant decrease for stations below 800 m asl in the winter season (DJF) and for stations around 1800 m asl in spring (MAM). Similar results were found for seasonal new snow sums. The results of the trend analyses are also discussed with respect to temperature and precipitation trends. Finally we will also shortly discuss how especially "precious" snow measurements have been identified and incorporated in a National Basic Climatological Network (NBCN) as well as in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS).

  2. The Goddard Snow Radiance Assimilation Project: An Integrated Snow Radiance and Snow Physics Modeling Framework for Snow/cold Land Surface Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Tedesco, M.; Reichle, R.; Choudhury, B.; Peters-Lidard C.; Foster, J.; Hall, D.; Riggs, G.

    2006-01-01

    Microwave-based retrievals of snow parameters from satellite observations have a long heritage and have so far been generated primarily by regression-based empirical "inversion" methods based on snapshots in time. Direct assimilation of microwave radiance into physical land surface models can be used to avoid errors associated with such retrieval/inversion methods, instead utilizing more straightforward forward models and temporal information. This approach has been used for years for atmospheric parameters by the operational weather forecasting community with great success. Recent developments in forward radiative transfer modeling, physical land surface modeling, and land data assimilation are converging to allow the assembly of an integrated framework for snow/cold lands modeling and radiance assimilation. The objective of the Goddard snow radiance assimilation project is to develop such a framework and explore its capabilities. The key elements of this framework include: a forward radiative transfer model (FRTM) for snow, a snowpack physical model, a land surface water/energy cycle model, and a data assimilation scheme. In fact, multiple models are available for each element enabling optimization to match the needs of a particular study. Together these form a modular and flexible framework for self-consistent, physically-based remote sensing and water/energy cycle studies. In this paper we will describe the elements and the integration plan. All modules will operate within the framework of the Land Information System (LIS), a land surface modeling framework with data assimilation capabilities running on a parallel-node computing cluster. Capabilities for assimilation of snow retrieval products are already under development for LIS. We will describe plans to add radiance-based assimilation capabilities. Plans for validation activities using field measurements will also be discussed.

  3. Temporal trend of the snow-related variables in Sierra Nevada in the last years: An analysis combining Earth Observation and hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio J.; Herrero, Javier; Bonet, Francisco J.; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is causing declines in snow-cover extent and duration in European mountain ranges. This is especially important in Mediterranean mountain ranges where the observed trends towards precipitation and higher temperatures can provoke problems of water scarcity. In this work, we analyzed temporal trends (2000 to 2014) of snow-related variables obtained from satellite and modelling data in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high-mountain range located in Southern Spain, at 37°N. Snow cover indicators (snow-cover duration, snow-cover onset dates and snow-cover melting dates) were obtained by processing images of MOD10A2 MODIS product using an automated workflow. Precipitation data were obtained using WiMMed, a complete and fully distributed hydrological model that is used to map the annual rainfall and snowfall with a resolution of 30x30 m over the whole study area. It uses expert algorithms to interpolate precipitation and temperature at an hourly scale, and simulates partition of precipitation into snowfall with several methods. For each snow-related indicator (snow-covers and snowfall), a trend analysis was applied at the MODIS pixel scale during the study period (2000-2014). We applied Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation in each of the pixels comprising Sierra Nevada. The trend analysis assesses the intensity, magnitude and degree of statistical significance during the period analysed. The spatial pattern of these trends was explored according to elevation ranges. Finally, we explored the relationship between trends of snow-cover related indicators and precipitation trends. Our results show that snow-cover has undergone significant changes in the last 14 years. 80 % of the pixels covering Sierra Nevada showed a negative trend in the duration of snow-cover. We also observed a delay in the snow-cover onset date (68.03 % pixels showing a positive trend in the snow-cover onset date) and an advance in the melt date (80.72 % of pixels followed a

  4. 76 FR 2930 - International Product Change-Global Expedited Package Services-Non- Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--Global Expedited Package Services-- Non- Published... request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published...--Non-Published Rates, to the Competitive Products List, and Notice of Filing (Under Seal) the Enabling...

  5. 76 FR 10403 - Hewlett Packard (HP), Global Product Development, Engineering Workstation Refresh Team, Working...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ...), Global Product Development, Engineering Workstation Refresh Team, Working On-Site at General Motors..., Non-Information Technology Business Development Team and Engineering Application Support Team, working... Hewlett Packard, Global Product Development, Engineering Workstation Refresh Team, working on-site at...

  6. High-resolution LIDAR and ground observations of snow cover in a complex forested terrain in the Sierra Nevada - implications for optical remote sensing of seasonal snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Harpold, A.; Hill, R.; McGwire, K.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal snow cover is a key component of the hydrologic regime in many regions of the world, especially those in temperate latitudes with mountainous terrain and dry summers. Such regions support large human populations which depend on the mountain snowpack for their water supplies. It is thus important to quantify snow cover accurately and continuously in these regions. Optical remote-sensing methods are able to detect snow and leverage space-borne spectroradiometers with global coverage such as MODIS to produce global snow cover maps. However, snow is harder to detect accurately in mountainous forested terrain, where topography influences retrieval algorithms, and importantly - forest canopies complicate radiative transfer and obfuscate the snow. Current satellite snow cover algorithms assume that fractional snow-covered area (fSCA) under the canopy is the same as the fSCA in the visible portion of the pixel. In-situ observations and first principles considerations indicate otherwise, therefore there is a need for improvement of the under-canopy correction of snow cover. Here, we leverage multiple LIDAR overflights and in-situ observations with a distributed fiber-optic temperature sensor (DTS) to quantify snow cover under canopy as opposed to gap areas at the Sagehen Experimental Forest in the Northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Snow-off LIDAR overflights from 2014 are used to create a baseline high-resolution digital elevation model and classify pixels at 1 m resolution as canopy-covered or gap. Low canopy pixels are excluded from the analysis. Snow-on LIDAR overflights conducted by the Airborne Snow Observatory in 2016 are then used to classify all pixels as snow-covered or not and quantify fSCA under canopies vs. in gap areas over the Sagehen watershed. DTS observations are classified as snow-covered or not based on diel temperature fluctuations and used as validation for the LIDAR observations. LIDAR- and DTS-derived fSCA is also compared with

  7. Impacts of Tariff and Non-tariff Trade Barriers on Global Forest Products Trade: An Application of the Global Forest Products Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.; Bogdanski, B.; Stennes, B.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Although there has been considerable analysis on the effects of trade measures on forest product markets, these have tended to focus on tariffs. There is growing concern about the impact of non-tariff trade measures on the global forest product sector. The objective of this study is to fill a gap

  8. Product design engineering - a global education trend in multidisciplinary training for creative product design

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-03-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering training. Product design engineering (PDE) is a new interdisciplinary programme combining the strengths of the industrial design and engineering. This paper examines the emergence of PDE in an environment of critique of conventional engineering education and exemplifies the current spread of programmes endorsing a hybrid programme of design and engineering skills. The paper exemplifies PDE with the analysis of the programme offered at Swinburne University of Technology (Australia), showing how the teaching of 'designerly' thinking to engineers produces a new graduate particularly suited to the current and future environment of produce design practice. The paper concludes with reflections on the significance of this innovative curriculum model for the field of product design and for engineering design in general.

  9. Experimental Insights on Natural Lava-Ice/Snow Interactions and Their Implications for Glaciovolcanic and Submarine Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. R.; Karson, J.; Wysocki, R.; Lev, E.; Bindeman, I. N.; Kueppers, U.

    2012-12-01

    Lava-ice-snow interactions have recently gained global attention through the eruptions of ice-covered volcanoes, particularly from Eyjafjallajokull in south-central Iceland, with dramatic effects on local communities and global air travel. However, as with most submarine eruptions, direct observations of lava-ice/snow interactions are rare. Only a few hundred potentially active volcanoes are presently ice-covered, these volcanoes are generally in remote places, and their associated hazards make close observation and measurements dangerous. Here we report the results of the first large-scale experiments designed to provide new constraints on natural interactions between lava and ice/snow. The experiments comprised controlled effusion of tens of kilograms of melted basalt on top of ice/snow, and provide insights about observations from natural lava-ice-snow interactions including new constraints for: 1) rapid lava advance along the ice-lava interface; 2) rapid downwards melting of lava flows through ice; 3) lava flow exploitation of pre-existing discontinuities to travel laterally beneath and within ice; and 4) formation of abundant limu o Pele and non-explosive vapor transport from the base to the top of the lava flow with minor O isotope exchange. The experiments are consistent with observations from eruptions showing that lava is more efficient at melting ice when emplaced on top of the ice as opposed to beneath the ice, as well as the efficacy of tephra cover for slowing melting. The experimental extrusion rates are as within the range of those for submarine eruptions as well, and reproduce some features seen in submarine eruptions including voluminous production of gas rich cavities within initially anhydrous lavas and limu on lava surfaces. Our initial results raise questions about the possibility of secondary ingestion of water by submarine and glaciovolcanic lava flows, and the origins of apparent primary gas cavities in those flows. Basaltic melt moving down

  10. Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maeirsperger; Stith T. Gower; Al A. Kirschbaum; Steve W. Runnings; Maosheng Zhaos; Steven C. Wofsy; Allison L. Dunn; Beverly E. Law; John L. Campbell; Walter C. Oechel; Hyo Jung Kwon; Tilden P. Meyers; Eric E. Small; Shirley A. Kurc; John A. Gamon

    2005-01-01

    Operational monitoring of global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) is now underway using imagery from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Evaluation of MODIS GPP and NPP products will require site-level studies across a range of biomes, with close attention to numerous scaling...

  11. The role of prostaglandins in livestock production | Okon | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... synthesized) fashion. Prostaglandins are therefore regarded as essential mediators of female reproductive processes, hence, this paper seeks to review the role of Prostaglandins which is exploited in livestock production especially oestrus synchronization and induced parturition. KEYWORDS: Prostaglandins, Production ...

  12. Snow farming: conserving snow over the summer season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian; Lehning, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Summer storage of snow for tourism has seen an increasing interest in the last years. Covering large snow piles with materials such as sawdust enables more than two-thirds of the initial snow volume to be conserved. We present detailed mass balance measurements of two sawdust-covered snow piles obtained by terrestrial laser scanning during summer 2015. Results indicate that 74 and 63 % of the snow volume remained over the summer for piles in Davos, Switzerland and Martell, Italy. If snow mass is considered instead of volume, the values increase to 83 and 72 %. The difference is attributed to settling and densification of the snow. Additionally, we adapted the one-dimensional, physically based snow cover model SNOWPACK to perform simulations of the sawdust-covered snow piles. Model results and measurements agreed extremely well at the point scale. Moreover, we analysed the contribution of the different terms of the surface energy balance to snow ablation for a pile covered with a 40 cm thick sawdust layer and a pile without insulation. Short-wave radiation was the dominant source of energy for both scenarios, but the moist sawdust caused strong cooling by long-wave emission and negative sensible and latent heat fluxes. This cooling effect reduces the energy available for melt by up to a factor of 12. As a result only 9 % of the net short-wave energy remained available for melt. Finally, sensitivity studies of the parameters thickness of the sawdust layer, air temperature, precipitation and wind speed were performed. We show that sawdust thickness has a tremendous effect on snow loss. Higher air temperatures and wind speeds increase snow ablation but less significantly. No significant effect of additional precipitation could be found as the sawdust remained wet during the entire summer with the measured quantity of rain. Setting precipitation amounts to zero, however, strongly increased melt. Overall, the 40 cm sawdust provides sufficient protection for mid

  13. New Faces of Globalization: Market Integration, Production Disintegration, Genesis of New Global Organizational Structures for Production and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmiza Pencea

    2010-01-01

    Due to trade liberalisation and ITC revolution, companies could imagine new and better ways of creating and delivering value. In search of higher efficiency, competitiveness and profits, they reorganise, choosing to focus on their core competencies and to globally outsource, or offshore non-core activities and functions. As a result, reorganisation and relocation became the new forces of change across economies, leading to the rise of new, more diverse and more efficient global organisational...

  14. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  15. Springtime warming and reduced snow cover from carbonaceous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Flanner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Boreal spring climate is uniquely susceptible to solar warming mechanisms because it has expansive snow cover and receives relatively strong insolation. Carbonaceous particles can influence snow coverage by warming the atmosphere, reducing surface-incident solar energy (dimming, and reducing snow reflectance after deposition (darkening. We apply a range of models and observations to explore impacts of these processes on springtime climate, drawing several conclusions: 1 Nearly all atmospheric particles (those with visible-band single-scatter albedo less than 0.999, including all mixtures of black carbon (BC and organic matter (OM, increase net solar heating of the atmosphere-snow column. 2 Darkening caused by small concentrations of particles within snow exceeds the loss of absorbed energy from concurrent dimming, thus increasing solar heating of snowpack as well (positive net surface forcing. Over global snow, we estimate 6-fold greater surface forcing from darkening than dimming, caused by BC+OM. 3 Equilibrium climate experiments suggest that fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of BC+OM induce 95% as much springtime snow cover loss over Eurasia as anthropogenic carbon dioxide, a consequence of strong snow-albedo feedback and large BC+OM emissions from Asia. 4 Of 22 climate models contributing to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, 21 underpredict the rapid warming (0.64°C decade−1 observed over springtime Eurasia since 1979. Darkening from natural and anthropogenic sources of BC and mineral dust exerts 3-fold greater forcing on springtime snow over Eurasia (3.9 W m−2 than North America (1.2 W m−2. Inclusion of this forcing significantly improves simulated continental warming trends, but does not reconcile the low bias in rate of Eurasian spring snow cover decline exhibited by all models, likely because BC deposition trends are negative or near-neutral over much of Eurasia. Improved Eurasian

  16. Why on the snow? Winter emergence strategies of snow-active Chironomidae (Diptera) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soszyńska-Maj, Agnieszka; Paasivirta, Lauri; Giłka, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    A long-term study of adult non-biting midges (Chironomidae) active in winter on the snow in mountain areas and lowlands in Poland yielded 35 species. The lowland and mountain communities differed significantly in their specific composition. The mountain assemblage was found to be more diverse and abundant, with a substantial contribution from the subfamily Diamesinae, whereas Orthocladiinae predominated in the lowlands. Orthocladius wetterensis Brundin was the most characteristic and superdominant species in the winter-active chironomid communities in both areas. Only a few specimens and species of snow-active chironomids were recorded in late autumn and early winter. The abundance of chironomids peaked in late February in the mountain and lowland areas with an additional peak in the mountain areas in early April. However, this second peak of activity consisted mainly of Orthocladiinae, as Diamesinae emerged earliest in the season. Most snow-active species emerged in mid- and late winter, but their seasonal patterns differed between the 2 regions as a result of the different species composition and the duration of snow cover in these regions. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient tests yielded positive results between each season and the number of chironomid individuals recorded in the mountain area. A positive correlation between air temperature, rising to +3.5 °C, and the number of specimens recorded on the snow in the mountain community was statistically significant. The winter emergence and mate-searching strategies of chironomids are discussed in the light of global warming, and a brief compilation of most important published data on the phenomena studied is provided. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Global Production Planning Process considering the Supply Risk of Overseas Manufacturing Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosang Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although global manufacturers can produce most of their final products in local plants, they need to source components or parts from desirable overseas manufacturing partners at low cost in order to fulfill customer orders. In this global manufacturing environment, capacity information for planning is usually imprecise owing to the various risks of overseas plants (e.g., foreign governments’ policies and labor stability. It is therefore not easy for decision-makers to generate a global production plan showing the production amounts at local plants and overseas manufacturing facilities operated by manufacturing partners. In this paper, we present a new global production planning process considering the supply risk of overseas manufacturing sites. First, local experts estimate the supply capacity of an overseas plant using their judgment to determine when the risk could occur and how large the risk impact would be. Next, we run a global production planning model with the estimated supply capacities. The proposed process systematically adopts the qualitative judgments of local experts in the global production planning process and thus can provide companies with a realistic global production plan. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed process with a real world case.

  18. Inter-firm relations in global manufacturing: disintegrated production and its globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrigel, G.; Zeitlin, J.; Morgan, G.; Campbell, J.; Crouch, C.; Pedersen, O.K.; Whitley, R.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter surveys the state of international scholarly debate on inter-firm relations in global manufacturing. It focuses on the evolving strategies of customers and suppliers within the value chains of core manufacturing industries, such as motor vehicles and complex mechanical engineering

  19. Unexpected Patterns in Snow and Dirt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2018-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Albert A. Bartlett published "Thermal patterns in the snow" in this journal. These are patterns produced by heat sources underneath the snow. Bartlett's articles encouraged me to pay attention to patterns in snow and to understanding them. At winter's end the last snow becomes dirty and is heaped into piles. This…

  20. Assimilation of snow cover and snow depth into a snow model to estimate snow water equivalent and snowmelt runoff in a Himalayan catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, Emmy E.; Wanders, Niko; Saloranta, Tuomo M.; Shea, Joseph M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Immerzeel, W.W.

    2017-01-01

    Snow is an important component of water storage in the Himalayas. Previous snowmelt studies in the Himalayas have predominantly relied on remotely sensed snow cover. However, snow cover data provide no direct information on the actual amount of water stored in a snowpack, i.e., the snow water

  1. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H. Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1 and 55.0 (Case 3 Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.

  2. Prevalence of Pure Versus Mixed Snow Cover Pixels across Spatial Resolutions in Alpine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Selkowitz

    2014-12-01

    and averaged 37 days. Our results suggest that mixed snow-covered snow-free pixels are common at the spatial resolutions imaged by both the Landsat and MODIS sensors. This highlights the additional information available from fractional SCA products and suggests fractional SCA can provide a major advantage for hydrological and climatological monitoring and modeling, particularly when accurate representation of the spatial distribution of snow cover is critical.

  3. A review of the sustainability of global livestock production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Judith L. Capper

    of livestock production, is that all foods have an environmental cost and that this is not ... only require the replacement of animal products with plant-based foods, but .... an ideological view of the perceived advantages of historical small-scale.

  4. The Darwin Enterprise: From Scientific Icon to Global Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    by comparison to what constitute the bulk of the ‘real’ Darwin Industry that since the 1870s until present day has grown into a multimillion franchise including a wealth of products from postcards and mugs to books, teaching materials,documentaries, major film production and myriads of websites. By 2009 the real...

  5. Estimation of the Carbon Footprint and Global Warming Potential in Rice Production Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastan, S.; Soltani, F.; Noormohamadi, G.; Madani, H.; Yadi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal management approaches can be adopted in order to increase crop productivity and lower the carbon footprint of grain products. The objective of this study was to estimate the carbon (C) footprint and global warming potential of rice production systems. In this experiment, rice production systems (including SRI, improved and conventional) were studied. All activities, field operations and data in production methods and at different input rates were monitored and recorded during 2012. Results showed that average global warming potential across production systems was equal to 2803.25 kg CO 2 -eq ha-1. The highest and least global warming potential were observed in the SRI and conventional systems, respectively. global warming potential per unit energy input was the least and most in SRI and conventional systems, respectively. Also, the SRI and conventional systems had the maximum and minimum global warming potential per unit energy output, respectively. SRI and conventional system had the greatest and least global warming potential per unit energy output, respectively. Therefore, the optimal management approach found in SRI resulted in a reduction in GHGs, global warming potential and the carbon footprint.

  6. Managing New Product Development Teams in a Globally Dispersed NPD Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Søren; Keinschmidt, Elko J.; de Brentani, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Globalization is a major market trend today, one characterized by both increased international competition as well as extensive opportunities for firms to expand their operations beyond current boundaries. Effectively dealing with this important change, however, makes the management of global new...... resources, team, and performance. For the empirical analysis, data are collected through a survey of 467 corporate global new product programs (North America and Europe, business-to-business). A structural model testing for the hypothesized effects was substantially supported. The results show that creating...... product development (NPD) a major concern. To ensure success in this complex and competitive endeavor, companies must rely on global NPD teams that make use of the talents and knowledge available in different parts of the global organization. Thus, cohesive and well-functioning global NPD teams become...

  7. Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) Daily Snow Depth Analysis Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of a Northern Hemisphere subset of the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) operational global daily snow depth analysis. Data include daily...

