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Sample records for global self-worth relationships

  1. What factors mediate the relationship between global self-worth and weight and shape concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Edel; Dooley, Barbara; Menton, Aoife; Dolphin, Louise

    2016-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether the relationship between global self-worth and weight concerns and global self-worth and shape concerns was mediated by pertinent body image factors, while controlling for gender and estimated BMI. Participants were 775 adolescents (56% male) aged 12-18years (M=14.6; SD=1.50). Mediation analysis revealed a direct and a mediated effect between global self-worth and two body image models: 1) weight concerns and 2) shape concerns. The strongest mediators in both models were physical appearance, restrained eating, and depression. Partial mediation was observed for both models, indicating that body image factors which span cognitive, affective, and behavioral constructs, explain the association between global self-worth and weight and shape concerns. Implications for future research, weight and shape concern prevention and global self-worth enhancement programs are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Significant others and contingencies of self-worth: activation and consequences of relationship-specific contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horberg, E J; Chen, Serena

    2010-01-01

    Three studies tested the activation and consequences of contingencies of self-worth associated with specific significant others, that is, relationship-specific contingencies of self-worth. The results showed that activating the mental representation of a significant other with whom one strongly desires closeness led participants to stake their self-esteem in domains in which the significant other wanted them to excel. This was shown in terms of self-reported contingencies of self-worth (Study 1), in terms of self-worth after receiving feedback on a successful or unsatisfactory performance in a relationship-specific contingency domain (Study 2), and in terms of feelings of reduced self-worth after thinking about a failure in a relationship-specific contingency domain (Study 3). Across studies, a variety of contingency domains were examined. Furthermore, Study 3 showed that failing in an activated relationship-specific contingency domain had negative implications for current feelings of closeness and acceptance in the significant-other relationship. Overall, the findings suggest that people's contingencies of self-worth depend on the social situation and that performance in relationship-specific contingency domains can influence people's perceptions of their relationships.

  3. Physical Activity and Global Self-worth in a Longitudinal Study of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddon, Hudson; Meyre, David; Cairney, John

    2017-08-01

    Physical activity is associated with an array of physical and mental health benefits among children and adolescents. The development of self-worth/self-esteem has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the mental health benefits derived from physical activity. Despite several studies that have analyzed the association between physical activity and self-worth, the results have been inconsistent. It is also uncertain how related physical health measures, such as sedentary behavior, body composition, and fitness, influence the relationship between physical activity and self-worth over time. In the present study, we 1) analyzed if the association between physical activity and self-worth remained constant over time and whether this relationship varied by sex and 2) investigated if changes in body composition and fitness level mediated the relationship between physical activity and self-worth. Data from the Physical Health Activity Study Team were used for this analysis. The Physical Health Activity Study Team is a prospective cohort study that included 2278 children at baseline (ages 9-10 yr) and included eight follow-up contacts for a 4-yr study period. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate global self-worth (GSW) over follow-up. Increased physical activity was associated with greater GSW across all waves of data collection, and this relationship did not vary significantly over time or between sexes. Aerobic fitness was positively associated with GSW, whereas body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to GSW. Both aerobic fitness and BMI appeared to mediate the association between physical activity and GSW. Sedentary behavior was not significantly associated with GSW. Physical activity is associated with greater GSW, and this relationship appears to be mediated by BMI and aerobic fitness. These findings reinforce the importance of physical behaviors and physical characteristics in shaping GSW in children.

  4. Contingent self-worth moderates the relationship between school stressors and psychological stress responses.

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    Ishizu, Kenichiro

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the moderating role of contingent self-worth on the relationships between school stressors and psychological stress responses among Japanese adolescents. A total of 371 Japanese junior high school students (184 boys and 187 girls, M age  = 12.79 years, SD = 0.71) completed the Japanese version of the Self-Worth Contingency Questionnaire and a mental health checklist at two points separated by a two-month interval. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were then used to determine whether contingent self-worth moderated the relationship between school stressors and psychological stress responses. The results indicated that, when psychological stress responses were controlled for at Time 1, contingent self-worth did not predict the psychological stress responses at Time 2. However, a two-way interaction between contingent self-worth and stressors was found to significantly influence psychological stress responses, thus indicating that stressors had a stronger impact on psychological stress responses among those with high contingent self-worth compared to those with low contingent self-worth. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Men seek social standing, women seek companionship: sex differences in deriving self-worth from relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwang, Tracy; Crockett, Erin E; Sanchez, Diana T; Swann, William B

    2013-07-01

    Do men base their self-worth on relationships less than do women? In an assessment of lay beliefs, men and women alike indicated that men are less reliant on relationships as a source of self-worth than are women (Study 1). Yet relationships may make a different important contribution to the self-esteem of men. Men reported basing their self-esteem on their own relationship status (whether or not they were in a relationship) more than did women, and this link was statistically mediated by the perceived importance of relationships as a source of social standing (Studies 1 and 2). Finally, when relationship status was threatened, men displayed increased social-standing concerns, whereas women displayed increased interdependence concerns (Study 3). Together, these findings demonstrate that both men and women rely on relationships for self-worth, but that they derive self-esteem from relationships in different ways.

  6. Domain-Specific Ratings of Importance and Global Self-Worth of Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Deborah R.; Moffett, Aaron; Lieberman, Lauren; Dummer, Gail M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined perceived competence; ratings of importance of physical appearance, athletic competence, and social acceptance; discrepancy scores; and global self-worth of 43 children with visual impairments. The findings revealed that the children discounted the importance of physical appearance, athletic competence, and social acceptance…

  7. The Relationship of Coping, Self-Worth, and Subjective Well-Being: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Catalano, Denise; Ebener, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various coping-related variables and the evaluation of self-worth and subjective well-being among persons with spinal cord injury. Positive coping variables included hope, proactive coping style, and sense of humor, whereas negative coping variables included perceptions of stress,…

  8. Self-compassion moderates body comparison and appearance self-worth's inverse relationships with body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Kristin J; Tylka, Tracy L

    2015-09-01

    Although research on positive body image has increased, little research has explored which variables protect body appreciation during body-related threats. Self-compassion may be one such variable. Individuals high in self-compassion are mindful, kind, and nurturing toward themselves during situations that threaten their adequacy, while recognizing that being imperfect is part of "being human." In this study, we investigated whether two body-related threats (i.e., body comparison and appearance contingent self-worth) were more weakly related to body appreciation when self-compassion was high among an online sample of 263 women (Mage=35.26, SD=12.42). Results indicated that self-compassion moderated the inverse relationships between body related threats and body appreciation. Specifically, when self-compassion was very high, body comparison and appearance contingent self-worth were unrelated to body appreciation. However, when self-compassion was low, these relationships were strong. Self-compassion, then, may help preserve women's body appreciation during body-related threats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Configurations of actual and perceived motor competence among children: Associations with motivation for sports and global self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardid, Farid; De Meester, An; Tallir, Isabel; Cardon, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu; Haerens, Leen

    2016-12-01

    The present study used a person-centred approach to examine whether different profiles based on actual and perceived motor competence exist in elementary school children. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to explore how children with different motor competence-based profiles might differ in their autonomous motivation for sports and global self-worth. Validated questionnaires were administered to 161 children (40% boys; age=8.82±0.66years) to assess their perceived motor competence, global self-worth, and motivation for sports. Actual motor competence was measured with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Cluster analyses identified four motor competence-based profiles: two groups were characterized by corresponding levels of actual and perceived motor competence (i.e., low-low and high-high) and two groups were characterized by divergent levels of actual and perceived motor competence (i.e., high-low and low-high). Children in the low-low and high-low group displayed significantly lower levels of autonomous motivation for sports and lower levels of global self-worth than children in the low-high and high-high group. These findings emphasize that fostering children's perceived motor competence might be crucial to improve their motivation for sports and their global self-worth. Teachers and instructors involved in physical education and youth sports should thus focus on both actual and perceived motor competence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Friendship Predictors of Global Self-Worth and Domain-Specific Self-Concepts in University Students with and without Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany, Michal; Wiener, Judith; Assido, Michal

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association among friendship, global self-worth, and domain-specific self-concepts in 102 university students with and without learning disabilities (LD). Students with LD reported lower global self-worth and academic self-concept than students without LD, and this difference was greater for women. Students with LD also…

  11. The Relationship Between Poor Quality of Life and Desire to Hasten Death: A Multiple Mediation Model Examining the Contributions of Depression, Demoralization, Loss of Control, and Low Self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sophie; Kissane, David W; Brooker, Joanne; Hempton, Courtney; Burney, Susan

    2017-02-01

    The risk of suicide is elevated in palliative care patients compared with the general population. Various psychological factors, including depression, demoralization, loss of control, and low self-worth, have been associated with a desire to hasten death. The aim of this study was to investigate whether depression, demoralization, loss of control, and low self-worth mediated the relationship between global quality of life and desire to hasten death. A sample of 162 palliative care patients completed measures of global quality of life, depression, demoralization, perceived control, self-worth, and desire to hasten death. A multiple mediation model with bootstrapping sampling tested the total (combined) indirect effect and individual indirect effects of depression, the two subscales of demoralization (Meaning and Purpose, and Distress and Coping Ability), perceived control, and self-worth. Depressive symptoms, loss of meaning and purpose, loss of control, and low self-worth mediated the direct effect of global quality of life on desire to hasten death. The Distress and Coping Ability component of demoralization was not a significant mediator. Depression, loss of meaning and purpose, loss of control, and low self-worth are strong clinical markers for desire to hasten death. Targeting these symptoms through existentially oriented therapies, such as meaning-centered therapy, may ameliorate suicidal thinking. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Moderating Role of Physical Self-Perceptions in the Relationship between Maturity Status and Physical Self-Worth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne E.; Cole, Amy N.; Laurson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We tested the moderating role of physical self-perceptions in the relationship between physical maturity and physical self-worth (PSW). Method: Students in Grades 5 through 8 (N = 241; 57% females; M[subscript age] =12.30 years) completed a questionnaire assessing physical self-perceptions (i.e., perceived sport competence, conditioning,…

  13. The mediating effect of global self-worth on physical activity in African-American adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M

    2009-07-01

    Having an excess of body fat has been identified as a predictor for participatory frequency in physical activity, a behavior that influences the development and persistence of obesity. However, the psychological factors that contribute to this pathway have not been as easily identified. This is particularly significant for population subgroups that are not only uniquely impacted by obesity-related morbidities but who are underrepresented in research as well. This study sample consisted of African-American adolescent females (N = 310), from 14 to 18 years of age, who were recruited from the urban South. Data obtained from self-reported and demographic questionnaires, as well as from anthropometric measurements, were analyzed to explore the mediating effect of global self-worth between BMI and physical activity. Mediation analysis revealed that 2% of the influence that BMI exerts on how frequently African-American adolescent females engaged in physical activity can be attributed to global self-worth.

  14. Associations between the parent-child relationship and adolescent self-worth: a genetically informed study of twin parents and their adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom A; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V; Narusyte, Jurgita; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Spotts, Erica; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Eley, Thalia C

    2017-01-01

    Low self-worth during adolescence predicts a range of emotional and behavioural problems. As such, identifying potential sources of influence on self-worth is important. Aspects of the parent-child relationship are often associated with adolescent self-worth but to date it is unclear whether such associations may be attributable to familial confounding (e.g. genetic relatedness). We set out to clarify the nature of relationships between parental expressed affection and adolescent self-worth, and parent-child closeness and adolescent self-worth. We used data from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden, a children-of-twins sample comprising 909 adult twin pairs with adolescent children. Using these data we were able to apply structural equation models with which we could examine whether associations remained after accounting for genetic transmission. Results demonstrated that parent-child closeness and parental-expressed affection were both phenotypically associated with adolescent self-worth. Associations could not be attributed to genetic relatedness between parent and child. Parent-child closeness and parental affection are associated with adolescent self-worth above and beyond effects attributable to genetic relatedness. Data were cross-sectional, so the direction of effects cannot be confirmed but findings support the notion that positive parent-child relationships increase adolescent self-worth. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Exploring the relationship between appearance-contingent self-worth and self-esteem: The roles of self-objectification and appearance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Katherine E; Tyler, James M; Calogero, Rachel; Lee, Jenifer

    2017-12-01

    Previous work has shown that both an appearance-contingent self-worth (i.e., staking one's overall self-evaluation on one's physical appearance) and self-objectification are associated with higher appearance anxiety and lower self-esteem among women. Although prior evidence separately links both appearance-contingent self-worth and self-objectification to these negative outcomes, no work has examined the mediating processes that may underlie this relationship. With the current project, we examined the relationship between appearance-contingent self-worth and self-objectification, and the degree to which this relationship is associated with higher appearance anxiety and lower overall self-esteem. We hypothesized that appearance-contingent self-worth would be positively associated with self-objectification; in turn, we expected self-objectification to be related to higher appearance anxiety, and ultimately, lower self-esteem. Across two studies, one cross-sectional (N=208) and one short-term longitudinal (N=191), we found compelling support for this hypothesis. These findings have practical and theoretical significance for both the self-objectification and contingent self-worth literatures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The Prospective Contribution of Childhood Maltreatment to Low Self-Worth, Low Relationship Quality, and Symptomatology across Adolescence: A Developmental-Organizational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Megan; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the prospective contribution of childhood maltreatment to low self-worth, low relationship quality, and symptoms during adolescence. Further, the stability and cross-lagged effects of these sequelae of maltreatment were examined over time. History of maltreatment during childhood was obtained, and youth (407 maltreated,…

  17. The Moderating Role of Physical Self-Perceptions in the Relationship Between Maturity Status and Physical Self-Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne E; Cole, Amy N; Laurson, Kelly

    2016-06-01

    We tested the moderating role of physical self-perceptions in the relationship between physical maturity and physical self-worth (PSW). Students in Grades 5 through 8 (N = 241; 57% females; Mage = 12.30 years) completed a questionnaire assessing physical self-perceptions (i.e., perceived sport competence, conditioning, strength, and body attractiveness), PSW, and maturity status. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test interactions between maturity and physical self-perceptions predicting PSW separately for boys and girls. For girls, maturity level and physical self-perceptions explained significant variance, F(5, 131) = 73.44, p < .001, R(2) = .74, with interactions explaining a little extra variance, ΔF = 3.42, p = .01, ΔR(2) = .03. Perceived attractiveness interacted with maturity status to predict PSW (p = .01), indicating that maturity was positively related to PSW only for girls with higher body attractiveness. Maturity status and physical self-perceptions also significantly predicted PSW in boys, F(5, 98) = 46.52, p <  .001, R(2) = .70, with interactions explaining a little extra variance, ΔF = 3.16, p = .02, ΔR(2) = .04. A statistically significant interaction between perceived strength and maturity (p <  .001) indicated that maturity related positively to PSW, but only for boys with higher perceived strength. The maturity-PSW relationship differs by gender and depends partly on physical self-perceptions. This finding reinforces previous findings that illustrate the relative importance of perceived attractiveness and strength for girls and boys, respectively. PSW is an important predictor of physical activity behavior; therefore, it is critical to understand the interplay between these key antecedents.

  18. When Self-Worth Is Tied to One's Sexual and Romantic Relationship: Associations with Well-Being in Couples Coping with Genito-Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, Maria; Bergeron, Sophie; Dubé, Justin; Rosen, Natalie O

    2018-01-05

    Contingent self-worth (CSW; the pursuit of self-esteem via a particular domain in one's life) impacts well-being based on one's perceived success or failure in the contingent domain. In a community sample, individuals with sexual problems reported greater sexual CSW-self-worth dependent on maintaining a sexual relationship-than those without problems. Couples coping with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD), a genito-pelvic pain condition, perceive failures in their sexual relationship, which could be associated with more pain and poorer well-being. In contrast, relationship CSW-self-worth dependent on the overall romantic relationship-may act as a buffer against adverse outcomes. Eighty-two women with PVD and their partners completed online standardized measures of sexual and relationship CSW, sexual distress and satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, and depressive symptoms, and women reported their pain intensity. Analyses were based on the actor-partner interdependence model. Women with PVD who reported greater sexual CSW experienced more sexual distress and pain. Additionally, when partners reported greater sexual CSW, they were less sexually and relationally satisfied and more sexually distressed, and women had greater depressive symptoms and lower relationship satisfaction. In contrast, when partners reported higher relationship CSW, they were more sexually and relationally satisfied and less sexually distressed, and women reported lower depressive symptoms and greater relationship satisfaction. Results suggest that couples' (particularly partners') greater sexual CSW is linked to poorer sexual, relational, and psychological well-being in couples affected by PVD, whereas partners' greater relationship CSW is associated with better well-being. Thus, sexual and relationship CSW may be important treatment targets for interventions aimed at improving how couples adjust to PVD.

  19. Children's attachment-related self-worth: a multi-method investigation of postdivorce preschoolers' relationships with their mothers and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge; Gullón-Rivera, Ángel L; Page, Timothy F; Oettel, Barbara J; Corey, Janet M; Golby, Barbara J

    2013-01-01

    Three related hypotheses derived from attachment theory were examined in this multi-informant and multi-method study of 71 postdivorce mothers and their preschool children (40 boys, 31 girls): (1) mother-child interactions observed at home will be related to attachment-related representations by children (Attachment Story Completion Task or ASCT) and mothers (Parent Attachment Interview or PAI); and (2) these variables will be inversely correlated with maternal depressive symptoms and positively with social support (from mother's parents and the child's father); and (3) mother-child observations and representations will predict teacher-rated peer behavior. Where appropriate, child gender, maternal income, and child receptive language were statistically controlled. More harmonious observed mother-child interactions were associated with children's sense of self-worth in family relationships (ASCT) and maternal accounts of sensitive-effective guidance (PAI). Observational and representational variables were inversely correlated with maternal depressive symptoms. Mothers' satisfaction with social support from their parents was indirectly linked to the family variables while social support from the child's father had no measurable effect on the mother-child variables. Mother-child variables and teacher ratings were uncorrelated but explained independent variance in ASCT self-worth scores.

  20. The mediating effects of perceived parental teasing on relations of body mass index to depression and self-perception of physical appearance and global self-worth in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Kyung-Sook; Chae, Sun-Mi; Hyun, Myung-Sun; Nam, Hye Kyung; Kim, Ji-Soo; Park, Kwang-Hee

    2012-12-01

    To report a correlational study of the relation of body mass index to children's perceptions of physical appearance and global self-worth and depression, as mediated by their perceptions of parental teasing. The relation between depression and self-perception in children with obesity has been reported. Recently, parental factors were found to be related to childhood obesity. Little is known about the effects of perceived parental teasing on depression and self-perception in children. A descriptive correlational research design was used. Data were collected from 455 children in the fifth and sixth grades in four provinces of South Korea using self-report questionnaires for measuring self-perception of physical appearance and global self-worth, depression and perceived parental teasing between October-December in 2009. The children's weight and height information from school health records was used. Multiple regression analysis and the Sobel test were used to identify the mediating effect of perceived parental teasing. Among the children, 20% were overweight or obese. Although children with obesity did not differ in the level of depression from their normal weight counterparts, they demonstrated lower perceived physical appearance and higher perceived parental teasing. The mediating effects of perceived parental teasing were found for the relations between body mass index and self-perception of physical appearance and global self-worth, and body mass index and depression, respectively. Obese children at risk of parental teasing should be identified to prevent their psychological problems. A well-designed intervention study is necessary to examine the effects of psycho-emotional interventions for obese children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Characteristics of self-worth protection in achievement behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T

    1993-11-01

    Two experiments are reported comprising an investigation of individual difference variables associated with self-worth protection. This is a phenomenon whereby students in achievement situations adopt one of a number of strategies, including withdrawing effort, in order to avoid damage to self-esteem which results from attributing failure to inability. Experiment 1 confirmed the adequacy of an operational definition which identified self-worth students on the basis of two criteria. These were deteriorated performance following failure, together with subsequent enhanced performance following a face-saving excuse allowing students to explain failure without implicating low ability. The results of Experiment 2 established that the behaviour of self-worth protective students in achievement situations may be understood in terms of their low academic self-esteem coupled with uncertainty about their level of global self-esteem. Investigation of the manner in which self-worth students explain success and failure outcomes failed to demonstrate a tendency to internalise failure but revealed a propensity on the part of these students to reject due credit for their successes. The implications of these findings in terms of the prevention and modification of self-worth protective reactions in achievement situations are discussed.

  2. A longitudinal assessment of the links between physical activity and physical self-worth in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga; Kull, Merike

    2013-01-01

    A longitudinal framework was used to examine the hypotheses of (1) whether physical activity predicts changes in physical self-worth or (2) whether physical self-worth predicts changes in physical activity in adolescent girls. Participants (n=272) completed measures of physical self-worth and participation in physical activities at three different points spanning a two-year interval. A cross-lagged panel model using structural equation modelling analyses indicated that physical self-worth predicted subsequent physical activity and physical activity in turn predicted subsequent physical self-worth across time. Findings demonstrated a reciprocal relationship between physical self-worth and physical activity during early adolescence. This study supports the use of the reciprocal effects model (REM) in gaining an understanding of the cross-lagged relationships between physical self-worth and participation in physical activities amongst adolescent girls.

  3. Correlates of self-worth and body size dissatisfaction among obese Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Nazrat M; Mackey, Eleanor Race; Armstrong, Bridget; Jaramillo, Ana; Palmer, Matilde M

    2011-03-01

    The current study examined self-worth and body size dissatisfaction, and their association with maternal acculturation among obese Latino youth enrolled in a community-based obesity intervention program. Upon entry to the program, a sample of 113 participants reported global self-worth comparable to general population norms, but lower athletic competence and perception of physical appearance. Interestingly, body size dissatisfaction was more prevalent among younger respondents. Youth body size dissatisfaction was associated with less acculturated mothers and higher maternal dissatisfaction with their child's body size. By contrast, although global self-worth was significantly related to body dissatisfaction, it was not influenced by mothers' acculturation or dissatisfaction with their own or their child's body size. Obesity intervention programs targeted to Latino youth need to address self-worth concerns among the youth as well as addressing maternal dissatisfaction with their children's body size. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relations between Perceived Competence, Importance Ratings, and Self-Worth among African American School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Leslie K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how domain-specific importance ratings affect relations between perceived competence and self-worth among African American school-age children. Importance ratings have been found to affect the strength of the relationship between perceived competence and self-worth and have implications for…

  5. Social Support and Neighborhood Stressors Among African American Youth: Networks and Relations to Self-Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Susan D; Felix, Erika D; Nagarajan, Thara

    2011-06-01

    Although neighborhood stressors have a negative impact on youth, and social support can play a protective role, it is unclear what types and sources of social support may contribute to positive outcomes among at-risk youth. We examined the influences of neighborhood disadvantage and social support on global self-worth among low-income, urban African American youth, both concurrently and longitudinally. We examined social support from both a structural and functional perspective, and tested the main-effects and the stress-buffering models of social support. Participants included 82-130 youth, in 6th-8th grade, who completed self-report measures. Network support results suggest participants received emotional, tangible, and informational support most often from mothers and other female relatives, with friends, fathers, and teachers also playing important roles. Model testing accounted for neighborhood stressors and support from various sources, revealing support from close friends was associated with concurrent self-worth; whereas, parent support predicted self-worth longitudinally, above and beyond initial levels of self-worth. The findings provide evidence for the main-effects model of social support and not the stress-buffering model. Our findings illustrate the importance of extended family networks and the types of support that youth rely upon in African American impoverished communities, as well as how support contributes to global self-worth. Implications and suggestions for future research and intervention are discussed.

  6. Perfectionism and Contingent Self-Worth in Relation to Disordered Eating and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Lin, Stacy L; Butler, Rachel M

    2017-05-01

    Perfectionism has been proposed as a transdiagnostic risk factor linked to eating disorders and anxiety. In the current study, we examine domains of contingent self-worth as potential moderators of the relationships between maladaptive perfectionism and disordered eating and anxiety using two waves of data collection. Undergraduate females (N = 237) completed online surveys of the study's core constructs at two points separated by about 14 months. At a bivariate level, maladaptive perfectionism was positively associated with disordered eating and anxiety. Maladaptive perfectionism and both appearance and relationship contingent self-worth interacted to predict increases in disordered eating. Neither of the interactive models predicted change in anxiety. Findings highlight maladaptive perfectionism as a transdiagnostic construct related to both disordered eating and anxiety. Interactive findings suggest that targeting maladaptive perfectionism and contingent self-worth (appearance, relationship) in prevention and treatment efforts could mitigate risk for the development or increase of disordered eating. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. No Occasion for Pleasure: The Self-Worth Contingency of a Setback and Coping With Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fay Caroline Mary Geisler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not one uses humor to cope with a setback may depend on the idiosyncratic relation of the setback to feeling of self-worth. All people pursue the higher order goal of self-validation, but people differ in what domains of life their self-worth is contingent upon and to what extent. In this article based on an incongruity theory of humor we argue that the use of humor in coping with a highly self-worth-contingent setback may be impeded by two cognitive-motivational processes: goal-driven activation and goal shielding. From the outlined theory we derived the hypothesis that the more a domain is contingent upon self-worth, the less likely a person will be to use humor to deal with a setback in that domain. We tested this hypothesis in two studies employing two forms of self-report, i.e., ratings of reaction likelihood to setbacks described at an abstract domain level (Study 1, and ranking of reaction likelihood to concrete setbacks from different domains (Study 2. The hypothesis was affirmed in different domains of self-worth contingency controlling for the influence of habitual coping with humor, coping by disengagement, and global self-esteem.

  8. Exercise effects on depressive symptoms and self-worth in overweight children: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Petty, Karen H; Davis, Catherine L; Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Waller, Jennifer L

    2009-10-01

    To test the dose-response effects of an exercise program on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. Overweight, sedentary children (N = 207, 7-11 years, 58% male, 59% Black) were randomly assigned to low or high dose (20 or 40 min/day) aerobic exercise programs (13 +/- 1.6 weeks), or control group. Children completed the Reynolds Child Depression Scale and Self-Perception Profile for Children at baseline and posttest. A dose-response benefit of exercise was detected for depressive symptoms. A race x group interaction showed only White children's global self-worth (GSW) improved. There was some evidence that increased self-worth mediated the effect on depressive symptoms. This study shows dose-response benefits of exercise on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. However, Blacks did not show increased GSW in response to the intervention. Results provide some support for mediation of the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms via self-worth.

  9. Exercise Effects on Depressive Symptoms and Self-Worth in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Karen H.; Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Waller, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the dose–response effects of an exercise program on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. Method Overweight, sedentary children (N = 207, 7–11 years, 58% male, 59% Black) were randomly assigned to low or high dose (20 or 40 min/day) aerobic exercise programs (13 ± 1.6 weeks), or control group. Children completed the Reynolds Child Depression Scale and Self-Perception Profile for Children at baseline and posttest. Results A dose–response benefit of exercise was detected for depressive symptoms. A race × group interaction showed only White children's global self-worth (GSW) improved. There was some evidence that increased self-worth mediated the effect on depressive symptoms. Conclusions This study shows dose–response benefits of exercise on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. However, Blacks did not show increased GSW in response to the intervention. Results provide some support for mediation of the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms via self-worth. PMID:19223278

  10. Appraisal Support from Natural Mentors, Self-worth, and Psychological Distress: Examining the Experiences of Underrepresented Students Transitioning Through College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M; Albright, Jamie; Wittrup, Audrey; Negrete, Andrea; Billingsley, Janelle

    2018-05-01

    The current study explored whether cumulative appraisal support from as many as five natural mentors (i.e., nonparental adults from youth's pre-existing social networks who serve a mentoring role in youth's lives) led to reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety via improved global self-worth among underrepresented college students. Participants in the current study included 340 college students (69% female) attending a 4-year, predominantly White institution of higher education. Participants were first-generation college students, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, and/or students from underrepresented racial/ethnic minority groups. Participants completed surveys during the Fall and Spring of their first year of college and in the Spring of their second and third years of college. Results of the structural equation model (including gender, race/ethnicity, and extraversion as covariates) indicated that greater total appraisal support from natural mentoring relationships predicted decreases in students' psychological distress via increases in self-worth (indirect effects assessed via boot-strapped confidence intervals; 95% CI). The strength of association between appraisal support and self-worth was not moderated by the proportion of academic natural mentors. Findings from the current study extend previous research by measuring multiple natural mentoring relationships and pinpointing supportive exchanges that may be of particular consequence for the promotion of healthy youth development. Institutional efforts to reinforce pre-existing natural mentoring relationships and encourage the onset of new natural mentoring relationships may serve to bolster the well-being and success of underrepresented students attending predominantly White universities.

  11. Attachment styles and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer; Mickelson, Kristin D

    2004-10-01

    Previous research on attachment theory has focused on mean differences in level of self-esteem among people with different attachment styles. The present study examines the associations between attachment styles and different bases of self-esteem, or contingencies of self-worth, among a sample of 795 college students. Results showed that attachment security was related to basing self-worth on family support. Both the preoccupied attachment style and fearful attachment style were related to basing self-worth on physical attractiveness. The dismissing attachment style was related to basing self-worth less on others' approval, family support, and God's love.

  12. [Contingencies of self-worth in Japanese culture: validation of the Japanese contingencies of self-worth scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yukiko

    2008-08-01

    The author developed a Japanese version of the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale (CSWS) that was originally developed in the United States (Crocker, Luhtanen, Cooper, & Bouvrette, 2003). The Japanese version of the scale measures seven contingencies of self-esteem: Defeating others in competition, appearance, relationship harmony, other's approval, academic competence, virtue, and support of family and friends. Scores on the scale had systematic relationships with related variables, and the scale therefore exhibited satisfactory levels of construct validity: Relationship harmony, other's approval, and support of family and friends were positively correlated with sympathy and interdependence, whereas competitiveness was negatively correlated with sympathy. Moreover, competitiveness and academic achievement contingencies predicted competitive motivation, whereas the support of family and friends contingency predicted self-sufficient motivation. The scale has adequate test-retest reliability and a seven-factor structural model was confirmed. The implications for self-esteem and interpersonal relationships in Japanese culture are discussed.

  13. Parent-adolescent attachment and procrastination: The mediating role of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Within the theoretical framework of attachment theory, the author examined associations between adolescents' procrastination and their attachment relationships with both mothers and fathers, and explored the potential mediation role of self-worth in these associations. Participants were 384 Chinese adolescents (49.6% boys, average age 15.13 years) from public schools in Shanghai, China. They completed self-report measures of 3 dimensions of parental attachment (i.e., trust, communication, and alienation), general self-worth, and procrastination. The results indicated that both paternal and maternal trust and paternal communication were negatively associated with higher levels of procrastination whereas both paternal and maternal alienation were positively associated with procrastination. In addition, self-worth mediated the associations among 3 dimensions of parental attachment and procrastination. The findings highlighted the importance of parental attachment-based intervention strategies to reduce procrastination among adolescents.

  14. Construction and initial validation of the self-worth protection scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ted; Dinnel, Dale L

    2003-03-01

    The self-worth theory of achievement motivation holds that in certain circumstances students stand to gain by deliberately withdrawing effort. When failure occurs despite effort, students are likely to conclude that failure resulted from lack of ability. Thus, withdrawing effort offers a defence against conclusions of low ability, thereby protecting self-worth. We undertook to assess the psychometric properties of the Self-Worth Protection Scale (SWPS). Data were obtained from 243 participants (Study 1) and 411 participants (Study 2) enrolled in undergraduate psychology courses at a university in the United States. We administered a number of scales, including the SWPS and scales assessing a fear of negative evaluation, academic self-esteem, uncertain global self-evaluations, self-handicapping, and causal uncertainty. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor solution (ability doubts, the importance of ability as a criterion of self-worth, and an avoidance orientation) utilising 33 of the original 44 items. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that this three-factor solution was a poor fit of the data. After modifying the model, a confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a three-factor solution with 26 of the original items and a higher order factor of self-worth protection was an adequate fit of the data. Reliability measures were acceptable for the three subscales and total score. The total score of the SWPS was positively correlated with theoretically related constructs, demonstrating construct validity. The SWPS appears to be a psychometrically sound scale to assist in identifying individuals who manifest self-worth protection in achievement situations.

  15. Proximal predictors of depressive symptomatology: perceived losses in self-worth and interpersonal domains and introjective and anaclitic mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Zuroff, David C

    2010-01-01

    Although much research has demonstrated a relationship between negative life events and depressive symptoms, relatively little research has examined the mechanisms that may mediate this relationship. The theories of Blatt (1974), Bowlby (1980), and Gilbert (1992) each propose proximal predictors of depression. In accordance with these theories, this study examined the relationships among perceived losses in self-worth and interpersonal relationships, anaclitic (dependent) and introjective (self-critical) mood states, and depressive symptoms following a significant negative life event. A sample of 172 undergraduate students completed measures of depressive symptoms and depressive vulnerability factors and retrospectively described the worst period of their lives. They also rated the extent to which the events surrounding this worst period affected their self-worth and their relationships with close others. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that the effect of a perceived loss of self-worth on depressive symptoms was fully mediated by both introjective and anaclitic mood states, whereas the effect of a perceived loss of interpersonal relationships on depressive symptoms was fully mediated by an anaclitic mood state. Additionally, perceived losses of self-worth showed a stronger effect on introjective mood in highly self-critical individuals. Findings highlight the importance of perceived losses in both self-worth and interpersonal domains in response to adverse life events and suggest pathways through which perceived losses may affect depressive symptoms.

  16. Contingencies of self-worth and social-networking-site behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanone, Michael A; Lackaff, Derek; Rosen, Devan

    2011-01-01

    Social-networking sites like Facebook enable people to share a range of personal information with expansive groups of "friends." With the growing popularity of media sharing online, many questions remain regarding antecedent conditions for this behavior. Contingencies of self-worth afford a more nuanced approach to variable traits that affect self-esteem, and may help explain online behavior. A total of 311 participants completed an online survey measuring such contingencies and typical behaviors on Facebook. First, exploratory factor analyses revealed an underlying structure to the seven dimensions of self-worth. Public-based contingencies explained online photo sharing (β = 0.158, p relationship with time online (β = -0.186, p relationship with the intensity of online photo sharing (β = 0.242), although no relationship was evident for time spent managing profiles.

  17. Development and Validation of the Sexual Contingent Self-Worth Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, Maria; Rosen, Natalie O; Vannier, Sarah; MacLellan, Margaret C

    2017-01-01

    Sexual contingent self-worth (CSW) refers to self-worth that is dependent on maintaining a sexual relationship, and has not been studied previously. This novel construct may have implications for sexual, relationship, and psychological well-being, because it could affect the cognitions, affect, and behaviors of individuals in sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to develop the Sexual Contingent Self-Worth Scale and examine its reliability and validity in community samples. Two separate online studies (N = 329 and N = 282) included men and women who were in committed, sexually active relationships. The Sexual CSW Scale was adapted from a validated measure of relationship CSW. In Study 1, participants completed the Sexual CSW Scale, whereas in Study 2, participants also responded to standardized measures of related constructs. In addition, participants completed the Sexual CSW Scale again two weeks later in Study 2. Factor analysis yielded two subscales: (a) sexual CSW dependent on positive sexual events in the relationship and (b) sexual CSW dependent on negative sexual events. Results indicated good construct validity, incremental validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability for the Sexual CSW Scale. This research contributes to the fields of both CSW and sexuality by introducing a novel domain of CSW.

  18. Self-perceptions, self-worth and sport participation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Isabel; Atienza, Francisco L; Duda, Joan L

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the associations between specific self-perceptions and global self-worth with different frequency levels of sport participation among Spanish boys and girls adolescents. Students (457 boys and 460 girls) completed the Self Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985) and items assessing sport engagement from The Health Behavior in School Children Questionnaire (Wold, 1995). Results showed that some specific dimensions of self-perception were related to different frequency of sport participation whereas overall judgments of self-worth did not. Specifically, for boys and girls, higher levels of sport participation were positively associated to Athletic Competence, and for boys were also associated with Physical Appearance and Social Acceptance. The potential implications of domain specific socialisation processes on the configuration of self-perceptions are highlighted.

  19. Self-worth as a mediator between attachment and posttraumatic stress in interpersonal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Adams, Lauren A; Lilly, Michelle M

    2012-07-01

    It is well documented that most trauma survivors recover from adversity and only a number of them go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, survivors of interpersonal trauma (IPT) appear to be at heightened risk for developing PTSD in comparison to survivors of noninterpersonal trauma (NIPT). Despite a robust association between IPT exposure and attachment disruptions, there is a dearth of research examining the role of attachment-related processes implicated in predicting PTSD. Using a sample of college undergraduates exposed to IPT and NIPT, this study explores the mediating effect of self-worth in the relationship between attachment and PTSD. It is hypothesized that insecure attachment will be related to posttraumatic symptomatology via a reduced sense of self-worth in IPT survivors but not in NIPT survivors. Mediation analyses provide support for this hypothesis, suggesting the importance of considering negative cognitions about the self in therapeutic interventions, particularly those offered to IPT survivors.

  20. "You're Just Saying That." Contingencies of Self-Worth, Suspicion, and Authenticity in the Interpersonal Affirmation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Edward P; Clark, Margaret S

    2008-09-01

    A model of the role and costs of contingent self-worth in the partner-affirmation process was tested. Actors whose self-worth was contingent on appearance or intelligence claimed to have expressed their particular heightened sensitivity to their romantic partners. Suggesting a cost to these reactions, actors' beliefs about having expressed heightened sensitivity, in turn, predicted their doubts about the authenticity of partners' positive feedback in the domain of contingency, independently of whether partners claimed to deliver inauthentic feedback. Suggesting a cost for partners, partners of contingent actors appeared to detect actors' expressions of sensitivity in the domain of contingency and respond by delivering inauthentic feedback to actors in the domain, which in turn predicted partners' increased relationship anxiety and decreased satisfaction. Results suggest that contingent self-worth may undermine the functioning of the partner-affirmation process through actors discrediting partners' positive feedback and partners behaving in an inauthentic and controlled manner.

  1. Sexual Assault and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Lower-Income Rural Women: The Mediating Role of Self-Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Julia; Littleton, Heather

    2017-02-01

    Sexual victimization is associated with risky sexual behaviors. Limited research has examined mechanisms via which victimization affects risk behaviors, particularly following different types of sexual victimization. This study examined self-worth as a mediator of the relationship between sexual victimization history: contact childhood sexual abuse (CSA), completed rape in adolescence/adulthood (adolescent/adulthood sexual assault [ASA]), and combined CSA/ASA, and two sexual risk behaviors: past year partners and one-time encounters. Participants were diverse (57.9% African American), low-income women recruited from an OB-GYN waiting room (n = 646). Women with a history of sexual victimization, 29.8% (n = 186) reported lower self-worth, t(586) = 5.26, p < .001, and more partners, t(612) = 2.45, p < .01, than nonvictims. Self-worth was a significant mediator only among women with combined CSA/ASA histories in both risk behavior models.

  2. Is fear of others linked to an uncertain sense of self? The relevance of self-worth, interpersonal self-concepts, and dysfunctional beliefs to paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Mehl, Stephanie; Ziegler, Michael; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Exner, Cornelia; Rief, Winfried

    2010-06-01

    The assumption that a low sense of self-worth can give rise to paranoid delusions is relevant from a therapeutic perspective, but research has been inconsistent. The present study sought to investigate how interpersonal self-concepts and global self-worth relate to psychotic and depressive psychopathology in persons with psychosis. Participants with psychosis (n=83) and healthy controls (n=33) were assessed for global self-worth, interpersonal self-concepts, and dysfunctional beliefs using the Frankfurt Self-Concept Scale and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale. Symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory, the Paranoia Checklist, and the Beck Depression Inventory. We hypothesized that perceived threat to self-worth, as expressed in dysfunctional acceptance beliefs and negative interpersonal self-concepts, would be uniquely associated with persecutory delusions. In contrast, low global self-worth would be strongly associated with symptoms of depression. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the association between symptoms and self-concepts. As expected, low global self-worth was associated with depression, whereas the more specific perception of not being accepted by relevant others was most clearly related to psychotic symptoms. Almost half of the variance in paranoia scores was explained by negative interpersonal self-concepts and the interaction between negative interpersonal self-concepts and dysfunctional acceptance beliefs. Thus, cognitive interventions for delusions might be improved by focusing more on interpersonal self-concepts. 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Physical activity, menopause, and quality of life: the role of affect and self-worth across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity has been shown to enhance quality of life (QOL); however, few investigations of these effects exist in women undergoing the menopausal transition. The present study examined the long-term effects of physical activity on menopause-related QOL and tested the mediating effects of physical self-worth and positive affect in this relationship. Middle-aged women previously enrolled in a 4-month randomized controlled trial involving walking and yoga, and a control group completed a follow-up mail-in survey 2 years after the end of the trial. The survey included a battery of psychological and physical activity measures, including measures of menopausal symptoms and menopause-related QOL. Longitudinal linear panel analysis was conducted within a covariance modeling framework to test whether physical self-worth and positive affect mediated the physical activity-QOL relationship over time. At the end of the trial, physical activity and menopausal symptoms were related to physical self-worth and positive affect, and in turn, greater levels of physical self-worth and positive affect were associated with higher levels of menopause-related QOL. Analyses indicated that increases in physical activity and decreases in menopausal symptoms over the 2-year period were related to increases in physical self-worth (betas = 0.23 and -0.52, physical activity and menopausal symptoms, respectively) and, for symptoms, also to decreased positive affect (beta = -0.47), and both physical self-worth (beta = 0.34) and affect (beta = 0.43) directly influenced enhancements in QOL (R = 0.775). The findings support the position that the effects of physical activity on QOL are mediated, in part, by intermediate psychological outcomes and that physical activity can have long-term benefits for women undergoing the menopausal transition.

  4. Self-Efficacy, Self-Worth and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Deborah M.; Chow, Peter

    2017-01-01

    One of the most stressful periods of life has been reported to be the time spent in the post secondary education system (Hales, 2009). As a result, researchers are interested in determining the various correlates associated with the successful coping during this time. It has been well established that self-esteem and self-worth are both factors…

  5. Poor Performance in Mathematics: Is There a Basis for a Self-Worth Explanation for Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ted; Dinnel, Dale L.

    2007-01-01

    The self-worth theory of achievement motivation holds that in situations in which poor performance is likely to reveal low ability, certain students (known as self-worth protective students) intentionally withdraw effort in order to avoid the negative implications of poor performance in terms of damage to self-worth. In this study, evidence of…

  6. Self-worth, perceived competence, and behaviour problems in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuengel, C.; Voorman, J.; Stolk, J.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Vermeer, A; Becher, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relevance of physical disabilities for self-worth and perceived competence in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to examine associations between behaviour problems and self-worth and perceived competence. Methods. The Harter scales for self-worth and perceived competence

  7. Enhancing Student Self-Worth in the Primary School Learning Environment: Teachers' Views and Students' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Penni; Cowan, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of teachers and students' views regarding self-worth in the primary school learning environment. The revised New Zealand curriculum recognises the importance of self-worth in students' motivation and ability to learn. While the need to enhance self-worth in the classroom has been well established in the…

  8. GLOBAL RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Er Kirtesh Jailia; Mrs.Manisha jailia; Er.Priyanka Jailia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we are going to discuss about the concept of Global relationship management. This is an important concept because now a day the whole business community is moving globally, means the geographical boundaries are of no more concern for the business communities. The global thinking of the business communities leads to the global relationship hence it is important for them to effectively manage such global relationship so that they can achieve what they want. The main concern is ove...

  9. Self-worth, perceived competence, and behaviour problems in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Schuengel, C.; Voorman, J.; Stolk, J.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Vermeer, A; Becher, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relevance of physical disabilities for self-worth and perceived competence in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to examine associations between behaviour problems and self-worth and perceived competence. Methods. The Harter scales for self-worth and perceived competence and a new scale for perceived motor competence were used in a sample of 80 children with CP. Their motor functioning was assessed with the Gross Motor Functioning Measure (GMFM) and behaviour probl...

  10. Investing in the ideal: does objectified body consciousness mediate the association between appearance contingent self-worth and appearance self-esteem in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noser, Amy; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2014-03-01

    Appearance contingent self-worth has been shown to be associated with low appearance self-esteem but little is known about the role that objectified body consciousness may play in this relationship. The purpose of the present study with 465 female undergraduates was to examine whether objectified body consciousness mediates the association between appearance contingent self-worth and low levels of appearance self-esteem. This was accomplished using a multiple mediation model to examine whether components of objectified body consciousness (i.e., body surveillance, body shame, and control beliefs) play unique roles in the connection between appearance contingent self-worth and appearance self-esteem. Results showed that body surveillance and body shame were significant mediators of the connection between appearance contingent self-worth and low levels of appearance self-esteem. Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for the ways in which appearance contingent self-worth may promote heightened body consciousness and possibly contribute to low levels of appearance self-esteem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex work and three dimensions of self-esteem: self-worth, authenticity and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Cecilia; Smith, Michaela; Jansson, Mikael; Magnus, Samantha; Flagg, Jackson; Maurice, Renay

    2018-01-01

    Sex work is assumed to have a negative effect on self-esteem, nearly exclusively expressed as low self-worth, due to its social unacceptability and despite the diversity of persons, positions and roles within the sex industry. In this study, we asked a heterogeneous sample of 218 Canadian sex workers delivering services in various venues about how their work affected their sense of self. Using thematic analysis based on a three-dimensional conception of self-esteem - self-worth (viewing oneself in a favourable light), authenticity (being one's true self) and self-efficacy (competency) - we shed light on the relationship between involvement in sex work and self-esteem. Findings demonstrate that the relationship between sex work and self-esteem is complex: the majority of participants discussed multiple dimensions of self-esteem and often spoke of how sex work had both positive and negative effects on their sense of self. Social background factors, work location and life events and experiences also had an effect on self-esteem. Future research should take a more complex approach to understanding these issues by considering elements beyond self-worth, such as authenticity and self-efficacy, and examining how sex workers' backgrounds and individual motivations intersect with these three dimensions.

  12. Derivation of the acceptance and self-worth adjustment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrett, Daryl R; Latham, Keziah

    2010-11-01

    The original 55-item Nottingham Adjustment Scale (NAS) is a first generation self-report instrument constructed using classical test theory to evaluate adjustment to vision loss. This study assesses the function of the NAS using Rasch analysis in a sample of adults with visual impairment and presents a revised second-generation instrument. Ninety-nine subjects with established vision loss (median onset 5 years) were administered the NAS. Rasch analysis was performed to: (1) determine optimum response scale function, (2) aid item reduction, (3) determine reliability indices and item targeting, (4) assess unidimensionality using Rasch-based principal component analysis, (5) assess differential item functioning (notable defined as >1.0 logit), and (6) formulate person measures to correlate with Geriatric Depression Scale scores and distance visual acuity to indicate convergent and discriminant validity, respectively. Response categories exhibited underutilization, which when repaired improved response scale functioning and ordered structural calibrations. Misfitting items were removed iteratively until all items had mean-square infit and outfit values of 0.70 to 1.30. However, principal component analysis confirmed insufficient unidimensionality (two contrasts identified, eigenvalues 2.4 and 2.3). Removal of these contrasts and two further iterations restored unidimensionality. Despite item mistargeting (1.58 logits), the revised 19-item instrument demonstrated good person (0.85) and item (0.96) reliability coefficients, good convergent and discriminant validity, and no systematic differential item functioning. The resultant 19-item instrument was termed the Acceptance and Self-Worth Adjustment Scale (AS-WAS). In those with established vision loss, the 19-item Acceptance and Self-Worth Adjustment Scale is a reliable and valid instrument that estimates the level of adjustment concerned with acceptance, attitudes, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control. An

  13. Exposure to unwanted intrusions, neutralizing and their effects on self-worth and obsessive-compulsive phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Claire; Kyrios, Michael; Meyer, Denny

    2015-12-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature to support the importance of understanding self processes in the experience of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), no experimental research has directly examined the relationship between self-construals and phenomena central to OCD. The current study examined the effect that unwanted intrusions and neutralizing responses have on self-worth, distress and urge to neutralize. After listening to repeated audio recordings of idiosyncratic unwanted intrusions, a combined nonclinical and clinical OCD sample were asked to respond with either their chosen neutralizing strategy (experimental) or a refocus counting strategy (control). Each condition comprised of a 12-min responding period (respond) followed by an equivalent non-response period (listen). Participants completed each condition, and were randomly allocated into the condition completed first. Ratings of discomfort, urge to neutralize, and self-worth were measured throughout. Neutralizing and refocussing responses were both associated with decreases in discomfort and higher self-worth. The expected rebound effect for discomfort and urge to neutralize for the listen period after neutralizing was found. Methodological problems lead to missing data, although this was corrected with the use of Multi Level Modelling (MLM) analysis on a combined sample. The small clinical sample meant that comparison between the two populations was not possible. Findings support cognitive accounts that neutralizing is involved in the development and maintenance of OCD, and suggest that neutralizing is a purposeful response aimed to help reinstate self-worth. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contingencies of Self-Worth and Psychological Distress in Iranian Patients Seeking Cosmetic Surgery: Integrative Self-Knowledge as Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valikhani, Ahmad; Goodarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-08-01

    Although previous studies have shown that people applying for cosmetic surgery experience high-intensity psychological distress, important variables that function as protective factors have rarely been the subject of study in this population. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the role of low and high self-knowledge in experiencing psychological distress and contingencies of self-worth to appearance and approval from others and to identify the mediatory role of the integrative self-knowledge in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Eighty-eight patients seeking cosmetic surgery were selected and completed the contingencies of self-worth and integrative self-knowledge scales, as well as the depression, anxiety and stress scale. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and path analysis using 5000 bootstrap resampling. The results of MANOVA showed that patients seeking cosmetic surgery with high self-knowledge had lower levels of depression, anxiety and stress compared to patients with low self-knowledge. They also gained lower scores in contingencies of self-worth to appearance and approval from others. The results of path analysis indicated that self-knowledge is a complete mediator in the relationship between contingencies of self-worth to appearance and approval from others and psychological distress. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that self-knowledge as a protective factor plays a major role in relation to the psychological distress experienced by the patients seeking cosmetic surgery. In fact, by increasing self-knowledge among this group of patients, their psychological distress can be decreased. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  15. Self-worth, perceived competence, and behaviour problems in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuengel, Carlo; Voorman, Jeanine; Stolk, Joop; Dallmeijer, Annet; Vermeer, Adri; Becher, Jules

    2006-10-30

    To examine the relevance of physical disabilities for self-worth and perceived competence in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to examine associations between behaviour problems and self-worth and perceived competence. The Harter scales for self-worth and perceived competence and a new scale for perceived motor competence were used in a sample of 80 children with CP. Their motor functioning was assessed with the Gross Motor Functioning Measure (GMFM) and behaviour problems with the Child Behaviour Check List administered to parents. Self-worth and perceived competence for children with CP were comparable to the Dutch norm sample, except for perceived athletic competence. Within the CP sample, the GMFM showed a domain-specific effect on perceived motor competence. In the multivariate analysis, internalizing problems were associated negatively with all perceived competence scales and self-worth, whereas aggression was positively associated with perceived motor competence, physical appearance, and self-worth. Children with CP appear resilient against challenges posed to their self-worth caused by their disabilities. The relevance of the physical disability appears to be domain-specific. For internalizing problems and aggression, different theoretical models are needed to account for their associations with self-worth and perceived competence.

  16. Collegiate misuse of prescription stimulants: examining differences in self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Amanda L; Prosek, Elizabeth A; Reader, Emily A; Bevly, Cynthia M; Turner, Kori D; LeBlanc, Yvette N; Vera, Ryan A; Molina, Citlali E; Garber, Sage Ann

    2015-02-01

    Prescription stimulant medication is commonly used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, stimulant medication misuse is a prevalent problem among the college population. There is limited research on psychological factors associated with collegiate nonmedical stimulant misuse. To examine the association between college students' self-worth and stimulant medication misuse. A quantitative study implemented during the 2013-2014 academic year in which we utilized a convenience sample of undergraduate students at a public university. College students (N = 3,038) completed an electronic survey packet including a stimulant use index and the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale. We conducted descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA) to measure the associations between four groups: Nonusers, Appropriate Users, Nonprescribed Misusuers, and Prescribed Users. Significant differences in contingencies of self-worth existed between the four groups of students. Specifically, external contingencies of self-worth, such as appearance and approval, were associated with stimulant medication misuse, whereas, internal contingencies of self-worth, such as God's love and virtue, were associated with nonuse and appropriate prescribed use. Conclusions/Importance: The findings of the current study suggested contingencies of self-worth partially explain prescription stimulant misuse among the collegiate population. Addressing self-worth may be helpful in the treatment of stimulant misuse with college students.

  17. An investigation of the associations between contingent self-worth and aspirations among Iranian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzehara, Milad; Ferguson, Yuna Lee; Sarafraz, Mehdi Reza; Mohammadi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the novel associations between intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations and internal and external domains of contingent self-worth among a sample of 502 Iranian university students. We found a meaningful pattern showing that intrinsic aspirations were positively associated with internal domains, whereas extrinsic aspirations were positively associated with external domains. Our survey data also suggested that the factor structure of the Aspiration Index, as well as the factor structure of the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale in our Iranian sample were consistent with factor structures of foreign samples. Finally, the types of aspirations and domains of contingencies of self-worth meaningfully predicted variables related to well-being, confirming previous research. We discuss the nature of the associations between the aspirations and the domains of contingent self-worth.

  18. Reducing contingent self-worth: a defensive response to self-threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Justin; Lam, Tiffany A; Andrade, Fernanda C; Boring, Brandon L; Emery, Danielle

    2018-04-10

    Previous research shows that people with high self-esteem cope with threats to the self by reducing the extent to which their self-worth is contingent on the threatened domain (Buckingham, Weber, & Sypher, 2012). The present studies tested the hypothesis that this is a defensive process. In support of this hypothesis, Study 1 (N = 160), showed that self-affirmation attenuates the tendency for people with high self-esteem to reduce their contingencies of self-worth following self-threat. Furthermore, Study 2 (N = 286), showed that this tendency was more prevalent among people with defensive self-esteem than among those with secure self-esteem. The present studies imply that reducing contingent self-worth after self-threat is a defensive process. We discuss implications for theories of contingent self-worth.

  19. The effect of interpersonal rejection on attentional biases regarding thin-ideal and non-thin images: The moderating role of body weight- and shape-based self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Elizabeth; Dolan, Ashleigh; Thomas, Brittany; Bell, Jason

    2017-09-01

    Interpersonal dysfunction and weight/shape-based self-worth have been implicated as key constructs for eating disorders, although the relationship between these two concepts is under-researched. This study investigated the moderating role of weight/shape-based self-worth in terms of the impact of interpersonal rejection on attentional bias regarding thin-ideal and non-thin images. Participants were 94 females without an eating disorder, who were exposed to either interpersonal rejection or acceptance (using the Cyberball paradigm), and subsequently assessed in terms of their attentional biases regarding thin-ideal and non-thin images. Results revealed that weight/shape-based self-worth moderated the relationship between interpersonal rejection/acceptance and attentional biases for thin-ideal (but not non-thin) images. Specifically, participants with a greater tendency to base their self-worth on weight/shape demonstrated reduced avoidance of thin-ideal images when rejected relative to those who were accepted. The findings support the role of interpersonal rejection in eliciting attentional disturbances among those with higher body weight/shape-based self-worth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in academic adjustment and relational self-worth across the transition to middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Allison M; Shim, Sungok Serena; Makara, Kara A

    2013-09-01

    Moving from elementary to middle school is a time of great transition for many early adolescents. The present study examined students' academic adjustment and relational self-worth at 6-month intervals for four time points spanning the transition from elementary school to middle school (N = 738 at time 1; 53 % girls; 54 % African American, 46 % European American). Grade point average (G.P.A.), intrinsic value for schoolwork, self-worth around teachers, and self-worth around friends were examined at every time point. The overall developmental trajectory indicated that G.P.A. and intrinsic value for schoolwork declined. The overall decline in G.P.A. was due to changes at the transition and across the first year in middle school. Intrinsic value declined across all time points. Self-worth around teachers was stable. The developmental trends were the same regardless of gender or ethnicity except for self-worth around friends, which was stable for European American students and increased for African American students due to an ascent at the transition into middle school. Implications for the education of early adolescents in middle schools are discussed.

  1. [Does self-worth mediate the effects of socio-environmental experiences on depression among fifth and sixth grade students?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Yasuyo; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Kitagawa, Tomoko

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated self-worth as a mediator between socio-environmental experiences and depression. A sample of 255 fifth and sixth grade students completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-worth, depression, and socio-environmental experiences of social support and stressors. Data for both males and females showed a direct effect of "friend support" on depression. However, for males, but not females, self-worth also mediated the influence of "friend support" on depression.

  2. Exercise and self-esteem in middle-aged adults: multidimensional relationships and physical fitness and self-efficacy influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, E; Mihalko, S L; Bane, S M

    1997-02-01

    In the context of sedentary middle-aged adults, the present study examined the relationships among domain-specific and global levels of self-esteem over the course of a 20-week exercise program. Additionally, the roles played by physical fitness, body composition, self-efficacy, and exercise participation as possible contributors to changes in physical self-worth were examined. Significant improvements in self-esteem at all levels were discovered with global esteem, physical self-worth, and perceptions of physical condition and attractive body increasing. Tests of the hierarchical structure of self-esteem showed greater improvements in physical condition and physical self-worth than global esteem and the relationships between global esteem and subdomain levels were shown to be mediated by physical self-worth. Hierarchical regression analyses showed changes in ratings of importance to have little impact on changes in physical self-worth. Both changes in efficacy and aerobic capacity were demonstrated to account for modest but significant variation in physical self-esteem. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary models of self-esteem, potential mediators of exercise effects on esteem, and the need to measure the constructs of interest appropriately.

  3. It's All About the Money (For Some): Consequences of Financially Contingent Self-Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Ward, Deborah E; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

    2017-05-01

    Financial success is an important goal, yet striving for it is often associated with negative outcomes. One reason for this paradox is that financial pressures may be tied to basing self-worth on financial success. Studies 1a to 1c developed a measure of Financial Contingency of Self-Worth (Financial CSW), and found that it predicted more financial social comparisons, financial hassles, stress, anxiety, and less autonomy. In response to a financial (vs. academic) threat, higher Financial CSW participants experienced less autonomy, perceived financial problems more negatively, and disengaged from their financial problems (Study 2). When given an opportunity to self-affirm, however, Financial CSW participants did not show diminished autonomy in response to a financial (vs. academic) threat (Study 3). Finally, participants with higher Financial CSW were less likely to make extravagant spending decisions following a financial (vs. health) threat (Study 4). Together, these studies demonstrate the many consequences of staking self-worth on financial success.

  4. How Does Students’ Sense of Self-Worth Influence Their Goal Orientation in Mathematics Achievement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulseren Sekreter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In learning mathematics, students are naturally motivated to protect their self-worth by maintaining a belief that they are competent in this area. However, there is an important question which educators have to answer: “Why do students often confuse ability with worth?” The most important reason is that in our society students are widely considered to be worthy according to their ability to achieve in the given tasks in mathematics. Irrespective the contributions of the Multiple Intelligence Theory of intelligence in education, unfortunately mathematics is still regarded as predicting students’ overall ability to learn. Educators should realize that the need in order to protect self-worth arises primarily from fear of failure. Therefore, if this fear of failure is strong, some students will not try and gradually they will produce failure- avoiding strategies to avoid certain tasks in order not to look bad or receive negative assessments from others to protect his/her self-worth. It is important to make sure that the performance goals do not promote failure-avoidance (performance-avoidance-oriented behavior, such as avoiding unfavorable judgments of capabilities and looking incompetent when the student encounters greater challenges. The main purpose of this qualitative study, therefore, is to explore students’ achievement goal motivation, their self-worth and how these motivational factors impact their learning goals in mathematics. This study hypothesizes that self- worth protection in math has also been considered from a performance-avoidance goal viewpoint.This study emphasizes that educators, who consider true self-worth as the student’s inherent value, should avoid comparing their students’ ability, capability relative to others as well as students’ academic performance and outcomes with others in class context.

  5. Older Adults' Perceived Changes in Physical Self-Worth Associated with Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee A.; Cannon, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Using Sonstroem, Harlow, and Josephs' (1994) expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM; Sonstroem & Morgan, 1989), we explored how 9 older adults (6 women and 3 men, aged 65-72 years) involved in a resistance training program experienced and perceived changes in physical self-worth (i.e., improved strength, functional…

  6. Is Self-Worth Protection Best Regarded as Intentional Self-Handicapping Behaviour or an Outcome of Choking under Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ted; Dinnel, Dale L.

    2007-01-01

    Self-worth protective students characteristically perform poorly when they anticipate that poor performance is likely to reveal low ability, yet perform well in situations that involve little threat to self-worth. The present study sought a further understanding of this variable pattern of achievement, assessing two possibilities: (1) that the…

  7. The Role of Contingent Self-Worth in the Relation between Victimization and Internalizing Problems in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoul, Assia; Niwa, Erika Y.; Boxer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Peer victimization can challenge mental health, yet limited research has considered contingent self-worth as a moderator of that relation. This study examined the relation of peer victimization to major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and social phobia during adolescence, and contingent self-worth as a hypothesized moderator of…

  8. Puerto Rican kindergartners' self-worth as coded from the Attachment Story Completion Task: correlated with other self-evaluation measures and ratings of child behavior toward mothers and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón-Rivera, Ángel L

    2013-01-01

    This multi-method multi-informant study assessed 105 Puerto Rican kindergartners' sense of self-worth in family relationships as coded from their responses to the Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT). The ASCT scores were compared with responses to two other age-appropriate self-evaluation measures (the Cassidy Puppet Interview and the Pictorial Scales of Social Acceptance). Correlations of children's scores on the three self-measures with maternal ratings of the mother-child relationship and teacher ratings of the child's prosocial behavior with peers were then compared. ASCT self-worth and Puppet Interview scores were strongly correlated with each other and both were modestly related to the pictorial social acceptance scales. All three measures were significantly associated with maternal and teacher reports of child behavior, but the strongest correlations were obtained with the ASCT. Coding the ASCT in terms of self-worth appears to be a promising approach for evaluating young children's (vicariously expressed) self-worth in family relationships.

  9. An empirical evaluation of two theoretically-based hypotheses on the directional association between self-worth and hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, Lindley; McDonough, Meghan H; Smith, Alan L

    2015-06-01

    Fostering self-worth and hope are important goals of positive youth development (PYD) efforts, yet intervention design is complicated by contrasting theoretical hypotheses regarding the directional association between these constructs. Therefore, within a longitudinal design we tested: (1) that self-worth predicts changes in hope (self theory; Harter, 1999), and (2) that hope predicts changes in self-worth (hope theory; Snyder, 2002) over time. Youth (N = 321; Mage = 10.33 years) in a physical activity-based PYD program completed surveys 37-45 days prior to and on the second day and third-to-last day of the program. A latent variable panel model that included autoregressive and cross-lagged paths indicated that self-worth was a significant predictor of change in hope, but hope did not predict change in self-worth. Therefore, the directional association between self-worth and hope is better explained by self-theory and PYD programs should aim to enhance perceptions of self-worth to build perceptions of hope. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Childhood Predictors of Adolescent Competence and Self-Worth in Rural Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Grady, Matthew W.; Spoden, Micajah

    2012-01-01

    Problem Urban children who become competent adults despite circumstances that place their development and mental health at risk are considered to be resilient. Less is known about the risk and protective factors that characterize resilience among Hispanic/Latinos living in rural areas. Methods Data for regression analyses were collected when children (N = 603; 54% Hispanic/Latino) enrolled in the study in fifth grade, (M=10.4 years of age) and again five years later when they were in high school (M=15 years of age). Findings Statistically significant predictors of competence and self-worth in high schoolers included gender, ethnicity, and mother’s education, as well as stress, temperament (task persistence), and competences measured in grade school. Conclusions Parents’ perceptions of child’s temperament is a significant predictor of future competence and self-worth among rural adolescents. PMID:23121139

  11. Childhood predictors of adolescent competence and self-worth in rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Grady, Matthew W; Spoden, Micajah

    2012-11-01

    Urban children who become competent adults despite circumstances that place their development and mental health at risk are considered to be resilient. Less is known about the risk and protective factors that characterize resilience among Hispanic/Latinos living in rural areas. Data for regression analyses were collected when children (n = 603; 54% Hispanic/Latino) enrolled in the study in fifth grade (M = 10.4 years of age), and again 5 years later when they were in high school (M = 15 years of age). Statistically significant predictors of competence and self-worth in high schoolers included gender, ethnicity, and mother's education, as well as stress, temperament (task persistence), and competences measured in grade school. Parents' perception of child's temperament is a significant predictor of future competence and self-worth among rural adolescents. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Self-worth mediates the effects of violent loss on PTSD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Anthony D; Prati, Gabriele; Black, Sarah

    2011-02-01

    Although research has confirmed that violent losses can exacerbate grief reactions, few investigations have explored underlying mechanisms. In this study, the authors used a dataset on bereaved spouses and bereaved parents at 4- and 18-months postloss to examine the mediating effects of self-worth and worldviews (benevolence and meaningfulness beliefs). Persons bereaved by violent causes had significantly more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), grief, and depression symptoms at 4- and 18-months postloss than persons bereaved by natural causes. Moreover, self-worth but not worldviews mediated the effects of violent loss on PTSD and depression symptoms cross sectionally and PTSD symptoms longitudinally. Findings underscore that self-views are a critical component of problematic reactions to violent loss, but fail to support the role of "shattered" worldviews. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  13. The pursuit of self-esteem: contingencies of self-worth and self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jennifer; Brook, Amara T; Niiya, Yu; Villacorta, Mark

    2006-12-01

    Successful self-regulation is defined as the willingness to exert effort toward one's most important goals, while taking setbacks and failures as opportunities to learn, identify weaknesses and address them, and develop new strategies toward achieving those goals. Contingencies of self-worth can facilitate self-regulation because people are highly motivated to succeed and avoid failure in domains of contingency. However, because boosts in self-esteem are pleasurable and drops in self-esteem are painful, protection, maintenance, and enhancement of self-esteem can become the overriding goal. Several pitfalls for self-regulation can result, especially when tasks are difficult and failure is likely. In this article, we describe a program of research examining these self-regulation pitfalls associated with contingent self-worth and suggest that learning orientations, particularly the willingness to embrace failure for the learning it affords, foster successful self-regulation even in people with highly contingent self-esteem.

  14. Mental Health and Self-Worth in Socially Transitioned Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durwood, Lily; McLaughlin, Katie A; Olson, Kristina R

    2017-02-01

    Social transitions are increasingly common for transgender children. A social transition involves a child presenting to other people as a member of the "opposite" gender in all contexts (e.g., wearing clothes and using pronouns of that gender). Little is known about the well-being of socially transitioned transgender children. This study examined self-reported depression, anxiety, and self-worth in socially transitioned transgender children compared with 2 control groups: age- and gender-matched controls and siblings of transgender children. As part of a longitudinal study (TransYouth Project), children (9-14 years old) and their parents completed measurements of depression and anxiety (n = 63 transgender children, n = 63 controls, n = 38 siblings). Children (6-14 years old; n = 116 transgender children, n = 122 controls, n = 72 siblings) also reported on their self-worth. Mental health and self-worth were compared across groups. Transgender children reported depression and self-worth that did not differ from their matched-control or sibling peers (p = .311), and they reported marginally higher anxiety (p = .076). Compared with national averages, transgender children showed typical rates of depression (p = .290) and marginally higher rates of anxiety (p = .096). Parents similarly reported that their transgender children experienced more anxiety than children in the control groups (p = .002) and rated their transgender children as having equivalent levels of depression (p = .728). These findings are in striking contrast to previous work with gender-nonconforming children who had not socially transitioned, which found very high rates of depression and anxiety. These findings lessen concerns from previous work that parents of socially transitioned children could be systematically underreporting mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-worth therapy for depressive symptoms in older nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yun-Fang; Wong, Thomas K S; Tsai, Hsiu-Hsin; Ku, Yan-Chiou

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to report the effects of self-worth therapy on depressive symptoms of older nursing home residents. Depression in older people has become a serious healthcare issue worldwide. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies have been shown to have inconsistent effects, and drug treatment can have important side-effects. A quasi-experimental design was used. Older people were sampled by convenience from residents of a nursing home in northern Taiwan between 2005 and 2006. To be included in the study participants had to: (i) have no severe cognitive deficits; (ii) test positive for depressive status and (iii) take the same anti-depressant medication in the previous 3 months and throughout the study. Participants in the experimental group (n = 31) received 30 minutes of one-to-one self-worth therapy on 1 day a week for 4 weeks. Control group participants (n = 32) received no therapy, but were individually visited by the same research assistant, who chatted with them for 30 minutes on 1 day/week for 4 weeks. Depressive status, cognitive status and functional status were measured at baseline, immediately after the intervention and 2 months later. Data were analysed by mean, standard deviations, t-test, chi-squared test and univariate anova. Self-worth therapy immediately decreased depressive symptoms relative to baseline, but not relative to control treatment. However, 2 months later, depressive symptoms were statistically significantly reduced relative to control. Self-worth therapy is an easily-administered, effective, non-pharmacological treatment with potential for decreasing depressive symptoms in older nursing home residents.

  16. Associations of adolescent hopelessness and self-worth with pregnancy attempts and pregnancy desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowicz, Anna R; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Schreiner, Pamela J; Bolland, John M

    2014-08-01

    We examined the associations of pregnancy desire (ambivalence or happiness about a pregnancy in the next year) and recent pregnancy attempts with hopelessness and self-worth among low-income adolescents. To evaluate independent associations among the study variables, we conducted gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression analyses with data derived from 2285 sexually experienced 9- to 18-year-old participants in the Mobile Youth Survey between 2006 and 2009. Fifty-seven percent of youths reported a desire for pregnancy and 9% reported pregnancy attempts. In multivariable analyses, hopelessness was positively associated and self-worth was negatively associated with pregnancy attempts among both female and male youths. Hopelessness was weakly associated (P = .05) with pregnancy desire among female youths. The negative association of self-worth and the positive association of hopelessness with pregnancy attempts among young men as well as young women and the association of hopelessness with pregnancy desire among young women raise questions about why pregnancy is apparently valued by youths who rate their social and cognitive competence as low and who live in an environment with few options for material success.

  17. Does self-threat promote social connection? The role of self-esteem and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Maner, Jon K

    2009-01-01

    Six studies examined the social motivations of people with high self-esteem (HSE) and low self-esteem (LSE) following a threat to a domain of contingent self-worth. Whether people desired social contact following self-threat depended on an interaction between an individual's trait self-esteem and contingencies of self-worth. HSE participants who strongly based self-worth on appearance sought to connect with close others following a threat to their physical attractiveness. LSE participants who staked self-worth on appearance wanted to avoid social contact and, instead, preferred a less interpersonally risky way of coping with self-threat (wanting to enhance their physical attractiveness). Implications for theories of self-esteem, motivation, and interpersonal processes are discussed.

  18. The influence of social identity on self-worth, commitment, and effort in school-based youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Luc J; Balderson, Danny; Hawkins, Michael; Wilson, Kathleen; Bruner, Mark W

    2018-02-01

    ​​​The current study examined the influence of social identity for individual perceptions of self-worth, commitment, and effort in school-based youth athletes. Using a prospective research design, 303 athletes (M age  = 14.89, SD = 1.77; 133 female) from 27 sport teams completed questionnaires at 2 time points (T1 - demographics, social identity; T2 - self-worth, commitment, effort) during an athletic season. Multilevel analyses indicated that at the individual level, the social identity dimension of in-group ties (IGT) predicted commitment (b = 0.12, P = .006) and perceived effort (b = 0.14, P = .008), whereas in-group affect (IGA) predicted commitment (b = 0.25, P = .001) and self-worth (b = 2.62, P = .006). At the team level, means for IGT predicted commitment (b = 0.31, P < .001) and self-worth (b = 4.76, P = .024). Overall, social identity accounted for variance at both levels, ranging from 4% (self-worth) to 15% (commitment). Identifying with a group to a greater extent was found to predict athlete perceptions of self-worth, commitment, and effort. More specifically, at the individual level, IGT predicted commitment and effort, and IGA predicted commitment and self-worth. At the team level, IGT predicted commitment and self-worth.

  19. Global relationships in river hydromorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelsky, T.; Lion, C.; Allen, G. H.; Durand, M. T.; Schumann, G.; Beighley, E.; Yang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Since the widespread adoption of digital elevation models (DEMs) in the 1980s, most global and continental-scale analysis of river flow characteristics has been focused on measurements derived from DEMs such as drainage area, elevation, and slope. These variables (especially drainage area) have been related to other quantities of interest such as river width, depth, and velocity via empirical relationships that often take the form of power laws. More recently, a number of groups have developed more direct measurements of river location and some aspects of planform geometry from optical satellite imagery on regional, continental, and global scales. However, these satellite-derived datasets often lack many of the qualities that make DEM=derived datasets attractive, including robust network topology. Here, we present analysis of a dataset that combines the Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL) database of river location, width, and braiding index with a river database extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM and the HydroSHEDS dataset. Using these combined tools, we present a dataset that includes measurements of river width, slope, braiding index, upstream drainage area, and other variables. The dataset is available everywhere that both datasets are available, which includes all continental areas south of 60N with rivers sufficiently large to be observed with Landsat imagery. We use the dataset to examine patterns and frequencies of river form across continental and global scales as well as global relationships among variables including width, slope, and drainage area. The results demonstrate the complex relationships among different dimensions of river hydromorphology at the global scale.

  20. "Seeing the Life": Redefining self-worth and family roles among Iraqi refugee families resettled in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew; Hess, Julia Meredith; Isakson, Brian; Goodkind, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    Social and geographic displacement is a global phenomenon that precipitates novel stressors and disruptions that intersect with longstanding familial and social roles. Among the displaced are war-torn Iraqi refugee families, who must address these new obstacles in unconventional ways. This study explores how such disruptions have influenced associations between gender and apparent self-worth experienced by Iraqi refugee families upon relocation to the United States. Further, the psychosocial mechanisms requisite of any novel approach to a new social construct are explored and reveal that production in the family is at the core of instability and shifting power dynamics during resettlement, preventing family members from "seeing the life" in the United States that they had envisioned prior to immigration. Over 200 semi-structured qualitative interviews with Iraqi participants and mental health providers were conducted over the course of the study, and demonstrate a plasticity among social roles in the family and community that transcends the notion of a simple role reversal, and illustrate the complex positionalities that families under stress must approximate during such physical and social displacement.

  1. Shame and Depressive Symptoms: Self-compassion and Contingent Self-worth as Mediators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiyu; Carr, Erika R; Garcia-Williams, Amanda G; Siegelman, Asher E; Berke, Danielle; Niles-Carnes, Larisa V; Patterson, Bobbi; Watson-Singleton, Natalie N; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2018-02-27

    Research has identified the experience of shame as a relevant predictor of depressive symptoms. Building upon resilience theory, this is the first study to investigate if self-compassion and/or contingent self-worth (i.e., family support and God's love) mediate the link between shame and depressive symptoms. Participants were 109 African Americans, within the age range of 18 and 64, who sought service following a suicide attempt from a public hospital that serves mostly low-income patients. Findings suggest that shame was related to depressive symptoms through self-compassion but not through contingent self-worth, underscoring the significant role that self-compassion plays in ameliorating the aggravating effect of shame on depressive symptoms. Results highlight the value of incorporating self-compassion training into interventions for suicidal African Americans in an effort to reduce the impact of shame on their depressive symptoms and ultimately their suicidal behavior and as a result enhance their capacity for resilience.

  2. Reciprocal links among differential parenting, perceived partiality, and self-worth: a three-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebloski, Barbara; Conger, Katherine J; Widaman, Keith F

    2005-12-01

    This study examined reciprocal links between parental differential treatment, siblings' perception of partiality, and self-worth with 3 waves of data from 384 adolescent sibling dyads. Results suggest that birth-order status was significantly associated with self-worth and perception of maternal and paternal differential treatment. There was a consistent across-time effect of self-worth on perception of parental partiality for later born siblings, but not earlier born siblings, and a consistent effect of differential treatment on perception of partiality for earlier born but not later born siblings. The results contribute new insight into the associations between perception of differential parenting and adolescents' adjustment and the role of birth order. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A glimpse behind the mask: facets of narcissism and feelings of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Besser, Avi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the connections that the facets of narcissism captured by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Hall, 1979) and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009) have with self-esteem. This was accomplished by asking 372 participants to complete measures of narcissism and self-esteem level as well as daily diary measures concerning their state self-esteem and daily experiences. Our analyses found that the facets of narcissism differed in their associations with average level of self-esteem, fluctuations in state self-esteem over time, and self-esteem reactions following daily events. These results suggest that it is important to consider specific facets of narcissism when examining feelings of self-worth rather than relying on broader composite measures of narcissistic personality features. Implications of these results for our understanding of the dynamics of the narcissistic personality are discussed.

  4. Older adults' perceived changes in physical self-worth associated with resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee A; Cannon, Jack

    2009-06-01

    Using Sonstroem, Harlow, and Josephs' (1994) expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM; Sonstroem & Morgan, 1989), we explored how 9 older adults (6 women and 3 men, aged 65-72 years) involved in a resistance training program experienced and perceived changes in physical self-worth (i.e., improved strength, functional competency, physical condition, and body satisfaction). We conducted three in-depth interviews with each participant over the course of the program. In individual log books, participants recorded the weight lifted and the number of repetitions for each exercise. Our findings showed the course of changes in physical self-perceptions in these older adults and how actual individual changes in strength performance related to perceived changes in important psychological outcomes.

  5. Perfectionism in gifted students: moderating effects of goal orientation and contingent self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T; Fu, Chu-Chun; Rice, Kenneth G

    2012-06-01

    We examined the moderating effects of mastery goals and academic contingency of self-worth (CSW-A) on how perfectionistic discrepancy associates with academic efficacy and satisfaction with life among gifted students in middle and high school. Participants in this study were 144 gifted students from 6th to 12th grade in a suburban Midwest U.S. school district. A significant three-way interaction effect was found among discrepancy, mastery goals, and CSW-A on academic self-efficacy. The findings suggest that having high mastery goals served as a protective factor against the negative impact of discrepancy on academic efficacy for gifted students, but only for those with low CSW-A. For gifted students with elevated CSW-A, discrepancy was not negatively associated with academic self-efficacy, regardless of their level of mastery goals. The implications for these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Threading the needle in health-risk communication: increasing vulnerability salience while promoting self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Gerrard, Meg; McClive-Reed, Kimberly P

    2013-01-01

    Health interventions often draw attention to the risks associated with unhealthy choice but in the process produce a boomerang effect such that those targeted become more committed to risky behavior. In 2 studies designed to promote condom use among sexually active college students, the authors document strategies for highlighting risk while promoting healthy choices. Study 1 demonstrated that optimistic perceptions regarding the likelihood of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be counteracted by drawing attention to the emotional consequences of contracting STDs, instead of its likelihood. Rather than promoting condom use, however, this procedure generated a boomerang effect: It decreased commitment to using condoms, especially among high self-esteem individuals. Study 2 showed that this unwanted effect could be reversed when emotional vulnerability was paired with a self-affirmation. This finding suggests that there can be benefits to adding threatening content to health interventions, provided that the message also contains elements designed to protect feelings of self-worth.

  7. Stress and coping mediate relationships between contingent and global self-esteem and alcohol-related problems among college drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaka, Joe; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Shamaley, Angelee Gigi

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the hypotheses that contingent self-esteem would be positively associated with alcohol-related problems and that global self-esteem would be negatively associated with such problems. It also examined the hypothesis that high stress and maladaptive coping would mediate these relationships. A sample of college students (n = 399) who were predominantly Hispanic (89%) completed measures of global and contingent self-esteem; stress and coping; and alcohol-related problems. Correlational and latent variable analyses indicated that contingent self-esteem positively related to alcohol-related problems, with maladaptive coping mediating this relationship. In contrast, global self-esteem negatively related to such problems, a relationship that was also mediated by maladaptive coping and stress. Overall, the results highlight the potentially harmful consequences of contingent self-worth and the adaptive nature of non-contingent self-esteem. They also demonstrate the important role that coping plays in mediating self-esteem's associations with alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Why Sticks and Carrots Are Only for Animals: An Exploratory Study on Self-Worth in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdhani, J.; Nkoane, M.

    2010-01-01

    The question that needs to be asked is what is motivating employees at higher education institution and why do people act in the way that they do? This article sought to test the following statement: There exists within the context of higher education an organizational culture based on the premise of self worth. Various theories of motivation have…

  9. Externally Contingent and Unstable Self-Worth as Predictors of Depression in College Women: A 3-Month Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Thorne, Brittany; Schoenecker, Sydney; Siffert, Kevin; Chaliman, Rebecca; Castleberry, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate women completed measures of externally contingent self-worth, self-esteem instability, and depression at the beginning (Time 1) and again 3 months later near the end (Time 2) of an academic semester. Findings indicated that when Time 1 depression scores were controlled for, each Time 1 facet of self-esteem made significant…

  10. Intimacy development in late adolescence: Longitudinal associations with perceived parental autonomy support and adolescents' self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Petegem, Stijn; Brenning, Katrijn; Baudat, Sophie; Beyers, Wim; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2018-03-21

    The present longitudinal study tested for the role of perceived parental autonomy-support and late adolescents' self-worth in their intimacy development. A sample of 497 Belgian late adolescents (M age  = 17.9, 43.5% girls) participated in this two-wave study. Results indicated that perceived autonomy-supportive parenting did not relate significantly to change in adolescents' experienced intimacy (in terms of closeness and mutuality), but was associated with a decrease in unmitigated agency (an excessive focus on the self) and unmitigated communion (an excessive focus on the other) across time. Adolescents' self-worth predicted an increase in experienced intimacy and a decrease in unmitigated agency and communion, and the initial level of experienced intimacy predicted an increase in self-worth. Finally, results suggested that adolescents' self-worth may mediate some of the longitudinal relations between perceived parental autonomy-support and adolescents' intimate functioning. No evidence was found for moderation by romantic involvement, gender or age. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Identified versus Introjected Approach and Introjected Avoidance Motivations in School and in Sports: The Limited Benefits of Self-Worth Strivings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assor, Avi; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Kaplan, Avi

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), the authors examined whether 2 different types of introjected motivation--an avoidant type aimed at avoiding low self-worth and an approach type aimed at attaining high self-worth--are both associated with a less positive pattern of correlates relative to identified…

  12. Global Self-Worth in Latino Youth: The Role of Acculturation and Acculturation Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapke, Theresa L.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Lawton, Kathryn E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite Latino youth being at increased risk of developing mental health problems, they are less likely to receive adequate treatment (Gonzales et al. in "Handbook of U.S. Latino psychology: developmental and community-based perspectives." Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 115-134, 2009; Romero et al. in "Ethn Health"…

  13. Exploring the role of obsessive-compulsive relevant self-worth contingencies in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Soriano, Gemma; Belloch, Amparo

    2012-06-30

    This article examines whether self-worth contingencies in the personal domains of cleanliness, morality, hoarding, certainty, accuracy, religion and respect for others have specific associations with obsessive symptoms and cognitions in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-seven patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD completed the Obsessional Concerns and Self Questionnaire (OCSQ), designed to assess the extent to which respondents consider OCD content domains relevant to their self-worth, along with a battery of other instruments. Results indicate that the OCSQ is more associated with OCD than with non-OCD anxiety symptoms, and that it is also associated with comorbid depressive symptoms in OCD patients. Moreover, the OCSQ-Order and Cleanliness and Hoarding dimensions are associated with their symptom counterparts (i.e., contamination, checking, order, hoarding and neutralizing). OCSQ domains were highly associated with dysfunctional beliefs about obsessions. However, only the OCSQ scores, but not the dysfunctional beliefs, predicted OCD symptoms. These results support cognitive conceptualizations implicating self-concept in OCD development, and they suggest the need to further analyze the influence of self-worth in OCD development and maintenance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. “Seeing the Life”: Redefining self-worth and family roles among Iraqi refugee families resettled in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew; Hess, Julia Meredith; Isakson, Brian; Goodkind, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Social and geographic displacement is a global phenomenon that precipitates novel stressors and disruptions that intersect with longstanding familial and social roles. Among the displaced are war-torn Iraqi refugee families, who must address these new obstacles in unconventional ways. This study explores how such disruptions have influenced associations between gender and apparent self-worth experienced by Iraqi refugee families upon relocation to the United States. Further, the psychosocial mechanisms requisite of any novel approach to a new social construct are explored and reveal that production in the family is at the core of instability and shifting power dynamics during resettlement, preventing family members from “seeing the life” in the United States that they had envisioned prior to immigration. Over 200 semi-structured qualitative interviews with Iraqi participants and mental health providers were conducted over the course of the study, and demonstrate a plasticity among social roles in the family and community that transcends the notion of a simple role reversal, and illustrate the complex positionalities that families under stress must approximate during such physical and social displacement. PMID:28966556

  15. Role for a sense of self-worth in weight-loss treatments: helping patients develop self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Gordon

    2008-04-01

    To recommend strategies for enhancing patients' sense of self-worth and self-efficacy in order to give them sufficient faith in themselves to make healthier choices about their weight. PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and APA Journals Online were searched for original research articles on treatment models and outcome review articles from 1960 to the present. Key search terms were weight loss, weight-loss treatments, diets and weight loss, psychology and obesity, physiology and obesity, and exercise and weight loss. Most evidence was level I and level II. In spite of extensive research, there is widespread belief that the medical system has failed to stem the tide of weight gain in North America. The focus has been on physiologic, behavioural, and cultural explanations for what is seen as a relatively recent phenomenon, while the self-perception of overweight individuals has been largely overlooked. Professional treatments have consisted mainly of cognitive behavioural therapies and rest on the premise that overweight patients will effectively apply the cognitive behavioural therapy principles. In the long run, professional and commercial programs are often ineffective. We need treatments that include strategies to repair ego damage, enhance the sense of self-worth, and develop self-efficacy so that overweight patients can become the agents of change in their pursuit of well-being. Self-efficacy correlates positively with success in all realms of personal endeavour, and we can help our overweight patients become more self-reliant.

  16. Interpersonal rejection results in increased appearance satisfaction for women who rely on body weight for self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Lauren M; Jarry, Josée L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether body weight contingent self-worth (BWCSW), the tendency to base self-worth on body weight, moderates the effects of interpersonal rejection on self-esteem and body satisfaction. In an online survey, female undergraduates (N=148) completed measures of trait self-esteem, depression, and BWCSW. In a subsequent lab session, participants were assigned to either an interpersonal rejection or to a neutral control condition, after which they completed measures of state self-esteem and body satisfaction. Compared to women with lower BWCSW, women with higher BWCSW reported lower appearance self-esteem (p=.001) and body satisfaction (p=.004) across conditions. However, they reacted to rejection by reporting greater appearance self-esteem (p=.034) and body satisfaction (p=.021). Rejection had no effect on women with lower BWCSW. The reaction of women with higher BWCSW is interpreted as a compensatory self-enhancement response to interpersonal rejection within a self-important domain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Health- related quality of life and self-worth in 10-year old children with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed by neonatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluijs Veer, Liesbeth; Kempers, Marlies Je; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Last, Bob F; Vulsma, Tom; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2012-10-03

    Much is written about cognitive and motor development; less is known about social and emotional consequences of growing up with congenital hypothyroidism (CH).The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare health related quality of life (HRQoL) and self-worth of 10 year old patients with CH with the general population; (2) to explore associations of disease factors, IQ and motor skills with the outcomes. Children with CH and their parents completed several questionnaires. Patients were classified to 'severe CH, n = 41' or 'moderate/mild CH, n = 41' based on pre-treatment FT4 concentration.Differences between CH and the general population were tested by analysis of covariance and one sample t-tests (mean scale scores HRQoL and self-worth), chi-square tests and binomial tests (% at risk of impaired HRQoL and self-worth). Linear regression analyses corrected for gender were conducted to explore associations of the outcomes with disease factors, IQ and motor skills. Patients with CH reported lower mean HRQoL on motor, cognitive and social functioning, and on autonomy and positive emotions (p < 0.0001). Patients were also more often at risk for impaired HRQoL and self-worth. No differences were found between the severity groups. Lower IQ was only significant associated with worse cognitive HRQoL. Initial FT4 plasma, age at onset of therapy, initial T4 dose and motor skills were not significantly associated with HRQoL and self-worth. Negative consequences in terms of HRQoL and self-worth are prevalent in children with CH, independent of disease factors, IQ and motor skills. Physicians should to be attentive to these consequences and provide attention and supportive care.

  18. Women bound to be active (years 3 and 4): can a book club help women overcome barriers to physical activity and improve self-worth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Jennifer L; Vener, Jamie; Ransdell, Lynda; Schulte, Laura; Budd, Melissa A; Gao, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Little progress has been made toward increasing physical activity in women. This study aimed to determine if an 8-month theory-based book club intervention (Women Bound to Be Active) was effective in increasing: (a) self-worth, (b) benefits relative to barriers to physical activity, and (c) physical activity in women (n = 51). Findings suggested a book club was effective for improving: self-worth, the benefits relative to barriers to physical activity, and possibly participation in physical activity. This is an innovative model to help women become more active and learn skills that may enable them to be active on their own long after a physical activity program has ended.

  19. When does self-esteem relate to deviant behavior? The role of contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, D Lance; Brown, Douglas J; Lian, Huiwen; Keeping, Lisa M

    2009-09-01

    Researchers have assumed that low self-esteem predicts deviance, but empirical results have been mixed. This article draws upon recent theoretical developments regarding contingencies of self-worth to clarify the self-esteem/deviance relation. It was predicted that self-esteem level would relate to deviance only when self-esteem was not contingent on workplace performance. In this manner, contingent self-esteem is a boundary condition for self-consistency/behavioral plasticity theory predictions. Using multisource data collected from 123 employees over 6 months, the authors examined the interaction between level (high/low) and type (contingent/noncontingent) of self-esteem in predicting workplace deviance. Results support the hypothesized moderating effects of contingent self-esteem; implications for self-esteem theories are discussed.

  20. Linking Childhood Maltreatment to Substance Use in College Students: The Mediating Role of Self-Worth Contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Williams, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the link between childhood maltreatment and substance use focusing on examining contingencies of self-worth (CSW) as mediators among college students (N = 513). Structural equation modeling indicated that childhood sexual abuse among females was related to lower God's love CSW, which in turn was related to higher levels of cigarette, marijuana, and other illicit drug use, supporting the mediational role of God's love CSW. Correlational analyses demonstrated that, for both male and female students, external contingency of appearance was related to higher substance use, whereas internal contingencies of God's love and virtue were related to lower substance use. The findings highlight the protective role of internal CSW in substance use among females with childhood sexual abuse.

  1. The role of inflexible friendship beliefs, rumination, and low self-worth in early adolescents' friendship jealousy and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Kristen L; Parker, Jeffrey G

    2009-08-01

    Two focal social cognitive processes were evaluated in a structural model for their direct and indirect roles in early adolescents' jealousy surrounding their closest friend in a sample of 325 early adolescents (169 girls and 156 boys) ages 11-14 years. Individuals who are rigid and unrealistic about meeting their friendship needs were more vulnerable to feelings of jealousy than individuals who think more flexibly. Inflexible individuals also engage in more jealousy-driven surveillance and other problem behavior towards their friends. Stronger jealous feelings and behavior were related, in turn, to greater conflict with friends and to a vulnerability to emotional maladjustment. In addition, young adolescents who tended to ruminate over friendship problems were also more vulnerable to jealousy. Inflexible attitudes and friendship rumination were positively associated. Results extend recent models of friendship jealousy that focus only on early adolescents' self-worth.