  8. Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, József; Harangi-Rákos, Mónika; Gabnai, Zoltán; Balogh, Péter; Antal, Gabriella; Bai, Attila

    2016-02-29

    This review studies biofuel expansion in terms of competition between conventional and advanced biofuels based on bioenergy potential. Production of advanced biofuels is generally more expensive than current biofuels because products are not yet cost competitive. What is overlooked in the discussion about biofuel is the contribution the industry makes to the global animal feed supply and land use for cultivation of feedstocks. The global ethanol industry produces 44 million metric tonnes of high-quality feed, however, the co-products of biodiesel production have a moderate impact on the feed market contributing to just 8-9 million tonnes of protein meal output a year. By economically displacing traditional feed ingredients co-products from biofuel production are an important and valuable component of the biofuels sector and the global feed market. The return of co-products to the feed market has agricultural land use (and GHG emissions) implications as well. The use of co-products generated from grains and oilseeds can reduce net land use by 11% to 40%. The proportion of global cropland used for biofuels is currently some 2% (30-35 million hectares). By adding co-products substituted for grains and oilseeds the land required for cultivation of feedstocks declines to 1.5% of the global crop area.

  9. Role of water management for global food production and poverty alleviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, E.; Tardieu, H.; Vidal, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the coming 25-30 years global food production will have to be doubled in order to maintain food security at the global level. With respect to this to a certain extent the advantage is that food prices have increased over the past seven to eight years, and especially during the past two years.

  10. New science for global sustainability? The institutionalisation of knowledge co-production in Future Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hel, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of complex and unprecedented issues of global change, calls for new modes of knowledge production that are better equipped to address urgent challenges of global sustainability are increasingly frequent. This paper presents a case study of the new major research programme “Future

  11. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a digital map of human appropriation of net...

  12. Effects of Climate Change on Global Food Production from SRES Emissions and Socioeconomic Scenarios

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effects of Climate Change on Global Food Production from SRES Emissions and Socioeconomic Scenarios is an update to a major crop modeling study by the NASA Goddard...

  13. Evaluation of globally available precipitation data products as input for water balance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrenz, H.; Bárdossy, A.

    2009-04-01

    Subject of this study is the evaluation of globally available precipitation data products, which are intended to be used as input variables for water balance models in ungauged basins. The selected data sources are a) the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), b) the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and c) the Climate Research Unit (CRU), resulting into twelve globally available data products. The data products imply different data bases, different derivation routines and varying resolutions in time and space. For validation purposes, the ground data from South Africa were screened on homogeneity and consistency by various tests and an outlier detection using multi-linear regression was performed. External Drift Kriging was subsequently applied on the ground data and the resulting precipitation arrays were compared to the different products with respect to quantity and variance.

  14. The consequences of product markets globalization for Ukraine’s national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Maryna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The features of global commodity markets have been considered in the article. The purpose of the article is to identify the sources and consequences of commodity markets globalization observable in the world economy and to develop the recommendations as for the state and corporate governance in the context of global competition. The author’s attention is paid to transnational corporations that make up the most significant competition in the global commodity markets. The influence of transnational business on product markets has been investigated. The last is defined as a product of globalization on the one hand, and becomes a catalyst of globalization processes on the other hand. Also the place of Ukraine in global ratings has been traced. It has been proved that the most effective way of behavior of Ukrainian enterprises on the global commodity markets among all the possible variants is the way of innovation development. Despite the reduction of the government regulatory role in the global economy it has been recommended the adoption of effective management decisions to support of the domestic producers but not at the expense of a healthy global competition.

  15. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  16. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  17. The Electrical Self-Potential Method as a Non-Intrusive Snow-Hydrological Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulessa, B.; Thompson, S. S.; Luethi, M. P.; Essery, R.

    2015-12-01

    Building on growing momentum in the application of geophysical techniques to snow problems and, specifically, on new theory and an electrical geophysical snow hydrological model published recently; we demonstrate for the first time that the electrical self-potential geophysical technique can sense in-situ bulk meltwater fluxes. This has broad and immediate implications for snow measurement practice, modelling and operational snow forecasting. Our ability to measure, quantify and assimilate hydrological properties and processes of snow in operational models is disproportionally poor compared to the significance of seasonal snowmelt as a global water resource and major risk factor in flood and avalanche forecasting. Encouraged by recent theoretical, modelling and laboratory work, we show here that the diurnal evolution of aerially-distributed self-potential magnitudes closely track those of bulk meltwater fluxes in melting in-situ snowpacks at Rhone and Jungfraujoch glaciers, Switzerland. Numerical modelling infers temporally-evolving liquid water contents in the snowpacks on successive days in close agreement with snow-pit measurements. Muting previous concerns, the governing physical and chemical properties of snow and meltwater became temporally invariant for modelling purposes. Because measurement procedure is straightforward and readily automated for continuous monitoring over significant spatial scales, we conclude that the self-potential geophysical method is a highly-promising non-intrusive snow-hydrological sensor for measurement practice, modelling and operational snow forecasting.

  18. Factors Controlling Black Carbon Deposition in Snow in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L.; Li, Q.; He, C.; Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of black carbon (BC) concentration in snow in the Arctic to BC emissions, dry deposition and wet scavenging efficiency using a 3D global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem driven by meteorological field GEOS-5. With all improvements, simulated median BC concentration in snow agrees with observation (19.2 ng g-1) within 10%, down from -40% in the default GEOS-Chem. When the previously missed gas flaring emissions (mainly located in Russia) are included, the total BC emission in the Arctic increases by 70%. The simulated BC in snow increases by 1-7 ng g-1, with the largest improvement in Russia. The discrepancy of median BC in snow in the whole Arctic reduces from -40% to -20%. In addition, recent measurements of BC dry deposition velocity suggest that the constant deposition velocity of 0.03 cm s-1 over snow and ice used in the GEOS-Chem is too low. So we apply resistance-in-series method to calculate the dry deposition velocity over snow and ice and the resulted dry deposition velocity ranges from 0.03 to 0.24 cm s-1. However, the simulated total BC deposition flux in the Arctic and BC in snow does not change, because the increased dry deposition flux has been compensated by decreased wet deposition flux. However, the fraction of dry deposition to total deposition increases from 16% to 25%. This may affect the mixing of BC and snow particles and further affect the radative forcing of BC deposited in snow. Finally, we reduced the scavenging efficiency of BC in mixed-phase clouds to account for the effect of Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process based on recent observations. The simulated BC concentration in snow increases by 10-100%, with the largest increase in Greenland (100%), Tromsø (50%), Alaska (40%), and Canadian Arctic (30%). Annual BC loading in the Arctic increases from 0.25 to 0.43 mg m-2 and the lifetime of BC increases from 9.2 to 16.3 days. This indicates that BC simulation in the Arctic is really sensitive to

  19. An Australian Feeling for Snow: Towards Understanding Cultural and Emotional Dimensions of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gorman-Murray

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, snow is associated with alpine and subalpine regions in rural areas; snow is a component of ‘natural’ rather than urban environments. But the range, depth and duration of Australia’s regional snow cover is imperilled by climate change. While researchers have considered the impacts of snow retreat on the natural environment and responses from the mainland ski industry, this paper explores associated cultural and emotional dimensions of climate change. This responds to calls to account for local meanings of climate, and thus localised perceptions of and responses to climate change. Accordingly, this paper presents a case study of reactions to the affect of climate change on Tasmania’s snow country. Data is drawn from a nationwide survey of responses to the impact of climate change on Australia’s snow country, and a Tasmanian focus group. Survey respondents suggested the uneven distribution of Australia’s snow country means snow cover loss may matter more in certain areas: Tasmania was a key example cited by residents of both that state and others. Focus group respondents affirmed a connection between snow and Tasmanian cultural identity, displaying sensitivity to recent changing snow patterns. Moreover, they expressed concerns about the changes using emotive descriptions of local examples: the loss of snow cover mattered culturally and emotionally, compromising local cultural activities and meanings, and invoking affective responses. Simultaneously, respondents were ‘realistic’ about how important snow loss was, especially juxtaposed with sea level rise. Nevertheless, the impact of climate change on cultural and emotional attachments can contribute to urgent ethical, practical and political arguments about arresting global warming.

  20. Balancing needs. Global trends in uranium production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolet, J.P.; Underhill, D.

    1998-01-01

    In many countries, uranium is a major energy resource, fueling nuclear power plants that collectively generate about 17% of the world's electricity. With global demand for energy especially electricity projected to grow rapidly over the coming decades, the price and availability of all energy sources, including uranium, are key components in the process of energy planning and decision-making. Particularly affecting the uranium market were changing projections about nuclear power's growth and the consequent demand for nuclear fuel; the emergence of a more integrated free market system including former centrally planned economies; and the emergence into the civilian market of uranium released from dismantled nuclear weapons. All these factors contributed to uncertainties in the commercial uranium market that raised questions about future fuel supplies for nuclear power plants. Signs today indicate that the situation is changing. The world uranium market is moving towards a more balanced relationship between supply and demand

  1. Contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas emissions. An estimation based on typical farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin; Ndambi, Asaah; Hemme, Torsten; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2012-02-01

    Studies on the contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are rare (FAO 2010) and often based on crude data which do not appropriately reflect the heterogeneity of farming systems. This article estimates GHG emissions from milk production in different dairy regions of the world based on a harmonised farm data and assesses the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions. The methodology comprises three elements: (1) the International Farm Comparison Network (IFCN) concept of typical farms and the related globally standardised dairy model farms representing 45 dairy regions in 38 countries; (2) a partial life cycle assessment model for estimating GHG emissions of the typical dairy farms; and (3) standard regression analysis to estimate GHG emissions from milk production in countries for which no typical farms are available in the IFCN database. Across the 117 typical farms in the 38 countries analysed, the average emission rate is 1.50 kg CO(2) equivalents (CO(2)-eq.)/kg milk. The contribution of milk production to the global anthropogenic emissions is estimated at 1.3 Gt CO(2)-eq./year, accounting for 2.65% of total global anthropogenic emissions (49 Gt; IPCC, Synthesis Report for Policy Maker, Valencia, Spain, 2007). We emphasise that our estimates of the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions are subject to uncertainty. Part of the uncertainty stems from the choice of the appropriate methods for estimating emissions at the level of the individual animal.

  2. The global contribution of energy consumption by product exports from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Erzi; Peng, Chong

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a model to analyze the mechanism of the global contribution of energy usage by product exports. The theoretical analysis is based on the perspective that contribution estimates should be in relatively smaller sectors in which the production characteristics could be considered, such as the productivity distribution for each sector. Then, we constructed a method to measure the global contribution of energy usage. The simple method to estimate the global contribution is the percentage of goods export volume compared to the GDP as a multiple of total energy consumption, but this method underestimates the global contribution because it ignores the structure of energy consumption and product export in China. According to our measurement method and based on the theoretical analysis, we calculated the global contribution of energy consumption only by industrial manufactured product exports in a smaller sector per industry or manufacturing sector. The results indicated that approximately 42% of the total energy usage in the whole economy for China in 2013 was contributed to foreign regions. Along with the primary products and service export in China, the global contribution of energy consumption for China in 2013 by export was larger than 42% of the total energy usage.

  3. Laurel wilt: A global threat to avocado production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). The disease threatens commercial avocado production in Florida, as well as the National Germplasm Repository for avocado in Miami (USDA-ARS). Elsewhere in the US, major (California) and minor comm...

  4. Forward-looking Assimilation of MODIS-derived Snow Covered Area into a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Rodell, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Snow cover over land has a significant impact on the surface radiation budget, turbulent energy fluxes to the atmosphere, and local hydrological fluxes. For this reason, inaccuracies in the representation of snow covered area (SCA) within a land surface model (LSM) can lead to substantial errors in both offline and coupled simulations. Data assimilation algorithms have the potential to address this problem. However, the assimilation of SCA observations is complicated by an information deficit in the observation SCA indicates only the presence or absence of snow, and not snow volume and by the fact that assimilated SCA observations can introduce inconsistencies with atmospheric forcing data, leading to non-physical artifacts in the local water balance. In this paper we present a novel assimilation algorithm that introduces MODIS SCA observations to the Noah LSM in global, uncoupled simulations. The algorithm utilizes observations from up to 72 hours ahead of the model simulation in order to correct against emerging errors in the simulation of snow cover while preserving the local hydrologic balance. This is accomplished by using future snow observations to adjust air temperature and, when necessary, precipitation within the LSM. In global, offline integrations, this new assimilation algorithm provided improved simulation of SCA and snow water equivalent relative to open loop integrations and integrations that used an earlier SCA assimilation algorithm. These improvements, in turn, influenced the simulation of surface water and energy fluxes both during the snow season and, in some regions, on into the following spring.

  5. Spatiotemporal variability of snow depth across the Eurasian continent from 1966 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xinyue; Zhang, Tingjun; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Kang; Zheng, Lei; Hu, Yuantao; Wang, Huijuan

    2018-01-01

    Snow depth is one of the key physical parameters for understanding land surface energy balance, soil thermal regime, water cycle, and assessing water resources from local community to regional industrial water supply. Previous studies by using in situ data are mostly site specific; data from satellite remote sensing may cover a large area or global scale, but uncertainties remain large. The primary objective of this study is to investigate spatial variability and temporal change in snow depth across the Eurasian continent. Data used include long-term (1966-2012) ground-based measurements from 1814 stations. Spatially, long-term (1971-2000) mean annual snow depths of >20 cm were recorded in northeastern European Russia, the Yenisei River basin, Kamchatka Peninsula, and Sakhalin. Annual mean and maximum snow depth increased by 0.2 and 0.6 cm decade-1 from 1966 through 2012. Seasonally, monthly mean snow depth decreased in autumn and increased in winter and spring over the study period. Regionally, snow depth significantly increased in areas north of 50° N. Compared with air temperature, snowfall had greater influence on snow depth during November through March across the former Soviet Union. This study provides a baseline for snow depth climatology and changes across the Eurasian continent, which would significantly help to better understanding climate system and climate changes on regional, hemispheric, or even global scales.

  6. Modelling the snowmelt and the snow water equivalent by creating a simplified energy balance conceptual snow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboust, Philippe; Thirel, Guillaume; Le Moine, Nicolas; Ribstein, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    snowpack were modelled by using analytical solutions to the heat equation taking phase change into account. This approach has the advantage to use few forcing variables and to take into account all the processes of the energy balance. Indeed, the simulations should be quick enough to allow, for example, ensemble prediction or simulation of numerous basins, more easily than physical snow models. The snow module formulation has been completed and is in its validation phase using data from the experimental station of Col de Porte, Alpes, France. Data from the US SNOTEL product will be used in order to test the model structure on a larger scale and to test diverse calibration procedures, since the aim is to use it on a basin scale for discharge modelling purposes.

  7. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Final Clock Product (5 minute resolution, daily files, generated weekly) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Final Satellite and Receiver Clock Product (5-minute granularity, daily files, generated...

  8. The stepwise discriminant algorithm for snow cover mapping based on FY-3/MERSI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Youyan; Wang, Xiaowei

    2013-10-01

    Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on board China's new generation polar orbit meteorological satellite FY- 3A provides a new data source for snow monitoring in large area. As a case study, the typical snow cover of Qilian Mountains in northwest China was selected in this paper to develop the algorithm to map snow cover using FY- 3A/MERSI. By analyzing the spectral response characteristics of snow and other surface elements, as well as each channel image quality on FY-3A/MERSI, the widely used Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) was defined to be computed from channel 2 and channel 7 for this satellite data. Basing on NDSI, a tree-structure prototype version of snow identification model was proposed, including five newly-built multi-spectral indexes to remove those pixels such as forest, cloud shadow, water, lake ice, sand (salty land), or cloud that are usually confused with snow step by step, especially, a snow/cloud discrimination index was proposed to eliminate cloud, apart from use of cloud mask product in advance. Furthermore, land cover land use (LULC) image has been adopted as auxiliary dataset to adjust the corresponding LULC NDSI threshold constraints for snow final determination and optimization. This model is composed as the core of FY-3A/MERSI snow cover mapping flowchart, to produce daily snow map at 250m spatial resolution, and statistics can be generated on the extent and persistence of snow cover in each pixel for time series maps. Preliminary validation activities of our snow identification model have been undertaken. Comparisons of the 104 FY- 3A/MERSI snow cover maps in 2010-2011 snow season with snow depth records from 16 meteorological stations in Qilian Mountains region, the sunny snow cover had an absolute accuracy of 92.8%. Results of the comparison with the snow cover identified from 6 Terra/MODIS scenes showed that they had consistent pixels about 85%. When the two satellite resultant snow cover maps compared with the 6

  9. Role of Marine Snows in Microplastic Fate and Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Adam; Lyons, Brett P; Galloway, Tamara S; Lewis, Ceri

    2018-06-01

    Microplastics contaminate global oceans and are accumulating in sediments at levels thought sufficient to leave a permanent layer in the fossil record. Despite this, the processes that vertically transport buoyant polymers from surface waters to the benthos are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that laboratory generated marine snows can transport microplastics of different shapes, sizes, and polymers away from the water surface and enhance their bioavailability to benthic organisms. Sinking rates of all tested microplastics increased when incorporated into snows, with large changes observed for the buoyant polymer polyethylene with an increase in sinking rate of 818 m day -1 and for denser polyamide fragments of 916 m day -1 . Incorporation into snows increased microplastic bioavailability for mussels, where uptake increased from zero to 340 microplastics individual -1 for free microplastics to up to 1.6 × 10 5 microplastics individual -1 when incorporated into snows. We therefore propose that marine snow formation and fate has the potential to play a key role in the biogeochemical processing of microplastic pollution.

  10. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborte, Alice G; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M V R; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It consists of data on rice planting and harvesting dates by growing season and estimates of monthly production for all rice-producing countries. Sources used for planting and harvesting dates include global and regional databases, national publications, online reports, and expert knowledge. Monthly production data were estimated based on annual or seasonal production statistics, and planting and harvesting dates. RiceAtlas has 2,725 spatial units. Compared with available global crop calendars, RiceAtlas is nearly ten times more spatially detailed and has nearly seven times more spatial units, with at least two seasons of calendar data, making RiceAtlas the most comprehensive and detailed spatial database on rice calendar and production.

  11. Global warming and hepatotoxin production by cyanobacteria: what can we learn from experiments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shehawy, Rehab; Gorokhova, Elena; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca; del Campo, Francisca F

    2012-04-01

    Global temperature is expected to rise throughout this century, and blooms of cyanobacteria in lakes and estuaries are predicted to increase with the current level of global warming. The potential environmental, economic and sanitation repercussions of these blooms have attracted considerable attention among the world's scientific communities, water management agencies and general public. Of particular concern is the worldwide occurrence of hepatotoxic cyanobacteria posing a serious threat to global public health. Here, we highlight plausible effects of global warming on physiological and molecular changes in these cyanobacteria and resulting effects on hepatotoxin production. We also emphasize the importance of understanding the natural biological function(s) of hepatotoxins, various mechanisms governing their synthesis, and climate-driven changes in food-web interactions, if we are to predict consequences of the current and projected levels of global warming for production and accumulation of hepatotoxins in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient protein production by yeast requires global tuning of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Mingtao; Bao, Jichen; Hallstrom, Bjorn M.

    2017-01-01

    The biotech industry relies on cell factories for production of pharmaceutical proteins, of which several are among the top-selling medicines. There is, therefore, considerable interest in improving the efficiency of protein production by cell factories. Protein secretion involves numerous...... intracellular processes with many underlying mechanisms still remaining unclear. Here, we use RNA-seq to study the genome-wide transcriptional response to protein secretion in mutant yeast strains. We find that many cellular processes have to be attuned to support efficient protein secretion. In particular...... that by tuning metabolism cells are able to efficiently secrete recombinant proteins. Our findings provide increased understanding of which cellular regulations and pathways are associated with efficient protein secretion....

  13. Patterns and Features of Global Uranium Resources and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Song, Zisheng; Cheng, Xianghu; Huanhuan, MA

    2017-11-01

    With the entry into force of the Paris Agreement, the development of clean and low-carbon energy has become the consensus of the world. Nuclear power is one energy that can be vigorously developed today and in the future. Its sustainable development depends on a sufficient supply of uranium resources. It is of great practical significance to understand the distribution pattern of uranium resources and production. Based on the latest international authoritative reports and data, this paper analysed the distribution of uranium resources, the distribution of resources and production in the world, and the developing tendency in future years. The results show that the distribution of uranium resources is uneven in the world, and the discrepancies between different type deposits is very large. Among them, sandstone-type uranium deposits will become the main type owing to their advantages of wide distribution, minor environmental damage, mature mining technology and high economic benefit.