  2. Health- related quality of life and self-worth in 10-year old children with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed by neonatal screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Sluijs Veer Liesbeth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much is written about cognitive and motor development; less is known about social and emotional consequences of growing up with congenital hypothyroidism (CH. The objectives of the study were: (1 to compare health related quality of life (HRQoL and self-worth of 10 year old patients with CH with the general population; (2 to explore associations of disease factors, IQ and motor skills with the outcomes. Methods Children with CH and their parents completed several questionnaires. Patients were classified to ‘severe CH, n = 41’ or ‘moderate/mild CH, n = 41’ based on pre-treatment FT4 concentration. Differences between CH and the general population were tested by analysis of covariance and one sample t-tests (mean scale scores HRQoL and self-worth, chi-square tests and binomial tests (% at risk of impaired HRQoL and self-worth. Linear regression analyses corrected for gender were conducted to explore associations of the outcomes with disease factors, IQ and motor skills. Results Patients with CH reported lower mean HRQoL on motor, cognitive and social functioning, and on autonomy and positive emotions (p  Conclusions Negative consequences in terms of HRQoL and self-worth are prevalent in children with CH, independent of disease factors, IQ and motor skills. Physicians should to be attentive to these consequences and provide attention and supportive care.

  3. How you look versus how you feel: Associations between BMI z-score, body dissatisfaction, peer victimization, and self-worth for African American and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Adams, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Being overweight and having negative self-perceptions (body dissatisfaction) can have problematic consequences for adolescents physically, socially, and psychologically. Understanding associations between weight, self-perceptions, and peer experiences across ethnicities is particularly important given recent increases in obesity among ethnic minorities. The current study aimed to address these issues by examining Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores and body dissatisfaction predicting change in general self-worth over time via peer victimization experiences in a diverse sample of 236 youth (ages 10-16 years). Body dissatisfaction predicted decreases in self-worth over time even after controlling for BMI z-score. BMI z-scores predicted decreases in self-worth over time only for white adolescents, whereas body dissatisfaction directly predicted decreases in self-worth for African American youth and indirectly via peer victimization for white youth. Associations were also considered by gender. Implications for intervention efforts for both white and African American adolescents are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of functional group counseling on inspiring low-achieving students' self-worth and self-efficacy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway-R; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Chen, Hsiang-Ting; Yu, Tien-chi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of functional group counseling on inspiring low achievers' self-worth and self-efficacy in Taiwan. Forty-three 10th grade low-achieving students volunteered as the Experimental Group to join a 24-week intervention, which integrated and utilized functional group counseling; another 51 10th grade low-achieving students volunteered to be Comparison Group I. In addition, 43 10th grade moderate or high academic achieving students volunteered to be Comparison Group II. All participants completed the Vocational School Student Questionnaire at the beginning and end of this study to measure their self-worth and self-efficacy. In addition, six target students (two boys and four girls) with the lowest total scores on self-worth or self-efficacy in the pretest were selected from the Experimental Group to be interviewed at the end of the intervention and observed weekly. Analyses of variance, analyses of covariance, and paired t-tests assessed the similarity and differences among groups. The initial findings were as follows: Experimental group students had significantly higher scores on self-efficacy and self-worth than both Comparison Group I and Group II students and functional group counseling was shown to significantly affect the low-achieving students. Qualitative results from interviews and observations were used for triangulation and consolidation of quantitative results. Implications of the study included the recommended use of functional group counseling with low-achieving students.

  5. Perceptions of Autonomy Support, Parent Attachment, Competence and Self-Worth as Predictors of Motivational Orientation and Academic Achievement: An Examination of Sixth- and Ninth-Grade Regular Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eugene H.; Wiest, Dudley J.; Cusick, Lisa B.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that students' perceptions of teacher autonomy support, parent attachment, competence, and self-worth would predict motivational orientation and achievement test performance. Results indicate that autonomy support, parent attachment, scholastic competence, and self-worth predicted the academic criterion variables.…

  6. Academic stress and positive affect: Asian value and self-worth contingency as moderators among Chinese international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Wei, Meifen

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical model proposed by Berry and colleagues (Berry, 1997; Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987) highlights the importance of identifying moderators in the acculturation process. Accordingly, the current study examined the Asian cultural value of family recognition through achievement (FRTA) and contingency of self-worth on academic competence (CSW-AC) as moderators in the association between academic stress and positive affect among Chinese international students. A total of 370 Chinese international students completed online surveys. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated that while academic stress was negatively associated with positive affect, FRTA was positively associated with positive affect. In other words, those with high academic stress reported a lower level of positive affect. However, individuals who endorsed high levels of FRTA reported a higher level of positive affect. In addition, results also revealed a significant interaction between academic stress and CSW-AC on positive affect. Thus, the study's finding supported the moderator role of CSW-AC. Simple effect analyses were conducted to examine the significant interaction. The results showed that higher levels of CSW-AC strengthened the negative association between academic stress and positive affect but lower levels of CSW-AC did not. Future research directions and implications are discussed.

  7. Ethnic discrimination and global self-worth in early adolescents : The mediating role of ethnic self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization based on one’s ethnic group membership contributes to the problems and conflicts of ethnic minority children around the world. With ethnic discrimination, a part of the self is implicated. Hence, it is likely that being treated negatively on the basis of one’s ethnicity has a

  8. Women Bound to be Active: one year follow-up to an innovative pilot intervention to increase physical activity and self-worth in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Jennifer L; Vener, Jamie; Schulte, Laura; Roberts, Sara M; Stevens, Beth; Ransdell, Lynda

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention (a women's book club; Women Bound to be Active) in promoting long-term physical activity. Thirty-five women (26-70 years; mean age 50.6 years) completed the 8-month intervention and participated in the one-year follow-up. At follow-up, physical activity returned to baseline levels; however, self-worth and body mass index significantly improved. Women were more knowledgeable about physical activity at follow-up; however, they failed to maintain physical activity after the intervention. Components of the intervention were effective in improving self-worth and lowering BMI at one-year follow-up. To enhance long-term physical activity adherence, continued research and intervention modifications are needed.

  9. Relationship between global indices of reactivity, electrodonating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    groups with electrodonating or electroaccepting properties, and two indices of global reactivity were calcu- lated in the gas ... have a greater number of empirical descriptors, as well as theoretical ... as by the resistance (described by η) to the exchange of electronic ... (as calculated in gas phase) of the electroaccepting, ω+.

  10. Genetic and environmental influences on the association between performance-based self-esteem and exhaustion: A study of the self-worth notion of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Pia; Hallsten, Lennart; Narusyte, Jurgita; Bodin, Lennart; Blom, Victoria

    2016-10-01

    In the self-worth model, burnout is considered to be a syndrome of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE) and experiences of exhaustion. Studies have shown that PBSE and burnout indices such as Pines' Burnout Measure (BM) are associated. Whether these variables have overlapping etiologies has however not been studied before. Genetic and environmental components of covariation between PBSE and exhaustion measured with Pines' BM were examined in a bivariate Cholesky model using data from 14,875 monozygotic and dizygotic Swedish twins. Fifty-two per cent of the phenotypic correlation (r = 0.41) between PBSE and Pines' BM was explained by genetics and 48% by environmental factors. The findings of the present study strengthen the assumption that PBSE should be considered in the burnout process as proposed by the self-worth conception of burnout. The present results extend our understanding of the link between this contingent self-esteem construct and exhaustion and provide additional information about the underlying mechanisms in terms of genetics and environment. This finding corroborates the assumed syndrome view on burnout, while it also suggests an altered view of how the syndrome emerges and how it can be alleviated. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Globalization and Religion in Historical Perspective: A Paradoxical Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke M. Herrington

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Religion has long been a driving force in the process of globalization. This idea is not controversial or novel thinking, nor is it meant to be. However, the dominant reasoning on the subject of globalization, expressed by authors like Thomas Friedman, places economics at the center of analysis, skewing focus from the ideational factors at work in this process. By expanding the definition of globalization to accommodate ideational factors and cultural exchange, religion’s agency in the process can be enabled. Interestingly, the story of religion and globalization is in some ways the history of globalization, but it is riddled with paradoxes, including the agent-opponent paradox, the subject of this article. Religion and globalization have a co-constitutive relationship, but religious actors are both agents of globalization and principals in its backlash. While some actors might benefit from a mutually reinforcing relationship with globalization, others are marginalized in some way or another, so it is necessary to expose the links and wedges that allow for such a paradox. To that end, the concepts of globalization and religious actors must be defined, and the history of the agent-opponent paradox, from the Buddhists of the Silk Road to the Jubilee campaign of 2000, must be elucidated.

  12. Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Crowther, Thomas W; Picard, Nicolas; Wiser, Susan; Zhou, Mo; Alberti, Giorgio; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; McGuire, A David; Bozzato, Fabio; Pretzsch, Hans; de-Miguel, Sergio; Paquette, Alain; Hérault, Bruno; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Barrett, Christopher B; Glick, Henry B; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Viana, Helder; Vibrans, Alexander C; Ammer, Christian; Schall, Peter; Verbyla, David; Tchebakova, Nadja; Fischer, Markus; Watson, James V; Chen, Han Y H; Lei, Xiangdong; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Lu, Huicui; Gianelle, Damiano; Parfenova, Elena I; Salas, Christian; Lee, Eungul; Lee, Boknam; Kim, Hyun Seok; Bruelheide, Helge; Coomes, David A; Piotto, Daniel; Sunderland, Terry; Schmid, Bernhard; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Sonké, Bonaventure; Tavani, Rebecca; Zhu, Jun; Brandl, Susanne; Vayreda, Jordi; Kitahara, Fumiaki; Searle, Eric B; Neldner, Victor J; Ngugi, Michael R; Baraloto, Christopher; Frizzera, Lorenzo; Bałazy, Radomir; Oleksyn, Jacek; Zawiła-Niedźwiecki, Tomasz; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bussotti, Filippo; Finér, Leena; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Jucker, Tommaso; Valladares, Fernando; Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Peri, Pablo L; Gonmadje, Christelle; Marthy, William; O'Brien, Timothy; Martin, Emanuel H; Marshall, Andrew R; Rovero, Francesco; Bitariho, Robert; Niklaus, Pascal A; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Chamuya, Nurdin; Valencia, Renato; Mortier, Frédéric; Wortel, Verginia; Engone-Obiang, Nestor L; Ferreira, Leandro V; Odeke, David E; Vasquez, Rodolfo M; Lewis, Simon L; Reich, Peter B

    2016-10-14

    The biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on ecosystem functioning. Understanding BPR is critical for the accurate valuation and effective conservation of biodiversity. Using ground-sourced data from 777,126 permanent plots, spanning 44 countries and most terrestrial biomes, we reveal a globally consistent positive concave-down BPR, showing that continued biodiversity loss would result in an accelerating decline in forest productivity worldwide. The value of biodiversity in maintaining commercial forest productivity alone-US$166 billion to 490 billion per year according to our estimation-is more than twice what it would cost to implement effective global conservation. This highlights the need for a worldwide reassessment of biodiversity values, forest management strategies, and conservation priorities. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Self-esteem instability and personality: the connections between feelings of self-worth and the big five dimensions of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Holden, Christopher J; Enjaian, Brian; Southard, Ashton C; Besser, Avi; Li, Haijiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-02-01

    Relatively few studies have focused on the connections between self-esteem and basic personality dimensions. The purpose of the present studies was to examine whether self-esteem level and self-esteem instability were associated with the Big Five personality dimensions and whether self-esteem instability moderated the associations that self-esteem level had with these personality features. This was accomplished by conducting a series of studies that included samples from the United States, Israel, and China. Across these studies, self-esteem level was associated with high levels of extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, whereas self-esteem instability was associated with low levels of emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Individuals with stable high self-esteem reported the highest levels of emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, whereas those with stable low self-esteem had the lowest levels of openness. The results of these studies suggest that feelings of self-worth are associated with self-reported and perceived personality features. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  14. Is dyslexia necessarily associated with negative feelings of self-worth? A review and implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Robert

    2008-08-01

    This paper will provide an overview of research in the past 20 years into the relationship between dyslexia and various aspects of self-perception, including self-concept, self-esteem, self-efficacy and locus of control. Problems are identified relating to the measurement of some of the most widely used constructs, as is the need for more precise identification of key variables relating to them. Critical issues concerning the assumptions that can be drawn from largely correlational data are highlighted also. The conclusion is drawn that an alternative approach to research in this area is required to enhance our understanding of how those suffering from learning disabilities of a dyslexic nature develop a positive or negative sense of identity. Suggestions are made as to how this can be achieved by drawing upon attribution theory and other aspects of social psychology. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem: longitudinal relationships in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Edward; Elavsky, Steriani; Motl, Robert W; Konopack, James F; Hu, Liang; Marquez, David X

    2005-09-01

    We examined the structure of the expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model in a sample of older adults (N = 174; age, M = 66.7 years) across a 4-year period. A panel analysis revealed support for the indirect effects of physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy (SE) on physical self-worth and global esteem through subdomain levels of esteem. These relationships were consistent across the 4-year period. Over time, older adults reporting greater reductions in SE and PA also reported greater reductions in subdomain esteem. This is one of the first studies to examine these relationships longitudinally in the PA domain and offers further support for the hierarchical and multidimensional nature of self-esteem at the physical level. We recommend further testing of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model, with special attention being paid to assessing multiple aspects of PA and SE.

  16. Environmental heterogeneity–species richness relationships from a global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Stein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial environmental heterogeneity (EH is considered one of the most important factors promoting species richness, but no general consent about the EH–richness relationship exists so far. This is because research methods and study settings vary widely, and because non-significant and negative associations have also been reported. My thesis provides a comprehensive review of the different measurements and terminologies of EH used in the literature, and presents strong quantitative evidence of a generally positive relationship between biotic and abiotic EH and species richness of terrestrial plants and animals from landscape to global extents. In a meta-analysis and a subsequent case study comparing multiple EH measures and their association with mammal species richness worldwide, I furthermore reveal that the outcome of EH–richness studies depends strongly on study design, including both the EH measure chosen and spatial scale. My research contributes to a better understanding of the EH–richness relationship, while identifying future research needs.

  17. Effects of exercise on physical self-concept, global self-esteem, and depression in women of low socioeconomic status with elevated depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Fabien D

    2014-08-01

    We examined the possible mediating role of physical self-perceptions, physical self-esteem, and global self-esteem in the relationships between exercise and depression in a group of socioeconomically disadvantaged women with elevated symptoms of depression. Forty-four female residents of a low-income housing complex were randomized into a 7-week-long exercise-training group or a wait-list group. Depression, physical self-perceptions and self-esteem were measured repeatedly. Significant changes were found for depression, self-esteem, physical self-worth, and self-perceived physical condition in the exercise-training group. Intent-to-treat analyses did not alter the results. Most of the reduction in depression occurred between Week 2 and Week 4 while initial improvement in physical self-worth and self-perceived physical condition was observed between baseline and Week 2. These variables can be seen as plausible mechanisms for effects of exercise on depression.

  18. Pargo Chasma and its relationship to global tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghail, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    Pargo Chasma was first identified on Pioneer Venus data as a 10,000 km long lineation extending from Atla Regio in the north terminating in the plains south of Phoebe Regio. More recent Magellan data have revealed this feature to be one of the longest chains of coronae so far identified on the planet. Stofan et al have identified 60 coronae and 2 related features associated with this chain; other estimates differ according to the classification scheme adopted, for example Head et al. identify only 29 coronae but 43 arachnoids in the same region. This highlights one of the major problems associated with the preliminary mapping of the Magellan data: there has been an emphasis on identifying particular features on Venus without a universally accepted scheme to classify those features. Nevertheless, Pargo Chasma is clearly identified as a major tectonic belt of global significance. Together with the Artemis-Atla-Beta tectonic zone and the Beta-Phoebe rift belt, Pargo Chasma defines a region on Venus with an unusually high concentration of tectonic and volcanic features. Thus, an understanding of the processes involved in the formation of Pargo Chasma may lend significant insight into the evolution of the region and the planet as a whole. I have produced a detailed 1 to 10 million scale map of Pargo Chasma and the surrounding area from preliminary USGS controlled mosaiced image maps of Venus constructed from Magellan data. In view of the problems highlighted above in relation the efforts already made at identifying a particular set of features I have mapped the region purely on the basis of the geomorphology visible in the magellan data without any attempt at identifying a particular set or class of features. Thus, the map produced distinguishes between areas of different brightness and texture. This has the advantage of highlighting the tectonic fabric of Pargo Chasma and clearly illustrates the close inter-relationship between individual coronae and the surrounding

  19. The relationships among sport self-perceptions and social well-being in athletes with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Deborah R; Martin, Jeffery J

    2014-01-01

    Peer relationships account for a significant motivational influence on sport participation among youth athletes with and without disabilities. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if the quality of friendships, physical self-perceptions and general self-worth predicted close friendship, loneliness and social acceptance among 46 athletes with physical disabilities (males = 35, female = 11) between the ages of 12 and 21 (M age = 15.37, SD = 2.45). Second, this study examined descriptive information on the quality of friendships inside and outside of an adapted sport setting, feelings of loneliness, social acceptance, close friendships, athletic competence, physical appearance, and self-worth among youth athletes with physical disabilities. Participants completed the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS), a Loneliness Rating Scale and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA). Three regression analyses used positive and negative aspects of non-sport friendship quality, positive aspects of sport friendship quality, physical appearance, athletic competence, and self-worth as predictors and accounted for 57%, 41%, and 31% of the variance in loneliness, close friendships, and social acceptance, respectively. Athletic competence and self-worth were the most important predictors of loneliness and close friendships with significant (p e., self-worth) and sport specific psychological (i.e., athletic competence) constructs in predicting important social well-being indices (i.e., close friendships & loneliness). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Admirer-Celebrity Relationships among Young Adults: Explaining Perceptions of Celebrity Influence on Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Susan D.; Lomore, Christine D.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates undergraduate students' judgments regarding the degree to which relationships with celebrity idols influenced their sense of identity and feelings of self-worth. Discusses the characteristics of the sample of idols participants reported as well as descriptive data concerning the degree to which participants perceived these idols as…

  1. Joint local and global consistency on interdocument and interword relationships for co-clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Bing-Kun; Min, Weiqing; Li, Teng; Xu, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    Co-clustering has recently received a lot of attention due to its effectiveness in simultaneously partitioning words and documents by exploiting the relationships between them. However, most of the existing co-clustering methods neglect or only partially reveal the interword and interdocument relationships. To fully utilize those relationships, the local and global consistencies on both word and document spaces need to be considered, respectively. Local consistency indicates that the label of a word/document can be predicted from its neighbors, while global consistency enforces a smoothness constraint on words/documents labels over the whole data manifold. In this paper, we propose a novel co-clustering method, called co-clustering via local and global consistency, to not only make use of the relationship between word and document, but also jointly explore the local and global consistency on both word and document spaces, respectively. The proposed method has the following characteristics: 1) the word-document relationships is modeled by following information-theoretic co-clustering (ITCC); 2) the local consistency on both interword and interdocument relationships is revealed by a local predictor; and 3) the global consistency on both interword and interdocument relationships is explored by a global smoothness regularization. All the fitting errors from these three-folds are finally integrated together to formulate an objective function, which is iteratively optimized by a convergence provable updating procedure. The extensive experiments on two benchmark document datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed co-clustering method.

  2. Global Health Philanthropy and Institutional Relationships: How Should Conflicts of Interest Be Addressed?

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    David Stuckler and colleagues examine five large private global health foundations and report on the scope of relationships between these tax-exempt foundations and for-profit corporations including major food and pharmaceutical companies.

  3. Exploring the Relationship between Undergraduate Service-Learning Experiences and Global Perspective-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Mark E.; Fox, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between service-learning participation and global perspective-taking. A global perspective is broadly defined to include both the acquisition of knowledge, attitudes, and skills important to intercultural communication and the development of more complex epistemological processes, identities, and interpersonal…

  4. Global Sourcing, Technology, and Factor Intensity: Firm-level Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    TOMIURA Eiichi

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines how technology and capital intensity are related with the firm's global sourcing decision. Firm-level data are derived from a survey covering all manufacturing industries in Japan without any firm-size threshold. Firms are disaggregated by their make-or-buy decision (in-house or outsourcing) and by their choice of sourcing location (offshore or domestic). Capital-intensive or R&D-intensive firms tend to source in-house from their FDI affiliates rather than outs...

  5. Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Rogier; Schaepman, Michael E; Furrer, Reinhard; de Bruin, Sytze; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-06-01

    Vegetation forms a main component of the terrestrial biosphere and plays a crucial role in land-cover and climate-related studies. Activity of vegetation systems is commonly quantified using remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI). Extensive reports on temporal trends over the past decades in time series of such indices can be found in literature. However, little remains known about the processes underlying these changes at large spatial scales. In this study, we aimed at quantifying the spatial relationship between changes in potential climatic growth constraints (i.e. temperature, precipitation and incident solar radiation) and changes in vegetation activity (1982-2008). We demonstrate an additive spatial model with 0.5° resolution, consisting of a regression component representing climate-associated effects and a spatially correlated field representing the combined influence of other factors, including land-use change. Little over 50% of the spatial variance could be attributed to changes in climatologies; conspicuously, many greening trends and browning hotspots in Argentina and Australia. The nonassociated model component may contain large-scale human interventions, feedback mechanisms or natural effects, which were not captured by the climatologies. Browning hotspots in this component were especially found in subequatorial Africa. On the scale of land-cover types, strongest relationships between climatologies and vegetation activity were found in forests, including indications for browning under warming conditions (analogous to the divergence issue discussed in dendroclimatology). © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Structure and relationships within global manufacturing virtual networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Vilana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Global Manufacturing Virtual Networks (GMVNs are dynamically changing organizations formed by Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs, Contract Manufacturers (CMs, turn-key and component suppliers, R+D centres and distributors. These networks establish a new type of vertical and horizontal relations between independent companies or even competitors where it is not needed to maintain internal manufacturing resources but to manage and share the network resources. The fluid relations that exist within the GMVNs allow them a very permeable organization easy to connect and disconnect from one to each other as well as to choose a set of partners with specific attributes. The result is a highly flexible system characterized by low barriers to entry and exit, geographic flexibility, low costs, rapid technological diffusion, high diversification through contract manufacturers and exceptional economies of scale. Anyhow, there are three major drawbacks in the GMVNs that should be considered at the beginning of this type of collaborations: 1 the risk of contract manufacturers to develop their own end-products in competition with their customers; 2 the technology transfer between competitors OEMs through other members of the GMVN and 3 the lose of process expertise by the OEMs the more they outsource manufacturing processes to the network.

  7. Empirical Relationships among Technological Characteristics, Global Orientation, and Internationalisation of South Korean New Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Yoon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International new ventures (INVs that pursue rapid internationalisation have received a growing amount of attention worldwide. This study, therefore, examined characteristics of INVs, and hence investigated empirically the relationships among the technological characteristics of INVs, the characteristics of their chief executive officers (CEOs (i.e., global orientation, and their internationalisation such as the level of internationalisation. The findings of this study can be summarised as follows: all of the technological characteristics (e.g., technological capacity, imitation, innovation, and standardisation have significant effects on the internationalisation of INVs. Furthermore, the CEO’s global orientation mediated the relationship between the technological characteristics and internationalisation.

  8. A review of the global relationship among freshwater fish, autotrophic activity, and regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deines, Andrew M.; Bunnell, David B.; Rogers, Mark W.; Beard, T. Douglas; Taylor, William W.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between autotrophic activity and freshwater fish populations is an important consideration for ecologists describing trophic structure in aquatic communities, fisheries managers tasked with increasing sustainable fisheries development, and fish farmers seeking to maximize production. Previous studies of the empirical relationships of autotrophic activity and freshwater fish yield have found positive relationships but were limited by small sample sizes, small geographic scopes, and the inability to compare patterns among many types of measurement techniques. Individual studies and reviews have also lacked consistent consideration of regional climate factors which may inform relationships between fisheries and autotrophic activity. We compiled data from over 700 freshwater systems worldwide and used meta-analysis and linear models to develop a comprehensive global synthesis between multiple metrics of autotrophic activity, fisheries, and climate indicators. Our results demonstrate that multiple metrics of fish (i.e., catch per unit effort, yield, and production) increase with autotrophic activity across a variety of fisheries. At the global scale additional variation in this positive relationship can be ascribed to regional climate differences (i.e., temperature and precipitation) across systems. Our results provide a method and proof-of-concept for assessing inland fisheries production at the global scale, where current estimates are highly uncertain, and may therefore inform the continued sustainable use of global inland fishery resources.

  9. Global/local processing style: Explaining the relationship between trait anxiety and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kendra R; Plessow, Franziska; Coniglio, Kathryn A; Tabri, Nassim; Franko, Debra L; Zayas, Lazaro V; Germine, Laura; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T

    2017-11-01

    Anxiety is a risk factor for disordered eating, but the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes disordered eating are poorly understood. One possibility is local versus global cognitive processing style, defined as a relative tendency to attend to details at the expense of the "big picture." Anxiety may narrow attention, in turn, enhancing local and/or compromising global processing. We examined relationships between global/local processing style, anxiety, and disordered eating behaviors in a transdiagnostic outpatient clinical sample. We hypothesized that local (vs. global) processing bias would mediate the relationship between anxiety and disordered eating behaviors. Ninety-three participants completed the eating disorder examination-questionnaire (EDE-Q), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-trait subscale, and the Navon task (a test of processing style in which large letters are composed of smaller letters both congruent and incongruent with the large letter). The sample was predominantly female (95%) with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 12.1 years). Binge eating, but not fasting, purging, or excessive exercise, was correlated with lower levels of global processing style. There was a significant indirect effect between anxiety and binge eating via reduced global level global/local processing. In individuals with disordered eating, being more generally anxious may encourage a detailed-oriented bias, preventing individuals from maintaining the bigger picture and making them more likely to engage in maladaptive behaviors (e.g., binge eating). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Team Investment and Longitudinal Relationships: An Innovative Global Health Education Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kimberly R; Fredrick, N Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    Increasing student interest in global health has resulted in medical schools offering more global health opportunities. However, concerns have been raised, particularly about one-time, short-term experiences, including lack of follow-through for students and perpetuation of unintentional messages of global health heroism, neocolonialism, and disregard for existing systems and communities of care. Medical schools must develop global health programs that address these issues. The Global Health Scholars Program (GHSP) was created in 2008-2009 at Penn State College of Medicine. This four-year program is based on values of team investment and longitudinal relationships and uses the service-learning framework of preparation, service, and reflection. Teams of approximately five students, with faculty oversight, participate in two separate monthlong trips abroad to the same host community in years 1 and 4, and in campus- and Web-based activities in years 2 and 3. As of December 2016, 191 students have been accepted into the GHSP. Since inception, applications have grown by 475% and program sites have expanded from one to seven sites on four continents. The response from students has been positive, but logistical challenges persist in sustaining team investment and maintaining longitudinal relationships between student teams and host communities. Formal methods of assessment should be used to compare the GHSP model with more traditional approaches to global health education. Other medical schools with similar aims can adapt the GHSP model to expand their global health programming.

  11. Global/local processing style: Explaining the relationship between trait anxiety and binge eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kendra R.; Plessow, Franziska; Coniglio, Kathryn A.; Tabri, Nassim; Franko, Debra L; Zayas, Lazaro V.; Germine, Laura; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Eddy, Kamryn T.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Anxiety is a risk factor for disordered eating, but the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes disordered eating are poorly understood. One possibility is local versus global cognitive processing style, defined as a relative tendency to attend to details at the expense of the “big picture.” Anxiety may narrow attention, in turn, enhancing local and/or compromising global processing. We examined relationships between global/local processing style, anxiety, and disordered eating behaviors in a transdiagnostic outpatient clinical sample. We hypothesized that local (vs. global) processing bias would mediate the relationship between anxiety and disordered eating behaviors. Method Ninety-three participants completed the eating disorder examination—questionnaire (EDE-Q), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)—trait subscale, and the Navon task (a test of processing style in which large letters are composed of smaller letters both congruent and incongruent with the large letter). The sample was predominantly female (95%) with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 12.1 years). Results Binge eating, but not fasting, purging, or excessive exercise, was correlated with lower levels of global processing style. There was a significant indirect effect between anxiety and binge eating via reduced global level global/local processing. Discussion In individuals with disordered eating, being more generally anxious may encourage a detailed-oriented bias, preventing individuals from maintaining the bigger picture and making them more likely to engage in maladaptive behaviors (e.g., binge eating). PMID:28963792

  12. The relationship of long term global temperature change and human fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Harry; Andrews, Howard F; Fisch, Karen S; Golden, Robert; Liberson, Gary; Olsson, Carl A

    2003-07-01

    According to the United Nations, global fertility has declined in the last century as reflected by a decline in birth rates. The earth's surface air temperature has increased considerably and is referred to as global warming. Since changes in temperature are well known to influence fertility we sought to determine if a statistical relationship exists between long-term changes in global air temperatures and birth rates. The most complete and reliable birth rate data in the 20th century was available in 19 industrialized countries. Using bivariate and multiple regression analysis, we compared yearly birth rates from these countries to global air temperatures from 1900 to 1994.A common pattern of change in birth rates was noted for the 19 industrialized countries studied. In general, birth rates declined markedly throughout the century except during the baby boom period of approximately 1940 to 1964. An inverse relationship was found between changes in global temperatures and birth rates in all 19 countries. Controlling for the linear yearly decline in birth rates over time, this relationship remained statistically significant for all the 19 countries in aggregate and in seven countries individually (phuman fertility may have been influenced by change in environmental temperatures.

  13. Relationship between Attitudes of Multicultural Education and Perceptions Regarding Cultural Effect of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagceli Kahraman, Pinar; Onur Sezer, Gonul

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to determine the relationship between the perceptions of teacher candidates towards the cultural effect of globalization and their attitudes towards multicultural education. Research Methods: The sample group consisted of 213 teacher candidates. In the study's personal information form, the scale of attitude towards…

  14. The Relationship between Global Competence and Language Learning Motivation: An Empirical Study in Critical Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Gaby; Yamazaki, Kasumi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between global competence and second language learning motivation in critical language classrooms. Data were collected from 137 participants who were studying critical languages (Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Persian) at two universities on the East and West Coasts of the United States, using a 30-item…

  15. Communication Skills to Develop Trusting Relationships on Global Virtual Engineering Capstone Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Holt; Davies, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    As universities seek to provide cost-effective, cross-cultural experiences using global virtual (GV) teams, the "soft" communication skills typical of all teams, increases in importance for GV teams. Students need to be taught how to navigate through cultural issues and virtual tool issues to build strong trusting relationships with…

  16. The relationship between global oil price shocks and China's output: A time-varying analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, Jamie; Nguyen, Bao H.

    2017-01-01

    We employ a class of time-varying Bayesian vector autoregressive (VAR) models on new standard dataset of China's GDP constructed by to examine the relationship between China's economic growth and global oil market fluctuations between 1992Q1 and 2015Q3. We find that: (1) the time varying parameter VAR with stochastic volatility provides a better fit as compared to it's constant counterparts; (2) the impacts of intertemporal global oil price shocks on China's output are often small and temporary in nature; (3) oil supply and specific oil demand shocks generally produce negative movements in China's GDP growth whilst oil demand shocks tend to have positive effects; (4) domestic output shocks have no significant impact on price or quantity movements within the global oil market. The results are generally robust to three commonly employed indicators of global economic activity: Kilian's global real economic activity index, the metal price index and the global industrial production index, and two alternative oil price metrics: the US refiners' acquisition cost for imported crude oil and the West Texas Intermediate price of crude oil. - Highlights: • A class of time-varying BVARs is used to examine the relationship between China's economic growth and global oil market fluctuations. • The impacts of intertemporal global oil price shocks on China's output are often small and temporary in nature. • Oil supply and specific oil demand shocks generally produce negative movements in China's GDP growth while oil demand shocks tend to have positive effects. • Domestic output shocks have no significant impact on price or quantity movements within the global oil market.

  17. The Exploration of the Relationships between the Global Competitiveness, the ICT and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkay Yildiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology (ICT is a key element for development and economic expansion. However, many of the developing countries appear to gain only small fraction of the advantages from the ICT sectors. Indeed, developed countries are taking the most of the advantages and opportunities brought by the use of ICT. Therefore, it is necessary to highlight the essential role and the significant relationship of ICT and education for gaining the competitive advantage. In this regard, this study investigates the complex relationships of some of the global competitiveness indicators of the ICT, education and the business sophistication and innovation factors. In this study, several statistically significant relationships are explored by applying canonical correlation analysis. These findings and significant statistical results are highlighted.

  18. The global magnitude-frequency relationship for large explosive volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Jonathan; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Brown, Sarah K.

    2018-01-01

    For volcanoes, as for other natural hazards, the frequency of large events diminishes with their magnitude, as captured by the magnitude-frequency relationship. Assessing this relationship is valuable both for the insights it provides about volcanism, and for the practical challenge of risk management. We derive a global magnitude-frequency relationship for explosive volcanic eruptions of at least 300Mt of erupted mass (or M4.5). Our approach is essentially empirical, based on the eruptions recorded in the LaMEVE database. It differs from previous approaches mainly in our conservative treatment of magnitude-rounding and under-recording. Our estimate for the return period of 'super-eruptions' (1000Gt, or M8) is 17ka (95% CI: 5.2ka, 48ka), which is substantially shorter than previous estimates, indicating that volcanoes pose a larger risk to human civilisation than previously thought.

  19. Sibling relationship patterns and their associations with child competence and problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Kirsten L; Vermande, Marjolijn

    2014-08-01

    The present study is the first to examine patterns in sibling relationship quality and the associations of these patterns with internalizing and externalizing problem behavior, as well as self-perceived competence, in middle childhood. Self-report questionnaires (e.g., Sibling Relationship Questionnaire, Self-Perception Profile for Children, Youth Self Report) were administered among 1,670 Dutch children (Mage = 11.40 years, SD = .83) attending 51 different Dutch schools. Three sibling relationship clusters were found: a conflictual cluster (low on warmth, high on conflict), an affect-intense cluster (above average on warmth and conflict), and a harmonious cluster (high on warmth, low on conflict). Sister pairs were underrepresented in the conflictual cluster and overrepresented in the harmonious cluster. Children with conflictual sibling relationships reported significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems, and lower academic and social competence and global self-worth, than children with harmonious sibling relationships. Children with affect-intense sibling relationships reported less aggression and better social competence than children with conflictual sibling relationships. Our findings indicate that it is fruitful to combine indices of sibling warmth and conflict to examine sibling relationship types. Relationship types differed significantly concerning internalizing and externalizing problems, but also concerning self-perceived competence. These findings extend our knowledge about sibling relationship types and their impact on different aspects of child adjustment. Whereas harmonious sibling relationships are the most beneficial for adjustment, sibling conflict mainly has a negative effect on adjustment in combination with lack of sibling warmth. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  20. Partisan differences in the relationship between newspaper coverage and concern over global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoquan; Rolfe-Redding, Justin; Kotcher, John E

    2016-07-01

    The effects of news media on public opinion about global warming have been a topic of much interest in both academic and popular discourse. Empirical evidence in this regard, however, is still limited and somewhat mixed. This study used data from the 2006 General Social Survey in combination with a content analysis of newspaper coverage of the same time period to examine the relationship between general news climate and public concern about global warming. Results showed a pattern of political polarization, with increased coverage associated with growing divergence between Democrats and Republicans. Further analysis also showed evidence of reactivity in partisan response to coverage from different news outlets. These findings point to a particular form of politically motivated, biased processing of news information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. The Current Approaches to the Harmonization of Interests of Participants of Competitive Relationships at the Global Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvydanenko Oleg A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The key problems of development of participants of global competitive relationships, approaches to harmonization of their interests have been considered. The article defines essence of the global system of regulation of competitive relationships, the technology of its formation, improvement and development, taking into account the reasonable assemblage of relevant principles. The main tasks and processes of formation of the competitive culture in the context of globalization changes have been highlighted. The strategic directions of improvement of the system of regulation of competitive relationships in accordance with transformation of external conditions of development of globalizing space and strengthening of international character of competition have been specified. The organizational-economic mechanism of the system of regulation of competitive relationships has been provided.

  2. Global Analysis of Empirical Relationships Between Annual Climate and Seasonality of NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    This study describes the use of satellite data to calibrate a new climate-vegetation greenness function for global change studies. We examined statistical relationships between annual climate indexes (temperature, precipitation, and surface radiation) and seasonal attributes of the AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series for the mid-1980s in order to refine our empirical understanding of intraannual patterns and global abiotic controls on natural vegetation dynamics. Multiple linear regression results using global l(sup o) gridded data sets suggest that three climate indexes: growing degree days, annual precipitation total, and an annual moisture index together can account to 70-80 percent of the variation in the NDVI seasonal extremes (maximum and minimum values) for the calibration year 1984. Inclusion of the same climate index values from the previous year explained no significant additional portion of the global scale variation in NDVI seasonal extremes. The monthly timing of NDVI extremes was closely associated with seasonal patterns in maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall, with lag times of 1 to 2 months. We separated well-drained areas from l(sup o) grid cells mapped as greater than 25 percent inundated coverage for estimation of both the magnitude and timing of seasonal NDVI maximum values. Predicted monthly NDVI, derived from our climate-based regression equations and Fourier smoothing algorithms, shows good agreement with observed NDVI at a series of ecosystem test locations from around the globe. Regions in which NDVI seasonal extremes were not accurately predicted are mainly high latitude ecosystems and other remote locations where climate station data are sparse.

  3. The relationship of proximal normative beliefs and global subjective norms to college students' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Jay; Glanz, Karen

    2005-02-01

    Heavy drinking among college students is a major concern across the country. Several studies have shown that students tend to overestimate the alcohol consumption of students, in general (global social norms), and of their close friends (proximal normative beliefs). Research has also shown that beliefs about others' alcohol consumption is strongly related to alcohol use. We hypothesized that normative beliefs about important referent individuals would mediate the relationship between campus social norms and alcohol consumption. A survey of alcohol use and related variables was completed by 433 university students. Multiple regression was used to examine the mediational role of normative beliefs on social norms and alcohol consumption. These analyses indicate that normative beliefs are a significant mediator of the relationship between social norms and alcohol consumption. Normative beliefs accounted for 52-62% of the proportion of variance mediated. Normative beliefs are an important construct in understanding the relationship between social norms and alcohol use among college students and may be an important area for future interventions.

  4. Communication skills to develop trusting relationships on global virtual engineering capstone teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Holt; Davies, Randall S.

    2013-05-01

    As universities seek to provide cost-effective, cross-cultural experiences using global virtual (GV) teams, the 'soft' communication skills typical of all teams, increases in importance for GV teams. Students need to be taught how to navigate through cultural issues and virtual tool issues to build strong trusting relationships with distant team members. Weekly team meetings provide an excellent opportunity to observe key team interactions that facilitate relationship and trust-building among team members. This study observed the weekly team meetings of engineering students attending two US universities and one Asian university as they collaborated as a single GV capstone GV team. In addition local team members were interviewed individually and collectively throughout the project to determine strategies that facilitated team relations and trust. Findings indicate the importance of student choice of virtual communication tools, the refining of communication practices, and specific actions to build trusting relationships. As student developed these attributes, collaboration and success was experienced on this GV team.

  5. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  6. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  7. The debate on the relationship between globalization, poverty and inequality: A critical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Valentim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On this theoretical article, I critically present the ongoing debate on the relationship between globalization, poverty and inequality. To do so, I rely on the typology put forward by Held & McGrew (2007, which divides scholars between two main approaches: the globalists and the skeptics. Among the first approach, one can then distinguish between neoliberal globalists and transformationalist globalists. Among the second one, one can distinguish between realist skeptics and Marxist skeptics. I go through the most important thinkers of each of these four perspectives, summing up the most influential arguments put forward to support their view. By grouping the views of these scholars, I show similarities and differences between the four perspectives and thus contribute to making the debate more clear. In a further section, I critically assess these arguments, identifying some of their strengths and shortcomings.

  8. [Sex differences in relationship between creativity and hemispheric information processing in global and local levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikova, O M; Vol'f, N V

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in creativity related global-local hemispheric selective processing were examined by hierarchical letter presenting in conditions of their perception and comparison. Fifty-six right-handed males and 68 females (aged 17-22 years) participated in the experiments. Originality-imagery was assessed by a computer-based Torrance 'Incomplete Figures' test software. Verbal creativity was valued by original sentence using of three nouns from remote semantic categories. The results show that irrespectively of the sex factor and the type of creative thinking, its originality is provided by high speed of right-hemispheric processes of information selection on the global level and delay in the interhemispheric communication. Relationships between originality of ideas and hemispheric attentional characteristics are presented mostly in men while verbal creative problem solving, and in women while figurative original thinking. Originality of verbal activity in men is more associated with success of selective processes in the left hemisphere, but in women--with selective functions of both hemispheres. Figurative thinking in men is less related to hemispheric characteristics of attention compared with women. Increase of figurative originality in women is accompanied acceleration of processes of selection of the information in the right hemisphere, and also higher efficiency of local attention as well as speeds ofglobal processing in the left hemisphere.

  9. Multifaceted diversity-area relationships reveal global hotspots of mammalian species, trait and lineage diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazel, Florent; Guilhaumon, François; Mouquet, Nicolas; Devictor, Vincent; Gravel, Dominique; Renaud, Julien; Cianciaruso, Marcus Vinicius; Loyola, Rafael Dias; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Mouillot, David; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-08-01

    To define biome-scale hotspots of phylogenetic and functional mammalian biodiversity (PD and FD, respectively) and compare them to 'classical' hotspots based on species richness (SR) only. Global. SR, PD & FD were computed for 782 terrestrial ecoregions using distribution ranges of 4616 mammalian species. We used a set of comprehensive diversity indices unified by a recent framework that incorporates the species relative coverage in each ecoregion. We build large-scale multifaceted diversity-area relationships to rank ecoregions according to their levels of biodiversity while accounting for the effect of area on each diversity facet. Finally we defined hotspots as the top-ranked ecoregions. While ignoring species relative coverage led to a relative good congruence between biome top ranked SR, PD and FD hotspots, ecoregions harboring a rich and abundantly represented evolutionary history and functional diversity did not match with top ranked ecoregions defined by species richness. More importantly PD and FD hotspots showed important spatial mismatches. We also found that FD and PD generally reached their maximum values faster than species richness as a function of area. The fact that PD/FD reach faster their maximal value than SR may suggest that the two former facets might be less vulnerable to habitat loss than the latter. While this point is expected, it is the first time that it is quantified at global scale and should have important consequences in conservation. Incorporating species relative coverage into the delineation of multifaceted hotspots of diversity lead to weak congruence between SR, PD and FD hotspots. This means that maximizing species number may fail at preserving those nodes (in the phylogenetic or functional tree) that are relatively abundant in the ecoregion. As a consequence it may be of prime importance to adopt a multifaceted biodiversity perspective to inform conservation strategies at global scale.

  10. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  11. Global relationships between phosphorus and chlorophyll-a in oxbow lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcon, A. U.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Fritz, S. C.; Baker, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Traditional limnological studies have focused on extant, large and deep bodies of fresh water. For over 70 years a strong positive relationship between sestonic chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and total phosphorus (TP) has been established in temperate lakes with phosphorus generally viewed as the most limiting factor to productivity (Deevey 1940, Schindler 1977). Over the last few decades however, investigations have expanded to include the examination of shallow lakes, particularly in terms of water quality, nutrient content and regime shifts between stable alternate states. Most of these studies, however, have focused on northern, high latitude regions where the lakes are typically postglacial, isolated and fed by small streams. Relatively little work has been done on oxbow lakes which are floodplain lakes and are semi or permanently connected to the river. Oxbow lakes have been shown to serve several important ecologic and economic functions including nurseries for young fish, feeding grounds for top aquatic predators and increasing the biodiversity of the landscape particularly in tropical regions of the world where high precipitation and large rivers have produced thousands of oxbow lakes. In many developing countries oxbow lakes are an important source of revenue through fishing. This study examined the relationship between nutrients and productivity in oxbow lakes globally through a wide-spread literature synthesis. Four hundred and twenty nine oxbow lakes were represented by 205 data points while 285 data points represented 156 non-floodplain lakes. Despite differences in latitude, lake size and climate we find that oxbow lakes globally have a significantly less steep slope in their TP/Chl relationship than non-floodplain lakes do indicating that the same amount of sestonic phosphorus results in lower productivity. Oxbow lakes (TP/Chl): r = 0.7676, slope = 0.7257, Non-floodplain lakes (TP/Chl): r = 0.8096, slope = 1.1309. We theorize that their connection to the

  12. The relationship between working memory and episodic memory disorders in transient global amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinette, Peggy; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Noël, Audrey; de la Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the relationship between the disorders of both episodic memory and working memory in the acute phase of transient global amnesia (TGA). Since executive functions were spared, another dysfunction may be responsible for the binding and maintenance of multimodal informations and contribute to the encoding disorders observed in some patients [Quinette, P., Guillery, B., Desgranges, B., de la Sayette, V., Viader, F., & Eustache, F. (2003). Working memory and executive functions in transient global amnesia. Brain, 126, 1917-1934.]. The aim of this present study was to assess the functions of binding and maintenance of multimodal information during TGA and explore their involvement in episodic memory disorders. We therefore conducted a more thorough investigation of working memory in 16 new patients during the acute phase of TGA using two tasks designed to assess the binding process and both dimensions of the maintenance, namely the active storage and the memory load ability. We also investigated the nature of the episodic memory impairment in distinguishing between the performance of patients with preferential encoding deficits and those of patients with preferential storage disorders on the episodic memory task. This distinction was closely related to the severity of amnesia, i.e. an encoding disorder was observed rather in the early phase of TGA. The results showed that while the functions of binding and maintenance of multimodal information were intact in patients with storage disorders, they were impaired in the case of encoding deficits. These results are interpreted in the recent framework of episodic buffer proposed by Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 417-423] that represents an interface between working memory and episodic memory.