  14. Will Global Change Effect Primary Productivity in Coastal Ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Algae are the base of coastal food webs because they provide the source of organic carbon for the remaining members of the community. Thus, the rate that they produce organic carbon to a large extent controls the productivity of the entire ecosystem. Factors that control algal productivity range from the physical (e.g., temperature, light), chemical (e.g., nutrient levels) to the biological (e.g., grazing). Currently, levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide surficial fluxes of ultraviolet radiation are rising. Both of these environmental variables can have a profound effect on algal productivity. Atmospheric carbon dioxide may increase surficial levels of dissolved inorganic carbon. Our laboratory and field studies of algal mats and phytoplankton cultures under ambient and elevated levels of pCO2 show that elevated levels of inorganic carbon can cause an increase in photosynthetic rates. In some cases, this increase will cause an increase in phytoplankton numbers. There may be an increase in the excretion of fixed carbon, which in turn may enhance bacterial productivity. Alternatively, in analogy with studies on the effect of elevated pCO2 on plants, the phytoplankton could change their carbon to nitrogen ratios, which will effect the feeding of the planktonic grazers. The seasonal depletion of stratospheric ozone has resulted in elevated fluxes of UVB radiation superimposed on the normal seasonal variation. Present surface UV fluxes have a significant impact on phytoplankton physiology, including the inhibition of the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis, inhibition of nitrogenase activity, inhibition of heterocyst formation, reduction in motility, increased synthesis of the UV-screening pigment scytonemin, and mutation. After reviewing these issues, recent work in our lab on measuring the effect of UV radiation on phytoplankton in the San Francisco Bay Estuary will be presented.

  15. The long-term Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Our Earth's environment is experiencing rapid changes due to natural variability and human activities. To monitor, understand and predict environment changes to meet the economic, social and environmental needs, use of long-term high-quality satellite data products is critical. The Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite, generated at Beijing Normal University, currently includes 12 products, including leaf area index (LAI), broadband shortwave albedo, broadband longwave emissivity, downwelling shortwave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation, land surface skin temperature, longwave net radiation, daytime all-wave net radiation, fraction of absorbed photosynetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FAPAR), fraction of green vegetation coverage, gross primary productivity (GPP), and evapotranspiration (ET). Most products span from 1981-2014. The algorithms for producing these products have been published in the top remote sensing related journals and books. More and more applications have being reported in the scientific literature. The GLASS products are freely available at the Center for Global Change Data Processing and Analysis of Beijing Normal University (http://www.bnu-datacenter.com/), and the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility (http://glcf.umd.edu). After briefly introducing the basic characteristics of GLASS products, we will present some applications on the long-term environmental changes detected from GLASS products at both global and local scales. Detailed analysis of regional hotspots, such as Greenland, Tibetan plateau, and northern China, will be emphasized, where environmental changes have been mainly associated with climate warming, drought, land-atmosphere interactions, and human activities.

  16. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL GEOCHEMICAL INDEXES OF PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay S. Kasimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a geochemical assessment of the primary involvement of chemical elements in technogenesis in the world and individual countries. In order to compare the intensity of production of various chemical elements in different countries, the authors have introduced a number of new terms and parameters. The new term is “abstract rock” (AR - an elemental equivalent, whose average composition corresponds to the average chemical composition of the upper continental crust. The new parameters are: “conditional technophility of an element” (TY, “specific technophility” (TYN “regional conditional technophility” (TYR, “specific regional technophility” (TN, and “density of regional conditional technophility” (TS. TY equals to the tons of AR per year necessary for the production of the current level of the element. TY of different elements has been estimated for 2008-2010. The highest TY values are associated with C, S, N, Ra, and Au. TY of many micro- and ultramicroelements is of the order of n•1011t. TYN reflects the volume of AR per the world’s capita. TYN changes from the 1960s to 2010 indicates that the Earth’s population is growing much faster than its demand for many chemical elements. TYR, TN, and TS were used for the integrated assessment of technogenesis at the regional scale; they reflect the intensity of the technogenesis process at the level of individual countries and allow comparing countries with different levels of elements production, population, and areas. The TN and TS levels of the leaders in extraction of natural resources are below these values in other countries due to the large territories (Russia, USA, Canada, Australia, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Bolivia, Venezuela, Colombia, Zambia, Mali, Libya, Mongolia, and Sudan, to the large population (Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Nigeria, or to both high spatial and demographic dimensions (India, Brazil, France, Egypt

  17. Embodied HANPP. Mapping the spatial disconnect between global biomass production and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Krausmann, Fridolin; Haberl, Helmut; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Biomass trade results in a growing spatial disconnect between environmental impacts due to biomass production and the places where biomass is being consumed. The pressure on ecosystems resulting from the production of traded biomass, however, is highly variable between regions and products. We use the concept of embodied human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) to map the spatial disconnect between net-producing and net-consuming regions. Embodied HANPP comprises total biomass withdrawals and land use induced changes in productivity resulting from the provision of biomass products. International net transfers of embodied HANPP are of global significance, amounting to 1.7 PgC/year. Sparsely populated regions are mainly net producers, densely populated regions net consumers, independent of development status. Biomass consumption and trade are expected to surge over the next decades, suggesting a need to sustainably manage supply and demand of products of ecosystems on a global level. (author)

  18. To Capture Dynamic Shop Floor Knowledge in Global Production Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2007-01-01

    ­ing of the jobs to be transferred and has led to a changed focus for training new workers. Secondly, the paper will address how to capture the knowl­edge associated with carrying out these jobs. And third, planning the trans­fer process will be discussed to form a basis for future continuous improve...... industrial companies with plans to transfer production units to an­other location, this paper addresses  the initial steps of pursuing this issue by presenting and testing a model for identification of the activities, task and  knowledge on the shop floor jobs. This has provided a broader understand...

  19. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  20. Finding horse meat in beef products--a global problem.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, P J

    2013-06-01

    The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) oversees the implementation of food safety controls in Ireland which are set out in EU and Irish law. The FSAI, a science-based consumer protection organization, has nurtured a close relationship with the scientific community allowing it to utilize the best scientific advice available to underpin risk assessments. In early 2013, a 2-month long investigation in to the authenticity of beef products culminated in the publication of results that demonstrated the presence of horse meat in a frozen burger produced in Ireland. The events that followed revealed a pan-European food fraud which will likely result in significant changes in the way this small section of the meat industry will be regulated in the future in the EU. Although revelations of implicated products and food businesses have relented, the EU-wide investigation is continuing in an effort to determine how a food fraud of this scale could have occurred in such a highly regulated industry and who was involved. The FSAI initially received some criticism after publication of the results, but was also commended for its scientific approach as well as its openness and transparency. The end result of this incident is likely to be that the complexity of the food chain will be addressed again and DNA-based or similar methods will become a regular feature in verifying the authenticity of meat-based foods.

  1. Increasing crop production in Russia and Ukraine—regional and global impacts from intensification and recultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppermann, Andre; Balkovič, Juraj; Bundle, Sophie-Charlotte; Di Fulvio, Fulvio; Havlik, Petr; Leclère, David; Lesiv, Myroslava; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2018-02-01

    Russia and Ukraine are countries with relatively large untapped agricultural potentials, both in terms of abandoned agricultural land and substantial yield gaps. Here we present a comprehensive assessment of Russian and Ukrainian crop production potentials and we analyze possible impacts of their future utilization, on a regional as well as global scale. To this end, the total amount of available abandoned land and potential yields in Russia and Ukraine are estimated and explicitly implemented in an economic agricultural sector model. We find that cereal (barley, corn, and wheat) production in Russia and Ukraine could increase by up to 64% in 2030 to 267 million tons, compared to a baseline scenario. Oilseeds (rapeseed, soybean, and sunflower) production could increase by 84% to 50 million tons, respectively. In comparison to the baseline, common net exports of Ukraine and Russia could increase by up to 86.3 million tons of cereals and 18.9 million tons of oilseeds in 2030, representing 4% and 3.6% of the global production of these crops, respectively. Furthermore, we find that production potentials due to intensification are ten times larger than potentials due to recultivation of abandoned land. Consequently, we also find stronger impacts from intensification at the global scale. A utilization of crop production potentials in Russia and Ukraine could globally save up to 21 million hectares of cropland and reduce average global crop prices by more than 3%.

  2. Harnessing biofuels. A global Renaissance in energy production?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegannathan, Kenthorai Raman; Chan, Eng-Seng; Ravindra, Pogaku [Centre of Materials and Minerals, School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2009-10-15

    Biofuel, peoples' long awaiting alternative fuel, is yet to struggle a long way to reach in retail outlet all over the world as an economical and environmental friendly fuel. Biofuels include bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas, bio-synthetic gas (bio-syngas), bio-oil, bio-char, Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and biohydrogen. Among these bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas are predominant which can be produced either using chemical catalyst or biocatalyst from biomass. At present, the conventional process involves the chemical catalyst while a rigorous research is focused on using a biocatalyst. This review brings out the advantages and disadvantages of using different type of catalyst in biofuel production and emphasis on new technologies as an alternative to conventional technologies. (author)

  3. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefani Daryanto

    Full Text Available Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and green gram (Vigna radiate. Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  4. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  5. Global Trends and Development Prospects for Oil and the Oil Products Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dorozhkina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the important issue of the development of the global market of oil and oil products. It offers an overview of how this market was formed and its current status, classification, location and potential of countries in the oil and oil processing business. It analyzes the Ukrainian oil products market. The article discusses the shortcomings and strategic areas for the development of Ukraine’s oil transport system. It presents an optimum method for creating integration groups in order to develop the oil processing business in Ukraine for the future. The article considers the main trends and outlines development prospects for the global oil and oil products market.

  6. Developing an A Priori Database for Passive Microwave Snow Water Retrievals Over Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mengtao; Liu, Guosheng

    2017-12-01

    A physically optimized a priori database is developed for Global Precipitation Measurement Microwave Imager (GMI) snow water retrievals over ocean. The initial snow water content profiles are derived from CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) measurements. A radiative transfer model in which the single-scattering properties of nonspherical snowflakes are based on the discrete dipole approximate results is employed to simulate brightness temperatures and their gradients. Snow water content profiles are then optimized through a one-dimensional variational (1D-Var) method. The standard deviations of the difference between observed and simulated brightness temperatures are in a similar magnitude to the observation errors defined for observation error covariance matrix after the 1D-Var optimization, indicating that this variational method is successful. This optimized database is applied in a Bayesian retrieval snow water algorithm. The retrieval results indicated that the 1D-Var approach has a positive impact on the GMI retrieved snow water content profiles by improving the physical consistency between snow water content profiles and observed brightness temperatures. Global distribution of snow water contents retrieved from the a priori database is compared with CloudSat CPR estimates. Results showed that the two estimates have a similar pattern of global distribution, and the difference of their global means is small. In addition, we investigate the impact of using physical parameters to subset the database on snow water retrievals. It is shown that using total precipitable water to subset the database with 1D-Var optimization is beneficial for snow water retrievals.

  7. Chapter 6: New Products and Product Categories in the Global Forest Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Alan W. Rudie; Nicole M. Stark; Ronald C. Sabo; Sally A. Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Forests, covering about 30% of the earth’s land area, are a major component in the global ecosystem, influencing the carbon cycle, climate change, habitat protection, clean water supplies, and sustainable economies (FAO 2011). Globally, the vast cellulosic resource found in forests provides about half of all major industrial raw materials for renewable energy, chemical...

  8. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences} [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Wang, Dali [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL; Kang, Shujiang [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary global assessments of the deployment potential and sustainability aspects of biofuel crops lack quantitative details. This paper describes an analytical framework capable of meeting the challenges associated with global scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed a modeling platform for bioenergy crops, consisting of five major components: (i) standardized global natural resources and management data sets, (ii) global simulation unit and management scenarios, (iii) model calibration and validation, (iv) high-performance computing (HPC) modeling, and (v) simulation output processing and analysis. A case study with the HPC- Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (HPC-EPIC) to simulate a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and global biomass feedstock analysis on grassland demonstrates the application of this platform. The results illustrate biomass feedstock variability of switchgrass and provide insights on how the modeling platform can be expanded to better assess sustainable production criteria and other biomass crops. Feedstock potentials on global grasslands and within different countries are also shown. Future efforts involve developing databases of productivity, implementing global simulations for other bioenergy crops (e.g. miscanthus, energycane and agave), and assessing environmental impacts under various management regimes. We anticipated this platform will provide an exemplary tool and assessment data for international communities to conduct global analysis of biofuel biomass feedstocks and sustainability.

  9. Global resistance and resilience of primary production following extreme drought are predicted by mean annual precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Haëntjens, E. J.; De Boeck, H. J.; Lemoine, N. P.; Gough, C. M.; Kröel-Dulay, G.; Mänd, P.; Jentsch, A.; Schmidt, I. K.; Bahn, M.; Lloret, F.; Kreyling, J.; Wohlgemuth, T.; Stampfli, A.; Anderegg, W.; Classen, A. T.; Smith, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme drought is increasing globally in frequency and intensity, with uncertain consequences for the resistance and resilience of key ecosystem functions, including primary production. Primary production resistance, the capacity of an ecosystem to withstand change in primary production following extreme climate, and resilience, the degree to which primary production recovers, vary among and within ecosystem types, obscuring global patterns of resistance and resilience to extreme drought. Past syntheses on resistance have focused climatic gradients or individual ecosystem types, without assessing interactions between the two. Theory and many empirical studies suggest that forest production is more resistant but less resilient than grassland production to extreme drought, though some empirical studies reveal that these trends are not universal. Here, we conducted a global meta-analysis of sixty-four grassland and forest sites, finding that primary production resistance to extreme drought is predicted by a common continuum of mean annual precipitation (MAP). However, grasslands and forests exhibit divergent production resilience relationships with MAP. We discuss the likely mechanisms underlying the mixed production resistance and resilience patterns of forests and grasslands, including different plant species turnover times and drought adaptive strategies. These findings demonstrate the primary production responses of forests and grasslands to extreme drought are mixed, with far-reaching implications for Earth System Models, ecosystem management, and future studies of extreme drought resistance and resilience.

  10. An overview of global rice production, supply, trade, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Scott; Maberly, Glen F

    2014-09-01

    Rice is the staple food for over half the world's population. Approximately 480 million metric tons of milled rice is produced annually. China and India alone account for ∼50% of the rice grown and consumed. Rice provides up to 50% of the dietary caloric supply for millions living in poverty in Asia and is, therefore, critical for food security. It is becoming an important food staple in both Latin America and Africa. Record increases in rice production have been observed since the start of the Green Revolution. However, rice remains one of the most protected food commodities in world trade. Rice is a poor source of vitamins and minerals, and losses occur during the milling process. Populations that subsist on rice are at high risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency. Improved technologies to fortify rice have the potential to address these deficiencies and their associated adverse health effects. With the rice industry consolidating in many countries, there are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice for distribution or for use in government safety net programs that target those most in need, especially women and children. Multisectoral approaches are needed for the promotion and implementation of rice fortification in countries. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Innovative layer genetics to handle global challenges in egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisinger, Rudolf

    2018-02-01

    1. In commercial layer breeding, extensive gene pools are tested and selected for market requirements which must be anticipated at least 5 years ahead. Field results confirm a continuous positive genetic trend in egg output and better feed efficiency which can be converted into land savings. 2. Animal welfare and cage-free housing dominate future needs of the market. Nesting behaviour and minimal tendency to develop feather-pecking or cannibalism without beak treatment are key trait complexes. Stronger shells for longer production cycles without moulting have to be combined with better bones. 3. No single big gene effect can be expected to control the multifactorial problem of feather-pecking. Adjusting the shape of the beak, with a heritability of .10-.25, can contribute to reducing the risk of severe cannibalism. 4. For better skeletal integrity, the assessment of bone quality in pedigree birds housed in enriched cages is done by keel bone palpation or ultrasound measurement of the humerus. Both traits show similar heritabilities in the range of .15-.30 and can be included in a balanced selection approach for performance, quality and welfare traits. 5. The combination of performance testing and genome-wide DNA marker analysis is a promising tool to generate more progress for a balanced performance and behaviour profile.

  12. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thornton, Philip K.; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system. PMID:24344273

  13. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C; Thornton, Philip K; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-12-24

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system.

  14. Realism versus simplicity in the snow routine of the HBV model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Vis, Marc; Seibert, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The HBV model still enjoys great popularity, in part because of its simplicity. Depicting the hydrological processes in a catchment in a simple way reduces data requirements and minimises parameter uncertainty. However, the representation of some processes might benefit from an increased model complexity. This is, for instance, the case of snow routine in the HBV-light version of the HBV model. HBV-light uses a degree-day method with a single threshold parameter to distinguish between rain and snow and simulate snow melt. Recent research has shown that hydrological models with a more realistic representation of snow processes might be more successful in estimating runoff. In this study we explore and test different improvements to the HBV-light snow routine design by considering different threshold temperature values for rain and snow distinction as well as for the beginning of snow melt, and introducing gradual transitions instead of the current sharp threshold. The use of radiation data, which recently became available as gridded data product in Switzerland, is an additional possibility. These modifications would allow for a more realistic depiction of important hydrological processes in alpine and other snow-covered areas while preserving the characteristic simplicity of HBV. Furthermore, in this contribution we evaluate the balance between introducing more realism into the snow routine of the HBV model and keeping the number of parameters as low as possible.

  15. Role of nitrite in the photochemical formation of radicals in the snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Kleffmann, Jörg; Villena, Guillermo; Wiesen, Peter; King, Martin; France, James; Anastasio, Cort; Staebler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical reactions in snow can have an important impact on the composition of the atmosphere over snow-covered areas as well as on the composition of the snow itself. One of the major photochemical processes is the photolysis of nitrate leading to the formation of volatile nitrogen compounds. We report nitrite concentrations determined together with nitrate and hydrogen peroxide in surface snow collected at the coastal site of Barrow, Alaska. The results demonstrate that nitrite likely plays a significant role as a precursor for reactive hydroxyl radicals as well as volatile nitrogen oxides in the snow. Pollution events leading to high concentrations of nitrous acid in the atmosphere contributed to an observed increase in nitrite in the surface snow layer during nighttime. Observed daytime nitrite concentrations are much higher than values predicted from steady-state concentrations based on photolysis of nitrate and nitrite indicating that we do not fully understand the production of nitrite and nitrous acid in snow. The discrepancy between observed and expected nitrite concentrations is probably due to a combination of factors, including an incomplete understanding of the reactive environment and chemical processes in snow, and a lack of consideration of the vertical structure of snow.

  16. Snow contribution to springtime atmospheric predictability over the second half of the twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peings, Yannick [CNRM-GAME, Meteo-France et CNRS, Toulouse (France); CNRM/GMGEC/VDR, Toulouse (France); Douville, H.; Alkama, R.; Decharme, B. [CNRM-GAME, Meteo-France et CNRS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-09-15

    A set of global atmospheric simulations has been performed with the ARPEGE-Climat model in order to quantify the contribution of realistic snow conditions to seasonal atmospheric predictability in addition to that of a perfect sea surface temperature (SST) forcing. The focus is on the springtime boreal hemisphere where the combination of a significant snow cover variability and an increasing solar radiation favour the potential snow influence on the surface energy budget. The study covers the whole 1950-2000 period through the use of an original snow mass reanalysis based on an off-line land surface model and possibly constrained by satellite snow cover observations. Two ensembles of 10-member AMIP-type experiments have been first performed with relaxed versus free snow boundary conditions. The nudging towards the monthly snow mass reanalysis significantly improves both potential and actual predictability of springtime surface air temperature over Central Europe and North America. Yet, the impact is confined to the lower troposphere and there is no clear improvement in the predictability of the large-scale atmospheric circulation. Further constraining the prescribed snow boundary conditions with satellite observations does not change much the results. Finally, using the snow reanalysis only for initializing the model on March 1st also leads to a positive impact on predicted low-level temperatures but with a weaker amplitude and persistence. A conditional skill approach as well as some selected case studies provide some guidelines for interpreting these results and suggest that an underestimated snow cover variability and a misrepresentation of ENSO teleconnections may hamper the benefit of an improved snow initialization in the ARPEGE-Climat model. (orig.)

  17. Trends in the market of poultry production in the conditions of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyryliuk O.F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available according to the author, in modern conditions of globalization of food markets, the researching the state of the domestic market of poultry products in order to provide the population with high-grade food products is important. It is established that the formation of demand in the poultry market is mainly due to production by domestic producers, while imports for the period under review are being reduced and meet mainly the needs of processing industry enterprises.

  18. Response of alpine vegetation growth dynamics to snow cover phenology on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Wu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Alpine vegetation plays a crucial role in global energy cycles with snow cover, an essential component of alpine land cover showing high sensitivity to climate change. The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has a typical alpine vegetation ecosystem and is rich of snow resources. With global warming, the snow of the TP has undergone significant changes that will inevitably affect the growth of alpine vegetation, but observed evidence of such interaction is limited. In particular, a comprehensive understanding of the responses of alpine vegetation growth to snow cover variability is still not well characterized on TP region. To investigate this, we calculated three indicators, the start (SOS) and length (LOS) of growing season, and the maximum of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVImax) as proxies of vegetation growth dynamics from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data for 2000-2015. Snow cover duration (SCD) and melt (SCM) dates were also extracted during the same time frame from the combination of MODIS and the Interactive Multi-sensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) data. We found that the snow cover phenology had a strong control on alpine vegetation growth dynamics. Furthermore, the responses of SOS, LOS and NDVImax to snow cover phenology varied among plant functional types, eco-geographical zones, and temperature and precipitation gradients. The alpine steppes showed a much stronger negative correlation between SOS and SCD, and also a more evidently positive relationship between LOS and SCD than other types, indicating a longer SCD would lead to an earlier SOS and longer LOS. Most areas showed positive correlation between SOS and SCM, while a contrary response was also found in the warm but drier areas. Both SCD and SCM showed positive correlations with NDVImax, but the relationship became weaker with the increase of precipitation. Our findings provided strong evidences between vegetation growth and snow cover phenology, and changes in

  19. Spatiotemporal dynamics of snow cover based on multi-source remote sensing data in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Deng, Jie; Ma, Xiaofang; Wang, Yunlong; Feng, Qisheng; Hao, Xiaohua; Liang, Tiangang

    2016-10-01

    By combining optical remote sensing snow cover products with passive microwave remote sensing snow depth (SD) data, we produced a MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) cloudless binary snow cover product and a 500 m snow depth product. The temporal and spatial variations of snow cover from December 2000 to November 2014 in China were analyzed. The results indicate that, over the past 14 years, (1) the mean snow-covered area (SCA) in China was 11.3 % annually and 27 % in the winter season, with the mean SCA decreasing in summer and winter seasons, increasing in spring and fall seasons, and not much change annually; (2) the snow-covered days (SCDs) showed an increase in winter, spring, and fall, and annually, whereas they showed a decrease in summer; (3) the average SD decreased in winter, summer, and fall, while it increased in spring and annually; (4) the spatial distributions of SD and SCD were highly correlated seasonally and annually; and (5) the regional differences in the variation of snow cover in China were significant. Overall, the SCD and SD increased significantly in south and northeast China, and decreased significantly in the north of Xinjiang province. The SCD and SD increased on the southwest edge and in the southeast part of the Tibetan Plateau, whereas it decreased in the north and northwest regions.

  20. Spatiotemporal dynamics of snow cover based on multi-source remote sensing data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available By combining optical remote sensing snow cover products with passive microwave remote sensing snow depth (SD data, we produced a MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer cloudless binary snow cover product and a 500 m snow depth product. The temporal and spatial variations of snow cover from December 2000 to November 2014 in China were analyzed. The results indicate that, over the past 14 years, (1 the mean snow-covered area (SCA in China was 11.3 % annually and 27 % in the winter season, with the mean SCA decreasing in summer and winter seasons, increasing in spring and fall seasons, and not much change annually; (2 the snow-covered days (SCDs showed an increase in winter, spring, and fall, and annually, whereas they showed a decrease in summer; (3 the average SD decreased in winter, summer, and fall, while it increased in spring and annually; (4 the spatial distributions of SD and SCD were highly correlated seasonally and annually; and (5 the regional differences in the variation of snow cover in China were significant. Overall, the SCD and SD increased significantly in south and northeast China, and decreased significantly in the north of Xinjiang province. The SCD and SD increased on the southwest edge and in the southeast part of the Tibetan Plateau, whereas it decreased in the north and northwest regions.

  1. Success in Global New Product Development: Impact of Strategy and the Behavioral Environment of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Brentani, U.; Kleinschmidt, E.J.; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Product innovation and the trend toward globalization are two important dimensions driving business today, and a firm's global new product development (NPD) strategy is a primary determinant of performance. Succeeding in this competitive and complex market arena calls for corporate resources...... America and Europe, business-to-business, services and goods), a structural model testing for the hypothesized mediation effects was substantially supported. Specifically, having an organizational posture that, at once, values innovation plus globalization, as well as a senior management that is active...... as primary determinants of competitive advantage and, thus, of superior performance through the strategic initiatives that these enable. In the study, global NPD programs are assessed in terms of three dimensions: (1) the organizational resources or behavioral environment of the firm relevant...

  2. Unexpected Patterns in Snow and Dirt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2018-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Albert A. Bartlett published "Thermal patterns in the snow" in this journal. These are patterns produced by heat sources underneath the snow. Bartlett's articles encouraged me to pay attention to patterns in snow and to understanding them. At winter's end the last snow becomes dirty and is heaped into piles. This snow comes from the final clearing of sidewalks and driveways. The patterns observed in these piles defied my intuition. This melting snow develops edges where dirt accumulates, in contrast to ice cubes, which lose sharp edges and become more spherical upon melting. Furthermore, dirt absorbs more radiation than snow and yet doesn't melt and round the sharp edges of snow, where dirt accumulates.

  3. Breaking the Global Production Chain: Thai women's struggles for economic rights and justice

    OpenAIRE

    Junya Lek Yimprasert

    2006-01-01

    Junya Lek Yimprasert, founder of the Thai Labor Campaign, reviews workers’ rights in the context of today's fast moving global production chain. She asks women concerned with economic justice to look beyond just dialogue and build global solidarity based on worker's dignity, rights, hearts and lives. It is not short-term charity that is needed but solidarity that paves the way for self-determination, freedom of association and a share in the huge profits that are built on the exploitation of ...

  4. Geophysical Global Modeling for Extreme Crop Production Using Photosynthesis Models Coupled to Ocean SST Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, D.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change appears to have manifested itself along with abnormal meteorological disasters. Instability caused by drought and flood disasters is producing poor harvests because of poor photosynthesis and pollination. Fluctuations of extreme phenomena are increasing rapidly because amplitudes of change are much greater than average trends. A fundamental cause of these phenomena derives from increased stored energy inside ocean waters. Geophysical and biochemical modeling of crop production can elucidate complex mechanisms under seasonal climate anomalies. The models have progressed through their combination with global climate reanalysis, environmental satellite data, and harvest data on the ground. This study examined adaptation of crop production to advancing abnormal phenomena related to global climate change. Global environmental surface conditions, i.e., vegetation, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature observed by satellites, enable global modeling of crop production and monitoring. Basic streams of the concepts of modeling rely upon continental energy flow and carbon circulation among crop vegetation, land surface atmosphere combining energy advection from ocean surface anomalies. Global environmental surface conditions, e.g., vegetation, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature observed by satellites, enable global modeling of crop production and monitoring. The method of validating the modeling relies upon carbon partitioning in biomass and grains through carbon flow by photosynthesis using carbon dioxide unit in photosynthesis. Results of computations done for this study show global distributions of actual evaporation, stomata opening, and photosynthesis, presenting mechanisms related to advection effects from SST anomalies in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans on global and continental croplands. For North America, climate effects appear clearly in severe atmospheric phenomena, which have caused drought and forest fires

  5. INTEGRATION OF TRADE AND DISINTEGRATION OF PRODUCTION IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Feenstra

    2003-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a spectacular integration of the global economy through trade. The rising integration of world markets has brought with it a disintegration of the production process, however, in which manufacturing or services activities done abroad are combined with those performed at home. The author compares several different measures of foreign outsourcing and argues that they have all increased since the 1970s. He also considers the implications of globalization for employ...

  6. Snow Climatology of Arctic Sea Ice: Comparison of Reanalysis and Climate Model Data with In Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevooruvalappil Chandran, B.; Pittana, M.; Haas, C.

    2015-12-01

    Snow on sea ice is a critical and complex factor influencing sea ice processes. Deep snow with a high albedo and low thermal conductivity inhibits ice growth in winter and minimizes ice loss in summer. Very shallow or absent snow promotes ice growth in winter and ice loss in summer. The timing of snow ablation critically impacts summer sea ice mass balance. Here we assess the accuracy of various snow on sea ice data products from reanalysis and modeling comparing them with in situ measurements. The latter are based on the Warren et al. (1999) monthly climatology derived from snow ruler measurements between 1954-1991, and on daily snow depth retrievals from few drifting ice mass balance buoys (IMB) with sufficiently long observations spanning the summer season. These were compared with snow depth data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction Department of Energy Reanalysis 2 (NCEP), the Community Climate System Model 4 (CCSM4), and the Canadian Earth System Model 2 (CanESM2). Results are quite variable in different years and regions. However, there is often good agreement between CanESM2 and IMB snow depth during the winter accumulation and spring melt periods. Regional analyses show that over the western Arctic covered primarily with multiyear ice NCEP snow depths are in good agreement with the Warren climatology while CCSM4 overestimates snow depth. However, in the Eastern Arctic which is dominated by first-year ice the opposite behavior is observed. Compared to the Warren climatology CanESM2 underestimates snow depth in all regions. Differences between different snow depth products are as large as 10 to 20 cm, with large consequences for the sea ice mass balance. However, it is also very difficult to evaluate the accuracy of reanalysis and model snow depths due to a lack of extensive, continuous in situ measurements.

  7. Metagenomic and satellite analyses of red snow in the Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Hisakawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryophilic algae thrive in liquid water within snow and ice in alpine and polar regions worldwide. Blooms of these algae lower albedo (reflection of sunlight, thereby altering melting patterns (Kohshima, Seko & Yoshimura, 1993; Lutz et al., 2014; Thomas & Duval, 1995. Here metagenomic DNA analysis and satellite imaging were used to investigate red snow in Franz Josef Land in the Russian Arctic. Franz Josef Land red snow metagenomes confirmed that the communities are composed of the autotroph Chlamydomonas nivalis that is supporting a complex viral and heterotrophic bacterial community. Comparisons with white snow communities from other sites suggest that white snow and ice are initially colonized by fungal-dominated communities and then succeeded by the more complex C. nivalis-heterotroph red snow. Satellite image analysis showed that red snow covers up to 80% of the surface of snow and ice fields in Franz Josef Land and globally. Together these results show that C. nivalis supports a local food web that is on the rise as temperatures warm, with potential widespread impacts on alpine and polar environments worldwide.

  8. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  9. Improving Global Gross Primary Productivity Estimates by Computing Optimum Light Use Efficiencies Using Flux Tower Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Nima; Kimball, John S.; Running, Steven W.

    2017-11-01

    In the light use efficiency (LUE) approach of estimating the gross primary productivity (GPP), plant productivity is linearly related to absorbed photosynthetically active radiation assuming that plants absorb and convert solar energy into biomass within a maximum LUE (LUEmax) rate, which is assumed to vary conservatively within a given biome type. However, it has been shown that photosynthetic efficiency can vary within biomes. In this study, we used 149 global CO2 flux towers to derive the optimum LUE (LUEopt) under prevailing climate conditions for each tower location, stratified according to model training and test sites. Unlike LUEmax, LUEopt varies according to heterogeneous landscape characteristics and species traits. The LUEopt data showed large spatial variability within and between biome types, so that a simple biome classification explained only 29% of LUEopt variability over 95 global tower training sites. The use of explanatory variables in a mixed effect regression model explained 62.2% of the spatial variability in tower LUEopt data. The resulting regression model was used for global extrapolation of the LUEopt data and GPP estimation. The GPP estimated using the new LUEopt map showed significant improvement relative to global tower data, including a 15% R2 increase and 34% root-mean-square error reduction relative to baseline GPP calculations derived from biome-specific LUEmax constants. The new global LUEopt map is expected to improve the performance of LUE-based GPP algorithms for better assessment and monitoring of global terrestrial productivity and carbon dynamics.

  10. Food supply and bioenergy production within the global cropland planetary boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R C; Engström, K; Olin, S; Alexander, P; Arneth, A; Rounsevell, M D A

    2018-01-01

    Supplying food for the anticipated global population of over 9 billion in 2050 under changing climate conditions is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Agricultural expansion and intensification contributes to global environmental change and risks the long-term sustainability of the planet. It has been proposed that no more than 15% of the global ice-free land surface should be converted to cropland. Bioenergy production for land-based climate mitigation places additional pressure on limited land resources. Here we test normative targets of food supply and bioenergy production within the cropland planetary boundary using a global land-use model. The results suggest supplying the global population with adequate food is possible without cropland expansion exceeding the planetary boundary. Yet this requires an increase in food production, especially in developing countries, as well as a decrease in global crop yield gaps. However, under current assumptions of future food requirements, it was not possible to also produce significant amounts of first generation bioenergy without cropland expansion. These results suggest that meeting food and bioenergy demands within the planetary boundaries would need a shift away from current trends, for example, requiring major change in the demand-side of the food system or advancing biotechnologies.

  11. Food, energy, and water in an era of disappearing snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, P.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Li, S.; Xiao, M.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain snowpack stores a significant quantity of water in the western US, accumulating during the wet season and melting during the dry summers and supplying more than 65% of the water used for irrigated agriculture, energy production (both hydropower and thermal), and municipal and industrial uses. The importance of snow to western agriculture is demonstrated by the fact that most snow monitoring is performed by the US Department of Agriculture. In a paper published in 2005, we showed that roughly 70% of monitoring sites showed decreasing trends through 2002. Now, with 14 additional years of data, over 90% of snow monitoring sites with long records across the western US show declines through 2016, of which 33% are significant (vs 5% expected by chance) and 2% are significant and positive (vs 5% expected by chance). Declining trends are observed across all months, states, and climates, but are largest in spring, in the Pacific states, and in locations with mild winter climate. We corroborate and extend these observations using a gridded hydrology model, which also allows a robust estimate of total western snowpack and its decline. Averaged across the western US, the decline in total April 1 snow water equivalent since mid-century is roughly 15-30% or 25-50 km3, comparable in volume to the West's largest man-made reservoir, Lake Mead. In the absence of rapid reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases, these losses will accelerate; snow losses on this scale demonstrate the necessity of rethinking water storage, policy, and usage.

  12. Global product development interaction between local networks: A study of the Danish food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Preben Sander

    A study of the Danish foods industry shows that producers of food products largely ignore home marekt demand in their product development activities. They have built up and maintain development of end-user products in interaction with customers in distant sophisticated markets. Concurrently...... view of actors in the global end-user customer market and companies' euclidean view of actors in thelocal business-to-business market. In pr companies combine these two market views by interacting in networks: The global industrial network links various functions which again are each part of a local...... their development of end-user pr through global interaction. It is precisely by not interacting with home market end-user demand, but rather by deriving an industrial home market demand from changing end-user markets that the complex has avoided being insulated....

  13. Peer production on the Internet as an example of global disintegration of production process

    OpenAIRE

    Slawomir Czetwertynski

    2012-01-01

    The article is an attempt to explain the reason for participation in peer production in the context of decentralization of production process. There are two maintheses. The first is that the motivations of participants in production are the same as motivation for gainful employment. Although in the case of the partnership production model bypasses the medium of money, because the participants do not receive payment for manufactured products. The second argument indicates the need for the disi...

  14. Correlated declines in Pacific arctic snow and sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robert P.; Douglas, David C.; Belchansky, Gennady I.; Drobot, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Simulations of future climate suggest that global warming will reduce Arctic snow and ice cover, resulting in decreased surface albedo (reflectivity). Lowering of the surface albedo leads to further warming by increasing solar absorption at the surface. This phenomenon is referred to as “temperature–albedo feedback.” Anticipation of such a feedback is one reason why scientists look to the Arctic for early indications of global warming. Much of the Arctic has warmed significantly. Northern Hemisphere snow cover has decreased, and sea ice has diminished in area and thickness. As reported in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment in 2004, the trends are considered to be outside the range of natural variability, implicating global warming as an underlying cause. Changing climatic conditions in the high northern latitudes have influenced biogeochemical cycles on a broad scale. Warming has already affected the sea ice, the tundra, the plants, the animals, and the indigenous populations that depend on them. Changing annual cycles of snow and sea ice also affect sources and sinks of important greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide and methane), further complicating feedbacks involving the global budgets of these important constituents. For instance, thawing permafrost increases the extent of tundra wetlands and lakes, releasing greater amounts of methane into the atmosphere. Variable sea ice cover may affect the hemispheric carbon budget by altering the ocean–atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide. There is growing concern that amplification of global warming in the Arctic will have far-reaching effects on lower latitude climate through these feedback mechanisms. Despite the diverse and convincing observational evidence that the Arctic environment is changing, it remains unclear whether these changes are anthropogenically forced or result from natural variations of the climate system. A better understanding of what controls the seasonal distributions of snow and ice

  15. Reconfiguring Variety, Profitability, and Postponement for Product Customization with Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Myrodia, Anna; Hvam, Lars

    2016-01-01

    At present, many industrial companies offering high product variety focus on systematically reducing the complexity of their product range and busi-ness processes. Related challenges are often named to increase time to market, reduce the effectiveness in product development, and lower process...... efficiency. For manufacturers with global supply chains additional uncertainties arise in de-fining the right manufacturing strategy with respect to production location and postponement. To better understand related managerial implications, this paper discusses a case study a global manufacturer providing...... customized industrial ap-plications. In particular, the study investigates the relationships between product variant profitability and manufacturing strategy relative to postponement and lo-cation. The results indicate that an improved configuration of these factors through substitution and supply chain...

  16. Re-engineering of Products and Processes How to Achieve Global Success in the Changing Marketplace

    CERN Document Server

    Rotini, Federico; Cascini, Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    Whilst previous methods for business process re-engineering have focused on time and cost reduction policies to preserve competitive services and products, Re-engineering of Products and Processes: How to Achieve Global Success in the Changing Marketplace presents a new approach which aims to include aspects that impact the customer perceived value. This method supports business re-engineering initiatives by identifying process bottlenecks as well as new products and services available to overcome market competition. This original approach is described step-by-step, explaining the theory through examples of performable tasks and the selection of relevant tools according to the nature of the problem. Supported by illustrations, tables and diagrams, Re-engineering of Products and Processes: How to Achieve Global Success in the Changing Marketplace clearly explains a method which is then applied to several case studies across different industrial sectors. Re-engineering of Products and Processes: How to Achieve...

  17. Performance evaluation of snow and ice plows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Removal of ice and snow from road surfaces is a critical task in the northern tier of the United States, : including Illinois. Highways with high levels of traffic are expected to be cleared of snow and ice quickly : after each snow storm. This is ne...

  18. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Class-specific Primary Production at a Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Cecile; Gregg, Watson

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton is responsible for over half of the net primary production on earth. The knowledge on the contribution of various phytoplankton groups to the total primary production is still poorly understood. Data from satellite observations suggest that for upwelling regions, photosynthetic rates by microplankton is higher than that of nanoplankton but that when the spatial extent is considered, the production by nanoplankton is comparable or even larger than microplankton. Here, we used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of 4 phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. Globally, diatoms were the group that contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production (approx. 50%) followed by coccolithophores and chlorophytes. Primary production by diatoms was highest in high latitude (>45 deg) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We assessed the effects of climate variability on the class-specific primary production using global (i.e. Multivariate El Nino Index, MEI) and 'regional' climate indices (e.g. Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability. These results provide a modeling and data assimilation perspective to phytoplankton partitioning of primary production and contribute to our understanding of the dynamics of the carbon cycle in the oceans at a global scale.

  19. Combined constraints on global ocean primary production using observations and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Hashioka, Taketo; Quéré, Corinne Le

    2013-09-01

    production is at the base of the marine food web and plays a central role for global biogeochemical cycles. Yet global ocean primary production is known to only a factor of 2, with previous estimates ranging from 38 to 65 Pg C yr-1 and no formal uncertainty analysis. Here, we present an improved global ocean biogeochemistry model that includes a mechanistic representation of photosynthesis and a new observational database of net primary production (NPP) in the ocean. We combine the model and observations to constrain particulate NPP in the ocean with statistical metrics. The PlankTOM5.3 model includes a new photosynthesis formulation with a dynamic representation of iron-light colimitation, which leads to a considerable improvement of the interannual variability of surface chlorophyll. The database includes a consistent set of 50,050 measurements of 14C primary production. The model best reproduces observations when global NPP is 58 ± 7 Pg C yr-1, with a most probable value of 56 Pg C yr-1. The most probable value is robust to the model used. The uncertainty represents 95% confidence intervals. It considers all random errors in the model and observations, but not potential biases in the observations. We show that tropical regions (23°S-23°N) contribute half of the global NPP, while NPPs in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are approximately equal in spite of the larger ocean area in the South.