  13. Relationship between the NO2 photolysis frequency and the solar global irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Representative values of the atmospheric NO2 photolysis frequency j(NO2 are required for the adequate calculation and interpretation of NO and NO2 concentrations and exchange fluxes near the surface. Direct measurements of j(NO2 at ground level are often not available in field studies. In most cases, modeling approaches involving complex radiative transfer calculations are used to estimate j(NO2 and other photolysis frequencies for air chemistry studies. However, important input parameters for accurate modeling are often missing, most importantly with regard to the radiative effects of clouds. On the other hand, solar global irradiance ("global radiation", G is nowadays measured as a standard parameter in most field experiments and in many meteorological observation networks around the world. Previous studies mainly reported linear relationships between j(NO2 and G. We have measured j(NO2 using spectro- or filter radiometers and G using pyranometers side-by-side at several field sites. Our results cover a solar zenith angle range of 0–90°, and are based on nine field campaigns in temperate, subtropical and tropical environments during the period 1994–2008. We show that a second-order polynomial function (intercept = 0: j(NO2=(1+α× (B1×G+B2×G2, with α defined as the site-dependent UV-A surface albedo and the polynomial coefficients: B1=(1.47± 0.03×10-5 W−1 m2 s−1 and B2=(-4.84±0.31×10-9 W−2 m4 s−1 can be used to estimate ground-level j(NO2 directly from G, independent of solar zenith angle under all atmospheric conditions. The absolute j(NO2 residual of the empirical function is ±6×10-4 s−1(2σ. The relationship is valid for sites below 800 m a.s.l. and with low surface albedo (α<0.2. It is not valid in high mountains, above snow or ice and sandy or dry soil surfaces.

  14. Causal relationship between the global foreign exchange market based on complex networks and entropy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Guangxi; Zhang, Qi; Li, Qingchen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Mutual information is used as the edge weights of nodes instead of PCC, which overcomes the shortcomings of linear correlation functions. • SGD turns into a new cluster center and gradually becomes a point connecting the Asian and European clusters during and after the US sub-prime crisis. • Liang's entropy theory, which has not been adopted before in the global foreign exchange market, is considered. - Abstract: The foreign exchange (FX) market is a typical complex dynamic system under the background of exchange rate marketization reform and is an important part of the financial market. This study aims to generate an international FX network based on complex network theory. This study employs the mutual information method to judge the nonlinear characteristics of 54 major currencies in international FX markets. Through this method, we find that the FX network possesses a small average path length and a large clustering coefficient under different thresholds and that it exhibits small-world characteristics as a whole. Results show that the relationship between FX rates is close. Volatility can quickly transfer in the whole market, and the FX volatility of influential individual states transfers at a fast pace and a large scale. The period from July 21, 2005 to March 31, 2015 is subdivided into three sub-periods (i.e., before, during, and after the US sub-prime crisis) to analyze the topology evolution of FX markets using the maximum spanning tree approach. Results show that the USD gradually lost its core position, EUR remained a stable center, and the center of the Asian cluster became unstable. Liang's entropy theory is used to analyze the causal relationship between the four large clusters of the world.

  15. A time for new north-south relationships in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Un; Oleribe, Obinna; Njie, Ramou; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2017-01-01

    The modern concept of globalization in health care and clinical research often carries a positive message for the "Global South" nations of Africa, South America and Southeast Asia. However, bioethical abuse of participants in clinical trials still exists in the Global South. Unethical studies directed by the "Global North", formed by the medically advanced nations in North America, Western Europe and Japan, have been hugely concerning. The issue between the Global North and South is a well-recognized socioeconomic phenomenon of globalization. Medical exploitation has its roots in the socioeconomic interactions of a postcolonial world, and solutions to reducing exploitation require a deeper understanding of these societal models of globalization. We explore the fundamental causes of imbalance and suggest solutions. Reflecting on the globalization model, there must be an effort to empower the Global South nations to direct and govern their own health care systems efficiently on the basis of equality.

  16. A time for new north–south relationships in global health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Un; Oleribe, Obinna; Njie, Ramou; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2017-01-01

    The modern concept of globalization in health care and clinical research often carries a positive message for the “Global South” nations of Africa, South America and Southeast Asia. However, bioethical abuse of participants in clinical trials still exists in the Global South. Unethical studies directed by the “Global North”, formed by the medically advanced nations in North America, Western Europe and Japan, have been hugely concerning. The issue between the Global North and South is a well-recognized socioeconomic phenomenon of globalization. Medical exploitation has its roots in the socioeconomic interactions of a postcolonial world, and solutions to reducing exploitation require a deeper understanding of these societal models of globalization. We explore the fundamental causes of imbalance and suggest solutions. Reflecting on the globalization model, there must be an effort to empower the Global South nations to direct and govern their own health care systems efficiently on the basis of equality. PMID:29158688

  17. Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms in Middle School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Grills, Amie E.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships among peer victimization, global self-worth, social support, and internalizing behaviors (e.g., anxiety, social anxiety, and depression). Of particular interest were the potential mediating and moderating roles of global self-worth and social support in the anticipated relationships between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. All sixth grade children from a public middle school completed self-report measur...

  18. Modeling the relationship between the oil price and global food prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Sheng-Tung; Kuo, Hsiao-I; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2010-01-01

    The growth of corn-based ethanol production and soybean-based bio-diesel production following the increase in the oil prices have significantly affect the world agricultural grain productions and its prices. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between the crude oil price and the global grain prices for corn, soybean, and wheat. The empirical results show that the change in each grain price is significantly influenced by the changes in the crude oil price and other grain prices during the period extending from the 3rd week in 2005 to the 20th week in 2008 which implies that grain commodities are competing with the derived demand for bio-fuels by using soybean or corn to produce ethanol or bio-diesel during the period of higher crude oil prices in these recent years. The subsidy policies in relation to the bio-fuel industries in some nations engaging in bio-fuel production should be considered to avoid the consequences resulting from high oil prices. (author)

  19. GLOBAL TOURISM PERFORMANCE IN RELATION TO CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT FROM THE SOCIAL MEDIA PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIROIU DANIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Having one of the most prominent dynamics globally, tourism is still under the influence of several factors, extremely different and diverse, with sometimes profound influences, difficult to explain and to commensurate. The consequence, especially that of the economic and technological expansion, is that tourism in the 21st century acquires new meanings, with multiple roles, from influences on the lifestyle and the social status, to know-how influences on organizations. Apparently, one of the factors with major implications for productive aspects, the technological factor, is currently becoming, for the actors in the tourism industry, one of the progress binders, with positive effects both in the creation, distribution and sale of tourism products and in the area of pre and post sale relationships with customers. In this context, Social Media, the most important and discussed topic regarding the online environment nowadays has become, for the tourism industry as well, a difficult to manage phenomenon, through the benefits but also through the risks regarding a new way of communication, a deep, transparent, fast one. Social CRM represents the next step to take for companies that want to get closer to their clients, becoming more efficient and competitive

  20. Relationships between emm and multilocus sequence types within a global collection of Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGregor Karen F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The M type-specific surface protein antigens encoded by the 5' end of emm genes are targets of protective host immunity and attractive vaccine candidates against infection by Streptococcus pyogenes, a global human pathogen. A history of genetic change in emm was evaluated for a worldwide collection of > 500 S. pyogenes isolates that were defined for genetic background by multilocus sequence typing of housekeeping genes. Results Organisms were categorized by genotypes that roughly correspond to throat specialists, skin specialists, and generalists often recovered from infections at either tissue site. Recovery of distant clones sharing the same emm type was ~4-fold higher for skin specialists and generalists, as compared to throat specialists. Importantly, emm type was often a poor marker for clone. Recovery of clones that underwent recombinational replacement with a new emm type was most evident for the throat and skin specialists. The average ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (Ka and synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks was 4.9, 1.5 and 1.3 for emm types of the throat specialist, skin specialist and generalist groups, respectively. Conclusion Data indicate that the relationships between emm type and genetic background differ among the three host tissue-related groups, and that the selection pressures acting on emm appear to be strongest for the throat specialists. Since positive selection is likely due in part to a protective host immune response, the findings may have important implications for vaccine design and vaccination strategies.

  1. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  2. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  3. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Concentrations of Microcystins in Water and Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie M. Flores

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, the primary bloom-forming organisms in fresh water, elicit a spectrum of problems in lentic systems. The most immediate concern for people and animals are cyanobacterial toxins, which have been detected at variable concentrations in water and fish around the world. Cyanotoxins can transfer through food webs, potentially increasing the risk of exposure to people who eat fish from affected waters, yet little is known about how cyanotoxins fluctuate in wild fish tissues. We collated existing studies on cyanotoxins in fish and fresh water from lakes around the world into a global dataset to test the hypothesis that cyanotoxin concentrations in fish increase with water toxin concentrations. We limited our quantitative analysis to microcystins because data on other cyanotoxins in fish were sparse, but we provided a qualitative summary of other cyanotoxins reported in wild, freshwater fish tissues. We found a positive relationship between intracellular microcystin in water samples and microcystin in fish tissues that had been analyzed by assay methods (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and protein phosphatase inhibition assay. We expected microcystin to be found in increasingly higher concentrations from carnivorous to omnivorous to planktivorous fishes. We found, however, that omnivores generally had the highest tissue microcystin concentrations. Additionally, we found contrasting results for the level of microcystin in different tissue types depending on the toxin analysis method. Because microcystin and other cyanotoxins have the potential to impact public health, our results underline the current need for comprehensive and uniform detection methods for the analysis of cyanotoxins in complex matrices.

  4. A global view of structure-function relationships in the tautomerase superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca; Baas, Bert-Jan; Akiva, Eyal; Holliday, Gemma L; Polacco, Benjamin J; LeVieux, Jake A; Pullara, Collin R; Zhang, Yan Jessie; Whitman, Christian P; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2018-02-16

    The tautomerase superfamily (TSF) consists of more than 11,000 nonredundant sequences present throughout the biosphere. Characterized members have attracted much attention because of the unusual and key catalytic role of an N-terminal proline. These few characterized members catalyze a diverse range of chemical reactions, but the full scale of their chemical capabilities and biological functions remains unknown. To gain new insight into TSF structure-function relationships, we performed a global analysis of similarities across the entire superfamily and computed a sequence similarity network to guide classification into distinct subgroups. Our results indicate that TSF members are found in all domains of life, with most being present in bacteria. The eukaryotic members of the cis -3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase subgroup are limited to fungal species, whereas the macrophage migration inhibitory factor subgroup has wide eukaryotic representation (including mammals). Unexpectedly, we found that 346 TSF sequences lack Pro-1, of which 85% are present in the malonate semialdehyde decarboxylase subgroup. The computed network also enabled the identification of similarity paths, namely sequences that link functionally diverse subgroups and exhibit transitional structural features that may help explain reaction divergence. A structure-guided comparison of these linker proteins identified conserved transitions between them, and kinetic analysis paralleled these observations. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the linker set was consistent with these findings. Our results also suggest that contemporary TSF members may have evolved from a short 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase-like ancestor followed by gene duplication and fusion. Our new linker-guided strategy can be used to enrich the discovery of sequence/structure/function transitions in other enzyme superfamilies. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. A time for new north–south relationships in global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jin Un Kim,1 Obinna Oleribe,2 Ramou Njie,3 Simon D Taylor-Robinson1 1Division of Digestive Health, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2Excellence and Friends Management Care Centre, Abuja, Nigeria; 3MRC, Serekunda, The Gambia Abstract: The modern concept of globalization in health care and clinical research often carries a positive message for the “Global South” nations of Africa, South America and Southeast Asia. However, bioethical abuse of participants in clinical trials still exists in the Global South. Unethical studies directed by the “Global North”, formed by the medically advanced nations in North America, Western Europe and Japan, have been hugely concerning. The issue between the Global North and South is a well-recognized socioeconomic phenomenon of globalization. Medical exploitation has its roots in the socioeconomic interactions of a postcolonial world, and solutions to reducing exploitation require a deeper understanding of these societal models of globalization. We explore the fundamental causes of imbalance and suggest solutions. Reflecting on the globalization model, there must be an effort to empower the Global South nations to direct and govern their own health care systems efficiently on the basis of equality. Keywords: global health, bioethics, clinical trials, Africa, exploitation, imperialism

  6. An Analysis of Think Globally-Act Locally Strategy Implementation in Developing Relationship of Headquarters and Subsidiaries: Case Study of John Clements Consultants Inc., Philippines & Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilla Noverita

    2007-01-01

    Moreover, this research analyses how JCCI applies “think globally – act locally” strategy in its global operations and developing relationship with subsidiaries. It brings the issues of all challenges and obstacles the company has in dealing with subsidiaries. Finally, this research recommends alternative strategies to leverage the relationship between headquarters and subsidiaries more efficiently and to minimize the obstacles in cross-cultural management so that the company will be able to strengthen its position in global service market.

  7. Global scale climate-crop yield relationships and the impacts of recent warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobell, David B; Field, Christopher B

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the global production of major crops are important drivers of food prices, food security and land use decisions. Average global yields for these commodities are determined by the performance of crops in millions of fields distributed across a range of management, soil and climate regimes. Despite the complexity of global food supply, here we show that simple measures of growing season temperatures and precipitation-spatial averages based on the locations of each crop-explain ∼30% or more of year-to-year variations in global average yields for the world's six most widely grown crops. For wheat, maize and barley, there is a clearly negative response of global yields to increased temperatures. Based on these sensitivities and observed climate trends, we estimate that warming since 1981 has resulted in annual combined losses of these three crops representing roughly 40 Mt or $5 billion per year, as of 2002. While these impacts are small relative to the technological yield gains over the same period, the results demonstrate already occurring negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields at the global scale

  8. Noiseonomics: the relationship between ambient noise levels in the sea and global economic trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, George V

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the topic of noise in the sea and its effects on marine mammals has attracted considerable attention from both the scientific community and the general public. Since marine mammals rely heavily on acoustics as a primary means of communicating, navigating, and foraging in the ocean, any change in their acoustic environment may have an impact on their behavior. Specifically, a growing body of literature suggests that low-frequency, ambient noise levels in the open ocean increased approximately 3.3 dB per decade during the period 1950-2007. Here we show that this increase can be attributed primarily to commercial shipping activity, which in turn, can be linked to global economic growth. As a corollary, we conclude that ambient noise levels can be directly related to global economic conditions. We provide experimental evidence supporting this theory and discuss its implications for predicting future noise levels based on global economic trends.

  9. A New Point of View on the Relationship Between Global Solar Irradiation and Sunshine Quantifiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Badescu, V.; Dumitrescu, A.; Paulescu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 126, March (2016), s. 252-263 ISSN 0038-092X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : global solar irradiation * sunshine quantifiers * sunshine number * Angstrom equation * statistical modeling * regression analysis Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operation al Research Impact factor: 4.018, year: 2016

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Global Quality and Group Engagement in Toddler Child Care Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Alison; Hallam, Rena

    2017-01-01

    Toddlers' engagement with their social and physical environment is an important aspect of their experience in early care and education programs. The purpose of this research study was to examine how global quality relates to children's engagement in toddler child care classrooms. Additionally, this study explored how toddlers' group engagement…

  11. EO-Performance relationships in Reverse Internationalization by Chinese Global Startup OEMs: Social Networks and Strategic Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Tachia; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Fang, Kai; Zhu, Wenzhong; Yang, Dongjin; Liu, Ren-huai; Tsuei, Richard Ting Chang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the context-sensitive nature of entrepreneurial orientation (EO), it is imperative to in-depth explore the EO-performance mechanism in China at its critical, specific stage of economic reform. Under the context of “reverse internationalization” by Chinese global startup original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), this paper aims to manifest the unique links and complicated interrelationships between the individual EO dimensions and firm performance. Using structural equation modeling, we found that during reverse internationalization, proactiveness is positively related to performance; risk taking is not statistically associated with performance; innovativeness is negatively related to performance. The proactiveness-performance relationship is mediated by Strategic flexibility and moderated by social networking relationships. The dynamic and complex institutional setting, coupled with the issues of overcapacity and rising labor cost in China may explain why our distinctive results occur. This research advances the understanding of how contingent factors (social network relationships and strategic flexibility) facilitate entrepreneurial firms to break down institutional barriers and reap the most from EO. It brings new insights into how Chinese global startup OEMs draw on EO to undertake reverse internationalization, responding the calls for unraveling the heterogeneous characteristics of EO sub-dimensions and for more contextually-embedded treatment of EO-performance associations. PMID:27631368

  12. EO-Performance relationships in Reverse Internationalization by Chinese Global Startup OEMs: Social Networks and Strategic Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Tachia; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Fang, Kai; Zhu, Wenzhong; Yang, Dongjin; Liu, Ren-Huai; Tsuei, Richard Ting Chang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the context-sensitive nature of entrepreneurial orientation (EO), it is imperative to in-depth explore the EO-performance mechanism in China at its critical, specific stage of economic reform. Under the context of "reverse internationalization" by Chinese global startup original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), this paper aims to manifest the unique links and complicated interrelationships between the individual EO dimensions and firm performance. Using structural equation modeling, we found that during reverse internationalization, proactiveness is positively related to performance; risk taking is not statistically associated with performance; innovativeness is negatively related to performance. The proactiveness-performance relationship is mediated by Strategic flexibility and moderated by social networking relationships. The dynamic and complex institutional setting, coupled with the issues of overcapacity and rising labor cost in China may explain why our distinctive results occur. This research advances the understanding of how contingent factors (social network relationships and strategic flexibility) facilitate entrepreneurial firms to break down institutional barriers and reap the most from EO. It brings new insights into how Chinese global startup OEMs draw on EO to undertake reverse internationalization, responding the calls for unraveling the heterogeneous characteristics of EO sub-dimensions and for more contextually-embedded treatment of EO-performance associations.

  13. Co-occurrence of communication disorder and psychiatric disorders in maltreated children and adolescents: relationship with global functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivanin, Luciene; Oliveira, Christian C de; Santos, Fernanda P Dos; Santos, Bernardo Dos; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    To study the co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders (PD) and communication disorders (CD) and their relationship with global functioning in maltreated children and adolescents. The sample comprised 143 maltreated children and adolescents (55.8% male). All underwent clinical communication and psychiatric evaluations, as well as global functioning assessment using the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Four groups emerged from evaluation: Group 1 (n=7, 4.9%) did not exhibit any disorders; Group 2 (n=26, 18.2%) exhibited PD; Group 3 (n=34, 23.8%) exhibited CD; and Group 4 (n=76, 53.1%) exhibited both PD and CD on evaluation. Significant differences in global functioning scores were found between G1 and G2, G1 and G4, G2 and G4, and G3 and G4, with the highest C-GAS scores found in G1 and the lowest in G4. Rates of PD and CD are high in this maltreated population. The presence of PD has a major impact on C-GAS score, and the simultaneous presence of CD increases the already impaired function of PD. Demonstration of the additive effects of PD and CD on youth functioning suggests that professionals should be alert to the presence of both disorders to better act preventively and therapeutically in a high-risk population.

  14. Tendering and relationships in strategic logistics service provider selection for global supply chain organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    of private enterprise purchase additionally relate to the acceptance of some level of dialogue before, during and after the tender due date. Tendering is viewed as an extreme case of relationship management, where newcomers and existing suppliers are put on an equal footing, decades of incorporated...... have an impact. During the tendering process, innovation, knowledge management and operational procedures in interaction with the business relationships are often overlooked and need active management and proper contingency planning. This paper contributes to a deeper understanding of both sides...

  15. Problems in the Relationship between CO2 Emissions and Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Kovács

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis of environmental conditions and impacts, the viewpoint that greenhouse gases, primarily anthropogenic (industrial, human carbon dioxide, play a determining role in the change of global temperatures, ( the increase experienced in the last one and a half decade, has been given widespread publicity recently. Coal-fired power plants are the first to blame for the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the last two centuries. The study indicates possibilities to increase the efficiency of coal-fired power plants, which would involve a considerable reduction in CO2 emissions with an identical production volume of electrical energy. On the basis of the analysis of the amount of fossil fuels used, the amount of CO2 emissions and changes in the concentrations of atmospheric CO2, it is shown that no correlation can be proved between the factors investigated and changes in global temperatures.

  16. Extending the relationship between global warming and cumulative carbon emissions to multi-millennial timescales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frölicher, Thomas L; Paynter, David J

    2015-01-01

    The transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE) is a highly policy-relevant quantity in climate science. The TCRE suggests that peak warming is linearly proportional to cumulative carbon emissions and nearly independent of the emissions scenario. Here, we use simulations of the Earth System Model (ESM) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) to show that global mean surface temperature may increase by 0.5 °C after carbon emissions are stopped at 2 °C global warming, implying an increase in the coefficient relating global warming to cumulative carbon emissions on multi-centennial timescales. The simulations also suggest a 20% lower quota on cumulative carbon emissions allowed to achieve a policy-driven limit on global warming. ESM estimates from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5–ESMs) qualitatively agree on this result, whereas Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) simulations, used in the IPCC 5th assessment report to assess the robustness of TCRE on multi-centennial timescales, suggest a post-emissions decrease in temperature. The reason for this discrepancy lies in the smaller simulated realized warming fraction in CMIP5–ESMs, including GFDL ESM2M, than in EMICs when carbon emissions increase. The temperature response to cumulative carbon emissions can be characterized by three different phases and the linear TCRE framework is only valid during the first phase when carbon emissions increase. For longer timescales, when emissions tape off, two new metrics are introduced that better characterize the time-dependent temperature response to cumulative carbon emissions: the equilibrium climate response to cumulative carbon emissions and the multi-millennial climate response to cumulative carbon emissions. (letter)

  17. The relationship between bioelectrical impedance phase angle and subjective global assessment in advanced colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Digant; Lis, Christopher G; Dahlk, Sadie L; King, Jessica; Vashi, Pankaj G; Grutsch, James F; Lammersfeld, Carolyn A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA) derived phase angle is increasingly being used as an objective indicator of nutritional status in advanced cancer. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) is a subjective method of nutritional status. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between BIA derived phase angle and SGA in advanced colorectal cancer. Methods We evaluated a case series of 73 stages III and IV colorectal cancer patients. Patients were classified as ei...

  18. GLOBAL TOURISM PERFORMANCE IN RELATION TO CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT FROM THE SOCIAL MEDIA PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    FIROIU DANIELA; CROITORU ADINA-GABRIELA

    2014-01-01

    Having one of the most prominent dynamics globally, tourism is still under the influence of several factors, extremely different and diverse, with sometimes profound influences, difficult to explain and to commensurate. The consequence, especially that of the economic and technological expansion, is that tourism in the 21st century acquires new meanings, with multiple roles, from influences on the lifestyle and the social status, to know-how influences on organizations. Apparen...

  19. State-trait decomposition of Name Letter Test scores and relationships with global self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinelli, Enrico; Alessandri, Guido; Donnellan, M Brent; Łaguna, Mariola

    2018-06-01

    The Name Letter Test (NLT) assesses the degree that participants show a preference for an individual's own initials. The NLT was often thought to measure implicit self-esteem, but recent literature reviews do not equivocally support this hypothesis. Several authors have argued that the NLT is most strongly associated with the state component of self-esteem. The current research uses a modified STARTS model to (a) estimate the percentage of stable and transient components of the NLT and (b) estimate the covariances between stable/transient components of the NLT and stable/transient components of self-esteem and positive and negative affect. Two longitudinal studies were conducted with different time lags: In Study 1, participants were assessed daily for 7 consecutive days, whereas in Study 2, participants were assessed weekly for 8 consecutive weeks. Participants also completed a battery of questionnaires including global self-esteem, positive affect, and negative affect. In both studies, the NLT showed (a) high stability across time, (b) a high percentage of stable variance, (c) no significant covariance with stable and transient factors for global self-esteem, and (d) a different pattern of correlations with stable and transient factors of affect than global self-esteem. Collectively, these results further undermine the claim that the NLT is a valid measure of implicit self-esteem. Future work is needed to identify theoretically grounded correlates of the NLT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Magnetorotational Instability: Nonmodal Growth and the Relationship of Global Modes to the Shearing Box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Squire, A Bhattacharjee [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We study the magnetorotational instability (MRI) (Balbus & Hawley 1998) using non-modal stability techniques.Despite the spectral instability of many forms of the MRI, this proves to be a natural method of analysis that is well-suited to deal with the non-self-adjoint nature of the linear MRI equations. We find that the fastest growing linear MRI structures on both local and global domains can look very diff erent to the eigenmodes, invariably resembling waves shearing with the background flow (shear waves). In addition, such structures can grow many times faster than the least stable eigenmode over long time periods, and be localized in a completely di fferent region of space. These ideas lead – for both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes – to a natural connection between the global MRI and the local shearing box approximation. By illustrating that the fastest growing global structure is well described by the ordinary diff erential equations (ODEs) governing a single shear wave, we find that the shearing box is a very sensible approximation for the linear MRI, contrary to many previous claims. Since the shear wave ODEs are most naturally understood using non-modal analysis techniques, we conclude by analyzing local MRI growth over finite time-scales using these methods. The strong growth over a wide range of wave-numbers suggests that non-modal linear physics could be of fundamental importance in MRI turbulence (Squire & Bhattacharjee 2014).

  1. A Qualitative Examination of the Relationship between Organizational Culture and Innovation in a Global Engineering Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Heidi J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to examine the relationship between corporate culture (artifacts, values, and assumptions) and the creative endeavor of innovation in the software development industry. Innovation, the active implementation of creative ideas, is a widespread enterprise in the corporate world, especially in the areas of…

  2. Strong relationship between DMS and the solar radiation dose over the global surface ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallina, Sergio M; Simó, Rafel

    2007-01-26

    Marine biogenic dimethylsulfide (DMS) is the main natural source of tropospheric sulfur, which may play a key role in cloud formation and albedo over the remote ocean. Through a global data analysis, we found that DMS concentrations are highly positively correlated with the solar radiation dose in the upper mixed layer of the open ocean, irrespective of latitude, plankton biomass, or temperature. This is a necessary condition for the feasibility of a negative feedback in which light-attenuating DMS emissions are in turn driven by the light dose received by the pelagic ecosystem.

  3. Relationship Between Competitive Strategies and the Success Perception of Polish Born Globals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowska-Prokop Ewa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of this paper is to describe and evaluate the competitive strategies applied by Polish born global enterprises. To reveal these strategies, two competitive models developed by M.E. Porter are applied to an original data set obtained from 256 small and medium Polish enterprises through a survey employing the CATI technique. The outcomes of these strategies, as perceived by the companies applying them, are also evaluated against two hypotheses. We conclude that Polish firms apply both basic strategies of competition, i.e. cost leadership strategies and differentiation strategies and that a substantial majority of companies perceive themselves to have succeeded on the market.

  4. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E James Hehre

    Full Text Available Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar, or the Western Pacific (Fiji. In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.

  5. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehre, E James; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines) but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar), or the Western Pacific (Fiji). In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.

  6. Chemistry of organic carbon in soil with relationship to the global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, W.M. III.

    1988-01-01

    Various ecosystem disturbances alter the balances between production of organic matter and its decomposition and therefore change the amount of carbon in soil. The most severe perturbation is conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops. Conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops results in a lowered input of slowly decomposing material which causes a reduction in overall carbon levels. Disruption of soil matrix structure by cultivation leads to lowered physical protection of organic matter resulting in an increased net mineralization rate of soil carbon. Climate change is another perturbation that affects the amount and composition of plant production, litter inputs, and decomposition regimes but does not affect soil structure directly. Nevertheless, large changes in soil carbon storage are probable with anticipated CO 2 induced climate change, particularly in northern latitudes where anticipated climate change will be greatest (MacCracken and Luther 1985) and large amounts of soil organic matter are found. It is impossible, given the current state of knowledge of soil organic matter processes and transformations to develop detailed process models of soil carbon dynamics. Largely phenomenological models appear to be developing into predictive tools for understanding the role of soil organic matter in the global carbon cycle. In particular, these models will be useful in quantifying soil carbon changes due to human land-use and to anticipated global climate and vegetation changes. 47 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SEPTEMBER 2017 MARS GLOBAL AURORA EVENT AND CRUSTAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Camella-Rosa; Schneider, Nick; Connour, Kyle; Jain, Sonal; Deighan, Justin; Jakosky, Bruce; MAVEN/IUVS Team

    2018-01-01

    In September 2017, the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) on the MAVEN spacecraft observed global aurora on Mars caused by a surprisingly strong solar energetic particle event. Widespread “diffuse aurora” have previously been detected on Mars through more limited observations (Schneider et al., Science 350, (2015); DOI: 10.1126/science.aad0313), but recent observations established complete coverage of the observable portion of Mars’ nightside. The aurora was global due to Mars’s lack of a global magnetic field, which allowed energetic electrons from the Sun to directly precipitate into the atmosphere. On September 11th, IUVS detected aurora more than 25 times brighter than any prior IUVS observation, with high SNR detections of aurora at the limb and against the disk of the planet. Fainter auroral emission was seen around the nightside limb over 13 orbits spanning nearly 3 days.On September 14th, during the declining phase of the event, faint linear features and patches were detected by the spacecraft, which were higher than the noise floor, with a similar spatial distribution to “discrete aurora” patches observed on Mars by the SPICAM instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft (Bertaux et al., Nature 435, doi :10.1038/nature03603). Discrete aurora occur near areas of the crust affected by the magnetism left over from Mars’ once-strong dipole field. Emission is limited to regions of the crustal magnetic field where the field lines are likely to be open to solar wind interactions. Those regions are concentrated in Mars’ southern hemisphere centered on 180 degrees east longitude.We studied the localized emissions on 14 September to determine whether there might be a connection between the observed diffuse aurora event and discrete auroral processes. First, we investigated the localized emissions to confirm that the observed signal was consistent with expected auroral spectra. Second, their locations were projected on a map of the crustal magnetic

  8. The life of relationship in globalized financial economic devices: Evidences from the experience of a group-analytic transcultural workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Lo Mauro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution - starting from the experience of the EATGA Workshop 2011 that took place in Palermo and that had as its theme “Intersubjective bonds in the globalized economy” - invites to reflect on the quality of the life of relationship and intersubjective connectedness in social contemporary world. One of the characterizing cultural phenomena influencing contemporary reality is made up by the dominant and pervasive presence of logic and language of financial markets in policies and activities that organize and articulate daily life. Theoretical hypothesis driving our research is that the structures of subjectivity, the meaning and the way of being in a relationship are characteristics (cultural themes that emerge within a defined cultural and historical system. In such a theoretical perspective, cultural themes are incorporated or interiorized by men belonging a shared cultural system and so became elements of the shared subjectivity and of the meanings given to intersubjective exchanges and bonds. From the workshop experience some meanings emerge concerning the role of economical-financial system in promoting codes and symbols that define the shape and the sense of relationship. The cultural codes of the market have gone out from the economic circle in which they were born and they are offered as organizers of affections and relationships. This is an evidence for the critical actual historical moment, in which the values and the cultural codes organized on the trust, on the reciprocity, on the common share and participation seems to be interdicted.Keywords: Transcultural Group-Analysis, Intersubjective Relationship, Cultural Models of the Exchange

  9. The global relationship between chromatin physical topology, fractal structure, and gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almassalha, Luay M; Tiwari, A; Ruhoff, P T

    2017-01-01

    in an empty space, but in a highly complex, interrelated, and dense nanoenvironment that profoundly influences chemical interactions. We explored the relationship between the physical nanoenvironment of chromatin and gene transcription in vitro. We analytically show that changes in the fractal dimension, D...... show that the increased heterogeneity of physical structure of chromatin due to increase in fractal dimension correlates with increased heterogeneity of gene networks. These findings indicate that the higher order folding of chromatin topology may act as a molecular-pathway independent code regulating...

  10. Global meta-analysis reveals low consistency of biodiversity congruence relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Martin J; Barton, Philip S; Lane, Peter W; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-05-21

    Knowledge of the number and distribution of species is fundamental to biodiversity conservation efforts, but this information is lacking for the majority of species on earth. Consequently, subsets of taxa are often used as proxies for biodiversity; but this assumes that different taxa display congruent distribution patterns. Here we use a global meta-analysis to show that studies of cross-taxon congruence rarely give consistent results. Instead, species richness congruence is highest at extreme spatial scales and close to the equator, while congruence in species composition is highest at large extents and grain sizes. Studies display highest variance in cross-taxon congruence when conducted in areas with dissimilar areal extents (for species richness) or latitudes (for species composition). These results undermine the assumption that a subset of taxa can be representative of biodiversity. Therefore, researchers whose goal is to prioritize locations or actions for conservation should use data from a range of taxa.

  11. Relationship between the local, regional and global - Montenegro in the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujačić Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural and demographic changes that Montenegro will be facing in the coming decades will be strongly influenced by both external and internal factors. First of all, they will be instigated by the national, and especially the European (cultural integration, and by the process of (cultural globalization. Migratory movements, associated with rapidly-surging migration of people across national borders will also take their toll on the acculturative processes in Montenegro. The aforementioned cultural dynamics can predominantly be observed with respect to general tendencies. However, it is possible to identify national cultural challenges and formulate the means of overpowering them in a way that is in line with the concept of democratic and multicultural development in Montenegro.

  12. Governance of Offshore IT Outsourcing at Shell Global Functions IT-BAM Development and Application of a Governance Framework to Improve Outsourcing Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Floor; van Hillegersberg, Jos; van Eck, Pascal; van der Kolk, Feiko; Jorissen, Rene; Oshri, Ilan; Kotlarsky, Julia

    The lack of effective IT governance is widely recognized as a key inhibitor to successful global IT outsourcing relationships. In this study we present the development and application of a governance framework to improve outsourcing relationships. The approach used to developing an IT governance

  13. Genetic diversity and relationship of global faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm revealed by ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Fei; Zong, Xu-Xiao; Guan, Jian-Ping; Yang, Tao; Sun, Xue-Lian; Ma, Yu; Redden, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships of 802 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces and varieties from different geographical locations of China and abroad were examined using ISSR markers. A total of 212 repeatable amplified bands were generated with 11 ISSR primers, of which 209 were polymorphic. Accessions from North China showed highest genetic diversity, while accessions from central China showed low level of diversity. Chinese spring faba bean germplasm was clearly separated from Chinese winter faba bean, based on principal component analysis and UPGMA clustering analysis. Winter accessions from Zhejiang (East China), Jiangxi (East China), Sichuan (Southwest China) and Guizhou (Southwest China) were quite distinct to that from other provinces in China. Great differentiation between Chinese accessions and those from rest of the world was shown with a UPGMA dendrogram. AMOVA analyses demonstrated large variation and differentiation within and among groups of accessions from China. As a continental geographic group, accessions from Europe were genetically closer to those from North Africa. Based on ISSR data, grouping results of accessions from Asia, Europe and Africa were obviously associated with their geographical origin. The overall results indicated that the genetic relationship of faba bean germplasm was closely associated with their geographical origin and their ecological habit.

  14. Dynamics of the Indian monsoon and ENSO relationships in the SINTEX global coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terray, P. [LODYC, Paris (France); Universite Paris 7, Paris (France); Guilyardi, E. [LSCE, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CGAM, Reading (United Kingdom); Fischer, A.S. [LODYC, Paris (France); Delecluse, P. [LODYC, Paris (France); LSCE, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2005-02-01

    This paper uses recent gridded climatological data and a coupled general circulation model (GCM) simulation in order to assess the relationships between the interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The focus is on the dynamics of the ISM-ENSO relationships and the ability of the state-of-the-art coupled GCM to reproduce the complex lead-lag relationships between the ISM and the ENSO. The coupled GCM is successful in reproducing the ISM circulation and rainfall climatology in the Indian areas even though the entire ISM circulation is weaker relative to that observed. In both observations and in the simulation, the ISM rainfall anomalies are significantly associated with fluctuations of the Hadley circulation and the 200 hPa zonal wind anomalies over the Indian Ocean. A quasi-biennial time scale is found to structure the ISM dynamical and rainfall indices in both cases. Moreover, ISM indices have a similar interannual variability in the simulation and observations. The coupled model is less successful in simulating the annual cycle in the tropical Pacific. Despite some problems in simulation of the annual cycle and the Southern Oscillation, the coupled model captures some aspects of the interannual variability in the tropical Pacific. ENSO events are phase-locked with the annual cycle as observed, but are of reduced amplitude relative to the observations. Wavelet analysis of the model Nino34 time series shows enhanced power in the 2-4 year band, as compared to the 2-8 year range for observations during the 1950-2000 period. The ISM circulation is weakened during ENSO years in both the simulation and the observations. However, the model fails to reproduce the lead-lag relationship between the ISM and Nino34 sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Furthermore, lag correlations show that the delayed response of the wind stress over the central Pacific to ISM variability is insignificant in the simulation. These

  15. A non-stationary relationship between global climate phenomena and human plague incidence in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreppel, Katharina S; Caminade, Cyril; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarison; Rahalison, Lila; Morse, Andy; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is found in Asia and the Americas, but predominantly in Africa, with the island of Madagascar reporting almost one third of human cases worldwide. Plague's occurrence is affected by local climate factors which in turn are influenced by large-scale climate phenomena such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The effects of ENSO on regional climate are often enhanced or reduced by a second large-scale climate phenomenon, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). It is known that ENSO and the IOD interact as drivers of disease. Yet the impacts of these phenomena in driving plague dynamics via their effect on regional climate, and specifically contributing to the foci of transmission on Madagascar, are unknown. Here we present the first analysis of the effects of ENSO and IOD on plague in Madagascar. We use a forty-eight year monthly time-series of reported human plague cases from 1960 to 2008. Using wavelet analysis, we show that over the last fifty years there have been complex non-stationary associations between ENSO/IOD and the dynamics of plague in Madagascar. We demonstrate that ENSO and IOD influence temperature in Madagascar and that temperature and plague cycles are associated. The effects on plague appear to be mediated more by temperature, but precipitation also undoubtedly influences plague in Madagascar. Our results confirm a relationship between plague anomalies and an increase in the intensity of ENSO events and precipitation. This work widens the understanding of how climate factors acting over different temporal scales can combine to drive local disease dynamics. Given the association of increasing ENSO strength and plague anomalies in Madagascar it may in future be possible to forecast plague outbreaks in Madagascar. The study gives insight into the complex and changing relationship between climate factors and plague in Madagascar.

  16. A non-stationary relationship between global climate phenomena and human plague incidence in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina S Kreppel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is found in Asia and the Americas, but predominantly in Africa, with the island of Madagascar reporting almost one third of human cases worldwide. Plague's occurrence is affected by local climate factors which in turn are influenced by large-scale climate phenomena such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. The effects of ENSO on regional climate are often enhanced or reduced by a second large-scale climate phenomenon, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD. It is known that ENSO and the IOD interact as drivers of disease. Yet the impacts of these phenomena in driving plague dynamics via their effect on regional climate, and specifically contributing to the foci of transmission on Madagascar, are unknown. Here we present the first analysis of the effects of ENSO and IOD on plague in Madagascar.We use a forty-eight year monthly time-series of reported human plague cases from 1960 to 2008. Using wavelet analysis, we show that over the last fifty years there have been complex non-stationary associations between ENSO/IOD and the dynamics of plague in Madagascar. We demonstrate that ENSO and IOD influence temperature in Madagascar and that temperature and plague cycles are associated. The effects on plague appear to be mediated more by temperature, but precipitation also undoubtedly influences plague in Madagascar. Our results confirm a relationship between plague anomalies and an increase in the intensity of ENSO events and precipitation.This work widens the understanding of how climate factors acting over different temporal scales can combine to drive local disease dynamics. Given the association of increasing ENSO strength and plague anomalies in Madagascar it may in future be possible to forecast plague outbreaks in Madagascar. The study gives insight into the complex and changing relationship between climate factors and plague in Madagascar.

  17. The relationship between bioelectrical impedance phase angle and subjective global assessment in advanced colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grutsch James F

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA derived phase angle is increasingly being used as an objective indicator of nutritional status in advanced cancer. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA is a subjective method of nutritional status. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between BIA derived phase angle and SGA in advanced colorectal cancer. Methods We evaluated a case series of 73 stages III and IV colorectal cancer patients. Patients were classified as either well-nourished or malnourished using the SGA. BIA was conducted on all patients and phase angle was calculated. The correlation between phase angle and SGA was studied using Spearman correlation coefficient. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were estimated using the non-parametric method to determine the optimal cut-off levels of phase angle. Results Well-nourished patients had a statistically significantly higher (p = 0.005 median phase angle score (6.12 as compared to those who were malnourished (5.18. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient between phase angle and SGA was found to be 0.33 (p = 0.004, suggesting better nutritional status with higher phase angle scores. A phase angle cut-off of 5.2 was 51.7% sensitive and 79.5% specific whereas a cut-off of 6.0 was 82.8% sensitive and 54.5% specific in detecting malnutrition. Interestingly, a phase angle cut-off of 5.9 demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy in males who had failed primary treatment for advanced colorectal cancer. Conclusion Our study suggests that bioimpedance phase angle is a potential nutritional indicator in advanced colorectal cancer. Further research is needed to elucidate the optimal cut-off levels of phase angle that can be incorporated into the oncology clinic for better nutritional evaluation and management.

  18. Global Population Structure and Evolution of Bordetella pertussis and Their Relationship with Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Marieke J.; Harris, Simon R.; Advani, Abdolreza; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Bottero, Daniela; Bouchez, Valérie; Cassiday, Pamela K.; Chiang, Chuen-Sheue; Dalby, Tine; Fry, Norman K.; Gaillard, María Emilia; van Gent, Marjolein; Guiso, Nicole; Hallander, Hans O.; Harvill, Eric T.; He, Qiushui; van der Heide, Han G. J.; Heuvelman, Kees; Hozbor, Daniela F.; Kamachi, Kazunari; Karataev, Gennady I.; Lan, Ruiting; Lutyńska, Anna; Maharjan, Ram P.; Mertsola, Jussi; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Octavia, Sophie; Preston, Andrew; Quail, Michael A.; Sintchenko, Vitali; Stefanelli, Paola; Tondella, M. Lucia; Tsang, Raymond S. W.; Xu, Yinghua; Yao, Shu-Man; Zhang, Shumin; Mooi, Frits R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bordetella pertussis causes pertussis, a respiratory disease that is most severe for infants. Vaccination was introduced in the 1950s, and in recent years, a resurgence of disease was observed worldwide, with significant mortality in infants. Possible causes for this include the switch from whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) to less effective acellular vaccines (ACVs), waning immunity, and pathogen adaptation. Pathogen adaptation is suggested by antigenic divergence between vaccine strains and circulating strains and by the emergence of strains with increased pertussis toxin production. We applied comparative genomics to a worldwide collection of 343 B. pertussis strains isolated between 1920 and 2010. The global phylogeny showed two deep branches; the largest of these contained 98% of all strains, and its expansion correlated temporally with the first descriptions of pertussis outbreaks in Europe in the 16th century. We found little evidence of recent geographical clustering of the strains within this lineage, suggesting rapid strain flow between countries. We observed that changes in genes encoding proteins implicated in protective immunity that are included in ACVs occurred after the introduction of WCVs but before the switch to ACVs. Furthermore, our analyses consistently suggested that virulence-associated genes and genes coding for surface-exposed proteins were involved in adaptation. However, many of the putative adaptive loci identified have a physiological role, and further studies of these loci may reveal less obvious ways in which B. pertussis and the host interact. This work provides insight into ways in which pathogens may adapt to vaccination and suggests ways to improve pertussis vaccines. PMID:24757216

  19. Prioritizing Candidate Disease Metabolites Based on Global Functional Relationships between Metabolites in the Context of Metabolic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haixiu; Xu, Yanjun; Han, Junwei; Li, Jing; Su, Fei; Zhang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Chunlong; Li, Dongguo; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Identification of key metabolites for complex diseases is a challenging task in today's medicine and biology. A special disease is usually caused by the alteration of a series of functional related metabolites having a global influence on the metabolic network. Moreover, the metabolites in the same metabolic pathway are often associated with the same or similar disease. Based on these functional relationships between metabolites in the context of metabolic pathways, we here presented a pathway-based random walk method called PROFANCY for prioritization of candidate disease metabolites. Our strategy not only takes advantage of the global functional relationships between metabolites but also sufficiently exploits the functionally modular nature of metabolic networks. Our approach proved successful in prioritizing known metabolites for 71 diseases with an AUC value of 0.895. We also assessed the performance of PROFANCY on 16 disease classes and found that 4 classes achieved an AUC value over 0.95. To investigate the robustness of the PROFANCY, we repeated all the analyses in two metabolic networks and obtained similar results. Then we applied our approach to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and found that a top ranked candidate was potentially related to AD but had not been reported previously. Furthermore, our method was applicable to prioritize the metabolites from metabolomic profiles of prostate cancer. The PROFANCY could identify prostate cancer related-metabolites that are supported by literatures but not considered to be significantly differential by traditional differential analysis. We also developed a freely accessible web-based and R-based tool at http://bioinfo.hrbmu.edu.cn/PROFANCY. PMID:25153931

  20. Quality of institution and the FEG (forest, energy intensity, and globalization) -environment relationships in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin; Adom, Philip Kofi

    2017-07-01

    The current share of sub-Saharan Africa in global carbon dioxide emissions is negligible compared to major contributors like Asia, Americas, and Europe. This trend is, however, likely to change given that both economic growth and rate of urbanization in the region are projected to be robust in the future. The current study contributes to the literature by examining both the direct and the indirect impacts of quality of institution on the environment. Specifically, we investigate whether the institutional setting in the region provides some sort of a complementary role in the environment-FEG relationships. We use the panel two-step system generalized method of moments (GMM) technique to deal with the simultaneity problem. Data consists of 43 sub-Saharan African countries. The result shows that energy inefficiency compromises environmental standards. However, the quality of the institutional setting helps moderate this negative consequences; countries with good institutions show greater prospects than countries with poor institutions. On the other hand, globalization of the region and increased forest size generate positive environmental outcomes in the region. Their impacts are, however, independent of the quality of institution. Afforestation programs, promotion of other clean energy types, and investment in energy efficiency, basic city infrastructure, and regulatory and institutional structures, are desirable policies to pursue to safeguard the environment.

  1. Modeling the relationship between photosynthetically active radiation and global horizontal irradiance using singular spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zempila, Melina-Maria; Taylor, Michael; Bais, Alkiviadis; Kazadzis, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    We report on the construction of generic models to calculate photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) from global horizontal irradiance (GHI), and vice versa. Our study took place at stations of the Greek UV network (UVNET) and the Hellenic solar energy network (HNSE) with measurements from NILU-UV multi-filter radiometers and CM pyranometers, chosen due to their long (≈1 M record/site) high temporal resolution (≈1 min) record that captures a broad range of atmospheric environments and cloudiness conditions. The uncertainty of the PAR measurements is quantified to be ±6.5% while the uncertainty involved in GHI measurements is up to ≈±7% according to the manufacturer. We show how multi-linear regression and nonlinear neural network (NN) models, trained at a calibration site (Thessaloniki) can be made generic provided that the input–output time series are processed with multi-channel singular spectrum analysis (M-SSA). Without M-SSA, both linear and nonlinear models perform well only locally. M-SSA with 50 time-lags is found to be sufficient for identification of trend, periodic and noise components in aerosol, cloud parameters and irradiance, and to construct regularized noise models of PAR from GHI irradiances. Reconstructed PAR and GHI time series capture ≈95% of the variance of the cross-validated target measurements and have median absolute percentage errors <2%. The intra-site median absolute error of M-SSA processed models were ≈8.2±1.7 W/m"2 for PAR and ≈9.2±4.2 W/m"2 for GHI. When applying the models trained at Thessaloniki to other stations, the average absolute mean bias between the model estimates and measured values was found to be ≈1.2 W/m"2 for PAR and ≈0.8 W/m"2 for GHI. For the models, percentage errors are well within the uncertainty of the measurements at all sites. Generic NN models were found to perform marginally better than their linear counterparts. - Highlights: • Generic linear regression and nonlinear neural network

  2. Do galaxy global relationships emerge from local ones? The SDSS IV MaNGA surface mass density-metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zhu, Guangtun B.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Law, David; Wake, David; Green, Jenny E.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Lane, Richard R.

    2016-12-01

    We present the stellar surface mass density versus gas metallicity (Σ*-Z) relation for more than 500 000 spatially resolved star-forming resolution elements (spaxels) from a sample of 653 disc galaxies included in the SDSS IV MaNGA survey. We find a tight relation between these local properties, with higher metallicities as the surface density increases. This relation extends over three orders of magnitude in the surface mass density and a factor of 4 in metallicity. We show that this local relationship can simultaneously reproduce two well-known properties of disc galaxies: their global mass-metallicity relationship and their radial metallicity gradients. We also find that the Σ*-Z relation is largely independent of the galaxy's total stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR), except at low stellar mass and high sSFR. These results suggest that in the present-day universe local properties play a key role in determining the gas-phase metallicity in typical disc galaxies.

  3. Global mental health and trauma exposure: the current evidence for the relationship between traumatic experiences and spirit possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Braitmayer, Lars; van Duijl, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    We present a literature review on trauma exposure and spirit possession in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the World Health Organization's objective of culturally appropriate mental health care in the Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020, and the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee to consider local idioms of distress and to collaborate with local resources, this topic still receives very little attention. Pathological spirit possession is commonly defined as involuntary, uncontrollable, and occurring outside of ritual settings. It is often associated with stigmatization, suffering, and dysfunctional behavior. While spirit possession has been discussed as an idiom of distress in anthropological literature, recent quantitative studies have presented support for a strong relationship between traumatic experiences and pathological possession states. The aim of this review was to investigate this relationship systematically in LMICs, in view of the debate on how to address the mental health gap in LMICs. Twenty-one articles, published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1994 and 2013, were identified and analyzed with regard to prevalence of possessive trance disorders, patients' sociodemographic characteristics, and its relation to traumatic experiences. The review and analysis of 917 patients with symptoms of possessive trance disorders from 14 LMICs indicated that it is a phenomenon occurring worldwide and with global relevance. This literature review suggests a strong relationship between trauma exposure and spirit possession with high prevalence rates found especially in postwar areas in African countries. More attention for possessive trance disorders in mental health and psychosocial intervention programs in humanitarian emergency settings as well as in societies in transition in LMICs is needed and justified by the results of this systematic literature review.

  4. Global mental health and trauma exposure: the current evidence for the relationship between traumatic experiences and spirit possession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Braitmayer, Lars; van Duijl, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    Background We present a literature review on trauma exposure and spirit possession in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the World Health Organization's objective of culturally appropriate mental health care in the Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020, and the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee to consider local idioms of distress and to collaborate with local resources, this topic still receives very little attention. Pathological spirit possession is commonly defined as involuntary, uncontrollable, and occurring outside of ritual settings. It is often associated with stigmatization, suffering, and dysfunctional behavior. While spirit possession has been discussed as an idiom of distress in anthropological literature, recent quantitative studies have presented support for a strong relationship between traumatic experiences and pathological possession states. Objective The aim of this review was to investigate this relationship systematically in LMICs, in view of the debate on how to address the mental health gap in LMICs. Methods Twenty-one articles, published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1994 and 2013, were identified and analyzed with regard to prevalence of possessive trance disorders, patients’ sociodemographic characteristics, and its relation to traumatic experiences. Results The review and analysis of 917 patients with symptoms of possessive trance disorders from 14 LMICs indicated that it is a phenomenon occurring worldwide and with global relevance. This literature review suggests a strong relationship between trauma exposure and spirit possession with high prevalence rates found especially in postwar areas in African countries. Conclusions More attention for possessive trance disorders in mental health and psychosocial intervention programs in humanitarian emergency settings as well as in societies in transition in LMICs is needed and justified by the results of this systematic literature review

  5. Global mental health and trauma exposure: the current evidence for the relationship between traumatic experiences and spirit possession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hecker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We present a literature review on trauma exposure and spirit possession in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Despite the World Health Organization's objective of culturally appropriate mental health care in the Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020, and the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee to consider local idioms of distress and to collaborate with local resources, this topic still receives very little attention. Pathological spirit possession is commonly defined as involuntary, uncontrollable, and occurring outside of ritual settings. It is often associated with stigmatization, suffering, and dysfunctional behavior. While spirit possession has been discussed as an idiom of distress in anthropological literature, recent quantitative studies have presented support for a strong relationship between traumatic experiences and pathological possession states. Objective: The aim of this review was to investigate this relationship systematically in LMICs, in view of the debate on how to address the mental health gap in LMICs. Methods: Twenty-one articles, published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1994 and 2013, were identified and analyzed with regard to prevalence of possessive trance disorders, patients’ sociodemographic characteristics, and its relation to traumatic experiences. Results: The review and analysis of 917 patients with symptoms of possessive trance disorders from 14 LMICs indicated that it is a phenomenon occurring worldwide and with global relevance. This literature review suggests a strong relationship between trauma exposure and spirit possession with high prevalence rates found especially in postwar areas in African countries. Conclusions: More attention for possessive trance disorders in mental health and psychosocial intervention programs in humanitarian emergency settings as well as in societies in transition in LMICs is needed and justified by the results of this

  6. Trends of the global radiation and sunshine hours in 1961-1998 and their relationships in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rensheng; Kang Ersi; Ji Xibin; Yang Jianping; Zhang Zhihui

    2006-01-01

    Trends of the yearly global radiation E g , annual sunshine hours S, yearly precipitation P and yearly averaged air temperature T at 51 stations in 1961-1998 in China were detected, and the significance test method was the F-test. A total of 47 stations showed decreasing trend in the E g series of which 35 passed the F-test at the 5% significant level. At 42 stations, the trend of S was also decreasing, and 36 of them passed the F-test at the 5% significant level. The P series did not change largely in 1961-1998 and at 37 stations showed a positive trend, while the positive trend or reduced trend at 39 stations did not pass the F-test at the 25% significant level. The positive trend of the T series was shown at 49 stations, of which 29 passed the F-test at the 1% significant level. In the yearly scale, the empirical relationship between E g and S at any station was very low because the length of the E g series was too short. When using all the data at the used 51 stations together to simulate E g , the results were good. Using the longitude λ, latitude φ and altitude H, or/and P and T, of the used stations to adjust the parameters a and b of the Angstroem model, respectively, or just to adjust the parameter a, the results will be better. The parameter b of the Angstroem model was little affected by the geographical position of the used stations. At last, a simple equation is recommended to use for simulation of the yearly global radiation in China

  7. The Geo-strategies and Global Peace of Technology on Customer Relationship Management Performance: A Pilot Study among SME’s Logistic Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Fairos Mohamad Shah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are playing an increasingly important role in sustaining geo strategies and global peace economic growth and logistic system in Malaysia. SMEs also play a very crucial role in customer relationship as they may serve the roles of customer, distributor producer and supplier. However, adaption of customer relationship in Malaysian SMEs has not been fully explored. CRMP model for logistic service presents the combination of technology strategy in term of geo strategies and global peace. The goal of this study is to investigate customer relationship management performance and technology strategy. The dimensions for technology factors are Support information system, information sharing, Usefulness, care/help, ease of use, service portfolio, security and Update System. The populations of study were customers from a logistic company located in Pulau Pinang. Simple random sampling was selected from the target populations. Data collection resulted in 100 respondents to answers questionnaire from the customers of logistic company. Based on the finding, the result showed that, technology strategies are anchor factors in determining geo strategies and global peace on customer relationship management performance. Further study has important managerial implications as the findings will enable management of SMEs to understand progressive and highly varied CRMP practices and contextual factors that contribute to the CRMP as well as geo strategies and global peace and innovative implementation.

  8. Spread of endemic disease and global change in an educational project: proposition of relationships developed in a twin partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Viale

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sudden event of the spread of dengue fever (or break-bone fever that appeared for the first time in Cape Verde in 2009 revealed that inappropriate management of waste can be considered a major cause of the spread of this disease. Dengue fever is a tropical infectious disease that is caused by the dengue virus. Its vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, found an optimal environment for its life cycle in the context of Cape Verde, with the persistence of water in abandoned waste objects. The connection between the topics of Earth sciences and the spread of this disease is not obvious, but it was explored and illustrated in a school partnership. Activities with pupils and students provided an opportunity to investigate how some global phenomena, like climate change (with an increase in local rainfall and higher temperatures, are related to local events, such as the spread of dengue fever. Preventive strategies are conditioned by the geomorphology of the territory and by the complex relationships that connect the geosphere and the biosphere. For this reason, it is important to be aware of the risk of breaking these delicate balances, and hence activating unexpected consequences. The roles played by both partners linked knowledge about the natural dynamics of our planet with the development of appropriate behavior, thus contributing to the formation of responsible citizenship, to preserve and protect the environment. The partnership encouraged students to develop sustainable management strategies against dengue fever, and consequently against waste, actively involving them at school, at home, and in their community. In this study, we present a case study of the role of a school partnership in a complex problem, such as the spread of dengue fever and environmental pollution.

  9. A global lightning parameterization based on statistical relationships among environmental factors, aerosols, and convective clouds in the TRMM climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Douglas C.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the relative contributions of normalized convective available potential energy (NCAPE), cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, warm cloud depth (WCD), vertical wind shear (SHEAR), and environmental relative humidity (RH) to the variability of lightning and radar reflectivity within convective features (CFs) observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Our approach incorporates multidimensional binned representations of observations of CFs and modeled thermodynamics, kinematics, and CCN as inputs to develop approximations for total lightning density (TLD) and the average height of 30 dBZ radar reflectivity (AVGHT30). The results suggest that TLD and AVGHT30 increase with increasing NCAPE, increasing CCN, decreasing WCD, increasing SHEAR, and decreasing RH. Multiple-linear approximations for lightning and radar quantities using the aforementioned predictors account for significant portions of the variance in the binned data set (R2 ≈ 0.69-0.81). The standardized weights attributed to CCN, NCAPE, and WCD are largest, the standardized weight of RH varies relative to other predictors, while the standardized weight for SHEAR is comparatively small. We investigate these statistical relationships for collections of CFs within various geographic areas and compare the aerosol (CCN) and thermodynamic (NCAPE and WCD) contributions to variations in the CF population in a partial sensitivity analysis based on multiple-linear regression approximations computed herein. A global lightning parameterization is developed; the average difference between predicted and observed TLD decreases from +21.6 to +11.6% when using a hybrid approach to combine separate approximations over continents and oceans, thus highlighting the need for regionally targeted investigations in the future.

  10. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Craine; Andrew J. Elmore; Marcos P. M. Aidar; Mercedes Bustamante; Todd E. Dawson; Erik A. Hobbie; Ansgar Kahmen; Michelle C. Mack; Kendra K. McLauchlan; Anders Michelsen; Gabriela Nardoto; Linda H. Pardo; Josep Penuelas; Peter B. Reich; Edward A.G. Schuur; William D. Stock; Pamela H. Templer; Ross A. Virginia; Jeffrey M. Welker; Ian J. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios, foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 000 plants worldwide. Global-scale comparisons of other components of the N cycle...

  11. Geographic trends in research output and citations in veterinary medicine: insight into global research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bibliographic data can be used to map the research quality and productivity of a discipline. We hypothesized that bibliographic data would identify geographic differences in research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships within the veterinary profession that corresponded with demographic and economic indices. Results Using the SCImago portal, we retrieved veterinary journal, article, and citation data in the Scopus database by year (1996–2011), region, country, and publication in species-specific journals (food animal, small animal, equine, miscellaneous), as designated by Scopus. In 2011, Scopus indexed 165 journals in the veterinary subject area, an increase from 111 in 1996. As a percentage of veterinary research output between 1996 and 2010, Western Europe and North America (US and Canada) together accounted for 60.9% of articles and 73.0% of citations. The number of veterinary articles increased from 8815 in 1996 to 19,077 in 2010 (net increase 66.6%). During this time, publications increased by 21.0% in Asia, 17.2% in Western Europe, and 17.0% in Latin America, led by Brazil, China, India, and Turkey. The United States had the highest number of articles in species-specific journals. As a percentage of regional output, the proportion of articles in small animal and equine journals was highest in North America and the proportion of articles in food animal journals was highest in Africa. Based on principal component analysis, total articles were highly correlated with gross domestic product (based on World Bank data). The proportion of articles in small animal and equine journals was associated with gross national income, research and development, and % urban population, as opposed to the proportion of food animal articles, agricultural output, and % rural population. Co-citations linked veterinary medicine with medicine in the United States, with basic sciences in Eastern Europe and the Far East, and with agriculture

  12. Sibling recognition and the development of identity: intersubjective consequences of sibling differentiation in the sister relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Jeanine M

    2013-01-01

    Identity is, among other things, a means to adapt to the others around whom one must fit. Psychoanalytic theory has highlighted ways in which the child fits in by emulating important others, especially through identification. Alternately, the child may fit into the family and around important others through differentiation, an unconscious process that involves developing or accentuating qualities and desires in oneself that are expressly different from the perceived qualities of another person and simultaneously suppressing qualities and desires that are perceived as similar. With two clinical vignettes centered on the sister relationship, the author demonstrates that recognition of identity differences that result from sibling differentiation carries special significance in the sibling relationship and simultaneously poses particular intersubjective challenges. To the extent that the spotlight of sibling recognition delimits the lateral space one may occupy, repeatedly frustrated desires for sibling recognition may have enduring consequences for one's sense of self-worth and expectations of relationships with peers and partners.

  13. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes

  14. Relationships between global physical activity and bone mineral density in a group of male and female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Leonella; Leli, Christian; Ministrini, Stefano; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Zappavigna, Rosa M; Lombardini, Rita; Scarponi, Anna M; Mannarino, Elmo

    2017-03-01

    Peak of bone mass (PBM) is generally reached about the age of 18 both in boys and girls. Maximizing PBM during growth may contribute to fracture risk reduction in adulthood and in the elderly. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects on bone mineral density (BMD) of global physical activity (PA), carried out in the past 15 years, in a population of 70 healthy, young male and female subjects aged 22 to 25. BMD of the lumbar spine and total hip was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA); global PA, resulting from sports-related, occupational and commuting PA, was evaluated using validated questionnaires. Women spent more time than men both in sports-related, occupational and commuting PA in the age range between 10-15 years. In the female group global PA positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar spine (r=0.38; P=0.02) and the total hip (r=0.36; P=0.04) and BMD of the lumbar spine was independently predicted by global PA and Body Mass Index. Our retrospective cross-sectional study indicates that global PA, not only sports-related PA, performed during prepubertal age, is associated with a greater PBM in women.

  15. Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters of the world's oceans. (NCEI Accession 0157795)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Total Alkalinity fields were estimated from five regional TA relationships presented in Lee et al. 2006, using monthly mean sea surface temperature and...

  16. Alzheimer's Disease Can Spare Local Metacognition Despite Global Anosognosia: Revisiting the Confidence-Accuracy Relationship in Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A.; Cramer, Stefanie J.; Wong, Jessica T.; Bennett, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can impair metacognition in addition to more basic cognitive functions like memory. However, while global metacognitive inaccuracies are well documented (i.e., low deficit awareness, or anosognosia), the evidence is mixed regarding the effects of AD on local or task-based metacognitive judgments. Here we investigated local…

  17. Global patterns of foliar nitrogen isotopes and their relationships with climate, mycorrhizal fungi, foliar nutrient concentrations, and nitrogen availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craine, J M; Elmore, A J; Aidar, M P M

    2009-01-01

    Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios (d15N), foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 00...

  18. Frustration intolerance and unconditional self-acceptance as mediators of the relationship between perfectionism and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Sanda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to further clarify the basic mechanism through which maladaptive perfectionism leads to depression, using the rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT framework. Previous studies have shown that depression is not associated with high personal standards, but rather with the tendency to evaluate one’s self-worth based on the attainment of these standards, i.e. conditional self-acceptance. The goal of this study was to investigate for the first time the mediating role of frustration intolerance beliefs in this relationship, beyond and above the contribution of unconditional self-acceptance (USA beliefs. The sample consisted of 321 undergraduate students. Consistent with REBT theory, the structural equation modeling showed that both frustration intolerance and USA mediated the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and dysphoria, with frustration intolerance beliefs being the stronger mediator. There was no evidence that maladaptive perfectionism influenced dysphoria independently of its effect on frustration intolerance and USA.

  19. The role of the SST-thermocline relationship in Indian Ocean Dipole skewness and its response to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Benjamin; Cai, Wenju; Walsh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    A positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) tends to have stronger cold sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over the eastern Indian Ocean with greater impacts than warm SSTAs that occur during its negative phase. Two feedbacks have been suggested as the cause of positive IOD skewness, a positive Bjerknes feedback and a negative SST-cloud-radiation (SCR) feedback, but their relative importance is debated. Using inter-model statistics, we show that the most important process for IOD skewness is an asymmetry in the thermocline feedback, whereby SSTAs respond to thermocline depth anomalies more strongly during the positive phase than negative phase. This asymmetric thermocline feedback drives IOD skewness despite positive IODs receiving greater damping from the SCR feedback. In response to global warming, although the thermocline feedback strengthens, its asymmetry between positive and negative IODs weakens. This behaviour change explains the reduction in IOD skewness that many models display under global warming. PMID:25112717

  20. The moderating role of stakeholder pressure in the relationship between CSR practices and financial performance in a globalizing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haleem, Fazli; Farooq, Sami; Boer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Studies based on the role of context and stakeholder pressures on the relationship between CSR practices and financial performance are few and inconclusive. Aimed at contributing to filling this gap, the paper is based on data collected in 2013 from the sixth round of the International Manufactur...

  1. Climate technology transfer at the local, national and global levels: analyzing the relationships between multi-level structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessema Abissa, Fisseha; Tessema Abissa, Fisseha

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationships between multi-leveled decision structures for climate technology transfer through an analysis of top-down macro-policy and bottom-up micro-implementation. It examines how international climate technology transfer policy under the UNFCCC filters down to the

  2. Governance of Offshore IT Outsourcing at Shell Global Functions IT-BAM Development and Application of a Governance Framework to Improve Outsourcing Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Floor; van Hillegersberg, Jos; van Eck, Pascal; van der Kolk, Feiko; Jorissen, Rene

    The lack of effective IT governance is widely recognized as a key inhibitor to successful global IT outsourcing relationships. In this study we present the development and application of a governance framework to improve outsourcing relationships. The approach used to developing an IT governance framework includes a meta model and a customization process to fit the framework to the target organization. The IT governance framework consists of four different elements (1) organisational structures, (2) joint processes between in- and outsourcer, (3) responsibilities that link roles to processes and (4) a diverse set of control indicators to measure the success of the relationship. The IT governance framework is put in practice in Shell GFIT BAM, a part of Shell that concluded to have a lack of management control over at least one of their outsourcing relationships. In a workshop the governance framework was used to perform a gap analysis between the current and desired governance. Several gaps were identified in the way roles and responsibilities are assigned and joint processes are set-up. Moreover, this workshop also showed the usefulness and usability of the IT governance framework in structuring, providing input and managing stakeholders in the discussions around IT governance.

  3. A global, cross cultural study examining the relationship between employee health risk status and work performance metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Ana; Quesada, Jose; Mills, Peter R

    2017-01-01

    Health risk assessments (HRA) are used by many organisations as a basis for developing relevant and targeted employee health and well-being interventions. However, many HRA's have a western-centric focus and therefore it is unclear whether the results can be directly extrapolated to those from non-western countries. More information regarding the differences in the associations between country status and health risks is needed along with a more global perspective of employee health risk factors and well-being overall. Therefore we aimed to i) quantify and compare associations for a number of health risk factors based on country status, and then ii) explore which characteristics can aid better prediction of well-being levels and in turn workplace productivity globally. Online employee HRA data collected from 254 multi-national companies, for the years 2013 through 2016 was analysed (n = 117,274). Multiple linear regression models were fitted, adjusting for age and gender, to quantify associations between country status and health risk factors. Separate regression models were used to assess the prediction of well-being measures related to productivity. On average, the developing countries were comprised of younger individuals with lower obesity rates and markedly higher job satisfaction compared to their developed country counterparts. However, they also reported higher levels of anxiety and depression, a greater number of health risks and lower job effectiveness. Assessment of key factors related to productivity found that region of residency was the biggest predictor of presenteeism and poor pain management was the biggest predictor of absenteeism. Clear differences in health risks exist between employees from developed and developing countries and these should be considered when addressing well-being and productivity in the global workforce.

  4. Gas/aerosol Partitioning Parameterisation For Global Modelling: A Physical Interpretation of The Relationship Between Activity Coefficients and Relative Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, S.; Dentener, F. J.; Lelieveld, J.; Pandis, S. N.

    A computationally efficient model (EQSAM) to calculate gas/aerosol partitioning ofsemi-volatile inorganic aerosol components has been developed for use in global- atmospheric chemistry and climate models; presented at the EGS 2001.We introduce and discuss here the physics behind the parameterisation, upon whichthe EQuilib- rium Simplified Aerosol Model EQSAM is based. The parameterisation,which ap- proximates the activity coefficient calculation sufficiently accurately forglobal mod- elling, is based on a method that directly relates aerosol activitycoefficients to the ambient relative humidity, assuming chemical equilibrium.It therefore provides an interesting alternative for the computationally expensiveiterative activity coefficient calculation methods presently used in thermodynamicgas/aerosol equilibrium mod- els (EQMs). The parameterisation can be used,however, also in dynamical models that calculate mass transfer between theliquid/solid aerosol phases and the gas/phase explicitly; dynamical models oftenincorporate an EQM to calculate the aerosol com- position. The gain of theparameterisation is that the entire system of the gas/aerosol equilibrium partitioningcan be solved non-iteratively, a substantial advantage in global modelling.Since we have already demonstrated at the EGS 2001 that EQSAM yields similarresults as current state-of-the-art equilibrium models, we focus here on a dis- cussionof our physical interpretation of the parameterisation; the identification of theparameters needed is crucial. Given the lag of reliable data, the best way tothor- oughly validate the parameterisation for global modelling applications is theimple- mentation in current state-of-the-art gas/aerosol partitioning routines, whichare embe- ded in e.g. a global atmospheric chemistry transport model, by comparingthe results of the parameterisation against the ones based on the widely used activitycoefficient calculation methods (i.e. Bromley, Kussik-Meissner or Pitzer). Then

  5. Fundamental statistical relationships between monthly and daily meteorological variables: Temporal downscaling of weather based on a global observational dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Philipp; Kaplan, Jed

    2016-04-01

    Accurate modelling of large-scale vegetation dynamics, hydrology, and other environmental processes requires meteorological forcing on daily timescales. While meteorological data with high temporal resolution is becoming increasingly available, simulations for the future or distant past are limited by lack of data and poor performance of climate models, e.g., in simulating daily precipitation. To overcome these limitations, we may temporally downscale monthly summary data to a daily time step using a weather generator. Parameterization of such statistical models has traditionally been based on a limited number of observations. Recent developments in the archiving, distribution, and analysis of "big data" datasets provide new opportunities for the parameterization of a temporal downscaling model that is applicable over a wide range of climates. Here we parameterize a WGEN-type weather generator using more than 50 million individual daily meteorological observations, from over 10'000 stations covering all continents, based on the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) and Synoptic Cloud Reports (EECRA) databases. Using the resulting "universal" parameterization and driven by monthly summaries, we downscale mean temperature (minimum and maximum), cloud cover, and total precipitation, to daily estimates. We apply a hybrid gamma-generalized Pareto distribution to calculate daily precipitation amounts, which overcomes much of the inability of earlier weather generators to simulate high amounts of daily precipitation. Our globally parameterized weather generator has numerous applications, including vegetation and crop modelling for paleoenvironmental studies.

  6. The structural relationships between organizational commitment, global job satisfaction, developmental experiences, work values, organizational support, and person-organization fit among nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Antonio P; Candela, Lori L; Carver, Lara

    2012-07-01

    GUTIERAIM: The aim of this correlational study was to examine the relations between organizational commitment, perceived organizational support, work values, person-organization fit, developmental experiences, and global job satisfaction among nursing faculty. The global nursing shortage is well documented. At least 57 countries have reported critical shortages. The lack of faculty is finally being recognized as a major issue directly influencing the ability to admit and graduate adequate numbers of nurses. As efforts increase to both recruit and retain faculty, the concept of organizational commitment and what it means to them is important to consider. A cross-sectional correlational design was used. The present study investigated the underlying structure of various organizational factors using structural equation modelling. Data were collected from a stratified random sample of nurse faculty during the academic year 2006-2007. The final model demonstrated that perceived organizational support, developmental experiences, person-organization fit, and global job satisfaction positively predicted nurse faculty's organizational commitment to the academic organization. Cross-validation results indicated that the final full SEM is valid and reliable. Nursing faculty administrators able to use mentoring skills are well equipped to build positive relationships with nursing faculty, which in turn, can lead to increased organizational commitment, productivity, job satisfaction, and perceived organizational support, among others. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Assessing the relationship between global warming and mortality: Lag effects of temperature fluctuations by age and mortality categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Weiwei, E-mail: weiwei.yu@qut.edu.au [School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4050, Brisbane (Australia); Mengersen, Kerrie [Discipline of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Hu Wenbiao [School of Population Health and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Guo Yuming [School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4050, Brisbane (Australia); Pan Xiaochuan [School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Tong Shilu, E-mail: s.tong@qut.edu.au [School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4050, Brisbane (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Although interests in assessing the relationship between temperature and mortality have arisen due to climate change, relatively few data are available on lag structure of temperature-mortality relationship, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. This study identified the lag effects of mean temperature on mortality among age groups and death categories using polynomial distributed lag models in Brisbane, Australia, a subtropical city, 1996-2004. For a 1 deg. C increase above the threshold, the highest percent increase in mortality on the current day occurred among people over 85 years (7.2% (95% CI: 4.3%, 10.2%)). The effect estimates among cardiovascular deaths were higher than those among all-cause mortality. For a 1 deg. C decrease below the threshold, the percent increases in mortality at 21 lag days were 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9%, 6.0%) and 3.4% (95% CI: 0.9%, 6.0%) for people aged over 85 years and with cardiovascular diseases, respectively. These findings may have implications for developing intervention strategies to reduce and prevent temperature-related mortality. - Highlights: > A longer lag effects in cold days and shorter lag effects in hot days. > The very old people were most vulnerable to temperature stress. > The cardiovascular mortality was also sensitive to the temperature variation. - In Brisbane, the lag effects lasted longer for cold temperatures, and shorter for hot temperatures. Elderly people and cardiovascular mortality were vulnerable to temperature stress.

  8. The relationship of aging to self-esteem: the relative effects of maturation and role accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, B E

    1996-01-01

    This research examines the relationship of age and two dimensions of self-esteem using a national sample of adults in the United States. The direct effects of age on self-worth and on self-efficacy are compared to the indirect effects of age on these through role accumulation. Findings indicate those over age sixty-five experience heightened levels of self-esteem, especially on self-efficacy, compared to their younger counterparts. However, through the intervening variable of role accumulation, older age is associated with decreases in self-esteem. The implications of these findings are discussed for maturational and role perspectives on the aging self, and a more general theory of self-esteem dimensions.

  9. DOING BUSINESS IN GLOBAL ARENA: AN EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE AND CROSS-CULTURAL ADJUSTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Sri Ramalu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between cultural intelligence (CQ and crosscultural adjustment (CCA using a field study of 332 expat iates in Malaysia. The findings of this study reveal that CQ is a vital cross-cultural competency that facilitates expatriates CCA in international assignment. Specifically, the result of this study reveals that greater general adjustment is related to greater motivational and meta-cognitive CQ. The more successful interaction adjustment is associated with greater motivational, metacognitiveand cognitive CQ. Greater work adjustment is related to greater motivational CQ. Motivational component of CQ is the only dimensions of CQ that is significantly related to all three dimensions of CCA. The findings of this study have significant contribution to the body of knowledge in the cross-cultural management field as well aspractical implication to expatriating firms especially in the area of selection and hiring of international candidates.

  10. Relationships Between Caffeine Intake and Risk for Probable Dementia or Global Cognitive Impairment: The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Ira; Shumaker, Sally A; Snively, Beverly M; Margolis, Karen L; Manson, JoAnn E; Vitolins, Mara Z; Rossom, Rebecca C; Espeland, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Nonhuman studies suggest a protective effect of caffeine on cognition. Although human literature remains less consistent, reviews suggest a possible favorable relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive impairment or dementia. We investigated the relationship between caffeine intake and incidence of cognitive impairment or probable dementia in women aged 65 and older from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. All women with self-reported caffeine consumption at enrollment were included (N = 6,467). In 10 years or less of follow-up with annual assessments of cognitive function, 388 of these women received a diagnosis of probable dementia based on a 4-phase protocol that included central adjudication. We used proportional hazards regression to assess differences in the distributions of times until incidence of probable dementia or composite cognitive impairment among women grouped by baseline level of caffeine intake, adjusting for risk factors (hormone therapy, age, race, education, body mass index, sleep quality, depression, hypertension, prior cardiovascular disease, diabetes, smoking, and alcohol consumption). Women consuming above median levels (mean intake = 261mg) of caffeine intake for this group were less likely to develop incident dementia (hazard ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [0.56, 0.99], p = .04) or any cognitive impairment (hazard ratio = 0.74, confidence interval [0.60, 0.91], p = .005) compared to those consuming below median amounts (mean intake = 64mg) of caffeine for this group. Our findings suggest lower odds of probable dementia or cognitive impairment in older women whose caffeine consumption was above median for this group and are consistent with the existing literature showing an inverse association between caffeine intake and age-related cognitive impairment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  11. Relationship between the clinical global impression of severity for schizoaffective disorder scale and established mood scales for mania and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoz, Ibrahim; Fu, Dong-Jing; Bossie, Cynthia A; Sheehan, John J; Alphs, Larry

    2013-08-15

    This analysis explored the relationship between ratings on HAM-D-17 or YMRS and those on the depressive or manic subscale of CGI-S for schizoaffective disorder (CGI-S-SCA). This post hoc analysis used the database (N=614) from two 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of paliperidone ER versus placebo in symptomatic subjects with schizoaffective disorder assessed using HAM-D-17, YMRS, and CGI-S-SCA scales. Parametric and nonparametric regression models explored the relationships between ratings on YMRS and HAM-D-17 and on depressive and manic domains of the CGI-S-SCA from baseline to the 6-week end point. A clinically meaningful improvement was defined as a change of 1 point in the CGI-S-SCA score. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. Multiple linear regression models suggested that a 1-point change in the depressive domain of CGI-S-SCA corresponded to an average 3.6-point (SE=0.2) change in HAM-D-17 score. Similarly, a 1-point change in the manic domain of CGI-S-SCA corresponded to an average 5.8-point (SE=0.2) change in YMRS score. Results were confirmed using local and cumulative logistic regression models in addition to equipercentile linking. Lack of subjects scoring over the complete range of possible scores may limit broad application of the analyses. Clinically meaningful score changes in depressive and manic domains of CGI-S-SCA corresponded to approximately 4- and 6-point score changes on HAM-D-17 and YMRS, respectively, in symptomatic subjects with schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Plenary - safety culture and its relationship to economic value in the competitive market: a global perspective. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellman, Michael B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: These are times of great optimism within the nuclear power industry-the likes of which it has not experienced in more than two decades. Increased demand for electricity and continued environmental concerns have highlighted the worldwide need for a sustainable nuclear industry and have opened public dialogue about the possibility of the construction of new nuclear power plants. The recent power crisis in California and power shortages elsewhere have heightened this renewed interest in nuclear power. This new optimism within the industry must be backed by solid public support for the industry to once again flourish. This support will only come from absolute public confidence in the safety of nuclear power and the industry's ability to operate responsibly. Safety and safety culture are the foundation for the future growth of this industry, and thus, it is the overall theme of this conference and the major theme to be addressed by this distinguished slate of plenary speakers. Introductions: Thomas J. Lewis, Director, Administrations, Nuclear Management Company and Assistant General Chair. Welcome and Opening Remarks: James Lake, President, American Nuclear Society, Richard Abdoo, Chair of the Board and CEO, Wisconsin Electric Company. Setting the Stage for Safety Culture and Its Relationship to Economic Value: Michael B. Sellman, General Chair, 2001 Annual Meeting. Presentations: Commissioner Jeffrey Merrifield, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Professor Shunsuke Kondo, University of Tokyo-Japan; David W. Bersoff, Director of the Yankelovich Monitor. (authors)

  13. Towards the Development of Global Nano-Quantitative Structure–Property Relationship Models: Zeta Potentials of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Toropov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zeta potential indirectly reflects a charge of the surface of nanoparticles in solutions and could be used to represent the stability of the colloidal solution. As processes of synthesis, testing and evaluation of new nanomaterials are expensive and time-consuming, so it would be helpful to estimate an approximate range of properties for untested nanomaterials using computational modeling. We collected the largest dataset of zeta potential measurements of bare metal oxide nanoparticles in water (87 data points. The dataset was used to develop quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR models. Essential features of nanoparticles were represented using a modified simplified molecular input line entry system (SMILES. SMILES strings reflected the size-dependent behavior of zeta potentials, as the considered quasi-SMILES modification included information about both chemical composition and the size of the nanoparticles. Three mathematical models were generated using the Monte Carlo method, and their statistical quality was evaluated (R2 for the training set varied from 0.71 to 0.87; for the validation set, from 0.67 to 0.82; root mean square errors for both training and validation sets ranged from 11.3 to 17.2 mV. The developed models were analyzed and linked to aggregation effects in aqueous solutions.

  14. Quantitative genome-wide genetic interaction screens reveal global epistatic relationships of protein complexes in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Babu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale proteomic analyses in Escherichia coli have documented the composition and physical relationships of multiprotein complexes, but not their functional organization into biological pathways and processes. Conversely, genetic interaction (GI screens can provide insights into the biological role(s of individual gene and higher order associations. Combining the information from both approaches should elucidate how complexes and pathways intersect functionally at a systems level. However, such integrative analysis has been hindered due to the lack of relevant GI data. Here we present a systematic, unbiased, and quantitative synthetic genetic array screen in E. coli describing the genetic dependencies and functional cross-talk among over 600,000 digenic mutant combinations. Combining this epistasis information with putative functional modules derived from previous proteomic data and genomic context-based methods revealed unexpected associations, including new components required for the biogenesis of iron-sulphur and ribosome integrity, and the interplay between molecular chaperones and proteases. We find that functionally-linked genes co-conserved among γ-proteobacteria are far more likely to have correlated GI profiles than genes with divergent patterns of evolution. Overall, examining bacterial GIs in the context of protein complexes provides avenues for a deeper mechanistic understanding of core microbial systems.

  15. Relationship between self-concept and attitudinal brand loyalty in luxury fashion purchase: A study of selected global brands on the Indian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinderdeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brands can be helpful in strengthening a person’s identity. Hence, consumers use brands as instruments for reflecting their personal image and individual goals. The self-concept as a vital component of emotional aspects, boosts attitudinal loyalty towards a brand. The luxury fashion market of India offers great opportunities to marketers. India's luxury market is projected to reach $14.72 billion by 2015 from an estimated $8.21 billion in 2014.The present study aims to examine the empirical relationship of self-concept and attitudinal brand loyalty in the context of female consumer-luxury fashion brand relationships. A single cross sectional survey of 240 female customers of five global brands, including Zara, Armani, Guess, Versace and Calvin Klein, from the State of Punjab (India was conducted. Regression and Z-Test were used to analyze the data. The self-concept positively enhances female consumers’ attitudinal brand loyalty. The perceived influence of self-concept and attitudinal brand loyalty is high in luxury fashion purchase. Therefore, the process of shaping a marketing strategy should include different dimensions of self-concept, namely, enhancement, contribution, admiration and extension. Furthermore, a marketing strategy needs to strengthen brand superiority, brand performance and brand synchronization to win attitudinal loyalty in luxury fashion industry.

  16. On the global relationships between photosynthetic water-use efficiency, leaf mass per unit area and atmospheric demand in woody and herbaceous plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, M. G.; Fox, T. A.; Gulias, J.; Galmes, J.; Hikosaka, K.; Wright, I.; Flexas, J.; Awada, T.; Rodriguez-Calcerrada, J.; Tobita, H.

    2013-12-01

    A global dataset was compiled including woody and herbaceous C3 species from forest, Mediterranean and grassland-shrubland ecosystems, to elucidate the dependency of photosynthetic water-use efficiency on vapour pressure deficit (D) and leaf traits. Mean leaf mass per unit area (LMA) was lower and mass-based leaf nitrogen content (Nmass) was higher in herbaceous species. Higher mean stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E) and net CO2 assimilation rate under light saturating conditions (Amax) were observed in herbs, but photosynthetic and intrinsic water-use efficiencies (WUE = Amax/E and WUEi = Amax/gs) were lower than in woody plants. Woody species maintained stricter stomatal regulation of water loss at low D, resulting in a steeper positive and linear relationship between log D and log E. Herbaceous species possessed very high gs at low D, resulting in higher ratio of substomatal to atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ci/ca) and E, but lower WUE and WUEi than woody plants, despite higher Amax. The lower WUE and higher rates of gas exchange were most pronounced in herbs with low LMA and high Nmass. Photosynthetic water use also differed between species from grassland-shrubland and Mediterranean or forest environments. Water-use efficiency showed no relationship with either D or LMA in grassland-shrubland species, but showed a negative relationship with D in forest and chaparral. The distinct photosynthetic water-use of woody and herbaceous plants is consistent with the opportunistic growth strategy of herbs and the more conservative growth strategy of woody species. Further research is recommended to examine the implications of these functional group and ecosystem differences in the contexts of climate and atmospheric change.

  17. Global Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakat, Livia L.; Lorenz, Melanie P.; Ramsey, Jase R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of cultural intelligence (CQ) on the job performance of global managers. Design/methodology/approach: – In total, 332 global managers were surveyed from multinational companies operating in Brazil. The mediating effect of job...... satisfaction was tested on the CQ-job performance relationship. Findings: – The findings suggest that job satisfaction transmits the effect of CQ to job performance, such that global managers high in CQ exhibit more job satisfaction in an international setting, and therefore perform better at their jobs....... Practical implications: – Results imply that global managers should increase their CQ in order to improve their job satisfaction and ultimately perform better in an international context. Originality/value: – The authors make three primary contributions to the international business literature. First...

  18. Globalization and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK NAYYAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy within countries might exercise some checks and balances on markets and globalization. The essential argument is that the relationship between globalization and democracy is dialectical and does not conform to ideological caricatures.

  19. Assessment of diffusional anisotropy of the corpus callosum in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts. Relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient ratio and global cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Makiko; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Amano, Yasuo; Takagi, Ryo; Nakahara, Madoka; Kumazaki, Tatsuo; Cho, Keiichi; Okada, Susumu

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate diffusional anisotropy of white matter in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts using diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging (DW-EPI), and to examine the relationship between diffusional anisotropy and global cognitive ability as assessed by the mini-mental status examination (MMSE). In particular, we focused on the parameter changes for the corpus callosum as a marker for disconnection of the associative cortices. Twenty-nine patients divided into 2 cognitive level groups (low MMSE, n=16; high MMSE, n=13) and 8 normal controls were examined with a GE 1.5 T Horizon system. Three series of DW-EPI images were obtained using the following epidw g ·psd TM sequence: TR/TE=6500/120 ms, single shot, 6.5 mm slice thickness and 1.5 mm gap transaxial sections of the whole brain, with b-factors of 0 and 710 along each x- and y-axial direction. The parametric maps for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in each direction, ADC(x) and ADC(y), and their rate map (ADC rate=ADC(x)/ADC(y)) were created on a pixel-by-pixel basis. ROI data were extracted from images of the corpus callosum and bilateral optic radiata. As a result, the ADC(x) was markedly larger for corpus callosum than that for optic radiata, whereas the ADC(y) showed an inverse trend, attributable to regional differences of diffusional anisotropy. In corpus callosum, however, the ADC(y) values were observed to increase with the level of disease severity, resulting in a decrease of the ADC rate. Notably, there was a significant difference between the three groups for callosal genu, with a slight positive correlation between the ADC rate and the MMSE scores. Our study suggests that a relationship exists between the reduction of diffusional anisotropy in callosal genu and the global cognitive impairment seen in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts. (K.H.)

  20. Assessing the Variability in the Relationship Between the Particulate Backscattering Coefficient and the Chlorophyll a Concentration From a Global Biogeochemical-Argo Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieux, Marie; Uitz, Julia; Bricaud, Annick; Organelli, Emanuele; Poteau, Antoine; Schmechtig, Catherine; Gentili, Bernard; Obolensky, Grigor; Leymarie, Edouard; Penkerc'h, Christophe; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Claustre, Hervé

    2018-02-01

    Characterizing phytoplankton distribution and dynamics in the world's open oceans requires in situ observations over a broad range of space and time scales. In addition to temperature/salinity measurements, Biogeochemical-Argo (BGC-Argo) profiling floats are capable of autonomously observing at high-frequency bio-optical properties such as the chlorophyll fluorescence, a proxy of the chlorophyll a concentration (Chla), the particulate backscattering coefficient (bbp), a proxy of the stock of particulate organic carbon, and the light available for photosynthesis. We analyzed an unprecedented BGC-Argo database of more than 8,500 multivariable profiles collected in various oceanic conditions, from subpolar waters to subtropical gyres. Our objective is to refine previously established Chla versus bbp relationships and gain insights into the sources of vertical, seasonal, and regional variability in this relationship. Despite some regional, seasonal and vertical variations, a general covariation occurs at a global scale. We distinguish two main contrasted situations: (1) concomitant changes in Chla and bbp that correspond to actual variations in phytoplankton biomass, e.g., in subpolar regimes; (2) a decoupling between the two variables attributed to photoacclimation or changes in the relative abundance of nonalgal particles, e.g., in subtropical regimes. The variability in the bbp:Chla ratio in the surface layer appears to be essentially influenced by the type of particles and by photoacclimation processes. The large BGC-Argo database helps identifying the spatial and temporal scales at which this ratio is predominantly driven by one or the other of these two factors.

  1. The relationship between maternal education and mortality among women giving birth in health care institutions: Analysis of the cross sectional WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülmezoglu A Metin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one-third of a million women die each year from pregnancy-related conditions. Three-quarters of these deaths are considered avoidable. Millennium Development Goal five calls for a reduction in maternal mortality and the establishment of universal access to high quality reproductive health care. There is evidence of a relationship between lower levels of maternal education and higher maternal mortality. This study examines the relationship between maternal education and maternal mortality among women giving birth in health care institutions and investigates the association of maternal age, marital status, parity, institutional capacity and state-level investment in health care with these relationships. Methods Cross-sectional information was collected on 287,035 inpatients giving birth in 373 health care institutions in 24 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, between 2004-2005 (in Africa and Latin America and 2007-2008 (in Asia as part of the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health. Analyses investigated associations between indicators measured at the individual, institutional and country level and maternal mortality during the intrapartum period: from admission to, until discharge from, the institution where women gave birth. There were 363 maternal deaths. Results In the adjusted models, women with no education had 2.7 times and those with between one and six years of education had twice the risk of maternal mortality of women with more than 12 years of education. Institutional capacity was not associated with maternal mortality in the adjusted model. Those not married or cohabiting had almost twice the risk of death of those who were. There was a significantly higher risk of death among those aged over 35 (compared with those aged between 20 and 25 years, those with higher numbers of previous births and lower levels of state investment in health care. There were also additional effects

  2. Global Mindset in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the call for identification of organizational contingencies related to global mindset, exploration of different forms of global mindset and their relationship with global strategies (Osland, Bird, Mendenhall & Osland, 2006). To this end, this paper explores global mindset...... development in the context of a 3-year single case study of middle manager microfoundations of global mindset in a Danish multinational corporation working with deliberate global mindset capability development as a vehicle for strategy execution and facilitation of global performance. A force field analysis...