  20. A global analysis of fine root production as affected by soil nitrogen and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z Y; Chen, Han Y H

    2012-09-22

    Fine root production is the largest component of belowground production and plays substantial roles in the biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. The increasing availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) due to human activities is expected to increase aboveground net primary production (ANNP), but the response of fine root production to N and P remains unclear. If roots respond to nutrients as ANNP, fine root production is anticipated to increase with increasing soil N and P. Here, by synthesizing data along the nutrient gradient from 410 natural habitats and from 469 N and/or P addition experiments, we showed that fine root production increased in terrestrial ecosystems with an average increase along the natural N gradient of up to 0.5 per cent with increasing soil N. Fine root production also increased with soil P in natural conditions, particularly at P production increased by a global average of 27, 21 and 40 per cent, respectively. However, its responses differed among ecosystems and soil types. The global average increases in fine root production are lower than those of ANNP, indicating that above- and belowground counterparts are coupled, but production allocation shifts more to aboveground with higher soil nutrients. Our results suggest that the increasing fertilizer use and combined N deposition at present and in the future will stimulate fine root production, together with ANPP, probably providing a significant influence on atmospheric CO(2) emissions.

  1. Ozone Production in Global Tropospheric Models: Quantifying Errors due to Grid Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, O.; Prather, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Ozone production in global chemical models is dependent on model resolution because ozone chemistry is inherently nonlinear, the timescales for chemical production are short, and precursors are artificially distributed over the spatial scale of the model grid. In this study we examine the sensitivity of ozone, its precursors, and its production to resolution by running a global chemical transport model at four different resolutions between T21 (5.6° × 5.6°) and T106 (1.1° × 1.1°) and by quantifying the errors in regional and global budgets. The sensitivity to vertical mixing through the parameterization of boundary layer turbulence is also examined. We find less ozone production in the boundary layer at higher resolution, consistent with slower chemical production in polluted emission regions and greater export of precursors. Agreement with ozonesonde and aircraft measurements made during the NASA TRACE-P campaign over the Western Pacific in spring 2001 is consistently better at higher resolution. We demonstrate that the numerical errors in transport processes at a given resolution converge geometrically for a tracer at successively higher resolutions. The convergence in ozone production on progressing from T21 to T42, T63 and T106 resolution is likewise monotonic but still indicates large errors at 120~km scales, suggesting that T106 resolution is still too coarse to resolve regional ozone production. Diagnosing the ozone production and precursor transport that follow a short pulse of emissions over East Asia in springtime allows us to quantify the impacts of resolution on both regional and global ozone. Production close to continental emission regions is overestimated by 27% at T21 resolution, by 13% at T42 resolution, and by 5% at T106 resolution, but subsequent ozone production in the free troposphere is less significantly affected.

  2. Velocity distribution in snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, K.; Ito, Y.

    1997-12-01

    In order to investigate the detailed structure of snow avalanches, we have made snow flow experiments at the Miyanomori ski jump in Sapporo and systematic observations in the Shiai-dani, Kurobe Canyon. In the winter of 1995-1996, a new device to measure static pressures was used to estimate velocities in the snow cloud that develops above the flowing layer of avalanches. Measurements during a large avalanche in the Shiai-dani which damaged and destroyed some instruments indicate velocities increased rapidly to more than 50 m/s soon after the front. Velocities decreased gradually in the following 10 s. Velocities of the lower flowing layer were also calculated by differencing measurement of impact pressure. Both recordings in the snow cloud and in the flowing layer changed with a similar trend and suggest a close interaction between the two layers. In addition, the velocity showed a periodic change. Power spectrum analysis of the impact pressure and the static pressure depression showed a strong peak at a frequency between 4 and 6 Hz, which might imply the existence of either ordered structure or a series of surges in the flow.

  3. Photopolarimetric Retrievals of Snow Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, M.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.

    2015-01-01

    Polarimetric observations of snow surfaces, obtained in the 410-2264 nm range with the Research Scanning Polarimeter onboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft, are analyzed and presented. These novel measurements are of interest to the remote sensing community because the overwhelming brightness of snow plagues aerosol and cloud retrievals based on airborne and spaceborne total reflection measurements. The spectral signatures of the polarized reflectance of snow are therefore worthwhile investigating in order to provide guidance for the adaptation of algorithms currently employed for the retrieval of aerosol properties over soil and vegetated surfaces. At the same time, the increased information content of polarimetric measurements allows for a meaningful characterization of the snow medium. In our case, the grains are modeled as hexagonal prisms of variable aspect ratios and microscale roughness, yielding retrievals of the grains' scattering asymmetry parameter, shape and size. The results agree with our previous findings based on a more limited data set, with the majority of retrievals leading to moderately rough crystals of extreme aspect ratios, for each scene corresponding to a single value of the asymmetry parameter.

  4. Global distribution of radiolytic H2 production in marine sediment and implications for subsurface life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, J.; Flinders, A. F.; Spivack, A. J.; D'Hondt, S.

    2017-12-01

    We present the first global estimate of radiolytic H2production in marine sediment. Knowledge of microbial electron donor production rates is critical to understand the bioenergetics of Earth's subsurface ecosystems In marine sediment, radiolysis of water by radiation from naturally occurring radionuclides leads to production of reduced (H2) and oxidized (H2O2, O2) species. Water radiolysis is catalyzed by marine sediment. The magnitude of catalysis depends on sediment composition and radiation type. Deep-sea clay is especially effective at enhancing H2 yields, increasing yield by more than an order of magnitude relative to pure water. This previously unrecognized catalytic effect of geological materials on radiolytic H2 production is important for fueling microbial life in the subseafloor, especially in sediment with high catalytic power. Our estimate of radiolytic H2 production is based on spatially integrating a previously published model and uses (i) experimentally constrained radiolytic H2 yields for the principal marine sediment types, (ii) bulk sediment radioactive element content of sediment cores in three ocean basins (N. Atlantic, N. and S. Pacific), and global distributions of (iii) seafloor lithology, (iv) sediment porosity, and (v) sediment thickness. We calculate that global radiolytic H2 production in marine sediment is 1.6E+12 mol H2 yr-1. This production rate is small relative to the annual rate of photosynthetic organic-matter production in the surface ocean. The globally integrated ratio of radiolytic H2 production relative to photosynthetic primary production is 4.1E-4, based on electron equivalences. Although small relative to global photosynthetic biomass production, sediment-catalyzed production of radiolytic products is significant in the subseafloor. Our analysis of 9 sites in the N. Atlantic, N. and S. Pacific suggests that H2 is the primary microbial fuel in organic-poor sediment older than a few million years; at these sites, calculated

  5. Changes in Snow Albedo Resulting from Snow Darkening Caused by Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, J.; Kloster, S.; Bourgeois, Q.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the potential impact of snow darkening caused by pre-industrial and present-day black carbon (BC) emissions on snow albedo and subsequently climate. To assess this impact, we implemented the effect of snow darkening caused by BC emitted from natural as well as anthropogenic sources into the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-M ESM). Considerable amounts of BC are emitted e.g. from fires and are transported through the atmosphere for several days before being removed by rain or snow precipitation in snow covered regions. Already very small quantities of BC reduce the snow reflectance significantly, with consequences for snow melting and snow spatial coverage. We implemented the snow albedo reduction caused by BC contamination and snow aging in the one layer land surface component (JSBACH) of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM6, developed at MPI-M. For this we used the single-layer simulator of the SNow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR-Online (Flanner et al., 2007); http://snow.engin.umich.edu) model to derive snow albedo values for BC in snow concentrations ranging between 0 and 1500 ng(BC)/g(snow) for different snow grain sizes for the visible (0.3 - 0.7 μm) and near infrared range (0.7 - 1.5 μm). As snow grains grow over time, we assign different snow ages to different snow grain sizes (50, 150, 500, and 1000 μm). Here, a radius of 50 μm corresponds to new snow, whereas a radius of 1000 μm corresponds to old snow. The deposition rates of BC on snow are prescribed from previous ECHAM6-HAM simulations for two time periods, pre-industrial (1880-1889) and present-day (2000-2009), respectively. We perform a sensitivity study regarding the scavenging of BC by snow melt. To evaluate the newly implemented albedo scheme we will compare the modeled black carbon in snow concentrations to observed ones. Moreover, we will show the impact of the BC contamination and snow aging on the simulated snow albedo. The

  6. Use of AMSR-E microwave satellite data for land surface characteristics and snow cover variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Singh Boori

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains data related to the research article entitled “Global land cover classification based on microwave polarization and gradient ratio (MPGR” [1] and “Microwave polarization and gradient ratio (MPGR for global land surface phenology” [2]. This data article presents land surface characteristics and snow cover variation information from sensors like EOS Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E. This data article use the HDF Explorer, Matlab, and ArcGIS software to process the pixel latitude, longitude, snow water equivalent (SWE, digital elevation model (DEM and Brightness Temperature (BT information from AMSR-E satellite data to provide land surface characteristics and snow cover variation data in all-weather condition at any time. This data information is useful to discriminate different land surface cover types and snow cover variation, which is turn, will help to improve monitoring of weather, climate and natural disasters.

  7. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  8. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  9. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Class-Specific Primary Production at a Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Cecile Severine; Gregg, Watson W.

    2014-01-01

    We used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of 4 phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. First we assessed the contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production at a global scale for the period 1998-2011. Globally, diatoms were the group that contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production (50, the equivalent of 20 PgC y-1. Coccolithophores and chlorophytes each contributed to 20 (7 PgC y-1 of the total primary production and cyanobacteria represented about 10 (4 PgC y(sub-1) of the total primary production. Primary production by diatoms was highest in high latitude (45) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We then assessed interannual variability of this group-specific primary production over the period 1998-2011. Globally the annual relative contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production varied by maximum 4 (1-2 PgC y-1. We assessed the effects of climate variability on the class-specific primary production using global (i.e. Multivariate El Nio Index, MEI) and regional climate indices (e.g. Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability as indicated by significant correlation (p 0.05) between the MEI and the class-specific primary production from all groups except coccolithophores. In the Atlantic, climate variability as indicated by NAO was significantly correlated to the primary production of 2 out of the 4 groups in the North Central Atlantic (diatomscyanobacteria) and in the North Atlantic (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). We found that climate variability as indicated by SAM had only a limited effect on the class-specific primary production in the Southern Ocean. These results provide a modeling and

  10. Global Land Product Validation Protocols: An Initiative of the CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation to Evaluate Satellite-derived Essential Climate Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillevic, P. C.; Nickeson, J. E.; Roman, M. O.; camacho De Coca, F.; Wang, Z.; Schaepman-Strub, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) has specified the need to systematically produce and validate Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) and in particular its subgroup on Land Product Validation (LPV) is playing a key coordination role leveraging the international expertise required to address actions related to the validation of global land ECVs. The primary objective of the LPV subgroup is to set standards for validation methods and reporting in order to provide traceable and reliable uncertainty estimates for scientists and stakeholders. The Subgroup is comprised of 9 focus areas that encompass 10 land surface variables. The activities of each focus area are coordinated by two international co-leads and currently include leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR), vegetation phenology, surface albedo, fire disturbance, snow cover, land cover and land use change, soil moisture, land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity. Recent additions to the focus areas include vegetation indices and biomass. The development of best practice validation protocols is a core activity of CEOS LPV with the objective to standardize the evaluation of land surface products. LPV has identified four validation levels corresponding to increasing spatial and temporal representativeness of reference samples used to perform validation. Best practice validation protocols (1) provide the definition of variables, ancillary information and uncertainty metrics, (2) describe available data sources and methods to establish reference validation datasets with SI traceability, and (3) describe evaluation methods and reporting. An overview on validation best practice components will be presented based on the LAI and LST protocol efforts to date.

  11. Snow multivariable data assimilation for hydrological predictions in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Gaia; Campo, Lorenzo; Gabellani, Simone; Rudari, Roberto; Castelli, Fabio; Cremonese, Edoardo; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Stevenin, Hervé; Ratto, Sara Maria

    2016-04-01

    The seasonal presence of snow on alpine catchments strongly impacts both surface energy balance and water resource. Thus, the knowledge of the snowpack dynamics is of critical importance for several applications, such as water resource management, floods prediction and hydroelectric power production. Several independent data sources provide information about snowpack state: ground-based measurements, satellite data and physical models. Although all these data types are reliable, each of them is affected by specific flaws and errors (respectively dependency on local conditions, sensor biases and limitations, initialization and poor quality forcing data). Moreover, there are physical factors that make an exhaustive reconstruction of snow dynamics complicated: snow intermittence in space and time, stratification and slow phenomena like metamorphism processes, uncertainty in snowfall evaluation, wind transportation, etc. Data Assimilation (DA) techniques provide an objective methodology to combine observational and modeled information to obtain the most likely estimate of snowpack state. Indeed, by combining all the available sources of information, the implementation of DA schemes can quantify and reduce the uncertainties of the estimations. This study presents SMASH (Snow Multidata Assimilation System for Hydrology), a multi-layer snow dynamic model, strengthened by a robust multivariable data assimilation algorithm. The model is physically based on mass and energy balances and can be used to reproduce the main physical processes occurring within the snowpack: accumulation, density dynamics, melting, sublimation, radiative balance, heat and mass exchanges. The model is driven by observed forcing meteorological data (air temperature, wind velocity, relative air humidity, precipitation and incident solar radiation) to provide a complete estimate of snowpack state. The implementation of an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) scheme enables to assimilate simultaneously ground

  12. Identification of mineral dust layers in high alpine snow packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greilinger, Marion; Kau, Daniela; Schauer, Gerhard; Kasper-Giebl, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Deserts serve as a major source for aerosols in the atmosphere with mineral dust as a main contributor to primary aerosol mass. Especially the Sahara, the largest desert in the world, contributes roughly half of the primarily emitted aerosol mass found in the atmosphere [1]. The eroded Saharan dust is episodically transported over thousands of kilometers with synoptic wind patterns towards Europe [2] and reaches Austria about 20 to 30 days per year. Once the Saharan dust is removed from the atmosphere via dry or wet deposition processes, the chemical composition of the precipitation or the affected environment is significantly changed. Saharan dust serves on the one hand as high ionic input leading to an increase of ionic species such as calcium, magnesium or sulfate. On the other hand Saharan dust provides a high alkaline input neutralizing acidic components and causing the pH to increase [3]. Based on these changes in the ion composition, the pH and cross plots of the ion and conductivity balance [4] we tried to develop a method to identify Saharan dust layers in high alpine snow packs. We investigated seasonal snow packs of two high alpine sampling sites situated on the surrounding glaciers of the meteorological Sonnblick observatory serving as a global GAW (Global Atmospheric Watch) station located in the National Park Hohe Tauern in the Austrian Alps. Samples with 10 cm resolution representing the whole winter accumulation period were taken just prior to the start of snow melt at the end of April 2016. In both snow packs two layers with clearly different chemical behavior were observed. In comparison with the aerosol data from the Sonnblick observatory, these layers could be clearly identified as Saharan dust layers. Identified Saharan dust layers in the snow pack allow calculations of the ecological impact of deposited ions, with and without Saharan dust, during snow melt. Furthermore the chemical characteristics for the identification of Saharan dust layers

  13. Concurrent Engineering with IT-Tools for successful industrial products in a global market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses research results concerning Concurrent Engineering with IT-Tools for Successful Industrial Products on a Global Market. Concurrent Engineering, often is called just ¿CE¿, that is a systematic approach to the integrated, concurrent design of products and related...... on the world market and the increasing global public demands, requirements and regulations for protection of the environment are both driving forces and challenges for improving the development of control and engineering design. There has always been an ongoing desire to develop and design systems to improve...... performance of products, productivity and efficiency of process operations. Smart use of simulation and modelling IT tools can improve many enterprises ability to compete and survive on the market. European Enterprises developing, designing and manufacturing hydraulic components and hydraulic systems...

  14. Commercial Plant Production and Consumption Still Follow the Latitudinal Gradient in Species Diversity despite Economic Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J; Helmus, Matthew R; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Polasky, Stephen; Lasky, Jesse R; Zanne, Amy E; Pearse, William D; Kraft, Nathan J B; Miteva, Daniela A; Fagan, William F

    2016-01-01

    Increasing trade between countries and gains in income have given consumers around the world access to a richer and more diverse set of commercial plant products (i.e., foods and fibers produced by farmers). According to the economic theory of comparative advantage, countries open to trade will be able to consume more-in terms of volume and diversity-if they concentrate production on commodities that they can most cost-effectively produce, while importing goods that are expensive to produce, relative to other countries. Here, we perform a global analysis of traded commercial plant products and find little evidence that increasing globalization has incentivized agricultural specialization. Instead, a country's plant production and consumption patterns are still largely determined by local evolutionary legacies of plant diversification. Because tropical countries harbor a greater diversity of lineages across the tree of life than temperate countries, tropical countries produce and consume a greater diversity of plant products than do temperate countries. In contrast, the richer and more economically advanced temperate countries have the capacity to produce and consume more plant species than the generally poorer tropical countries, yet this collection of plant species is drawn from fewer branches on the tree of life. Why have countries not increasingly specialized in plant production despite the theoretical financial incentive to do so? Potential explanations include the persistence of domestic agricultural subsidies that distort production decisions, cultural preferences for diverse local food production, and that diverse food production protects rural households in developing countries from food price shocks. Less specialized production patterns will make crop systems more resilient to zonal climatic and social perturbations, but this may come at the expense of global crop production efficiency, an important step in making the transition to a hotter and more

  15. Commercial Plant Production and Consumption Still Follow the Latitudinal Gradient in Species Diversity despite Economic Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J.; Helmus, Matthew R.; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Polasky, Stephen; Lasky, Jesse R.; Zanne, Amy E.; Pearse, William D.; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Miteva, Daniela A.; Fagan, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing trade between countries and gains in income have given consumers around the world access to a richer and more diverse set of commercial plant products (i.e., foods and fibers produced by farmers). According to the economic theory of comparative advantage, countries open to trade will be able to consume more–in terms of volume and diversity–if they concentrate production on commodities that they can most cost-effectively produce, while importing goods that are expensive to produce, relative to other countries. Here, we perform a global analysis of traded commercial plant products and find little evidence that increasing globalization has incentivized agricultural specialization. Instead, a country’s plant production and consumption patterns are still largely determined by local evolutionary legacies of plant diversification. Because tropical countries harbor a greater diversity of lineages across the tree of life than temperate countries, tropical countries produce and consume a greater diversity of plant products than do temperate countries. In contrast, the richer and more economically advanced temperate countries have the capacity to produce and consume more plant species than the generally poorer tropical countries, yet this collection of plant species is drawn from fewer branches on the tree of life. Why have countries not increasingly specialized in plant production despite the theoretical financial incentive to do so? Potential explanations include the persistence of domestic agricultural subsidies that distort production decisions, cultural preferences for diverse local food production, and that diverse food production protects rural households in developing countries from food price shocks. Less specialized production patterns will make crop systems more resilient to zonal climatic and social perturbations, but this may come at the expense of global crop production efficiency, an important step in making the transition to a hotter and more

  16. Commercial Plant Production and Consumption Still Follow the Latitudinal Gradient in Species Diversity despite Economic Globalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J Nelson

    Full Text Available Increasing trade between countries and gains in income have given consumers around the world access to a richer and more diverse set of commercial plant products (i.e., foods and fibers produced by farmers. According to the economic theory of comparative advantage, countries open to trade will be able to consume more-in terms of volume and diversity-if they concentrate production on commodities that they can most cost-effectively produce, while importing goods that are expensive to produce, relative to other countries. Here, we perform a global analysis of traded commercial plant products and find little evidence that increasing globalization has incentivized agricultural specialization. Instead, a country's plant production and consumption patterns are still largely determined by local evolutionary legacies of plant diversification. Because tropical countries harbor a greater diversity of lineages across the tree of life than temperate countries, tropical countries produce and consume a greater diversity of plant products than do temperate countries. In contrast, the richer and more economically advanced temperate countries have the capacity to produce and consume more plant species than the generally poorer tropical countries, yet this collection of plant species is drawn from fewer branches on the tree of life. Why have countries not increasingly specialized in plant production despite the theoretical financial incentive to do so? Potential explanations include the persistence of domestic agricultural subsidies that distort production decisions, cultural preferences for diverse local food production, and that diverse food production protects rural households in developing countries from food price shocks. Less specialized production patterns will make crop systems more resilient to zonal climatic and social perturbations, but this may come at the expense of global crop production efficiency, an important step in making the transition to a

  17. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry for ultratrace determination of cadmium and lead in Antarctic snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarponi, G.; Barbante, C.; Cescon, P.