  3. Using an Explicit Emission Tagging Method in Global Modeling of Source-Receptor Relationships for Black Carbon in the Arctic: Variations, Sources and Transport Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Singh, Balwinder; Zhang, Rudong; Ma, Po-Lun; Qian, Yun; Ghan, Steven J.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2014-11-27

    We introduce an explicit emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model to quantify source-region-resolved characteristics of black carbon (BC), focusing on the Arctic. Explicit tagging of BC source regions without perturbing the emissions makes it straightforward to establish source-receptor relationships and transport pathways, providing a physically consistent and computationally efficient approach to produce a detailed characterization of the destiny of regional BC emissions and the potential for mitigation actions. Our analysis shows that the contributions of major source regions to the global BC burden are not proportional to the respective emissions due to strong region-dependent removal rates and lifetimes, while the contributions to BC direct radiative forcing show a near-linear dependence on their respective contributions to the burden. Distant sources contribute to BC in remote regions mostly in the mid- and upper troposphere, having much less impact on lower-level concentrations (and deposition) than on burden. Arctic BC concentrations, deposition and source contributions all have strong seasonal variations. Eastern Asia contributes the most to the wintertime Arctic burden. Northern Europe emissions are more important to both surface concentration and deposition in winter than in summer. The largest contribution to Arctic BC in the summer is from Northern Asia. Although local emissions contribute less than 10% to the annual mean BC burden and deposition within the Arctic, the per-emission efficiency is much higher than for major non-Arctic sources. The interannual variability (1996-2005) due to meteorology is small in annual mean BC burden and radiative forcing but is significant in yearly seasonal means over the Arctic. When a slow aging treatment of BC is introduced, the increase of BC lifetime and burden is source-dependent. Global BC forcing-per-burden efficiency also increases primarily due to changes in BC vertical distributions. The

  4. Relationship of weight, height, and body mass index with fracture risk at different sites in postmenopausal women: the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet E; Flahive, Julie; Hosmer, David W; Watts, Nelson B; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Saag, Kenneth G; Roux, Christian; Rossini, Maurizio; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Nieves, Jeri W; Netelenbos, J Coen; March, Lyn; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Hooven, Frederick H; Greenspan, Susan L; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Cooper, Cyrus; Chapurlat, Roland D; Boonen, Steven; Anderson, Frederick A; Adami, Silvano; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2014-02-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for fracture in postmenopausal women. Height and obesity have also been associated with increased fracture risk at some sites. We investigated the relationships of weight, BMI, and height with incident clinical fracture in a practice-based cohort of postmenopausal women participating in the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Data were collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 years. For hip, spine, wrist, pelvis, rib, upper arm/shoulder, clavicle, ankle, lower leg, and upper leg fractures, we modeled the time to incident self-reported fracture over a 3-year period using the Cox proportional hazards model and fitted the best linear or nonlinear models containing height, weight, and BMI. Of 52,939 women, 3628 (6.9%) reported an incident clinical fracture during the 3-year follow-up period. Linear BMI showed a significant inverse association with hip, clinical spine, and wrist fractures: adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) per increase of 5 kg/m(2) were 0.80 (0.71-0.90), 0.83 (0.76-0.92), and 0.88 (0.83-0.94), respectively (all p fractures, linear weight showed a significant positive association: adjusted HR per 5-kg increase 1.05 (1.02-1.07) (p fractures, only linear height was significantly associated: adjusted HRs per 10-cm increase were 0.85 (0.75-0.97) (p = 0.02) and 0.73 (0.57-0.92) (p = 0.009), respectively. For pelvic and rib fractures, the best models were for nonlinear BMI or weight (p = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively), with inverse associations at low BMI/body weight and positive associations at high values. These data demonstrate that the relationships between fracture and weight, BMI, and height are site-specific. The different associations may be mediated, at least in part, by effects on bone mineral density, bone structure and geometry, and patterns of falling. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  5. Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: two different ways of relating to oneself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Kristin D; Vonk, Roos

    2009-02-01

    This research examined self-compassion and self-esteem as they relate to various aspects of psychological functioning. Self-compassion entails treating oneself with kindness, recognizing one's shared humanity, and being mindful when considering negative aspects of oneself. Study 1 (N=2,187) compared self-compassion and global self-esteem as they relate to ego-focused reactivity. It was found that self-compassion predicted more stable feelings of self-worth than self-esteem and was less contingent on particular outcomes. Self-compassion also had a stronger negative association with social comparison, public self-consciousness, self-rumination, anger, and need for cognitive closure. Self-esteem (but not self-compassion) was positively associated with narcissism. Study 2 (N=165) compared global self-esteem and self-compassion with regard to positive mood states. It was found that the two constructs were statistically equivalent predictors of happiness, optimism, and positive affect. Results from these two studies suggest that self-compassion may be a useful alternative to global self-esteem when considering what constitutes a healthy self-stance.

  6. Obesity, appearance, and psychosocial adaptation in young African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Hyman, Deborah; Schlundt, David G; Herman-Wenderoth, Leanna; Bozylinski, Khristine

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the contributions of weight status, skin tone, peer teasing, and parental appraisals of child's size to self-esteem and psychosocial adjustment in overweight African American children. Overweight to very obese 5- to 10-year-old African American children (N = 117) completed measures of self-esteem, skin tone satisfaction, peer teasing, and body size perception. Caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist and rated their child's body size. Overweight was associated with low appearance self-esteem, and body size dissatisfaction with low global self-worth and low appearance self-esteem in children 8 and older. Appearance self-esteem but not global self-worth was lower in girls than boys. Parental perception of child's size as heavier than average was associated with low child appearance self-esteem. Heavier children also had more parental report of behavior and psychosocial problems, but their scores were in the nonclinical range. Child skin tone dissatisfaction was associated with low global self-worth. Weight-related peer teasing was associated with low self-esteem. The relationship between obesity and self-esteem in African American children depends upon age, gender, and children's experiences with teasing and parental evaluation of their size. Other factors, like skin tone satisfaction, contribute to a child's sense of self-worth.

  7. The psychological impact of aging on sexuality and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsberg, S A

    2000-01-01

    Aging has a powerful impact on the quality of relationships and sexual functioning. The psychological impact of aging after midlife is a particularly timely topic given improved medical and psychological understanding of sexuality in both women and men, as well as more effective treatment for age-related sexual dysfunctions. It is time to dispel the stereotype of the midlife relationship as the continuation of a traditional heterosexual marriage with grown or almost grown children in order to more effectively address emotional and sexual issues arising in relationships. Regardless of the length or nature of the relationship, however, its quality is enhanced by emotional intimacy, autonomy without too much distance, an ability to manage stress and distractions by external factors, and achieving a satisfying sexual equilibrium. Perception of the quality of the primary relationship and sexuality is influenced by the other factors in a person's life. Thus, the relationship must be examined and issues must be addressed taking these external factors into consideration. Among the most powerful external factors is one's occupation or avocation, as it tends to strongly influence one's sense of identity, self-esteem, and self-worth in all areas of life. To understand and treat effects of aging on sexuality, it is important to address the three components of sexual desire: drive, beliefs/values, and motivation, as well as the sexual equilibrium within the primary relationship. It is also essential to understand how the physiological changes in male and female sexual functioning affect desire and equilibrium. Other health-related changes that occur with aging must be recognized and addressed, including the fact that the oldest of old women will outlive their corresponding male cohort. Treatment implications for these issues are discussed.

  8. Maturational differences in physical self- perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Alisa G; Fawkner, Samantha G; Knowles, Anne-Marie; Stephenson, Claire

    2007-11-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between physical self-perceptions (PSPs), maturation, and physical activity and compared the strength of the relationships of biological and chronological age with PSPs in early adolescent girls (N = 208; mean age = 11.83 +/- 0.39 years). Participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, the Children's Physical Self-Perception Profile, and the Pubertal Development Scale. Results indicated that PSPs were significantly and moderately correlated with physical activity. There were no differences in physical activity between maturation stages. Girls who were in the early stages of maturation had significantly more positive perceptions of body attractiveness and physical self-worth than girls in the mid stages of maturation. There was no evidence of a relationship between PSPs and chronological age. This study provided further support for the relationship between PSPs and physical activity and the relationship between maturation and aspects of PSPs. In this age group, maturation does not appear to be related to physical activity or the PSPs most strongly influential on physical activity behavior.

  9. The relationship between waterpipe and cigarette smoking in low and middle income countries: cross-sectional analysis of the global adult tobacco survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jawad

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is receiving growing attention due to accumulating evidence suggesting increasing prevalence in some populations and deleterious health effects. Nevertheless, the relationship between waterpipe and cigarette smoking remain unknown, particularly in low and middle income countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed waterpipe and cigarette smoking using data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a household survey of adults aged ≥15 years conducted between 2008-2010 in LMICs. Factors associated with waterpipe and cigarette use were assessed using multiple logistic regression. Factors associated with the quantity of waterpipe and cigarette smoking were assessed using log-linear regression models. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, gender, residence, education, occupation and smokeless tobacco use, waterpipe smoking was significantly higher among cigarette users than in non-cigarette users in India (5.6% vs. 0.6%, AOR 13.12, 95% CI 7.41-23.23 and Russia (6.7% vs. 0.2%, AOR 27.73, 95% CI 11.41-67.43, but inversely associated in Egypt (2.6% vs. 3.4%, AOR 0.21, 95% CI 0.15-0.30 and not associated in Vietnam (13.3% vs. 4.7%, AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.74-1.23. Compared to non-cigarette smokers, waterpipe smokers who also used cigarettes had more waterpipe smoking sessions per week in Russia (1.3 vs. 2.9, beta coefficient 0.31, 95% CI 0.06, 0.57, but less in Egypt (18.2 vs. 10.7, beta coefficient -0.45, 95% CI -0.73, -0.17 and Vietnam (102.0 vs. 79.3, beta coefficient -0.31, 95% CI -0.56, -0.06 and similar amounts in India (29.4 vs. 32.6, beta coefficient -0.12, 95% CI -0.46, 0.22. CONCLUSIONS: Waterpipe smoking is low in most LMICs but important country-level differences in use, including concurrent cigarette smoking, should be taken into account when designing and evaluating tobacco control interventions.

  10. Global Account Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Wulff, Vlad Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Global account management (GAM) has become a critical issue for many multinational corporations that compete in a fast changing global market environment. In this article, we approach GAM from a benchlearning perspective, synthesize selected literature and examine case studies in order to underline...... the importance of multilevel relationships in strategic business-to-business relationships. The purpose of this study is to address various issues related to multilevel relationships in strategic partnerships (e.g. the recruitment of the global account manager and his supporting team, turf wars and compensation...

  11. The relationship between motor competence, physical fitness and self-perception in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedul-Kjelsås, V; Sigmundsson, H; Stensdotter, A-K; Haga, M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the current research was to explore the relationship between motor competence, physical fitness and self-perception, and to study to which extent this relationship may vary by gender. A sample of 67 children (mean age 11.46 years, SD 0.27) completed Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC), the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) and the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF) to assess self-perception, motor competence and physical fitness. The SPPC was stronger related to total score on TPF than to total score on MABC. However, when looking at boys and girls separately, this result was found for the boys only. In the group in general, total scores on both TPF and MABC correlated significantly with three of the domains of SPPC (social acceptance, athletic competence and physical appearance) and general self-worth. This relationship varied by gender. Interestingly, TPF was highest correlated with perception of athletic competence in boys but with perception of social acceptance in girls. A high and significant correlation was found between physical fitness and motor competence for both genders. The results indicated a strong relationship between physical fitness, motor competence and self-perception in children that varied by gender. This implies that all these factors are essential contributions in order to facilitate participation in physical activity in children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The California Central Coast Research Partnership: Building Relationships, Partnerships and Paradigms for University-Industry Research Collaboration. Appendix A. Telecommunications Asset Management in A Global Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griggs, Ken

    2003-01-01

    .... The mission of this project is threefold: To develop a blueprint or design concept for a telecommunications asset management environment that identifies, tracks, and codes global communications assets, brings them into services, and makes...

  13. Energy globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierno Andres

    1997-01-01

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum

  14. Global marketing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John Rance; Galina Zhiltsova

    2009-01-01

    The reasoning issue of this work is to research and define the efficient methods of global marketing control. The report is focused on the following aspects: the importance of the control systems in global marketing environment, the relationship between planning and controlling, types and the

  15. Managing Global Customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Yip (George)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMultinational companies need to manage their relationships with multinational customers in a globally integrated approach. This paper provides a systematic framework for developing and implementing such global customer management programmes. The paper is based on Chapter 1 of George S.

  16. Developing Global Transformational Leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsey, Jase R.; Rutti, Raina M.; Lorenz, Melanie P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant increases in training and development of global managers, little is known about the precursors of transformational leadership in Multilatinas. While prior cross-cultural literature suggests that being an autocratic leader is ideal in Multilatinas, using transformational...... leadership theory, we argue that global leaders of Multilatinas embrace a more humanistic approach to leadership because of the importance of relationships between leaders and their followers. Additionally, we argue that global leaders with high levels of cultural intelligence will have high levels...

  17. Transformation of financial services companies in the global knowledge economy : how to map and measure customer value created with relationship capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, Antonius Petrus de

    2001-01-01

    This research focused on how a model in support of an interactive strategy decision-making process within the context of the global Knowledge Economy could be developed and applied within the constraints of time and an overload of data and information available. The focus was on constructing a

  18. A relationship between regional and global GCM surface air temperature changes and its application to an integrated model of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, M.; Ganopolski, A.V.; Krabec, J.; Olendrzyski, K.; Petoukhov, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    This study outlines the advantages of combining the Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse affect (IMAGE, an integrated quick turnaround, global model of climate change) with a spatially detailed General Circulation Model (GCM), in this case developed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI) in Hamburg. The outcome is a modified IMAGE model that simulates the MPI GCM projections of annual surface air temperature change globally and regionally. IMAGE thus provides policy analysts with integrated and regional information about global warming for a great range of policy-dependent greenhouse gas emission or concentration scenarios, while preserving its quick turnaround time. With the help of IMAGE various regional temperature response simulations have been produced. None of these simulations has yet been performed by any GCM. The simulations reflect the uncertainty range of a future warming. In this study the authors deal only with a simplified subsystem of such an integrated model of climate change, which begins with policy options, neglects the societal component in the greenhouse gas accounting tool, and ends with temperature change as the only output of the climate model. The model the authors employ is the Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect (IMAGE, version 1.0), which was developed by the Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM). IMAGE is a scientifically based, parameterized simulation policy model designed to calculate the historical and future effects of greenhouse gases on global surface and surface air temperatures and sea-level rise

  19. The Relationships Between Skin Color and Self-Perceived Global, Physical, and Sexual Attractiveness, and Self-Esteem for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, T. Joel

    1996-01-01

    Examined skin color in relation to self-esteem and self-perceived physical, sexual, and global attractiveness in 91 African Americans. Findings support the hypothesis that fair-skinned females have higher self-esteem and self-ratings of attractiveness than dark-skinned females, and that dark-skinned males have higher or no different ratings from…

  20. Daisaku Ikeda's Curriculum of Soka Education: Creating Value through Dialogue, Global Citizenship, and "Human Education" in the Mentor-Disciple Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulah, Jason; Ito, Takao

    2012-01-01

    This essay review focuses on Daisaku Ikeda (b. 1928) and his curriculum of Soka, or value-creating, education present in two works: "Choose Life: A Dialogue" (Toynbee & Ikeda, 1976) and "Thoughts on Education for Global Citizenship" (Ikeda, 1996b). In reviewing these works, the authors trace the biographical roots of Ikeda's educational philosophy…

  1. Contingencies of Self-Worth in Early Adolescence: The Antecedent Role of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Sofie; Doumen, Sarah; Germeijs, Veerle; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Contingent self-esteem (i.e., the degree to which one's self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular conditions) has been shown to predict a wide range of psychosocial and academic problems. This study extends previous research on contingent self-esteem by examining the predictive role of perceived parenting dimensions in a sample of early…

  2. Exploring the Etiology of Perfectionism and Perceptions of Self-Worth in Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Siobhain; Duda, Joan L.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the main and interactive effects of perceived parental expectations and perceived parental criticism on 180 young talented athletes' perfectionistic tendencies and level and reported fluctuation in self-esteem. A potential quadratic effect of perceived parental expectations on the targeted dependent variables was also tested.…

  3. Social networking online and personality of self-worth : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Dong; Baumeister, Roy F.

    2016-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) offer new avenues for interpersonal communication and self-presentation. We report a meta-analysis of 80 studies yielding 143 effect sizes on the effect of self-esteem, narcissism, and loneliness on SNS use. Total SNS use was higher among people low in self-esteem,

  4. Self-worth therapy used to help older people manage depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-05

    Depression is very common in older people in western countries. It can be treated with anti-depressants but the safety of drug therapy in older people is questionable due to age-related changes in the way drugs are stored and eliminated by the body.

  5. Biofuels and the globalization of risk. The biggest change in North-South relationships since colonialism?; Biotreibstoff. Eine Idee wird zum Bumerang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James [ESRC Innogen Centre, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Johannesburg Univ. (South Africa)

    2012-11-01

    A world, driven by bio-energy: green, clean, sustainable and peaceful? The dream has been come to an end. The author of the book under consideration reports unemotionally and objectively on the drastic consequences of the cultivation and sales of bio fuels. The author describes the ''green'' turnaround as a modern form of colonization resulting in a further intensification of the global north-south conflict.

  6. The Canadian systemic sclerosis oral health study II: the relationship between oral and global health-related quality of life in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Murray; Hudson, Marie; Tatibouet, Solène; Steele, Russell; Lo, Ernest; Gravel, Sabrina; Gyger, Geneviève; El Sayegh, Tarek; Pope, Janet; Fontaine, Audrey; Masetto, Ariel; Matthews, Debora; Sutton, Evelyn; Thie, Norman; Jones, Niall; Copete, Maria; Kolbinson, Dean; Markland, Janet; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio; Robinson, David; Gornitsky, Mervyn

    2015-04-01

    Both oral and global health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are markedly impaired in SSc. In this study we aimed to determine the degree of association between oral HRQoL and global HRQoL in SSc. Subjects were recruited from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group registry. Global HRQoL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Trust 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and oral HRQoL with the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP). The Medsger Disease Severity Score was used to determine organ involvement. Multivariate regression models determined the independent association of the OHIP with the SF-36 after adjusting for confounders. This study included 156 SSc subjects. The majority (90%) were women, with a mean age of 56 years, mean disease duration 13.8 years (s.d. 8.5) and 29% of the subjects had dcSSc. Mean total OHIP score was 40.8 (s.d. 32.4). Mean SF-36 mental component summary (MCS) score was 49.7 (s.d. 11.1) and physical component summary (PCS) score was 37.0 (s.d. 10.7). In adjusted analyses, the total OHIP score was significantly associated with the SF-36 MCS and PCS, accounting for 9.7% and 5.6% of their respective variances. Measures of disease severity were not related to OHIP score. Oral HRQoL in SSc is independently associated with global HRQoL. Oral HRQoL, however, is not related to physician-assessed disease severity. This suggests that physicians may be disregarding issues related to oral health. HRQoL is an additional dimension of HRQoL not captured by generic instruments such as the SF-36. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The Evolving Relationship Between Technology and National Security in China: Innovation, Defense Transformation, and China’s Place in the Global Technology Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Stockmann, Xiao Qiang. Changing Media, Changing China , New York: Oxford University Press, (01 2011) Dieter Ernst. Indigenous Innovation and...2211 China , science, technology, dual use, defense, security, innovation REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10...ABSTRACT Final Report: The Evolving Relationship Between Technology and National Security in China : Innovation , Defense Transformation, and China’s

  8. Globally Happy: Individual Globalization, Expanded Capacities, and Subjective Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang; Chang, Heng-Hao; Chen, Wan-chi

    2012-01-01

    Deep integration of Asia into the global society necessarily affects wellbeing of local populations. This study proposes a notion of "extend capacities" to explain the relationships between individual globalization and subjective wellbeing among Asian populations in a context of increasing global integration. Using Amartya Sen's theory…

  9. Relationship between global severity of patients with Alzheimer's disease and costs of care in Spain; results from the co-dependence study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbà, J; Kaskens, L; Lacey, L

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to examine how patients' global severity with Alzheimer's disease (AD) relates to costs of care and explore the incremental effects of global severity measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale on these costs for patients in Spain. The Codep-EA study is an 18-multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study among patients (343) with AD according to the CDR score and their caregivers in Spain. The data obtained included (in addition to clinical measures) also socio-demographic data concerning the patient and its caregiver. Cost analyses were based on resource use for medical care, social care, caregiver productivity losses, and informal caregiver time reported in the resource utilization in dementia (RUD). Lite instrument and a complementary questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to model the effects of global severity and other socio-demographic and clinical variables on cost of care. The mean (standard deviation) costs per patient over 6 months for direct medical, social care, indirect and informal care costs, were estimated at €1,028.1 (1,655.0), €843.8 (2,684.8), €464.2 (1,639.0) and €33,232.2 (30,898.9), respectively. Dementia severity, as having a CDR score 0.5, 2, or 3 with CDR score 1 being the reference group were all independently and significantly associated with informal care costs. Whereas having a CDR score of 2 was also significantly related with social care costs, a CDR score of 3 was associated with most cost components including direct medical, social care, and total costs, all compared to the reference group. The costs of care for patients with AD in Spain are substantial, with informal care accounting for the greatest part. Dementia severity, measured by CDR score, showed that with increasing severity of the disease, direct medical, social care, informal care and total costs augmented.

  10. Modelling of the concentration-time relationship based on global diffusion-charge transfer parameters in a flow-by reactor with a 3D electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, J.L.; Sosa, E.; Carreno, G.; Ponce-de-Leon, C.; Oropeza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    A concentration versus time relationship model based on the isothermal diffusion-charge transfer mechanism was developed for a flow-by reactor with a three-dimensional (3D) reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) electrode. The relationship was based on the effectiveness factor (η) which lead to the simulation of the concentration decay at different electrode polarisation conditions, i.e. -0.1, -0.3 and -0.59 V versus SCE; the charge transfer process was used for the former and mix and a mass transport control was used for the latter. Charge transfer and mass transport parameters were estimated from experimental data using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Linear Voltammetry (LV) techniques, respectively

  11. Modelling of the concentration-time relationship based on global diffusion-charge transfer parameters in a flow-by reactor with a 3D electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, J.L. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Quimica, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, A.P. 55-534, C.P. 09340, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Sosa, E. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Investigacion en Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central 152, C.P. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Carreno, G. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Facultad de Ingenieria en Geomatica e Hidraulica, Av. Juarez 77, C.P. 36000, Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico); Ponce-de-Leon, C. [Electrochemical Engineering Group, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: capla@soton.ac.uk; Oropeza, M.T. [Centro de Graduados e Investigacion del Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Blvd. Industrial, s/n, C.P. 22500, Tijuana B.C. (Mexico)

    2006-05-25

    A concentration versus time relationship model based on the isothermal diffusion-charge transfer mechanism was developed for a flow-by reactor with a three-dimensional (3D) reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) electrode. The relationship was based on the effectiveness factor ({eta}) which lead to the simulation of the concentration decay at different electrode polarisation conditions, i.e. -0.1, -0.3 and -0.59 V versus SCE; the charge transfer process was used for the former and mix and a mass transport control was used for the latter. Charge transfer and mass transport parameters were estimated from experimental data using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Linear Voltammetry (LV) techniques, respectively.

  12. Relationships between high-stakes clinical skills exam scores and program director global competency ratings of first-year pediatric residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. Langenau

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Responding to mandates from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME and American Osteopathic Association (AOA, residency programs have developed competency-based assessment tools. One such tool is the American College of Osteopathic Pediatricians (ACOP program directors’ annual report. High-stakes clinical skills licensing examinations, such as the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE, also assess competency in several clinical domains.The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between program director competency ratings of first-year osteopathic residents in pediatrics and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores from 2005 to 2009.The sample included all 94 pediatric first-year residents who took COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE and whose training was reviewed by the ACOP for approval of training between 2005 and 2009. Program director competency ratings and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores (domain and component were merged and analyzed for relationships.Biomedical/biomechanical domain scores were positively correlated with overall program director competency ratings. Humanistic domain scores were not significantly correlated with overall program director competency ratings, but did show moderate correlation with ratings for interpersonal and communication skills. The six ACGME or seven AOA competencies assessed empirically by the ACOP program directors’ annual report could not be recovered by principal component analysis; instead, three factors were identified, accounting for 86% of the variance between competency ratings.A few significant correlations were noted between COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores and program director competency ratings. Exploring relationships between different clinical skills assessments is inherently difficult because of the heterogeneity of tools used and overlap of constructs within the AOA and ACGME core competencies.

  13. Relationships between high-stakes clinical skills exam scores and program director global competency ratings of first-year pediatric residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenau, Erik E.; Pugliano, Gina; Roberts, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Responding to mandates from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and American Osteopathic Association (AOA), residency programs have developed competency-based assessment tools. One such tool is the American College of Osteopathic Pediatricians (ACOP) program directors’ annual report. High-stakes clinical skills licensing examinations, such as the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE), also assess competency in several clinical domains. Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between program director competency ratings of first-year osteopathic residents in pediatrics and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores from 2005 to 2009. Methods The sample included all 94 pediatric first-year residents who took COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE and whose training was reviewed by the ACOP for approval of training between 2005 and 2009. Program director competency ratings and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores (domain and component) were merged and analyzed for relationships. Results Biomedical/biomechanical domain scores were positively correlated with overall program director competency ratings. Humanistic domain scores were not significantly correlated with overall program director competency ratings, but did show moderate correlation with ratings for interpersonal and communication skills. The six ACGME or seven AOA competencies assessed empirically by the ACOP program directors’ annual report could not be recovered by principal component analysis; instead, three factors were identified, accounting for 86% of the variance between competency ratings. Discussion A few significant correlations were noted between COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores and program director competency ratings. Exploring relationships between different clinical skills assessments is inherently difficult because of the heterogeneity of tools used and overlap of constructs within the AOA

  14. Forms of global governence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Kharkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global governance as a concept defines the meaning of contemporary world politics both as a discipline and as reality. Interdependent and globalized world requires governance, and a global government has not been formed yet. The theoretical possibility of global governance without global government is proved and justified. The purpose of this article is to analytically identify possible forms of global governance. Three such forms of global governance are identified: hierarchical, market and network. In a hierarchy the governance is due to the asymmetry of power between the parties. Market control happens via anonymous pricing mechanism. Network, in contrast to the market is characterized by a closer value link between the actors, but unlike the hierarchical relationship actors are free to leave the network. Global governance takes three forms and is being implemented by different actors. To determine the most efficient form of global governance is impossible. Efficiency depends on the match between a form and an object of government. It should be noted that meta governance is likely to remain a monopoly of institutionally strong states in global governance.

  15. Globalization and Income Inequality Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, Florian; Fuest, Clemens; Potrafke, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    This paper re-examines the link between globalization and income inequality. We use data for 140 countries over the period 1970-2014 and employ an IV approach to deal with the endogeneity of globalization measures. We find that the link between globalization and income inequality differs across different groups of countries. There is a robust positive relationship between globalization and inequality in the transition countries including China and most countries of Middle and Eastern Europe. ...

  16. Global warning, global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  17. The role of the intra-daily SST variability in the Indian monsoon variability and monsoon-ENSO-IOD relationships in a global coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terray, Pascal; Kamala, Kakitha; Masson, Sebastien; Madec, Gurvan [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, CNRS/IRD/UPMC/MNHN, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Sahai, A.K. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India); Luo, Jing-Jia; Yamagata, Toshio [RIGC, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    The impact of diurnal SST coupling and vertical oceanic resolution on the simulation of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and its relationships with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events are studied through the analysis of four integrations of a high resolution Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), but with different configurations. The only differences between the four integrations are the frequency of coupling between the ocean and atmosphere for the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) parameter (2 vs. 24 h coupling) and/or the vertical oceanic resolution (31 vs. 301 levels) in the CGCM. Although the summer mean tropical climate is reasonably well captured with all the configurations of the CGCM and is not significantly modified by changing the frequency of SST coupling from once to twelve per day, the ISM-ENSO teleconnections are rather poorly simulated in the two simulations in which SST is exchanged only once per day, independently of the vertical oceanic resolution used in the CGCM. Surprisingly, when 2 h SST coupling is implemented in the CGCM, the ISM-ENSO teleconnection is better simulated, particularly, the complex lead-lag relationships between the two phenomena, in which a weak ISM occurs during the developing phase of an El Nino event in the Pacific, are closely resembling the observed ones. Evidence is presented to show that these improvements are related to changes in the characteristics of the model's El Nino which has a more realistic evolution in its developing and decaying phases, a stronger amplitude and a shift to lower frequencies when a 2-hourly SST coupling strategy is implemented without any significant changes in the basic state of the CGCM. As a consequence of these improvements in ENSO variability, the lead relationships between Indo-Pacific SSTs and ISM rainfall resemble the observed patterns more closely, the ISM-ENSO teleconnection is strengthened during boreal summer and ISM rainfall power spectrum

  18. Relationship between variability of the semidiurnal tide in the Northern Hemisphere mesosphere and quasi-stationary planetary waves throughout the global middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate possible couplings between planetary waves and the semidiurnal tide (SDT, this work examines the statistical correlations between the SDT amplitudes observed in the Northern Hemisphere (NH mesosphere and stationary planetary wave (SPW with wavenumber S=1 (SPW1 amplitudes throughout the global stratosphere and mesosphere. The latter are derived from the Aura-MLS temperature measurements. During NH summer-fall (July–October, the mesospheric SDT amplitudes observed at Svalbard (78° N and Eureka (80° N usually do not show persistent correlations with the SPW1 amplitudes in the opposite hemisphere. Although the SDT amplitudes observed at lower latitudes (~50–70° N, especially at Saskatoon (52° N, are often shown to be highly and positively correlated with the SPW1 amplitudes in high southern latitudes, these correlations cannot be sufficiently explained as evidence for a direct physical link between the Southern Hemisphere (SH winter-early spring SPW and NH summer-early fall mesospheric SDT. This is because the migrating tide's contribution is usually dominant in the mid-high latitude (~50–70° N NH mesosphere during the local late summer-early fall (July–September. The numerical correlation is dominated by similar low-frequency variability or trends between the amplitudes of the NH SDT and SH SPW1 during the respective equinoctial transitions. In contradistinction, during NH winter (November–February, the mesospheric SDT amplitudes at northern mid-high latitudes (~50–80° N are observed to be significantly and positively correlated with the SPW1 amplitudes in the same hemisphere in most cases. Because both the SPW and migrating SDT are large in the NH during the local winter, a non-linear interaction between SPW and migrating SDT probably occurs, thus providing a global non-migrating SDT. This is consistent with observations of SDT in Antarctica that are large in summer than in winter. It is suggested that

  19. Relationships Between Caffeine Intake and Risk for Probable Dementia or Global Cognitive Impairment: The Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker, Sally A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Margolis, Karen L.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Rossom, Rebecca C.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nonhuman studies suggest a protective effect of caffeine on cognition. Although human literature remains less consistent, reviews suggest a possible favorable relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive impairment or dementia. We investigated the relationship between caffeine intake and incidence of cognitive impairment or probable dementia in women aged 65 and older from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. Methods: All women with self-reported caffeine consumption at enrollment were included (N = 6,467). In 10 years or less of follow-up with annual assessments of cognitive function, 388 of these women received a diagnosis of probable dementia based on a 4-phase protocol that included central adjudication. We used proportional hazards regression to assess differences in the distributions of times until incidence of probable dementia or composite cognitive impairment among women grouped by baseline level of caffeine intake, adjusting for risk factors (hormone therapy, age, race, education, body mass index, sleep quality, depression, hypertension, prior cardiovascular disease, diabetes, smoking, and alcohol consumption). Results: Women consuming above median levels (mean intake = 261mg) of caffeine intake for this group were less likely to develop incident dementia (hazard ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [0.56, 0.99], p = .04) or any cognitive impairment (hazard ratio = 0.74, confidence interval [0.60, 0.91], p = .005) compared to those consuming below median amounts (mean intake = 64mg) of caffeine for this group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest lower odds of probable dementia or cognitive impairment in older women whose caffeine consumption was above median for this group and are consistent with the existing literature showing an inverse association between caffeine intake and age-related cognitive impairment. PMID:27678290

  20. A systematic review of the application and utility of geographical information systems for exploring disease-disease relationships in paediatric global health research: the case of anaemia and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimone, Ashley Mariko; Perumal, Nandita; Cole, Donald C

    2013-01-10

    Malaria and anaemia are important health problems among children globally. Iron deficiency anaemia may offer protection against malaria infection and iron supplementation may increase the risk of malaria-related hospitalization and mortality. The nature and mechanism of these relationships, however, remain largely unresolved, resulting in concern and uncertainty around policies for non-selective iron supplementation in malaria endemic areas. Use of geographical information systems (GIS) to investigate this disease-disease interaction could contribute important new information for developing safe and effective anaemia and malaria interventions. To assess the current state of knowledge we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Our primary objective was to qualitatively assess the application and utility of geographical concepts or spatial analyses in paediatric global health research. The secondary objective was to identify geographical factors that may be associated with anaemia and malaria prevalence or incidence among children 0-5 years of age living in low- and middle-income countries. Evaluation tools for assessing the quality of geographical data could not be found in the peer-reviewed or grey literature, and thus adapted versions of the STROBE (Strengthening The Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) and GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methods were used to create reporting, and overall evidence quality scoring systems. Among the 20 included studies, we found that both malaria and anaemia were more prevalent in rural communities compared to urban areas. Geographical factors associated with malaria prevalence included regional transmission stability, and proximity to a mosquito breeding area. The prevalence of anaemia tended to vary inversely with greater or poorer access to community services such as piped water. Techniques for investigating geographic relationships ranged from

  1. A systematic review of the application and utility of geographical information systems for exploring disease-disease relationships in paediatric global health research: the case of anaemia and malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimone Ashley Mariko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria and anaemia are important health problems among children globally. Iron deficiency anaemia may offer protection against malaria infection and iron supplementation may increase the risk of malaria-related hospitalization and mortality. The nature and mechanism of these relationships, however, remain largely unresolved, resulting in concern and uncertainty around policies for non-selective iron supplementation in malaria endemic areas. Use of geographical information systems (GIS to investigate this disease-disease interaction could contribute important new information for developing safe and effective anaemia and malaria interventions. To assess the current state of knowledge we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Our primary objective was to qualitatively assess the application and utility of geographical concepts or spatial analyses in paediatric global health research. The secondary objective was to identify geographical factors that may be associated with anaemia and malaria prevalence or incidence among children 0–5 years of age living in low- and middle-income countries. Evaluation tools for assessing the quality of geographical data could not be found in the peer-reviewed or grey literature, and thus adapted versions of the STROBE (Strengthening The Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methods were used to create reporting, and overall evidence quality scoring systems. Among the 20 included studies, we found that both malaria and anaemia were more prevalent in rural communities compared to urban areas. Geographical factors associated with malaria prevalence included regional transmission stability, and proximity to a mosquito breeding area. The prevalence of anaemia tended to vary inversely with greater or poorer access to community services such as piped water. Techniques for investigating geographic

  2. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  3. A study protocol to investigate the relationship between dietary fibre intake and fermentation, colon cell turnover, global protein acetylation and early carcinogenesis: the FACT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corfe, Bernard M; Williams, Elizabeth A; Bury, Jonathan P; Riley, Stuart A; Croucher, Lisa J; Lai, Daphne YL; Evans, Caroline A

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies, notably EPIC, have shown a descrease in colorectal cancer risk associated with increased fibre consumption. Whilst the underlying mechanisms are likely to be multifactorial, production of the short-chain fatty-acid butyrate fro butyratye is frequently cited as a major potential contributor to the effect. Butyrate inhibits histone deacetylases, which work on a wide range of proteins over and above histones. We therefore hypothesized that alterations in the acetylated proteome may be associated with a cancer risk phenotype in the colorectal mucosa, and that such alterations are candidate biomarkers for effectiveness of fibre interventions in cancer prevention. There are two principal arms to this study: (i) a cross-sectional study (FACT OBS) of 90 subjects recruited from gastroenterology clinics and; (ii) an intervention trial in 40 subjects with an 8 week high fibre intervention. In both studies the principal goal is to investigate a link between fibre intake, SCFA production and global protein acetylation. The primary measure is level of faecal butyrate, which it is hoped will be elevated by moving subjects to a high fibre diet. Fibre intakes will be estimated in the cross-sectional group using the EPIC Food Frequency Questionnaire. Subsidiary measures of the effect of butyrate on colon mucosal function and pre-cancerous phenotype will include measures of apoptosis, apoptotic regulators cell cycle and cell division. This study will provide a new level of mechanistic data on alterations in the functional proteome in response to the colon microenvironment which may underwrite the observed cancer preventive effect of fibre. The study may yield novel candidate biomarkers of fibre fermentation and colon mucosal function. Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN90852168

  4. A study protocol to investigate the relationship between dietary fibre intake and fermentation, colon cell turnover, global protein acetylation and early carcinogenesis: the FACT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croucher Lisa J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies, notably EPIC, have shown a descrease in colorectal cancer risk associated with increased fibre consumption. Whilst the underlying mechanisms are likely to be multifactorial, production of the short-chain fatty-acid butyrate fro butyratye is frequently cited as a major potential contributor to the effect. Butyrate inhibits histone deacetylases, which work on a wide range of proteins over and above histones. We therefore hypothesized that alterations in the acetylated proteome may be associated with a cancer risk phenotype in the colorectal mucosa, and that such alterations are candidate biomarkers for effectiveness of fibre interventions in cancer prevention. Methods an design There are two principal arms to this study: (i a cross-sectional study (FACT OBS of 90 subjects recruited from gastroenterology clinics and; (ii an intervention trial in 40 subjects with an 8 week high fibre intervention. In both studies the principal goal is to investigate a link between fibre intake, SCFA production and global protein acetylation. The primary measure is level of faecal butyrate, which it is hoped will be elevated by moving subjects to a high fibre diet. Fibre intakes will be estimated in the cross-sectional group using the EPIC Food Frequency Questionnaire. Subsidiary measures of the effect of butyrate on colon mucosal function and pre-cancerous phenotype will include measures of apoptosis, apoptotic regulators cell cycle and cell division. Discussion This study will provide a new level of mechanistic data on alterations in the functional proteome in response to the colon microenvironment which may underwrite the observed cancer preventive effect of fibre. The study may yield novel candidate biomarkers of fibre fermentation and colon mucosal function. Trial Registration Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN90852168

  5. Givetian ostracods of the Candás Formation (Asturias, North-western Spain): taxonomy, stratigraphy, palaeoecology, relationship to global events and palaeogeographical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, Sebastien; Milhau, Bruno; Vreulx, Michel; Posada, Luis-Carlos Sánchez De

    2016-01-27

    Asturian ostracods of the Givetian carbonate Candás Formation are documented for the first time from the Peran-Perlora and Carranques reference sections. More than 1,200 specimens were extracted from 44 samples by means of the hot acetolysis method. In all, 75 taxa are described herein, of which 21 are formally described and one, Evlanella peranensis Maillet n. sp., is new. All the taxa are marine benthic and belong to the Eifelian Mega-Assemblage. The assemblages recognized are representative of semi-restricted to shallow open-marine palaeoenvironments above the storm wave base. The stratigraphical distribution of the taxa shows a strong faunal renewal in the top of the Candás Formation. Long-ranging taxa found at the base of the formation, of which many are known from the base of the Middle Devonian, disappear within the base of the member C and are replaced above, around the Middle/Upper Givetian boundary, by more cosmopolitan taxa characteristic of the Frasnian. The lower half of the member C is also characterized both by unstable environments and occurrence of some short-ranging opportunistic ostracod taxa. This renewal within shallow water ostracod communities is probably a consequence of the global Taghanic Biocrisis, leading world-widely to extinctions in several faunal groups. Faunal affinities with Givetian ostracod taxa reported in other areas of the world reflect the commonly accepted palaeogeographical patterns. Close relations between the Cantabrian Zone (NW-Spain), the Armorican Massif (W-France), the Mouthoumet Massif (S-France) and North Africa (Morocco and Algeria) suggest a narrow oceanic space between the western European terranes and the northern Gondwanan margin that involves an advanced phase of closure of the Medio-European Ocean.

  6. Who am I? The relationship between self-concept uncertainty and materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguti, Valeria; Bokeyar, Alexandra L

    2014-10-01

    It is well accepted that materialism may result in a number of negative consequences, hence the importance of improving its understanding. In this paper, we propose that materialism negatively relates to self-concept uncertainty. Uncertainty about oneself is aversive and those feeling uncertain may use the possession of material objects as a way to reduce the uncertainty. Inasmuch as material objects can serve as concrete signs of self-worth, self-concept uncertainty can therefore relate to more materialism. Over two studies, one in Australia and the other in the US, with a total of 390 participants, our research demonstrates that lower clarity about one's self-concept associates with higher levels of materialism. While this result holds for both genders, this relationship is considerably stronger for women compared to men. We also find that lower self-concept clarity relates to higher compulsive buying. We further demonstrate that materialism relates to higher positive moods during shopping, and also relates to higher negative moods after shopping, more notably negative moods towards what was purchased. This effect is significant even when controlling for general affective states. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Supportive Romantic Relationships as Predictors of Resilience Against Early Adolescent Maternal Negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, David E; Hessel, Elenda T; Allen, Joseph P

    2017-02-01

    Negativity in parent-child relationships during adolescence has been viewed as a risk factor for teens' future personal and interpersonal adjustment. This study examined support from romantic partners and close friends during late adolescence as protective against maternal negativity experienced during early adolescence. A combination of observational, self-report, and peer-report measures were obtained from a community sample of 97 youth (58 % female), their mothers, closest friends, and romantic partners assessed at ages 13, 18, and 20. Moderating effects suggested a protective effect of romantic support against maternal negativity across a variety of psychosocial outcomes, including depressive symptoms, self-worth, social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior. Protective effects were found even after controlling for initial levels of outcome behavior and observed support from close friends throughout adolescence. Receiving support from a romantic partner may provide teens with new, positive ways of coping with adversity and help them avoid more serious distress that may be predicted from maternal negativity when such support is not available.

  8. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  9. First time molecular detection and phylogenetic relationships of torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 in domestic pigs in Uganda: further evidence for a global distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brink Matilda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1 and 2 (TTSuV2 are small, single-stranded circular DNA viruses belonging to the Anelloviridae family. Available studies clearly show that both viruses are widely distributed in the pig populations in America, Europe and Asia, although the impact of the infection is still unclear. Currently, the situation in domestic pig populations on the African continent is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible presence of the two viruses in domestic pigs in Uganda, and describe the phylogenetic relationships to those in the rest of the world. Results Ninety-five serum samples from six districts in Uganda were used, and PCR using TTSuV1 and 2 specific primers for the UTR region was run for viral nucleic acid detection. The positive samples were sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses performed in order to compare the Ugandan sequences with sequences from other parts of the world. The prevalence of TTSuV1 and 2 in the selected domestic pigs were estimated at 16.8% and 48.4% respectively, with co-infection found in 13.7%. The sequence identity was 90-100% between the Ugandan TTSuV1; and 63-100% between the Ugandan TTSuV2 sequences. Conclusion This is the first report on the presence of TTSuV1 and 2 in domestic pigs in Uganda. These results highlight the importance of screening for emerging viruses given the globalisation of human activities.

  10. Global Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    at the mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  11. Global usability

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  12. Variabilidade sazonal da relação entre a radiação fotossinteticamente ativa e a radiação global na bacia do rio Doce, Estado de Minas Gerais = Seasonal variability of the relationship between the photosynthetically active radiation and the global radiation at the river Doce basin, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Steidle Neto

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da Radiação Fotossinteticamente Ativa (RFA é importante para diferentes áreas relacionadas à fisiologia vegetal e ciências agrárias. Modelos de estimativa de RFA a partir da Radiação Global (Rg são extremamente úteis, visto que a Rg é convencionalmente medida nas estações meteorológicas. Assim, analisou-se a variabilidade sazonal da relação RFA/Rg em cinco áreas localizadas na bacia do rio Doce, Estado de Minas Gerais, considerando-se os períodos secos e chuvosos dos anos de 2001 a 2004. As relações RFA/Rg obtidas para os períodos secos e chuvosos, assim como para todos os dados, apresentaram concordância com as relações determinadas por diversos pesquisadores em diferentes áreas do mundo. Analisando-se os resultados, constatou-se que, de maneira geral,as relações RFA/Rg tendem a ser superiores durante os períodos chuvosos comparativamente aos secos. Por este estudo, pôde-se concluir que existe variação interanual desta relação, demonstrando assim a necessidade de se considerar esta variabilidade para estimaradequadamente a RFA a partir da Rg. The knowledge of the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR is important to different areas of vegetal physiology and agricultural sciences. Estimation models of the PAR based on the Global Radiation (GR are extremely useful, since the GR is conventionally measured atthe meteorological stations. Thus, the seasonal variability of the relationship PAR/GR was analyzed in five areas located at the river Doce basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, considering the dry and wet periods of the years 2001 to 2004. The relationships PAR/GR obtained for the dry and wet periods, and also to all data, presented agreement with those ones determined by several researchers in different areas of the world. Results showed that the relationshipsPAR/GR generally tend to be greater during the wet periods when compared with the dry ones. By this work, it could be concluded that

  13. Idiosyncratic Deals and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between idiosyncratic deals and organizational commitment. In particular, it examines how two individual differences which reflect self-worth (core self-evaluations and age) moderate that relationship. We predicted that employees with feelings of high self-worth will expect and will feel entitled to these…

  14. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates

  15. Global Reporting Initiative (GRI as recognized guidelines for sustainability reporting by Spanish companies on the IBEX 35: homogeneity in their framework and added value in the relationship with financial entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ortiz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this paper is to show that within the different ways to report the sustainability information, there is a mostly acceptance of voluntary initiatives to establish a homogeneous framework for transparency. Design/Methodology/Approach: In this paper we analyse the non financial reporting disclosed in the last two years (2010 and 2011 by all the companies listed on the Spanish IBEX 35 in 2010. The methodology has been based on the study of the non financial reporting available in the web sites of the analysed companies. Findings: The conclusions obtained highlight that the Global Reporting Initiative sustainability reporting framework has been mostly adopted by the studied firms as a global accepted standard in this non financial reporting and as the most important guidelines to standardize these issues. From this same descriptive point of view, we conclude that non financial entities which disclose have increased or maintained in a majority their banks´ balance sheet positions. Originality/Value: Disclosure of non financial information has been a miscellaneous of different practices depending on multiple variables. Nowadays this paper seeds some light in this subject in the way to the comparison and homogeneity of sustainability reporting and its relationship with other firms´ characteristics. Research limitations: This study is based on acceptance as a first step although must be completed with a deeper analysis of the content and its adequacy to the stakeholders´ information requirements. So, this is a descriptive analysis as a first step to go on researching in this field.