    1994-01-01

    Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry has sufficient sensitivity to be used for direct determination of heavy metals in Antarctic snow, thus avoiding long and contamination-prone enrichment procedures. A result of particular concern to global change studies can be drawn from these preliminary data: lead concentration in Antarctic snow decreased rapidly during the 1980s from about 10-15 pg/g to 2-4 pg/g in 1991. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Projecting the Dependence of Sage-steppe Vegetation on Redistributed Snow in a Warming Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, B.; Kavanagh, K.; Link, T. E.; Seyfried, M. S.; Strand, E. K.

    2015-12-01

    In mountainous regions, the redistribution of snow by wind can increase the effective precipitation available to vegetation. Moisture subsidies caused by drifting snow may be critical to plant productivity in semi-arid ecosystems. However, with increasing temperatures, the distribution of precipitation is becoming more uniform as rain replaces drifting snow. Understanding the ecohydrological interactions between sagebrush steppe vegetation communities and the heterogeneous distribution of soil moisture is essential for predicting and mitigating future losses in ecosystem diversity and productivity in regions characterized by snow dominated precipitation regimes. To address the dependence of vegetation productivity on redistributed snow, we simulated the net primary production (NPP) of aspen, sagebrush, and C3 grass plant functional types spanning a precipitation phase (rain:snow) gradient in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed and Critical Zone Observatory (RCEW-CZO). The biogeochemical process model Biome-BGC was used to simulate NPP at three sites located directly below snowdrifts that provide melt water late into the spring. To assess climate change impacts on future plant productivity, mid-century (2046-2065) NPP was simulated using the average temperature increase from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) data set under the RCP 8.5 emission scenario. At the driest site, mid-century projections of decreased snow cover and increased growing season evaporative demand resulted in limiting soil moisture up to 30 and 40 days earlier for aspen and sage respectively. While spring green up for aspen occurred an average of 13 days earlier under climate change scenarios, NPP remained negative up to 40 days longer during the growing season. These results indicate that the loss of the soil moisture subsidy stemming from prolonged redistributed snow water resources can directly influence ecosystem productivity in the rain:snow transition zone.

  19. Mercury in Arctic snow: Quantifying the kinetics of photochemical oxidation and reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, E.A. [Department of Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS (Canada); Environmental Science Programme, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Mallory, M.L. [Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS (Canada); Ziegler, S.E. [Environmental Science Programme, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Tordon, R. [Environment Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); O' Driscoll, N.J., E-mail: nelson.odriscoll@acadiau.ca [Department of Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Controlled experiments were performed with frozen and melted Arctic snow to quantify relationships between mercury photoreaction kinetics, ultra violet (UV) radiation intensity, and snow ion concentrations. Frozen (− 10 °C) and melted (4 °C) snow samples from three Arctic sites were exposed to UV (280–400 nm) radiation (1.26–5.78 W · m{sup −2}), and a parabolic relationship was found between reduction rate constants in frozen and melted snow with increasing UV intensity. Total photoreduced mercury in frozen and melted snow increased linearly with greater UV intensity. Snow with the highest concentrations of chloride and iron had larger photoreduction and photooxidation rate constants, while also having the lowest Hg(0) production. Our results indicate that the amount of mercury photoreduction (loss from snow) is the highest at high UV radiation intensities, while the fastest rates of mercury photoreduction occurred at both low and high intensities. This suggests that, assuming all else is equal, earlier Arctic snow melt periods (when UV intensities are less intense) may result in less mercury loss to the atmosphere by photoreduction and flux, since less Hg(0) is photoproduced at lower UV intensities, thereby resulting in potentially greater mercury transport to aquatic systems with snowmelt. - Highlights: • Mercury photochemical kinetics were studied in frozen and melted Arctic snow. • UV-induced photoreduction and photooxidation rate constants were quantified. • Chloride ion, iron, and DOC influence mercury photoreactions in snow. • Frozen and melted snow have different mercury photoreduction characteristics. • Kinetic information provided can be used to model mercury fate in the Arctic.

  20. Mercury in Arctic snow: Quantifying the kinetics of photochemical oxidation and reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, E.A.; Mallory, M.L.; Ziegler, S.E.; Tordon, R.; O'Driscoll, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled experiments were performed with frozen and melted Arctic snow to quantify relationships between mercury photoreaction kinetics, ultra violet (UV) radiation intensity, and snow ion concentrations. Frozen (− 10 °C) and melted (4 °C) snow samples from three Arctic sites were exposed to UV (280–400 nm) radiation (1.26–5.78 W · m −2 ), and a parabolic relationship was found between reduction rate constants in frozen and melted snow with increasing UV intensity. Total photoreduced mercury in frozen and melted snow increased linearly with greater UV intensity. Snow with the highest concentrations of chloride and iron had larger photoreduction and photooxidation rate constants, while also having the lowest Hg(0) production. Our results indicate that the amount of mercury photoreduction (loss from snow) is the highest at high UV radiation intensities, while the fastest rates of mercury photoreduction occurred at both low and high intensities. This suggests that, assuming all else is equal, earlier Arctic snow melt periods (when UV intensities are less intense) may result in less mercury loss to the atmosphere by photoreduction and flux, since less Hg(0) is photoproduced at lower UV intensities, thereby resulting in potentially greater mercury transport to aquatic systems with snowmelt. - Highlights: • Mercury photochemical kinetics were studied in frozen and melted Arctic snow. • UV-induced photoreduction and photooxidation rate constants were quantified. • Chloride ion, iron, and DOC influence mercury photoreactions in snow. • Frozen and melted snow have different mercury photoreduction characteristics. • Kinetic information provided can be used to model mercury fate in the Arctic

  1. Declining global per capita agricultural production and warming oceans threaten food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that is grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be determined by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices and policies. This paper discusses several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14% between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21st century food availability in some countries by disrupting moisture transports and bringing down dry air over crop growing areas. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced rainfall during the main growing season along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, this study presents an analysis of emerging

  2. Declining Global Per Capita Agricultural Production and Warming Oceans Threaten Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chris C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that was grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be controlled by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices, and policies. In this paper we discuss several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia, and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14 percent between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21 st century food availability by disrupting Indian Ocean moisture transports and tilting the 21 st century climate toward a more El Nino-like state. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced main growing season rainfall along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, we present an analysis of

  3. Review of ice and snow runway pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg White

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is the highest, driest, coldest, windiest, most remote and most pristine place on Earth. Polar operations depend heavily on air transportation and support for personnel and equipment. It follows that improvement in snow and ice runway design, construction and maintenance will directly benefit polar exploration and research. Current technologies and design methods for snow and ice runways remain largely reliant on work performed in the 1950s and 1960s. This paper reviews the design and construction of polar runways using snow and ice as geomaterials. The inability to change existing snow and ice thickness or temperature creates a challenge for polar runway design and construction, as does the highly complex mechanical behaviour of snow, including the phenomena known as sintering. It is recommended that a modern approach be developed for ice and snow runway design, based on conventional rigid and flexible pavement design principles. This requires the development on an analytical model for the prediction of snow strength, based on snow age, temperature history and density. It is also recommended that the feasibility of constructing a snow runway at the South Pole be revisited, in light of contemporary snow sintering methods. Such a runway would represent a revolutionary advance for the logistical support of Antarctic research efforts. Keywords: Runway, Pavement, Snow, Ice, Antarctic

  4. Industrial Upgrading in Global Production Networks: The Case of the Chinese Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yansheng LI; Xin Xin KONG; Miao ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the development of China’s automotive industry. The evidence shows that integration in global production networks has stimulated upgrading of technological capabilities among automotive firms. However, the competitiveness and intra-industry analyses show mixed results. Although intraindustry trade in automotive products has improved since 2000, the trade competitiveness of completely built up vehicles has largely remained in low value added activities. Nevertheless, firm...

  5. The grand illusion? corporate social responsibility in global garment production networks

    OpenAIRE

    Starmanns, M

    2010-01-01

    This PhD aims to generate a better understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in global production networks. CSR is an umbrella term that deals with voluntary activities undertaken by companies and that indicate an ethos to act responsibly in society. This research focuses on CSR practices that aim towards improving working conditions in outsourced production factories by implementing so-called social standards, which often derive from core norms of the International Labour Organi...

  6. Improvements in crop water productivity increase water sustainability and food security—a global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauman, Kate A; Foley, Jonathan A; Siebert, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation consumes more water than any other human activity, and thus the challenges of water sustainability and food security are closely linked. To evaluate how water resources are used for food production, we examined global patterns of water productivity—food produced (kcal) per unit of water (l) consumed. We document considerable variability in crop water productivity globally, not only across different climatic zones but also within climatic zones. The least water productive systems are disproportionate freshwater consumers. On precipitation-limited croplands, we found that ∼40% of water consumption goes to production of just 20% of food calories. Because in many cases crop water productivity is well below optimal levels, in many cases farmers have substantial opportunities to improve water productivity. To demonstrate the potential impact of management interventions, we calculated that raising crop water productivity in precipitation-limited regions to the 20th percentile of productivity would increase annual production on rainfed cropland by enough to provide food for an estimated 110 million people, and water consumption on irrigated cropland would be reduced enough to meet the annual domestic water demands of nearly 1.4 billion people. (letter)

  7. Fugitive Emissions from the Bakken Shale Illustrate Role of Shale Production in Global Ethane Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Murray, L. T.; Gvakharia, A.; Brandt, A. R.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sweeney, C.; Travis, K.

    2016-01-01

    Ethane is the second most abundant atmospheric hydrocarbon, exerts a strong influence on tropospheric ozone, and reduces the atmosphere's oxidative capacity. Global observations showed declining ethane abundances from 1984 to 2010, while a regional measurement indicated increasing levels since 2009, with the reason for this subject to speculation. The Bakken shale is an oil and gas-producing formation centered in North Dakota that experienced a rapid increase in production beginning in 2010. We use airborne data collected over the North Dakota portion of the Bakken shale in 2014 to calculate ethane emissions of 0.23 +/- 0.07 (2 sigma) Tg/yr, equivalent to 1-3% of total global sources. Emissions of this magnitude impact air quality via concurrent increases in tropospheric ozone. This recently developed large ethane source from one location illustrates the key role of shale oil and gas production in rising global ethane levels.

  8. World Energy Balance Outlook and OPEC Production Capacity: Implications for Global Oil Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh M. Rouhani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The imbalance between energy resource availability, demand, and production capacity, coupled with inherent economic and environmental uncertainties make strategic energy resources planning, management, and decision-making a challenging process. In this paper, a descriptive approach has been taken to synthesize the world’s energy portfolio and the global energy balance outlook in order to provide insights into the role of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC in maintaining “stability” and “balance” of the world’s energy market. This synthesis illustrates that in the absence of stringent policies, i.e., if historical trends of the global energy production and consumption hold into the future, it is unlikely that non-conventional liquid fuels and renewable energy sources will play a dominant role in meeting global energy demand by 2030. This should be a source of major global concern as the world may be unprepared for an ultimate shift to other energy sources when the imminent peak oil production is reached. OPEC’s potential to impact the supply and price of oil could enable this organization to act as a facilitator or a barrier for energy transition policies, and to play a key role in the global energy security through cooperative or non-cooperative strategies. It is argued that, as the global energy portfolio becomes more balanced in the long run, OPEC may change its typical high oil price strategies to drive the market prices to lower equilibria, making alternative energy sources less competitive. Alternatively, OPEC can contribute to a cooperative portfolio management approach to help mitigate the gradually emerging energy crisis and global warming, facilitating a less turbulent energy transition path while there is time.

  9. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborte, Alice G.; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M. V.R.; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It

  10. Increasing the Value of Agricultural Products in the Face of Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Paper examined the increasing value of agricultural products in the face of global economic recession in Anambra State. The paper revealed that Anambra State is endowed with human and natural resources and if properly harnessed, can go a long way in arresting the food insecurity in the State and alleviate the ...

  11. Snow measurement Using P-Band Signals of Opportunity Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Xu, X.; Elder, K.

    2017-12-01

    Snow water storage in land is a critical parameter of the water cycle. In this study, we develop methods for estimating reflectance from bistatic scattering of digital communication Signals of Opportunity (SoOp) across the available microwave spectrum from VHF to Ka band and show results from proof-of-concept experiments at the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado to acquire measurements to relate the SoOp phase and reflectivity to a snow-covered soil surface. The forward modeling of this scenario will be presented and multiple sensitivities were conducted. Available SoOp receiver data along with a network of in situ sensor measurements collected since January 2016 will be used to validate theoretical modeling results. In the winter season of 2016 and 2017, we conducted a field experiment using VHF/UHF-band illuminating sources to detect SWE and surface reflectivity. The amplitude of the reflectivity showed sensitivity to the wetness of snow pack and ground reflectivity while the phase showed sensitivity to SWE. This use of this concept can be helpful to measure the snow water storage in land globally.

  12. Biofuels and their by-products: Global economic and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheripour, Farzad; Hertel, Thomas W.; Tyner, Wallace E.; Beckman, Jayson F.; Birur, Dileep K.

    2010-01-01

    Recently a number of papers have used general equilibrium models to study the economy-wide and environmental consequences of the first generation of biofuels (FGB). In this paper, we argue that nearly all of these studies have overstated the impacts of FGB on global agricultural and land markets due to the fact that they have ignored the role of biofuel by-products. Feed by-products of FGB, such as dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and oilseed meals (VOBP), are used in the livestock industry as protein and energy sources. Their presence mitigates the price impacts of biofuel production. More importantly, they reduce the demand for cropland and moderate the indirect land use consequences of FGB. This paper explicitly introduces DDGS and VOBP into a global computational general equilibrium (CGE) model, developed at the Center for Global Trade Analysis at Purdue University, to examine the economic and environmental impacts of regional and international mandate policies designed to stimulate bioenergy production and use. We show that models with and without by-products reveal different portraits of the economic impacts of the US and EU biofuel mandates for the world economy in 2015. While both models demonstrate significant changes in the agricultural production pattern across the world, the model with by-products shows smaller changes in the production of cereal grains and larger changes for oilseeds products in the US and EU, and the reverse for Brazil. Models that omit by-products are found to overstate cropland conversion from US and EU mandates by about 27%. (author)

  13. The Snow Data System at NASA JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, R.; Painter, T. H.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Bormann, K.; Brodzik, M. J.; Burgess, A. B.; Rittger, K.; Goodale, C. E.; Joyce, M.; McGibbney, L. J.; Zimdars, P.

    2014-12-01

    NASA JPL's Snow Data System has a data-processing pipeline powered by Apache OODT, an open source software tool. The pipeline has been running for several years and has successfully generated a significant amount of cryosphere data, including MODIS-based products such as MODSCAG, MODDRFS and MODICE, with historical and near-real time windows and covering regions such as the Artic, Western US, Alaska, Central Europe, Asia, South America, Australia and New Zealand. The team continues to improve the pipeline, using monitoring tools such as Ganglia to give an overview of operations, and improving fault-tolerance with automated recovery scripts. Several alternative adaptations of the Snow Covered Area and Grain size (SCAG) algorithm are being investigated. These include using VIIRS and Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite data as inputs. Parallel computing techniques are being considered for core SCAG processing, such as using the PyCUDA Python API to utilize multi-core GPU architectures. An experimental version of MODSCAG is also being developed for the Google Earth Engine platform, a cloud-based service.

  14. Energy and dissipated work in snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, P.; Buser, O.

    2004-12-01

    Using the results of large scale avalanche experiments at the Swiss Vallée de la Sionne test site, the energy balance of several snow avalanches is determined. Avalanches convert approximately one-seventh of their potential energy into kinetic energy. The total potential energy depends strongly on the entrained snowcover, indicating that entrainment processes cannot be ignored when predicting terminal velocities and runout distances. We find energy dissipation rates on the order of 1 GW. Fluidization of the fracture slab can be identified in the experiments as an increase in dissipation rate, thereby explaining the initial and rapid acceleration of avalanches after release. Interestingly, the dissipation rates appear to be constant along the track, although large fluctuations in internal velocity exist. Thus, we can demonstrate within the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics that -- in space -- granular snow avalanches are irreversible, dissipative systems that minimize entropy production because they appear to reach a steady-state non-equilibrium. A thermodynamic analysis reveals that fluctuations in velocity depend on the roughness of the flow surface and viscosity of the granular system. We speculate that this property explains the transition from flowing avalanches to powder avalanches.

  15. Produced water: Market and global trends - oil production - water production - choice of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The presentation discusses various aspects of the world oil production, the energy demand, the future oil supply, the oil prices and the production growth. Some problems with produced water are also discussed as well as aspects of the market for produced water technology (tk)

  16. Influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation on global hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jia Yi; Turner, Sean; Galelli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Hydropower contributes significantly to meeting the world's energy demand, accounting for at least 16% of total electrical output. Its role as a mature and cost competitive renewable energy source is expected to become increasingly important as the world transits to a low-carbon economy. A key component of hydropower production is runoff, which is highly dependent on precipitation and other climate variables. As such, it becomes critical to understand how the drivers of climate variability impact hydropower production. One globally-important driver is the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). While it is known that ENSO influences hydrological processes, the potential value of its associated teleconnection in design related tasks has yet to be explored at the global scale. Our work seeks to characterize the impact of ENSO on global hydropower production so as to quantify the potential for increased production brought about by incorporating climate information within reservoir operating models. We study over 1,500 hydropower reservoirs - representing more than half the world's hydropower capacity. A historical monthly reservoir inflow time series is assigned to each reservoir from a 0.5 degree gridded global runoff dataset. Reservoir operating rules are designed using stochastic dynamic programming, and storage dynamics are simulated to assess performance under the climate conditions of the 20th century. Results show that hydropower reservoirs in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, and Eastern China are strongly influenced by ENSO episodes. Statistically significant lag correlations between ENSO indicators and hydropower production demonstrate predictive skill with lead times up to several months. Our work highlights the potential for using these indicators to increase the contribution of existing hydropower plants to global energy supplies.

  17. Global-Detector; GIS- and Knowledge-based tool for a global detection of the potential for production, supply and demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennen, W.H.G.J.; Daane, P.A.J.; Duijvendijk, van Kees

    2017-01-01

    Wageningen Economic Research has developed Global-Detector, a knowledge-based Geographic Information System that aims to detect the worldwide potential for production, demand and market strategies. At any spot in the world Global-Detector can show the values from a large amount of indicators, such

  18. Application of SNODAS and hydrologic models to enhance entropy-based snow monitoring network design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Jongho; Coulibaly, Paulin; Razavi, Tara; Tapsoba, Dominique; Gobena, Adam; Weber, Frank; Pietroniro, Alain

    2018-06-01

    Snow has a unique characteristic in the water cycle, that is, snow falls during the entire winter season, but the discharge from snowmelt is typically delayed until the melting period and occurs in a relatively short period. Therefore, reliable observations from an optimal snow monitoring network are necessary for an efficient management of snowmelt water for flood prevention and hydropower generation. The Dual Entropy and Multiobjective Optimization is applied to design snow monitoring networks in La Grande River Basin in Québec and Columbia River Basin in British Columbia. While the networks are optimized to have the maximum amount of information with minimum redundancy based on entropy concepts, this study extends the traditional entropy applications to the hydrometric network design by introducing several improvements. First, several data quantization cases and their effects on the snow network design problems were explored. Second, the applicability the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) products as synthetic datasets of potential stations was demonstrated in the design of the snow monitoring network of the Columbia River Basin. Third, beyond finding the Pareto-optimal networks from the entropy with multi-objective optimization, the networks obtained for La Grande River Basin were further evaluated by applying three hydrologic models. The calibrated hydrologic models simulated discharges using the updated snow water equivalent data from the Pareto-optimal networks. Then, the model performances for high flows were compared to determine the best optimal network for enhanced spring runoff forecasting.

  19. Particulate matter air pollution may offset ozone damage to global crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiferl, Luke D.; Heald, Colette L.

    2018-04-01

    Ensuring global food security requires a comprehensive understanding of environmental pressures on food production, including the impacts of air quality. Surface ozone damages plants and decreases crop production; this effect has been extensively studied. In contrast, the presence of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere can be beneficial to crops given that enhanced light scattering leads to a more even and efficient distribution of photons which can outweigh total incoming radiation loss. This study quantifies the impacts of ozone and PM on the global production of maize, rice, and wheat in 2010 and 2050. We show that accounting for the growing season of these crops is an important factor in determining their air pollution exposure. We find that the effect of PM can offset much, if not all, of the reduction in yield associated with ozone damage. Assuming maximum sensitivity to PM, the current (2010) global net impact of air quality on crop production varies by crop (+5.6, -3.7, and +4.5 % for maize, wheat, and rice, respectively). Future emissions scenarios indicate that attempts to improve air quality can result in a net negative effect on crop production in areas dominated by the PM effect. However, we caution that the uncertainty in this assessment is large, due to the uncertainty associated with crop response to changes in diffuse radiation; this highlights that a more detailed physiological study of this response for common cultivars is crucial.

  20. Particulate matter air pollution may offset ozone damage to global crop production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Schiferl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring global food security requires a comprehensive understanding of environmental pressures on food production, including the impacts of air quality. Surface ozone damages plants and decreases crop production; this effect has been extensively studied. In contrast, the presence of particulate matter (PM in the atmosphere can be beneficial to crops given that enhanced light scattering leads to a more even and efficient distribution of photons which can outweigh total incoming radiation loss. This study quantifies the impacts of ozone and PM on the global production of maize, rice, and wheat in 2010 and 2050. We show that accounting for the growing season of these crops is an important factor in determining their air pollution exposure. We find that the effect of PM can offset much, if not all, of the reduction in yield associated with ozone damage. Assuming maximum sensitivity to PM, the current (2010 global net impact of air quality on crop production varies by crop (+5.6, −3.7, and +4.5 % for maize, wheat, and rice, respectively. Future emissions scenarios indicate that attempts to improve air quality can result in a net negative effect on crop production in areas dominated by the PM effect. However, we caution that the uncertainty in this assessment is large, due to the uncertainty associated with crop response to changes in diffuse radiation; this highlights that a more detailed physiological study of this response for common cultivars is crucial.

  1. Determining the effect of key climate drivers on global hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, S.; Ng, J. Y.; Lee, D.; Block, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Accounting for about 17% of total global electrical power production, hydropower is arguably the world's main renewable energy source and a key asset to meet Paris climate agreements. A key component of hydropower production is water availability, which depends on both precipitation and multiple drivers of climate variability acting at different spatial and temporal scales. To understand how these drivers impact global hydropower production, we study the relation between four patterns of ocean-atmosphere climate variability (i.e., El Niño Southern Oscillation, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) and monthly time series of electrical power production for over 1,500 hydropower reservoirs—obtained via simulation with a high-fidelity dam model forced with 20th century climate conditions. Notably significant relationships between electrical power productions and climate variability are found in many climate sensitive regions globally, including North and South America, East Asia, West Africa, and Europe. Coupled interactions from multiple, simultaneous climate drivers are also evaluated. Finally, we highlight the importance of using these climate drivers as an additional source of information within reservoir operating rules where the skillful predictability of inflow exists.

  2. Use of satellite erythemal UV products in analysing the global UV changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ialongo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Long term changes in solar UV radiation affect global bio-geochemistry and climate. The satellite-based dataset of TOMS (Total Ozone Monitoring System and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument of erythemal UV product was applied for the first time to estimate the long-term ultraviolet (UV changes at the global scale. The analysis of the uncertainty related to the different input information is presented. OMI and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 products were compared in order to analyse the differences in the global UV distribution and their effect on the linear trend estimation.

    The results showed that the differences in the inputs (mainly surface albedo and aerosol information used in the retrieval, affect significantly the UV change calculation, pointing out the importance of using a consistent dataset when calculating long term UV changes. The areas where these differences played a major role were identified using global maps of monthly UV changes. Despite the uncertainties, significant positive UV changes (ranging from 0 to about 5 %/decade were observed, with higher values in the Southern Hemisphere at mid-latitudes during spring-summer, where the largest ozone decrease was observed.

  3. Evaluation of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) air temperature data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lei; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.

    2015-01-01

    There is a high demand for agrohydrologic models to use gridded near-surface air temperature data as the model input for estimating regional and global water budgets and cycles. The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) developed by combining simulation models with observations provides a long-term gridded meteorological dataset at the global scale. However, the GLDAS air temperature products have not been comprehensively evaluated, although the accuracy of the products was assessed in limited areas. In this study, the daily 0.25° resolution GLDAS air temperature data are compared with two reference datasets: 1) 1-km-resolution gridded Daymet data (2002 and 2010) for the conterminous United States and 2) global meteorological observations (2000–11) archived from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN). The comparison of the GLDAS datasets with the GHCN datasets, including 13 511 weather stations, indicates a fairly high accuracy of the GLDAS data for daily temperature. The quality of the GLDAS air temperature data, however, is not always consistent in different regions of the world; for example, some areas in Africa and South America show relatively low accuracy. Spatial and temporal analyses reveal a high agreement between GLDAS and Daymet daily air temperature datasets, although spatial details in high mountainous areas are not sufficiently estimated by the GLDAS data. The evaluation of the GLDAS data demonstrates that the air temperature estimates are generally accurate, but caution should be taken when the data are used in mountainous areas or places with sparse weather stations.

  4. Global effects of local food-production crises: a virtual water perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-01-25

    By importing food and agricultural goods, countries cope with the heterogeneous global water distribution and often rely on water resources available abroad. The virtual displacement of the water used to produce such goods (known as virtual water) connects together, in a global water system, all countries participating to the international trade network. Local food-production crises, having social, economic or environmental origin, propagate in this network, modifying the virtual water trade and perturbing local and global food availability, quantified in terms of virtual water. We analyze here the possible effects of local crises by developing a new propagation model, parsimonious but grounded on data-based and statistically-verified assumptions, whose effectiveness is proved on the Argentinean crisis in 2008-09. The model serves as the basis to propose indicators of crisis impact and country vulnerability to external food-production crises, which highlight that countries with largest water resources have the highest impact on the international trade, and that not only water-scarce but also wealthy and globalized countries are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis reveals that global average vulnerability has increased over time and that stronger effects of crises are now found in countries with low food (and water) availability.

  5. Transparencies used in describing the International Data Centre (IDC) products and Global Communications Infrastructure (GCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratt, S.

    1999-01-01

    The mission of the International Data Centre (IDC) of the CTBT is to support the verification possibilities of State Parties by providing objective products and services necessary for effective global monitoring. This presentation describes the IDC progressive commissioning plan, facilities of IDC ready to release, international monitoring system network, IDC products and services for State signatories, product dissemination services. It contains the description of daily information on acoustic events concerned wit Pakistani nuclear test, seismic in Africa, seismic and hydro acoustic data, infrasound data, gamma spectra concerned with explosions and seismic events. The need of establishing national or regional data centers is emphasised and the training courses planned are described

  6. Photochemical chlorine and bromine activation from artificial saline snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Wren

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The activation of reactive halogen species – particularly Cl2 – from sea ice and snow surfaces is not well understood. In this study, we used a photochemical snow reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer to investigate the production of Br2, BrCl and Cl2 from NaCl/NaBr-doped artificial snow samples. At temperatures above the NaCl-water eutectic, illumination of samples (λ > 310 nm in the presence of gas phase O3 led to the accelerated release of Br2, BrCl and the release of Cl2 in a process that was significantly enhanced by acidity, high surface area and additional gas phase Br2. Cl2 production was only observed when both light and ozone were present. The total halogen release depended on [ozone] and pre-freezing [NaCl]. Our observations support a "halogen explosion" mechanism occurring within the snowpack, which is initiated by heterogeneous oxidation and propagated by Br2 or BrCl photolysis and by recycling of HOBr and HOCl into the snowpack. Our study implicates this important role of active chemistry occurring within the interstitial air of aged (i.e. acidic snow for halogen activation at polar sunrise.

  7. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Deshong, B.; Greene, M.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following: 1. Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products. 2. Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products. 3. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products. (early, late, and final)A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govgpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http:mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding; data

  8. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Products and Services at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http://pmm.nasa.gov/GPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM "Core Observatory" satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data within the NASA Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS). The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Over the past 16 years, the GES DISC has served the scientific as well as other communities with TRMM data and user-friendly services. During the GPM era, the GES DISC will continue to provide user-friendly data services and customer support to users around the world. GPM products currently and to-be available include the following: Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final) A dedicated Web portal (including user guides, etc.) has been developed for GPM data (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gpm). Data services that are currently and to-be available include Google-like Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/) for data search and access; data access through various Web services (e.g., OPeNDAP, GDS, WMS, WCS); conversion into various formats (e.g., netCDF, HDF, KML (for Google Earth), ASCII); exploration, visualization, and statistical online analysis through Giovanni (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov); generation of value-added products; parameter and spatial subsetting; time aggregation; regridding

  9. Effects of foliage clumping on the estimation of global terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing M.; Mo, Gang; Pisek, Jan; Liu, Jane; Deng, Feng; Ishizawa, Misa; Chan, Douglas

    2012-03-01

    Sunlit and shaded leaf separation proposed by Norman (1982) is an effective way to upscale from leaf to canopy in modeling vegetation photosynthesis. The Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) makes use of this methodology, and has been shown to be reliable in modeling the gross primary productivity (GPP) derived from CO2flux and tree ring measurements. In this study, we use BEPS to investigate the effect of canopy architecture on the global distribution of GPP. For this purpose, we use not only leaf area index (LAI) but also the first ever global map of the foliage clumping index derived from the multiangle satellite sensor POLDER at 6 km resolution. The clumping index, which characterizes the degree of the deviation of 3-dimensional leaf spatial distributions from the random case, is used to separate sunlit and shaded LAI values for a given LAI. Our model results show that global GPP in 2003 was 132 ± 22 Pg C. Relative to this baseline case, our results also show: (1) global GPP is overestimated by 12% when accurate LAI is available but clumping is ignored, and (2) global GPP is underestimated by 9% when the effective LAI is available and clumping is ignored. The clumping effects in both cases are statistically significant (p < 0.001). The effective LAI is often derived from remote sensing by inverting the measured canopy gap fraction to LAI without considering the clumping. Global GPP would therefore be generally underestimated when remotely sensed LAI (actually effective LAI by our definition) is used. This is due to the underestimation of the shaded LAI and therefore the contribution of shaded leaves to GPP. We found that shaded leaves contribute 50%, 38%, 37%, 39%, 26%, 29% and 21% to the total GPP for broadleaf evergreen forest, broadleaf deciduous forest, evergreen conifer forest, deciduous conifer forest, shrub, C4 vegetation, and other vegetation, respectively. The global average of this ratio is 35%.

  10. Effects of snow grain non-sphericity on climate simulations: Sensitivity tests with the NorESM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Petri; Makkonen, Risto; Kirkevåg, Alf

    2017-04-01

    Snow grains are non-spherical and generally irregular in shape. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, they are often treated as spheres. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4), both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). In this work, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH) is compared with another (NONSPH) in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (≈ 0.78 in the visible region) than in the spherical case (≈ 0.89). Therefore, for a given snow grain size, the use of non-spherical snow grains yields a higher snow broadband albedo, typically by ≈0.03. Consequently, considering the spherical case as the baseline, the use of non-spherical snow grains results in a negative radiative forcing (RF), with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ≈ -0.22 W m-2. Although this global-mean RF is modest, it has a rather substantial impact on the climate simulated by NoRESM. In particular, the global annual-mean 2-m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further found that the difference between NONSPH and SPH could be largely "tuned away" by adjusting the snow grain size in the NONSPH experiment by ≈ 70%. The impact of snow grain shape on the radiative effect (RE) of absorbing aerosols in snow (black carbon and mineral dust) is also discussed. For an

  11. Digging of 'Snow White' Begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began excavating a new trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil located near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The trench is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (about 12 inches) long. The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.' At this early stage of digging, the Phoenix team did not expect to find any of the white material seen in the first trench, now called 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' That trench showed white material at a depth of about 5 centimeters (2 inches). More digging of Snow White is planned for coming sols, or Martian days. The dark portion of this image is the shadow of the lander's solar panel; the bright areas within this region are not in shadow. Snow White was dug on Sol 22 (June 17, 2008) with Phoenix's Robotic Arm. This picture was acquired on the same day by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager. This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical Framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nichols, Dr Jeff A [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A global energy crop productivity model that provides geospatially explicit quantitative details on biomass potential and factors affecting sustainability would be useful, but does not exist now. This study describes a modeling platform capable of meeting many challenges associated with global-scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed an analytical framework for bioenergy crops consisting of six major components: (i) standardized natural resources datasets, (ii) global field-trial data and crop management practices, (iii) simulation units and management scenarios, (iv) model calibration and validation, (v) high-performance computing (HPC) simulation, and (vi) simulation output processing and analysis. The HPC-Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (HPC-EPIC) model simulated a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), estimating feedstock production potentials and effects across the globe. This modeling platform can assess soil C sequestration, net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, nonpoint source pollution (e.g., nutrient and pesticide loss), and energy exchange with the atmosphere. It can be expanded to include additional bioenergy crops (e.g., miscanthus, energy cane, and agave) and food crops under different management scenarios. The platform and switchgrass field-trial dataset are available to support global analysis of biomass feedstock production potential and corresponding metrics of sustainability.

  13. Everywhere and nowhere: snow and its linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Interest has grown in quantifying higher latitude precipitation change and snow-related ecosystem and economic impacts. There is a high demand for creating and using snow-related datasets, yet available datasets contain limitations, aren't scale appropriate, or lack thorough validation. Much of the uncertainty in snow estimates relates to ongoing snow measurement problems that are chronic and pervasive in windy, Arctic environments. This, coupled with diminishing support for long-term snow field observations, creates formidable hydrologic gaps in snow dominated landscapes. Snow touches most aspects of high latitude landscapes and spans albedo, ecosystems, soils, permafrost, and sea ice. In turn, snow can be impacted by disturbances, landscape change, ecosystem, structure, and later arrival of sea or lake ice. Snow, and its changes touch infrastructure, housing, and transportation. Advances in snow measurements, modeling, and data assimilation are under way, but more attention and a concerted effort is needed in a time of dwindling resources to make required advances during a time of rapid change.

  14. Information Processing and Firm-Internal Environment Contingencies: Performance Impact on Global New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinschmidt, Elko; de Brentani, Ulrike; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    , functionally, geographically and culturally. To this end, an IT-communication strength is essential, one that is nested in an internal organizational environment that ensures its effective functioning. Using organizational information processing (OIP) theory as a framework, superior global NPD program......Innovation in its essence is an information processing activity. Thus, a major factor impacting the success of new product development (NPD) programs, especially those responding to global markets, is the firm's ability to access, share and apply NPD information, which is often widely dispersed...

  15. A global coal production forecast with multi-Hubbert cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzek, Tadeusz W. [Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Croft, Gregory D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of California, Berkeley, Davis Hall, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Based on economic and policy considerations that appear to be unconstrained by geophysics, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) generated forty carbon production and emissions scenarios. In this paper, we develop a base-case scenario for global coal production based on the physical multi-cycle Hubbert analysis of historical production data. Areas with large resources but little production history, such as Alaska and the Russian Far East, are treated as sensitivities on top of this base-case, producing an additional 125 Gt of coal. The value of this approach is that it provides a reality check on the magnitude of carbon emissions in a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario. The resulting base-case is significantly below 36 of the 40 carbon emission scenarios from the IPCC. The global peak of coal production from existing coalfields is predicted to occur close to the year 2011. The peak coal production rate is 160 EJ/y, and the peak carbon emissions from coal burning are 4.0 Gt C (15 Gt CO{sub 2}) per year. After 2011, the production rates of coal and CO{sub 2} decline, reaching 1990 levels by the year 2037, and reaching 50% of the peak value in the year 2047. It is unlikely that future mines will reverse the trend predicted in this BAU scenario. (author)

  16. Global impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy: A general equilibrium perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Samuel Garner

    The conversion of biomass to energy represents a promising pathway forward in efforts to reduce fossil fuel use in the transportation and electricity sectors. In addition to potential benefits, such as greenhouse gas reductions and increased energy security, bioenergy production also presents a unique set of challenges. These challenges include tradeoffs between food and fuel production, distortions in energy markets, and terrestrial emissions associated with changing land-use patterns. Each of these challenges arises from market-mediated responses to bioenergy production, and are therefore largely economic in nature. This dissertation directly addresses these opportunities and challenges by evaluating the economic impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy, focusing on both existing and future biomass-to-energy pathways. The analysis approaches the issue from a global, economy-wide perspective, reflecting two important facts. First, that large-scale bioenergy production connects multiple sectors of the economy due to the use of agricultural land resources for biomass production, and competition with fossil fuels in energy markets. Second, markets for both agricultural and energy commodities are highly integrated globally, causing domestic policies to have international effects. The reader can think of this work as being comprised of three parts. Part I provides context through an extensive review of the literature on the market-mediated effects of conventional biofuel production (Chapter 2) and develops a general equilibrium modeling framework for assessing the extent to which these phenomenon present a challenge for future bioenergy pathways (Chapter 3). Part II (Chapter 4) explores the economic impacts of the lignocellulosic biofuel production targets set in the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard on global agricultural and energy commodity markets. Part III (Chapter 5) extends the analysis to consider potential inefficiencies associated with policy

  17. Systematical estimation of GPM-based global satellite mapping of precipitation products over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haigen; Yang, Bogang; Yang, Shengtian; Huang, Yingchun; Dong, Guotao; Bai, Juan; Wang, Zhiwei

    2018-03-01

    As the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite continues its mission, new version 6 products for Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) have been released. However, few studies have systematically evaluated the GSMaP products over mainland China. This study quantitatively evaluated three GPM-based GSMaP version 6 precipitation products for China and eight subregions referring to the Chinese daily Precipitation Analysis Product (CPAP). The GSMaP products included near-real-time (GSMaP_NRT), microwave-infrared reanalyzed (GSMaP_MVK), and gauge-adjusted (GSMaP_Gau) data. Additionally, the gauge-adjusted Integrated Multi-Satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (IMERG_Gau) was also assessed and compared with GSMaP_Gau. The analyses of the selected daily products were carried out at spatiotemporal resolutions of 1/4° for the period of March 2014 to December 2015 in consideration of the resolution of CPAP and the consistency of the coverage periods of the satellite products. The results indicated that GSMaP_MVK and GSMaP_NRT performed comparably and underdetected light rainfall events (Pearson linear correlation coefficient (CC), fractional standard error (FSE), and root-mean-square error (RMSE) metrics during the summer. Compared with GSMaP_NRT and GSMaP_MVK, GSMaP_Gau possessed significantly improved metrics over mainland China and the eight subregions and performed better in terms of CC, RMSE, and FSE but underestimated precipitation to a greater degree than IMERG_Gau. As a quantitative assessment of the GPM-era GSMaP products, these validation results will supply helpful references for both end users and algorithm developers. However, the study findings need to be confirmed over a longer future study period when the longer-period IMERG retrospectively-processed data are available.

  18. 78 FR 79498 - Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... Production Act of 1993--IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on November 22....C. Sec. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. (``IMS Global'') has filed..., Carson-Dellosa Publishing, Greensboro, NC; Data Recognition Group, Maple Grove, MN; Nelson Education Ltd...

  19. 78 FR 7456 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... District, Selbyville, DE; learning.com , Portland, OR; State of Michigan Dept. of Education, Bureau of... Production Act of 1993--IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on December 28....C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. (``IMS Global'') has filed...

  20. Evaluation of global fine-resolution precipitation products and their uncertainty quantification in ensemble discharge simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, W.; Zhang, C.; Fu, G.; Sweetapple, C.; Zhou, H.

    2016-02-01

    The applicability of six fine-resolution precipitation products, including precipitation radar, infrared, microwave and gauge-based products, using different precipitation computation recipes, is evaluated using statistical and hydrological methods in northeastern China. In addition, a framework quantifying uncertainty contributions of precipitation products, hydrological models, and their interactions to uncertainties in ensemble discharges is proposed. The investigated precipitation products are Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products (TRMM3B42 and TRMM3B42RT), Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)/Noah, Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN), and a Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP-MVK+) product. Two hydrological models of different complexities, i.e. a water and energy budget-based distributed hydrological model and a physically based semi-distributed hydrological model, are employed to investigate the influence of hydrological models on simulated discharges. Results show APHRODITE has high accuracy at a monthly scale compared with other products, and GSMAP-MVK+ shows huge advantage and is better than TRMM3B42 in relative bias (RB), Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSE), root mean square error (RMSE), correlation coefficient (CC), false alarm ratio, and critical success index. These findings could be very useful for validation, refinement, and future development of satellite-based products (e.g. NASA Global Precipitation Measurement). Although large uncertainty exists in heavy precipitation, hydrological models contribute most of the uncertainty in extreme discharges. Interactions between precipitation products and hydrological models can have the similar magnitude of contribution to discharge uncertainty as the hydrological models. A

  1. A webgis supported snow information system with long time satellite data for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surer, S.; Bolat, K.; Akyurek, Z.