  16. Self-perception in a clinical sample of gender variant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijn, Anouk Balleur-van; Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    Gender variance (GV) in childhood has a negative impact on the self-concept of children in the general population and can lead to mental health problems and even suicidal ideation in adulthood. This study explored the self-concept of clinically referred gender variant children and examined potential risk factors. The Self-Perception Profile for Children was administered to 147 children, who were referred to a gender identity clinic. Their parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist and the Gender Identity Questionnaire to assess the degree of GV. The referred children were at risk of developing a negative self-concept; more specifically gender variant girls had low scores on 'global self-worth', 'physical appearance' and 'behavioural conduct' compared to Dutch norms for girls. Gender variant boys had low scores on 'global self-worth', 'scholastic competence', 'athletic competence' and 'physical appearance' compared to Dutch norms for boys. Within the group of referred children, sex differences, but no age effects, were found. The referred girls felt more competent than the referred boys on 'athletic competence' and 'scholastic functioning'. For both boys and girls poor peer relations had a significant negative relationship with self-concept and more GV was related to a lower global self-worth. Clinically referred gender variant children seemed vulnerable to developing a negative self-concept. Poor peer relations and extreme GV might be mediating variables. Interventions might focus on enhancing acceptance of the environment and improving social skills of gender variant children.

  17. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Ru...

  18. Global Mindset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Global Mindset (GM) – the way to think about the global reality – is on the agenda of multinational companies concomitant with the increase in global complexity, uncertainty and diversity. In spite of a number of studies, the concept is still fluid and far from a managerial.......e. the capability to sense (quickly), reflect (constructively) and act purposefully (for mutual benefit). A case on an MNC is used at the end to show the organizational manifestations of a GM....

  19. Environmental protection - global and regional relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehnke, B.

    1992-01-01

    In the broadest sense, environmental protection is a task of extraordinary urgency, needed to conserve water, soil and air in a state which preserves the health of flora and fauna. In the foreseeable future, there will be widespread changes leading to the substantial decimation of mankind, unless men themselves, i.e. those in responsible positions in the industrial nations, take immediate serious steps, supported by a high level of resources, to ensure their own survival. The following measures are necessary in order to avert the impending catastrophe: 1. Radical reduction of CO 2 , methane and FCC emissions to stop the greenhouse effect and the growth of the ozone hole. 2. Removal of CO 2 and methane from the atmosphere. 3. Radical reduction of the birth-rate. 4. Prevention of further growth in desert and steppe regions and reclamation of new fertile areas. 5. Development of technical systems for producing large quantities of cheap energy, to stop the greenhouse effect and supply fresh water for the irrigation of steppe and desert areas. Apart from exploitation of alternative energy sources, which will not themselves suffice, nuclear fusion and nuclear power should be extended and developed. (orig.) [de

  20. Global warming and prairie wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poiani, K.A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model

  1. Evaluation of haplotype diversity of Achatina fulica (Lissachatina) [Bowdich] from Indian sub-continent by means of 16S rDNA sequence and its phylogenetic relationships with other global populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyagari, Vijaya Sai; Sreerama, Krupanidhi

    2017-08-01

    Achatina fulica (Lissachatina fulica) is one of the most invasive species found across the globe causing a significant damage to crops, vegetables, and horticultural plants. This terrestrial snail is native to east Africa and spread to different parts of the world by introductions. India, a hot spot for biodiversity of several endemic gastropods, has witnessed an outburst of this snail population in several parts of the country posing a serious threat to crop loss and also to human health. With an objective to evaluate the genetic diversity of this snail, we have sampled this snail from different parts of India and analyzed its haplotype diversity by means of 16S rDNA sequence information. Apart from this, we have studied the phylogenetic relationships of the isolates sequenced in the present study in relation with other global populations by Bayesian and Maximum-likelihood approaches. Of the isolates sequenced, haplotype 'C' is the predominant one. A new haplotype 'S' from the state of Odisha was observed. The isolates sequenced in the present study clustered with its conspecifics from the Indian sub-continent. Haplotype network analyses were also carried out for studying the evolution of different haplotypes. It was observed that haplotype 'S' was associated with a Mauritius haplotype 'H', indicating the possibility of multiple introductions of A. fulica to India.

  2. Gendering Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The current global financial situation bluntly and brutally brings home the fact that the global and local are closely connected in times of opportunity as well as crises. The articles in this issue of Asia Insights are about ontra-action between Asia, particularly China, and the Nordic countries...

  3. Developing Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is the first qualitative micro case study of one aspect of globalization: personal networks as a concrete outcome of development assistance spending. The empirical findings related in this paper present circumstantial evidence that Japanese foreign aid has contributed to globalization...

  4. Global Uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    Antologien handler om "demokratiproblemer i den globale sammenhæng" (del I) og "demokratiproblemer i uddannelse og for de offentligt ansatte" (del II), bundet sammen af et mellemstykke, der rækker ud mod begge poler både det globale og det lokale ved at knytte det til forholdet mellem marked...

  5. Global Mindsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives seeks to tackle a topic that is relatively new in research and practice, and is considered by many to be critical for firms seeking to conduct global business. It argues that multiple mindsets exist (across and within organizations), that they operate...... in a global context, and that they are dynamic and undergo change and action. Part of the mindset(s) may depend upon place, situation and context where individuals and organizations operate. The book will examine the notion of "mindset" is situational and dynamic, especially in a global setting, why...... it is important for future scholars and managers and how it could be conceptualized. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives is split into two major sections; the first examines where the literature currently is with respect to the knowledge in the field and what conceptual frameworks guide the thinking...

  6. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  7. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  8. Shadow Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  9. Global Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Is 21st-century Rome a global city? Is it part of Europe's core or periphery? This volume examines the “real city” beyond Rome's historical center, exploring the diversity and challenges of life in neighborhoods affected by immigration, neoliberalism, formal urban planning, and grassroots social...... movements. The contributors engage with themes of contemporary urban studies–the global city, the self-made city, alternative modernities, capital cities and nations, urban change from below, and sustainability. Global Rome serves as a provocative introduction to the Eternal City and makes an original...

  10. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  11. From cooperation to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to success. In recent years joint international associations, licensing, co-production agreements, joint research programs, exploration of consortia and other cooperative relationships between two or more corporations with potential have increased. We notice a cooperation tendency among small-sized companies, especially among those from the developing countries.

  12. Global Operations Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the current context of global economic liberalisation and technological advancements, industrial companies are less likely to generate value in the traditional vertically integrated chain. Instead, they are doing so by means of elaborate cross-border and cross-organisational networks. As a rule......, these networks are configured on a global basis and consist of diverse and interdependent affiliates (linked both through ownership and non-equity relationships), which are engaged in an exchange of goods, services and information. The Scandinavian context is no exception to this trend. Nevertheless......, international comparative studies providing comprehensive insights from it are still rare. With the objective of bridging this gap, Global Operations Networks (GONE) project (sponsored by the Danish Research Council) brought together numerous academic and industrial partners from Denmark, Sweden and Finland...

  13. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  14. Global health and foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health.

  15. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...... of innovation" understanding of learning. Narula and Smith reconcile an important paradox. On the one hand, locations and firms are increasingly interdependent through supranational organisations, regional integration, strategic alliances, and the flow of investments, technologies, ideas and people...

  16. Another globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of ...

  17. Gendered globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  18. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  19. The Relationship of Bone Mineral Density in Men with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Classified According to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Combined Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Assessment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai-Iesato, Yoriko; Kawata, Naoko; Tada, Yuji; Iesato, Ken; Matsuura, Yukiko; Yahaba, Misuzu; Suzuki, Toshio; Ikari, Jun; Yanagawa, Noriyuki; Kasahara, Yasunori; West, James; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Objective Osteoporosis, which is now recognized as a major comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), must be diagnosed by appropriate methods. The aims of this study were to clarify the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) and COPD-related clinical variables and to explore the association of BMD with the updated Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification in men. Methods We enrolled 50 Japanese men with clinically stable COPD who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), pulmonary function testing, and computerized tomography (CT) and who had completed a questionnaire (COPD assessment test [CAT]). We determined the association between the T-score and other tested parameters and compared the BMD of patients in each GOLD category. Results Twenty-three of the 50 patients (46.0%) were diagnosed with osteopenia, and 7 (14.0%) were diagnosed with osteoporosis. The BMD findings were significantly correlated with the CAT score, forced expiratory volume in 1 second percentage predicted (FEV 1 % predicted), low attenuation volume percentage (LAV%), and percentage of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels (%CSA) on CT images. Notably, the median T-score of the GOLD category D participants was significantly lower than that of the participants in each of the other categories (A [-0.98], B [-1.06], C [-1.05], and D [-2.19], pCOPD. The BMD of GOLD category D patients was the lowest of all of the patients evaluated, and category D patients may benefit from active intervention for osteoporosis.

  20. What girls won't do for love: human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infections risk among young African-American women driven by a relationship imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiford, Jerris L; Seth, Puja; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-05-01

    Rates of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to increase among African-American youth. Adolescents who have a stronger identity in relation to others (relational identity) rather than to themselves (self-identity) may view intimate relationships as imperative to a positive self-concept, which may lead to risky sexual behavior and abuse. Therefore, the present study assessed the associations among a relationship imperative and HIV/STI-related risk factors and behaviors. Participants were 715 African-American adolescent females, aged 15 to 21 years. They completed measures that assessed how important a relationship was to them and HIV-related risk factors and behaviors. Participants also provided vaginal swab specimens for STI testing. Multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for covariates, were conducted. Females who endorsed a relationship imperative (29%), compared to those who did not, were more likely to report: unprotected sex, less power in their relationships, perceived inability to refuse sex, anal sex, sex while their partner was high on alcohol/drugs, and partner abuse. Furthermore, participants with less power, recent partner abuse, and a perceived ability to refuse sex were more likely to test STI positive. These results indicate that if African-American adolescent females believe a relationship is imperative, they are more likely to engage in riskier sexual behaviors. Additionally, less perceived power and partner abuse increases their risk for STIs. HIV/STI prevention programs should target males and females and address healthy relationships, sense of self-worth, self-esteem and the gender power imbalance that may persist in the community along with HIV/STI risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The curvilinear relationship between work pressure and momentary task performance: the role of state and trait core self-evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmans, Joeri; Debusscher, Jonas; Dóci, Edina; Spanouli, Andromachi; De Fruyt, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Whereas several studies have demonstrated that core self-evaluations (CSE)-or one's appraisals about one's own self-worth, capabilities, and competences-relate to job outcomes, less is known about the mechanisms underlying these relationships. In the present study, we address this issue by examining the role of within- and between-person variation in CSE in the relationship between work pressure and task performance. We hypothesized that (a) work pressure relates to task performance in a curvilinear way, (b) state CSE mediates the curvilinear relationship between work pressure and task performance, and (c) the relationship between work pressure and state CSE is moderated by trait CSE. Our hypotheses were tested via a 10-day daily diary study with 55 employees in which trait CSE was measured at baseline, while work pressure, task performance, and state CSE were assessed on a daily basis. Bayesian multilevel path analysis showed that work pressure affects task performance via state CSE, with state CSE increasing as long as the employee feels that (s)he is able to handle the work pressure, while it decreases when the level of work pressure exceeds the employees' coping abilities. Moreover, we found that for people low on trait CSE, the depleting effect of work pressure via state CSE happens for low levels of work pressure, while for people high in trait CSE the depleting effect is located at high levels of work pressure. Together, our findings suggest that the impact of work pressure on task performance is driven by a complex interplay of between- and within-person differences in CSE.

  2. Global Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  3. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...... and unabated. Like these ‘absolute’ measures, our ‘centrist’ inequality indicators, the Krtscha measure and an intermediate Gini, also register a pronounced increase in global inequality, albeit, in the case of the latter, with a decline during 2005 to 2010. A critical question posed by our findings is whether...

  4. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries....... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...

  5. Global Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, P.

    2009-05-01

    IYA2009 is a global collaboration between almost 140 nations and more than 50 international organisations sharing the same vision. Besides the common brand, mission, vision and goals, IAU established eleven cornerstones programmes to support the different IYA2009 stakeholder to organize events, activities under a common umbrella. These are global activities centred on specific themes and are aligned with IYA2009's main goals. Whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven Cornerstones are key elements in the success of IYA2009. However, the process of implementing global projects across cultural boundaries is challenging and needs central coordination to preserve the pre-established goals. During this talk we will examine the ups and downs of coordinating such a project and present an overview of the principal achievements for the Cornerstones so far.

  6. Global rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosquist, K.

    1980-01-01

    Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)

  7. Another globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of the architecture of the international institutional system and the promotion of those economical policies which must ensure the stability world-wide economy and the amelioration of the international equity.

  8. Measuring Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Torben M.; Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate technique of factor analysis is used to combine several indicators of economic integration and international transactions into a single measure or index of globalization. The index is an alternative to the simple measure of openness based on trade, and it produces a ranking of countries over time for 23 OECD countries. Ireland is ranked as the most globalized country during the 1990?s, while the UK was at the top during the 1980?s. Some of the most notable changes in the rank...

  9. Going global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, W.; Poirier, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the global market for independent power projects and the increased competition and strategic alliances that are occurring to take advantage of the increasing demand. The topics of the article include the amount of involvement of US companies in the global market, the forces driving the market toward independent power, markets in the United Kingdom, North America, Turkey, Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Europe, the Federal Republic of Germany, India, the former Eastern European countries, Asia and the Pacific nations, and niche markets

  10. THE NONLINEAR IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON CORRUPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jayoti Das; Cassandra DiRienzo

    2009-01-01

    Some researchers have argued that globalization has increased the opportunity for corrupt practices, while others state that globalization has lead to a decrease in corruption as countries wishing to join the global economy must comply with international anti-corruption rules and regulations. This study empirically explores this paradox using the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and the Konjunkturforschungsstelle (KOF) globalization Index. The results suggest that a nonlinear relationship e...

  11. Global Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  12. Going global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe; Rasmussen, Christel

    2016-01-01

    occurred at a more micro level. This article explores this issue by studying the international activities of Danish foundations. It finds that grant-making on global issues is increasing, and that several foundations have undergone transformations in their approach to grantmaking, making them surprisingly...

  13. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  14. A longitudinal examination of the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa G; Fawkner, Samantha G; Henretty, Joan M

    2009-06-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls (N=150; mean age=12.79+/-0.31). Physical characteristics were measured and participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Pubertal Development Scale on two occasions 12 months apart. The results demonstrated a decrease in overall physical activity levels over 12 months which was not influenced by maturational status or physical characteristics. Additional analysis indicated that physical self-perceptions partially accounted for the explained variance in physical activity change, with physical condition being an important individual predictor of physical activity. Further analysis indicated that body mass was an important individual predictor of changes in perceptions of body attractiveness and physical self-worth. At this age maturation has a limited influence on the physical activity behaviours of early adolescent girls and although the variance in physical activity was partly accounted for by physical self-perceptions, this was a relatively small contribution and other factors related to this drop in physical activity need to be considered longitudinally.

  15. Governance mechanisms in transnational business relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Christian; Kiedaisch, Ingo; Cannon, Joseph P.

    1999-01-01

    Empirical research on buyer-supplier relationships has almost exclusively examined domestic (both firms from the same country) exchange. The growing importance of international marketing and global sourcing suggest a need to understand relationships across national boundaries -- transnational business relationships. Drawing on theories of governance, the authors hypothesize differences in governance between domestic and transnational business relationships. They examine the use...

  16. Globalization and the identity dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Petronela NEGREA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with a review of theoretical aspects including a conceptual delimitation of the term “economic globalization” from the perspective of different theorists, its main features, dimensions and vectors that boost and promote the process expansion. The phenolmenon is extensive, complex and difficult to control, fact that includes in this “wave” of globalization advantages and disadvantages also.The globalization of the economic activity is studied through globalization indicators such as: FDI, financial dimension, the role of transnational economic actors in the global economy, the relationship between international trade growth and increased domestic production, internationalization of the financial markets. The structure of the global economic system and the problems that the current global economy is facing are also analysed.The “thorny” subject of the influence that globalization has on national identity from an economic perspective is seen through the eyes of Romania, analyzing the economic implications of globalization for our country, how much the identity of Romanian companies was affected over the last years, which are now the Romanian multinationals and what challenges and opportunities globalization has brought to the country that was written with envy during the interwar period that is has “oil and wheat”.

  17. Global swindle of global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.

    2007-01-01

    Voor sommige mensen is het nog steeds niet aannemelijk dat we te maken hebben met de effecten van ‘Global Warming’, de opwarming van de aarde door voornamelijk de broeikasgassen die vrijkomen bij de verbranding van fossiele brandstoffen. In de media worden voor- en tegenstanders aan het woord

  18. Conceived globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheraghi, Maryam; Schøtt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    and culture which have separate effects. Being man, young, educated and having entrepreneurial competencies promote transnational networking extensively. Networking is embedded in culture, in the way that transnational networking is more extensive in secular-rational culture than in traditional culture.......A firm may be conceived global, in the sense that, before its birth, the founding entrepreneur has a transnational network of advisors which provides an embedding for organising the upstart that may include assembling resources and marketing abroad. The purpose is to account for the entrepreneurs...... the intending, starting and operating phases, fairly constantly with only small fluctuations. The firm is conceived global in terms of the entrepreneur's transnational networking already in the pre-birth phase, when the entrepreneur is intending to start the firm. These phase effects hardly depend on attributes...

  19. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......" provides comprehensive coverage of different types of derivatives, including exchange traded contracts and over-the-counter instruments as well as real options. There is an equal emphasis on the practical application of derivatives and their actual uses in business transactions and corporate risk...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  20. Global overeksponering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus A. Foss

    2007-01-01

    forandringer. Den globale orientering kommer blandt andet til udtryk i det relativt store internationale netværk, som bakker de unge op i deres protester - enten ved tilstedeværelse i København eller andre sympatiaktioner. Siden den 11. september, 2001, er globale realiteter blevet eksponeret i massemedierne...... så bliver der blændet fuldt op for linsen d. 11. september, 2001 til en global verden, hvor de demokratiske værdier ikke gælder. Lad mig blot give et eksempel: Guatanamo. Jeg skal hverken tale for eller imod den måde verden er indrettet på - da det er denne analyse uvedkommende - men blot pege på...... med væsentligt større kraft end tidligere. Før den 11. september blev globaliseringen udelukkende tegnet af jetsettet. Altså internationale politikere, kulturkoryfæer, videnskabsfolk og forretningsfolk, der har handler ud fra kendte rationaler. Men jetsettet har ikke længere den privilegeret position...

  1. Masculinity impediments: Internalized masculinity contributes to healthcare avoidance in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, Mary S; Sanchez, Diana T

    2016-07-01

    Gender beliefs contribute to men's healthcare avoidance, but little research examines these outcomes in women. This article models healthcare avoidance related to masculine contingencies of self-worth in men and women. Nested path modelling tested relationships between social role beliefs, masculine contingencies of self-worth, barriers to help seeking and avoidance of health care in university and non-university-student adult samples. Results indicated social role beliefs predicted masculine contingencies of self-worth in men but not in women. Regardless of gender, masculine contingencies of self-worth predicted barriers to help seeking, which predicted healthcare avoidance in both men and women. Thus, masculine contingencies of self-worth have downstream consequences for men and women through barriers to help seeking. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Global goldrush

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, S.W.J.; Gewald J.B.; Sijsma S.

    2006-01-01

    This film is part of the five year inter-institutional multi-disciplinary research programme within the social sciences and humanities entitled, "ICE in Africa: the relationship between people and the Internal Combustion Engine in Africa" funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific

  3. The Role of Inflexible Friendship Beliefs, Rumination, and Low Self-Worth in Early Adolescents' Friendship Jealousy and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Kristen L.; Parker, Jeffrey G.

    2009-01-01

    Two focal social cognitive processes were evaluated in a structural model for their direct and indirect roles in early adolescents' jealousy surrounding their closest friend in a sample of 325 early adolescents (169 girls and 156 boys) ages 11-14 years. Individuals who are rigid and unrealistic about meeting their friendship needs were more…

  4. Effect of Self-Worth and Parenting Style on the Planned Behavior in an Online Moral Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Wang, Chun-Kai; Hsu, Tsui-Fang; Chen, Yu-Ju; Chan, Chiung-Hua

    2011-01-01

    This idea of integrating moral education to digital gaming platform had been discussed since digital and online approaches were used in teaching. Online interactive instruction was one of moral teaching forms to assist moral instruction. However, most moral-related interactive online games lacked functions for players to explore themselves while…

  5. Is procrastination all that "bad"? A qualitative study of academic procrastination and self-worth in postgraduate university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowski, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Most of the existing literature investigated the construct of procrastination using quantitative paradigms-primarily self-administered questionnaires. However, such approaches seem to limit insight, elaboration, and deeper understanding of central facets that might influence procrastination. The present qualitative study explored how a sample of postgraduate students from Cambridge University represented academic procrastination framed within their personal perspectives and context using semistructured interviews. This study extends the existing quantitative literature by adding students' personal narratives and voices. Ten postgraduate students were interviewed and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The preponderance of the literature on academic procrastination has described it as a maladaptive and detrimental behavior. However, the present study found evidence which supports the existence of a positive form of procrastination as well which suggests that procrastination can sometimes be worthwhile and allow further thinking time, allowing students to do a task and enable them to give more attention to detail which suggests a reconsideration of the negative image commonly associated with procrastination.

  6. Self-worth and psychological adjustment of obese children: An analysis through the Draw-A-Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Alborghetti, Amelia; Bruno, Antonio; Troili, Giulia Maria; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio

    2016-09-22

    To investigate psychopathological correlates of child obesity via the Draw-A-Person test (DAP). The participants were 50 children with a mean age of 9.74 years. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of body fat. Children were divided into normal (n = 17), overweight (n = 14) and obese (n = 19). Two qualitative methods of scoring the DAP based on an integrative approach were used to assess self-concept (ESW) and overall level of children's adjustment (EAC). A procedure for judging interpretative skills of clinicians was implemented before they evaluated children's drawings. As predicted by our hypothesis, BMI was negatively correlated with ESW, r (50) = -0.29, P < 0.05, but not with EAC, r (50) = - 0.08, P = ns. To evaluate the effect of gender, Pearson correlations were re-computed regrouping the sample accordingly: BMI and EAC reached a significant negative correlation in female subjects, r (24) = -0.36, P < 0.05, and a positive correlation in male subjects, r (26) = 0.37, P = < 0.05; negative correlation between BMI and ESW became stronger in females, r (24) = -0.51, P < 0.01 but not in males, whose correlation disappeared resulting not-significant, r (26) = -0.06, P = ns. No effect of age was found. Results indicate that obesity has a negative correlation exclusively on overall adjustment and self-concept in female children. It was concluded that there is a negative bias toward females that reveals how the stigma of obesity is widespread in Western society.

  7. A New Global Geomorphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, V. R.

    1985-01-01

    Geomorphology is entering a new era of discovery and scientific excitement centered on expanding scales of concern in both time and space. The catalysts for this development include technological advances in global remote sensing systems, mathematical modeling, and the dating of geomorphic surfaces and processes. Even more important are new scientific questions centered on comparative planetary geomorphology, the interaction of tectonism with landscapes, the dynamics of late Cenozoic climatic changes, the influence of cataclysmic processes, the recognition of extremely ancient landforms, and the history of the world's hydrologic systems. These questions all involve feedback relationships with allied sciences that have recently yielded profound developments.

  8. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  9. Global ambitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruton, M.

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses global ambitions concerning the Norwegian petroleum industry. With the advent of the NORSOK (Forum for development and operation) cost reduction programme and a specific focus on key sectors of the market, the Norwegian oil industry is beginning to market its considerable technological achievements internationally. Obviously, the good fortune of having tested this technology in a very demanding domestic arena means that Norwegian offshore support companies, having succeeded at home, are perfectly poised to export their expertise to the international sector. Drawing on the traditional strengths of the country's maritime heritage, with mobile rig and specialized vessel business featuring strongly, other key technologies have been developed. 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Introduction to global energetic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicquel, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book gives a view on global energetic problems and proposes a thorough economic analysis on principle aspects taken into account: energy supply, depending energy sources and available technologic channels, relationships between macro-economy and energy demand, new size of energy problems (environmental effects, overcosts of renewable energy sources, necessity of an high technologic development...). 38 refs

  11. Cosmoglobalistics: Interrelation of Global and Cosmic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursul Tatiana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops the concept antropogeocosmizm, emanating from the fact that the main purpose of space activity in the short term is the historical use of space to solve global problems and in the long term socio-natural transition to the sustainable development of the planet. In this study based on the ideological origins and formation of a new direction and globalization, exploring the relationship of global and cosmic factors, the impact of the latter on the development of global processes and systems, the problem of space on the planet and escalating global processes in space. It is about the relationship of space and planetary processes, the transformation of the global response to space activities (and their interaction, and global development in the cosmic evolution. Taken as the position that global studies examining global processes and systems, and global processes are understood by the natural, social and socio-natural processes unfolding on planet Earth and have evolutionary significance. It is shown that global processes and issues affecting the world at large, is to some extent a manifestation of the global-space character of the contradictions associated with the expansion of spatial boundaries of human activity, including the conquest of space. Special attention is paid to the potential global catastrophes and geospatial software security. Considering the introduction of a substantive field cosmoglobalistiks natural processes, prospects globally exoplanet space research, as well as "global methodology" search for extraterrestrial intelligence. We consider the discovery of dark matter forms that give rise to a very substantial transformation attitude and stimulate the formation of global-cosmological research, which will consider mainly the global characteristics of matter, manifested in three main fragments of the Universe.

  12. Self-concept mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and abstinence motivation as well as self-efficacy among drug addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng-Ying; Wen, Si; Deng, Gang; Tang, Yung-Lung

    2017-05-01

    Childhood maltreatment is widely accepted as a risk factor for drug addiction from adolescence to adulthood. However, the influence of childhood maltreatment on drug treatment related variables, such as drug abstinence motivation and self-concept, as well as self-efficacy, remains unclear. This study aims at exploring whether self-concept mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and abstinence motivation, as well as self-efficacy, among drug addicts. This study involves 816 (550 males, 226 females, mean age=34.59, range=16-58 years) drug addicts from compulsory detoxification units. Participants completed questionnaires, including the childhood trauma questionnaire 28 - item short form (CTQ - SF), Tennessee self-concept scale (TSCS), general self-efficacy scale (GSES), and drug abstinence motivation questionnaire (DAMQ). The structural equation model (SEM) analysis, including total and specific forms of maltreatment scores, showed that childhood maltreatment was negatively associated with self-concept, self-efficacy, and abstinence motivation. Self-concept was positively associated with self-efficacy and abstinence motivation. Conversely, significant association between self-efficacy and abstinence motivation did not exist. An indirect analysis showed that self-concept mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-efficacy. Critically, self-concept arbitrated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and abstinence motivation. The indirect effect of self-concept between childhood maltreatment and abstinence motivation still existed when the total scores of maltreatment were replaced by the scores of specific forms of maltreatment. These results demonstrated that self-concept is a critical factor in understanding the relationship between childhood maltreatment and abstinence motivation, as well as self-efficacy, among drug addicts. Improving the sense of self-worth may be an effective intervention therapy among drug addicts

  13. Impact of Globalization on Income Inequality in Selected Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhari, Mahnoor; Munir, Kashif

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between globalization and income inequality in selected Asian economies i.e. Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand. The specific objectives of this study are to analyze the relationship between trade globalization, financial globalization and technological globalization on income inequality. For attaining these objectives this study used panel d...

  14. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Garcia, Daireen

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana.

  15. Global health and global health ethics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benatar, S. R; Brock, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    ...? What are our responsibilities and how can we improve global health? Global Health and Global Health Ethics addresses these questions from the perspective of a range of disciplines, including medicine, philosophy and the social sciences...

  16. Relationships between socio-clinico-demographic factors and global cognitive function in the oldest old living in the Tokyo Metropolitan area: Reanalysis of the Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health (TOOTH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Yoko; Tasato, Kumiko; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Noda, Yoshihiro; Tsugawa, Sakiko; Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Niimura, Hidehito; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Arai, Yasumichi; Mimura, Masaru

    2018-03-07

    Despite a steady increase in life expectancy, a few studies have investigated cross-sectional correlates and longitudinal predictors of cognitive function, a core domain of the successful aging, among socio-clinico-demographic factors in the oldest-old exclusively. The aims of this study were to examine socio-clinico-demographic characteristics associated with global cognition and its changes in the oldest-old. We reanalyzed a dataset of cognitively preserved community-dwelling subjects aged 85 years and older in the Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health, a 6-year longitudinal observational study. This study consisted of (1) baseline cross-sectional analyses examining correlates of global cognition (n = 248) among socio-clinico-demographic factors and (2) longitudinal analyses examining baseline predictors for changes of global cognition in 3-year follow-up (n = 195). The Mini-Mental State Examination was used as a screening test to assess global cognition. At baseline, higher weights were related to higher cognitive function in the oldest-old. The baseline predictors of global cognitive decline in 3-year follow-up were higher global cognition, shorter education period, and lower sociocultural activities and lower instrumental activity of daily living, in this order. The present study suggests that it is crucial to attain higher education during early life and avoid leanness or obesity, participate in sociocultural cognitive activities during late life, and maintain instrumental activity of daily living to preserve optimal cognitive function in the oldest-old, which will facilitate developing prevention strategies for cognitive decline and promoting successful aging in this increasing population. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Global teaching of global seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  18. Globalizing Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    countries to keep up the process of globalization may be substantial, and the economic gains for such countries from adjusting to a more internationally integrated world economy are clear. However, in small- population economies, especially social-democratic welfare states, the internal pressure......This exploratory article examines the paradox of being open-minded while ethnocentric as expressed in Danish international management practices at the micro level. With a population of 5.4 million, Denmark is one of the smallest of the European countries. The pressure on many small advanced...... to integrate counteracts to some extent the need to maintain openness to differences. Thus, a strong economy and a feeling of smug ethnocentrism in Denmark generate a central paradox in thinking about internationalization in Danish society....

  19. Global Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, I.

    1985-01-01

    Any global view of landforms must include an evaluation of the link between plate tectonics and geomorphology. To explain the broad features of the continents and ocean floors, a basic distinction between the tectogene and cratogene part of the Earth's surface must be made. The tectogene areas are those that are dominated by crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanicity at the present time and are essentially those of the great mountain belts and mid ocean ridges. Cratogene areas comprise the plate interiors, especially the old lands of Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Fundamental as this division between plate margin areas and plate interiors is, it cannot be said to be a simple case of a distinction between tectonically active and stable areas. Indeed, in terms of megageomorphology, former plate margins and tectonic activity up to 600 million years ago have to be considered.

  20. Global engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plass, L.

    2001-01-01

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  1. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-01-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

  2. Global gamesmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves.

  3. Global climate feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B.

    1990-10-01

    The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  4. Global warming and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Ji, M; Zhang, S

    2018-02-01

    Global warming and the obesity epidemic are two unprecedented challenges mankind faces today. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO and Scopus for articles published until July 2017 that reported findings on the relationship between global warming and the obesity epidemic. Fifty studies were identified. Topic-wise, articles were classified into four relationships - global warming and the obesity epidemic are correlated because of common drivers (n = 21); global warming influences the obesity epidemic (n = 13); the obesity epidemic influences global warming (n = 13); and global warming and the obesity epidemic influence each other (n = 3). We constructed a conceptual model linking global warming and the obesity epidemic - the fossil fuel economy, population growth and industrialization impact land use and urbanization, motorized transportation and agricultural productivity and consequently influences global warming by excess greenhouse gas emission and the obesity epidemic by nutrition transition and physical inactivity; global warming also directly impacts obesity by food supply/price shock and adaptive thermogenesis, and the obesity epidemic impacts global warming by the elevated energy consumption. Policies that endorse deployment of clean and sustainable energy sources, and urban designs that promote active lifestyles, are likely to alleviate the societal burden of global warming and obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  5. Globalization and Social Justice in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Kauder; Niklas Potrafke

    2015-01-01

    Social justice is a topic of importance to social scientists and also political decision makers. We examine the relationship between globalization and social justice as measured by a new indicator for 31 OECD countries. The results show that countries that experienced rapid globalization enjoy social justice. When the KOF index of globalization increases by one standard deviation, the social justice indicator increases by about 0.4 points (on a scale from 1 to 10). The policy implication is t...

  6. Relationships between Participants' International Prostate Symptom Score and BPH Impact Index Changes and Global Ratings of Change in a Trial of Phytotherapy for Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael J.; Cantor, Alan; Roehrborn, Claus G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To relate changes in AUA Symptom Index (AUASI) scores with bother measures and global ratings of change among men with lower urinary tract symptoms enrolled in a trial of saw palmetto. Materials and Methods To be eligible, men were ≥45 years old, had ajpeak uroflow ≥4 ml/sec, and an AUASI score ≥ 8 and ≤ 24. Participants self-administered the AUASI, IPSS quality of life item (IPSS QoL), BPH Impact Index (BII) and two global change questions at baseline and 24, 48, and 72 weeks. Results Among 357 participants, global ratings of “a little better” were associated with mean decreases in AUASI scores from 2.8 to 4.1 points, across three time points. The analogous range for mean decreases in BII scores was 1.0 to 1.7 points, and for the IPSS QoL item 0.5 to 0.8 points. At 72 weeks, for the first global change question, each change measure could discriminate between participants rating themselves at least a little better versus unchanged or worse 70-72% of the time. A multivariable model increased discrimination to 77%. For the second global change question, each change measure correctly discriminated ratings of at least a little better versus unchanged or worse 69-74% of the time, and a multivariable model increased discrimination to 79%. Conclusions Changes in AUASI scores could discriminate between participants rating themselves at least a little better versus unchanged or worse. Our findings support the practice of powering studies to detect group mean differences in AUASI scores of at least 3 points. PMID:23017510

  7. Relationships among participant international prostate symptom score, benign prostatic hyperplasia impact index changes and global ratings of change in a trial of phytotherapy in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael J; Cantor, Alan; Roehrborn, Claus G

    2013-03-01

    We related changes in American Urological Association symptom index scores with bother measures and global ratings of change in men with lower urinary tract symptoms who were enrolled in a saw palmetto trial. To be eligible for study men were 45 years old or older, and had a peak uroflow of 4 ml per second or greater and an American Urological Association symptom index score of 8 to 24. Participants self-administered the American Urological Association symptom index, International Prostate Symptom Score quality of life item, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index and 2 global change questions at baseline, and at 24, 48 and 72 weeks. In 357 participants global ratings of a little better were associated with a mean decrease in American Urological Association symptom index scores from 2.8 to 4.1 points across 3 time points. The analogous range for mean decreases in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index scores was 1.0 to 1.7 points and for the International Prostate Symptom Score quality of life item it was 0.5 to 0.8 points. At 72 weeks for the first global change question each change measure discriminated between participants who rated themselves at least a little better vs unchanged or worse 70% to 72% of the time. A multivariate model increased discrimination to 77%. For the second global change question each change measure correctly discriminated ratings of at least a little better vs unchanged or worse 69% to 74% of the time and a multivariate model increased discrimination to 79%. Changes in American Urological Association symptom index scores could discriminate between participants rating themselves at least a little better vs unchanged or worse. Our findings support the practice of powering studies to detect group mean differences in American Urological Association symptom index scores of at least 3 points. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…

  9. Globalization and deficit and limitations of global governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Character and dynamics of relationships in international politics, in which the stronger return to real politics content in the functioning of the foreign policy of the great powers, unequivocally affirms that globalization does not work to its declining power that is less credible design concept of modern world society. The global financial collapse that hit the world in 2008 is a convincing indication that most of the globalization is discredited. The belief in one humanity is becoming a less desirable concept. At the same time, with the increase in global issues that require solving, there are numerous human activities that involve unique or international regulation. The world is increasingly one homeostatic system of interdependent parts of a continent where many aspects of the borders between countries are difficult or even impossible to sustain. Hence the importance of global factors, some of which will fully depend on the articulation of individual and community life of people in the future, stressing the importance of the issue of joint management to ensure global peace and security and promote the prosperity around the world in a universally acceptable and effective way. Therefore, the demonstrated substantial shortcomings of global governance of the world, although they discourage belief in humanity, did not reduce the objective need for global access to many amenities of modern human existence. Many aspects of security, ranging from the security of the individual to the energy and environmental security in modern conditions are not conceivable without international access. However, global security management has been associated with numerous limitations and challenges.

  10. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1990-01-01

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO 2 and NO x which cause acid rain, and CO 2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  11. The effect of body-weight and obesity bias on children’s self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Kornilaki, Ekaterina N.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were: a) to compare the self-esteem of obese children and normal–weight controls, and b) to examine whether obesity bias moderates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. Fifty three normal-weight and forty 11-year-old obese children were administered Harter’s (1985) Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC), which consists of a global self-worth subscale and five domain-specific subscales that measure scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic...

  12. Relationships Between Culture and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests four different relationships between institutionalism and organizational culture seen as two different levels of analysis. The relationships represent a continuum from a significant influence of the institutional level on organizational culture to a significant cultural...... influence on the formation and construction of institutions. The four relationships are defined as 1) cultural filtering of institutional pressure from isomorphism, 2) organizational culture as a source of new institutional elements, 3) organizational culture as a source of positioning towards institutions...... the relationships between culture and institutions and how they are connected. Finally, the article points at the influence of globalization challenging the national origin of many institutions when relating to a world of organizations, which increasingly are becoming global. For some companies, organizational...

  13. Beyond the discourse of globalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Robertson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the ways in which discourse concerning planet earth is being transcended. Specifically, attention is drawn to the increasingly overlapping relationship between the work of philosophers and anthropologists, one the one hand, and astrophysicists on the other. Woven into the discussion are the issues of the neglect of global consciousness and culture in comparison with the more usual concern with global connectivity. In this respect it is argued that globalization, as it is normally understood, can be regarded as self-destroying when it is considered under the rubric of glocalization. The paper concludes with discussion of the possibility of some form of global governance in the light of the present chaotic state of global affairs. It is argued that some relatively clear-cut image of the world as a whole is a precondition of any systematic attempt to resolve this problem. The attempt to provide such an image rests upon the author’s previous discussions of the global field.

  14. Las relaciones entre Globalización, Medio Ambiente y Salud: Retos para la enfermería en el siglo XXI The globalization, environment and health relationship: Challenges for nursing in the XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Angel Vargas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo surge de la necesidad de discutir los diversos impactos generados por el proceso de globalización en la medida que interfiere en las relaciones políticas, económicas, sociales, culturales, que se expresan en degradación ambiental y constituyen fuertes amenazas para la salud de individuos y comunidades a nivel local y global. Se propone estimular la reflexión a partir del análisis interdisciplinar del conocimiento producido sobre macro categorías como globalización, medio ambiente y salud y su articulación con el ejercicio profesional del enfermero. Metodológicamente se trata de una sistematización a partir de fuentes bibliográficas primarias y secundarias disponibles inclusive en bases indexadas. Podemos concluir que el ejercicio profesional de enfermería en el siglo XXI exige enfrentar el desafío de (redimensionar el cuidado, que debe ser entendido no como un acto y si como una actitud cuidadora y un compromiso con la defensa de la vida de ésta y las futuras generaciones.This article is a result of the necessity of discussing the many impacts that the globalization process, since it affects way the political, economical and social relations, that are expressed in the environmental degradation and becomes a strong threat to the health of individuals and communities in the local and global levels. Intends to stimulate a reflection from the interdisciplinary analysis of the developed knowledge about categories like globalization, environment and health, and their articulation with the professional nursing practice. In a methodological point of view, it is systematization from primary and secondary bibliographic sources including indexed ones. We conclude that the professional nursing practice in the XXI century demands confronting the challenge of resize the concept of nursing care, must be understood not as an act but as a caring actitude and a commitment to the protection of life of this and future's generations.

  15. Exceptionally High Protection of Photocarcinogenesis by Topical Application of (--Epi gal locatechin-3-Gal late in Hydrophilic Cream in SKH-1 Hairless Mouse Model: Relationship to Inhibition of UVB-Induced Global DNA Hypomethylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Mittal

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available (--Epigallocatechin-3-gal late (EGCG has been shown to have potent antiphotocarcinogenic activity, but it was required to develop a cream-based formulation for topical application. For topical application, we tested hydrophilic cream as a vehicle for EGCG. Treatment with EGCG (≈ 1 mg/cm2 skin area in hydrophilic cream resulted in exceptionally high protection against photocarcinogenesis when determined in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor size in a SKI-11-11 hairless mouse model. EGCG also inhibited malignant transformation of ultraviolet B (UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas. In order to determine the mechanism of prevention of photocarcinogenesis, we determined the effect of EGCG on global DNA methylation pattern using monoclonal antibodies against 5-methyl cytosine and DNA methyltransferase in the long-term UV-irradiated skin because altered DNA methylation silencing is recognized as a molecular hallmark of human cancer. We found that treatment with EGCG resulted in significant inhibition of UVBinduced global DNA hypomethylation pattern. Longterm application of EGCG did not show any apparent sign of toxicity in mice when determined in terms of skin appearance, lean mass, total bone mineral content, and total bone mineral density but showed reduction in fat mass when analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. These data suggest that hydrophilic cream could be a suitable vehicle for topical application of EGCG, and that EGCG is a promising candidate for future cancer therapies based on its influence on the epigenetic pathway.

  16. The Long War and America's Relationship With Its Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Field, Kimberly C

    2008-01-01

    The unique characteristics of the "Global War on Terrorism" have implications for the relationship society has with its military, and therefore, for military effectiveness in achieving political ends...

  17. Self-perceptions of romantic appeal in adolescents with a cleft lip and/or palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie; Sharratt, Nicholas David; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2016-09-01

    During adolescence, romantic relationships are a key developmental milestone. Coupled with the increasing salience of appearance and social acceptance, adolescents with an appearance-altering condition may feel particularly vulnerable when it comes to romantic relationships. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of romantic experiences among adolescents with a cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P), and to investigate how these experiences could be related to depressive symptoms and global self-worth. The study included 661 Norwegian adolescents with CL/P, who were compared to a large national sample. The prevalence of romantic relationships was lower among adolescents with CL/P compared to the reference group, although the overall impact on depressive symptoms and global self-worth appeared to be low. This study is one of few to explore the impact of a congenital visible condition on experiences of romantic relationships and provides preliminary insight into a significant, yet complex topic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Globalization and inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda

    Globalization is increasingly linked to inequality, but with often divergent and polarized findings. Some researchers show that globalization accentuates inequality both within and between countries. Others maintain that these claims are patently incorrect, arguing that globalization has

  19. Exploring Late Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    literature on late globalization from sociocultural and economic perspectives. It illustrates in a vignette the character and features of late globalization observable in the withdrawal from foreign locations or deinternationalization of universities, as late globalizing entitis. The paper discusses...

  20. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  1. Global interpersonal inequality: Trends and measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses different approaches to the measurement of global interpersonal in equality. Trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975-2005 are measured using data from UNU-WIDER’s World Income Inequality Database. In order to better understand the trends, global interpersonal...... inequality is decomposed into within-country and between-country inequality. The paper illustrates that the relationship between global interpersonal inequality and these constituent components is a complex one. In particular, we demonstrate that the changes in China’s and India’s income distributions over...... the past 30 years have simultaneously caused inequality to rise domestically in those countries, while tending to reduce global inter-personal inequality. In light of these findings, we reflect on the meaning and policy relevance of global vis-à-vis domestic inequality measures...

  2. Ecotourism and Environmental Education: Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Paul F. J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines relationships among environmental education, ecotourism, and public attitudes toward conservation. The global ecotourism industry and the worldwide growth of national parks and other protected areas reflect the long-term impact of environmental education. The entire cycle of protection, ecotourism use of protected areas, and more positive…

  3. Studies of global warming and global energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    Global warming caused by increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration has been the focus of many recent global energy studies. CO 2 is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels. This means that global warming is fundamentally a problem of the global energy system. An analysis of the findings of recent global energy studies is made in this report. The results are categorized from the viewpoint of concern about global warming. The analysis includes energy use and CO 2 emissions, measures taken to restrain CO 2 emissions and the cost of such measure, and suggestions for long term global energy generation. Following this comparative analysis, each of the studies is reviewed in detail. (author) 63 refs

  4. Globalization and State Soverignty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Islam, Mainul

    2003-01-01

    .... Globalized capital is reorganizing business firms and undermining national politics. Globalization creates vast new markets and gigantic new wealth, as well as widespread suffering, disorder and unrest...

  5. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Peter H [Institute for Environmental Studies, Amsterdam Global Change Institute, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ellis, Erle C [Department of Geography and Environmental Systems, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Letourneau, Aurelien, E-mail: Peter.Verburg@ivm.vu.nl [UMR 5175 Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle and Evolutive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2011-07-15

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  6. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Ellis, Erle C.; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-07-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  7. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verburg, Peter H; Ellis, Erle C; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-01-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  8. The global and UV-B radiation over Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    BASSET, H. A.; KORANY, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    This work studies the relation between UV-B radiation and global radiation over Egypt. The relationships between the global solar radiation and UV-B radiation at four stations in Egypt have been studied, and linear empirical formulas for estimating UV-B from global radiation at these stations has been deduced. The deduced equations were applied to calculate the UV-B radiation for other stations where measurements were unavailable, using records of global radiation at these stations. Because o...

  9. Globalization and the income distribution between the countries

    OpenAIRE

    Georgieva Svrtinov, Vesna; Gorgieva-Trajkovska, Olivera; Temjanovski, Riste

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is contested concept. In general, it is considered to be beneficial for the growth of economy. But, there are also many adverse effects of globalization on growth in many developing countries. It increases poverty and worsens the income distribution. Globalization has raised powerful debate between optimists and pessimists. There are pro and against globalization debates, with strong arguments in both sides. The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship betwe...

  10. Relationships matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyanja, Tabitha Alexandria Njeri; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    -depth interviews and focus group discussions with 37 sexually active HIV-positive women aged between 20 and 44 years, attending three health facilities within Dar-es-Salaam. The theoretical framework was a patient centred model. Four barriers were identified: the influence of the women’s spousal relationships...... women experienced conflicts, violence, abandonment and rejection. The loss in negotiating power for the women was in relation to their intimate partners, but also in the patient–healthcare provider relationship. The role of the male partner as a barrier to contraceptive use cannot be understated...