    2012-04-01

    KARBILSIS is an online platform which is developed in order to provide end-users with daily remote sensing snow products for Turkey (www.karbilsis.com). The project has been started as a research activity after an award by Ministry of Science and Technology has been granted to our company. At the first stage of our project MODIS atmospherically corrected reflectance data has been downloaded covering the period of 2000-2011 which makes more than ten years of satellite imagery for Turkey. The archived MODIS data that have been obtained from National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) is mainly MOD09GA product that includes seven spectral bands. Only the tiles which are covering Turkey have been archived namely 19&20 horizontal and 4&5 vertical ones. In order to provide scientists with a website giving the availability of analysis of snow covered area for long terms based on their area of interests, a fractional snow extent (FSE) product has been generated. For FSE product a normalized difference snow index (NDSI) based algorithm has been developed using daily land surface reflectance values (MOD09GA). In addition to MODIS data, four different Landsat images belonging to different days of snowy period (January, March, and May) have been used during algorithm development taking into account a better representation of different reflectance values of snow which highly varies depending on the accumulation and melting periods. Landsat images were used as reference images. First the Landsat images were orthorectified and mapped to a cartographic projection. Then image segmentation was applied to obtain homogeneous tiles, where the homogeneity is defined as similarity in pixel values. The mean-shift segmentation approach, where each pixel was associated with a significant mode of the joint domain density located in its neighborhood, was applied. After segmentation, the image was classified into snow and no-snow classes with Maximum Likelihood Classification Method. FSE

  2. Storing snow for the next winter: Two case studies on the application of snow farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Snow farming is the conservation of snow during the warm half-year. This means that large piles of snow are formed in spring in order to be conserved over the summer season. Well-insulating materials such as chipped wood are added as surface cover to reduce melting. The aim of snow farming is to provide a "snow guaranty" for autumn or early winter - this means that a specific amount of snow will definitively be available, independent of the weather conditions. The conserved snow can then be used as basis for the preparation of winter sports grounds such as cross-country tracks or ski runs. This helps in the organization of early winter season sport events such as World Cup races or to provide appropriate training conditions for athletes. We present a study on two snow farming projects, one in Davos (Switzerland) and one in the Martell valley of South Tyrol. At both places snow farming has been used for several years. For the summer season 2015, we monitored both snow piles in order to assess the amount of snow conserved. High resolution terrestrial laser scanning was performed to measure snow volumes of the piles at the beginning and at the end of the summer period. Results showed that only 20% to 30 % of the snow mass was lost due to ablation. This mass loss was surprisingly low considering the extremely warm and dry summer. In order to identify the most relevant drivers of snow melt we also present simulations with the sophisticated snow cover models SNOWPACK and Alpine3D. The simulations are driven by meteorological input data recorded in the vicinity of the piles and enable a detailed analysis of the relevant processes controlling the energy balance. The models can be applied to optimize settings for snow farming and to examine the suitability of new locations, configurations or cover material for future snow farming projects.

  3. Impacts of Snow Darkening by Absorbing Aerosols on Eurasian Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K M.; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Koster, Randal D.

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of absorbing aerosols on snow surfaces reduces snow-albedo and allows snowpack to absorb more sunlight. This so-called snow darkening effect (SDE) accelerates snow melting and leads to surface warming in spring. To examine the impact of SDE on weather and climate during late spring and early summer, two sets of NASA GEOS-5 model simulations with and without SDE are conducted. Results show that SDE-induced surface heating is particularly pronounced in Eurasian regions where significant depositions of dust transported from the North African deserts, and black carbon from biomass burning from Asia and Europe occur. In these regions, the surface heating due to SDE increases surface skin temperature by 3-6 degrees Kelvin near the snowline in spring. Surface energy budget analysis indicates that SDE-induced excess heating is associated with a large increase in surface evaporation, subsequently leading to a significant reduction in soil moisture, and increased risks of drought and heat waves in late spring to early summer. Overall, we find that rainfall deficit combined with SDE-induced dry soil in spring provide favorable condition for summertime heat waves over large regions of Eurasia. Increased frequency of summer heat waves with SDE and the region of maximum increase in heat-wave frequency are found along the snow line, providing evidence that early snowmelt by SDE may increase the risks of extreme summer heat wave. Our results suggest that climate models that do not include SDE may significantly underestimate the effect of global warming over extra-tropical continental regions.

  4. From the clouds to the ground - snow precipitation patterns vs. snow accumulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Franziska; Besic, Nikola; Mott, Rebecca; Gabella, Marco; Germann, Urs; Bühler, Yves; Marty, Mauro; Berne, Alexis; Lehning, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge about snow distribution and snow accumulation patterns is important and valuable for different applications such as the prediction of seasonal water resources or avalanche forecasting. Furthermore, accumulated snow on the ground is an important ground truth for validating meteorological and climatological model predictions of precipitation in high mountains and polar regions. Snow accumulation patterns are determined by many different processes from ice crystal nucleation in clouds to snow redistribution by wind and avalanches. In between, snow precipitation undergoes different dynamical and microphysical processes, such as ice crystal growth, aggregation and riming, which determine the growth of individual particles and thereby influence the intensity and structure of the snowfall event. In alpine terrain the interaction of different processes and the topography (e.g. lifting condensation and low level cloud formation, which may result in a seeder-feeder effect) may lead to orographic enhancement of precipitation. Furthermore, the redistribution of snow particles in the air by wind results in preferential deposition of precipitation. Even though orographic enhancement is addressed in numerous studies, the relative importance of micro-physical and dynamically induced mechanisms on local snowfall amounts and especially snow accumulation patterns is hardly known. To better understand the relative importance of different processes on snow precipitation and accumulation we analyze snowfall and snow accumulation between January and March 2016 in Davos (Switzerland). We compare MeteoSwiss operational weather radar measurements on Weissfluhgipfel to a spatially continuous snow accumulation map derived from airborne digital sensing (ADS) snow height for the area of Dischma valley in the vicinity of the weather radar. Additionally, we include snow height measurements from automatic snow stations close to the weather radar. Large-scale radar snow accumulation

  5. Environmental degradation, global food production, and risk for large-scale migrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeoes, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate to what extent global food production is affected by the ongoing environmental degradation through processes, such as soil erosion, salinization, chemical contamination, ultraviolet radiation, and biotic stress. Estimates have also been made of available opportunities to improve food production efficiency by, e.g., increased use of fertilizers, irrigation, and biotechnology, as well as improved management. Expected losses and gains of agricultural land in competition with urbanization, industrial development, and forests have been taken into account. Although estimated gains in food production deliberately have been overestimated and losses underestimated, calculations indicate that during the next 30-35 years the annual net gain in food production will be significantly lower than the rate of world population growth. An attempt has also been made to identify possible scenarios for large-scale migrations, caused mainly by rapid population growth in combination with insufficient local food production and poverty. 18 refs, 7 figs, 6 tabs

  6. Global and Country-Level Fragility to Major Disruptions in Crop Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, M. J.; Wada, Y.; Chon, S. Y.; Cook, B. I.; Nordbotten, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    New food polices are needed to mitigate vulnerabilities in the global food system to unexpected and severe production losses. The starting point for developing such policies is the ability to quantify the potential range of food and economic losses associated with major food-production shocks. Although individual major shock events are unpredictable, it is possible to quantify the relative vulnerabilities of the global food system as a whole and of individual countries within the system to production shocks. Here we combine a scale for food disruptions, which links the magnitude for a production shock with the corresponding short-term food and economic losses for that event (analogous to the well-known Richter magnitude scale for earthquakes), with country-level food system metrics. We demonstrate the value of our approach using the recent El Niño event of 2015-2016. Ultimately, these metrics can be used as part of efforts to develop national and global level food policies to prepare for and mitigate possible food-supply disruptions.

  7. Experimental outgassing of toxic chemicals to simulate the characteristics of hazards tainting globally shipped products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Therese Budnik

    Full Text Available Ambient monitoring analyses may identify potential new public health hazards such as residual levels of fumigants and industrial chemicals off gassing from products and goods shipped globally. We analyzed container air with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (TD-2D-GC-MS/FPD and assessed whether the concentration of the volatiles benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane exceeded recommended exposure limits (REL. Products were taken from transport containers and analyzed for outgassing of volatiles. Furthermore, experimental outgassing was performed on packaging materials and textiles, to simulate the hazards tainting from globally shipped goods. The mean amounts of benzene in analyzed container air were 698-fold higher, and those of ethylene dichloride were 4.5-fold higher than the corresponding REL. More than 90% of all containers struck with toluene residues higher than its REL. For 1,2-dichloroethane 53% of containers, transporting shoes exceeded the REL. In standardized experimental fumigation of various products, outgassing of 1,2-dichloroethane under controlled laboratory conditions took up to several months. Globally produced transported products tainted with toxic industrial chemicals may contribute to the mixture of volatiles in indoor air as they are likely to emit for a long period. These results need to be taken into account for further evaluation of safety standards applying to workers and consumers.

  8. The global income and production effects of genetically modified (GM) crops 1996-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2011. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $19.8 billion in 2011 and $98.2 billion for the 16 year period (in nominal terms). The majority (51.2%) of these gains went to farmers in developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 110 million tonnes and 195 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s.

  9. Economic impact of GM crops: the global income and production effects 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s.

  10. The CAFE model: A net production model for global ocean phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silsbe, Greg M.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Halsey, Kimberly H.; Milligan, Allen J.; Westberry, Toby K.

    2016-12-01

    The Carbon, Absorption, and Fluorescence Euphotic-resolving (CAFE) net primary production model is an adaptable framework for advancing global ocean productivity assessments by exploiting state-of-the-art satellite ocean color analyses and addressing key physiological and ecological attributes of phytoplankton. Here we present the first implementation of the CAFE model that incorporates inherent optical properties derived from ocean color measurements into a mechanistic and accurate model of phytoplankton growth rates (μ) and net phytoplankton production (NPP). The CAFE model calculates NPP as the product of energy absorption (QPAR), and the efficiency (ϕμ) by which absorbed energy is converted into carbon biomass (CPhyto), while μ is calculated as NPP normalized to CPhyto. The CAFE model performance is evaluated alongside 21 other NPP models against a spatially robust and globally representative set of direct NPP measurements. This analysis demonstrates that the CAFE model explains the greatest amount of variance and has the lowest model bias relative to other NPP models analyzed with this data set. Global oceanic NPP from the CAFE model (52 Pg C m-2 yr-1) and mean division rates (0.34 day-1) are derived from climatological satellite data (2002-2014). This manuscript discusses and validates individual CAFE model parameters (e.g., QPAR and ϕμ), provides detailed sensitivity analyses, and compares the CAFE model results and parameterization to other widely cited models.

  11. The contribution of the Precambrian continental lithosphere to global H2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Onstott, T C; Lacrampe-Couloume, G; Ballentine, C J

    2014-12-18

    Microbial ecosystems can be sustained by hydrogen gas (H2)-producing water-rock interactions in the Earth's subsurface and at deep ocean vents. Current estimates of global H2 production from the marine lithosphere by water-rock reactions (hydration) are in the range of 10(11) moles per year. Recent explorations of saline fracture waters in the Precambrian continental subsurface have identified environments as rich in H2 as hydrothermal vents and seafloor-spreading centres and have suggested a link between dissolved H2 and the radiolytic dissociation of water. However, extrapolation of a regional H2 flux based on the deep gold mines of the Witwatersrand basin in South Africa yields a contribution of the Precambrian lithosphere to global H2 production that was thought to be negligible (0.009 × 10(11) moles per year). Here we present a global compilation of published and new H2 concentration data obtained from Precambrian rocks and find that the H2 production potential of the Precambrian continental lithosphere has been underestimated. We suggest that this can be explained by a lack of consideration of additional H2-producing reactions, such as serpentinization, and the absence of appropriate scaling of H2 measurements from these environments to account for the fact that Precambrian crust represents over 70 per cent of global continental crust surface area. If H2 production via both radiolysis and hydration reactions is taken into account, our estimate of H2 production rates from the Precambrian continental lithosphere of 0.36-2.27 × 10(11) moles per year is comparable to estimates from marine systems.

  12. Assessing the global warming potential of wooden products from the furniture sector to improve their ecodesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara, E-mail: sara.gonzalez@usc.es [Division of Biology, Department of Life Sciences, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Imperial College of London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782- Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gasol, Carles M.; Lozano, Raul Garcia [Inedit Innovacio, Carretera de Cabrils, km 2 -IRTA-, 08348 Cabrils, Barcelona (Spain); SosteniPrA - UAB-IRTA, Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Moreira, Ma Teresa [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782- Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall i Pons, Joan [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782- Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the global warming potential of several wood products as an environmental criterion for their ecodesign. Two methodologies were combined: the quantification of greenhouse gas emissions (equivalent CO{sub 2}) of several representative wood based products from the furniture sector and the integration of environmental aspects into product design. The products under assessment were classified in two groups: indoor products and outdoor products, depending on their location. 'Indoor products' included a convertible cot/bed, a kitchen cabinet, an office table, a living room furniture, a headboard, youth room accessories and a wine crate, while the 'Outdoor products' analysed were a ventilated wooden wall and a wooden playground. Spanish wood processing companies located in Galicia (NW Spain) and Catalonia (NE Spain) were analysed in detail. The life cycle of each product was carried out from a cradle-to-gate perspective according to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, using global warming potential as the selected impact category. According to the results, metals, boards and energy use appeared to be the most contributing elements to the environmental impact of the different products under assessment, with total contributions ranging from 40% to 90%. Furthermore, eco-design strategies were proposed by means of the methodology known as Design for the Environment (DfE). Improvement strategies viable for implementation in the short term were considered and analysed in detail, accounting for remarkable reductions in the equivalent CO{sub 2} emissions (up to 60%). These strategies would be focused on the use of renewable energies such as photovoltaic cells, the promotion of national fibres or changes in the materials used. Other alternatives to be implemented in the long term can be of potential interest for future developments.

  13. Assessing the global warming potential of wooden products from the furniture sector to improve their ecodesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Gasol, Carles M; Lozano, Raúl García; Moreira, María Teresa; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall i Pons, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the global warming potential of several wood products as an environmental criterion for their ecodesign. Two methodologies were combined: the quantification of greenhouse gas emissions (equivalent CO(2)) of several representative wood based products from the furniture sector and the integration of environmental aspects into product design. The products under assessment were classified in two groups: indoor products and outdoor products, depending on their location. "Indoor products" included a convertible cot/bed, a kitchen cabinet, an office table, a living room furniture, a headboard, youth room accessories and a wine crate, while the "Outdoor products" analysed were a ventilated wooden wall and a wooden playground. Spanish wood processing companies located in Galicia (NW Spain) and Catalonia (NE Spain) were analysed in detail. The life cycle of each product was carried out from a cradle-to-gate perspective according to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, using global warming potential as the selected impact category. According to the results, metals, boards and energy use appeared to be the most contributing elements to the environmental impact of the different products under assessment, with total contributions ranging from 40% to 90%. Furthermore, eco-design strategies were proposed by means of the methodology known as Design for the Environment (DfE). Improvement strategies viable for implementation in the short term were considered and analysed in detail, accounting for remarkable reductions in the equivalent CO(2) emissions (up to 60%). These strategies would be focused on the use of renewable energies such as photovoltaic cells, the promotion of national fibres or changes in the materials used. Other alternatives to be implemented in the long term can be of potential interest for future developments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Longitudinal observations of globally distributed design teams: The impacts on Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Factors impacting the success of Product Development (PD) projects are intensified when teams are distributed globally, making it a challenging task for project management to deal with effects on time, cost and quality. It is important for project management to understand when challenges......, such as communication difficulties, a lack of common vision between team members or issues related to documentation, may occur during PD projects, enabling them to take the necessary preventative action (Edmondson and Nembhard, 2009). When investigating factors impacting the success of PD, the majority of research...... studies of globally distributed design teams in PD projects. This paper aims to contribute to the further understanding of the factors impacting the success of PD projects when teams are distributed globally. With the results from a longitudinal observational study over 8 months, the factors impacting...

  15. Global biomass production potentials exceed expected future demand without the need for cropland expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, Wolfram; Klepper, Gernot; Zabel, Florian; Delzeit, Ruth; Hank, Tobias; Putzenlechner, Birgitta; Calzadilla, Alvaro

    2015-11-12

    Global biomass demand is expected to roughly double between 2005 and 2050. Current studies suggest that agricultural intensification through optimally managed crops on today's cropland alone is insufficient to satisfy future demand. In practice though, improving crop growth management through better technology and knowledge almost inevitably goes along with (1) improving farm management with increased cropping intensity and more annual harvests where feasible and (2) an economically more efficient spatial allocation of crops which maximizes farmers' profit. By explicitly considering these two factors we show that, without expansion of cropland, today's global biomass potentials substantially exceed previous estimates and even 2050s' demands. We attribute 39% increase in estimated global production potentials to increasing cropping intensities and 30% to the spatial reallocation of crops to their profit-maximizing locations. The additional potentials would make cropland expansion redundant. Their geographic distribution points at possible hotspots for future intensification.

  16. Blowing snow detection in Antarctica, from space borne and ground-based remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossart, A.; Souverijns, N.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J.; Gorodetskaya, I.; Schween, J. H.; Van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2017-12-01

    detection from satellite products while blowing snow detections from the ceilometers showed a majority of events occurring during these conditions. Here, we study the concordance of the retrieval of blowing snow events from satellite imagery with the ceilometers algorithm, and we present case studies focusing on the days when concurrent and divergent retrieval occur.

  17. The Global Experience of Development of the Theory of Spatial Distribution of Productive Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiman Oleh A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication is aimed at theoretical generalization of the global experience of development of the theory of spatial distribution of productive forces as the basis of regional economy. Considering the evolution of scientific views on the spatial development of territories, taking account of the particularities of the distribution of production, one can allocate and identify several paradigms, which replaced each other, but preserved their connection with the placement of productive forces. Each one of these paradigms or all of them as a whole provide an example of a single historical process associated with the productive forces. Characteristic of a methodology based on the spatiotemporal paradigm is consideration of both time and space factors, which, in substance, take on the qualities of economic categories. Speaking of the use of theoretical developments in the practice of regional development, it should be specified that programs, strategies and other regulations must take into account the linkage between the progressive and the negative trends as well as cyclical nature of economic development, including the global economy, identify the factors that accelerate or retard the passage of every evolutionary spiral, and observe consistency of the productive forces of region with the technological patterns of production.

  18. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E James Hehre

    Full Text Available Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar, or the Western Pacific (Fiji. In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.

  19. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehre, E James; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines) but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar), or the Western Pacific (Fiji). In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.

  20. Export competitiveness of dairy products on global markets: the case of the European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojnec, Š; Fertő, I

    2014-10-01

    This paper analyzed the export competitiveness of dairy products of the European Union (EU) countries (EU-27) on intra-EU, extra-EU, and global markets, using the revealed comparative advantage index over the 2000-2011 period. The results indicated that about half of the EU-27 countries have had competitive exports in a certain segment of dairy products. The results differed by level of milk processing and for intra-EU and extra-EU markets, and did so over the analyzed years. Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, and the Netherlands are old EU-15 countries with competitive dairy exports (from the lowest to the highest according to the level of milk processing). The majority of the new EU-12 countries have faced difficulties in maintaining their level of export competitiveness, at least for some dairy products and market segments. The more competitive EU-12 countries in dairy exports were the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and Poland. The duration of export competitiveness differed across the dairy groups of products according to the level of milk processing, indicating the importance of dairy chain product differentiation for export competitiveness and specialization. The export competitiveness of the higher level of processed milk products for final consumption can be significant for export dairy chain competitiveness on global markets. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of atmospheric mineral aerosol deposition on the albedo of snow & sea ice: are snow and sea ice optical properties more important than mineral aerosol optical properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Lamare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the albedo of polar regions is crucial for understanding a range of climatic processes that have an impact on a global scale. Light-absorbing impurities in atmospheric aerosols deposited on snow and sea ice by aeolian transport absorb solar radiation, reducing albedo. Here, the effects of five mineral aerosol deposit