  11. Globalization challenges in a globalized world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Gjon Boriçi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is an ongoing phenomenon trying to redefine the economic, social, cultural and political dynamics of contemporary societies. The communication among countries and not only them, has been increased expanding political ties, making possible greater economic integration and wider cultural relations combined with augmented global wealth across the world. But, the process of globalization is in wider terms considered a beneficial one, but also viewed by some countries as a menace to national sovereignty and national culture. This paper tries to explain the obstacles to the process of globalization and its attendant benefits. Although globalization has arisen as a result of a more stable world, the factors that had contributed to its rise also help the factions interested to bring destabilization. In an academic approach in this article, between the research and comparative methods, I have been trying to get the maxims between economy, politics and diplomacy in their efforts of affecting the global era.

  12. Cosmic global strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1991-01-01

    The topics are: global strings; the gravitational field of a straight global string; how do global strings behave?; the axion cosmological energy density; computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields. (orig.)

  13. Globalization and business ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Khadartseva, L.; Agnaeva, L.

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that local conditions of markets may be different, but some global markets, ethics and social responsibility principles should be applicable to all markets. As markets globalize and an increasing proportion of business activity transcends national borders, institutions need to help manage, regulate, and police the global marketplace, and to promote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business system

  14. The globalization of accreditation in the professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenn, M P

    1996-01-01

    The direct relationship between educational quality and a successful economy, the proliferation of regional and global trade agreements which encourage professional mobility, and the growing international recognition of academic degrees are contributing factors to the globalization of quality assurance in higher education, including accreditation. On every continent, attention is being paid to developing professional educational standards within an international context, assuring that ¿world class¿ professionals are produced for international as well as national practice.

  15. ECONOMIC gROWTH, GLOBALIZATION AND TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between economic growth, globalization and trade. The manuscript uses the assumptions of the economic growth exogenous and endogenous models. It introduces new proxies for explain the economic growth as in intra-industry trade, foreign direct investment and globalization index. The results indicate that economic growth is a dynamic process. The intra-industry has a positive impact on economic growth. This paper confirms relevan...

  16. Globalization and formal sector migration in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aguayo-Tellez, Ernesto; Muendler, Marc-Andreas; Poole, Jennifer Pamela

    2008-01-01

    We use novel linked employer–employee data to study the relationship between globalization and formal sector interstate migration for Brazil. We estimate the worker’s multichoice migration problem and document that previously unobserved employer covariates are significant predictors associated with migration flows. Our results provide support for the idea that globalization acts on internal migration through the growth of employment opportunities at locations with a high concentration of fore...

  17. How Will Climate Change Affect Globalization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilyard, John Raymond; Bals, Lydia; Zhuplev, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    , it will effect globalization. Businesses, if they want to be sustained, will have to adjust to climate change. This panel will examine two topics within which the relationship between climate change and globalization can be assessed - the sourcing of resources and services when the location of those resources...... is subject to change and the nature of competition in agriculture-based business, focusing on wine....

  18. Lineage of global civil engineering. Global civil engineering no keifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, M

    1994-04-15

    This paper considers which way the global civil engineering should go in the future. Civil engineering has now a paradigm with a new dimension debuted as the global environmental problems are taken up specifically. Achieving the target of civil engineering requires a critical review that how the cost effect and efficiency discussions in only the dimensions of the conventional technologies and economies can be incorporated into the dimensions and measures of new fields to create the new horizons. Conceiving the relationship between civil engineered structures and environmental climate encounters the indispensable judgment criterion on how such social scientific conditions as weather, culture, religion, economy, and politics are combined to reach a judgment. The global civil engineering is desired to have the ideas and directional role to work on the ultimate assignment of environment and development called a global environmental problem analytically, comprehensively, innovatively and creatively as the civil engineering science, rather than as a mere existence of one area of the advanced civil engineering science. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  19. East Asian perspective on global environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has been conducting active global warming research programs focusing on development of a method to forecast climate change accompanying global warming both globally and in East Asia. A regional climate change forecasting method is being developed and researches are conducted on impacts of climate change on the natural and social environment in East Asia. Researches are also conducted focusing on the relationship between emissions and deposition of acid substances and assessment of the environmental impacts of acid rain in East Asia. 4 figs

  20. INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina BRAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and knowledge are two important entities, which make up present stage of globalization, based mostly on their dynamics. This paper is providing an overview of information and knowledge in global context, highlighting the importance of information society that turned into knowledge society in the beginning of the 21 century, being driven by Internet – the latter, as part of globalization process. Modern economic theories recognise the importance of information in economic process because its impact on globalization process in economy was essential, and change the way how markets and companies work and represent the key factor of new era of economic development. This paper presents main results from available literature about the relationship between information, knowledge and economic theory in a global conterxt and finally explained the benefits of the knowledge economy to all countries.

  1. On the spectral composition of global radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, G

    1983-01-01

    The global radiation is recorded at several stations on the Earth. The information about its spectral composition is poor. In this paper the spectral composition means the ratio of spectral global radiation measured by coloured glass filter domes to the total global radiation. From the measuements made by Klein and Goldberg it follows that the monthly ratios vary significantly from place to place, while the variations from month to month at one place are significant only at the station which lies near to the North Pole. The Budapest data proved the dominant effect of cloudiness on the spectral composition of global radiation. This effect is in good statistical relationship with the relative global radiation. The regression constant tabulated in this paper do not contain the error of zero point elevation which is due to the overheating of glass filters by the absorbed solar radiation.

  2. Global health research needs global networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    To meet the challenges arising from global environmental change on human health, co-developing common approaches and new alliances of science and society are necessary. The first steps towards defining cross-cutting, health-environment issues were developed by the Global Environmental Change and

  3. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefidvash, Farhang

    1997-01-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  4. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefidvash, Farhang [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1997-07-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  5. Intimacy, Distance Relationships and Emotional Care

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The social changes surrounding individualisation and globalization impact upon our emotional and intimate lives. Geographical mobility is especially significant and its effects on relationships much debated. Distance relationships are one example of how people respond to such changes. This paper is based on an ESRC funded qualitative study of couples in distance relationships. The argument is that such forms of loving are not all about self-satisfaction, although they may prompt reflexivity a...

  6. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Daireen

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana. PMID:26885494

  7. Political Globalization and Foreign Direct Investment Inflows in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Doğan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of political globalization on foreign direct investment inflows to Turkey. Existence of foreign missions in a country, membership in international organizations, participation in U.N. Security Council Missions, and International Treaties are all seen as indicators political globalization. Using different econometric techniques, this study aims to find out whether any empirical relationship between political globalization and FDI exists. The analysis in this article covers the period in Turkey between 1970-2012. The results of cointegration analysis provide no an evidence of a long-run or short run any relationship political globalization and FDI.

  8. Intimitetens globale bazar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik

    2015-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the extent of Western women who intimately engage in relations with men from poor economic conditions in developing countries is increasing. The purpose of the following article is to investigate the phenomenon of sex tourism, prostitution and transactional relation......Recent research indicates that the extent of Western women who intimately engage in relations with men from poor economic conditions in developing countries is increasing. The purpose of the following article is to investigate the phenomenon of sex tourism, prostitution and transactional...... suggests that the process of bargaining and exchange economy represents the social shape of the relationship. As a result of this it is possible to see the transactional economic and sexual processes as a bazaar. The bazaar challenges a traditional conceptualisation of the phenomenon as “sex tourism......”, “prostitution”, “sex work” or sexual oppression while highlighting the fluid social organizations of intimacy in diverse transnational contexts. The article challenges the distinction between the global and the local, and makes methodological use of a more inclusive cosmopolitan perspective. Keywords: Sex...

  9. Global from the Start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    This article provides insights from recent research on firms that are "born global". A born-global firm is a venture launched to exploit a global niche from the first day of its operations. The insights in this article are relevant to technology entrepreneurs and top management teams of new...... technology firms. After discussing various definitions for the term "born global" and identifying the main characteristics of born-global firms, this article lists a few salient characteristics of firms that are born global in the technology sector. The article concludes by identifying opportunities...

  10. COMPETING CONCEPTIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sklair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a relatively new idea in the social sciences, although people who work in and write about the mass media, transnational corporations and international business have been using it for some time. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the ways in which sociologists and other social scientists use ideas of globalization and to evaluate the fruitfulness of these competing conceptions. The central feature of the idea of globalization is that many contemporary problems cannot be adequately studied at the level of nation-states, that is, in terms of each country and its inter-national relations. Instead, they need to be conceptualized in terms of global processes. Some have even gone so far as to predict that global forces, by which they usually mean transnational corporations and other global economic institutions, global culture or globalizing belief systems/ideologies of various types, or a combination of all of these, are becoming so powerful that the continuing existence of the nation-state is in serious doubt. This is not a necessary consequence of most theories of globalization. The argument of this paper is that much of the globalization literature is confused because not all those who use the term distinguish it clearly enough from internation-alization, and some writers appear to use the two terms interchangeably. I argue that a clear distinction must be drawn between the inter-national and the global. The hyphen in inter-national is to distinguish (inadequate conceptions of the global' founded on the existing even if changing system of nation-states, from (genuine conceptions of the global based on the emergence of global processes and a global system of social relations not founded on national characteristics or nation-states. This global system theory is the framework for my own research. Globalization studies can be categorized on the basis of four research clusters:1. The world-systems approach; 2. The global

  11. Urban development and global sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferlaino Fiorenzo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 1950s, the economist Simon Kuznets theorized the existence of a bell-shaped curve describing the correlation between the level of GDP per capita and income inequality. This generated another hypothesis concerning the existence of an inverted-U relationship between income per capita (GDP and environmental impact. By means of a cross-country analysis, the article shows that, at least at the global scale, an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC does not exist, but rather an Environmental Urban Curve (EUC. The city exhibits an complex socioeconomic metabolism that we can define in terms of dissipative and resilience territorial structures.

  12. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Present processes of global climate change are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. 18 refs

  13. Globalization and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Machikita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Recent empirical studies which utilize plant- or establishment-level data to examine globalization's impact on productivity have discovered many causal mechanisms involved in globalization's impact on firms’ productivity. Because these pathways have been broad, there have been few attempts...

  14. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  15. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quere, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frederic; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Goldewijk, Kees Klein; Koertzinger, Arne; Landschuetzer, Peter; Lefevre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Roedenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jorg; Seferian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Soenke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  16. Global Tuberculosis Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alt+0 Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 Tuberculosis (TB) Menu Tuberculosis Data and statistics Regional Framework Resources Meetings and events Global tuberculosis report 2017 WHO has published a global TB ...

  17. Capital Structure and Firm Performance During Global Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Khodavandloo, Marzieh; Zakaria, Zukarnain; Nassir, Annuar Md.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between capital structure and firm performance has been extensively investigated in the recent decades. However, only few studies investigate this relationship during financial crisis. Recent global financial crisis provides an opportunity to examine the effect of the crisis on the relationship between capital structure and firm performance. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate this relationship based on 45 listed companies involved in trading and services sector of the...

  18. Gender and Economic Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The following article draws on the discussion of the iuéd Colloquium on Gender and Economic Globalization. The Colloquium aimed to draw out the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, with a particular focus on poor women in developing countries. Globalization – for or against women? In order to look at the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, and more particularly on poor women’s lives, we are confronted with a complex set of interlinked dynamics. Inequitable g...

  19. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  20. GLOBAL OR NATIONAL BRANDS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina GÎRBOVEANU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, branding is such a strong force that hardly anything goes unbranded. Branding in global markets poses several challenges to the marketers. A key decision is the choice between global and nationals brands. This article gives the answers to the questions: what is, what is need for, what are the advantages, costs and risks of global and national brands? All go to the following conclusion: use global brands where possible and national brands where necessary.

  1. Global Governance, Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In the last half decade, a rising literature has focused on the idea that processes of economic, political and social globalization require analysis in terms of governance at the global level. It is argued in this article that emerging forms of global governance have produced significant challenges to conventional conceptions of international…

  2. Global Environment Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Ringtail lemur mom with two of paradise Nations rally to protect global environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Stockholm, Sweden birds-eye view Events GEF-7 Replenishment Trung Truong Son Landscapes

  3. Global Health Security

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-21

    Dr. Jordan Tappero, a CDC senior advisor on global health, discusses the state of global health security.  Created: 9/21/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Center for Global Health (CGH).   Date Released: 9/21/2017.

  4. Global Sourcing of Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    The global sourcing of services offers high returns but is also associated with high risks. The extent to which firms engage in ‘transformational’ global sourcing (i.e., global sourcing implying considerable changes in the home organization) chiefly depends on management's comfort zone which...

  5. Developing Successful Global Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…

  6. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  7. Global Cancer Humanitarian Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat Garcia-Gonzalez of the Max Foundation accepted the first annual NCI Global Cancer Medicine Humanitarian Award for her work in chronic myeloid leukemia at the NCI, Center for Global Health Symposium for Global Cancer Research, held in Boston on March 25, 2015.

  8. Globalization and American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, William; Nicoletti, Augustine

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is a potent force in today's world. The welfare of the United States is tied to the welfare of other countries by economics, the environment, politics, culture, information, and technology. This paper identifies the implications of globalization for education, presents applications of important aspects of globalization that teachers…

  9. Security Components of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is our intention to present what are the main connections between globalization and international security. In terms of global security we can perceive the globalization as a process by which global state is represented by the UN, with a single world system, represented by major security organizations and with global effects. We will present from the beginning the main theoretical aspects that define the phenomenon of globalization, and then our contribution in assessing the implications of this phenomenon on the regional and global security. The results of our research are materialized in the last part of the paper. They emphasize the personal assessments on how the phenomenon of globalization has direct effect on global security. When talking about government, we think of norms, rules and decisionmaking procedures in the management of international life. The value that we add to the new scientific interpretation of the definition of globalization is represented, primarily, by the valuable bibliographic used resources and the original approach on the concept that refers to the links between globalization and security. This article may be, at any time, a starting point in an interesting research direction in the field of global security.

  10. Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2009-04-01

    Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

  11. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2009 Executive Report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, N.S.; Levie, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) is the world’s leading research consortium dedicated to understanding the relationship between entrepreneurship and national economic development. For the past ten years GEM reports have been the only source of comparable data across a large variety of

  12. Globalization and Aggregate Employment Nexus: A Recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since Nigeria is monotonically dependent on external trade for survival, globalization measured by the ratio of export plus import to GDP soared for the period. Coincidentally, aggregate employment in the industrial sector also rose, at least from liturgical observation. This paper therefore examined this relationship using ...

  13. English and development policy, pedagogy and globalization

    CERN Document Server

    Erling, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the relationship between English and personal and national development in the era of globalization. It addresses the effects that the increased use of English and the promotion of English-language education are having in developmental contexts, and their impact on broader educational issues.

  14. A model of global citizenship: antecedents and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva

    2013-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, exposure to global cultures affords individuals opportunities to develop global identities. In two studies, we examine the antecedents and outcomes of identifying with a superordinate identity--global citizen. Global citizenship is defined as awareness, caring, and embracing cultural diversity while promoting social justice and sustainability, coupled with a sense of responsibility to act. Prior theory and research suggest that being aware of one's connection with others in the world (global awareness) and embedded in settings that value global citizenship (normative environment) lead to greater identification with global citizens. Furthermore, theory and research suggest that when global citizen identity is salient, greater identification is related to adherence to the group's content (i.e., prosocial values and behaviors). Results of the present set of studies showed that global awareness (knowledge and interconnectedness with others) and one's normative environment (friends and family support global citizenship) predicted identification with global citizens, and global citizenship predicted prosocial values of intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and a felt responsibility to act for the betterment of the world. The relationship between antecedents (normative environment and global awareness) and outcomes (prosocial values) was mediated by identification with global citizens. We discuss the relationship between the present results and other research findings in psychology, the implications of global citizenship for other academic domains, and future avenues of research. Global citizenship highlights the unique effect of taking a global perspective on a multitude of topics relevant to the psychology of everyday actions, environments, and identity.

  15. Global network centrality of university rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weisi; Del Vecchio, Marco; Pogrebna, Ganna

    2017-10-01

    Universities and higher education institutions form an integral part of the national infrastructure and prestige. As academic research benefits increasingly from international exchange and cooperation, many universities have increased investment in improving and enabling their global connectivity. Yet, the relationship of university performance and its global physical connectedness has not been explored in detail. We conduct, to our knowledge, the first large-scale data-driven analysis into whether there is a correlation between university relative ranking performance and its global connectivity via the air transport network. The results show that local access to global hubs (as measured by air transport network betweenness) strongly and positively correlates with the ranking growth (statistical significance in different models ranges between 5% and 1% level). We also found that the local airport's aggregate flight paths (degree) and capacity (weighted degree) has no effect on university ranking, further showing that global connectivity distance is more important than the capacity of flight connections. We also examined the effect of local city economic development as a confounding variable and no effect was observed suggesting that access to global transportation hubs outweighs economic performance as a determinant of university ranking. The impact of this research is that we have determined the importance of the centrality of global connectivity and, hence, established initial evidence for further exploring potential connections between university ranking and regional investment policies on improving global connectivity.

  16. Global Ethics Applied: Global Ethics, Economic Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Stückelberger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...

  17. Global Peace through the Global University System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Hakan AYDIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Utopia is defined in Encarta Dictionary as “an ideal and perfect place or state, where everyone lives in harmony and everything is for the best.” Developments all around the world especially in the last decade have supported the idea that global peace is nothing but just a utopian dream. However, for centuries a group of believers have always been in search of global peace via different means. This book, titled as “Global Peace through the Global University System”, can be considered as one of the artifacts of this search.Actually this book is a collection of papers presented in working conference on the Global University System (GUS hosted by the University of Tampere, Finland in 1999. The main goal of the conference was bringing international experts to share their philosophy, past and present experiences about the GUS. The conference was held by the University of Tampere because UNESCO has an agreement with the University to establish the UNESCOChair in Global e-Learning.

  18. How Global is Global Civil Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Chandhoke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the concept of global civil society has made its appearance on national and international intellectual, as well as political agendas, in a major way. It is of some interest that two other concepts, both of which call for transcendence of national boundaries in precisely the same way as global civil society does, have also made their appearance on the scene of intellectual debates at roughly the same time: the concept of cosmopolitanism and that of transnational justice. All three concepts have dramatically expanded the notion of commitment to one’s fellow beings beyond the nation state. And all three concepts have extended critiques of policies that violate the dignity of human beings from national governments to the practices of inter-national institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Forum. In sum the inter-related concepts of global civil society, cosmopolitanism, and transnational justice have greatly enlarged the traditional domain of political theory. And yet for any political theorist who is acutely conscious of the phenomenon of power, these concepts are not unproblematic. For the practices of global civil society may just reinforce the intellectual and the moral power of the West over the postcolonial world. This is particularly true of say global human rights organizations. This paper will attempt to raise some questions of the concept and the practices of global civil society from the perspective of the countries of the South.

  19. Global Voyeurism or Sustainable Ethical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Cris; Coast, Mary Jo

    This is a conceptual article exploring global voyeurism and service, overlaying ethical considerations in service within the profession of forensic nursing. Key elements considered include examining and reflecting on personal motivations, benefits, and consequences of service when viewed through an ethical perspective. Through this article we seek to examine the relationships between poverty tourism and service, while better supporting individual forensic nurses in their quest to align their actions with the ethical and practice comportment standards within the profession of nursing service globally. We include definition of terms, including professional identity, ethics and social justice, poverty tourism and voyeurism, global and professional service, cultural humility, partnerships, and trusting relationships. We conclude with implications, and considerations for forensic nursing.

  20. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  1. Institutionalizing Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Global Compact – which is a Global Public Policy Network advocating 10 universal principles in the areas of human rights, labor standards, environmental protection, and anticorruption – has turned into the world's largest corporate responsibility initiative. Although the Global...... Compact is often characterized as a promising way to address global governance gaps, it remains largely unclear why this is the case. To address this problem, we discuss to what extent the initiative represents an institutional solution to exercise global governance. We suggest that new governance modes...

  2. Digital Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledborg Hansen, Richard

    -­rich information and highly interesting communication are sky-­high and rising. With a continuous increase in digitized communication follows a decrease in face-­to-­face encounters and our ability to engage in inter-­personal relationships are suffering for it (Davis, 2013). The behavior described in this paper......-­‐Jones, 2011) for increases in effectiveness and efficiency we indiscriminately embrace digital communication and digitized information dissemination with enthusiasm – at the risk of ignoring the potentially dark side of technology. However, technology also holds a promise for better understanding precisely...... for the same reasons – that the growing amount of digitized communication “out there” represents data waiting to be sifted, analyzed and decoded. In this paper “Facebook behavior” refers to a particular behavior characterized by presenting your self and representations of selected self in the hope of getting...

  3. Messy Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    “The common good” is a contested concept both presently and historically. The contestation takes place both through definitions and concrete practices of gift-giving at the messy and blurred intersection between state, marked and civil society. From the Danish constitution of 1849 until today......-giving as a continuous and negotiated process between actors whose actions and utterances have implications for the relationships between state, market and civil society. The paper first outlines a theoretical and methodological approach that connects ANT and microhistory with conceptual history and focuses on how...... to trace the networks of concepts and practices of the “common good” in a historical perspective. Second, it presents an empirical analysis of how a corporate philanthropic foundation, the Egmont Foundation from Denmark, through concrete gift-giving practices and concepts plays an important role in shaping...

  4. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS IN GLOBAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As enterprise operations continue to be globalized through overseas expansions, joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions as well as strategic relationships and partnerships transnational organizations need to give attention to issues of culture in human resource management practices as a panacea for prosperity. The global organization is competent if only it is able to bridge the gap between management and culture so that personal relationships with other peoples in the organization and society become in harmony. This is critical because cultural relativity and reality in organizations influence operations. The study was designed to explore possible relationships between cultural dimensions and global human resource management. The survey research design was employed and data generated through primary and secondary sources. The participants comprised of 385 respondents from a cross-section of the population in Nigeria. By Chi-Square test, it was found that culture has a significant positive relationship with global human resource management.

  5. INTERPRETING GLOBAL EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh W. Dalpour

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s constantly changing world it is often times difficult to understand thechanges happening around us every second. Some of these changes may be, inthe aggregate,for good, while others may have unappreciated and heavy costs.What isGlobalization? Globalization is “an elimination of barriers to trade,communication, and cultural exchange. The theory behind globalization is thatworldwide openness will promote the inherent wealth of all nations.”(Jones,2012All this encompasses global cultures, international economics and other growingsocial networks such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. Throughout thisanalysis the pros and cons of globalization will be discussed and also whetherornot globalization is in fact as much of a benefit for today’s global economy─as somany think─will be determined. First,identification of the various types ofglobalization is necessary.

  6. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  7. Global solidarity, migration and global health inequity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Straehle, Christine; Chung, Ryoa

    2012-09-01

    The grounds for global solidarity have been theorized and conceptualized in recent years, and many have argued that we need a global concept of solidarity. But the question remains: what can motivate efforts of the international community and nation-states? Our focus is the grounding of solidarity with respect to global inequities in health. We explore what considerations could motivate acts of global solidarity in the specific context of health migration, and sketch briefly what form this kind of solidarity could take. First, we argue that the only plausible conceptualization of persons highlights their interdependence. We draw upon a conception of persons as 'ecological subjects' and from there illustrate what such a conception implies with the example of nurses migrating from low and middle-income countries to more affluent ones. Next, we address potential critics who might counter any such understanding of current international politics with a reference to real-politik and the insights of realist international political theory. We argue that national governments--while not always or even often motivated by moral reasons alone--may nevertheless be motivated to acts of global solidarity by prudential arguments. Solidarity then need not be, as many argue, a function of charitable inclination, or emergent from an acknowledgment of injustice suffered, but may in fact serve national and transnational interests. We conclude on a positive note: global solidarity may be conceptualized to helpfully address global health inequity, to the extent that personal and transnational interdependence are enough to motivate national governments into action. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Self-esteem in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Frank M; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Franko, Debra L; Padgett, Justina; Bean, Judy A

    2006-10-01

    Self-esteem is a major "predictor" of satisfaction with life. This longitudinal study examined mean and individual changes in self-esteem, and how self-esteem is affected by race and body mass. Girls were recruited at ages 9 and 10 years, and followed to age 22 years. The Harter Self-Perception Profile was administered every other year, analyzing scores from the Global Self-Worth Scale, by age or developmental phase: ages 9-12 (I), 13-16 (II), and 17-22 (III). Regression modeling included main effects and interactions between age/phase, race, and body mass index (BMI). Self-worth was greater in black than white women, and greater with lower BMI in both races. In the model with age ("traditional model") (with race and BMI), significant variables included BMI (inverse relationship) and the interactions between age and race, race and BMI, and the triple interaction between age, race, and BMI. In the model with phase ("transitional model") (with race and BMI), BMI, and the interactions between BMI and race, and race and phase, were significant. For example, self-worth was generally lower in Phase II (middle adolescence) for white women. Self-esteem tracked significantly (correlation 0.22, p self-esteem in adolescent girls, race and BMI are important predictors of self-esteem. Self-esteem is consistent across the phases of adolescence, and comparable with other personality traits. As noted by others, lower levels of self-esteem may increase the vulnerability of adolescents to risky behaviors.

  9. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  10. The Relational Concurrence of Global Warming and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt has been made to examine the concurrent relationship between global warming and economic development focusing on the danger it inheres in developing countries. To achieve this, the paper commenced with the conceptualization of global warming and economic development, the natural and human causes ...

  11. Connecting strategy and execution in global R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sbernini, Federico; Granini, Nicola; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between global product development strategic decisions, which include outsourcing, offshoring practices as well as strategic alliances, and their impact on the day-to-day business in a global and open innovation context. By adopting an exploratory inductive...

  12. Starbucks's Fair Trade in the Edge of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Rizqiyanto, Saomi

    2017-01-01

    Starbucks as a global company that reflect American values plays an important role in the trade of coffee industry. In February 2000, Starbucks partially adopted the Fair Trade and in early 2001 Starbucks fully adopt Fair Trade. This research seeks to examine the relationship between Starbucks as a symbol of globalization with Starbucks as a global corporation who adopt Fair Trade. This study also seeks to explain how any practical Starbucks Fair Trade as a whole and uncover the reasons behin...

  13. The phase lag of temperature behind global solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hussainy, F.M.

    1995-08-01

    This paper presented the relationship between the air temperature and the global solar radiation, which can be conveniently represented by the three characteristics: mean, amplitude and phase lag of the first harmonic of global radiation and air temperatures. A good correlation between the air temperature and the global solar radiation has been found when the phase lag between them is nearly of 30 days. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  14. Relationships between interplanetary quantities and the global auroral electrojet index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, A.; Wolfe, A.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied, using linear cross correlation and multilinear regression analyses, statistical relations between the magnetospheric auroral electrojet intensity index AE and various parameters characterizing the interplanetary plasma and magnetic field. We also consider the recently proposed epsilon parameter as an independent variable. The analyses were carried out separately for twenty-eight days in mid 1975 and for each of five individual magnetic storm intervals that have been previously discussed extensively in the literature. We find that when the interplanetary data set is not distinguished as to the direction of the north-south component B/sub z/, the interplanetary electric field -VB/sub z/ carried to the front of the magnetosphere correlates with AE substantially better than does epsilon. Considering only data during which B/sub z/ is negative gives a slightly better correlation of epsilon with AE than of the electric field with AE. The correlations are valid for the specific storm periods as well as for the unrestricted twenty-eight days of data. Our results suggest that the physical processes involved in energy transfer to the nightside magnetosphere depend upon the direction of the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field: the interplanetary electric field plays an important role during northward B/sub z/ and the epsilon parameter and the electric field both provide an indication of energy transfer and substorm activity during southward B/sub z/

  15. Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Schaepman, M.E.; Furrer, R.; Bruin, de S.; Verburg, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation forms a main component of the terrestrial biosphere and plays a crucial role in land-cover and climate-related studies. Activity of vegetation systems is commonly quantified using remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI). Extensive reports on temporal trends over the past decades in time

  16. Choosing Values: Public-Private Relationships in a Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMatteo, Larry A.; Maurer, Virginia G.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study that engages students on the legal and ethical issues of doing business abroad. It explores the scenario of direct foreign investment by an American company in a less developed country. This development imbalance necessarily implicates issues of ethical relativism and home-host country standards. Students are…

  17. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  18. Global Citizenship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2016-01-01

    published after 2000 was written by researchers based in the US and if you add other English-speaking countries such as Canada, England, Australia and New Zealand, the proportion is even higher. English in the field of education research often serves as the international lingua franca. Since there is also......Global citizenship as an idea has become an increasingly important issue on the educational agenda since the late 1970’s. The importance allotted to this issue is clear in the attention given to it by for example UNESCO where global citizenship education (GCED) is an area of strategic focus....... Increasingly schools all over the world are attempting to or expected to educate the global citizen, but how exactly do you educate the global citizen? What does this global citizenship consist of? While surely the type of training and education needed to train a global citizen will vary greatly depending...

  19. The psychology of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2002-10-01

    The influence of globalization on psychological functioning is examined. First, descriptions of how globalization is occurring in various world regions are presented. Then the psychological consequences of globalization are described, with a focus on identity issues. Specifically, it is argued that most people worldwide now develop a bicultural identity that combines their local identity with an identity linked to the global culture; that identity confusion may be increasing among young people in non-Western cultures as a result of globalization; that some people join self-selected cultures to maintain an identity that is separate from the global culture; and that a period of emerging adulthood increasingly extends identity explorations beyond adolescence, through the mid- to late twenties.

  20. The new global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Kevin M; Simone, Patricia M; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set.

  1. Salud y justicia global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puyol, Ángel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A question that would have to worry more to the global justice is the huge inequality of health in the world. In this paper, I analyse the causes of the global inequality of health and the ethical arguments for and against the need to treat this inequality from the perspective of the global justice. After refusing the arguments against both of the libertarianism and the statism, and after showing the critics both to the approach to the language of human rights and to the poggean proposal to reduce the duties of global justice to negative moral duties, I defend the need to use a sufficiency approach to global justice based in positive moral duties to face the severity and the moral urgency of the global inequalities of health.

    Una de las cuestiones que debería preocupar más a la teoría de la justicia global es la enorme desigualdad de salud que hay en el mundo. En este artículo, se repasan las causas de la desigualdad global de salud y los argumentos éticos a favor y en contra de la necesidad de tratar dicha desigualdad desde la perspectiva de la justicia global. Tras rechazar los argumentos en contra tanto del libertarismo de derechas como del estatalismo, y tras exponer las críticas tanto al lenguaje de los derechos humanos como a la propuesta poggeana de reducir los deberes de la justicia global a deberes morales negativos, defiendo la necesidad de partir de un criterio de justicia global suficientista y basado en los deberes morales positivos para afrontar la gravedad y la urgencia moral que suponen las desigualdades globales de salud.

  2. Globalization vs National Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    economic market or system in which prices are based on competition among private businesses and not controlled by a government.12 Global Commons...effects of globalization , work in different countries for years of their lives, conduct social networking and business through cyberspace. Civic...Qaeda. Today , The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria recruits and funds operations around the world benefiting from globalization . The central objectives

  3. Global atmospheric changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...

  4. Globalization and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Imran Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of globalization has been introduced due to technical advancements that has made the world a global village. The world as is now has never been before; it is now a world where multicultural societies have developed, trade and transactions are made between countries, technology reaches every part of the world, and internet has connected every possible idea, opinion, person, and commodity with the rest of the world. In this world of globalization, education has taken a central role, as without education globalization cannot be germinated. Education is a national issue and as such, each country has its own educational policies that are emblems of that country's cultural values, belief system and historical realities. Nevertheless, the globalized world demands for multiculturalism, and commonalities amongst communities to be promoted so as to bring the world closer to accepting cultural diversities and celebrating commonalities. For these aims, educational institutions become institutions for promoting globalization by introducing various cultural and traditional beliefs to the new generation. Recently, globalization has become a popular subject of debate in national and international circiles. Globalization links individuals and institutions across the world through economic forces, digital technologies, and communication. It is moreover subjected to higher living standards, international affiliations, and multiple types of freedom. However, a major part of the world consists of under developed countries where technological advancements, communication, trade and commerce along with other economic activities are not enough to support them to be a part of the global society.

  5. GLOBAL KEYNESIANISM AND BEYOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Kohler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Something like "global Keynesianism" or "transnational socialism" has been mentioned as a desirable alternative to global neoliberalism (Redmond 1997. However, a definition of this kind of global Keynesianism is hard to find. Many leftists tend to associate Keynesianism with corporate power. However, there are also numerous other leftists who view this differently. For example, a member of parliament for the German Green Party stated in a recent interview that "a reformist party today has to be a left-Keynesian party which contradicts the logic of capital" (Ebermann 1998. A number of scholars from several countries, including Canada, pursue post-Keynesian-ism, in the sense of left-Keynesian economics (e.g., Seccareccia 1991. How-ever, available left-Keynesian literature, as I see it, is lacking a world-system perspective. I am trying in this article to synthesize the two perspectives-namely, left-Keynesianism and world-system theory, leading to a perspective of global left-Keynesianism. This leftist global Keynesianism can, perhaps, be described as an approach to economics which emphasizes responsible public management of economic problems in a world-system context. Common themes in global Keynesianism include the importance of public management, democratic politics, the mixed economy, global income distribution, the management of global demand, investment and money, ecological sustainability and the importance of multiple levels of public management-local, national, regional and global.

  6. Global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  7. BUSINESS GLOBALIZATION: TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND GLOBAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMA Stela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce business globalization and the main globalization factors which, under the current stage, are transnational corporations. Globalization is the result of the pressure put by companies which, in turn, are under the close “magnifier” of all the involved factors (the so-called “stakeholders”. The market and the determining forces are not influenced by a political attitude nowadays marking globalization, but rather the political decisions have followed the course of economic evolutions, a trend that has always been provided by multinational corporations. In order to successfully follow up their activity, companies initiate new businesses, selling or deleting from their portfolio businesses or divisions with a decreasing tendency. Also, companies give up old rules and structures adopting new decision-making processes, control systems and mental patterns. Corporations must learn to become dynamic just like the market, if they wish to maintain, on the long run, a superior rate of income.

  8. From Global Knowledge to Global Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that student learning is enhanced when civic engagement is a component of international education initiatives. When only presented with knowledge about global challenges, students can become frustrated and overwhelmed unless they also understand how they might contribute to solutions. Political science programs are…

  9. Global city aspirations, graduated citizenship and public housing: analysing the consumer citizenships of neoliberalism

    OpenAIRE

    Dallas Rogers; Michael Darcy

    2014-01-01

    Global city discourses rearticulate the relationships between the state, urban space and the global economy. At the local level, global city reconfigurations stamp the mark of a global economic order onto local citizenship practices. Public housing is a legacy of specific national (welfare) states where citizenship rights arose from territorially bound constitutional discourses, and is incompatible in its current form with the consumer-based rights and responsibilities of a global economic or...

  10. Health care globalization: a need for virtual leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J Brian; Malvey, Donna; Fottler, Myron D

    2009-01-01

    As health care organizations expand and move into global markets, they face many leadership challenges, including the difficulty of leading individuals who are geographically dispersed. This article provides global managers with guidelines for leading and motivating individuals or teams from a distance while overcoming the typical challenges that "virtual leaders" and "virtual teams" face: employee isolation, confusion, language barriers, cultural differences, and technological breakdowns. Fortunately, technological advances in communications have provided various methods to accommodate geographically dispersed or "global virtual teams." Health care leaders now have the ability to lead global teams from afar by becoming "virtual leaders" with a responsibility to lead a "virtual team." Three models of globalization presented and discussed are outsourcing of health care services, medical tourism, and telerobotics. These models require global managers to lead virtually, and a positive relationship between the virtual leader and the virtual team member is vital in the success of global health care organizations.

  11. Global surrogacy practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Darnovsky (Marcy); D. Beeson (Diane); K.E. Cheney (Kristen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis report summarises discussions of participants in Thematic Area 5 (Global Surrogacy Practices) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. The Forum brought together advocates of women’s health, children’s rights and human rights;

  12. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  13. Learning Democratic Global Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a model process of developing knowledge from within different groups and cultures to allow more equitable participation of all world societies in the definition of global governance. Reviews concepts relevant to education's contributions toward learning and creating democratic global governance. Discusses the educational utility of…

  14. Global Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, history, fine/applied arts, theater arts, architecture, etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/ ...

  15. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  16. Globalization of the Semiosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the future perspectives for Foreign Language Studies in the era of Globalization. The intensified globalization processes are studied in the light of Yuri Lotmans concept of the semiosphere and the article advocates the development of a new philology of culture....

  17. Global Diversity and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Art

    2003-01-01

    Argues that global diversity has become a business imperative in today's business climate. Global diversity is of core importance even for companies that are considered domestic. Suggests community colleges need help in understanding their customer base and their shifting values in order to meet their needs and win customer loyalty. (NB)

  18. Critically Theorizing the Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudelli, William

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has unleashed profound changes in education. These include positivistic international school comparisons, a singular focus on schools as drivers of economic development, and the adoption of neoliberal market principles in school. These changes, however, generally go unexamined within the field and literature of global education.…

  19. Globalization of Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Robert F.; Iannarelli, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    A new study, sponsored by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, presented a comprehensive new perspective on the globalization of management education, (AACSB International, 2011). Its findings are sobering: with regard to emerging global trends in higher education and cross-border business, the report reveals a sizable gap…

  20. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  1. Reframing Global Engagement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wende, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has strongly influenced higher education during the last decades. As in many other sectors, this has generated contradictory outcomes. Higher education has opened up to the world and become more engaged at the global level. But how will this process continue with the current backlash

  2. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Larsen, Marcus M.; Bharati, Pratyush

    2013-01-01

    This article examines antecedents and performance implications of global delivery models (GDMs) in global business services. GDMs require geographically distributed operations to exploit both proximity to clients and time-zone spread for efficient service delivery. We propose and empirically show...

  3. The 2030 Global Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Sound land governance is fundamental to achieving the 2030 Global Agenda as set by the Sustainable. Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by all the world’s leaders at the UN Summit in September 2015. This Global Agenda calls for a “data revolution” for sustainable development to empower people...

  4. Middle Schoolers Go Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mark; McTighe, Jay

    2017-01-01

    From global hunger to the world's water crisis, middle school students at New Jersey's West Windsor-Plainsboro Regional School District spend the last few days of the school year problem solving about the planet's most dire issues. With the Global Challenge, the school district's administrators not only want to implement an interesting and dynamic…

  5. Building Global Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas; Buchem, Ilona; Camacho, Mar; Cronin, Catherine; Gordon, Averill; Keegan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC) for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning…

  6. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  7. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian A; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M S; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E M S; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Van Der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future

  8. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quéré, Le Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M.S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E.M.S.; Nakaoka, S.; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Laan-Luijkx, van der Ingrid T.; Werf, van der Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  9. Global from the Start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2016-01-01

    This article provides insights from recent research on firms that are “born global”. A born-global firm is a venture launched to exploit a global niche from the first day of its operations. The insights in this article are relevant to technology entrepreneurs and top management teams of new...

  10. Globalization of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Globalization-the increasing transnational circulation of money, goods, people, ideas, and information worldwide-is generally recognized as one of the most powerful forces shaping our current and future history. How is it affecting healthcare, and in that context, what is the purpose and significance of Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHM), publisher of this journal? Our goal is not homogenization but rather to provide an opportunity for integration, convergence, and collaboration across cultures. By respecting and conserving the richness and diversity of each new medicine, we embrace globalization. Globalization is of course not new; it began in the Renaissance and particularly with the 15th- and 16th-century voyages of exploration by Columbus, Magellan, and others. Since the beginning of time, there have been interactions and exchanges among different peoples and cultures. However, the current magnitude of globalization is unprecedented and yet still expanding rapidly.

  11. Global gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, E.

    1985-01-01

    A general formula for global gauge and gravitational anomalies is derived. It is used to show that the anomaly free supergravity and superstring theories in ten dimensions are all free of global anomalies that might have ruined their consistency. However, it is shown that global anomalies lead to some restrictions on allowed compactifications of these theories. For example, in the case of O(32) superstring theory, it is shown that a global anomaly related to π 7 (O(32)) leads to a Dirac-like quantization condition for the field strength of the antisymmetric tensor field. Related to global anomalies is the question of the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field. It is argued that the relevant gravitational instantons are exotic spheres. It is shown that the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field is always even in ten dimensional supergravity. (orig.)

  12. Globalization of consumer confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çelik Sadullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of world economies and the importance of nowcasting analysis have been at the core of the recent literature. Nevertheless, these two strands of research are hardly coupled. This study aims to fill this gap through examining the globalization of the consumer confidence index (CCI by applying conventional and unconventional econometric methods. The US CCI is used as the benchmark in tests of comovement among the CCIs of several developing and developed countries, with the data sets divided into three sub-periods: global liquidity abundance, the Great Recession, and postcrisis. The existence and/or degree of globalization of the CCIs vary according to the period, whereas globalization in the form of coherence and similar paths is observed only during the Great Recession and, surprisingly, stronger in developing/emerging countries.

  13. Corporate Stakeholding and Globalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    2016-01-01

    , the global warming, the disasters of global consumerism in terms of the collapse of the Rana Plaza factory in the fashion industry, are examples of how the stakeholder concept cannot continue to be defined as narrow as corporations usually does. The butterfly effect of globalism has shown to be – yes, global....... Even the smallest company, the single consumer and the tiniest decision made by anyone may in the future – perhaps even tomorrow – affect stakeholders, we didn’t know existed. The future generation is also to be considered as stakeholders, which decisions made today may affect. Companies, consumers......, everyday people including children already know this even from the first day at school if not before. What we need is not knowledge about these phenomena – it is how to think globally when we decide locally: in companies, in daily households, in education of our future generations. This chapter discusses...

  14. Generalized global symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A q-form global symmetry is a global symmetry for which the charged operators are of space-time dimension q; e.g. Wilson lines, surface defects, etc., and the charged excitations have q spatial dimensions; e.g. strings, membranes, etc. Many of the properties of ordinary global symmetries (q=0) apply here. They lead to Ward identities and hence to selection rules on amplitudes. Such global symmetries can be coupled to classical background fields and they can be gauged by summing over these classical fields. These generalized global symmetries can be spontaneously broken (either completely or to a subgroup). They can also have ’t Hooft anomalies, which prevent us from gauging them, but lead to ’t Hooft anomaly matching conditions. Such anomalies can also lead to anomaly inflow on various defects and exotic Symmetry Protected Topological phases. Our analysis of these symmetries gives a new unified perspective of many known phenomena and uncovers new results.

  15. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    the higher costs (but decreased risk for value chain disruption) embedded in a more flexible global sourcing model that allows the firm to replicate and/or relocate activities across multiple locations. We develop a model and propositions on facilitating and constraining conditions of global sourcing...... sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...

  16. Customer Relationship Management : Strategy Process Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Din, Fazal

    2014-01-01

    Before the advent of globalization the mantra of "Customer is King", was preached by large organizations. With the development of technology and the business environment, multinationals better understand the importance of customer retention and customer loyalty. Customer loyalty, attained by sustainable customer relationship, is the focus of most of the companies around the world. For any large organization customer relationship management, under the umbrella of business vision, mission and o...

  17. Global fluctuations of cerebral blood flow indicate a global brain network independent of systemic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Alsop, David C; Detre, John A; Dai, Weiying

    2017-01-01

    Global synchronization across specialized brain networks is a common feature of network models and in-vivo electrical measurements. Although the imaging of specialized brain networks with blood oxygenation sensitive resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has enabled detailed study of regional networks, the study of globally correlated fluctuations with rsfMRI is confounded by spurious contributions to the global signal from systemic physiologic factors and other noise sources. Here we use an alternative rsfMRI method, arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI, to characterize global correlations and their relationship to correlations and anti-correlations between regional networks. Global fluctuations that cannot be explained by systemic factors dominate the fluctuations in cerebral blood flow. Power spectra of these fluctuations are band limited to below 0.05 Hz, similar to prior measurements of regional network fluctuations in the brain. Removal of these global fluctuations prior to measurement of regional networks reduces all regional network fluctuation amplitudes to below the global fluctuation amplitude and changes the strength and sign of inter network correlations. Our findings support large amplitude, globally synchronized activity across networks that require a reassessment of regional network amplitude and correlation measures.

  18. Tobacco industry globalization and global health governance: towards an interdisciplinary research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Shifting patterns of tobacco production and consumption, and the resultant disease burden worldwide since the late twentieth century, prompted efforts to strengthen global health governance through adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. While the treaty is rightfully considered an important achievement, to address a neglected public health issue through collective action, evidence suggests that tobacco industry globalization continues apace. In this article, we provide a systematic review of the public health literature and reveal definitional and measurement imprecision, ahistorical timeframes, transnational tobacco companies and the state as the primary units and levels of analysis, and a strong emphasis on agency as opposed to structural power. Drawing on the study of globalization in international political economy and business studies, we identify opportunities to expand analysis along each of these dimensions. We conclude that this expanded and interdisciplinary research agenda provides the potential for fuller understanding of the dual and dynamic relationship between the tobacco industry and globalization. Deeper analysis of how the industry has adapted to globalization over time, as well as how the industry has influenced the nature and trajectory of globalization, is essential for building effective global governance responses. This article is published as part of a thematic collection dedicated to global governance. PMID:28458910

  19. Tobacco industry globalization and global health governance: towards an interdisciplinary research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Shifting patterns of tobacco production and consumption, and the resultant disease burden worldwide since the late twentieth century, prompted efforts to strengthen global health governance through adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. While the treaty is rightfully considered an important achievement, to address a neglected public health issue through collective action, evidence suggests that tobacco industry globalization continues apace. In this article, we provide a systematic review of the public health literature and reveal definitional and measurement imprecision, ahistorical timeframes, transnational tobacco companies and the state as the primary units and levels of analysis, and a strong emphasis on agency as opposed to structural power. Drawing on the study of globalization in international political economy and business studies, we identify opportunities to expand analysis along each of these dimensions. We conclude that this expanded and interdisciplinary research agenda provides the potential for fuller understanding of the dual and dynamic relationship between the tobacco industry and globalization. Deeper analysis of how the industry has adapted to globalization over time, as well as how the industry has influenced the nature and trajectory of globalization, is essential for building effective global governance responses. This article is published as part of a thematic collection dedicated to global governance.

  20. Global challenges and globalization of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhmetdinova, Farida

    2013-02-01

    This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies.