WorldWideScience

Sample records for global security environment

  1. 2002 Industry Analysis Research Paper: Global Environment, Global Industry, and Global Security: Managing the Crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    2002 Industry Analysis Research Paper Global Environment, Global Industry, and Global Security: Managing the Crossroads Abstract. The events of...Industry Analysis Research Paper : Global Environment, Global Industry, and Global Security: Managing the Crossroads 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  2. Enhancing the Security Cooperation Marine Air Ground Task Force to Satisfy the Needs of the Uncertain Global Security Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    ENHANCING THE SECURITY COOPERATION MARINE AIR GROUND TASK FORCE TO SATISFY THE NEEDS OF THE UNCERTAIN GLOBAL SECURITY ENVIRONMENT... THE NEEDS OF THE UNCERTAIN GLOBAL SECURITY ENVIRONMENT 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Enhancing the Security Cooperation Marine Air Ground Task Force to Satisfy the Needs of the Uncertain Global Security Environment

  3. Deterrence and the New Global Security Environment - Lecture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This lecture note makes an analysis of a collective publication entitled 'Deterrence and the New Global Security Environment', edited by Ian Kenyon and John Simpson (Routledge, New York, 2006). This collection of papers rigorously examines the current place of deterrence in international security relations, delivering the best of contemporary thinking. This is a special issue of the leading journal 'Contemporary Security Policy'. The present Lecture note emphasises a particular deterrence situation mentioned in this publication which is the one involving terrorist actors

  4. Climate Change Implications to the Global Security Environment, U.S. Interests, and Future Naval Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    Title: Climate Change Implications to the Global Security Environment , U.S. Interests, and Future Naval Operations Thesis: This paper aims to...United States over the next 20 years. ·This is because it will aggravate existing problems such as poverty tensions, environmental degradation...Implications on the Global Security Environment As discussed above, the physical effects of climate change -rising sea levels, rising temperatures

  5. European Security Environment in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most important consequence of the Cold War was that "it leaped the pressure cookerlid of the planet." There were issued, thus the determining energies in the globalization accelerationand its assertion as the current main feature of the international system. Cold War demonstrated,firstly, the rule of the West in its ideological confrontation with communism. Although the massivemilitary expenditures of NATO countries had their importance in deterring a possible Sovietaggression, which brought to its knees "The Evil Empire"; it was the antithesis between communistdemagogy and the political, social and economic performance from the West. Constantly under thethreat of a nuclear Armageddon, the Cold War "was a global, systemic, long-term conflict, betweentwo power blocks sustained by incompatible ideologies. It was a global war, accompanied by warsaround by the inference of the entire world. It was a "one-dimensional" confrontation, well organized,guided by the written and unwritten principles, accepted by the main opponents and by their allies.The fact that the international system in the years after 1989 was dominated by the U.S. military wasa good thing, its effect being the reduction of chances that, in a period of profound changes, a warbetween great powers would take place. Post-Cold War period, although it was registered a number ofwars, especially civil ones, cannot be said in any case that it was characterized by a major risk of awar between great powers.

  6. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhamid, Shafi’i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques. PMID:27384239

  7. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhamid, Shafi'i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques.

  8. Securing classification and regulatory approval for deepwater projects: management challenges in a global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijo, Luiz P.; Burton, Gareth C. [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the offshore industry continues to develop and move into increasingly deeper waters, technological boundaries are being pushed to new limits. Along with these advances, the design, fabrication and installation of deepwater oil and gas projects has become an increasingly global endeavor. After providing an overview of the history and role of Classification Societies, this paper reviews the challenges of securing classification and regulatory approval in a global environment. Operational, procedural and technological changes which one Classification Society; the American Bureau of Shipping, known as ABS, has implemented to address these challenges are presented. The result of the changes has been a more customized service aiming at faster and more streamlined classification approval process. (author)

  9. Radiation effects on man health, environment, safety, security. Global Chernobyl mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebeshko, V.; Bazyka, D.; Volovik, S.; Loganovsky, K.; Sushko, V.; Siedow, J.; Cohen, H.; Ginsburg, G.; Chao, N.; Chute, J.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objectives: Ionizing radiation is a primordial terrestrial and extraterrestrial background and archetypal environmental stress-factor for life origin, evolution, and existence. We all live in radiation world inevitably involving nuclear energy production, nuclear weapon, nuclear navy, radioactive waste, pertinent medical diagnostics and treatment, etc with connected certain probability of relevant accidents and terrorist attack, space and jet travels, high natural background radiation, etc - actual and potential sources of radiation exposures and effects. State-of- the art integral fundamental research on radiation effects on man health, environment, safety, and security (REMHESS) is nowadays paramount necessity and challenge. Methods and results: In given generalized conceptual framework unique 20 years Chernobyl multidimensional research and databases for radiation effects on man's all organism systems represent invaluable original basis and resources for mapping Chernobyl data and REMHESS challenge. Granted by DOE brand new Chernobyl Research and Service Project based on 'Sarcophagus-II' (Object 'Shelter') workers only one in radiation history baseline cohort, corresponding biorepository prospective dynamic data, integrated conceptual database system, and 'state of the art' 'omics' (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics) analysis is designed specifically for coherent addressing global REMHESS problems. In this connection 'Sarcophagus-II' is only one unique universal model. Conclusions: The fundamental goals of novel strategic Project and global Chernobyl mapping are to determine specific 'omics' signatures of radiation for man depending of exposure peculiarity to understand ultimate molecular mechanisms of radiation effects, gene environment interactions, etiology of organisms systems disorders and diseases, and to develop new biomarkers and countermeasures to protect man health in the framework of global REMHESS challenge

  10. Global Military Operating Environments (GMOE) Phase I: Linking Natural Environments, International Security, and Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    Synthetic Environment Core Area), baseline terrain information, and application of remote‐sensing technologies for Warfighter and Chameleon . The...Laboratory (Table 2). For each of the three soil profiles, a representative soil sample was collected from each genetic soil horizon identified in the field

  11. Security Components of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is our intention to present what are the main connections between globalization and international security. In terms of global security we can perceive the globalization as a process by which global state is represented by the UN, with a single world system, represented by major security organizations and with global effects. We will present from the beginning the main theoretical aspects that define the phenomenon of globalization, and then our contribution in assessing the implications of this phenomenon on the regional and global security. The results of our research are materialized in the last part of the paper. They emphasize the personal assessments on how the phenomenon of globalization has direct effect on global security. When talking about government, we think of norms, rules and decisionmaking procedures in the management of international life. The value that we add to the new scientific interpretation of the definition of globalization is represented, primarily, by the valuable bibliographic used resources and the original approach on the concept that refers to the links between globalization and security. This article may be, at any time, a starting point in an interesting research direction in the field of global security.

  12. Shaping the U.S. Military for the Global Security Environment of the Year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-19

    Strategy. Andrew W. Marshall and Charles Wolf , Chairmen, (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1988). 3The GLOBUS Research Group, Berlin Scientific Center for Social...Social-Political Structures in the Iberian World. Edited by Fredrick B. Pike and Thomas Stritch. London & Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press...Environment. Report of the Future Security Environment Working Group. Andrew W. Marshall and Charles Wolf , Chairmen. Washington, DC: USGPO, 1988

  13. Global Health Security

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-21

    Dr. Jordan Tappero, a CDC senior advisor on global health, discusses the state of global health security.  Created: 9/21/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Center for Global Health (CGH).   Date Released: 9/21/2017.

  14. Securing the Vista Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Peter

    2007-01-01

    "Securing the Vista Environment" takes you on a quick tour of the most significant security features in Vista, Microsoft's first revision of Windows in almost six years. You'll get background on threats and vulnerabilities that will make you think differently about security. Security is more than just the technology and configurations--it's about how we use the system that makes it secure or not. Then we'll cover Vista's security features, from user privileges to Windows Defender, User Account Control, and BitLocker, as well as strategies for protecting your information from unwanted disclo

  15. Security Assistance in Nigeria: Shaping the International Environment to Meet U.S. National Security Objectives in the Global Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prendergast, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    .... While American interests in Sub-Saharan Africa are significant and growing, there are also important transnational security threats, infectious diseases, organized international criminal activities...

  16. Global nuclear security engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulp, W.D. III

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Security Summits in Washington (2010) and Seoul (2012) were convened with the goal of reducing the threat of nuclear terrorism. These meetings have engaged States with established nuclear fuel cycle activities and encouraged their commitment to nuclear security. The participating States have reaffirmed that it is a fundamental responsibility of nations to maintain effective nuclear security in order to prevent unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials. To that end, the participants have identified important areas for improvement and have committed to further progress. Yet, a broader message has emerged from the Summits: effective nuclear security requires both global and regional engagement. Universal commitment to domestic nuclear security is essential, if only because the peaceful use of nuclear energy remains a right of all States: Nations may someday adopt nuclear energy, even if they are not currently developing nuclear technology. However, the need for nuclear security extends beyond domestic power production. To harvest natural resources and to develop part of a nuclear fuel cycle, a State should embrace a nuclear security culture. Nuclear materials may be used to produce isotopes for medicine and industry. These materials are transported worldwide, potentially crossing a nation's borders or passing by its shores. Regrettably, measures to prevent the loss of control may not be sufficient against an adversary committed to using nuclear or other radioactive materials for malicious acts. Nuclear security extends beyond prevention measures, encompassing efforts to detect illicit activities and respond to nuclear emergencies. The Seoul Communique introduces the concept of a Global Nuclear Security Architecture, which includes multilateral instruments, national legislation, best practices, and review mechanisms to promote adoption of these components. Key multilateral instruments include the Convention on Physical Protection of

  17. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -unipolar", indicating a period of flux and of declining US unipolar hegemony. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field, Northern Security and Global Politics explores how this situation has affected the Nordic-Baltic area by addressing two broad sets of questions. First, it examines what impact...... declining unipolarity - with a geopolitical shift to Asia, a reduced role for Europe in United States policy, and a more assertive Russia - will have on regional Nordic-Baltic security. Second, it takes a closer look at how the regional actors respond to these changes in their strategic environment....... This book will be of much interest to students of Nordic and Baltic politics, international security, foreign policy and IR....

  18. Globalization, Development and Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Ștefanachi

    2011-01-01

    The conjunction between globalization, development and human security is absolutely necessary and extremely useful to understand and to explain the contemporary space of international relations. The globalization process, even more obvious after the end of Cold War, offers the conditions to define human development and human security, focusing on the normative priority of the impact of policies on the individual. The international space, transformed under the pressure of globalization, become...

  19. Secure Environments for Collaboration among Ubiquitous Roaming Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.

    2002-01-01

    SECURE is a newly started IST project, which addresses secure collaboration among computational entities in emerging global computing systems. The properties of these systems introduce new security challenges that are not adequately addressed by existing security models and mechanisms. The scale...... and uncertainty of this global computing environment invalidates existing security models. Instead, new security models have to be developed along with new security mechanisms that control access to protected resources....

  20. Social security for seafarers globally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf; Canals, Luisa; Haarløv, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Social security for seafarers globally Background: Social security protection is one of the essential elements of decent work. The issue is complex and no previous epidemiological studies of the coverage among seafarers have yet been performed. Objectives: The aim was to overcome the gap...... of knowledge to promote the discussion and planning of the implementation of social security for all seafarers. Methods: The seafarers completed a short questionnaire concerning their knowledge about their social security status. Results: Significant disparities of coverage of social security were pointed out...... comes from poorer countries without substantial social security systems. The solutions suggested are to implement the minimum requirements as recommended by the ILO 2006 Convention, to survey the implementation and in the long term to struggle for global social equality. Key words: Social security...

  1. Globalization, Development and Human Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ștefanachi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The conjunction between globalization, development and human security is absolutely necessary and extremely useful to understand and to explain the contemporary space of international relations. The globalization process, even more obvious after the end of Cold War, offers the conditions to define human development and human security, focusing on the normative priority of the impact of policies on the individual. The international space, transformed under the pressure of globalization, becomes relevant in the extent that an alternative discourse that encompasses all these transformations comes out. This new narration transforms the individual in the referent object of development and security, as well.

  2. Shaping the Global Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-09

    SHAPING THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL MICHAEL D. ELLERBE United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release...THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT by Lieutenant Colonel Michael D. Ellerbe United States Army Colonel Jef Troxel Project Advisor The views expressed in this...Distribution is unlimited. ii ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Michael D. Ellerbe TITLE: SHAPING THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 09 April

  3. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -unipolar", indicating a period of flux and of declining US unipolar hegemony. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field, Northern Security and Global Politics explores how this situation has affected the Nordic-Baltic area by addressing two broad sets of questions. First, it examines what impact....... This book will be of much interest to students of Nordic and Baltic politics, international security, foreign policy and IR....

  4. Global security in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Sánchez Mateos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the WEU, NATO and specially the European Union (in the framework of the Barcelona process initiated security dialogues with countries East and South of the Mediterranean Basin. Those processes are far to achieve significant progress. Some arguments help to explain the present situation: on the one hand, European countries and organizations lack clear strategic goals and consistent policies. On the other, difficulties to create a security dialogue in the Mediterranean, which is a precondition to generateboth a common language and security culture, are the result of differences between the European and the Arab security cultures. Nevertheless, the geopolitical environment, the Euro-Mediterranean process itself and the development of the European Union demanda strategic revision on how to implement the objectives of the Barcelona Declaration, reformulating the idea of Euro-Mediterranean Partnership towards a new concept of shared security that integrates Southern interests and concerns.

  5. Global environment and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    The environment problems on global scale have been highlighted in addition to the local problems due to the rapid increase of population, the increase of energy demand and so on. The global environment summit was held in Brazil. Now, global environment problems are the problems for mankind, and their importance seems to increase toward 21st century. In such circumstances, cogeneration can reduce carbon dioxide emission in addition to energy conservation, therefore, attention has been paid as the countermeasure for global environment. The background of global environment problems is explained. As to the effectiveness of cogeneration for global environment, the suitability of city gas to environment, energy conservation, the reduction of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emission are discussed. As for the state of spread of cogeneration, as of March, 1992, those of 2250 MW in terms of power generation capacity have been installed in Japan. It is forecast that cogeneration will increase hereafter. As the future systems of cogeneration, city and industry energy center conception, industrial repowering, multiple house cogeneration and fuel cells are described. (K.I.)

  6. Forensic nursing in secure environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    There are few well-designed studies of corrections or prison nursing roles. This study seeks to describe the corrections or prison role of forensic nurses in the United States who provide care in secure environments. National data detailing the scope of practice in secure environments are limited. This pencil and paper survey describes the roles of 180 forensic nurses from 14 states who work in secure environments. Descriptive statistics are utilized. A repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc analyses was implemented. These nurses were older than average in age, but had 10 years or less experience in forensic nursing practice. Two significant roles emerged to "promote and implement principles that underpin effective quality and practice" and to "assess, develop, implement, and improve programs of care for individuals." Significant roles varied based upon the security classification of the unit or institution in which the nurses were employed. Access to information about these nurses and their nursing practice was difficult in these closed systems. Minimal data are available nationally, indicating a need for collection of additional data over time to examine changes in role. It is through such developments that forensic nursing provided in secure environments will define its specialization and attract the attention it deserves.

  7. Social security for seafarers globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Olaf C; Lucero-Prisno, Don Eliseo; Haarløv, Erik; Sucre, Rimsky; Flores, Agnes; Canals, M Luisa

    2013-01-01

    The social security protection is one of the essential elements of decent work. The issue is complexand no previous epidemiological studies of the coverage among the seafarers have yet been performed. The aim was to overcome the gap of knowledge to promote the further discussion and plan the implementationof the social security for all the seafarers. The seafarers completed a short questionnaire concerning their knowledge abouttheir social security status. The significant disparities in the social security coverage were pointed out among the nationalities.Especially it is worth mentioning that more than half of the respondents believe they are economicallyuncovered for disability from an injury on board and from a work-related disease. The results confirm the ILO (Convention No. 143) statements that the significant part of theseafarers comes from the poorer countries without the substantial social security systems. The solutionssuggested are to implement the minimum requirements as recommended by the ILO 2006 Convention, tosurvey the implementation and - in the long term - to struggle for a global social equality.

  8. Global Food Security Support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Crop Dominance 2010 Global 1 km V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security Support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Crop Dominance Global 1...

  9. Global Food Security Support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Crop Mask 2010 Global 1 km V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security Support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Crop Mask Global 1 kilometer...

  10. Global Security Program Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretzke, John C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-25

    The Global Security Directorate mission is to protect against proliferant and unconventional nuclear threats –regardless of origin - and emerging new threats. This mission is accomplished as the Los Alamos National Laboratory staff completes projects for our numerous sponsors. The purpose of this Program Management Plan is to establish and clearly describe the GS program management requirements including instructions that are essential for the successful management of projects in accordance with our sponsor requirements. The detailed information provided in this document applies to all LANL staff and their subcontractors that are performing GS portfolio work. GS management is committed to a culture that ensures effective planning, execution, and achievement of measurable results in accordance with the GS mission. Outcomes of such a culture result in better communication, delegated authority, accountability, and increased emphasis on safely and securely achieving GS objectives.

  11. ECONOMIC SECURITY – NEW APPROACHES IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more than ever, economic relations between states are the ones that define the general character of the relations between them and establish economic security as a concept which cannot be neglected anymore. Globalization, the process that shapes the international environment, undermines the old definition of economic security and forces its redefinition. The article aims to identify and analyse the effects of globalization on economic security and the new approaches it takes in this context.

  12. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on environment laboratories: Protecting the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    According to the Millennium Development Goals, managing the environment is considered an integral part of the global development process. The main purpose of the IAEA's environment laboratories is to provide Member States with reliable information on environmental issues and facilitate decision making on protection of the environment. An increasingly important feature of this work is to assess the impact of climate change on environmental sustainability and natural resources. The IAEA's environment laboratories use nuclear techniques, radionuclides, isotopic tracers and stable isotopes to gain a better understanding of the various marine processes, including locating the sources of pollutants and their fate, their transport pathways and their ultimate accumulation in sediments. Radioisotopes are also used to study bioaccumulation in organisms and the food chain, as well as to track signals of climate change throughout history. Natural and artificial radionuclides are used to track ocean currents in key regions. They are also used to validate models designed to predict the future impact of climate change and ocean acidification. The laboratories study the fate and impact of contamination on a variety of ecosystems in order to provide effective preventative diagnostic and remediation strategies. They enhance the capability of Member States to use nuclear techniques to understand and assess changes in their own terrestrial and atmospheric environments, and adopt suitable and sustainable remediation measures when needed. Since 1995, the IAEA environment laboratories have coordinated the international network of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity, providing accurate analysis in the event of an accident or an intentional release of radioactivity. In addition, the laboratories work alongside other organizations, such as UNESCO, the IOC, UNEP and the EC. The laboratories collaborate with Member States through direct involvement with

  13. Information Security Management in Context of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wawak, Slawomir

    2012-01-01

    Modern information technologies are the engine of globalization. At the same time, the global market influences the way of looking at information security. Information security thus becomes an increasingly important field. The article discuses the results of research on information security management systems in public administration in Poland.

  14. Securing global trade through secure freight transportation : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-16

    Given the increased probability of disruptions to global supply chains, and the significant impact these have on national and global economies, the problem is how to secure global trade. The concept of a global trade chain-of-custody has been develop...

  15. Security State in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andrișan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The international system is defined largely by the relative distribution of power between the main component states. At the end of the twentieth century and beginning of XXI century, the main feature of the international system is uni-polarity. United States of America is the only state entity that has the ability to promote their interests in any part of the world both militarily and non-military. However, this hegemony is not synonymous with imperialism and the U.S. to maintain higher status in international relations would not be possible without the existence and encourage cooperation in all areas of life. Furthermore, U.S. international action is governed by a multitude of agreements and treaties to which they are part. With regard to non-state actors, the dialogue on international security institutions and the political alliances, military or economic culture has become an integral part of security. Themes relate to the influences of changes in the security environment of alliances and their members and the scenarios of evolution of existing alliances and creating new forms of association and international cooperation. Recent years have provided sufficient grounds for the debate to flourish: military operations in Afghanistan and Gulf War reinforced the view that there is a strong transatlantic split, Americans and Europeans part of the vision of using force unrequited. Based on the events of recent years can be forecast that NATO will remain a pillar of Euro-Atlantic security and the European Union could develop a credible entity both economic and especially political and strategic, representing, with alliances, another form of community safety. All these trends of globalization takes place, a very dynamic process of increasing interdependence of national states, due to the enlargement and deepening of transnational ties in increasingly large and diverse spheres of economic, political, social and cultural implications aiming that the

  16. Japan and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.S.; Moore, C.

    1993-01-01

    In many areas, the word most often used to describe Japanese policy is open-quotes enigma.close quotes In some ways, Japan's record on environmental policy also has elements of mystery and contradiction. On the one hand, Japan's history and culture often are associated with a reverence for nature. Indeed, Japan does lead the world in certain environmental areas, such as reduction of conventional air pollutants and compensation of air pollution victims. On the other hand, Japan has been widely criticized for its poor record in preserving its domestic environment, contribution to tropical deforestation, and unwillingness to protect endangered species. Today, the international community clamors for Japan to take its share of responsibility, as an economic superpower, for the global environment. To secure its place in world affairs, Japan slowly has begun to respond to this pressure on issues ranging from ivory importation to reduction of CFC emissions. There is some hope that the government's particular willingness to address global warming may be a sign of significant changes to come in Japanese environmental policy. However, international pressure remains on the many environmental issues Japan has yet to resolve, including tropical deforestation and financing of Third World development projects that harm the environment. Japan's environmental policy is most effective when government and industry cooperate to find technical solutions to environmental problems. Although in recent years Japan's energy consumption has risen sharply, the Japanese have developed numerous technologies to reduce pollution and increase economic growth by improving energy efficiency. It is in these technologies that Japan has made the greatest strides and has the most to offer the global environment

  17. Securing the User's Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.

    2004-01-01

    High performance computing at the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Facility at NASA Ames Research Center includes C90's, J90's and Origin 2000's. Not only is it necessary to protect these systems from outside attacks, but also to provide a safe working environment on the systems. With the right tools, security anomalies in the user s work environment can be deleted and corrected. Validating proper ownership of files against user s permissions, will reduce the risk of inadvertent data compromise. The detection of extraneous directories and files hidden amongst user home directories is important for identifying potential compromises. The first runs of these utilities detected over 350,000 files with problems. With periodic scans, automated correction of problems takes only minutes. Tools for detecting these types of problems as well as their development techniques will be discussed with emphasis on consistency, portability and efficiency for both UNICOS and IRIX.

  18. Global Order and Security Privatization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howe, Herbert

    1998-01-01

    Nation-states are losing their monopoly over military might. Private security firms are filling a void by offering military services and security for national governments and non-governmental organizations...

  19. Water Security - National and Global Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.; Campbell, A. A.; Moran, E. H.

    2010-12-01

    Water is fundamental to human life. Disruption of water supplies by the Water Threats and Hazards Triad (WTHT) — man-made, natural, and technological hazards — could threaten the delivery of vital human services, endanger public health and the environment, potentially cause mass casualties, and threaten population sustainability, social stability, and homeland security. Water distribution systems extend over vast areas and are therefore vulnerable to a wide spectrum of threats — from natural hazards such as large forest fires that result in runoff and debris flow that clog reservoirs, and reduce, disrupt, or contaminate water supply and quality to threats from natural, man-made, or political extremist attacks. Our research demonstrates how devising concepts and counter measures to protect water supplies will assist the public, policy makers, and planners at local, Tribal, State, and Federal levels to develop solutions for national and international water-security and sustainability issues. Water security is an issue in which the entire global community is stakeholders.

  20. Information Assurance Security in the Information Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Intended for IT managers and assets protection professionals, this work aims to bridge the gap between information security, information systems security and information warfare. It covers topics such as the role of the corporate security officer; Corporate cybercrime; Electronic commerce and the global marketplace; Cryptography; and, more.

  1. Energy and global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyfe, W.S.; Powell, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    At present about 90% of the world's energy consumption is met by the fossil carbon fuel used in the form of coal, oil and natural gas. This results into release of vast amounts of waste gas CO 2 into the atmosphere posing a threat to the global environment. Moreover this energy source is not sustainable (renewable) and its use amounts to spending Earth's capital resources. The options to this energy source are biomass energy, hydro power, solar energy, geothermal energy and nuclear energy. The potentials, limitations, geological impact and environmental dangers, if any, of these sources are discussed in brief. Energy conservation through energy efficient systems is also one more option. Problems and potential for change to sustainable energy systems with respect to India and Canada are examined. Finally it is pointed out that the ultimate solution to the world's energy problem lies in population control and population reduction. This will make possible for the world to have a sustainable energy system primarily based on solar energy. (M.G.B.). 15 refs

  2. The Underbelly of Global Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Sierra Leone civil war, demobilized militia soldiers have become an attractive resource to private security companies. Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork, this article traces the outsourcing of security at American military bases in Iraq to Sierra Leonean ex...

  3. Development and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the Third World and the protection of the environment are two major global problems interconnected by energy - the motor of economic growth and the main cause of deterioration of the global environment. They can no longer be separated. The threats of ozone, acid rain, and global warming are global in scope and solutions must involve energy consumption, conservations, and renewable resources. The precept that development should hinge on sound management of natural resources and the environment no longer has merely local or regional significance. It is a global concern and each person should feel a sense of ethical commitment as a world citizen

  4. Global Consortium on Security Transformation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The proposed Global Consortium on Security Transformation emerged from discussions between members of an informal network of scholars and practitioners in the fields of security reform and governance in different regions of the South. This grant will establish the Consortium as a joint venture between the Institute of ...

  5. Securing the Global Airspace System Via Identity-Based Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Current telecommunications systems have very good security architectures that include authentication and authorization as well as accounting. These three features enable an edge system to obtain access into a radio communication network, request specific Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements and ensure proper billing for service. Furthermore, the links are secure. Widely used telecommunication technologies are Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) This paper provides a system-level view of network-centric operations for the global airspace system and the problems and issues with deploying new technologies into the system. The paper then focuses on applying the basic security architectures of commercial telecommunication systems and deployment of federated Authentication, Authorization and Accounting systems to provide a scalable, evolvable reliable and maintainable solution to enable a globally deployable identity-based secure airspace system.

  6. How Does Globalization Affect the National Security?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Globalization as a process of integration of national economies has led to the creation of a single world economic system. The signs of globalization have appeared before the First World War, in fact, globalization is produced not only the economic aspect, but also the cultural one (it tends to interweave and even standardize the material and spiritual culture of mankind and informational one caused by the Internet. The globalization is the most dynamic and broader geopolitical process in the contemporary world. Among its most visible effects it includes the gradual erosion of the pivotal concepts of geopolitics, such as border, territoriality or sphere of influence, increasing the role of international policy actors - international organizations and transnational companies - to the detriment of states; these phenomena are accompanied also by the revision of ideas concerning sovereignty, nation-state and nation. Within just two decades, "the world order" has undergone considerable changes. The bipolar international system during the Cold War has become one pole with the collapse of the Soviet Union. But here, now, the world is again changing. New powers are rising, including Russia which is in a recovery of form, an emerging multipolar world is increasingly visible. All these mutations did not remain without effect on the geopolitical framework. The powers redefine their areas of influence, new geopolitical objectives gain priority on the states’ agenda. We therefore consider that it is necessary a deep analysis on how the new challenges arising from globalization tend to crystallize in the international security environment, in general, and of Romania in particular. Along with Romania, both NATO and the European Union becomes a regional dimension in the area of influence of Romania.

  7. AFRICA'S FOOD SECURITY UNDER GLOBALIZATION | Kent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advocates of globalization favor market liberalization and export-oriented agriculture. They favor large-scale operations with high levels of mechanization. For the advocates of globalization, the basis of food security is wealth, and the possibility of obtaining food from diverse sources through the open market. The critics see ...

  8. Global climate change and international security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.

    1991-01-01

    On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

  9. Designing for the global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document contains papers which were presented at the symposium entitled Designing for the Global Environment. Session topics included policy and the implementation of energy efficient technologies. Individual papers were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  10. Security Technologies for Open Networking Environments (STONE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muftic, Sead

    2005-03-31

    Under this project SETECS performed research, created the design, and the initial prototype of three groups of security technologies: (a) middleware security platform, (b) Web services security, and (c) group security system. The results of the project indicate that the three types of security technologies can be used either individually or in combination, which enables effective and rapid deployment of a number of secure applications in open networking environments. The middleware security platform represents a set of object-oriented security components providing various functions to handle basic cryptography, X.509 certificates, S/MIME and PKCS No.7 encapsulation formats, secure communication protocols, and smart cards. The platform has been designed in the form of security engines, including a Registration Engine, Certification Engine, an Authorization Engine, and a Secure Group Applications Engine. By creating a middleware security platform consisting of multiple independent components the following advantages have been achieved - Object-oriented, Modularity, Simplified Development, and testing, Portability, and Simplified extensions. The middleware security platform has been fully designed and a preliminary Java-based prototype has been created for the Microsoft Windows operating system. The Web services security system, designed in the project, consists of technologies and applications that provide authentication (i.e., single sign), authorization, and federation of identities in an open networking environment. The system is based on OASIS SAML and XACML standards for secure Web services. Its topology comprises three major components: Domain Security Server (DSS) is the main building block of the system Secure Application Server (SAS) Secure Client In addition to the SAML and XACML engines, the authorization system consists of two sets of components An Authorization Administration System An Authorization Enforcement System Federation of identities in multi

  11. Supporting non proliferation and global security efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochon, E.

    2013-01-01

    CEA contributes as a major actor of France's action against nuclear proliferation and to the strengthening of nuclear security at national level as European and International levels, in particular through the support of the IAEA activities in nuclear non proliferation with the French Support Programme for the IAEA safeguards system and security with the contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Plan and cooperation projects with the European Commission. The CEA is a French government funded technological research organization, organized around 5 branches: Nuclear Energy, Technological Researches, Defence (DAM), Material Sciences and Life Sciences. Within the scope of its activities, CEA covers most of the research areas and techniques in nuclear non-proliferation and security. The CEA is also the advisor of the French Government on nuclear policy. Treaty monitoring and the development and implementation of non proliferation and global security programs is an important mission of DAM which rely on nuclear weapons manufacture and past testing experience. The programmes on non proliferation and global security carried out to fulfil DAM's mission cover the following areas: development of monitoring and detection methods and equipments, country profiles and nuclear stockpiles assessment, arms control instruments, proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle, monitoring of nuclear tests, operation and maintenance of national detection capabilities and contribution to CTBT verification systems. (A.C.)

  12. Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lingquan

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the Regulatory Network are: - to contribute to the effectiveness of nuclear regulatory systems; - to contribute to continuous enhancements, and - to achieve and promote radiation and nuclear safety and security by: • Enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of international cooperation in the regulation of nuclear and radiation safety of facilities and activities; • Enabling adequate access by regulators to relevant safety and security information; • Promoting dissemination of information on safety and security issues as well as information of good practices for addressing and resolving these issues; • Enabling synergies among different web based networks with a view to strengthening and enhancing the global nuclear safety framework and serving the specific needs of regulators and international organizations; • Providing additional information to the public on international regulatory cooperation in safety and security matters

  13. Workflows in a secure environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Petascale simulations on the largest supercomputers in the US require advanced data management techniques in order to optimize the application scien- tist time, and to optimize the time spent on the supercomputers. Researchers in such problems are starting to require workflow automation during their simula- tions in order to monitor the simulations, and in order to automate many of the complex analysis which must take place from the data that is generated from these simulations. Scientific workflows are being used to monitor simulations running on these supercomputers by applying a series of complex analysis, and finally producing images and movies from the variables produced in the simulation, or from the derived quantities produced by the analysis. The typical scenario is where the large calculation runs on the supercomputer, and the auxiliary diagnos- tics/monitors are run on resources, which are either on the local area network of the supercomputer, or over the wide area network. The supercomputers at one of the largest centers are highly secure, and the only method to log into the center is interactive authentication by using One Time Passwords (OTP) that are generated by a security device and expire in half a minute. Therefore, grid certificates are not a current option on these machines in the Department of Energy at Oak Ridge Na- tional Laboratory. In this paper we describe how we have extended the Kepler sci- entific workflow management system to be able to run operations on these supercomputers, how workflows themselves can be executed as batch jobs, and fi- nally, how external data-transfer operations can be utilized when they need to per- form authentication for their own as well.

  14. Nuclear security: A global response to a global threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2016-01-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real. The possibility of criminals getting hold of nuclear and other radioactive material cannot be ruled out. Much progress has been made in tackling this threat nationally, regionally and globally, but more needs to be done. International cooperation is vital. As the global platform for cooperation in nuclear security, the IAEA helps countries to establish and maintain robust and sustainable national nuclear security regimes. We help ensure that measures are taken to protect nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as the facilities in which such material is housed, from malicious acts. This has been an important year for nuclear security with the entry into force of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. This establishes legally binding commitments for countries to protect nuclear facilities as well as nuclear material in domestic use, storage and transport. I encourage all countries that have not yet done so to adhere to this Amendment and thereby contribute to a stronger global nuclear security regime. In this edition of the IAEA Bulletin, you will learn about the different areas of security where our work is making a real difference. We highlight the progress made in a number of countries.

  15. Information security of educational environments of school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyatkovskaya Elena N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The information as an important ecological factor, which defines the security, development and health of children is considered. The article raises the problem of distortion of the information environment of childhood in the post-industrial era. The aim is to ensure information security educational environment for all participants in the educational process. It is proved that the hygienic approach to solving problems is insufficient. Adaptive-developing strategy for information security of the educational environments for children was theoretically justified and proved by the practical results of medical, physiological and neuropsychological research. It provides the school work on the compensation of violations of the information environment of childhood; development resources of students’ resistance to information stress; expanding the sphere of their adaptation to the information load (adaptive norm; the principles and structure of management of educational process on the basis of system-wide control of complex, self-regulating systems.

  16. Globalism, global governance and the promotion of security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-05-14

    May 14, 1996 ... economic interdependence in the 'global village' have led to a growing awareness that the world forms an .... scientific and technological innovation, and access to information. •. Superpower rivalry .... White Paper on. Intelligence envisages that the country's security policy should go beyond an absence of.

  17. Latvian Security and Defense Policy within the Twenty-First Century Security Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rublovskis Raimonds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze fundamental factors which form and profoundly shape security and defense policy of the Republic of Latvia. One can argue that historical background, geographical location, common institutional history within the former Soviet Union, the Russia factor, the relative smallness of the territory of state and the population, the ethnic composition of the population, the low density of the population and rather limited financial and manpower resources available for the defense of the Republic of Latvia are the key factors of influence on the state security and defense policy. The core principles of the security and defense policy of Latvia are the membership in powerful global military alliance of NATO and bilateral strategic partnership with the United States. However, security and defense cooperation among the three Baltic States as well as enhanced cooperation within the Baltic-Nordic framework is seen as an important supplementary factor for the increased security of the Republic of Latvia. Latvia has developed a sustainable legal and institutional framework in order to contribute to state security and defense; however, security challenges and significant changes within the global security environment of the twenty-first century will further challenge the ability of the Republic of Latvia to sustain its current legal framework, and more importantly, current institutional structure of Latvian security and defense architecture. Significant internal and external challenges will impact the fundamental pillars of Latvian security and defense policy, such as American strategic shift to the Pacific, and lack of political will to increase defense budgets in European part of NATO. It has to be clear that very independence, security and defense of the Republic of Latvia depend on the ability of NATO to remain an effective organization with timely and efficient decision-making, and the ability of the United States to remain

  18. The global environment: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolba, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Global environmental chemistry today involves a rapidly expanding need both for new research and for the development of an interdiciplinary approach to the multiplicity of interconnected environmental problems. Every ecosystem shows signs of damage: growing quantities of wastes; decreasing water supplies; soil degradation; coastal zone deterioration; deforestation and climatic change; global warming due to ozone depletion. Solutions must involve a cooperative and holistic global effort in three areas: scientific understanding of how the interactive physical, chemical and biological processes regulate the total Earth system; public policy implications including closer liaison between scientists and policymakers;and understanding of the state of the global environment, what is going wrong, why, and whether it is getting worse

  19. Globalization and protection of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panahandeh, M.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years two trends have come into conflict in the international arena. The first is the globalization of economy and the second is the increased public concern over the environmental impact of economic activities and awareness of the global dimensions of many environmental problems. Nowadays confrontation of the issue of globalization and economic liberalization and protect of the environment is a matter of heated debate and environmentalists see globalization posing a threat to environment standards. The effects of liberalization on environment in the developing world have been analyzed from the perspective of the pollution- have hypothesis. The hypothesis suggests that the liberalization encourages a spatial displacement of the so-called d irty o r pollution- intensive industries from the developed countries with stricter environmental regulations to their preferential location in developing countries which enjoy minimal environmental regulations or capacity for environmental monitoring and enforcement. It also suggests that economic policies which promote foreign investment in the natural resources of developing countries will increase rates of natural-resource extraction in the developing world. according to the theory, the translational firms will employ cheep technologies in developing countries which are not environmental sound and no longer permitted to use in the industrialized world

  20. Operational security in a grid environment

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    This talk presents the main goals of computer security in a grid environment, by using a FAQ approach. It details the evolution of the risks in the recent years, likely objectives for attackers and the progress made by the malware toolkits and frameworks. Finally, recommendations to deal with these threats are proposed.

  1. Global economics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.D.; Hamilton, E.

    1991-01-01

    The rampant destruction of the rural tropics the earth's most fertile source of life will continue unchecked unless a global bargain can be reached between the capital-rich North and the economically destitute South. This report presents the findings of a colloquium sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations and the World Resources Institute, and assesses the prospects for a global policy for sustainable growth in the Third World. It reviews how the North constrains the development of such a policy by its actions in the areas of international trade, public and private investment, and debt and recommends new efforts to foster mutual cooperation. It also outlines a series of creative recommendations from the colloquium's international and multidisciplinary panel of experts. Offering an agenda for the June 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), this report sets the stage for one of the most important global challenges of the coming decade

  2. Global Telecommunications Security: Effects of Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. McManus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Global information and communication technologies permeate organizational structures, while questions of security pervade strategic plans of corporations worldwide. From the spectacular to the sublime, the effects of geomagnetic disturbances (i.e., electrical current produced by solar storms can be as devastating to an organization’s telecommunications systems as a hacker breaching a firewall. Using a dataset spanning 31 years (1978-2009 with 580,000 solar activity records, we investigate the effects and relationships of natural anomalies, specifically solar storms, on the security of corporate telecommunications. The ionosphere is a natural barrier around the earth to protect it from the sun and serve as a shield, but some electrical currents break this barrier causing significant telecommunications outages and security breaches within corporations. In this exploratory empirical study, we present the initial evidence that tracking geomagnetic disturbances can provide vital cautions for business continuity planning. The results of the study should help organizations with strategic planning efforts with respect to their overall security, especially as it relates to telecommunications.

  3. Web Server Security on Open Source Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkoutzelis, Dimitrios X.; Sardis, Manolis S.

    Administering critical resources has never been more difficult that it is today. In a changing world of software innovation where major changes occur on a daily basis, it is crucial for the webmasters and server administrators to shield their data against an unknown arsenal of attacks in the hands of their attackers. Up until now this kind of defense was a privilege of the few, out-budgeted and low cost solutions let the defender vulnerable to the uprising of innovating attacking methods. Luckily, the digital revolution of the past decade left its mark, changing the way we face security forever: open source infrastructure today covers all the prerequisites for a secure web environment in a way we could never imagine fifteen years ago. Online security of large corporations, military and government bodies is more and more handled by open source application thus driving the technological trend of the 21st century in adopting open solutions to E-Commerce and privacy issues. This paper describes substantial security precautions in facing privacy and authentication issues in a totally open source web environment. Our goal is to state and face the most known problems in data handling and consequently propose the most appealing techniques to face these challenges through an open solution.

  4. NT Security in an Open Academic Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowles, Robert D

    1999-06-02

    Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) was faced with the need to secure its PeopleSoft-Oracle business system in an academic environment that has no firewall. To provide protected access to the database servers for NT-based users all over the site while not hindering the lab's open connectivity with the Internet, we implemented a pseudo three-tier architecture for PeopleSoft with Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame technology. The client application and Oracle database were placed behind a firewall, and access was granted via an encrypted link to a thin client. Authentication in the future will be through two-factor token cards. NT workstations in the business system unit were further secured through switched network ports and an automated installation process that included SMB signing and disabling LM Authentication in favor of NTLMv2. The hardened workstations then accessed the business system through the Citrix Secure ICA client. How these security measures affected our mixed environment (Windows9x, Samba, Transarc AFS clients, Pathworks, developers, researchers) is discussed.

  5. Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Cropland Extent 2015 Africa 30 m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) data product provides...

  6. Robotic security vehicle for exterior environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klarer, P.R.; Workhoven, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a current effort at Sandia National Labs to develop an outdoor robotic vehicle capable of performing limited security functions autonomously in a structured environment. The present stage of development entails application of algorithms originally developed for the SIR vehicle to a testbed vehicle more appropriate to an outdoor environment. The current effort will culminate in a full scale demonstration of autonomous navigation capabilities on routine patrol and teleoperation by a human operator for alarm assessment and response. Various schemes for implementation of the robot system are discussed, as are plans for further development of the system

  7. Using Trust for Secure Collaboration in Uncertain Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahill, Vinny; Gray, Elizabeth; Seigneur, Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    The SECURE project investigates the design of security mechanisms for pervasive computing based on trust. It addresses how entities in unfamiliar pervasive computing environments can overcome initial suspicion to provide secure collaboration.......The SECURE project investigates the design of security mechanisms for pervasive computing based on trust. It addresses how entities in unfamiliar pervasive computing environments can overcome initial suspicion to provide secure collaboration....

  8. The Global Environment: At a Tipping Point?

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xueying; Appelbaum, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Overview of the current global environment. Introduction to climate change, global warming, ocean warming and acidification, impacts on both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lecture used for a Global Studies class.

  9. Carbon plants nutrition and global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of carbon nutrition on agricultural productivity, a physiological-process-based crop simulation model, driven by the 1961-1990 monthly climate data from global FAO dataset, was developed and applied to four crops (wheat, maize, rice and soybean -WMRS) which account for 64% of the global caloric consumption of humans. Five different temperatures and CO2 scenarios (current; glacial; pre-industrial; future_1 with 560 ppmv for CO2 and +2 °C for temperature; and future_2 with 800 ppmv for CO2 and +4 °C) were investigated. The relative values of WMRS global productions for past and future scenarios were, respectively, 49% of the present-day scenario for glacial, 82% for pre-industrial, 115% for future_1 and 124% for future_2. A sensitive growth of productivity of future scenarios (respectively to 117% and 134%) was observed if the northward shift of crops was allowed, and a strong increase was obtained without water limitation (from 151% to 157% for the five scenarios) and without biotic and abiotic stresses (from 30% to 40% for WMRS subject to the current scenario). Furthermore since the beginning of the Green Revolution (roughly happened between the '30s and the '50s of the twentieth century) production losses due to sub-optimal levels of CO2 and to biotic and abiotic stresses have been masked by the strong technological innovation trend still ongoing, which, in the last century, led to a strong increase in the global crop production (+400%-600%). These results show the crucial relevance of the future choices of research and development in agriculture (genetics, land reclamation, irrigation, plant protection, and so on) to ensure global food security.

  10. National Security and Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    and jobs needed by large urban populations. Climate change does not respect politi- cal borders. People may be forced to move across those boundaries...make the world safer from climate change . Effective mitigation could help clean the environment and eliminate oil depen- dency. Building resiliency...global climate change (GCC) often paralyze serious discussion by polar- izing decisionmakers and the public into camps of “believers” and “skeptics

  11. G-8 leaders tackle global energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, R.

    2006-01-01

    Leaders of the Group of 8 countries backed the IAEA's work at their annual summit held 15-17 July 2006 in St. Petersburg, Russia. A concluding summary statement endorsed IAEA programmes and initiatives in areas of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards. The G8 nations adopted a St. Petersburg Plan of Action to increase transparency, predictability and stability of the global energy markets, improve the investment climate in the energy sector, promote energy efficiency and energy saving, diversify energy mix, ensure physical safety of critical energy infrastructure, reduce energy poverty and address climate change and sustainable development. In a statement on global energy security, the G8 said countries who have or are considering plans for nuclear energy believe it will contribute to global energy security while reducing air pollution and addressing climate change. The G8 said it acknowledged the efforts made in development by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). GIF and INPRO both bring together countries to develop next generation nuclear energy systems, including small reactors, very high temperature reactors and supercritical water-cooled reactors. The G8 reaffirmed its full commitment to all three pillars of the NPT and called on all States to comply with their NPT obligations, including IAEA safeguards as well as developing effective measures aimed at preventing trafficking in nuclear equipment, technology and materials. The G8 is seeking universal adherence to IAEA comprehensive safeguards agreements and is actively engaged in efforts to make comprehensive safeguards agreements together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard. The G8 noted that an expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy must be carried forward in a manner consistent with nuclear non-proliferation commitments and standards. It discussed concrete

  12. Globalized Security Reshaping America’s Defense Trade Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    AU/SCHOOL/NNN/2001-04 THE ATLANTIC COUNCIL OF THE UNITED STATES AIR UNIVERSITY NATIONAL DEFENSE FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM GLOBALIZED SECURITY RESHAPING...to) - Title and Subtitle Globalized Security Reshaping America’s Defense Trade Policy Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number...20 Globalization

  13. Climate change impacts on global food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tim; von Braun, Joachim

    2013-08-02

    Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable to hunger and undernutrition. Likewise, it can be anticipated that food access and utilization will be affected indirectly via collateral effects on household and individual incomes, and food utilization could be impaired by loss of access to drinking water and damage to health. The evidence supports the need for considerable investment in adaptation and mitigation actions toward a "climate-smart food system" that is more resilient to climate change influences on food security.

  14. Student Dissertation Explores Privatization of Global Security

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2012-01-01

    NPS national security affairs doctoral student Cmdr. Dan Straub weighs the benefits and challenges of using private security contractors for United Nations peacekeeping efforts in his upcoming dissertation.

  15. Plant genetics, sustainable agriculture and global food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, Pamela

    2011-05-01

    The United States and the world face serious societal challenges in the areas of food, environment, energy, and health. Historically, advances in plant genetics have provided new knowledge and technologies needed to address these challenges. Plant genetics remains a key component of global food security, peace, and prosperity for the foreseeable future. Millions of lives depend upon the extent to which crop genetic improvement can keep pace with the growing global population, changing climate, and shrinking environmental resources. While there is still much to be learned about the biology of plant-environment interactions, the fundamental technologies of plant genetic improvement, including crop genetic engineering, are in place, and are expected to play crucial roles in meeting the chronic demands of global food security. However, genetically improved seed is only part of the solution. Such seed must be integrated into ecologically based farming systems and evaluated in light of their environmental, economic, and social impacts-the three pillars of sustainable agriculture. In this review, I describe some lessons learned, over the last decade, of how genetically engineered crops have been integrated into agricultural practices around the world and discuss their current and future contribution to sustainable agricultural systems.

  16. Environment and homeland security in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taithe, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    The author comments the impact of extreme events related to global warming and climate change on the French homeland security. He comments the evolution of temperature during the last century, the various transformations notably predicted by IPCC reports, and the various climate evolutions. Then, he discusses impacts of climate change on different economic sectors. He notably addresses the impact on coast lines (risks of submersion and erosion, more particularly for overseas territories), the impact extreme events may have on soft water (a temperature rise would impact the operation of nuclear plants; sewage and water networks will be threatened by more intense rainfalls), the positive and negative impacts on forests (high productivity but loss of diversity, development of parasites, risks of forest fires), and the impacts on various economic activities (agriculture, food supply, tourism, insurance) and on health

  17. Climate resilient crops for improving global food security and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankher, Om Parkash; Foyer, Christine H

    2018-05-01

    Food security and the protection of the environment are urgent issues for global society, particularly with the uncertainties of climate change. Changing climate is predicted to have a wide range of negative impacts on plant physiology metabolism, soil fertility and carbon sequestration, microbial activity and diversity that will limit plant growth and productivity, and ultimately food production. Ensuring global food security and food safety will require an intensive research effort across the food chain, starting with crop production and the nutritional quality of the food products. Much uncertainty remains concerning the resilience of plants, soils, and associated microbes to climate change. Intensive efforts are currently underway to improve crop yields with lower input requirements and enhance the sustainability of yield through improved biotic and abiotic stress tolerance traits. In addition, significant efforts are focused on gaining a better understanding of the root/soil interface and associated microbiomes, as well as enhancing soil properties. © 2018 The Authors Plant, Cell & Environment Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South. Page couverture du livre: Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South. Directeur(s):. Jemimah Njuki, John R. Parkins et Amy Kaler. Maison(s) d'édition: Routledge, CRDI. 29 septembre 2016. ISBN : 9781138680418. 312 pages. e-ISBN :.

  19. Education and human survival: The relevance of the global security framework to international education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher

    2000-07-01

    The nature of international education as a field of studies has been affected by global changes over the past decade. At the same time, the concept of global security has emerged, bringing together studies related to development, the environment and the understanding of violence. Although much of the education literature reflects the global security approach, it is not a field that has been subjected to much analysis as a whole. This paper provides an assessment of international education as a discipline, and outlines the global security framework. It examines how this framework is reflected in the forms of analysis used by international educationists. Finally it suggests how the central purpose of global security, namely ensuring human survival, could be adopted within international education to provide a clear sense of direction. This has specific implications for such areas as curriculum, assessment, educational provision and planning.

  20. THE NEW GLOBAL ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Oksay, Suna; Oksay, M. Serhan

    2015-01-01

    Globalization has emerged as an unavoidable process. Its impact upon different levels create different results. Therefore, the effects- of globalization on the world, on countries, on industries, and on firms must be examined separately. The principal worldwide effect of globalization is the increase in the volume of world trade. Its effects on countries have become apparent through the process of deregulation and the elimination of obstacles to trade, etc. At the industrial level, it creates...

  1. Globalization and environmental challenges. Reconceptualizing security in the 21{sup st} century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (MX). Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias (CRIM); Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Economics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Political Science; Dunay, Pal [Geneva Centre for Security Policy (Switzerland); Chadha Behera, Navnita [Jamia Millia Islamia Univ., New Delhi (India). Nelson Mandela Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution; Chourou, Bechir [Univ. of Tunis-Carthage, Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya), Dept. of Private Law; Liotta, P.H. (eds.) [Salve Regina Univ., Newport, RI (United States). Pell Center for International Relations and Public Policy

    2008-07-01

    Put quite simply, the twin impacts of globalization and environmental degradation pose new security dangers and concerns. In this comprehensive new work on global security thinking, 91 authors from five continents and many disciplines, from science and practice, assess the worldwide reassessment of the meaning of security triggered by the end of the Cold War and globalization, as well as the multifarious impacts of global environmental change in the early 21st century. Chapters address the theoretical, philosophical, ethical and religious and spatial context of security. They analyze the relationship between security, peace, development and environment. The authors move on to review the rethinking of security in international law, economics and political science, as well as in the key political, military and economic milieux. The book also examines the environmental security dimension and the adaptation of the institutional security concepts of the UN, EU and NATO, and analyzes the effect of change on regional security. Finally, it posits alternative security futures and draws conclusions for future research and action. (orig.)

  2. Information security protecting the global enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Pipkin, Donald L

    2000-01-01

    In this book, IT security expert Donald Pipkin addresses every aspect of information security: the business issues, the technical process issues, and the legal issues. Pipkin starts by reviewing the key business issues: estimating the value of information assets, evaluating the cost to the organization if they are lost or disclosed, and determining the appropriate levels of protection and response to security incidents. Next, he walks through the technical processes required to build a consistent, reasonable information security system, with appropriate intrusion detection and reporting features. Finally, Pipkin reviews the legal issues associated with information security, including corporate officers' personal liability for taking care that information is protected. The book's coverage is applicable to businesses of any size, from 50 employees to 50,000 or more, and ideal for everyone who needs at least a basic understanding of information security: network/system administrators, managers, planners, archite...

  3. Security and citizenship in the global south

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Pinar; Ince, Basak

    2015-01-01

    secured internationally as citizens of newly independent ‘nation-states’ who were protected against interventions and/or ‘indirect rule’ by the (European) International Society, whose practices were often justified on grounds of the former’s ‘failings’ in meeting the so-called ‘standards of civilization......The relationship between security and citizenship is more complex than media portrayals based on binary oppositions seem to suggest (included/excluded, security/insecurity), or mainstream approaches to International Relations (IR) and security seem to acknowledge. This is particularly the case...

  4. Global Consortium on Security Transformation : Fostering New ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Toward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa - Phase II. The Horn of Africa region has endured decades of destruction and human suffering due to long and interrelated wars. View moreToward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa - Phase II ...

  5. Security controls in a Cullinet database environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Security controls using Cullinet's Integrated Data Management System (IDMS) are examined. IDMS software integrity problems, with emphasis on security package interfaces, are disclosed. Solutions applied at Sandia Laboratories Engineering Information Management computing facilty are presented. An overall IDMS computer security philosophy is reviewed

  6. Facing global environmental change. Environmental, human, energy, food, health and water security concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); AFES-Press, Mosbach (Germany); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca, MOR (MX). Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidiscipinarias (CRIM); United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Amsterdam School for Social Science Research; Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Economics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). School of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Behera, Navnita Chadha [Jamia Millia Islamia Univ., New Delhi (India). Nelson Mandela Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution; Chourou, Bechir [Tunis-Carthage Univ., Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Krummenacher, Heinz (eds.) [swisspeace, Bern (Switzerland). FAST International

    2009-07-01

    This policy-focused, global and multidisciplinary security handbook on Facing Global Environmental Change addresses new security threats of the 21st century posed by climate change, desertification, water stress, population growth and urbanization. These security dangers and concerns lead to migration, crises and conflicts. They are on the agenda of the UN, OECD, OSCE, NATO and EU. In 100 chapters, 132 authors from 49 countries analyze the global debate on environmental, human and gender, energy, food, livelihood, health and water security concepts and policy problems. In 10 parts they discuss the context and the securitization of global environmental change and of extreme natural and societal outcomes. They suggest a new research programme to move from knowledge to action, from reactive to proactive policies and to explore the opportunities of environ-mental cooperation for a new peace policy. (orig.)

  7. 6th Annual Homeland Security and Defense Education Summit, Developing an Adaptive Homeland Security Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    6th Annual Homeland Security and Defense Education Summit Developing an Adaptive Homeland Security Environment, Burlington, MA, September 26-28, 2013 2013 Summit Agenda Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security In Partnership With Northeastern University, Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Guard Homeland Security Institute, National Homeland Defense Foundation Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and S...

  8. Design and Implementation of Wiki Services in a Multilevel Secure Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ong, Kar L

    2007-01-01

    The Monterey Security Architecture (MYSEA) provides a distributed multilevel secure networking environment where authenticated users can securely access data and services at different security classification levels...

  9. Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    biodiversity. Consequently, the major environmental challenges facing us in the 21st century include: global climate change , energy, population and food...technological prowess, and security interests. Challenges Global Climate Change – Evidence shows that our environment and the global climate ... urbanization will continue to pressure the regional environment . Although most countries have environmental protection ministries or agencies, a lack of

  10. Security environment and nuclear proliferation problems in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Mark Byung-Moon

    1997-01-01

    East Asia was and still is divided into two conflicting ideological blocs. Because of the Cold War between these two blocs, two international wars were fought and tensions limited interactions among these countries. Despite these political constraints, in recent years East Asia has become economically one of the most dynamic regions in the world. Now that the Cold War between the USA and the Soviet Union is over, the danger of global nuclear war involving the nuclear powers in the region has been practically eliminated. Nonetheless, security has become more complex and demands a whole new set of arrangements. Yet the region lacks a cohesive multilateral framework for conflict resolution, and only recently have various attempts been made to create a political forum for the countries in the region. The problem and the danger of nuclear proliferation was vividly shown by the North Korean nuclear crisis in the last years. This issue not only halted the fragile process of normalization between the two Koreas, which started in 1988, but almost led to a new military conflict on the peninsula involving the two Koreas and the USA. It was defused only after the USA proved willing to offer security guarantees to North Korea. This problem still needs to be resolved, and it demands radical changes in the overall political environment in the region. Needless to say, proliferation in North Korea would have entailed grave consequences for the security of the region as well as for the international non-proliferation regime. This paper reviews the issue of nuclear proliferation of the three non-nuclear states in the region and deals with the non-introduction of nuclear weapons in the region by the nuclear powers. It discusses the prospects for a nuclear-weapon-free zone on the Korean peninsula. Perspectives of a sustainable security environment in East Asia will be briefly discussed

  11. Towards an automated security awareness system in a virtualized environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, WA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available and security awareness training to users. This ensures that users are aware of the security threats and provide methods to mitigate them. These measures are useful in a corporate environment where funds exist to enable these security solutions. Public platforms...

  12. Population, environment and security: a new trinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B

    1998-10-01

    This paper critically examines the literature on the interaction between population, the environment, and development. It posits that population pressure and resource scarcities are unfairly blamed for internal conflicts in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Internal conflicts are, in fact, affected by underlying economic and political causes (international companies, development assistance agencies, and military). This reasoning implies that the national security threats are environmental groups, poor women, and social change groups, which in fact should be integrated within solutions to poverty, environmental destruction, and violence. The US military's focus on "neutralizing environmental consequences that could lead to instability" and promoting sustainable development is misspecified and falls within the domain of civilian agencies. Use of military satellites by the US Central Intelligence Agency in environmental surveillance raises questions about the management of secret archives. The scarcity-conflict model has an indirect role in misshaping public opinion, legitimizes population control as a top priority, neglects gender issues, and dehumanizes refugees. Evidence indicates that the conflicts in Rwanda were the result of institutional failure and ethnic divisions. Homer-Dixon's model fails due to weak definitions of scarcity, ignorance of the role of colonial history and economic inequities, idealized views of the state, and neglect of external factors. The scarcity-conflict model is popular due to opportunism and political pragmatism. For the military, it provides new rationales for a huge budget.

  13. Global Banking System Regulatory Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Oleh Mozhovyi; Olena Pavliuk

    2017-01-01

    The international and domestic experience shows that the main factors of financial destabilization during the financial crises are in the banking sector. The article reveals that the vulnerability of the financial system is connected with functions, deposit and credit transactions, risks distribution and ensuring liquidity; banks act as a major factor in stabilisation measures in the current context of globalization processes, since the economic stability of banking activities ...

  14. Home-Network Security Model in Ubiquitous Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Young Yoo; Jong-Whoi Shin; Jin-Young Choi

    2007-01-01

    Social interest and demand on Home-Network has been increasing greatly. Although various services are being introduced to respond to such demands, they can cause serious security problems when linked to the open network such as Internet. This paper reviews the security requirements to protect the service users with assumption that the Home-Network environment is connected to Internet and then proposes the security model based on the requirement. The proposed security mode...

  15. Earth Observations for Global Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Richard; Strauch, Adrian; Toll, David; Fekete, Balazs; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of population growth, increasing demands for water to support agriculture, energy security, and industrial expansion, and the challenges of climate change give rise to an urgent need to carefully monitor and assess trends and variations in water resources. Doing so will ensure that sustainable access to adequate quantities of safe and useable water will serve as a foundation for water security. Both satellite and in situ observations combined with data assimilation and models are needed for effective, integrated monitoring of the water cycle's trends and variability in terms of both quantity and quality. On the basis of a review of existing observational systems, we argue that a new integrated monitoring capability for water security purposes is urgently needed. Furthermore, the components for this capability exist and could be integrated through the cooperation of national observational programmes. The Group on Earth Observations should play a central role in the design, implementation, management and analysis of this system and its products.

  16. National Security Implications of Global Warming Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Although numerous historical examples demonstrate how actual climate change has contributed to the rise and fall of powers, global warming , in and of...become convinced that global warming is universally bad and humans are the primary cause, political leaders may develop ill-advised policies restricting

  17. Neither International nor Global: Rethinking the Problematic Subject of Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chandler

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the problematic of the international and the global has been a barrier to understanding the transformation of security discourse over the last decade. Academic treatments of security within the discipline of international relations have been structured by the traditional liberal binaries, which conceive of political communities capable of constituting securing subjects at either the level of the state or the global. Today’s dominant framing of the security problematic seems to evade easy articulation within this structure and in some readings is seen to presage a transitory stage from the international to the global. An alternative reading is sketched out here, that of the post- liberal, which suggests that the apparent shift towards the global can not be captured from within the liberal problematic and highlights that rather than traditional disagreements over the nature of the subject of security – the constitution of the securing actor – we are witnessing the disappearance of securing agency itself.

  18. Introduction: Globalization and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Jorgenson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human societies have long experienced the increasingly rapid expansion of the modern world-economy; an economy that has existed since at least the middle 1400s, meeting crisis after crisis in accumulation (e.g.Abu-Lughod 1989; Arrighi 1994; Chase-Dunn 1998; Chase-Dunn and Hall 1997; Chew 2001; Frank 1978, 1998; Frank and Gills 1993; Kentor 2000; Moore 2003; Pomeranz 2000; Wallerstein 1974, 1979. Rapid technological growth has been part and parcel of this expansion that has tightened the global division of labor and importance of distant events for all humans. This division of labor permits further expansion in rationalized production, and it reaches everywhere to expand markets and offer up cheap labor and material resources to increase surplus value ( e.g. Marx 1906; see also Foster 1999, 2002; Harvey 1999.

  19. Globalization Crisis and National Security: A Reflection on Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the impact of globalization on the Nigerian textile industry with focus on job loss and national security. It gave an insight to the fact that, just as fire has several benefits to mankind, its harmful effects are enormous. Thus, while globalization has several palpable positive effects on the countrys industrial ...

  20. Food Security: Selected Global and U.S. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Food security is researched and dealt with on local, regional, national, and global levels with solutions ranging from local farmers' market initiatives to increasing crop yields through genetically modified plants to streamlining global supply chains. Because of its broad, interdisciplinary nature, it is necessary to narrow the focus of this…

  1. Water security-National and global issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Campbell, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Potable or clean freshwater availability is crucial to life and economic, environmental, and social systems. The amount of freshwater is finite and makes up approximately 2.5 percent of all water on the Earth. Freshwater supplies are small and randomly distributed, so water resources can become points of conflict. Freshwater availability depends upon precipitation patterns, changing climate, and whether the source of consumed water comes directly from desalination, precipitation, or surface and (or) groundwater. At local to national levels, difficulties in securing potable water sources increase with growing populations and economies. Available water improves living standards and drives urbanization, which increases average water consumption per capita. Commonly, disruptions in sustainable supplies and distribution of potable water and conflicts over water resources become major security issues for Government officials. Disruptions are often influenced by land use, human population, use patterns, technological advances, environmental impacts, management processes and decisions, transnational boundaries, and so forth.

  2. Explaining Global Secularity: Existential Security or Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude M. J. Braun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available At the time of data analysis for this report there were 193 countries in the world. Various institutions – the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the CIA, the World Values Survey, Gallup, and many others – have performed sophisticated statistical analyses on cross-national data. The present investigation demonstrates that valid and reliable data concerning religiosity and secularity exist for most countries and that these data are comparable. Cross-national data relating to social, political, economic and cultural aspects of life were tested for correlation with religiosity/secularity. In contrast to the most widely accepted general account of secularity, the Existential Security Framework (ESF; Norris & Inglehart, 2004, secularity was not most highly related to material security, though these were highly related. Rather, secularity was most strongly related to the degree of formal education attained. Material security explained no significant variance beyond education. Thus, religion’s primary function in the world today is being replaced, not so much by the pseudo-materialistic supplication for better living conditions as posited by the ESF, but by contemporary education – extensive knowledge of contemporary cultures, philosophy, modes of thought or processes of reasoning.

  3. Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Cropland Extent 2015 Southeast and Northeast Asia product 30 m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) data product provides...

  4. Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Cropland Extent 2015 South America product 30 m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) data product provides...

  5. Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Cropland Extent 2010 North America product 30 m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) data product provides...

  6. Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Cropland Extent-Product 2015 Validation 30 m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) data product provides...

  7. Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Cropland Extent 2015 Australia, New Zealand, China, Mongolia 30 m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) data product provides...

  8. Global Banking System Regulatory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Mozhovyi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The international and domestic experience shows that the main factors of financial destabilization during the financial crises are in the banking sector. The article reveals that the vulnerability of the financial system is connected with functions, deposit and credit transactions, risks distribution and ensuring liquidity; banks act as a major factor in stabilisation measures in the current context of globalization processes, since the economic stability of banking activities relates directly to all the entities and only stable banking system can withstand the crisis phenomena. Therefore, as a result of the analysis, it is proved that not only reduction of risks of banks is needed, but also introduction of the effective supervision system over implementation of the requirements and standards to prevent these risks. According to modern international approaches, banks use the so-called prudential supervision, which is based on the risk management assessment policy on the part of the Bank’s management, and regulatory bodies contribute to implementation of such policy. The authors have concluded that not only modern specificity of banks, but also the impact of supervision systems and regulation of modern trends in development of the banking should be analysed. Application of the general regulatory principles and banking risks methodology is required. The task of supervision is distribution of reliable risk management practices in the banking system, taking into account national peculiarities of development.

  9. Utilize common criteria methodology for secure ubiquitous healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao-Chang; Hou, Ting-Wei

    2012-06-01

    RFID technology is widely used in healthcare environments to ensure patient safety. Therefore, the testing of RFID tags, such as performance tests and security evaluations, is necessary to ensure inter-operational functional compatibility with standards. A survey of the literature shows that while standards that are around RFID performance tests have been addressed, but the same is not true for security evaluations. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce the Common Criteria security evaluation methodology, also known as ISO/IEC 15408, for the security evaluation of RFID tags and propose a framework as a minimal requirement for RFID tags to improve security assurance.

  10. Urban environment and health: food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Osman; Corroon, Meghan; Tirado, Cristina

    2010-07-01

    The authors examine the impact of urbanization on food security and human health in the Middle East. Within-urban-population disparities in food security represent one of the most dramatic indicators of economic and health disparities. These disparities are reflected in a double burden of health outcomes: increasing levels of chronic disease as well as growing numbers of undernourished among the urban poor. These require further comprehensive solutions. Some of the factors leading to food insecurity are an overdependence on purchased food commodities, lack of sufficient livelihoods, rapid reductions in peripheral agricultural land, and adverse impacts of climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Food Security Framework is used to examine and compare 2 cities in the Middle East: Amman, Jordan, and Manama, Bahrain.

  11. Global Energy Security and Its Geopolitical Impediments: The Case of the Caspian Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; Houweling, H.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the global geopolitics of energy security in the post-Cold War environment. Energy companies headquartered in western countries have long history of accessing energy resources beyond borders through invasion of the host by their home state, followed by domination and the

  12. Global Tourism and Terrorism. Safety and Security Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brondoni, Silvio M.

    2017-01-01

    In the last two years, some Mediterranean regions have obtained significant benefits from the contraction of large tourist investments marking contrasting trends, as in the case of Sardinia and other Italian and Spanish sub-regions (conceivably due to their perception as safer locations). In global tourism, security and safety have become complex issues with a wide range of components including consumer protection, legal protection of tourists, environmental security, disaster protection, dat...

  13. Global plutonium management: A security option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, K.W.B.

    1998-01-01

    The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.hor-ellipsis) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints

  14. Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE): A NASA Solution for Secure Cross-Organization Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward; Spence, Matthew Chew; Pell, Barney; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David; Liu, Joseph; Chang, Hsin-Ping; Viernes, Conan; Gogorth, Andre

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges and security issues inherent in building complex cross-organizational collaborative projects and software systems within NASA. By applying the design principles of compartmentalization, organizational hierarchy and inter-organizational federation, the Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) is laying the foundation for a collaborative virtual infrastructure for the NASA community. A key element of SAFE is the Micro Security Domain (MSD) concept, which balances the need to collaborate and the need to enforce enterprise and local security rules. With the SAFE approach, security is an integral component of enterprise software and network design, not an afterthought.

  15. The national security dividend of global carbon mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignone, Bryan K.

    2007-01-01

    Energy and environmental security objectives are often conflated in political circles and in the popular press. Results from a well-established integrated assessment model suggest that policies designed to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at levels above ∼500 ppm generally do not align with policies to curb global oil dependence, because these atmospheric objectives can be achieved largely through reductions in global coal consumption. Policies designed to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide at levels below ∼500 ppm, on the other hand, directly facilitate the alignment of environmental and security objectives because atmospheric targets in this range demand significant reductions in both coal and oil use. Greater recognition that investment in carbon mitigation can yield significant security dividends may alter the political cost-benefit calculus of energy-importing nations and could increase the willingness of some key global actors to seek binding cooperative targets under any post-Kyoto climate treaty regime

  16. Web Syndication in a Multilevel Security Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    feed items. Some software presents feed items in the form of a news ticker, showing summaries of syndicated content as feed updates are detected . 1.4.2...motivates designs capable of addressing the gazillions problem, which is endemic to those multiuser MLS systems in which security compartments are commonplace...the cache. This is, of course, merely to avoid logging errors and not for policy enforcement. Similar logic is used to detect when image and favicon

  17. Global water risks and national security: Building resilience (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    The UN defines water security as the capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality water for sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, and socio-economic development, for ensuring protection against water-borne pollution and water-related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability. This definition highlights complex and interconnected challenges and underscores the centrality of water for environmental services and human aactivities. Global risks are expressed at the national level. The 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review and the 2010 National Security Strategy identify climate change as likely to trigger outcomes that will threaten U.S. security including how freshwater resources can become a security issue. Impacts will be felt on the National Security interest through water, food and energy security, and critical infrastructure. This recognition focuses the need to consider the rates of change in climate extremes, in the context of more traditional political, economic, and social indicators that inform security analyses. There is a long-standing academic debate over the extent to which resource constraints and environmental challenges lead to inter-state conflict. It is generally recognized that water resources as a security issue to date exists mainly at the substate level and has not led to physical conflict between nation states. In conflict and disaster zones, threats to water security increase through inequitable and difficult access to water supply and related services, which may aggravate existing social fragility, tensions, violence, and conflict. This paper will (1) Outline the dimensions of water security and its links to national security (2) Analyze water footprints and management risks for key basins in the US and around the world, (3) map the link between global water security and national concerns, drawing lessons from the drought of 2012 and elsewhere

  18. Measuring Global Water Security Towards Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gain, Animesh K.; Giupponi, Carlo; Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Water plays an important role in underpinning equitable, stable and productive societies and ecosystems. Hence, United Nations recognized ensuring water security as one (Goal 6) of the seventeen sustainable development goals (SDGs). Many international river basins are likely to experience 'low water security' over the coming decades. Water security is rooted not only in the physical availability of freshwater resources relative to water demand, but also on social and economic factors (e.g. sound water planning and management approaches, institutional capacity to provide water services, sustainable economic policies). Until recently, advanced tools and methods are available for the assessment of water scarcity. However, quantitative and integrated-physical and socio-economic-approaches for spatial analysis of water security at global level are not available yet. In this study, we present a spatial multi-criteria analysis framework to provide a global assessment of water security. The selected indicators are based on Goal 6 of SDGs. The term 'security' is conceptualized as a function of 'availability', 'accessibility to services', 'safety and quality', and 'management'. The proposed global water security index (GWSI) is calculated by aggregating indicator values on a pixel-by-pixel basis, using the ordered weighted average method, which allows for the exploration of the sensitivity of final maps to different attitudes of hypothetical policy makers. Our assessment suggests that countries of Africa, South Asia and Middle East experience very low water security. Other areas of high water scarcity, such as some parts of United States, Australia and Southern Europe, show better GWSI values, due to good performance of management, safety and quality, and accessibility. The GWSI maps show the areas of the world in which integrated strategies are needed to achieve water related targets of the SDGs particularly in the African and Asian continents.

  19. Fairtrade, Food Security and Globalization: Building Alternative Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Calisto Friant

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the politics and practices of Fairtrade certification in order to assess whether this alternative trading system could contribute to innovative solutions for global food security. The analysis begins by assessing the main challenges and problems characterizing the contemporary global food system. It then explores the history, vision and certification standards of the Fairtrade label. In the third section, the results of the impact studies of Fairtrade certification on producer livelihoods are discussed, analyzing the various strengths and weaknesses. Finally the article analyzes whether, and how, the Fairtrade system could positively contribute to improving global food security. To conclude this paper argues that the greatest strength of Fairtrate is not the certification mechanism itself but rather the social and environmental principles it represents. Fairtrade standards could serve to inform broader international policies, which could lead to a sustainable transformation of the global food system.

  20. Secure Enclaves: An Isolation-centric Approach for Creating Secure High Performance Computing Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Caldwell, Blake A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hicks, Susan Elaine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Koch, Scott M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Naughton, III, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pelfrey, Daniel S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pogge, James R [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Scott, Stephen L [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Shipman, Galen M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sorrillo, Lawrence [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    High performance computing environments are often used for a wide variety of workloads ranging from simulation, data transformation and analysis, and complex workflows to name just a few. These systems may process data at various security levels but in so doing are often enclaved at the highest security posture. This approach places significant restrictions on the users of the system even when processing data at a lower security level and exposes data at higher levels of confidentiality to a much broader population than otherwise necessary. The traditional approach of isolation, while effective in establishing security enclaves poses significant challenges for the use of shared infrastructure in HPC environments. This report details current state-of-the-art in virtualization, reconfigurable network enclaving via Software Defined Networking (SDN), and storage architectures and bridging techniques for creating secure enclaves in HPC environments.

  1. Emboldened Cooperative Security: Globalization and 21st Century U.S. Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-26

    revolutionary global information technology , the integration of global cultures and religions; and globalization’s impact on the global political environment...rapidly falling costs of transport and communication.8 Thomas Friedman describes globalization as the integration of markets, finance, and technologies in a...barriers erected by closed societies. Because the technology of globalization virtually links the world together without respect to borders or cultures

  2. The Transformation of Security Environment at the beginning of XXIst Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current security environment is characterized by a high degree of instability andunpredictability, by the manifestation of new risks and threats, by redefining relations between thegreat powers and increased freedom of action of regional factors. The evolution of global security inthe last decade, has confirmed that the success of actions and the stability can only be the result of amultidimensional cooperation of the international community, through emphasizing the dialogue in aninstitutional framework and activating the decisive role that the great international organizations playin defining the state of security of the world.

  3. Just Security and the Crisis of Global Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durch, W.; Larik, J.; Ponzio, R.

    2016-01-01

    Pursuing security and justice jointly in global governance will be vital to human progress in the twenty-first century. Humanity lives and operates simultaneously in three spaces critical to contemporary life and governance: public, transactional and ecological. Failures in one space can cascade

  4. Epilogue: global food security, rhetoric, and the sustainable intensification debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, T.W.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The need to feed nine billion people in 2050 has given rise to widespread debate in science and policy circles. The debate is largely framed in neo-Malthusian terms, and elements of global food security (resilience of the food system, food quantity and quality, right to and access to food) demand

  5. New public-private partnerships address global food security | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-20

    New public-private partnerships address global food security. June 20, 2016. Image. Public Private Partnerships in Agriculture panelists March 2012. Teckles Photography Inc. Photo from left to right: Charlotte Hebebrand (International Food & Agricultural Trade Policy Council), Steve Homer (SMHProjects), Spencer Henson ...

  6. Global energy security and the implications for the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The following article will analyse the global and geopolitical dimensions of the future international energy security and its implications for Europe and the EU-27. In this context, I will discuss to which extent the EU's newly proclaimed 'Energy Action Plan' of the EU Spring summit of 2007 and its declared common energy (foreign) policy are a sufficient strategy to cope with the new global and geopolitical challenges. The article concludes the following: (1) The interlinkage between globally designed traditional energy security concepts - that rely just on economic factors and 'market-strategies' - and domestic as well as regional political stability demands new thinking with regard to both energy supply security and foreign and security policies. (2) Although after the Russian-Ukrainian gas conflict in January 2006, energy security has forced its way up the European energy and foreign policy agendas, the EU-27 member states have largely failed to forge a coherent European energy security and energy foreign policy strategy after their Spring summit of 2007 because its declared political solidarity has been still lacking. But the 2nd Strategic Energy Review of November 2008 has recommended new initiatives to overcome this lack by promoting concrete infrastructure and other projects for enhancing Europe's supply security and its political solidarity as part of a common energy (foreign) policy. If the EU is able to implement the March 2007 and November 2008 decisions, the EU oil and gas demand will drastically reduce and freeze at current levels. In this case, Putin's energy policies by using Russia's energy resources and pipeline monopolies as a political instrument to enforce its economic and geopolitical interests will be proved as self-defeating in Russia's long-term strategic interests. It will reduce Gazprom's gas exports to a much smaller EU gas market than originally forecasted as the result of a deliberate EU policy of decreasing its overall gas demand and

  7. Globally reasoning about localised security policies in distributed systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario

    In this report, we aim at establishing proper ways for model checking the global security of distributed systems, which are designed consisting of set of localised security policies that enforce specific issues about the security expected. The systems are formally specified following a syntax......, defined in detail in this report, and their behaviour is clearly established by the Semantics, also defined in detail in this report. The systems include the formal attachment of security policies into their locations, whose intended interactions are trapped by the policies, aiming at taking access...... control decisions of the system, and the Semantics also takes care of this. Using the Semantics, a Labelled Transition System (LTS) can be induced for every particular system, and over this LTS some model checking tasks could be done. We identify how this LTS is indeed obtained, and propose an alternative...

  8. Conducting network penetration and espionage in a global environment

    CERN Document Server

    Middleton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    When it's all said and done, penetration testing remains the most effective way to identify security vulnerabilities in computer networks. Conducting Network Penetration and Espionage in a Global Environment provides detailed guidance on how to perform effective penetration testing of computer networks-using free, open source, and commercially available tools, including Backtrack, Metasploit, Wireshark, Nmap, Netcat, and Nessus. It also considers exploits and other programs using Python, PERL, BASH, PHP, Ruby, and Windows PowerShell.The book taps into Bruce Middleton's decades of experience wi

  9. Global environment outlook - GEO-3 data compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The GEO-3 Data Compendium aims to provide an overview of national, regional, sub-regionsal and global statistical data sets used to prepare UNEP's third Global Environment Outlook report. The Compendium holds data tables for environmental issues such as climate change, water stress and deforestation, as well as a wide variety of socio-economic variables. Examples of data sets are CO{sub 2} emissions, water consumption, forest cover change, population growth, land use change and GDP development. The CD-ROM included in the volume gives access to the full compendium tables, that is for all the years available and including all national statistics.

  10. A new security model for collaborative environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lorch, Markus [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Thompson, Mary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perry, Marcia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-06-06

    Prevalent authentication and authorization models for distributed systems provide for the protection of computer systems and resources from unauthorized use. The rules and policies that drive the access decisions in such systems are typically configured up front and require trust establishment before the systems can be used. This approach does not work well for computer software that moderates human-to-human interaction. This work proposes a new model for trust establishment and management in computer systems supporting collaborative work. The model supports the dynamic addition of new users to a collaboration with very little initial trust placed into their identity and supports the incremental building of trust relationships through endorsements from established collaborators. It also recognizes the strength of a users authentication when making trust decisions. By mimicking the way humans build trust naturally the model can support a wide variety of usage scenarios. Its particular strength lies in the support for ad-hoc and dynamic collaborations and the ubiquitous access to a Computer Supported Collaboration Workspace (CSCW) system from locations with varying levels of trust and security.

  11. Measuring global water security towards sustainable development goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gain, Animesh K.; Giupponi, Carlo; Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-12-01

    Water plays an important role in underpinning equitable, stable and productive societies and ecosystems. Hence, United Nations recognized ensuring water security as one (Goal 6) of the seventeen sustainable development goals (SDGs). Many international river basins are likely to experience ‘low water security’ over the coming decades. Water security is rooted not only in the physical availability of freshwater resources relative to water demand, but also on social and economic factors (e.g. sound water planning and management approaches, institutional capacity to provide water services, sustainable economic policies). Until recently, advanced tools and methods are available for the assessment of water scarcity. However, quantitative and integrated—physical and socio-economic—approaches for spatial analysis of water security at global level are not available yet. In this study, we present a spatial multi-criteria analysis framework to provide a global assessment of water security. The selected indicators are based on Goal 6 of SDGs. The term ‘security’ is conceptualized as a function of ‘availability’, ‘accessibility to services’, ‘safety and quality’, and ‘management’. The proposed global water security index (GWSI) is calculated by aggregating indicator values on a pixel-by-pixel basis, using the ordered weighted average method, which allows for the exploration of the sensitivity of final maps to different attitudes of hypothetical policy makers. Our assessment suggests that countries of Africa, South Asia and Middle East experience very low water security. Other areas of high water scarcity, such as some parts of United States, Australia and Southern Europe, show better GWSI values, due to good performance of management, safety and quality, and accessibility. The GWSI maps show the areas of the world in which integrated strategies are needed to achieve water related targets of the SDGs particularly in the African and Asian continents.

  12. Global change, urban livelihoods and food security; presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available livelihoods and food security Global change Conference 26-28February 2012 Birchwood hotel Boksburg By Miriam Murambadoro- Council for Scientific and Industrial Research  Urban growth in now inevitable due to natural population increase  As the number... to double by 2030 (UN Habitat, 2008)  This has implications on local government’s capacity in terms of planning, environmental management and the provision of basic services Definition of key terms  Food security can be defined as, “food...

  13. Shift work in a security environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhouser, G.A. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Human beings are diurnal species, normally active by day and asleep by night. Yet over thirty million Americans struggle with work schedules that include an off-normal work effort. The railroads, law enforcement, health services, Department of Defense, factory workers, chemical plants and public services, communications and utility workers must provide some form of around-the-clock effort. Shift work has been around since the advent of recorded history. There has always been a need for some type of off-normal service and assistance. The impact of shift work is replete with tales and factual evidence of an increased personnel error rate; disorders, both personal and family, and of course, increased accident events. In recent memory, the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant incident, Union Carbide's explosion in Bhopal, and the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant catastrophe all occurred during off-normal working hours. Yet management overall has done little to correct the production-driven twelve hour, seven day week shift mentality of the nineteenth century. Most schedules in use today are nothing more than cosmetic variations of the old production schedules. This could be driven by a management consideration of the worker's response to change coupled with a reluctant buy-in of responsibility for the effects of change. Florida Power Corporation has developed for its nuclear security force, a unique work schedule which attempts to employ the sound principles of circadian rhythms coupled with a comprehensive training program to counter the problems associated with shift work. The results over the last four years have seen a marked reduction in the generic problems of personnel errors, absenteeism, unscheduled overtime and turnover rates. Utilization and understanding of this scheduling process for rotational shift work needs to be assessed to determine if the benefits are site specific or provide an expected response to the problems of shift work

  14. Security Aspects in Resource Management Systems in Distributed Computing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamski Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In many distributed computing systems, aspects related to security are getting more and more relevant. Security is ubiquitous and could not be treated as a separated problem or a challenge. In our opinion it should be considered in the context of resource management in distributed computing environments like Grids and Clouds, e.g. scheduled computations can be much delayed because of cyber-attacks, inefficient infrastructure or users valuable and sensitive data can be stolen even in the process of correct computation. To prevent such cases there is a need to introduce new evaluation metrics for resource management that will represent the level of security of computing resources and more broadly distributed computing infrastructures. In our approach, we have introduced a new metric called reputation, which simply determines the level of reliability of computing resources from the security perspective and could be taken into account during scheduling procedures. The new reputation metric is based on various relevant parameters regarding cyber-attacks (also energy attacks, administrative activities such as security updates, bug fixes and security patches. Moreover, we have conducted various computational experiments within the Grid Scheduling Simulator environment (GSSIM inspired by real application scenarios. Finally, our experimental studies of new resource management approaches taking into account critical security aspects are also discussed in this paper.

  15. Global Food Security Governance: Civil Society Engagement in the Reformed Committee on World Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, J.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007/8 world food prices spiked and global economic crisis set in, leaving hundreds of millions of people unable to access adequate food. The international reaction was swift. In a bid for leadership, the 123 member countries of the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security (CFS) adopted a

  16. Security risks associated with radio frequency identification in medical environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrylak, Peter J; Schimke, Nakeisha; Hale, John; Papa, Mauricio

    2012-12-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a form of wireless communication that is used to identify assets and people. RFID has significant benefits to the medical environment. However, serious security threats are present in RFID systems that must be addressed in a medical environment. Of particular interest are threats to patient privacy and safety based on interception of messages, interruption of communication, modification of data, and fabrication of messages and devices. This paper presents an overview of these security threats present in RFID systems in a medical environment and provides guidance on potential solutions to these threats. This paper provides a roadmap for researchers and implementers to address the security issues facing RFID in the medical space.

  17. The Media-Security Relationship from the National Security Perspective in the Globalization Era and its Reflections to the Society

    OpenAIRE

    TİRAB, Tirab Abbkar

    2017-01-01

    This study has tried to examine the interaction between security and media in our globalizing world. There have been fundamental changes in the scope and the meaning of security with the globalization, which has been important for humanity from past to present. Parallel to these changes, the strategies and methods of ensuring security have also changed. Because in today's society, not only the security units, but also the society itself share a role which cannot be ignored in providing s...

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAMIC STATE ON THE GLOBAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatidza Berisa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The region of Middle East has been for centuries space of interweaving of interests of power holders, both within the countries of the region and major world powers. The favorable geographical position and significant reserves of natural resources, principally oil, make the Middle East, in terms of security, very sensitive. Clash of civilizations and religions in the region and the locations of the most important holy places for both Christianity and Islam were historically a stumbling rock and a great obstacle to peace and prosperity. The aim of this article is to point out and to attempt to answer the question how Islamic State can influence on a global security. Considering the complexity of the security reality in the Middle East, it can be said that the importance is reflected in the fact that it provides a contribution to its knowing the aspect that arises from the problem issues.

  19. PERSPECTIVE: Climate change, biofuels, and global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2007-03-01

    There is a new urgency to improve the accuracy of predicting climate change impact on crop yields because the balance between food supply and demand is shifting abruptly from surplus to deficit. This reversal is being driven by a rapid rise in petroleum prices and, in response, a massive global expansion of biofuel production from maize, oilseed, and sugar crops. Soon the price of these commodities will be determined by their value as feedstock for biofuel rather than their importance as human food or livestock feed [1]. The expectation that petroleum prices will remain high and supportive government policies in several major crop producing countries are providing strong momentum for continued expansion of biofuel production capacity and the associated pressures on global food supply. Farmers in countries that account for a majority of the world's biofuel crop production will enjoy the promise of markedly higher commodity prices and incomesNote1. In contrast, urban and rural poor in food-importing countries will pay much higher prices for basic food staples and there will be less grain available for humanitarian aid. For example, the developing countries of Africa import about 10 MMt of maize each year; another 3 5 MMt of cereal grains are provided as humanitarian aid (figure 1). In a world where more than 800 million are already undernourished and the demand for crop commodities may soon exceed supply, alleviating hunger will no longer be solely a matter of poverty alleviation and more equitable food distribution, which has been the situation for the past thirty years. Instead, food security will also depend on accelerating the rate of gain in crop yields and food production capacity at both local and global scales. Maize imports and cereal donations as humanitarian aid to the developing countries of Africa Figure 1. Maize imports (yellow bar) and cereal donations as humanitarian aid to the developing countries of Africa, 2001 2003. MMT = million metric tons. Data

  20. Еcological security of environment in Zhytomyr region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.М. Kovalevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aiming at the study of environmental hazards in Zhytomir region. Its main objective is to identify the set of adverse factors affecting the state of danger and compose a necessary starting material for the prediction of possible negative consequences, their nature and extent. The matter of special importance for the study of the phenomenon of security is the security classification. First of all, the forms (system of security in relation to the forces and processes of natural, social and technical character should be distinguished. They can be defined as systems of geo-bio-physical, social and technical security. The classification of security can be determined in many ways, for example, in relation to the object of security; in relation to the subject of security; according to the problem indication; according to the functional indication. Security is a distinctive characteristic and prerequisite of life, progressive development and viability of real-world objects. The methodology of its evaluation is based on the states of the essence of natural and anthropogenic environmental pollution, the standard requirements for the quality of environmental objects and standards of acceptable contamination. The assessment of ecological security of the environment is the quantitative measure of parameters of environmental pollution dangers, threats and risks of natural character as well as the state of anthropogenic security. This assessment is carried out according to the methods and ways to measure environmental parameters. For this purpose it is important to know the factors of danger and the system of indicators that characterizes all natural and environmental phenomena and processes of geo-ecological dangers, natural environmental conditions, ecological condition. The system of natural and industrial environmental indicators consists of the indicators which characterize all phenomena and processes of geo-ecological dangers of natural

  1. Global security and the impacts in nuclear matter control: Nuclear Security Summit 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Martonio Mont’Alverne Barreto; Barreto, Midred Cavalcante, E-mail: barreto@unifor.br, E-mail: midredcb@hotmail.com [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Due to the current international security instability, especially resulting from traffic and nuclear terrorism threat proliferation, the Nuclear Security Summits were conceived with the objective of increasing the cooperation between States, institutions and international organisms, as well as conducting a global community in following the guidelines and action plans which have produced curious results such as the reduction and the removal of enriched uranium in some countries, the reinforcement of safeguard installations that store radioactive materials and the establishment of Excellence Centers, qualification, training and technological development in the fight against nuclear weaponry traffic. (author)

  2. Global security and the impacts in nuclear matter control: Nuclear Security Summit 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Martonio Mont’Alverne Barreto; Barreto, Midred Cavalcante

    2017-01-01

    Due to the current international security instability, especially resulting from traffic and nuclear terrorism threat proliferation, the Nuclear Security Summits were conceived with the objective of increasing the cooperation between States, institutions and international organisms, as well as conducting a global community in following the guidelines and action plans which have produced curious results such as the reduction and the removal of enriched uranium in some countries, the reinforcement of safeguard installations that store radioactive materials and the establishment of Excellence Centers, qualification, training and technological development in the fight against nuclear weaponry traffic. (author)

  3. Global energy security and the implications for the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umbach, Frank [Centre for European Security Strategies (CESS), Berlin (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The following article will analyse the global and geopolitical dimensions of the future international energy security and its implications for Europe and the EU-27. In this context, I will discuss to which extent the EU's newly proclaimed 'Energy Action Plan' of the EU Spring summit of 2007 and its declared common energy (foreign) policy are a sufficient strategy to cope with the new global and geopolitical challenges. The article concludes the following: (1) The interlinkage between globally designed traditional energy security concepts - that rely just on economic factors and 'market-strategies' - and domestic as well as regional political stability demands new thinking with regard to both energy supply security and foreign and security policies. (2) Although after the Russian-Ukrainian gas conflict in January 2006, energy security has forced its way up the European energy and foreign policy agendas, the EU-27 member states have largely failed to forge a coherent European energy security and energy foreign policy strategy after their Spring summit of 2007 because its declared political solidarity has been still lacking. But the 2nd Strategic Energy Review of November 2008 has recommended new initiatives to overcome this lack by promoting concrete infrastructure and other projects for enhancing Europe's supply security and its political solidarity as part of a common energy (foreign) policy. If the EU is able to implement the March 2007 and November 2008 decisions, the EU oil and gas demand will drastically reduce and freeze at current levels. In this case, Putin's energy policies by using Russia's energy resources and pipeline monopolies as a political instrument to enforce its economic and geopolitical interests will be proved as self-defeating in Russia's long-term strategic interests. It will reduce Gazprom's gas exports to a much smaller EU gas market than originally forecasted as the result of a deliberate EU

  4. A study of institutional environment and household food security at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    also the much wanted institutional support being exposed. Key words: Food access, institutional environment, food production, district development plans, farmer cooperatives, household food security. 1. Introduction. Rwanda is .... institutions and their functions in the following definition: 'Formal or informal rules that govern ...

  5. Terrorism as a form for endangering global security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Veton Zejnullahu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Defining, understanding but also fight against terrorism has taken a new shape after the attacks on the United States of America on September, 11 2001. Now terrorism has changed his view and enemies are not more specific certain countries but this is a global war and that in a certain moment the opponent may be one or more states of a specific region that directly threatening global security. In this paper we will elaborate what the international community has undertaken to coordinate actions to stop terrorism starting from military, police, intelligence cooperation and to the prevention of funding terrorist organizations through various acts within the global organization or even regional ones such as the UN and the EU and in each country separately for the single purpose of eliminating the threat fromterrorism.

  6. Two RFID standard-based security protocols for healthcare environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Bagheri, Nasour; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

    2013-10-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are widely used in access control, transportation, real-time inventory and asset management, automated payment systems, etc. Nevertheless, the use of this technology is almost unexplored in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, asset traceability and drug administration systems, to mention just a few. RFID technology can offer more intelligent systems and applications, but privacy and security issues have to be addressed before its adoption. This is even more dramatical in healthcare applications where very sensitive information is at stake and patient safety is paramount. In Wu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 37:19, 43) recently proposed a new RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments. In this paper we show that this protocol puts location privacy of tag holders at risk, which is a matter of gravest concern and ruins the security of this proposal. To facilitate the implementation of secure RFID-based solutions in the medical sector, we suggest two new applications (authentication and secure messaging) and propose solutions that, in contrast to previous proposals in this field, are fully based on ISO Standards and NIST Security Recommendations.

  7. Relevance of Global Health Security to the US Export Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Cynthia H.; Bambery, Zoe; Roy, Kakoli; Meltzer, Martin I.; Ahmed, Zara; Payne, Rebecca L.

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the health security risk and impact of outbreaks around the world, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and its partners are building capabilities to prevent, detect, and contain outbreaks in 49 global health security priority countries. We examine the extent of economic vulnerability to the US export economy posed by trade disruptions in these 49 countries. Using 2015 US Department of Commerce data, we assessed the value of US exports and the number of US jobs supported by those exports. US exports to the 49 countries exceeded $308 billion and supported more than 1.6 million jobs across all US states in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, oil and gas, services, and other sectors. These exports represented 13.7% of all US export revenue worldwide and 14.3% of all US jobs supported by all US exports. The economic linkages between the United States and these global health security priority countries illustrate the importance of ensuring that countries have the public health capacities needed to control outbreaks at their source before they become pandemics. PMID:29199867

  8. Relevance of Global Health Security to the US Export Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Cynthia H; Bambery, Zoe; Roy, Kakoli; Meltzer, Martin I; Ahmed, Zara; Payne, Rebecca L; Bunnell, Rebecca E

    To reduce the health security risk and impact of outbreaks around the world, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and its partners are building capabilities to prevent, detect, and contain outbreaks in 49 global health security priority countries. We examine the extent of economic vulnerability to the US export economy posed by trade disruptions in these 49 countries. Using 2015 US Department of Commerce data, we assessed the value of US exports and the number of US jobs supported by those exports. US exports to the 49 countries exceeded $308 billion and supported more than 1.6 million jobs across all US states in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, oil and gas, services, and other sectors. These exports represented 13.7% of all US export revenue worldwide and 14.3% of all US jobs supported by all US exports. The economic linkages between the United States and these global health security priority countries illustrate the importance of ensuring that countries have the public health capacities needed to control outbreaks at their source before they become pandemics.

  9. Trust Model to Enhance Security and Interoperability of Cloud Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjuan; Ping, Lingdi

    Trust is one of the most important means to improve security and enable interoperability of current heterogeneous independent cloud platforms. This paper first analyzed several trust models used in large and distributed environment and then introduced a novel cloud trust model to solve security issues in cross-clouds environment in which cloud customer can choose different providers' services and resources in heterogeneous domains can cooperate. The model is domain-based. It divides one cloud provider's resource nodes into the same domain and sets trust agent. It distinguishes two different roles cloud customer and cloud server and designs different strategies for them. In our model, trust recommendation is treated as one type of cloud services just like computation or storage. The model achieves both identity authentication and behavior authentication. The results of emulation experiments show that the proposed model can efficiently and safely construct trust relationship in cross-clouds environment.

  10. Secure and Efficient Anonymous Authentication Scheme in Global Mobility Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sub Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, Mun et al. pointed out that Wu et al.’s scheme failed to achieve user anonymity and perfect forward secrecy and disclosed the passwords of legitimate users. And they proposed a new enhancement for anonymous authentication scheme. However, their proposed scheme has vulnerabilities that are susceptible to replay attack and man-in-the-middle attack. It also incurs a high overhead in the database. In this paper, we examine the vulnerabilities in the existing schemes and the computational overhead incurred in the database. We then propose a secure and efficient anonymous authentication scheme for roaming service in global mobility network. Our proposed scheme is secure against various attacks, provides mutual authentication and session key establishment, and incurs less computational overhead in the database than Mun et al.'s scheme.

  11. Global Food Security in a Changing Climate: Considerations and Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M. K.; Brown, M. E.; Backlund, P. W.; Antle, J. M.; Carr, E. R.; Easterling, W. E.; Funk, C. C.; Murray, A.; Ngugi, M.; Barrett, C. B.; Ingram, J. S. I.; Dancheck, V.; O'Neill, B. C.; Tebaldi, C.; Mata, T.; Ojima, D. S.; Grace, K.; Jiang, H.; Bellemare, M.; Attavanich, W.; Ammann, C. M.; Maletta, H.

    2015-12-01

    Global food security is an elusive challenge and important policy focus from the community to the globe. Food is provisioned through food systems that may be simple or labyrinthine, yet each has vulnerabilities to climate change through its effects on food production, transportation, storage, and other integral food system activities. At the same time, the future of food systems is sensitive to socioeconomic trajectories determined by choices made outside of the food system, itself. Constrictions for any reason can lead to decreased food availability, access, utilization, or stability - that is, to diminished food security. Possible changes in trade and other U.S. relationships to the rest of the world under changing conditions to the end of the century are considered through integrated assessment modelling under a range of emissions scenarios. Climate change is likely to diminish continued progress on global food security through production disruptions leading to local availability limitations and price increases, interrupted transport conduits, and diminished food safety, among other causes. In the near term, some high-latitude production export regions may benefit from changes in climate. The types and price of food imports is likely to change, as are export demands, affecting U.S. consumers and producers. Demands placed on foreign assistance programs may increase, as may demand for advanced technologies. Adaptation across the food system has great potential to manage climate change effects on food security, and the complexity of the food system offers multiple potential points of intervention for decision makers at every level. However, effective adaptation is subject to highly localized conditions and socioeconomic factors, and the technical feasibility of an adaptive intervention is not necessarily a guarantee of its application if it is unaffordable or does not provide benefits within a relatively short time frame.

  12. Bridging the health security divide: department of defense support for the global health security agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudy, Robin M; Ingerson-Mahar, Michael; Kanter, Jordan; Grant, Ashley M; Fisher, Dara R; Jones, Franca R

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, President Obama addressed the United Nations General Assembly and urged the global community to come together to prevent, detect, and fight every kind of biological danger, whether a pandemic, terrorist threat, or treatable disease. Over the past decade, the United States and key international partners have addressed these dangers through a variety of programs and strategies aimed at developing and enhancing countries' capacity to rapidly detect, assess, report, and respond to acute biological threats. Despite our collective efforts, however, an increasingly interconnected world presents heightened opportunities for human, animal, and zoonotic diseases to emerge and spread globally. Further, the technical capabilities required to develop biological agents into a weapon are relatively low. The launch of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) provides an opportunity for the international community to enhance the linkages between the health and security sectors, accelerating global efforts to prevent avoidable epidemics and bioterrorism, detect threats early, and respond rapidly and effectively to biological threats. The US Department of Defense (DoD) plays a key role in achieving GHSA objectives through its force health protection, threat reduction, and biodefense efforts at home and abroad. This article focuses on GHSA activities conducted in the DoD Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Defense.

  13. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  14. Management of Global Nuclear Materials for International Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T; Choi, J-S

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear materials were first used to end the World War II. They were produced and maintained during the cold war for global security reasons. In the succeeding 50 years since the Atoms for Peace Initiative, nuclear materials were produced and used in global civilian reactors and fuel cycles intended for peaceful purposes. The Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970 established a framework for appropriate applications of both defense and civilian nuclear activities by nuclear weapons states and non-nuclear weapons states. As global inventories of nuclear materials continue to grow, in a diverse and dynamically changing manner, it is time to evaluate current and future trends and needed actions: what are the current circumstances, what has been done to date, what has worked and what hasn't? The aim is to identify mutually reinforcing programmatic directions, leading to global partnerships that measurably enhance international security. Essential elements are material protection, control and accountability (MPC and A) of separated nuclear materials, interim storage, and geologic repositories for all nuclear materials destined for final disposal. Cooperation among key partners, such as the MPC and A program between the U.S. and Russia for nuclear materials from dismantled weapons, is necessary for interim storage and final disposal of nuclear materials. Such cooperative partnerships can lead to a new nuclear regime where a complete fuel cycle service with fuel leasing and spent fuel take-back can be offered to reactor users. The service can effectively minimize or even eliminate the incentive or rationale for the user-countries to develop their indigenous enrichment and reprocessing technologies. International cooperation, supported by governments of key countries can be best to facilitate the forum for formation of such cooperative partnerships

  15. Research on Influence of Cloud Environment on Traditional Network Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Xiaobo; Guo, Jinhua

    2018-02-01

    Cloud computing is a symbol of the progress of modern information network, cloud computing provides a lot of convenience to the Internet users, but it also brings a lot of risk to the Internet users. Second, one of the main reasons for Internet users to choose cloud computing is that the network security performance is great, it also is the cornerstone of cloud computing applications. This paper briefly explores the impact on cloud environment on traditional cybersecurity, and puts forward corresponding solutions.

  16. GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE): A Concurrent Engineering Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Kunkel, Matthew R.; Smith, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a client-server software application purpose-built to mitigate issues associated with real time data sharing in concurrent engineering environments and to facilitate discipline-to-discipline interaction between multiple engineers and researchers. GLIDE is implemented in multiple programming languages utilizing standardized web protocols to enable secure parameter data sharing between engineers and researchers across the Internet in closed and/or widely distributed working environments. A well defined, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based Application Programming Interface (API) to the GLIDE client/server environment enables users to interact with GLIDE, and each other, within common and familiar tools. One such common tool, Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation), paired with its add-in API for GLIDE, is discussed in this paper. The top-level examples given demonstrate how this interface improves the efficiency of the design process of a concurrent engineering study while reducing potential errors associated with manually sharing information between study participants.

  17. GLOBAL DIMENSIONS OF ECOLOGICAL SECURITY IN DOMINANTA STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Bokhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the articles considered pressing questions of development of strategic partnership are taking into account priorities of ecological security that appears qualificatory and integrating for the countries of the world at the terms of display of calls and threats of globalization. The expediency of forming a joint environmental responsibility and market pragmatism in foreign policy of the countries of the world. Defined trends of strengthening ecological conflicts in the regions of the world because of the acute shortage of natural and energy resources, disproportions in distribution and irrational consumption. It is proved that the capacity for sustained leadership will be the countries who will testify capacity up to new forms of strategic partnership on the principles of ecological security, economic decisions considering interests and competitive aspirations for joint protection of the future of mankind. It is vitally necessary given the complexity of the influence of the parameters of the international system of ecological security in the economic, political and social transformation in society.

  18. Renewal through Participation in Global Food Security Governance: Implementing the International Food Security and Nutrition Civil Society Mechanism to the Committee on World Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, J.A.B.; Barling, D.

    2012-01-01

    The food commodity price rises from 2006 to 2008 engendered a period
    of political renewal and reform in the governance of global food security. The
    Committee on World Food Security (CFS) was designated as the main international forum dealing with food security and nutrition in 2009 as part

  19. Globalized Security: An Allied Industrial Base for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Globalized Security: An Allied Industry Base for the 21st Century 151 OP NION GLOBALIZED SECURITY: AN ALLIED INDUSTRIAL BASE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY Lt...Col Shannon Sullivan, USAF During the Cold War, the United States maintained an extensive industrial base in the event of a global war with the Soviet...2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Globalized Security: An Allied Industrial Base for the 21st Century 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  20. Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Cropland Extent 2015 South Asia, Afghanistan, and Iran product 30 m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) data product provides...

  1. Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Cropland Extent 2015 Europe, Central Asia, Russia, Middle East product 30 m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security-support Analysis Data (GFSAD) data product provides...

  2. Population and environment: a global report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, W P

    1989-01-01

    This article relates the experiences of IMPACT, a USAID-funded project to involve the international press in reporting on the link between the environment and population growth. A conference, cohosted by the UN Environmental Program, was held in Nairobi, Kenya for 11 editors of Third World countries. A special supplement of 16 pages, "The Global Edition," was to be published in their journals. It focused on the challenges of sustainable development. All the editors contributed to the 1st 8 pages on worldwide issues. The theme of the "Child 5 Billion" was used, and population data and demographic information was reported. Each editor contributed the last 8 pages. The target audience was 2 million readers of Arabic, Bengali, English, French, Spanish, and Thai. Censorship was a concern in some countries. Examples were given of approaches used in Kenya, Zimbabwe, English-speaking Africa, Colombia, Mexico, and Thailand. In Kenya, the population growth problem was identified as the "hardened attitudes" of the childbearing population and not technology and drugs. Poverty was considered the cause of environmental destruction. Proper allocation of resources by young persons will lead to achievement of wealth. The poor must stop resisting change. Foreign aid has failed. Government is caught in the middle. In Zimbabwe, economic growth and population declines were objectives. The failures of neighboring countries were pointed out. The change agents were Africans themselves. The English-speaking African magazine emphasized the problem of desertification and population explosion, and suggested vigorous family planning (FP) efforts. The magazine does not appear in the Arab world where FP is not accepted. In Colombia, Mexico, and Thailand greater attention was paid to environmental issues. In Colombia and Bangladesh, economic factors were considered the cause of environmental degradation. In Mexico and Thailand, the environment was something to be protected or defended, and the

  3. Law in Transition Biblioessay: Globalization, Human Rights, Environment, Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marien

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As globalization continues, many transformations in international and domestic laws areunderway or called for. There are too many laws and too few, too much law that is inadequateor obsolete, and too much law-breaking. This biblioessay covers some 100 recentbooks, nearly all recently published, arranged in four categories. 1 International Lawincludes six overviews/textbooks on comparative law, laws related to warfare and security,pushback against demands of globalization, and gender perspectives; 2 Human Rightsencompasses general overviews and normative visions, several books on how some statesviolate human rights, five items on how good laws can end poverty and promote prosperity,and laws regulating working conditions and health rights; 3 Environment/Resources coversgrowth of international environmental law, visions of law for a better environmental future,laws to govern genetic resources and increasingly stressed water resources, two books onprospects for climate change liability, and items on toxic hazards and problems of compliance;4 Technology, Etc. identifies eight books on global crime and the failed war on drugs,books on the response to terrorism and guarding privacy and mobility in our high-tech age,seven books on how infotech is changing law and legal processes while raising intellectualproperty questions, biomedical technologies and the law, and general views on the need forupdated laws and constitutions. In sum, this essay suggests the need for deeper and timelyanalysis of the many books on changes in law.

  4. A Method for Evaluating Information Security Governance (ISG) Components in Banking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ula, M.; Ula, M.; Fuadi, W.

    2017-02-01

    As modern banking increasingly relies on the internet and computer technologies to operate their businesses and market interactions, the threats and security breaches have highly increased in recent years. Insider and outsider attacks have caused global businesses lost trillions of Dollars a year. Therefore, that is a need for a proper framework to govern the information security in the banking system. The aim of this research is to propose and design an enhanced method to evaluate information security governance (ISG) implementation in banking environment. This research examines and compares the elements from the commonly used information security governance frameworks, standards and best practices. Their strength and weakness are considered in its approaches. The initial framework for governing the information security in banking system was constructed from document review. The framework was categorized into three levels which are Governance level, Managerial level, and technical level. The study further conducts an online survey for banking security professionals to get their professional judgment about the ISG most critical components and the importance for each ISG component that should be implemented in banking environment. Data from the survey was used to construct a mathematical model for ISG evaluation, component importance data used as weighting coefficient for the related component in the mathematical model. The research further develops a method for evaluating ISG implementation in banking based on the mathematical model. The proposed method was tested through real bank case study in an Indonesian local bank. The study evidently proves that the proposed method has sufficient coverage of ISG in banking environment and effectively evaluates the ISG implementation in banking environment.

  5. The EU's New Global Strategy : Its Implementation in a Troubled International Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, T.; Larik, J.E.; Matta, A.; Vos, de B.

    2016-01-01

    Executive Summary In June 2016, High Representative Mogherini presented the EU’s new Global Strategy on Foreign and Security Policy (EUGS) to the European Council. With the Strategy now finalized, attention needs to turn to its implementation in an environment mired by crises both within Europe and

  6. Energy policy seesaw between security and protecting the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1994-01-01

    It is just the price of oil that causes the energy policies of importing countries to vacillate. Changing perceptions of energy supply factors has had as much to do with transfiguring government action modes since 1973 as has the idea of the legitimacy of that action. The present paper thus draws a parallel between the goal of energy security twenty years ago and that of global environmental protection today, which explains the critical reversion to a view of minimum government action in the energy field - a view that marked the eighties. (author). 20 refs

  7. Japanese policy on science and technology for the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, M.

    1994-01-01

    The current state of Japanese science and technology policy is discussed within the framework of overall global environmental policy. Principles of Japanese environmental policy include participation in international schemes for conservation of the global environment, promotion of Japanese research on the global environment, development and diffusion of technologies contributing to conservation of the global environment, contribution to conservation of the environment in developing countries, and maintenance of economic and social activities in Japan at an environmentally beneficial level. The Japanese environmental budget includes expenditures for earth observation and monitoring by satellite, energy-related research and development, and control of greenhouse gas emissions. The proportion of overall Japanese research and development (R ampersand D) expenditures which were spent on the global environment was about 2% in 1991. Of governmental research expenditures, ca 22% involve the global environment; however, some part of the expenditures on energy R ampersand D and on earth observation satellite R ampersand D are also environment-related. 5 figs

  8. Building Psychological Contracts in Security-Risk Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jacobo; Madero, Sergio; Vélez-Zapata, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the reciprocal obligations between employers and employees that are framed as psychological contracts in security-risk environments. A total of 30 interviews based on psychological contract frameworks, duty-of-care strategies in terms of human resource management (HRM) systems...... and the impacts of narcoterrorism on firms were conducted with human resources (HR) personnel, line managers and subordinates at eight national and multinational corporations (MNCs) with subsidiaries in Colombia and Mexico. Our findings generally support the existence of a relational psychological contract in our...... sample. Duty-of-care strategies based on both HRM systems and the sensitivities of HR personnel and line managers to the narcoterrorism context, in combination with both explicit and implicit security policies, tend to be the sources of the content of psychological contracts. We propose a psychological...

  9. The Global Environment Radiation Monitoring Network (GERMON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakheim, B.J.; Goellner, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a group of experts from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) met in France to discuss and develop the basic principles of a global environmental radiation monitoring network (GERMON). The basic functions of this network were to provide regular reports on environmental radiation levels and to be in a position to provide reliable and accurate radiation measurements on a quick and accurate radiation measurements on a quick turnaround basis in the event of a major radiation release. By 1992, although 58 countries had indicated an interest in becoming a part of the GERMON system, only 16 were providing data on a regular basis. This paper traces the history of GERMON from its inception in 1987 through its activities during 1993-4. It details the objectives of the network, describes functions, lists its participants, and presents obstacles in the current network. The paper examines the data requirements for radiological emergency preparedness and offers suggestions for the current system. The paper also describes the growing need for such a network. To add a domestic perspective, the authors present a summary of the environmental monitoring information system that was used by the NRC in 1986 in its analyses of the Chernobyl incident. Then we will use this 1986 experience to propose a method for the use of GERMON should a similar occasion arise in the future

  10. APPROACHES TO GLOBAL SECURITY. ACTORS, MANIFESTATIONS AND TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MINCULETE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the world seems to be in a transition from the current system founded on the liberal social, economic and political model to a more diverse and heterogeneous model in which the determinant role is played by a number of state and non-state actors. The step from the Western system of cultural, political and predominant economic values to a more diverse and heterogeneous system makes the actors involved defend not only their visions, but also promote their own interests. The differences between visions gain relevance and clarity because the countries supporting them obtain increased power, and that is more than obvious. All this leads to a symmetric allocation of different means, which generates uncertainties and diminishes unilateral actions This transition process impacts global security especially through the asymmetric, unconventional and hybrid risks and threats manifesting worldwide.

  11. Trade Policy and the Global Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Sound global environmental policies in relation to trade do not harm global economic welfare—they promote it. Provided appropriate compensations are paid from the gains yielded by sound policies, both developed and emerging countries can enjoy improved economic welfare as a consequence of such policies. Both economic efficiency and equity are promoted. The argument is applied to mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Desovereignization of national state, economy and security in terms of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Mile M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In current modern age of worldwide processes of globalization and globalism a process of desovereigntization of national state and economy has become a general process. Therefore national state has been faced with numerous challenges and it has been in a permanent state of crisis. Within the process of globalization most often rich enclaves of national states make attempts to integrate themselves into neoliberal capitalist system, while poor and backward enclaves become abandoned and so national states become disintegrated. First of all it is necessary to search for causes of ethno-religious conflicts and a national separatism in the field of economy. Within the globalization environment it happened that old entities, national state, national economy and national security gained totally new meanings. By using a method of comparative analysis of document contents and consitutional and political practice alike it is possible to reach conclusion that a great number of modern national states, including the Republic of Serbia among them, have found themselves in the state of permanent crisis, and the state crisis implies, before anything else, the crisis of state sovereignty. The state gets destroyed both from inside and outside in different ways. By using a quality method it is confirmed that within a state there comes an overstepping of constitutional regulations which encompass, before else, the issues of national economy and national security, and it is achieved in particular by seizure of economic sovereignty.

  13. Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahid, E J M; Peng, L Y; Siang, C Ch

    2013-01-01

    Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

  14. Food security in the context of global environmental change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, N.J.

    1993-11-01

    United Nations predictions and other sources indicate that world population could grow to 8.5 billion by 2025 (Keyfitz 1989) and 11 billion by the end of the coming century (UNFPA 1990). As new information becomes available on the effectiveness of population control programs, the rise of virulent diseases and other factors, these numbers change--sometimes smaller, sometimes larger still. Whatever the numbers actually turn out to be, global agricultural production will have to increase several-fold from present levels to feed and clothe the growing population and to improve worldwide standards of nutrition. The capacity of global agriculture to ensure food security through increased and sustained agricultural production depends on our ability to manage, conserve and in some cases increase the resource base available to the industry of agriculture. The resources that underpin agriculture are land, water and genetic diversity. The first two of these are the subject of this paper. Genetic diversity is the subject of another paper in this volume.

  15. Global water cycle: geochemistry and environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berner, Elizabeth Kay; Berner, Robert A

    1987-01-01

    .... The book provides an integrated approach to global geochemistry and environmental problems and introduces the reader to some fundamental concepts of geology, oceanography, meteorology, environmental...

  16. Causes of improvement in the security environment of Iraq, 2006-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Seth A.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Popular consensus exists that the 2007 surge of U.S. forces in Iraq led to an improved security environment. The surge was designed to reduce violence and improve security by protecting the Iraqi population - a change in strategy. According to the consensus, the security environment improved due to the surge, measured by the decreasing number of attacks. For this thesis, the security environment consists of the number of attacks and t...

  17. Key Trends Shaping the Global Logistics Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handfield, Robert; Straube, Frank; Pfohl, Hans-Christian

    A summary from the full study “Trends and Strategies in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Embracing Global Logistics Complexity to Drive Market Advantage” (2013).......A summary from the full study “Trends and Strategies in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Embracing Global Logistics Complexity to Drive Market Advantage” (2013)....

  18. Problems of Ensuring Complex Business Security in the Conditions of Modern Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Petrovich Sterkhov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of ensuring complex business security, the relevance of the present work is associated with the rationale of multilevel hierarchical approach to the classification of security threats in the age of globalization. The specificity of the threats specific to one or another level of the economy, helps to better understand and consequently to build an effective system of ensuring complex business security. For each of the nine hierarchical levels of the economy the author identifies the main threats to the business, as well as the objects and subjects of this study. It is noted that the performance of the business in the form of a complex hierarchical system depends on the principle of specification. The author gives examples of the use of the basic principles of specification. It is noted that the decomposition of the economic system from the viewpoint of its hierarchical nature is of great importance not only to the distribution of the goals and objectives of security of business levels of the system, but their subordination corresponding to each level. The result is the development of specific recommendations and elaboration of the main directions to ensure complex business security for mega-, macro-, micro-, mini-, nano - and mesoeconomic levels. Although the priority of action in multi-level hierarchical system is directed from the upper to the lower levels, the success of the system as a whole depends on the behavior of all system components. It is stated that the interaction with the environment in business occurs mainly in the lower levels of the hierarchy. The quality system of ensuring complex business security which deals with hierarchical positions, will depend not so much on top-level elements, but on response to intervention on the part of lower level, more precisely from their total effect. In other words, the quality of the system of integrated safety management business provides organized feedbacks in the system.

  19. Globalization Contextualized: An Organization-Environment Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades, changes in higher education, the emerging global economy, and other social changes all influence the environment in which community colleges operate. This article investigates leadership perceptions of adaptation to a rapidly globalizing education environment. Data were collected through a multisite case study that…

  20. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE ANALYSIS OF ЕCONOMIC SECURITY MARKET ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Voronin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary The market environment is not only important for the good functioning of enterprises and organizations, but also an indicator of the attractiveness for business. In this regard, on the first place of its economic analysis of the state and dynamics, not only the definition of capacity and market, but also its innovation, investment and institutional components, as well as economic security for businesses and organizations. Economic security for businesses and organizations associated with the identification of factors affecting the state of criminal and corrupt elements. Globalization of world economic relations led to the spread of corruption market environment from local to global markets. Increasingly close involvement of Russia into the world economy was accompanied by negative phenomena of this nature. This was facilitated by liberalization of public relations; sharp stratification of society in terms of income, inefficient system of income redistribution: the weakness and backwardness of civil institutions, all lower income level communication with the humanistic and patriotic values. As a result, generated problems and threats: market institutions there, ethical values and justice, sustainable normal course of business. Simultaneously, it contributes to the establishment and complication of the linkages between corruption and economic crime, the spread of illicit acquisition of personal wealth. Needless business community can and should take an active part in monitoring and economic analysis of the marketing environment of enterprises and organizations, making it more transparent and accessible information across a wide range of its customers.

  1. Incorporating Global Information Security and Assurance in I.S. Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Garry L.; Hewitt, Barbara; Kruck, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the news media has reported numerous information security incidents. Because of identity theft, terrorism, and other criminal activities, President Obama has made information security a national priority. Not only is information security and assurance an American priority, it is also a global issue. This paper discusses the…

  2. Marketing Management: Monitoring the International Environment Factors Using Global Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of the global marketing environment in line with the factors determining its external conditions. The aim is to specify the marketing-environment indicators in the international context and interpret the use of geographical maps illustratively documenting the differences of particular parameters in various parts of the global market. The research-results help update the theoretical framework of global environment factors. These data are also important for practice. Many enterprises consider the question of optimising their sources and directing their goals towards the opportunities available thanks to global markets. The global environment mapping is thereby an important basis for the marketing activities whose implementation across national boundaries is going to be mainly influenced by peculiarities of the environment involving foreign markets and their changes.

  3. Strengthening global health security capacity--Vietnam demonstration project, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phu Dac; Vu, Long Ngoc; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Phan, Lan Trong; Lowe, Wayne; McConnell, Michelle S; Iademarco, Michael F; Partridge, Jeffrey M; Kile, James C; Do, Trang; Nadol, Patrick J; Bui, Hien; Vu, Diep; Bond, Kyle; Nelson, David B; Anderson, Lauren; Hunt, Kenneth V; Smith, Nicole; Giannone, Paul; Klena, John; Beauvais, Denise; Becknell, Kristi; Tappero, Jordan W; Dowell, Scott F; Rzeszotarski, Peter; Chu, May; Kinkade, Carl

    2014-01-31

    Over the past decade, Vietnam has successfully responded to global health security (GHS) challenges, including domestic elimination of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and rapid public health responses to human infections with influenza A(H5N1) virus. However, new threats such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and influenza A(H7N9) present continued challenges, reinforcing the need to improve the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats. In June 2012, Vietnam, along with many other nations, obtained a 2-year extension for meeting core surveillance and response requirements of the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR). During March-September 2013, CDC and the Vietnamese Ministry of Health (MoH) collaborated on a GHS demonstration project to improve public health emergency detection and response capacity. The project aimed to demonstrate, in a short period, that enhancements to Vietnam's health system in surveillance and early detection of and response to diseases and outbreaks could contribute to meeting the IHR core capacities, consistent with the Asia Pacific Strategy for Emerging Diseases. Work focused on enhancements to three interrelated priority areas and included achievements in 1) establishing an emergency operations center (EOC) at the General Department of Preventive Medicine with training of personnel for public health emergency management; 2) improving the nationwide laboratory system, including enhanced testing capability for several priority pathogens (i.e., those in Vietnam most likely to contribute to public health emergencies of international concern); and 3) creating an emergency response information systems platform, including a demonstration of real-time reporting capability. Lessons learned included awareness that integrated functions within the health system for GHS require careful planning, stakeholder buy-in, and intradepartmental and interdepartmental coordination and

  4. Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security: threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauch, H.G.; Oswald Spring, Ú.; Mesjasz, C.; Grin, J.; Kameri-Mbote, P.; Chourou, B.; Dunay, P.; Birkmann, J.

    2011-01-01

    This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10

  5. The First International Conference on Global Food Security – A Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van M.K.; Giller, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Improving food security is difficult. There are many reasons why hunger and malnutrition persist, not least because deep social inequities and conflicts often dominate. Equally many approaches are needed to deal with this global problem. In the case of global food security, improvements can depend

  6. The Globalization of Higher Education as a Societal and Cultural Security Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samier, Eugenie A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I propose a theory of the globalization of higher education as societal and cultural security problems for many regions of the world. The first section examines the field of security studies for theoretical frameworks appropriate to critiquing globalized higher education, including critical human, societal and cultural security…

  7. Global Food Security Index Studies and Satellite Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, T. A.; Ganti-Agrawal, S.; Joshi, D.; Lakhankar, T.

    2017-12-01

    Food yield is equal to the total crop harvest per unit cultivated area. During the elapsed time of germination and frequent harvesting, both human and climate related effects determine a country's' contribution towards global food security. Each country across the globe's annual income per capita was collected to then determine nine countries for further studies. For a location to be chosen, its income per capita needed to be considered poor, uprising or wealthy. Both physical land cover and regional climate helped categorize potential parameters thought to be studied. Once selected, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data was collected for Ethiopia, Liberia, Indonesia, United States, Norway, Russia, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia over the recent 16 years for approximately every 16 days starting from early in the year 2000. Software languages such as Geographic Information System (GIS), MatLab and Excel were used to determine how population size, income and deforestation directly determines agricultural yields. Because of high maintenance requirements for large harvests when forest areas are cleared, they often have a reduction in soil quality, requiring fertilizer use to produce sufficient crop yields. Total area and vegetation index of each country is to be studied, to determine crop and deforestation percentages. To determine how deforestation impacts future income and crop yield predictions of each country studied. By using NDVI results a parameter is to be potentially found that will help define an index, to create an equation that will determine a country's annual income and ability to provide for their families and themselves.

  8. An Analysis of Security System for Intrusion in Smartphone Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Louk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many malware applications in Smartphone. Smartphone’s users may become unaware if their data has been recorded and stolen by intruders via malware. Smartphone—whether for business or personal use—may not be protected from malwares. Thus, monitoring, detecting, tracking, and notification (MDTN have become the main purpose of the writing of this paper. MDTN is meant to enable Smartphone to prevent and reduce the number of cybercrimes. The methods are shown to be effective in protecting Smartphone and isolating malware and sending warning in the form of notification to the user about the danger in progress. In particular, (a MDTN process is possible and will be enabled for Smartphone environment. (b The methods are shown to be an advanced security for private sensitive data of the Smartphone user.

  9. The Future of the Global Environment: A Model-based Analysis Supporting UNEP's First Global Environment Outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkes JA; Woerden JW van; Alcamo J; Berk MM; Bol P; Born GJ van den; Brink BJE ten; Hettelingh JP; Langeweg F; Niessen LW; Swart RJ; United Nations Environment; MNV

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the scenario analysis in UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook, published at the same time as the scenario analysis. This Outlook provides a pilot assessment of developments in the environment, both global and regional, between now and 2015, with a further projection to

  10. A cooperative model for IS security risk management in distributed environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Nan; Zheng, Chundong

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing cooperation between organizations, the flexible exchange of security information across the allied organizations is critical to effectively manage information systems (IS) security in a distributed environment. In this paper, we develop a cooperative model for IS security risk management in a distributed environment. In the proposed model, the exchange of security information among the interconnected IS under distributed environment is supported by Bayesian networks (BNs). In addition, for an organization's IS, a BN is utilized to represent its security environment and dynamically predict its security risk level, by which the security manager can select an optimal action to safeguard the firm's information resources. The actual case studied illustrates the cooperative model presented in this paper and how it can be exploited to manage the distributed IS security risk effectively.

  11. Man's impact on his global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.

    1976-07-01

    The experience and awareness growing from research activities leads to several important concerns for policy makers: there is a need to move towards a policy of conservation of our global air resources in its totality from earth's surface to stratosphere; the technical data base and level of understanding should be systematically improved for the rational implementation of standards for the whole atmosphere; the U.S. should establish a focal point for regional and global environmental assessments responsive to policy-makers' needs and concerns, and interactive with the UN's Global Environmental Monitoring System; and the environmental consequences of increased U.S. dependence on coal should receive greater attention so that optimal choices between control technology, tall stacks, and synthetic fuels may be achieved with conservation of total air resources

  12. Global environment and activity of RITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Jiro

    1991-01-01

    In the present paper, the author would like to discuss the relation between conventional energy and global warming. Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) was established in Japan, September 1990. The author would like to introduce what RITE is intending to achieve. This is the case when technology leads science. (J.P.N.)

  13. NEGOTIATING IN A GLOBAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dorel PARASCHIV; Mihaela BELU

    2009-01-01

    Negotiating in International Business become more complex due to the rapid development of the globalization process and to the evolution of communication tools. Companies are attracted by favorable key locations in view of lowering production costs and increasing profit margins. Such international communication process can often fail because the local counterparts have taken more time to learn how to overcome the obstacles normally associated with international/crosscultural negotiations. Fai...

  14. Global security challenges and their impact on the Security Strategy of Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    Bejtush Gashi

    2016-01-01

    Security is a fundamental prerequisite for the existence and development of humans and their society. Its scientific research and understanding is focused both on the State as a single entity, and on the international politics, as a System of States. At the current level of social development, security policy is implemented through various security systems, which analyze the possibilities and degrees of organization to perform security function in contemporary society. It is part of the Compr...

  15. Mastering wireless penetration testing for highly secured environments

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for security professionals who want to enhance their wireless penetration testing skills and knowledge. Since this book covers advanced techniques, you will need some previous experience in computer security and networking.

  16. Methodology for considering environments and culture in developing information security systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mwakalinga, G Jeffy; Kowalski, Stewart; Yngström, Louise

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a methodology for considering culture of users and environments when developing information security systems. We discuss the problem of how researchers and developers of security for information systems have had difficulties in considering culture of users and environments when they develop information security systems. This has created environments where people serve technology instead of technology serving people. Users have been considered just as any other compo...

  17. Workshop on Pervasive Computing and Cooperative Environments in a Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajah, Kirusnapillai; Speirs, Neil

    The increasing number of devices that are invisibly embedded into our surrounding environment as well as the proliferation of wireless communication and sensing technologies are the basis for visions like ambient intelligence, ubiquitous and pervasive computing. In this context, the objective of PECES EU project is the creation of a comprehensive software layer to enable the seamless cooperation of embedded devices across various smart spaces on a global scale in a context-dependent, secure and trustworthy manner.

  18. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on radioisotope production and radiation technology contributing to better health care and a cleaner environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotope and radiation technology finds numerous applications in a wide variety of fields, most importantly in medicine, industry, agriculture and the environment. However, in order to take full advantage of the benefits offered by this technology, it is essential to provide the necessary infrastructure as well as qualified personnel. The IAEA strives to promote worldwide availability of products and facilities in order to offer the benefits of radioisotope products and radiation technology to developing countries. In particular, the IAEA helps Member States to achieve self-sufficiency in the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, strengthen quality assurance practices and regulatory compliance as well as facilitate human resources development. The multipronged need based approach includes providing advice, assistance and capacity building support for: Development, production and quality assurance of reactor and accelerator based medical isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for both the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, especially cancer; Establishment of irradiation facilities and utilization of gamma radiation, electron beam and X ray technology for varied applications, including tackling pollutants, wastewater treatment, sterilization of medical products, disinfestation of food grains, and synthesis and characterization of advanced materials; Application of radiation and isotopes in industrial process management.

  19. Quantum cryptography to satellites for global secure key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarity, John G.; Gorman, Philip M.; Knight, Paul; Wallace, Kotska; Tapster, Paul R.

    2017-11-01

    We have designed and built a free space secure key exchange system using weak laser pulses with polarisation modulation by acousto-optic switching. We have used this system to exchange keys over a 1.2km ground range with absolute security. Building from this initial result we analyse the feasibility of exchanging keys to a low earth orbit satellite.

  20. Global change. Impacts on water and food security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringler, Claudia [International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC (United States); Biswas, Asit K. [Third World Centre for Water Management, Los Clubes, Atizapan (Mexico); Cline, Sarah A. (eds.) [United States Department of Agriculture, Riverdale, MD (US). Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

    2010-07-01

    This volume examines the various drivers of global change, including climate change, and the use of agricultural knowledge, science, and technology, as well as the outcomes of global change processes, including impacts on water quality and human well-being. Several authors examine potential policy and institutional solutions afforded by globalization to the challenges ahead, particularly the role of trade policy. Financing water development in a more globalized world and adapting to global warming are also examined. (orig.)

  1. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Globalization and Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (ACQUISITION, TECHNOLOGY , AND LOGISTICS) SUBJECT: Report of the Defense Science Board (DSB) Task Force on Globalization ...changes in the way the Department conducts its business in order to maintain military dominance amidst global technological leveling. Specific...the integrity of essential software-intensive systems; adopting personnel security policies to the new global information technologies ; and

  2. Medical intelligence, security and global health: the foundations of a new health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowsher, G; Milner, C; Sullivan, R

    2016-07-01

    Medical intelligence, security and global health are distinct fields that often overlap, especially as the drive towards a global health security agenda gathers pace. Here, we outline some of the ways in which this has happened in the recent past during the recent Ebola epidemic in West Africa and in the killing of Osama Bin laden by US intelligence services. We evaluate medical intelligence and the role it can play in global health security; we also attempt to define a framework that illustrates how medical intelligence can be incorporated into foreign policy action in order delineate the boundaries and scope of this growing field. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  3. Does nuclear energy save global environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki

    2006-01-01

    Since the ecological footprint analysis in 1970s suggested changing consumption patterns and overpopulation concerns, energy policy such as energy conservation and use of renewable energy has become of prime importance. Several results of the long-term energy demand and supply analysis in 2050 or 2100 to reduce drastically carbon dioxide emission as a measure against global warming, showed the necessity of nuclear power deployment as well as maximum efforts to save energy, exploitation of the separation and disposal of carbon dioxide, and shifting energy sources to fuels that emit less greenhouse gases or non-fossil fuels. As a promising means to contribute to long-term energy supply, nuclear power generation is expected with improving safety, economic efficiency, environmental adaptability, and nuclear proliferation resistance of the technologies. (T.Tanaka)

  4. Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  5. Predicting malicious behavior tools and techniques for ensuring global security

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Gary M

    2012-01-01

    A groundbreaking exploration of how to identify and fight security threats at every level This revolutionary book combines real-world security scenarios with actual tools to predict and prevent incidents of terrorism, network hacking, individual criminal behavior, and more. Written by an expert with intelligence officer experience who invented the technology, it explores the keys to understanding the dark side of human nature, various types of security threats (current and potential), and how to construct a methodology to predict and combat malicious behavior. The companion CD demonstrates ava

  6. Emboldened Cooperative Security: Globalization and 21st Century U.S. Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langley, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    .... strategic interests. The SRP then analyzes U.S. strategic vulnerabilities and opportunities created by revolutionary global information technology, the integration of global cultures and religions...

  7. EU Failing FAO Challenge to Improve Global Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B; Kerr, William A

    2016-07-01

    The announcement that the European Union (EU) had reached an agreement allowing Member States (MS) to ban genetically modified (GM) crops confirms that the EU has chosen to ignore the food security challenge issued to the world by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 2009. The FAO suggests that agricultural biotechnology has a central role in meeting the food security challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Globalisation, international transport and the global environment. A scenario approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Veen-Groot, D.B.; Nijkamp, P.

    1999-01-01

    The project 'Globalisation, International Transport and the Global Environment' aims to investigate the consequences of globalisation for international transport for global environmental quality as reflected in greenhouse gases in a very general sense. The policy aim (global/European) is to analyse the influence of international policy (Kyoto/IPCC/changes in carbon taxes) on transport volumes, intermodal substitutions or vehicle size and its implications for the environment. This short-paper aims to give an overview of the state-of-the-art of the title project. Attention will be paid to the assessment of trends, the scenario method, the conceptual framework and four qualitative globalisation scenarios. 16 refs

  9. DoD Technology Management in a Global Technology Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    DoD Technology Management in a Global Technology Environment Richard H. Van Atta, Project Leader Michael J. Lippitz Robert L. Bovey I N S T I T U T E...Paper P-4017 DoD Technology Management in a Global Technology Environment Richard H. Van Atta, Project Leader Michael J. Lippitz Robert L. Bovey...changes in the economic and technological arena—often referred to under the rubric “ globalization ”—bear upon the Department of Defense’s approach to

  10. The Future of the Global Environment: A Model-based Analysis Supporting UNEP's First Global Environment Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkes JA; Woerden JW van; Alcamo J; Berk MM; Bol P; Born GJ van den; Brink BJE ten; Hettelingh JP; Langeweg F; Niessen LW; Swart RJ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenia; MNV

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the scenario analysis in UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook, published at the same time as the scenario analysis. This Outlook provides a pilot assessment of developments in the environment, both global and regional, between now and 2015, with a further projection to 2050. The study was carried out in support of the Agenda 21 interim evaluation, five years after 'Rio' and ten years after 'Brundtland'. The scenario analysis is based on only one scenario, Conventional...

  11. Operating Nuclear Power Stations in a Regulated Cyber Security Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorman, E.

    2014-07-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued 10CFR73.54 to implement a regulated Cyber Security Program at each operating nuclear reactor facility. Milestones were implemented December 31, 2012 to mitigate the attack vectors for the most critical digital assets acknowledged by the industry and the NR C. The NRC inspections have begun. The nuclear Cyber Security Plan, implemented by the site Cyber Security Program (Program), is an element of the operating license at each facility. (Author)

  12. International forum on nuclear and biological decommissioning: Management of global security threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanian, G.; Kouzminov, V.; Martellini, M.; Santesso, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Forum on Nuclear and Biological Decommissioning: Management of Global Security Threats was organized by the Landau Network-Centro Volta (LNCV) with the support of the UNESCO Venice Office, the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Italian National Board for Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA), the Lombardy Region and the Municipality of Como. Subjects dealt with at the conference included the reconversion of nuclear and biological military equipment produced in the 50 years of the Cold War period and the effects of radio contamination on the environment and on human life. This conference was the most recent of a number of initiatives on reconversion organized in collaboration with the UNESCO Venice Office. The issues dealt with at the conference will be among the subjects for discussion at the UNESCO International School Science for Peace, which will be set up at the 'A. Volta' Center for Scientific Culture

  13. Synergies between Communicable and Noncommunicable Disease Programs to Enhance Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Husain, Muhammad J; Sugerman, David; Hong, Yuling; Saraiya, Mona; Keltz, Jennifer; Asma, Samira

    2017-12-01

    Noncommunicable diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Initiatives that advance the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases support the goals of global health security in several ways. First, in addressing health needs that typically require long-term care, these programs can strengthen health delivery and health monitoring systems, which can serve as necessary platforms for emergency preparedness in low-resource environments. Second, by improving population health, the programs might help to reduce susceptibility to infectious outbreaks. Finally, in aiming to reduce the economic burden associated with premature illness and death from noncommunicable diseases, these initiatives contribute to the objectives of international development, thereby helping to improve overall country capacity for emergency response.

  14. Building a Rice Decision Support System to Support Global Food Security and Commodity Markets, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rice is an important crop globally that influences food security and the Earth system. Rice is the predominant food staple in many regions with approximately 700...

  15. A Secure and Efficient Communications Architecture for Global Information Grid Users Via Cooperating Space Assets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hubenko, Jr, Victor P

    2008-01-01

    With the Information Age in full and rapid development, users expect to have global, seamless, ubiquitous, secure, and efficient communications capable of providing access to real-time applications and collaboration...

  16. Does the European Union Ensure Global and Regional Security by Military or Civilian Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Lyzhina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on analyses of the peacekeeping activities of the European Union in order to ensure global and regional security from the point of interests of the EU member states.

  17. Evaluation of the applicability of security testing techniques in continuous integration environments

    OpenAIRE

    Thulin, Pontus

    2015-01-01

    Agile development methodologies are becoming increasingly popular, especially in projects that develop web applications. However, incorporation of software security in lightweight approaches can be difficult. Using security testing techniques throughout a complete agile development process by running automated tests in continuous integration environments is one approach that strives to improve security in agile projects. Instead of performing security testing at the end of the development cyc...

  18. The German Bundeswehr In The Face Of A Changing Security Environment: A Study Of Adaptation, Culture, And Politicization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    AU/ACSC/PLACE, T/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE GERMAN BUNDESWEHR IN THE FACE OF A CHANGING SECURITY ENVIRONMENT...Russian expansionism, and a reduced US presence in Europe have also increased. This paper asserts that the Bundeswehr is inadequate to counter the...synthesized from two organizational theoretical approaches that examined the Bundeswehr and how well it is adapted compared to the regional and global

  19. Global Warming: Its Implications for U.S. National Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-19

    The approach to this topic will be to look at the science behind anthropogenic global warming . Is man largely responsible for causing global warming due...paper will then investigate the nexus between global warming and U.S. national security policy. It will address the challenges facing U.S. leaders and...policy makers as they tackle the issue of global warming and its implications for U.S. policy. Finally it will conclude with recommendations for those

  20. SOCaaS: Security Operations Center as a Service for Cloud Computing Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad F. Alruwaili; T. Aaron Gulliver

    2014-01-01

    The management of information security operations is a complex task, especially in a cloud environment.  The cloud service layers and multi-tenancy architecture creates a complex environment in which to develop and manage an information security incident management and compliance program. This paper presents a novel security operations center (SOC) framework as a service for cloud service providers and customers. The goal is to protect cloud services against new and existing attacks as well a...

  1. Soil erosion, climate change and global food security: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    supply fails, global agriculture fails too, with obvious consequences. Accordingly, on grounds of stabilising the climate, preserving the environment, and ensuring the robustness of the global food supply, maintaining and building good soil, in particular improving its SOM content and hence its structure, is highly desirable. Those regions of the world that are significantly degraded are unlikely to support a massive population increase (e.g. Africa, whose population is predicted to grow from its present 1.1 billion to 4.2 billion by 2100), in which case a die-off or mass migration might be expected, if population control is not included explicitly in future plans to achieve food security.

  2. A study of institutional environment and household food security at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study looked into the current scenario of food security in Rwanda. After analysing the national level institutional and food security scenarios by using available secondary data, the researchers used primary data that have been collected from a random sample of 200 households spreading over six sectors of the Huye ...

  3. Global environment outlook GEO5. Environment for the future we want

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    The main goal of UNEP's Global Environment Outlook (GEO) is to keep governments and stakeholders informed of the state and trends of the global environment. Over the past 15 years, the GEO reports have examined a wealth of data, information and knowledge about the global environment; identified potential policy responses; and provided an outlook for the future. The assessments, and their consultative and collaborative processes, have worked to bridge the gap between science and policy by turning the best available scientific knowledge into information relevant for decision makers. The GEO-5 report is made up of 17 chapters organized into three distinct but linked parts. Part 1 - State and trends of the global environment; Part 2 - Policy options from the regions; Part 3 - Opportunities for a global response.

  4. Security Isolation Strategy Mechanism for Lightweight Virtualization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For cloud service providers, lightweight virtualization is a more economical way of virtualization. While the user is worried about the safety of applications and data of the container, due to the container sharing the underlying interface and the kernel, therefore the security and trusted degree of lightweight virtualization container isolation mechanism is critical for the promotion of lightweight virtualization service. Because the user cannot directly participate in the process of the construction and management of container isolation mechanism, it is difficult for them to establish confidence in the security and trusted degree of container isolation mechanism. Based on the research and analysis of system credible and virtualization isolation mechanism, this paper puts forward a set of lightweight virtualization security isolation strategy mechanism, divides lightweight virtualization container storage address space into several parts, puts forward the definition of lightweight virtualization security isolation, gives the formal description and proof of container security isolation strategy, and combines with related technology to verify the feasibility of lightweight virtualization security isolation strategy mechanism. The mechanism has important guiding significance for cloud services providers to deploy container security isolation.

  5. Inland capture fishery contributions to global food security and threats to their future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, So-Jung; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Cowx, Ian G.; Beard, T. Douglas; Bartley, Devin; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Inland fish and fisheries play important roles in ensuring global food security. They provide a crucial source of animal protein and essential micronutrients for local communities, especially in the developing world. Data concerning fisheries production and consumption of freshwater fish are generally inadequately assessed, often leading decision makers to undervalue their importance. Modification of inland waterways for alternative uses of freshwater (particularly dams for hydropower and water diversions for human use) negatively impacts the productivity of inland fisheries for food security at local and regional levels. This paper highlights the importance of inland fisheries to global food security, the challenges they face due to competing demands for freshwater, and possible solutions.

  6. Graduate Research Assistant Program for Professional Development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Nuclear Security Technology Division (GNSTD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eipeldauer, Mary D [ORNL; Shelander Jr, Bruce R [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The southeast is a highly suitable environment for establishing a series of nuclear safety, security and safeguards 'professional development' courses. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides expertise in the research component of these subjects while the Y-12 Nuclear Security Complex handles safeguards/security and safety applications. Several universities (i.e., University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), North Carolina State University, University of Michigan, and Georgia Technology Institute) in the region, which offer nuclear engineering and public policy administration programs, and the Howard Baker Center for Public Policy make this an ideal environment for learning. More recently, the Institute for Nuclear Security (INS) was established between ORNL, Y-12, UTK and Oak Ridge Associate Universities (ORAU), with a focus on five principal areas. These areas include policy, law, and diplomacy; education and training; science and technology; operational and intelligence capability building; and real-world missions and applications. This is a new approach that includes professional development within the graduate research assistant program addressing global needs in nuclear security, safety and safeguards.

  7. Global Food Security Problems in the Modern World Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkadyrova, Madina A.; Dikinov, Andzor H.; Tajmashanov, Hassan È.; Shidaev, Lomali A.; Shidaeva, Eliza A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Food problem at the present stage of development of mankind is that due to improper and overly intensive use of natural resources, increasing demand for livestock products, increasing per capita food consumption and other factors, there has been a steady rise in food prices, represents a threat to food security in the countries with…

  8. The Domestic, Regional and Global Security Stakes in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    prosperity. The distinguished Nigerian novelist Chinua Achebe , describing crisis in his country, wrote, The trouble with Nigeria is simply and...2004. 14 Chinua Achebe , “The Trouble with Nigeria,” London: Heinemann, 1983, p. 1. 11 economic development, foreign policy, and security. The crisis...

  9. Measuring global water security towards sustainable development goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Gain, A.K.; Giupponi, C.

    2016-01-01

    Water plays an important role in underpinning equitable, stable and productive societies and ecosystems. Hence, United Nations recognized ensuring water security as one (Goal 6) of the seventeen sustainable development goals(SDGs). Many international river basins are likely to experience ‘low water

  10. The Security Environment in Central and Eastern Europe: Current Status, Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Chirleşan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the main features of the current security environment within Centraland Eastern Europe. It tries to build up on previous approaches regarding the Euro-Atlantic security with afocus on specific security environment in Central and Eastern Europe. It operates with concepts of theEuropean Security Strategy and with the NATO Alliance security principles, which not entirely overlap. Thepresent research is based on deductive and inductive analysis, comparative and case study. The researchfindings have revealed that European and Euro-Atlantic security are inter-laced. Collective securityarrangements are necessary and able to ensure peace and stability in Europe. Still, security is a controversialconcept in terms of perception at the level of political elites and public opinion. This paper presents a jointinterest to academics and researchers working in this sensitive field of security, providing them the possibilityto gain a better knowledge and understanding on the security environment within Central and Eastern Europe.The value of this paper resides on the original approach and on the research methods that have been used inorder to deeply analyse the security environment from an inside perspective of an Eastern country.

  11. Examining National Public Health Law to Realize the Global Health Security Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Tureski, Kara; Bockh, Emily; Carr, Derek; Ayala, Ana; Roberts, Anna; Cloud, Lindsay; Wilhelm, Nicolas; Burris, Scott

    2017-05-01

    Where the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) seeks to accelerate progress toward a world safe and secure from public health emergencies, the realization of GHSA 'Action Packages' will require national governments to establish necessary legal frameworks to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease. By analyzing the scope and content of existing national legislation in each of the GHSA Action Packages, this comparative cross-national research has developed a framework that disaggregates the legal domains necessary to meet each Action Package target. Based upon these legal domains, this study developed an assessment tool that can identify specific attributes of national legislation. This article applies this tool to assess the legal environment in twenty Sub-Saharan African countries, examining the content of laws across the GHSA Action Packages, analyzing the legal domains necessary to implement each Action Package, and highlighting specific national laws that reflect attributes of each legal domain. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Global Identity Management of Virtual Machines Based on Remote Secure Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Aissaoui, Hassane; Urien, P.; Pujolle, Guy

    2014-01-01

    4 pages; The work presented in this paper is part of the cooperative project Security for Future Networks (SecFuNet ), which aims to develop a security framework for Cloud Computing. This framework introduces, among many services, authentication and authorization controls for Cloud Computing environments. The objective is to develop a highly secure identification scheme based on Authentication and Authorization Infrastructures. A particularly innovative aspect of SecFuNet is related to the gl...

  13. Securing Emergency State Data in a Tactical Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Exchange IP Internet Protocol IPComp IP Payload Compression Protocol IPSec Internet Protocol Security ISP Internet Service Provider LDAP ...Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol ( LDAP ) [19]. The reason being these protocols embed the peer IP addresses within the

  14. Security Analysis in the Migration to Cloud Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández-Medina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new paradigm that combines several computing concepts and technologies of the Internet creating a platform for more agile and cost-effective business applications and IT infrastructure. The adoption of Cloud computing has been increasing for some time and the maturity of the market is steadily growing. Security is the question most consistently raised as consumers look to move their data and applications to the cloud. We justify the importance and motivation of security in the migration of legacy systems and we carry out an analysis of different approaches related to security in migration processes to cloud with the aim of finding the needs, concerns, requirements, aspects, opportunities and benefits of security in the migration process of legacy systems.

  15. Lines of Communication Security in the Contemporary Operational Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobsen, Gregory K

    2005-01-01

    .... An Army in the field must be consistently resupplied if it is to function effectively. Despite the importance of LOC security, doctrine provides very little guidance for commanders and planners in this area...

  16. E-business Environment in the Global Information Society

    OpenAIRE

    Vymětal, Dominik; Suchánek, Petr

    2009-01-01

    In today´s digital 21st century, almost all businesses face intense competition from competitors all around the globe. There are no borders and business area for the all companies is almost unlimited. As the main supports of mentioned fact are globalization and ICT´s development. Influences such as globalization, increased popularity of outsourcing and offshoring have recently combined to produce an environment where ICT graduates need to have up-to-date and industry-relevant knowledge and sk...

  17. Evaluating the Security of the Global Containerized Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willis, Henry H; Ortiz, David S

    2004-01-01

    The global supply chain is the network of suppliers, manufacturing centers, warehouses, distribution centers, and retail outlets that transforms raw materials into finished products and delivers them to consumers...

  18. Public Health Surveillance: At the Core of the Global Health Security Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolicki, Sara Beth; Nuzzo, Jennifer B; Blazes, David L; Pitts, Dana L; Iskander, John K; Tappero, Jordan W

    2016-01-01

    Global health security involves developing the infrastructure and capacity to protect the health of people and societies worldwide. The acceleration of global travel and trade poses greater opportunities for infectious diseases to emerge and spread. The International Health Regulations (IHR) were adopted in 2005 with the intent of proactively developing public health systems that could react to the spread of infectious disease and provide better containment. Various challenges delayed adherence to the IHR. The Global Health Security Agenda came about as an international collaborative effort, working multilaterally among governments and across sectors, seeking to implement the IHR and develop the capacities to prevent, detect, and respond to public health emergencies of international concern. When examining the recent West African Ebola epidemic as a case study for global health security, both strengths and weaknesses in the public health response are evident. The central role of public health surveillance is a lesson reiterated by Ebola. Through further implementation of the Global Health Security Agenda, identified gaps in surveillance can be filled and global health security strengthened.

  19. Managing information security in a process industrial environment; Gestao de seguranca da informacao em processos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Raphael Gomes; Aguiar, Leandro Pfleger de [Siemens Company (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    With the recently globalization expansion (growth), the exploration of energetic resources is crossing over countries boundaries, resulting in worldwide companies exploring Oil and Gas fields available in any place of the world. To the government's bodies, this information about those fields should be treated as a national security interest subject by bringing an adequate management and protection to all the important and critical information and assets, and making possible, at the same time, the freedom and transparency in concurrence processes. This create a complex security context to be managed, where information disruption might, for instance, imply in broke of integrity in public auctions processes as a result of privileged information usage. Furthermore, with the terrorism problem, the process itself becomes an attractive target for different kinds of attacks, motivated by the opportunism to explore the known incapacity of the big industries in well manage their large and complex environments. With all transformations that are happening in productive processes, as the growing TCP/IP protocol usage, the Windows operating systems adoption in SCADA systems and the integration of industrial with business network, are factors that contribute to an eminent landscape of problems. This landscape demonstrates the need from the organizations and countries that are operating in energetic resources exploration, for renew their risk management areas, establishing a unique and integrated process to protect information security infrastructure. This work presents a study of the challenges to be faced by the organizations while rebuilding their internal processes to integrate the risk management and information security areas, as long as a set of essential steps to establish an affective corporative governance of risk management and compliance aspects. Moreover, the work presents the necessary points of the government involvement to improve all the regulatory aspects

  20. [Global Health Comprises More than Health Security: Discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jens; Razum, Oliver

    2017-10-25

    Global health is increasingly present on the international policy agenda and in transnational fora such as the G7 and G20 summits. This trend is as overdue as it is desirable, but the scope and content of the discussion remain rather limited. For safeguarding and improving people's health all over the world, global public health requires coordinated and coherent action. Epidemic preparedness is certainly necessary but refers only to a small segment of global health and will remain insufficient as long as the social and health-system-related causes persist. "One Health" is an important strategy for fighting antimicrobial resistance but without overcoming crucial economic determinants, it will be impossible to solve the problem. Health systems strengthening, the third major field of global health, requires a sound mix of adequate financing, infrastructure, human resources and societal factors for expanding access to health for all. All proposed and desired improvements in global health need complex crosscutting approaches for being effective and sustainable; however, the steps taken by political decision-makers are rather small and do not address essential causes. Global public health means more than tinkering with the symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. 78 FR 41954 - TA-W-82,634, Prudential Global Business Technology Solutions Central Security Services Dresher...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Technology Solutions Central Security Services Dresher, Pennsylvania; TA-W-82,634A, Prudential Global Business Technology Solutions Central Security Services Iselin, New Jersey; TA-W-82,634B, Prudential Global Business Technology Solutions Central Security Services Plymouth, Minnesota; TA- W-82,634C, Prudential...

  2. WMD Proliferation, Globalization, and International Security: Whither the Nexus and National Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    potentially interact with global flows of technology and information transfers in order to gain access to destructive technologies more easily than...control the flow of people, technology , and money; • The growing importance of non-state actors as vehicles pushing global interdependence at the... technology throughout the international system supported in part by the Internet and the global revolution in information and communications

  3. Integrity and security in an Ada runtime environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    A review is provided of the Formal Methods group discussions. It was stated that integrity is not a pure mathematical dual of security. The input data is part of the integrity domain. The group provided a roadmap for research. One item of the roadmap and the final position statement are closely related to the space shuttle and space station. The group's position is to use a safe subset of Ada. Examples of safe sets include the Army Secure Operating System and the Penelope Ada verification tool. It is recommended that a conservative attitude is required when writing Ada code for life and property critical systems.

  4. European Security Organizations in the Post-Cold-War Security Environment. The New Frame of European Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bugai, Veaceslav

    2006-01-01

    .... In particular, it gives an over view of the transformations that occurred within NATO and OSCE in the post-Cold War period, which have created and developed new security mechanisms and policies for dealing with crises...

  5. Applying the National Industrial Security Program (NISP) in the laboratory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    With continuing changes in the world safeguards and security environment the effectiveness of many laboratory operations depends on correctly assessing the risk to its programs and developing protection technologies, research and concepts of operations being employed by the scientific community. This paper explores the opportunities afforded by the National Industrial Security Program (NISP) to uniformly and simply protect Laboratory security assets, sensitive and classified information and matter, during all aspects of a laboratory program. The developments in information systems, program security, physical security and access controls suggest an industrial security approach. This paper's overall objective is to indicate that the Laboratory environment is particularly well suited to take advantage being pursued by NISP and the performance objectives of the new DOE orders

  6. Modelling Global Pattern Formations for Collaborative Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Khaled, Rilla

    2012-01-01

    We present our research towards the design of a computational framework capable of modelling the formation and evolution of global patterns (i.e. group structures) in a population of social individuals. The framework is intended to be used in collaborative environments, e.g. social serious games...

  7. WHO global and regional strategies for health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisashi Ogawa

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the WHO global and regional strategies for health and environment and discusses research needs on environmental health to support the implementation of the strategies. Particular emphasis on applied researches which generate information, for decision making, on health effects of development and environmental changes in specific locations

  8. Rethinking ethical issues in global business environment | Mirwoba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the wake of globalization and liberalization policy, business ethics phenomenon in globalised business environment has become a critical issue that has attracted business and management research scholars to engage on crucial debates and discussion at both local as well as international forum. This is because ...

  9. Role of Global Food Security in the Common Agrarian Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor N. Shcherbak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author devoted his research to the role of the global food security in the priorities of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (CAP. The research sheds light on the parameters of the Common Agricultural Policy and the basic steps on the path of its reform. The research demonstrates that the priorities of the EC are mainly concentrated on achieving food security for the member-states of the EC, its population and the interests of the agricultural sector. The modern challenges to the Global Food Security (global food crises of 2007-2009, acute food shortages and hunger in crises regions of Africa and chronic malnutrition are placed high on the agenda of the CAP. In this situation, the EU is trying in the interests of stabilization of the world agricultural market to solve simultaneously the tasks of providing assistance for development and mitigation of the threats to the Global Food security. The deepening rift between the strategy of the CAP oriented towards promotion of agricultural export and real contribution of the EC to the Global Food Security and assistance for development is becoming more and more the most «vulnerable» place of the CAP.

  10. Governing for the environment global problems, ethics and democracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, B.; Low, N.

    2001-01-01

    ''Governing for the Environment'' explores one of the dimensions of the value-knowledge system needed in any movement towards humane governance for the planet: the ecological sustainability and integrity of the earth's environment. The book begins from the premise that whilst environmental knowledge and values have developed rapidly, their development must not overwhelm consideration of other core 'humane' values: peace, social justice, and human rights. The book's contributors explore a variety of ethical issues that must inform future global regulation of the earth's environment. (author)

  11. Experiments in globalization, food security and land use decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, C.; Murray-Rust, D.; van Vliet, J.; Alam, S. J.; Verburg, P.H.; Rounsevell, M.D.A.

    2014-01-01

    The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often

  12. Modeling higher education attractiveness to stand global environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Cezar Rodrigues

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inabilities to deal with the changing environment may lead Higher Education Institutions (HEI to loose institutional attractiveness. Digital transformation requires global insertion as essential feature to institutional attractiveness. Processes for international education seem to lack the links between real environmental trends and the internal capabilities to global education. HEI managers may approach endeavors to internationalize education combining ambidextrous strategy supported by consolidated resilience capabilities. The latest ones refer to building internal value attributes to increase institutional attractiveness assuring solid standing in the global environment. In this article, a theoretical essay, we approach the problem of creating resilience as a way of backing up ambidexterity to generate institutional attractiveness. The set of value attributes, on the other hand, may originate strategic routes to strengthen internal competences and to make the institution more attractive, as a dynamic capability.

  13. Globalisation, international transport and the global environment. A scenario approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Veen-Groot, D.B.; Nijkamp, P. [Department of Spatial Economics, Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    The project 'Globalisation, International Transport and the Global Environment' aims to investigate the consequences of globalisation for international transport for global environmental quality as reflected in greenhouse gases in a very general sense. The policy aim (global/European) is to analyse the influence of international policy (Kyoto/IPCC/changes in carbon taxes) on transport volumes, intermodal substitutions or vehicle size and its implications for the environment. This short-paper aims to give an overview of the state-of-the-art of the title project. Attention will be paid to the assessment of trends, the scenario method, the conceptual framework and four qualitative globalisation scenarios. 16 refs.

  14. An Improved Technique for Robot Global Localization in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejian Yuan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Global localization problem is one of the classical and important problems in mobile robot. In this paper, we present an approach to solve robot global localization in indoor environments with grid map. It combines Hough Scan Matching (HSM and grid localization method to get the initial knowledge of robot's pose quickly. For pose tracking, a scan matching technique called Iterative Closest Point (ICP is used to amend the robot motion model, it can drastically decreases the uncertainty about the robot's pose in prediction step. Then accurate proposal distribution taking into account recent observation is introduced into particle filters to recover the best estimate of robot trajectories, which seriously reduces number of particles for pose tracking. The proposed approach can globally localize mobile robot fast and accurately. Experiment results carried out with robot data in indoor environments demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Securing the Data Storage and Processing in Cloud Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Organizations increasingly utilize cloud computing architectures to reduce costs and energy consumption both in the data warehouse and on mobile devices by better utilizing the computing resources available. However, the security and privacy issues with publicly available cloud computing infrastructures have not been studied to a sufficient depth…

  16. Teaching Network Security in a Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Laura; Grahn, Kaj J.; Karlstrom, Krister; Pulkkis, Goran; Astrom, Peik

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a virtual course with the topic network security. The course has been produced by Arcada Polytechnic as a part of the production team Computer Networks, Telecommunication and Telecommunication Systems in the Finnish Virtual Polytechnic. The article begins with an introduction to the evolution of the information security…

  17. Global climate change adaptation priorities for biodiversity and food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hannah

    Full Text Available International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized. Here we show that human and natural adaptation needs related to maintaining agricultural productivity and ecosystem integrity intersect in ten major areas globally, providing a coherent set of international priorities for adaptation funding. An additional seven regional areas are identified as worthy of additional study. The priority areas are locations where changes in crop suitability affecting impoverished farmers intersect with changes in ranges of restricted-range species. Agreement among multiple climate models and emissions scenarios suggests that these priorities are robust. Adaptation funding directed to these areas could simultaneously address multiple international policy goals, including poverty reduction, protecting agricultural production and safeguarding ecosystem services.

  18. Global climate change adaptation priorities for biodiversity and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Lee; Ikegami, Makihiko; Hole, David G; Seo, Changwan; Butchart, Stuart H M; Peterson, A Townsend; Roehrdanz, Patrick R

    2013-01-01

    International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized. Here we show that human and natural adaptation needs related to maintaining agricultural productivity and ecosystem integrity intersect in ten major areas globally, providing a coherent set of international priorities for adaptation funding. An additional seven regional areas are identified as worthy of additional study. The priority areas are locations where changes in crop suitability affecting impoverished farmers intersect with changes in ranges of restricted-range species. Agreement among multiple climate models and emissions scenarios suggests that these priorities are robust. Adaptation funding directed to these areas could simultaneously address multiple international policy goals, including poverty reduction, protecting agricultural production and safeguarding ecosystem services.

  19. Bioseguridad in Mexico: Pursuing Security between Local and Global Biologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderer, Emily Mannix

    2017-09-01

    In the aftermath of the 2009 outbreak of H1N1 influenza, scientists in Mexico sought to develop bioseguridad, that is, to protect biological life in Mexico by safely conducting research on infectious disease. Drawing on ethnographic research in laboratories and with scientists in Mexico, I look at how scientists make claims about local differences in regulations, infrastructure, bodies, and culture. The scientists working with infectious microbes sought to establish how different microbial ecologies, human immune systems, and political and regulatory systems made the risks of research different in Mexico from other countries. In developing bioseguridad, the idea of globalized biology that animates many public health projects was undermined as scientists attended to the elements of place that affected human health and safety. Scientists argued for the importance of local biologies, generating tension with global public health projects and regulations premised on the universality of biology. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  20. Building International Genomics Collaboration for Global Health Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H Cui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome science and technologies are transforming life sciences globally in many ways, and becoming a highly desirable area for international collaboration to strengthen global health. The Genome Science Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is leveraging a long history of expertise in genomics research to assist multiple partner nations in advancing their genomics and bioinformatics capabilities. The capability development objectives focus on providing a molecular genomics-based scientific approach for pathogen detection, characterization, and biosurveillance applications. The general approaches include introduction of basic principles in genomics technologies, training on laboratory methodologies and bioinformatic analysis of resulting data, procurement and installation of next generation sequencing instruments, establishing bioinformatics software capabilities, and exploring collaborative applications of the genomics capabilities in public health. Genome centers have been established with public health and research institutions in the Republic of Georgia, Kingdom of Jordan, Uganda, and Gabon; broader collaborations in genomics applications have also been developed with research institutions in many other countries.

  1. The Future of the Global Environment: A Model-based Analysis Supporting UNEP's First Global Environment Outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkes JA; van Woerden JW; Alcamo J; Berk MM; Bol P; van den Born GJ; ten Brink BJE; Hettelingh JP; Langeweg F; Niessen LW; Swart RJ; MNV

    1997-01-01

    Dit rapport bevat de details van de scenario-analyse in de gelijktijdig verschijnende eerste Global Environment Outlook, onder auspicien van UNEP. Dit is een proeve van een wereldmilieuverkenning tot 2015 met een doorkijkje naar 2050. De studie is uitgevoerd ten behoeve van de tussenbalans van

  2. Financial security of the state in terms of globalization processes escalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Tkalenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides review of the globalization and global integration processes impact on the financial sector formation characterized by an increase in financial flows with the lead role played by transnational corporations and transnational banks. The globalization study has been already reflected by numerous scientific publications and various issues of reputable international academic journals describing the process as irreversible and objective along with demonstrating globalization merits and demerits, etc. In the 21st century, globalization is an issue discussed by everyone: ranging from presidents, prime ministers and members of parliament supposed to solve problems of any scale taking into consideration the global development phenomenon, to ordinary citizens. Today, globalization has obviously become a major trend of the modern world development, which is why issues implying sound development assurance become pressing for each country. The article dwells upon the main component of economic security — the financial one (Ukraine case study. Thus, we are engaged in studying the global development trend in terms of assuring security of the state under conditions of financial flows globalization and existence of global integration processes.

  3. Survey of Collaboration Technologies in Multi-level Security Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-28

    Dickson. 1996. "Teams in Organizations: Recent Research on Performance and Effectiveness". Annual Review of Psychology , 47:307-338. [32] Hall, D.L... Psychology , 94, 2, 535-546. [48] Moore, J.A. (2002). JView: an information visualization paradigm. Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4716, 367-374. In Enabling...date. Multilevel security solutions like the Multi-Layer Access Solution were developed by Gestalt and MAXIM Systems before these companies became

  4. Research review of nongovernmental organizations' security policies for humanitarian programs in war, conflict, and postconflict environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Elizabeth; Burns, Lauren; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-06-01

    To identify the most and least commonly cited security management messages that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are communicating to their field staff, to determine the types of documentation that NGOs most often use to communicate key security messages, and to distinguish the points of commonality and divergence across organizations in the content of key security messages. The authors undertook a systematic review of available security policies, manuals, and training materials from 20 international humanitarian NGOs using the InterAction Minimum Operating Security Standards as the basis for a review framework. The most commonly cited standards include analytical security issues such as threat and risk assessment processes and guidance on acceptance, protection, and deterrence approaches. Among the least commonly cited standards were considering security threats to national staff during staffing decision processes, incorporating security awareness into job descriptions, and ensuring that national staff security issues are addressed in trainings. NGO staff receive security-related messages through multiple document types, but only 12 of the 20 organizations have a distinct security policy document. Points of convergence across organizations in the content of commonly cited standards were found in many areas, but differences in security risk and threat assessment guidance may undermine communication between aid workers about changes in local security environments. Although the humanitarian community has experienced significant progress in the development of practical staff security guidance during the past 10 years, gaps remain that can hinder efforts to garner needed resources, clarify security responsibilities, and ensure that the distinct needs of national staff are recognized and addressed.

  5. The Caspian Sea regionalism in a globalized world: Energy security and regional trajectories of Azerbaijan and Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedjazi, Babak

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation is fundamentally about the formation of new regional spaces in Central Eurasia viewed from a dynamic, comparative and historical approach. Analyzing the global-local economic and political interactions and their consequences on resource rich countries of the Caspian Sea enable us to reframe security as a central element of the new global order. In this respect, the dissertation examines how two particular states, Azerbaijan and Iran, respond to the changing global security environment and optimize their capacity to absorb or control change. Here, security as I conceive is multidimensional and engages various social, political and economic domains. My research is articulated along three hypotheses regarding the formation of a new regional space and its consequences on territorial polarization and interstate rivalry. These hypotheses, respectively and cumulatively, elucidate global and domestic contexts of regional space formation, regional strategic and discursive trajectories, and regional tensions of global/local interactions. In order to empirically test these hypotheses, a series of thirty interviews were conducted by the author with local and foreign business representatives, civilian and government representatives, and corroborated by economic data collected from the International Energy Agency. The findings of the research validate the primary assumption of the dissertation that Azerbaijan and Iran have chosen the regional scale to address discrepancies between their aspired place in the new world order and the reality of their power and international status. Extending the argument for structural scarcity of oil towards contenders, this dissertation concludes that the Caspian oil has become a fundamental element of the regional discourse. The mismatch between the rhetoric of sovereign rights and energy security on one side and the reality of regional countries' powerlessness and their need to reach international markets on the other side are

  6. An Overview of Global Nuclear Security Regime and Its Introduction into the Nigerian Educational System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear security is the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive substances or their associated facilities. The responsibility for creating and sustaining a nuclear security regime for the protection of nuclear and other radiological material clearly belongs to the respective country. Within a State the nuclear security regime resembles layers of an onion with equipment and personnel securing the borders and ports representing the outer layer. Nuclear power, research reactor and nuclear medicine facilities constitute the various inner layers down to the actual target materials. Components of any nuclear security regime include not only technological systems, but the human resources needed to manage, operate, administer and maintain equipment, hardware and software. Nigeria is a non-nuclear weapons state and without a large-scale nuclear industry, but have a major role to play in preventing nuclear terrorism globally. It is pertinent to know that as the Fukushima accident and other nuclear accidents have demonstrated, nuclear crises do not respect borders. Therefore, nuclear threats must be addressed by all nations. Furthermore, to set the groundwork for the safe, peaceful and stable use of nuclear energy in Nigeria and all over the world, efforts must be made to enhance nuclear safety and security. This paper discusses the present international nuclear security regime and possibility of integrating it into the Nigerian educational system in view of current global perspectives and nuclear renaissance.

  7. On global environment problems in electric power business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugi, Masashi

    1992-01-01

    The former environmental problems were atmospheric pollution, water quality contamination, noise and vibration nuisance, waste disposal and so on mainly at interior or district level, but now, the influence that the problems such as the global warming due to carbon dioxide emission, the ozone layer breaking due to freon gas, acid rain going over boundaries and so on exert to environment spreads to wide areas, therefore, various research and investigation have been carried out as the environmental problems on global scale at national and international levels. It has become an important subject to make the preservation of global environment and durable economical development compatible by effectively utilizing limited resources and energy. The electric power companies have advanced positively the prevention of pollution and the preservation of environment, and attained the environment preservation of top level in the world. The consciousness of people on environmental problems has heightened, therefore the construction and operation of power plants harmonized to districts are important. The countermeasures to environmental problems taken by electric power companies are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Operating Security System Support for Run-Time Security with a Trusted Execution Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier

    sensitive assets at run-time that we denote split-enforcement, and provide an implementation for ARM-powered devices using ARM TrustZone security extensions. We design, build, and evaluate a prototype Trusted Cell that provides trusted services. We also present the first generic TrustZone driver....... In this thesis we introduce run-time security primitives that enable a number of trusted services in the context of Linux. These primitives mediate any action involving sensitive data or sensitive assets in order to guarantee their integrity and confidentiality. We introduce a general mechanism to protect...

  9. Information security management: a proposal to improve the effectiveness of information security in the scientific research environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandria, Joao Carlos Soares de

    2009-01-01

    The increase of the connectivity in the business environment, combined with the growing dependency of information systems, has become the information security management an important governance tool. Information security has as main goal to protect the business transactions in order to work normally. In this way, It will be safeguarding the business continuity. The threats of information come from hackers' attacks, electronic frauds and spying, as well as fire, electrical energy interruption and humans fault. Information security is made by implementation of a set of controls, including of the others politics, processes, procedures, organizational structures, software and hardware, which require a continuous management and a well established structure to be able to face such challenges. This work tried to search the reasons why the organizations have difficulties to make a practice of information security management. Many of them just limit to adopt points measures, sometimes they are not consistent with their realities. The market counts on enough quantity of standards and regulations related to information security issues, for example, ISO/IEC 27002, American Sarbanes-Oxley act, Basel capital accord, regulations from regulatory agency (such as the Brazilians ones ANATEL, ANVISA and CVM). The market researches have showed that the information security implementation is concentrated on a well-defined group of organization mainly formed by large companies and from specifics sectors of economy, for example, financial and telecommunication. However, information security must be done by all organizations that use information systems to carry out their activities, independently of its size or economic area that it belongs. The situation of information security in the governmental sector of Brazil, and inside its research institutions, is considered worrying by the Brazilian Court of Accounts (TCU). This research work presents an assessment and diagnostic proposal of

  10. Russian spent marine fuel as a global security risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gussgard, K.; Reistad, O.

    2001-01-01

    Russian marine fuel is a trans-national security concern. This paper focuses on specific technical properties of Russian marine nuclear fuel especially relevant for evaluating different aspects on nuclear proliferation, in addition to risks associated with regional environmental degradation and illegal diversion of radiological substances. Russian fresh fuel for marine reactors has been involved in several significant cases of illicit trafficking of special nuclear materials. The amount and quality of nuclear materials in Russian spent marine fuel give also reason for concern. Not less than 200 marine reactor cores are ready for having their spent fuel unloaded and preliminary stored on shore in the Far East and North West of Russia, and large amounts of spent naval fuel have been stored at Russian military bases for decades. In order to assess the security risks associated with Russian spent marine fuel, this paper discusses the material attractiveness of spent fuel from all types of Russian marine reactors. The calculations are based on a model of a light water moderated Russian icebreaker reactor. The computer tool HELIOS, used for modelling the reactor and the reactor operations, has been extensively qualified by comparisons with experimental data and international benchmark problems for reactor physics codes as well as through feedback from applications. Some of these benchmarks and studies include fuel enrichments up to 90% in Russian marine reactors. Several fuel data cases are discussed in the paper, focusing especially on: 1) early fuel designs with low initial enrichment; 2) more modern fuel designs used in third and fourth generation of Russian submarines probably with intermediate enriched fuel; and 3) marine fuel with initial enrichment levels close to weapons-grade material. In each case the fuel has been burned until k eff has reached below 1. Case 1) has been evaluated, the calculations made as basis for this paper have concentrated on fuel with

  11. Nuclear security. IAEA: Working to build a global response to a global threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    The IAEA helps to ensure that measures are taken to control and protect nuclear and radioactive materials from falling into the wrong hands. The IAEA delivers training, technical assistance, and equipment to States, and provides international guidance on improving nuclear security. IAEA nuclear security activities include: · Risk reduction (such as repatriating research reactor fuel and strengthening border monitoring) · International legal instruments and supporting their implementation · Internationally accepted guidance and benchmarks for nuclear security · Information exchange · Human Resource Development programmes · Research and development

  12. G8 Global Partnership: Germany's contribution to strengthening international security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffernoschke, A.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides presents the German contribution to the G8 Global partnership whose aim is to support specific cooperation projects to address non-proliferation, disarmament, counter-terrorism and nuclear safety issues. 4 priorities have been identified: -) destruction of chemical weapons, -) dismantlement of decommissioned nuclear submarines, -) disposition of fissile materials, and -) employment of former weapon scientists. Today there are 23 donor countries and 2 official recipient countries (Russian Federation and Ukraine). Since the beginning Germany's activities in the G8 Global partnership have focused on chemical weapon destruction (340 million euros), dismantlement of nuclear submarines (600 million euros) and physical protection of nuclear materials (170 million euros). In the Gorny project (1995-2005) German provided the incinerator for the thermal treatment of liquid and solid residues and the equipment for destruction by hydrolysis. Germany's contribution to the following projects: -) the Kambarka project (2003-2007) for the destruction of lewisite, -) the Pochep project (2007-2010) for the destruction of munition containing nerve agents, and -) the Sajda-Bay project for the construction of a long-term storage site for reactor sections of decommissioned submarines, are detailed

  13. Enhancing Global Health Security: US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton Hamer, Melinda J; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Beadling, Charles W

    2018-03-07

    US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program (DPP), implemented by the Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine, partnered with US Government agencies and international organizations to promote stability and security on the African continent by engaging with African Partner Nations' (PN) civil and military authorities to improve disaster management capabilities. From 2008 to 2015, DPP conducted disaster preparedness and response programming with 17 PNs. DPP held a series of engagements with each, including workshops, strategic planning, developing preparedness and response plans, tabletop exercises, and prioritizing disaster management capability gaps identified through the engagements. DPP partners collected data for each PN to further capacity building efforts. Thus far, 9 countries have completed military pandemic plans, 10 have developed national pandemic influenza plans, 9 have developed military support to civil authorities plans, and 11 have developed disaster management strategic work plans. There have been 20 national exercises conducted since 2009. DPP was cited as key in implementation of Ebola response plans in PNs, facilitated development of disaster management agencies in DPP PNs, and trained nearly 800 individuals. DPP enhanced PNs' ability to prepare and respond to crises, fostering relationships between international agencies, and improving civil-military coordination through both national and regional capacity building. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 11).

  14. A secure RFID mutual authentication protocol for healthcare environments using elliptic curve cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Jining

    2015-03-01

    Radio Frequency Identification(RFID) is an automatic identification technology, which can be widely used in healthcare environments to locate and track staff, equipment and patients. However, potential security and privacy problems in RFID system remain a challenge. In this paper, we design a mutual authentication protocol for RFID based on elliptic curve cryptography(ECC). We use pre-computing method within tag's communication, so that our protocol can get better efficiency. In terms of security, our protocol can achieve confidentiality, unforgeability, mutual authentication, tag's anonymity, availability and forward security. Our protocol also can overcome the weakness in the existing protocols. Therefore, our protocol is suitable for healthcare environments.

  15. International Conference on Nuclear Security: Enhancing Global Efforts. Summary of an International Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The International Conference on Nuclear Security: Enhancing Global Efforts was organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna on 1-5 July 2013. The conference was organized in cooperation with the following organizations and initiatives: the European Union; the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT); the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL); the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM); the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI); the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE); the Partnership for Global Security; the Police Community of the Americas (AMERIPOL); the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI); the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC); the World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS); the World Nuclear Association (WNA); and the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI). A total of 34 ministers participated in the ministerial session of the conference. Altogether, the conference attracted more than 1300 registered participants from 125 IAEA Member States and 21 organizations. The aim of the conference was to review the international community's experience and achievements to date in strengthening nuclear security, to enhance the understanding of current approaches to nuclear security worldwide and identify trends, and to provide a global forum for ministers, policymakers and senior officials to formulate views on future directions and priorities for nuclear security. This book contains the President's Summary of the conference and a summary of the ministerial session, the full text of the ministerial declaration adopted by the conference and summaries of the main conference sessions. The attached CD-ROM contains the full conference programme, the list of conference participants, the national statements from the ministerial session and a selection of papers

  16. Challenges of the Global Century: Report of the Project on Globalization and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    globalization are the rapidly growing and uneven cross-border flows of goods, services, people, money, technology , information, ideas, culture, crime, and weapons...ness-driven interaction of advanced telecommuni- cations, technology transfer, and capital flows. Globalization would not be occurring in its pres- ent...politics global . The global village is becoming more tightly knitted as new technologies make it far easier to broadcast and receive news worldwide. These

  17. The Greening of Global Security: The U.S. Military and International Environmental Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-16

    OVERPOPULATION The stresses caused by increased populations , especially in the developing world, have indirectly caused many forms of armed conflict... overpopulation . Family size, abortion, and birth control are all primarily social issues, which contribute to overpopulation , which can lead to...in supporting multinational environmental programs, population control initiatives, and research on global problems. We will continue to advance

  18. A Cluster-Based Framework for the Security of Medical Sensor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaoudatou, Eleni; Konstantinou, Elisavet; Kambourakis, Georgios; Gritzalis, Stefanos

    The adoption of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in the healthcare sector poses many security issues, mainly because medical information is considered particularly sensitive. The security mechanisms employed are expected to be more efficient in terms of energy consumption and scalability in order to cope with the constrained capabilities of WSNs and patients’ mobility. Towards this goal, cluster-based medical WSNs can substantially improve efficiency and scalability. In this context, we have proposed a general framework for cluster-based medical environments on top of which security mechanisms can rely. This framework fully covers the varying needs of both in-hospital environments and environments formed ad hoc for medical emergencies. In this paper, we further elaborate on the security of our proposed solution. We specifically focus on key establishment mechanisms and investigate the group key agreement protocols that can best fit in our framework.

  19. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    in the near future due to the complexity of crafting new treaties across countries. We discuss how multinational firms are dealing with the challenges of capturing value from their know-how and reputation in the existing global IP system, and review mechanisms, both market and non-market, that have been...... section. Global companies will need to organize cross-functional value capture teams focused on appropriating value from their know-how and reputation by combining different institutional, market, and non-market tools, depending on the institutional and business environment in a particular region.......This paper documents the strong growth in tools used by firms to protect their intellectual property (IP), develop their know-how, and build and maintain their reputation globally. We focus on three tools that have become increasingly important in the last several decades: patents, trademarks...

  20. Preserving the global environment: The challenge of shared leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This book brings together essays commissioned as background reading for an April 1990 conference on the global environment co-sponsored by the American Assembly and the World Resources Institute. Among the topic areas covered are the following: technical aspects of energy policy and climatic change; harnessing the power of the marketplace; international cooperation; international regulatory regimes; world economic climate; deforestation and species loss; human population growth

  1. Secure Virtualization Environment Based on Advanced Memory Introspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing virtual machine introspection (VMI technologies analyze the status of a target virtual machine under the assumption that the operating system (OS version and kernel structure information are known at the hypervisor level. In this paper, we propose a model of virtual machine (VM security monitoring based on memory introspection. Using a hardware-based approach to acquire the physical memory of the host machine in real time, the security of the host machine and VM can be diagnosed. Furthermore, a novel approach for VM memory forensics based on the virtual machine control structure (VMCS is put forward. By analyzing the memory of the host machine, the running VMs can be detected and their high-level semantic information can be reconstructed. Then, malicious activity in the VMs can be identified in a timely manner. Moreover, by mutually analyzing the memory content of the host machine and VMs, VM escape may be detected. Compared with previous memory introspection technologies, our solution can automatically reconstruct the comprehensive running state of a target VM without any prior knowledge and is strongly resistant to attacks with high reliability. We developed a prototype system called the VEDefender. Experimental results indicate that our system can handle the VMs of mainstream Linux and Windows OS versions with high efficiency and does not influence the performance of the host machine and VMs.

  2. The evolution, etiology and eventualities of the global health security regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    Attention to global health security governance is more important now than ever before. Scientists predict that a possible influenza pandemic could affect 1.5 billion people, cause up to 150 million deaths and leave US$3 trillion in economic damages. A public health emergency in one country is now only hours away from affecting many others. Using regime analysis from political science, the principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures by which states govern health security are examined in the historical context of their punctuated evolution. This methodology illuminates the catalytic agents of change, distributional consequences and possible future orders that can help to better inform progress in this area. Four periods of global health security governance are identified. The first is characterized by unilateral quarantine regulations (1377-1851), the second by multiple sanitary conferences (1851-92), the third by several international sanitary conventions and international health organizations (1892-1946) and the fourth by the hegemonic leadership of the World Health Organization (1946-????). This final regime, like others before it, is challenged by globalization (e.g. limitations of the new International Health Regulations), changing diplomacy (e.g. proliferation of global health security organizations), new tools (e.g. global health law, human rights and health diplomacy) and shock-activated vulnerabilities (e.g. bioterrorism and avian/swine influenza). This understanding, in turn, allows us to appreciate the impact of this evolving regime on class, race and gender, as well as to consider four possible future configurations of power, including greater authority for the World Health Organization, a concert of powers, developing countries and civil society organizations. This regime analysis allows us to understand the evolution, etiology and eventualities of the global health security regime, which is essential for national and international health

  3. Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasson Albert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2012, food insecurity is still a major global concern as 1 billion people are suffering from starvation, under-, and malnutrition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO has concluded that we are still far from reaching millennium development goal (MDG number 1: to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people suffering from hunger is estimated at 239 million, and this figure could increase in the near future. There are many examples of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa, some of them having reached catastrophic dimensions, for example, in the Horn of Africa or southern Madagascar. Food insecurity is not just about insufficient food production, availability, and intake, it is also about the poor quality or nutritional value of the food. The detrimental situation of women and children is particularly serious, as well as the situation among female teenagers, who receive less food than their male counterparts in the same households. Soaring food prices and food riots are among the many symptoms of the prevailing food crisis and insecurity. Climate change and weather vagaries, present and forecast, are generally compounding food insecurity and drastically changing farming activities, as diagnosed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR in June 2011. The key cause of food insecurity is inadequate food production. Since the global food crisis of 2007–2008, there has been an increasing awareness throughout the world that we must produce more and better food; and we should not be derailed from this goal, despite some relief brought by the good cereal harvests in 2011–2012. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa, which needs and wants to make its own green revolution. The African challenge indeed is key to mitigating food insecurity in the world. Commitments were made by the heads of states and governments of the African Union

  4. Satellite Imagery Analysis for Automated Global Food Security Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, D.; Brumby, S. P.; Chartrand, R.; Keisler, R.; Mathis, M.; Beneke, C. M.; Nicholaeff, D.; Skillman, S.; Warren, M. S.; Poehnelt, J.

    2017-12-01

    The recent computing performance revolution has driven improvements in sensor, communication, and storage technology. Multi-decadal remote sensing datasets at the petabyte scale are now available in commercial clouds, with new satellite constellations generating petabytes/year of daily high-resolution global coverage imagery. Cloud computing and storage, combined with recent advances in machine learning, are enabling understanding of the world at a scale and at a level of detail never before feasible. We present results from an ongoing effort to develop satellite imagery analysis tools that aggregate temporal, spatial, and spectral information and that can scale with the high-rate and dimensionality of imagery being collected. We focus on the problem of monitoring food crop productivity across the Middle East and North Africa, and show how an analysis-ready, multi-sensor data platform enables quick prototyping of satellite imagery analysis algorithms, from land use/land cover classification and natural resource mapping, to yearly and monthly vegetative health change trends at the structural field level.

  5. IT-enabled resilient, seamless and secure global supply chains: Introduction, overview and research topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, B.; Zomer, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the introduction to the fourth Workshop on IT-enabled Resilient, Seamless and Secure Global Supply Chains (WITNESS 2015). In the paper, we present a synthesis of the innovation agendas of a series of international research, development and demonstration projects that seek to make

  6. Global Strategy Choices (GSC) : Prognosis and Strategic Planning for European Foreign and Security Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej; Kettle, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The European Security Strategy (ESS) is currently being reformulated. This working paper puts forward a new methodological approach in the construction of global strategies for stakeholders in the international system. It makes the case that contemporary strategy formulation (including the ESS)

  7. Advancing the Use of Earth Observations to Benefit Global Food Security and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA plays an important role as “fair broker” of information on the status and security of the United States and global food supply. USDA surveys and farmer relationships are the source of much of the “ground-truth” required for statistical assessments of crop area, yield, and production domestical...

  8. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Bjorkman, A.D.; Dempewolf, H.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Guarino, L.; Jarvis, A.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop

  9. Transnational legal assemblages and global security law: topologies and temporalities of the list

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sullivan, G.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the UN 1267 Al-Qaida sanctions regime as a technique of global security listing and form of transnational law with distinct legal ordering processes. Conventional literatures frame these sanctions in formalist terms, flattening their complexity. Understanding their qualities

  10. Aspects regarding the security environment in South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Lupu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transitions from Soviet authoritarianism and planned economies to democracy and market economies have not been successfully completed in any of the three states from South Caucasus. This region continues to be characterized by high instability and insecurity due the absence of solutions to the protracted or „frozen” conflicts between Armenia and Azerbaijan – over the territory of Nagorno-Karabakh – and between Georgia and Russia – over the breakaway regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. Finding common ground upon which all parties can agree has proven to be an impossible task. Protracted or „frozen” conflicts present a challenge for the stability and security of South Caucasus.

  11. 2015 Marine Corps Security Environment Forecast: Futures 2030-2045

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    immigration and immigrant populations. China and India play increasingly larger global leadership roles and step up militarily to fill voids left by...available. China and India have become near-peer competitors with the United States. State and non-state actors increasingly opt to invest in technology over...leave the cities grows rapidly as bioengineered viruses threaten overpopulated centers. In the final analysis, the United States is unable to

  12. CHANGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES RELATED TO THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT COMPLEXITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena DOVAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes in organizations appear as a reaction to the organizational environment changes. In order to manage these changes successfully, the managers need to anticipate and design alternative strategies by preparing different options.  Nevertheless, the complexity of the global environment forces the managers to adopt strategies for their organizations that are facilitating the creation of new strategic competences and competitive advantages to face the environmental rapid changes. In this context, this paper is aiming to illustrate the main directions the change management may consider to change the organization strategies in order to harmonize them to the external environment, such as: integration versus externalization, flexible specialization and flexible organization, standardization versus adaptation, market segmentation, relationship building and maintaining and communication integration.  However, the new strategies are based on a changed attitude of the managers towards the competitive advantage that is dynamic and focused on creation rather then to operations.

  13. Challenges of the Global Century: Report of the Project on Globalization and National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flanagan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    .... Defined broadly, globalization is the process of growing international activity in many areas that is creating ever-closer ties, enhanced interdependence, and greater opportunity and vulnerability...

  14. Secure Cooperative Data Access in Multi-Cloud Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Meixing

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss the problem of enabling cooperative query execution in a multi-cloud environment where the data is owned and managed by multiple enterprises. Each enterprise maintains its own relational database using a private cloud. In order to implement desired business services, parties need to share selected portion of their…

  15. Evaluation of Traditional Security Solutions in the SCADA Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Resources (CIKR), or CI, to include energy, chemical , water, transportation systems, and more [12]. Devices common to SCADA networks include both...Ginter, Andrew and Walt Sikora. “Cybersecurity for Chemical Engineers”. Environ- mental Manager, 49–53, June 2011. 22. Gold, Steve. “The SCADA...Chapter 10–Working with Performance Counters”, 2011. 32. Schlumberger. “ Oilfield Glossary”. http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/ Display.cfm?Term=check

  16. The Millennial Generation: Developing Leaders for the Future Security Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    have been told and shown continually how special they are, and by being raised in an environment of instant gratification . Whether the immediate...to parents and friends through technology. They are the first generation to use e-mail, cell-phones, and instant messaging in childhood and...technological advances and want to be a part of technological solutions to problems.26 Roughly 95% percent of young adults (18-29) use the Internet , and

  17. Secure Hardware Performance Analysis in Virtualized Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Heng Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main obstacle in mass adoption of cloud computing for database operations is the data security issue. In this paper, it is shown that IT services particularly in hardware performance evaluation in virtual machine can be accomplished effectively without IT personnel gaining access to real data for diagnostic and remediation purposes. The proposed mechanisms utilized TPC-H benchmark to achieve 2 objectives. First, the underlying hardware performance and consistency is supervised via a control system, which is constructed using a combination of TPC-H queries, linear regression, and machine learning techniques. Second, linear programming techniques are employed to provide input to the algorithms that construct stress-testing scenarios in the virtual machine, using the combination of TPC-H queries. These stress-testing scenarios serve 2 purposes. They provide the boundary resource threshold verification to the first control system, so that periodic training of the synthetic data sets for performance evaluation is not constrained by hardware inadequacy, particularly when the resources in the virtual machine are scaled up or down which results in the change of the utilization threshold. Secondly, they provide a platform for response time verification on critical transactions, so that the expected Quality of Service (QoS from these transactions is assured.

  18. Radiation and global environment. Consideration for the influence on ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Doi, Masahiro; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2003-09-01

    This book is based on presentations at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) symposium of the same title held by the NIRS Research Center for Radiation Safety in December, 2002, is edited with somehow enlightening intention as well, and is composed from 6 parts of; 1. Reasons for concern for influence on ecosystems, 2. Behavior of substances in ecosystems, 3. Changes of global environments and life, 4. Various environmental stresses and living/eco-systems, 5. New development of evaluation studies on radiation effects, and 6. For the radiation protection of environments. The 1st part involves 3 chapters concerning studies on effects on ecosystems and radiation protection of environments; 2nd part, 4 chapters concerning behavior of radioactive and/or stable cesium and iodine in forest and environmental microorganisms, and behavior and effects of acidic substances; 3rd part, 2 chapters concerning terrestrial history and evolution/adaptation of livings; 4th part, 5 chapters concerning radiation stress, active oxygen, radiodurance/radio-resistant microorganisms, ultraviolet, and environmental hormones; 5th part, 6 chapters concerning effects on cells of environmental toxic substance and radiation, environmental stress evaluation by DNA micro-array, effects on taxis, use of microcosm, simulation of computational model ecosystem, and aquatic ecosystems; 6th part, 5 chapters concerning environmental radioecology, safety measures in high-level radioactive waste disposal under the ground, radiation protection of environments from radiation biology aspect, effects of chemicals, and aspect and strategy for radiation effects on environments. (N.I.)

  19. Global biosurveillance: enabling science and technology. Workshop background and motivation: international scientific engagement for global security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Helen H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-18

    Through discussion the conference aims to: (1) Identify core components of a comprehensive global biosurveillance capability; (2) Determine the scientific and technical bases to support such a program; (3) Explore the improvement in biosurveillance to enhance regional and global disease outbreak prediction; (4) Recommend an engagement approach to establishing an effective international community and regional or global network; (5) Propose implementation strategies and the measures of effectiveness; and (6) Identify the challenges that must be overcome in the next 3-5 years in order to establish an initial global biosurveillance capability that will have significant positive impact on BioNP as well as public health and/or agriculture. There is also a look back at the First Biothreat Nonproliferation Conference from December 2007. Whereas the first conference was an opportunity for problem solving to enhance and identify new paradigms for biothreat nonproliferation, this conference is moving towards integrated comprehensive global biosurveillance. Main reasons for global biosurveillance are: (1) Rapid assessment of unusual disease outbreak; (2) Early warning of emerging, re-emerging and engineered biothreat enabling reduced morbidity and mortality; (3) Enhanced crop and livestock management; (4) Increase understanding of host-pathogen interactions and epidemiology; (5) Enhanced international transparency for infectious disease research supporting BWC goals; and (6) Greater sharing of technology and knowledge to improve global health.

  20. Global citizenship is key to securing global health: the role of higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Lee; Perry, Lane; Wadsworth, Daniel; Stoner, Krystina R; Tarrant, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    Despite growing public awareness, health systems are struggling under the escalating burden of non-communicable diseases. While personal responsibility is crucial, alone it is insufficient. We argue that one must place themselves within the broader/global context to begin to truly understand the health implications of personal choices. Global citizenship competency has become an integral part of the higher education discourse; this discourse can and should be extended to include global health. A global citizen is someone who is (1) aware of global issues, (2) socially responsible, and (3) civically engaged. From this perspective, personal health is not solely an individual, self-serving act; rather, the consequences of our lifestyle choices and behaviors have far-reaching implications. This paper will argue that, through consciously identifying global health within the constructs of global citizenship, institutions of higher education can play an instrumental role in fostering civically engaged students capable of driving social change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Influence of Globalization on the Change and Convergence of Social Security Transfer: An Empirical Analysis for OECD Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Hwang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a cross-section of OECD countries, this paper examines the relationship between globalization and the change and convergence of social security transfer. Globalization has arguably had a profound impact on the use of social protection in states, since it is normally accompanied with increases in income inequality, polarization, and unemployment. In addition, globalization may lead to socio- economic policy harmonization across countries. The empirical results show that there exists a significant and positive relationship between social security transfer in GDP and the globalization index based on political, economic, and social integrations. Also, we found the convergence phenomenon of social security transfer in OECD countries, applying the traditional methodology of convergence and convergence. Therefore, there is evidence in OECD countries that globalization indirectly affects the convergence of social security transfer in addition to direct relation to social security transfer in GDP.

  2. Secure Software Configuration Management Processes for nuclear safety software development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, I.-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The proposed method emphasizes platform-independent security processes. → A hybrid process based on the nuclear SCM and security regulations is proposed. → Detailed descriptions and Process Flow Diagram are useful for software developers. - Abstract: The main difference between nuclear and generic software is that the risk factor is infinitely greater in nuclear software - if there is a malfunction in the safety system, it can result in significant economic loss, physical damage or threat to human life. However, secure software development environment have often been ignored in the nuclear industry. In response to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) revised the Regulatory Guide (RG 1.152-2006) 'Criteria for use of computers in safety systems of nuclear power plants' to provide specific security guidance throughout the software development life cycle. Software Configuration Management (SCM) is an essential discipline in the software development environment. SCM involves identifying configuration items, controlling changes to those items, and maintaining integrity and traceability of them. For securing the nuclear safety software, this paper proposes a Secure SCM Processes (S 2 CMP) which infuses regulatory security requirements into proposed SCM processes. Furthermore, a Process Flow Diagram (PFD) is adopted to describe S 2 CMP, which is intended to enhance the communication between regulators and developers.

  3. Exploiting coalbed methane and protecting the global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuheng, Gao

    1996-12-31

    The global climate change caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission has received wide attention from all countries in the world. Global environmental protection as a common problem has confronted the human being. As a main component of coalbed methane, methane is an important factor influencing the production safety of coal mine and threatens the lives of miners. The recent research on environment science shows that methane is a very harmful GHG. Although methane gas has very little proportion in the GHGs emission and its stayed period is also very short, it has very obvious impact on the climate change. From the estimation, methane emission in the coal-mining process is only 10% of the total emission from human`s activities. As a clean energy, Methane has mature recovery technique before, during and after the process of mining. Thus, coalbed methane is the sole GHG generated in the human`s activities and being possible to be reclaimed and utilized. Compared with the global greenhouse effect of other GHGs emission abatement, coalbed methane emission abatement can be done in very low cost with many other benefits: (1) to protect global environment; (2) to improve obviously the safety of coal mine; and (3) to obtain a new kind of clean energy. Coal is the main energy in China, and coalbed contains very rich methane. According to the exploration result in recent years, about 30000{approximately}35000 billion m{sup 2} methane is contained in the coalbed below 2000 m in depth. China has formed a good development base in the field of reclamation and utilization of coalbed methane. The author hopes that wider international technical exchange and cooperation in the field will be carried out.

  4. Tourism, globalization and the environment in the Mexican Caribbean Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Córdoba y Ordóñez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The terms globalization and tourism tend to be regarded as synonyms in the Mexican Caribbean, an area which shifted from a virtually uninhabited borderline territory to a tourism center receiving over six million visitors peryear. Territorial occupation patterns derived from tourism -identified during field work through a physiognomic analysiswere used to investigate some of the implications of the complex relationship between tourism and development, the latter including not only economic but human factors, as well as with the natural and cultural environment characterized by both a great diversity and a great fragility.

  5. DEGAS: Dynamic Exascale Global Address Space Programming Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, James [University of California, Berkeley

    2018-02-23

    The Dynamic, Exascale Global Address Space programming environment (DEGAS) project will develop the next generation of programming models and runtime systems to meet the challenges of Exascale computing. The Berkeley part of the project concentrated on communication-optimal code generation to optimize speed and energy efficiency by reducing data movement. Our work developed communication lower bounds, and/or communication avoiding algorithms (that either meet the lower bound, or do much less communication than their conventional counterparts) for a variety of algorithms, including linear algebra, machine learning and genomics.

  6. An Adaptive Multilevel Security Framework for the Data Stored in Cloud Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorairaj, Sudha Devi; Kaliannan, Thilagavathy

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is renowned for delivering information technology services based on internet. Nowadays, organizations are interested in moving their massive data and computations into cloud to reap their significant benefits of on demand service, resource pooling, and rapid elasticity that helps to satisfy the dynamically changing infrastructure demand without the burden of owning, managing, and maintaining it. Since the data needs to be secured throughout its life cycle, security of the data in cloud is a major challenge to be concentrated on because the data is in third party's premises. Any uniform simple or high level security method for all the data either compromises the sensitive data or proves to be too costly with increased overhead. Any common multiple method for all data becomes vulnerable when the common security pattern is identified at the event of successful attack on any information and also encourages more attacks on all other data. This paper suggests an adaptive multilevel security framework based on cryptography techniques that provide adequate security for the classified data stored in cloud. The proposed security system acclimates well for cloud environment and is also customizable and more reliant to meet the required level of security of data with different sensitivity that changes with business needs and commercial conditions.

  7. An Adaptive Multilevel Security Framework for the Data Stored in Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Devi Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is renowned for delivering information technology services based on internet. Nowadays, organizations are interested in moving their massive data and computations into cloud to reap their significant benefits of on demand service, resource pooling, and rapid elasticity that helps to satisfy the dynamically changing infrastructure demand without the burden of owning, managing, and maintaining it. Since the data needs to be secured throughout its life cycle, security of the data in cloud is a major challenge to be concentrated on because the data is in third party’s premises. Any uniform simple or high level security method for all the data either compromises the sensitive data or proves to be too costly with increased overhead. Any common multiple method for all data becomes vulnerable when the common security pattern is identified at the event of successful attack on any information and also encourages more attacks on all other data. This paper suggests an adaptive multilevel security framework based on cryptography techniques that provide adequate security for the classified data stored in cloud. The proposed security system acclimates well for cloud environment and is also customizable and more reliant to meet the required level of security of data with different sensitivity that changes with business needs and commercial conditions.

  8. Water dependency and water exploitation at global scale as indicators of water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roo, A. P. J.; Beck, H.; Burek, P.; Bernard, B.

    2015-12-01

    A water dependency index has been developed indicating the dependency of water consumption from upstream sources of water, sometimes across (multiple) national border. This index is calculated at global scale using the 0.1 global LISFLOOD hydrological modelling system forced by WFDEI meteorological data for the timeframe 1979-2012. The global LISFLOOD model simulates the most important hydrological processes, as well as water abstraction and consumption from various sectors, and flood routing, at daily scale, with sub-timesteps for routing and subgrid parameterization related to elevation and landuse. The model contains also options for water allocation, to allow preferences of water use for particular sectors in water scarce periods. LISFLOOD is also used for the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS), the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS), continental scale climate change impact studies on floods and droughts. The water dependency indicator is calculated on a monthly basis, and various annual and multiannual indicators are derived from it. In this study, the indicator will be compared against water security areas known from other studies. Other indicators calculated are the Water Exploitation Index (WEI+), which is a commonly use water security indicator in Europe, and freshwater resources per capita indicators at regional, national and river basin scale. Several climate scnearios are run to indicate future trends in water security.

  9. Operating nuclear power stations in a regulated cyber security environment: a roadmap for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorman, E., E-mail: Erik.Dorman@areva.com [AREVA Inc., Cyber Security Solutions, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued 10CFR73.54 to implement a regulated Cyber Security Program at each operating nuclear reactor facility. Milestones were implemented December 31, 2012 to mitigate the attack vectors for the most critical digital assets acknowledged by the industry and the NRC. The NRC inspections have begun. The nuclear Cyber Security Plan, implemented by the site Cyber Security Program (Program), is an element of the operating license at each facility. The Program is designed to protect critical digital assets (CDAs) by applying and maintaining defense-in depth protective strategies to ensure the capability to detect, respond to, and recover from cyber-attacks. The Program references NEI 08-09 R. 6, the Nuclear Energy Institute Template that provides guidance for applying Cyber Security controls derived from NIST 800-53/82 and slightly modified to fit the nuclear environment. Many mature processes are in place at nuclear facilities in response to numerous regulations implemented over the past 30 years. Many of these processes such as the Physical Security Program offer protections that are leveraged to protect the functions of critical digital assets from unauthorized physical access. Other processes and technology such as engineering design control, work management and pre-job briefs, control of portable media and mobile devices, and deterministically segregated networks protect critical digital assets. By leveraging the regulated nuclear environment, integrating NIST type Cyber Security controls, and prudently deploying technology the Cyber Security posture of operating nuclear facilities supports on-demand base load electricity 24/7 with capacity factors exceeding 85%. This paper is designed to provide a glimpse into Cyber Security Programs that support safe operation and reliability in the regulated nuclear environment while supporting the on-demand base load electricity production 24/7. (author)

  10. Ensuring the Security of the Educational Environment: Cases of US, Russia and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly V. Kabernik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with security, including informational, educational environment. The article considers experience of the United States and Europe, including specific examples. Given a classification of the major threats and they are allocated on the basis of foreign and domestic experience. The article also determines the range of problems actually facing educational institutions and regularly described in special reports on the subject. Provides an overview of a set of measures designed to regulate access to inappropriate content, with special attention given to the phenomenon of social networks that put new challenges in ensuring security of the educational environment.

  11. Food security, agricultural subsidies, energy, and the environment: a process of 'glocalization' in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, P.

    2001-07-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay of policy dilemma in the areas of food security, agricultural subsidies, energy consumption, and the environment in the 'glocalization' process of Sri Lanka. It demonstrates that the domestic agricultural and food sector is intricately interconnected with the global economy and world market forces. While this paper gives a primary focus on domestic rice production and wheat import policies, it further examines the environmental consequences and public health issues that are associated with the process of 'glocalization' as part of globalization. This 'glocalization' has led to a series of intended and unintended externalities for Sri Lanka whose economic integration is irreversibly linked to agricultural and subsidy policies of other food exporting and producing countries of Asia and the United States. (author)

  12. The corporate security professional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Lund

    2013-01-01

    In our age of globalization and complex threat environments, every business is called upon to manage security. This tendency is reflected in the fact that a wide range of businesses increasingly think about security in broad terms and strive to translate national security concerns into corporate...... speech. This article argues that the profession of the security manager has become central for understanding how the relationship between national and corporate security is currently negotiated. The national security background of most private sector security managers makes the corporate security...... professional inside the company a powerful hybrid agent. By zooming in on the profession and the practice of national security inside companies, the article raises questions about where to draw the line between corporate security and national security along with the political consequences of the constitution...

  13. Nuclear Security Education in “non-Nuclear” Countries – Inseparable Component of Global Nuclear Security Scheme. Example of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.

    2014-01-01

    Global regime of nuclear security cannot be complete and functional if all countries are not involved; • Apart from the fact that developed nuclear countries are crucial in this sense (and determining the system), due attention should be paid to small, developing, “nonnuclear” ones; • Small problems in big countries are often big problems in small countries – so it is with HRD in nuclear related fields; • Everything is based on competence, with education being fundamental for building it up; • To that aim, the role of universities is of utmost importance, while networking is another corner stone; • Experience of Montenegro, perhaps exemplary in the above context, is discussed. (author)

  14. Visual sensor fusion for active security in robotic industrial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robla, Sandra; Llata, Jose R.; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Sarabia, Esther G.; Becerra, Victor; Perez-Oria, Juan

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a method of information fusion involving data captured by both a standard charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a time-of-flight (ToF) camera to be used in the detection of the proximity between a manipulator robot and a human. Both cameras are assumed to be located above the work area of an industrial robot. The fusion of colour images and time-of-flight information makes it possible to know the 3D localization of objects with respect to a world coordinate system. At the same time, this allows to know their colour information. Considering that ToF information given by the range camera contains innacuracies including distance error, border error, and pixel saturation, some corrections over the ToF information are proposed and developed to improve the results. The proposed fusion method uses the calibration parameters of both cameras to reproject 3D ToF points, expressed in a common coordinate system for both cameras and a robot arm, in 2D colour images. In addition to this, using the 3D information, the motion detection in a robot industrial environment is achieved, and the fusion of information is applied to the foreground objects previously detected. This combination of information results in a matrix that links colour and 3D information, giving the possibility of characterising the object by its colour in addition to its 3D localisation. Further development of these methods will make it possible to identify objects and their position in the real world and to use this information to prevent possible collisions between the robot and such objects.

  15. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David K A; Galgani, Francois; Thompson, Richard C; Barlaz, Morton

    2009-07-27

    One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and macro-plastics have accumulated in the highest densities in the Northern Hemisphere, adjacent to urban centres, in enclosed seas and at water convergences (fronts). We report lower densities on remote island shores, on the continental shelf seabed and the lowest densities (but still a documented presence) in the deep sea and Southern Ocean. The longevity of plastic is estimated to be hundreds to thousands of years, but is likely to be far longer in deep sea and non-surface polar environments. Plastic debris poses considerable threat by choking and starving wildlife, distributing non-native and potentially harmful organisms, absorbing toxic chemicals and degrading to micro-plastics that may subsequently be ingested. Well-established annual surveys on coasts and at sea have shown that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing: rather stable, increasing and decreasing trends have all been reported. The average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing, and the abundance and global distribution of micro-plastic fragments have increased over the last few decades. However, the environmental consequences of such microscopic debris are still poorly

  16. Subterranean karst environments as a global sink for atmospheric methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Kevin D.; Drobniak, Agnieszka; Etiope, Giuseppe; Mastalerz, Maria; Sauer, Peter E.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2018-03-01

    The air in subterranean karst cavities is often depleted in methane (CH4) relative to the atmosphere. Karst is considered a potential sink for the atmospheric greenhouse gas CH4 because its subsurface drainage networks and solution-enlarged fractures facilitate atmospheric exchange. Karst landscapes cover about 14% of earth's continental surface, but observations of CH4 concentrations in cave air are limited to localized studies in Gibraltar, Spain, Indiana (USA), Vietnam, Australia, and by incomplete isotopic data. To test if karst is acting as a global CH4 sink, we measured the CH4 concentrations, δ13CCH4, and δ2HCH4 values of cave air from 33 caves in the USA and three caves in New Zealand. We also measured CO2 concentrations, δ13CCO2, and radon (Rn) concentrations to support CH4 data interpretation by assessing cave air residence times and mixing processes. Among these caves, 35 exhibited subatmospheric CH4 concentrations in at least one location compared to their local atmospheric backgrounds. CH4 concentrations, δ13CCH4, and δ2HCH4 values suggest that microbial methanotrophy within caves is the primary CH4 consumption mechanism. Only 5 locations from 3 caves showed elevated CH4 concentrations compared to the atmospheric background and could be ascribed to local CH4 sources from sewage and outgassing swamp water. Several associated δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values point to carbonate reduction and acetate fermentation as biochemical pathways of limited methanogenesis in karst environments and suggest that these pathways occur in the environment over large spatial scales. Our data show that karst environments function as a global CH4 sink.

  17. Global health security: the wider lessons from the west African Ebola virus disease epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, David L; Chen, Lincoln; Takemi, Keizo; Fidler, David P; Tappero, Jordan W; Thomas, Mathew J; Kenyon, Thomas A; Frieden, Thomas R; Yach, Derek; Nishtar, Sania; Kalache, Alex; Olliaro, Piero L; Horby, Peter; Torreele, Els; Gostin, Lawrence O; Ndomondo-Sigonda, Margareth; Carpenter, Daniel; Rushton, Simon; Lillywhite, Louis; Devkota, Bhimsen; Koser, Khalid; Yates, Rob; Dhillon, Ranu S; Rannan-Eliya, Ravi P

    2018-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented in both its scale and impact. Out of this human calamity has come renewed attention to global health security—its definition, meaning, and the practical implications for programmes and policy. For example, how does a government begin to strengthen its core public health capacities, as demanded by the International Health Regulations? What counts as a global health security concern? In the context of the governance of global health, including WHO reform, it will be important to distil lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak. The Lancet invited a group of respected global health practitioners to reflect on these lessons, to explore the idea of global health security, and to offer suggestions for next steps. Their contributions describe some of the major threats to individual and collective human health, as well as the values and recommendations that should be considered to counteract such threats in the future. Many different perspectives are proposed. Their common goal is a more sustainable and resilient society for human health and wellbeing. PMID:25987157

  18. The NPT regime, present and future global security: an American view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Sam.

    1987-01-01

    Although not perfect, an international non-proliferation regime as set out by the IAEA and Non-Proliferation Treaty is in existence. The history of the involvement of the United States in the development of this regime is mentioned as a background to explaining the current approach of the Reagan Administration to non-proliferation. Trends and challenges which may affect future global security are then identified and discussed. The author is optimistic about the future. (U.K.)

  19. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, in a dramatically changed security environment, the advances in nonnuclear strategic capabilities along with reduced numbers and roles for nuclear forces has altered the calculus of deterrence and defense, at least for the United States. For many, this opened up a realistic possibility of a nuclear-free world. It soon became clear that the initial post-Cold War hopes were exaggerated. The world did change fundamentally, but it did not become more secure and stable. In place of the old Soviet threat, there has been growing concern about proliferation and terrorism involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), regional conflicts, global instability and increasingly serious new and emerging threats, including cyber attacks and attacks on satellites. For the United States at least, in this emerging environment, the political rationales for nuclear weapons, from deterrence to reassurance to alliance management, are changing and less central than during the Cold War to the security of the United States, its friends and allies. Nuclear weapons remain important for the US, but for a far more limited set of roles and missions. As the Perry-Schlesinger Commission report reveals, there is a domestic US consensus on nuclear policy and posture at the highest level and for the near term, including the continued role of nuclear arms in deterring WMD use and in reassuring allies. Although the value of nuclear weapons has declined for the United States, the value of these weapons for Russia, China and so-called 'rogue' states is seen to be rising. The nuclear logic of NATO during Cold War - the need for nuclear weapons to counter vastly superior conventional capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact - is today heard from Russians and even some proliferants. Moreover, these weapons present a way for rogues to achieve regional hegemony and possibly to deter interventions by the United States or others. While the

  20. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, in a dramatically changed security environment, the advances in nonnuclear strategic capabilities along with reduced numbers and roles for nuclear forces has altered the calculus of deterrence and defense, at least for the United States. For many, this opened up a realistic possibility of a nuclear-free world. It soon became clear that the initial post-Cold War hopes were exaggerated. The world did change fundamentally, but it did not become more secure and stable. In place of the old Soviet threat, there has been growing concern about proliferation and terrorism involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), regional conflicts, global instability and increasingly serious new and emerging threats, including cyber attacks and attacks on satellites. For the United States at least, in this emerging environment, the political rationales for nuclear weapons, from deterrence to reassurance to alliance management, are changing and less central than during the Cold War to the security of the United States, its friends and allies. Nuclear weapons remain important for the US, but for a far more limited set of roles and missions. As the Perry-Schlesinger Commission report reveals, there is a domestic US consensus on nuclear policy and posture at the highest level and for the near term, including the continued role of nuclear arms in deterring WMD use and in reassuring allies. Although the value of nuclear weapons has declined for the United States, the value of these weapons for Russia, China and so-called 'rogue' states is seen to be rising. The nuclear logic of NATO during Cold War - the need for nuclear weapons to counter vastly superior conventional capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact - is today heard from Russians and even some proliferants. Moreover, these weapons present a way for rogues to achieve regional hegemony and possibly to deter interventions by the United States or others. While the vision of a

  1. Achieving sustainable irrigation water withdrawals: global impacts on food security and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Hertel, Thomas W.; Lammers, Richard B.; Prusevich, Alexander; Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Grogan, Danielle S.; Frolking, Steve

    2017-10-01

    Unsustainable water use challenges the capacity of water resources to ensure food security and continued growth of the economy. Adaptation policies targeting future water security can easily overlook its interaction with other sustainability metrics and unanticipated local responses to the larger-scale policy interventions. Using a global partial equilibrium grid-resolving model SIMPLE-G, and coupling it with the global Water Balance Model, we simulate the consequences of reducing unsustainable irrigation for food security, land use change, and terrestrial carbon. A variety of future (2050) scenarios are considered that interact irrigation productivity with two policy interventions— inter-basin water transfers and international commodity market integration. We find that pursuing sustainable irrigation may erode other development and environmental goals due to higher food prices and cropland expansion. This results in over 800 000 more undernourished people and 0.87 GtC additional emissions. Faster total factor productivity growth in irrigated sectors will encourage more aggressive irrigation water use in the basins where irrigation vulnerability is expected to be reduced by inter-basin water transfer. By allowing for a systematic comparison of these alternative adaptations to future irrigation vulnerability, the global gridded modeling approach offers unique insights into the multiscale nature of the water scarcity challenge.

  2. Pyrethroid pesticide residues in the global environment: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wangxin; Wang, Di; Wang, Jiaqi; Wu, Zhengwen; Li, Lingyu; Huang, Mingli; Xu, Shaohui; Yan, Dongyun

    2018-01-01

    Pyrethroids are synthetic organic insecticides with low mammalian toxicity that are widely used in both rural and urban areas worldwide. After entering the natural environment, pyrethroids circulate among the three phases of solid, liquid, and gas and enter organisms through food chains, resulting in substantial health risks. This review summarized the available studies on pyrethroid residues since 1986 in different media at the global scale and indicated that pyrethroids have been widely detected in a range of environments (including soils, water, sediments, and indoors) and in organisms. The concentrations and detection rates of agricultural pyrethroids, which always contain α-cyanogroup (α-CN), such as cypermethrin and fenvalerate, decline in the order of crops > sediments > soils > water. Urban pyrethroids (not contain α-CN), such as permethrin, have been detected at high levels in the indoor environment, and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, a common pyrethroid metabolite in human urine, is frequently detected in the human body. Pyrethroid pesticides accumulate in sediments, which are a source of pyrethroid residues in aquatic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industry technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    A global CO2 recycling system which combines utilization of natural energy and CO2 recovered from combustion of fossil fuel is studied. In the model, CO2 recovered at the place of energy demand is transported to the place where energy is produced, and from the CO2 fuels are synthesized by use of solar energy and transported to the place of energy demand. Facilities worth a large amount of money are required to transmit electric power generated by the photovoltaic power generation in the desert to the fuel synthesizing plant. Therefore, production of electrolytic hydrogen by the on-site power generation and transport by pipe may be considered. As a synthetic fuel being sent back by ocean transport, methanol is considered, and synthetic methane (LNG) can also be a candidate. CO2 is recovered as liquid carbon dioxide. Possibility of CO2 recycling is dependent on development of the desert solar base, as well as depletion of fossil fuel and price increase, CO2 penalty. It has still been difficult to say which of the fuel synthesis, CO2 tanker or securing of the solar base becomes a bottleneck. Entry of recycling fuels to the market will be possible in proportion to restrictions on fossil fuels, and evaluation of the system depends almost on the rate of energy arriving from the energy-producing region.

  4. Enhancing Security by System-Level Virtualization in Cloud Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dawei; Chang, Guiran; Tan, Chunguang; Wang, Xingwei

    Many trends are opening up the era of cloud computing, which will reshape the IT industry. Virtualization techniques have become an indispensable ingredient for almost all cloud computing system. By the virtual environments, cloud provider is able to run varieties of operating systems as needed by each cloud user. Virtualization can improve reliability, security, and availability of applications by using consolidation, isolation, and fault tolerance. In addition, it is possible to balance the workloads by using live migration techniques. In this paper, the definition of cloud computing is given; and then the service and deployment models are introduced. An analysis of security issues and challenges in implementation of cloud computing is identified. Moreover, a system-level virtualization case is established to enhance the security of cloud computing environments.

  5. The role of crustacean fisheries and aquaculture in global food security: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Josupeit, Helga; Cai, Junning; Zhou, Xiaowei

    2012-06-01

    The 1996 World Food Summit defined food security as "Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life". This paper looks at the status of production from both shrimp capture fisheries and shrimp aquaculture, as well as trade, in order to understand the contribution of the crustacean sector to overall fish production and thus to global food security. This paper also examines some sustainability issues that will potentially affect the contribution of the crustacean sector (particularly shrimp) to food security. These include sustainable shrimp capture fisheries, sustainable shrimp trade and sustainable shrimp aquaculture. The paper concludes that crustaceans are an important source of aquatic food protein. Production (as food and ornamental) and trade are extremely important for developing countries. It provides both economic development and empowerment in terms of contribution to GDP, consumption, employment, catch value and exports. The crustacean sector generates high value export products which enables producers to buy lower value products in the world market - thus a positive contribution to food security in both producing and exporting countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Designing a Secure Exam Management System (SEMS) for M-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiiali, Mustafa; Ozkaya, Armagan; Altun, Halis; Haddad, Hatem; Alier, Marc

    2016-01-01

    M-learning has enhanced the e-learning by making the learning process learner-centered. However, enforcing exam security in open environments where each student has his/her own mobile/tablet device connected to a Wi-Fi network through which it is further connected to the Internet can be one of the most challenging tasks. In such environments,…

  7. Modeling Local vs. Global Dimensions of Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T. P.; Caylor, K. K.; Estes, L. D.; McCord, P. F.; Attari, S.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-12-01

    Food security remains a daunting challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa despite dramatic efforts to foster innovation in the agricultural sector. Food security is complicated by a diversity of factors whose relative influence varies across scales, such as the nature of transportation infrastructure, the variety of agricultural practices, and the relative importance of food production versus food access. Efforts to model food security often focus on local-level dynamics (agricultural decision-making) or regional/coarse scale dynamics (e.g. GCM output + generalized equilibrium models of food trade) - both scales are of paramount importance to food security. Yet models of food security rarely span this scale divide. We present work linking agent-based models of agricultural decision-making to regional and global dynamics of environmental change, food movement and virtual water trade in sub-Saharan Africa. Specifically we investigate the heterogeneity of environmental factors and agricultural decisions within the context of droughts of different duration and spatial extent. Drivers of meteorological drought manifest in agricultural drought through the complexity inherent in agricultural management. But efforts to model food security are often challenged by a lack of local-level empirical data to characterize the relationship between meteorological drought and agricultural drought. Our agent-based model is built using detailed information on household farm assets and individual farmer decisions, combined with crop yield estimated developed using the DSSAT cropping system model run with bias-corrected meteorological data. We then address food access through a analysis of food trade data given the increasing relevance of food movement to mitigate local and regional drought. We discuss the analytical challenges and opportunities in linking these cross-scale dynamics in food security modeling.

  8. Policies and measures for economic efficiency, energy security and environment protection in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkaiah, M.; Kaushik, S.C.; Dewangan, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    India needs to sustain 8-10% economic growth to meet energy needs of people below poverty line. India would, at least, need to grow its primary energy supply (3-4 times) of present consumption to deliver a sustained growth of 8% by 2031. This paper discusses India's policies and measures for economic efficiency, environment protection and energy security (3-E). (author)

  9. Declining Global Per Capita Agricultural Production and Warming Oceans Threaten Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chris C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that was grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be controlled by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices, and policies. In this paper we discuss several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia, and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14 percent between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21 st century food availability by disrupting Indian Ocean moisture transports and tilting the 21 st century climate toward a more El Nino-like state. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced main growing season rainfall along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, we present an analysis of

  10. Declining global per capita agricultural production and warming oceans threaten food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that is grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be determined by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices and policies. This paper discusses several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14% between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21st century food availability in some countries by disrupting moisture transports and bringing down dry air over crop growing areas. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced rainfall during the main growing season along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, this study presents an analysis of emerging

  11. China, India, South Africa, Brazil (BASIC): Crucial for the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The rising importance of the BASIC countries in a changing world Over the last decade the emerging economies have become increasingly important for the development of the global economy. This trend was reinforced by the global financial crisis which hit the developed economies the hardest, and after which the emerging economies emerged as crucial growth centres in the global economy. We are entering into a new era in global politics, and a broad process is currently taking place of restructuring global institutions and political processes to increasingly take into account the interests of the emerging economies. A global environmental crisis constitutes the backdrop for this change in global politics, as the current volume of production and consumption of the planets renewable resources (including the capacity to absorb greenhouse gas emissions) is beyond the planets regenerative capacity. The breakdown of the Doha Development Round in World Trade, the creation of the BRIC group and the G20, the emergence of the BASIC group of key emerging economies and the following developments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, all testify to the fact that China, India, South Africa and Brazil (BASIC) today have a decisive and increasing influence in world politics. With regards to the environment, this means that BASIC countries increasingly will set environmental standards in global markets as their economies to a greater extent come to represent global buying power, increasingly will influence to what extent environmental concerns are mainstreamed into international agreements (such as WTO) in general, and also will decide the scope and level of ambition and scope of international environmental agreements (as we see in UNFCCC). Among the emerging economies China, India, South Africa, and Brazil stand out as particularly important. China and India alone represent more than 35 per cent of the global population and are the most rapidly growing economies in the

  12. China, India, South Africa, Brazil (BASIC): Crucial for the global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The rising importance of the BASIC countries in a changing world Over the last decade the emerging economies have become increasingly important for the development of the global economy. This trend was reinforced by the global financial crisis which hit the developed economies the hardest, and after which the emerging economies emerged as crucial growth centres in the global economy. We are entering into a new era in global politics, and a broad process is currently taking place of restructuring global institutions and political processes to increasingly take into account the interests of the emerging economies. A global environmental crisis constitutes the backdrop for this change in global politics, as the current volume of production and consumption of the planets renewable resources (including the capacity to absorb greenhouse gas emissions) is beyond the planets regenerative capacity. The breakdown of the Doha Development Round in World Trade, the creation of the BRIC group and the G20, the emergence of the BASIC group of key emerging economies and the following developments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, all testify to the fact that China, India, South Africa and Brazil (BASIC) today have a decisive and increasing influence in world politics. With regards to the environment, this means that BASIC countries increasingly will set environmental standards in global markets as their economies to a greater extent come to represent global buying power, increasingly will influence to what extent environmental concerns are mainstreamed into international agreements (such as WTO) in general, and also will decide the scope and level of ambition and scope of international environmental agreements (as we see in UNFCCC). Among the emerging economies China, India, South Africa, and Brazil stand out as particularly important. China and India alone represent more than 35 per cent of the global population and are the most rapidly growing economies in the

  13. IoT Privacy and Security Challenges for Smart Home Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huichen Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Often the Internet of Things (IoT is considered as a single problem domain, with proposed solutions intended to be applied across a wide range of applications. However, the privacy and security needs of critical engineering infrastructure or sensitive commercial operations are very different to the needs of a domestic Smart Home environment. Additionally, the financial and human resources available to implement security and privacy vary greatly between application domains. In domestic environments, human issues may be as important as technical issues. After surveying existing solutions for enhancing IoT security, the paper identifies key future requirements for trusted Smart Home systems. A gateway architecture is selected as the most appropriate for resource-constrained devices, and for high system availability. Two key technologies to assist system auto-management are identified. Firstly, support for system auto-configuration will enhance system security. Secondly, the automatic update of system software and firmware is needed to maintain ongoing secure system operation.

  14. Psychological factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in the educational environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmeleva E.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The negative sociocultural transformations that are taking place in modern society and the resulting psychological transformation of personality and mode of life strongly require searching for ways of providing social safety to the next generation, with teachers being the implementers of this process. Teachers’ professionalism is determined by their willingness to solve personal and socially relevant problems, including the willingness to provide social security for other people, to thwart social risks, and to build constructive interpersonal relationships. The aim of our research was to reveal and to analyze the psychological factors affecting the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in educational environments. The environmental factors of social risk have been theoretically characterized. It has been shown that the essential factor in ensuring students’ social security is providing a safe social environment in educational institutions; such an environment provides the learners and the teachers with sociopsychological security and psychosocial well-being. The empirical part of our study was devoted to identifying negative social phenomena in the schools in the Ivanovo region (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 700 students and to identifying the personally and professionally important qualities of the teachers and the subjective psychological factors of their readiness to ensure social security in the educational environment (through interviewing 300 teachers; the administration of the questionnaires and the interviewing were followed by an assessment of their significance (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 140 teachers. Using factor analysis we identified the relevant indicators and grouped them into six factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure a safe educational environment. Relevant personal and professional qualities of teachers were revealed; these are the subjective factors of the

  15. The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Our modern age is defined by an astounding capacity to generate scientific information. From DNA to dark matter, human ingenuity and technologies create an endless stream of data about ourselves and the world of which we are a part. Yet we largely founder in transforming information into understanding, and understanding into rational action for our society as a whole. Earth and biodiversity scientists are especially frustrated by this impasse because the data they gather often point to a clash between Earth's capacity to sustain life and the decisions that humans make to garner the planet's resources. Immersive virtual environments offer an underexplored link in the translation of scientific data into public understanding, dialogue, and action. The Worldviews Network is a collaboration of scientists, artists, and educators focused on developing best practices for the use of immersive environments for science-based ecological literacy education. A central tenet of the Worldviews Network is that there are multiple ways to know and experience the world, so we are developing scientifically accurate, geographically relevant, and culturally appropriate programming to promote ecological literacy within informal science education programs across the United States. The goal of Worldviews Network is to offer transformative learning experiences, in which participants are guided on a process integrating immersive visual explorations, critical reflection and dialogue, and design-oriented approaches to action - or more simply, seeing, knowing, and doing. Our methods center on live presentations, interactive scientific visualizations, and sustainability dialogues hosted at informal science institutions. Our approach uses datasets from the life, Earth, and space sciences to illuminate the complex conditions that support life on earth and the ways in which ecological systems interact. We are leveraging scientific data from federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and our

  16. The Feasibility of Wearables in an Enterprise Environment and Their Impact on IT Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Vincent, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended to explore the usability and feasibility of wearables in an enterprise environment and their impact on IT Security. In this day and age, with the advent of the Internet of Things, we must explore all the new technology emerging from the minds of the new inventors. This means exploring the use of wearables in regards to their benefits, limitations, and the new challenges they pose to securing computer networks in the Federal environment. We will explore the design of the wearables, the interfaces needed to connect them, and what it will take to connect personal devices in the Federal enterprise network environment. We will provide an overview of the wearable design, concerns of ensuring the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information and the challenges faced by those doing so. We will also review the implications and limitations of the policies governing wearable technology and the physical efforts to enforce them.

  17. Design research and the globalization of healthcare environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Song, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Global healthcare practice has expanded in the past 20 years. At the same time the incorporation of research into the design process has gained prominence as a best practice among architects. The authors of this study investigated the status of design research in a variety of international settings. We intended to answer the question, "how pervasive is healthcare design research outside of the United States?" The authors reviewed the international literature on the design of healthcare facilities. More than 500 international studies and conference proceedings were incorporated in this literature review. A team of five research assistants searched multiple databases comparing approximately 16 keywords to geographic location. Some of those keywords included: evidence-based design, salutogenic design, design research, and healthcare environment. Additional articles were gathered by contacting prominent researchers and asking for their personal assessment of local health design research studies. While there are design researchers in most parts of the world, the majority of studies focus on the needs of populations in developed countries and generate guidelines that have significant cost and cultural implications that prohibit their implementation in developing countries. Additionally, the body of literature discussing the role of culture in healthcare environments is extremely limited. Design researchers must address the cultural implications of their studies. Additionally, we need to expand our research objectives to address healthcare design in countries that have not been previous considered. © 2014 Vendome Group, LLC.

  18. Securing the virtual environment how to defend the enterprise against attack

    CERN Document Server

    Ottenheimer, Davi

    2012-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to identifying and defending against attacks on the virtual environment As more and more data is moved into virtual environments the need to secure them becomes increasingly important. Useful for service providers as well as enterprise and small business IT professionals the book offers a broad look across virtualization used in various industries as well as a narrow view of vulnerabilities unique to virtual environments. A companion DVD is included with recipes and testing scripts. Examines the difference in a virtual model versus traditional computing models an

  19. Global climate policy impacts on livestock, land use, livelihoods, and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Alla A; Henderson, Benjamin B; Hertel, Thomas W; Gerber, Pierre J; Rose, Steven K; Sohngen, Brent

    2013-12-24

    Recent research has shed light on the cost-effective contribution that agriculture can make to global greenhouse gas abatement; however, the resulting impacts on agricultural production, producer livelihoods, and food security remain largely unexplored. This paper provides an integrated assessment of the linkages between land-based climate policies, development, and food security, with a particular emphasis on abatement opportunities and impacts in the livestock sector. Targeting Annex I countries and exempting non-Annex I countries from land-based carbon policies on equity or food security grounds may result in significant leakage rates for livestock production and agriculture as a whole. We find that such leakage can be eliminated by supplying forest carbon sequestration incentives to non-Annex I countries. Furthermore, substantial additional global agricultural abatement can be attained by extending a greenhouse gas emissions tax to non-Annex I agricultural producers, while compensating them for their additional tax expenses. Because of their relatively large emissions intensities and limited abatement possibilities, ruminant meat producers face the greatest market adjustments to land-based climate policies. We also evaluate the impacts of climate policies on livelihoods and food consumption in developing countries. In the absence of non-Annex I abatement policies, these impacts are modest. However, strong income and food consumption impacts surface because of higher food costs after forest carbon sequestration is promoted at a global scale. Food consumption among unskilled labor households falls but rises for the representative farm households, because global agricultural supplies are restricted and farm prices rise sharply in the face of inelastic food demands.

  20. An approach for investigation of secure access processes at a combined e-learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romansky, Radi; Noninska, Irina

    2017-12-01

    The article discuses an approach to investigate processes for regulation the security and privacy control at a heterogenous e-learning environment realized as a combination of traditional and cloud means and tools. Authors' proposal for combined architecture of e-learning system is presented and main subsystems and procedures are discussed. A formalization of the processes for using different types resources (public, private internal and private external) is proposed. The apparatus of Markovian chains (MC) is used for modeling and analytical investigation of the secure access to the resources is used and some assessments are presented.

  1. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  2. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  3. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions

  4. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme for World Health Day campaign for this year 2015 is “Food safety: from farm to plate, make food safe”. The day focuses on demonstrating the importance of food safety along the whole length of the food chain in a globalized world, from production and transport, to preparation and consumption (1. Everyone needs food and needs it every day either plant sources or animal sources or both. The food we eat must be nutritious and safe but we often ignore or overlook the issue of food safety. Many cases of food borne diseases either acute poisoning or chronic exposure are largely under reported. In this globalized world, though the food chain extends over thousands of miles from different continents, an error or contamination in one country can affect the health of consumers on the other part of the world. To ensure full impact, these actions must build on principles of government stewardship, engagement of civil society, (2.According to UN, access to a safe and secure food supply is a basic human right. Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts which have an impact on the health outcomes and quality of human lives. As per Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life, (3. Based on the definition of Food security, four food security dimensions can be identified: food availability, economic and physical access to food, food utilization and stability over time. Apart from that food security is also affected by Poverty and Climate change.Food safety is an umbrella term that encompasses many aspects like food items handling, preparation and storage of food to prevent illness and injury. The other important issues are chemical, microphysical and microbiological aspects of food safety, (4. Control of

  5. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  6. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers′ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country′s reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  7. ICT security curriculum or how to respond to current global challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Silviu Poboroniuc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some results obtained through the implementation of the Erasmus LLP “SALEIE” (Strategic Alignment of Electrical and Information Engineering in European Higher Education Institutions. The aim of the project was to bring together experts from European universities to enhance the competitiveness of Electrical and Information Engineering (EIE education within Europe, especially in relation to modern global technical challenges and to provide higher education models in a few EIE fields in accordance with these challenges. One of the outcomes of the project was a new ICT (Information and Computer Technology Security curriculum for bachelor and master levels. The research methodology comprised such stages as: identifying the most important current global challenges, conducting a survey related to existing EIE programs in order to establish the top-level criteria for an EIE curriculum, analyzing the results of the survey, obtaining the industry feedback related to technical and non-technical skills required for the specific field, and proposing a new curriculum for ICT Security programmes to respond to the modern technical challenges and to meet the needs of the industry, students, academics and graduates. As future work we will focus on stakeholder assessment in the EIE field and, based on the resulting feedback, on improving the ICT Security curriculum.

  8. Towards a Global Maritime Surveillance- A New European Challenge for European Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, Alain; Barbagelata, Andrea; Pasco, Xavier; Darnis, Jean Pierre

    2005-03-01

    The illegal immigration connected to traffic and criminal activity is creating problems in Europe. Maritime surveillance is one of the most problematic dimensions.The political decision and the international agreement of the development of VTMS and the AIS are a first step towards securing the maritime traffic and protecting the maritime borders.The weight of the terrorism through the emergence of new set of threats is changing the situation in creating new needs of control through a global approach. The recent sea trial of the US department of Homeland Security is an indicator of this evolution. Space technologies have unique capabilities to support this kind of global approaches:• GNSS and the satellite telecommunication fleet (e.g. INMARSAT, ORBCOM) have a direct contribution to the extension of the AIS.• Satellite remote sensing is the logic extension of the control of the "VTMS" area.The new generation of satellite fleet (e.g. Pléiades, TerraSar, COSMO/SkyMed, Radarsat) should ensure an acceptable first level of control.The revisitation time, the near real time transmission with fast processing is an effective answer to the need of the Maritime Security Authorities.

  9. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers’ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

  10. Quantifying the impact of weather extremes on global food security: A spatial bio-economic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sika Gbegbelegbe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a spatial bio-economic modelling framework to estimate the impact of the 2012 weather extreme in the USA on food security in the developing world. The study also quantifies the potential effects of a similar weather extreme occurring in 2050 under climate change. The study results indicate that weather extremes that affect maize productivity in key grain baskets can negatively affect food security in vulnerable countries. The 2012 weather extreme which occurred in the USA reduced US and global maize production by 29% compared to trend; maize consumption in the country decreased by 5% only and this resulted in less surplus maize for exports from the largest maize exporter in the world. Global maize production decreased by 6% compared to trend. The decrease in global maize production coupled with a reduction in the volume of global maize exports worsened food insecurity in eastern Africa, the Caribbean and Central America and India. The effects of the weather extreme on global food security would be worse, if the latter were to occur under climate change in 2050, assuming no climate change adaptation worldwide over the years. In addition, the hardest-hit regions would remain the same, whether the weather extreme occurs in 2012 instead of 2050: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, South Asia and the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC region. However, sustained growth in per capita income across world economies between 2000 and 2050 would allow few countries in SSA and the LAC region to virtually eliminate hunger within their borders. In these countries, per capita income would be high enough by 2050 to completely offset the negative effect of the weather extreme. The study results are also consistent with USDA׳s estimates on US and global maize production and consumption in 2012 after the weather extreme. Some discrepancy is found on the volume of global maize trade; this implies that the bio-economic model likely overestimates the effect of the

  11. 77 FR 12355 - Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Transactions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle- to... Enabling a Secure Environment for Vehicle- to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I... will be presented in August 2012 during the annual Connected Vehicle Safety public meeting and via...

  12. Public views on multiple dimensions of security : nuclear waepons, terrorism, energy, and the environment : 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, Kerry Gale (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK)

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  13. Public views on multiple dimensions of security: nuclear weapons, terrorism, energy, and the environment: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  14. Open and Distance Education in Global Environment: Opportunities for Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. PULIST

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance education system in India has undergone many stages and phases of evolution before it really reached the stage of what is called open education, ICT-enabled education and global education. During these phases, it has assimilated different aspects of ICT with all applauds and has been able to go hand-in-hand with it transcending the national and regional boundaries. The distance education institutions have now started giving a serious thought to explore the possibility of cross-boarder expansion. The educational needs of the present society are changing very fast. The education is now being seen as an enabling tool for empowerment and all-round development of individuals. It is difficult for an institution to come up to all the educational requirements of the society. It is, therefore, time to collaborate rather than compete. Quality concern becomes a serious issue in such a situation. Consequently, globalization, internationalization, collaboration, networking have become the buzzwords of the day in distance education. In furtherance of this journey, Indira National Open University, INDIA organized an international conference on the theme “Open and Distance Education in Global Environment: Opportunities for Collaboration” under the aegis of International Council for Distance Education. The articles of the renowned educationists presented in the Conference have reserved their place in the volume under review. The volume is a repository of their experiences in the becoming of distance education all these years. The volume is spread over 32 chapters summed up into four major streams– internationalization are: collaboration and networking; ICT-enabled education; quality assurance; and distance education for development. The canvas of the volume covers the present scenario of open and distance education from the global perspective.The first part discusses as to how collaboration can be tamed to develop joint curriculum and deliver

  15. Towards adaptive security for convergent wireless sensor networks in beyond 3G environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitseva, Anelia; Aivaloglou, Efthimia; Marchitti, Maria-Antonietta

    2010-01-01

    The integration of wireless sensor networks with different network systems gives rise to many research challenges to ensure security, privacy and trust in the overall architecture. The main contribution of this paper is a generic security, privacy and trust framework providing context......-aware adaptability, flexibility and scalability which allows customisation of wireless sensor networks to a diverse set of application spaces. Suitable protocols and mechanisms are identified, which when combined according to the framework form a complete toolbox solution which fits the architecture of Beyond 3G...... environments. Performance evaluation results demonstrate the feasibility and estimate the benefits of the security framework for a variety of scenarios. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  16. Security Analysis of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution in Collective-Rotation Noisy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhang, Yu; Wen, Shuang; Li, Lei-lei; Li, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Noise is a problem that communication channels cannot avoid. It is, thus, beneficial to analyze the security of MDI-QKD in noisy environment. An analysis model for collective-rotation noise is introduced, and the information theory methods are used to analyze the security of the protocol. The maximum amount of information that Eve can eavesdrop is 50%, and the eavesdropping can always be detected if the noise level ɛ ≤ 0.68. Therefore, MDI-QKD protocol is secure as quantum key distribution protocol. The maximum probability that the relay outputs successful results is 16% when existing eavesdropping. Moreover, the probability that the relay outputs successful results when existing eavesdropping is higher than the situation without eavesdropping. The paper validates that MDI-QKD protocol has better robustness.

  17. PRINCIPLE OF THE ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT SECURITY IN THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery G. Tylets

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of professional training of students in e-learning environment in accordance with the principle of security. The authors offer the essay technology of multiple difficulty levels. In the article the description of each level of technology proves its conformity to the positions of principle of security. The main methods of measurement performance were made by expert assessment and subjective scaling. The analysis of results of approbation of essay technology of multiple difficulty levels in the experimental sample showed an increase of objective and subjective indicators. Positive methodological and personal effects of the introduction of technology into the process of university education were identified, corresponding to the positions of principle of security. Methodical recommendations of application of technology were formulated.

  18. A Provably Secure RFID Authentication Protocol Based on Elliptic Curve for Healthcare Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farash, Mohammad Sabzinejad; Nawaz, Omer; Mahmood, Khalid; Chaudhry, Shehzad Ashraf; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2016-07-01

    To enhance the quality of healthcare in the management of chronic disease, telecare medical information systems have increasingly been used. Very recently, Zhang and Qi (J. Med. Syst. 38(5):47, 32), and Zhao (J. Med. Syst. 38(5):46, 33) separately proposed two authentication schemes for telecare medical information systems using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. They claimed that their protocols achieve all security requirements including forward secrecy. However, this paper demonstrates that both Zhang and Qi's scheme, and Zhao's scheme could not provide forward secrecy. To augment the security, we propose an efficient RFID authentication scheme using elliptic curves for healthcare environments. The proposed RFID scheme is secure under common random oracle model.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL MARKETING STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    V. Savelyev

    2014-01-01

    The article concerns with essence of assessment of the business environment and specific directions of analysis during the working out of global marketing strategy. The classification of the global marketing environment researches and tasks sequence in the context of the decisions made on each stage of global marketing strategy is proposed.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL MARKETING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Savelyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns with essence of assessment of the business environment and specific directions of analysis during the working out of global marketing strategy. The classification of the global marketing environment researches and tasks sequence in the context of the decisions made on each stage of global marketing strategy is proposed.

  1. 'Vulnerability is universal': considering the place of 'security' and 'vulnerability' within contemporary global health discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tim

    2011-02-01

    The question of global health has, at least since 9/11, (re)emerged as one of the world's key geopolitical issues and, as many scholars have noted, this increased attention to the state of world health is especially focused on questions of national security and vulnerability. Despite its prominence in political, health policy and scholarly circles, health geographers have tended to overlook this particular aspect of global health discourse. This paper seeks to redress this lacuna. It does so for three reasons. The first lies in the idea that this discourse is inherently geographical; after all, it is in essence concerned with the flows of human and non-human agents within and, more importantly here, across, national borders. It is also of interest because a focus on vulnerability allows for an analysis that goes beyond the current fixation with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Although it is certainly true that the concern with such diseases dominates, and the recent focus upon H1N1 swine flu is testament to that, there is also a suggestion that the processes associated with the enhanced threat posed by these diseases are similar to those that have caused non-communicable diseases to become a global health problem too. A third reason for focussing on this aspect of the global health discourse is that the subsequent search for 'security' is highly problematic; especially if we consider the question of "who is to be protected, and from what". The aim of the paper is, then, to offer a critical review of the international discourse on global health and to highlight its relevance to scholars that self-identify as health and medical geographers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  3. Global Health Engagement and The Department of Defense as a Vehicle for Security and Sustainable Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moten, Asad; Schafer, Daniel; Burkett, Edwin K

    2018-01-01

    The Unites States Department of Defense (DoD) is viewed by many in the general public as a monolithic government entity whose primary purpose is to coordinate this country's ability to make war and maintain a military presence around the world. However, the DoD is in fact a multidimensional organization whose global impact is as expansive as it is varying and is responsible for far-reaching global health interventions. The United States has worked toward providing long-term care among host nation populations by providing training in several areas related to medicine, with positive results. These efforts can be built upon with substantial positive effects. Building health infrastructure and capacity around the world is essential. The DoD is the most generously funded agency in the world, and the resources at its disposal provide the opportunity to make great gains in the long term in terms of both health and security worldwide. With efficient and careful use of DoD resources, and partnerships with key non-governmental organizations with specialized knowledge and great passion, partnerships can be forged with communities around the world to ensure that public health is achieved in even the most underserved communities. A move toward creating sustainable health systems with long-term goals and measurable outcomes is an essential complement to the already successful disaster and emergency relief that the United States military already provides. By ensuring that communities around the world are both provided with access to the sustainable health care they need and that emergency situations can be responded to in an efficient way, the United States can serve its duty as a leader in sharing expertise and resources for the betterment and security of all humankind. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Collective Security in the Context of Globalization. The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Dumitrache

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available European countries have taken part in the Globalization process ever since the end of the Second World War. Being active members of international institutions like the IMF, World Bank Group, NATO or the WTO, the European countries have even developed a collective entity of their own, that of the European Union. In later years, Eastern European countries like Romania have also become a part of this globalised system. It is the aim of this paper to present the effects that this integration has brought in terms of economic development and security challenges for EU member states, by taking into consideration the example of Romania.

  5. Global partnering related to nuclear materials safeguards and security - A pragmatic approach to international safeguards work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents issues Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. has addressed in the performance of international work to safeguards and security work. It begins with a description of the package we put together for a sample proposal for the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, for which we were ranked number one for technical approach and cost, and concludes with a discussion of approaches that we have taken to performing this work, including issues related to performing the work as part of a team. The primary focus is on communication, workforce, equipment, and coordination issues. Finally, the paper documents the rules that we use to assure the work is performed safely and successfully. (author)

  6. Global inequality and care of the environment: a political and ethical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end, theresearch makes a clarion call to the society for global equality in the consumption of the goods of the environment and also for all men and women to love, cherishes and cares for the environment--- as political and ethical duties. Keywords: Global inequality, Care, Environment, Ethics, Environmental, Rights ...

  7. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Hancock, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  8. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Lobos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last hundred years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent.

  9. CORPORATE COMMUNICATION BIASES IN THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT UNDER GLOBALIZATION TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Elena, Chiţu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the private sector, employers’ requirements of specific communication skills, the economic field division into numberless branches of activity – finance and banks, management, human resources, accounting, international relations, tourism – the presence of a certain literature in the field by means of translations, all such aspects represent grounded reasons for the existence of a global economic vocabulary in the Romanian language. Finding its origins in the structuralism philosophic principles and associated with the structuralism linguistic trends, economic language’s globalisation becomes obvious nowadays through the occurrence of a large number of linguistic borrowings. Classified into either needless or necessary borrowed lexical units, lexical units borrowed and completely or at all assimilated in the target language, such borrowings lay the foundation of what specialists in the field call corporate language. Considering that the total or partial lack of knowledge on such language can become a real barrier in achieving communication, this study aims at analysing the level to which such words are known by the employees in the business environments involved in economic international partnerships and in multinational organisations.

  10. IT-security challenges in IoT environments and autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heun, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    Internet of Things will open the digital world for future services working across company borders. Together with autonomous systems intelligent things will communicate and work together without direct influence of human technicians or service managers. IT-security will become one of the most important challenges to ensure a stable service performance and to provide a trustful environment to let people use such service without any concerns regarding data privacy and eligibility of the outcomes.

  11. The Security Environment in Southeast Asia and Australia, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    CRM 95-212/March 1996 The Security Environment in Southeast Asia and Australia , 1995-2010 Lyall Breckon 19960408 091 Cleared for Public Release...Asia’s successful mainstream .• 10 Vietnam 20 Other Southeast Asian countries 27 Australia 29 New Zealand 34 Trends in Southeast Asia with...Asia-Pacific Region (APR) between now and 2010. This research memorandum focuses on the most probable trends relating to Southeast Asia and Australia

  12. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Optical Waveguide Sensing and Imaging in Medicine, Environment, Security and Defence

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Wojtek J; Tanev, Stoyan

    2008-01-01

    The book explores various aspects of existing and emerging fiber and waveguide optics sensing and imaging technologies including recent advances in nanobiophotonics. The focus is both on fundamental and applied research as well as on applications in civil engineering, biomedical sciences, environment, security and defence. The main goal of the multi-disciplinarry team of Editors was to provide an useful reference of state-of-the-art overviews covering a variety of complementary topics on the interface of engineering and biomedical sciences.

  13. World Energy Balance Outlook and OPEC Production Capacity: Implications for Global Oil Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh M. Rouhani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The imbalance between energy resource availability, demand, and production capacity, coupled with inherent economic and environmental uncertainties make strategic energy resources planning, management, and decision-making a challenging process. In this paper, a descriptive approach has been taken to synthesize the world’s energy portfolio and the global energy balance outlook in order to provide insights into the role of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC in maintaining “stability” and “balance” of the world’s energy market. This synthesis illustrates that in the absence of stringent policies, i.e., if historical trends of the global energy production and consumption hold into the future, it is unlikely that non-conventional liquid fuels and renewable energy sources will play a dominant role in meeting global energy demand by 2030. This should be a source of major global concern as the world may be unprepared for an ultimate shift to other energy sources when the imminent peak oil production is reached. OPEC’s potential to impact the supply and price of oil could enable this organization to act as a facilitator or a barrier for energy transition policies, and to play a key role in the global energy security through cooperative or non-cooperative strategies. It is argued that, as the global energy portfolio becomes more balanced in the long run, OPEC may change its typical high oil price strategies to drive the market prices to lower equilibria, making alternative energy sources less competitive. Alternatively, OPEC can contribute to a cooperative portfolio management approach to help mitigate the gradually emerging energy crisis and global warming, facilitating a less turbulent energy transition path while there is time.

  14. Climate Change and Global Food Systems: Potential Impacts on Food Security and Undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S; Smith, Matthew R; Guth, Sarah; Golden, Christopher D; Vaitla, Bapu; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Dangour, Alan D; Huybers, Peter

    2017-03-20

    Great progress has been made in addressing global undernutrition over the past several decades, in part because of large increases in food production from agricultural expansion and intensification. Food systems, however, face continued increases in demand and growing environmental pressures. Most prominently, human-caused climate change will influence the quality and quantity of food we produce and our ability to distribute it equitably. Our capacity to ensure food security and nutritional adequacy in the face of rapidly changing biophysical conditions will be a major determinant of the next century's global burden of disease. In this article, we review the main pathways by which climate change may affect our food production systems-agriculture, fisheries, and livestock-as well as the socioeconomic forces that may influence equitable distribution.

  15. A secure RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments using elliptic curve cryptosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenguo

    2014-05-01

    With the fast advancement of the wireless communication technology and the widespread use of medical systems, the radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in healthcare environments. As the first important protocol for ensuring secure communication in healthcare environment, the RFID authentication protocols derive more and more attentions. Most of RFID authentication protocols are based on hash function or symmetric cryptography. To get more security properties, elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC) has been used in the design of RFID authentication protocol. Recently, Liao and Hsiao proposed a new RFID authentication protocol using ECC and claimed their protocol could withstand various attacks. In this paper, we will show that their protocol suffers from the key compromise problem, i.e. an adversary could get the private key stored in the tag. To enhance the security, we propose a new RFID authentication protocol using ECC. Detailed analysis shows the proposed protocol not only could overcome weaknesses in Liao and Hsiao's protocol but also has the same performance. Therefore, it is more suitable for healthcare environments.

  16. A global assessment of wildfire risks to human and environmental water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinne, François-Nicolas; Parisien, Marc-André; Flannigan, Mike; Miller, Carol; Bladon, Kevin D.

    2017-04-01

    Extreme wildfire events extensively affect hydrosystem stability and generate an important threat to the reliability of the water supply for human and natural communities. While actively studied at the watershed scale, the development of a global vision of wildfire risk to water security has only been undertaken recently, pointing at potential water security concerns in an era of global changes. In order to address this concern, we propose a global-scale analysis of the wildfire risk to surface water supplies based on the Driving forces-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This framework relies on the cause-and-effect relationships existing between the five categories of the DPSIR chain. Based on the literature, we gathered an extensive set of spatial indicators relevant to fire-induced hydrological hazards and water consumption patterns by human and natural communities. Each indicator was assigned a DPSIR category. Then, we collapsed the information in each category using a principal component analysis in order to extract the most relevant pixel-based information provided by each spatial indicator. Finally, we compiled our five categories using an additive indexation process to produce a spatially-explicit index of the wildfire-water risk (WWR). For comparison purposes, we aggregated index scores by global hydrological regions, or hydrobelts, for analysis. Overall, our results show a distinct pattern of medium-to-high risk levels in areas where sizeable wildfire activity, water resources, and water consumption are concomitant, which mainly encompasses temperate and sub-tropical zones. A closer look at hydrobelts reveals differences in the factors driving the risk, with fire activity being the primary factor of risk in the circumboreal forest, and freshwater resource density being prevalent in tropical areas. We also identified major urban areas across the world whose source waters should be protected from extreme fire events, particularly when

  17. Failing States as Epidemiologic Risk Zones: Implications for Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Katherine

    Failed states commonly experience health and mortality crises that include outbreaks of infectious disease, violent conflict, reductions in life expectancy, and increased infant and maternal mortality. This article draws from recent research in political science, security studies, and international relations to explore how the process of state failure generates health declines and outbreaks of infectious disease. The key innovation of this model is a revised definition of "the state" as a geographically dynamic rather than static political space. This makes it easier to understand how phases of territorial contraction, collapse, and regeneration interrupt public health programs, destabilize the natural environment, reduce human security, and increase risks of epidemic infectious disease and other humanitarian crises. Better understanding of these dynamics will help international health agencies predict and prepare for future health and mortality crises created by failing states.

  18. Globalization in a Religiously Pluralistic Environment: The Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    This is possible in an age of globalization as the next section discusses. Globalization and Religion. The trend of globalization pulls everything together as much as is possible. Concepts like religion have strict and broad dimensions. Here, religion is given a broad definition that tries to delineate the widest circumference of ...

  19. Precipitation variability on global pasturelands may affect food security in livestock-dependent regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, L.; Gerber, J. S.; Samberg, L. H.; Smith, W. K.; West, P. C.; Herrero, M.; Brendan, P.; Cecile, G.; Katharina, W.; Smith, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    The need to feed an increasing number of people while maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services is one of the key challenges currently facing humanity. Livestock systems are likely to be a crucial piece of this puzzle, as urbanization and changing diets in much of the world lead to increases in global meat consumption. This predicted increase in global demand for livestock products will challenge the ability of pastures and rangelands to maintain or increase their productivity. The majority of people that depend on animal production for food security do so through grazing and herding on natural rangelands, and these systems make a significant contribution to global production of meat and milk. The vegetation dynamics of natural forage are highly dependent on climate, and subject to disruption with changes in climate and climate variability. Precipitation heterogeneity has been linked to the ecosystem dynamics of grazing lands through impacts on livestock carrying capacity and grassland degradation potential. Additionally, changes in precipitation variability are linked to the increased incidence of extreme events (e.g. droughts, floods) that negatively impact food production and food security. Here, we use the inter-annual coefficient of variation (CV) of precipitation as a metric to assess climate risk on global pastures. Comparisons of global satellite measures of vegetation greenness to climate reveal that the CV of precipitation is negatively related to mean annual NDVI, such that areas with low year-to-year precipitation variability have the highest measures of vegetation greenness, and vice versa. Furthermore, areas with high CV of precipitation support lower livestock densities and produce less meat. A sliding window analysis of changes in CV of precipitation over the last century shows that, overall, precipitation variability is increasing in global pasture areas, although global maps reveal a patchwork of both positive and negative changes. We use

  20. American security perspectives: public views on energy, environment, nuclear weapons and terrorism: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from matching national surveys of the US general public on US energy and environmental security administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2008. Key areas of investigation include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alter-native sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include evolving perspectives on global climate change and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options. We also report findings from an Internet survey of the general public conducted in mid-2008 that investigates assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism.

  1. Securing the State through the Production of "Global" Citizens: Analyzing Neo-Liberal Educational Reforms in Jordan and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantzopoulos, Maria; Shirazi, Roozbeh

    2014-01-01

    From a human capital perspective, schooling has long represented an engine of economic growth, individual advancement, and competitiveness in the global market. In recent years, this theorization of schooling has become linked with articulations of national security in both the Global North and South, as policymakers, private sector actors, and…

  2. Global maize trade and food security: implications from a social network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we developed a social network model of the global trade of maize: one of the most important food, feed, and industrial crops worldwide, and critical to food security. We used this model to analyze patterns of maize trade among nations, and to determine where vulnerabilities in food security might arise if maize availability was decreased due to factors such as diversion to nonfood uses, climatic factors, or plant diseases. Using data on imports and exports from the U.N. Commodity Trade Statistics Database for each year from 2000 to 2009 inclusive, we summarized statistics on volumes of maize trade between pairs of nations for 217 nations. There is evidence of market segregation among clusters of nations; with three prominent clusters representing Europe, Brazil and Argentina, and the United States. The United States is by far the largest exporter of maize worldwide, whereas Japan and the Republic of Korea are the largest maize importers. In particular, the star-shaped cluster of the network that represents U.S. maize trade to other nations indicates the potential for food security risks because of the lack of trade these other nations conduct with other maize exporters. If a scenario arose in which U.S. maize could not be exported in as large quantities, maize supplies in many nations could be jeopardized. We discuss this in the context of recent maize ethanol production and its attendant impacts on food prices elsewhere worldwide. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

  4. Security in the Baltic region as a Projection of Global Confrontation between Russia and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Volovoj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of security in the Baltic region, namely, that of Poland and the Baltics. The authors rely on the works of Karl Deutsch, Emanuel Adler, on Michael Barnett’s theory of security communities and Barry Buzan’s re­gional security complex theory, address Steven Mann’s controlled chaos theory and the concept of Intermarium. Their starting assumption is that the situation in the Baltic depends largely on the politics of external powers — Russia and the United States, — being a projection of their global geopolitical confrontation. The US strategy thus becomes a major part of the equation. The authors believe that since the end of the second Iraq war the American elite has been divided along ideological lines into adherents of the chaos theory and traditionalists thinking in terms of sharing control with the other centres of global power. The US strategy in the Baltic region does not seek an open military conflict with Russia. On the contrary, the US strives to preserve the current level of confrontation between Russia and the EU, convincing the latter of the reality of the Russian threat. Countries that traditionally support confrontation with Russia, Poland and the Bal­tics, serve as a conduit for Washington strategy in Europe and a cordon sanitaire. This function is implemented through the Intermarium project meant to separate Russia from the EU. The four countries are rather active in this area, striving to attain the status of the US principal partners in the region and Europe in general. To retaliate, Moscow does everything within its power to ‘separate’ Brussels from Washington, yet the US influence is still very strong in Europe.

  5. Linking freshwater fishery management to global food security and biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Peter B; Reidy Liermann, Catherine A; Revenga, Carmen

    2016-10-24

    Fisheries are an essential ecosystem service, but catches from freshwaters are often overlooked. Hundreds of millions of people around the world benefit from low-cost protein, recreation, and commerce provided by freshwater fisheries, particularly in regions where alternative sources of nutrition and employment are scarce. Here, we derive a gridded global map of riverine fisheries and assess its implications for biodiversity conservation, fishery sustainability, and food security. Catches increase with river discharge and human population density, and 90% of global catch comes from river basins with above-average stress levels. Fish richness and catches are positively but not causally correlated, revealing that fishing pressure is most intense in rivers where potential impacts on biodiversity are highest. Merging our catch analysis with nutritional and socioeconomic data, we find that freshwater fisheries provide the equivalent of all dietary animal protein for 158 million people. Poor and undernourished populations are particularly reliant on inland fisheries compared with marine or aquaculture sources. The spatial coincidence of productive freshwater fisheries and low food security highlights the critical role of rivers and lakes in providing locally sourced, low-cost protein. At the same time, intensive fishing in regions where rivers are already degraded by other stressors may undermine efforts to conserve biodiversity. This syndrome of poverty, nutritional deficiency, fishery dependence, and extrinsic threats to biodiverse river ecosystems underscores the high stakes for improving fishery management. Our enhanced spatial data on estimated catches can facilitate the inclusion of inland fisheries in environmental planning to protect both food security and species diversity.

  6. Adaptive Global Innovative Learning Environment for Glioblastoma: GBM AGILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Brian M; Ba, Sujuan; Berger, Mitchel S; Berry, Donald A; Cavenee, Webster K; Chang, Susan M; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Jiang, Tao; Khasraw, Mustafa; Li, Wenbin; Mittman, Robert; Poste, George H; Wen, Patrick Y; Yung, W K Alfred; Barker, Anna D

    2018-02-15

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly disease with few effective therapies. Although much has been learned about the molecular characteristics of the disease, this knowledge has not been translated into clinical improvements for patients. At the same time, many new therapies are being developed. Many of these therapies have potential biomarkers to identify responders. The result is an enormous amount of testable clinical questions that must be answered efficiently. The GBM Adaptive Global Innovative Learning Environment (GBM AGILE) is a novel, multi-arm, platform trial designed to address these challenges. It is the result of the collective work of over 130 oncologists, statisticians, pathologists, neurosurgeons, imagers, and translational and basic scientists from around the world. GBM AGILE is composed of two stages. The first stage is a Bayesian adaptively randomized screening stage to identify effective therapies based on impact on overall survival compared with a common control. This stage also finds the population in which the therapy shows the most promise based on clinical indication and biomarker status. Highly effective therapies transition in an inferentially seamless manner in the identified population to a second confirmatory stage. The second stage uses fixed randomization to confirm the findings from the first stage to support registration. Therapeutic arms with biomarkers may be added to the trial over time, while others complete testing. The design of GBM AGILE enables rapid clinical testing of new therapies and biomarkers to speed highly effective therapies to clinical practice. Clin Cancer Res; 24(4); 737-43. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. SAFETY AND SECURITY IN THE AGE OF GLOBAL TOURISM (The changing role and conception of Safety and Security in Tourism)

    OpenAIRE

    Kovari, Istvan; Zimanyi, Krisztina

    2011-01-01

    Safety and security have always been indispensable condition for travel and tourism. Research and education also has to face the issues of security and safety in tourism in order to prepare future specialists of the industry by incorporating new results of research to academic curricula.

  8. Exploring the impact of the 2008 global food crisis on food security among vulnerable households in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Robson, Kristin; Gutilla, Margaret J; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne; Norlund, Petra

    2014-04-01

    Recurring food crises endanger the livelihoods of millions of households in developing countries around the globe. Owing to the importance of this issue, we explore recent changes in food security between the years 2004 and 2010 in a rural district in Northeastern South Africa. Our study window spans the time of the 2008 global food crises and allows the investigation of its impacts on rural South African populations. Grounded in the sustainable livelihood framework, we examine differences in food security trajectories among vulnerable sub populations. A unique panel data set of 8,147 households, provided by the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Agincourt HDSS), allows us to employ a longitudinal multilevel modeling approach to estimate adjusted growth curves for the differential change in food security across time. We observe an overall improvement in food security that leveled off after 2008, most likely resulting from the global food crisis. In addition, we discover significant differences in food security trajectories for various sub populations. For example, female-headed households and those living in areas with better access to natural resources differentially improved their food security situation, compared to male-headed households and those households with lower levels of natural resource access. However, former Mozambican refugees witnessed a decline in food security. Therefore, poverty alleviation programs for the Agincourt region should work to improve the food security of vulnerable households, such as former Mozambican refugees.

  9. Monitoring Global Food Security with New Remote Sensing Products and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Magadzire, T.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Global agriculture monitoring is a crucial aspect of monitoring food security in the developing world. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has a long history of using remote sensing and crop modeling to address food security threats in the form of drought, floods, pests, and climate change. In recent years, it has become apparent that FEWS NET requires the ability to apply monitoring and modeling frameworks at a global scale to assess potential impacts of foreign production and markets on food security at regional, national, and local levels. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) Climate Hazards Group have provided new and improved data products as well as visualization and analysis tools in support of the increased mandate for remote monitoring. We present our monitoring products for measuring actual evapotranspiration (ETa), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a near-real-time mode, and satellite-based rainfall estimates and derivatives. USGS FEWS NET has implemented a Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to produce operational ETa anomalies for Africa and Central Asia. During the growing season, ETa anomalies express surplus or deficit crop water use, which is directly related to crop condition and biomass. We present current operational products and provide supporting validation of the SSEB model. The expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (eMODIS) production system provides FEWS NET with an improved NDVI dataset for crop and rangeland monitoring. eMODIS NDVI provides a reliable data stream with a relatively high spatial resolution (250-m) and short latency period (less than 12 hours) which allows for better operational vegetation monitoring. We provide an overview of these data and cite specific applications for crop monitoring. FEWS NET uses satellite rainfall estimates as inputs for

  10. Security Flaws in an Efficient Pseudo-Random Number Generator for Low-Power Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Hernandez-Castro, Julio C.; Tapiador, Juan M. E.; Millán, Enrique San; van der Lubbe, Jan C. A.

    In 2004, Settharam and Rhee tackled the design of a lightweight Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) suitable for low-power environments (e.g. sensor networks, low-cost RFID tags). First, they explicitly fixed a set of requirements for this primitive. Then, they proposed a PRNG conforming to these requirements and using a free-running timer [9]. We analyze this primitive discovering important security faults. The proposed algorithm fails to pass even relatively non-stringent batteries of randomness such as ENT (i.e. a pseudorandom number sequence test program). We prove that their recommended PRNG has a very short period due to the flawed design of its core. The internal state can be easily revealed, compromising its backward and forward security. Additionally, the rekeying algorithm is defectively designed mainly related to the unpractical value proposed for this purpose.

  11. Growing water scarcity in agriculture: future challenge to global water security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenmark, Malin

    2013-11-13

    As water is an essential component of the planetary life support system, water deficiency constitutes an insecurity that has to be overcome in the process of socio-economic development. The paper analyses the origin and appearance of blue as well as green water scarcity on different scales and with particular focus on risks to food production and water supply for municipalities and industry. It analyses water scarcity originating from both climatic phenomena and water partitioning disturbances on different scales: crop field, country level and the global circulation system. The implications by 2050 of water scarcity in terms of potential country-level water deficits for food self-reliance are analysed, and the compensating dependence on trade in virtual water for almost half the world population is noted. Planetary-scale conditions for sustainability of the global water circulation system are discussed in terms of a recently proposed Planetary Freshwater Boundary, and the consumptive water use reserve left to be shared between water requirements for global food production, fuelwood production and carbon sequestration is discussed. Finally, the importance of a paradigm shift in the further conceptual development of water security is stressed, so that adequate attention is paid to water's fundamental role in both natural and socio-economic systems.

  12. A collaborative virtual environment for training of security agents in nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Sara I.; Passos, Cláudio A.; Silva, Marcio H.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Legey, Ana Paula; Mol, Antonio Carlos; Machado, Daniel M.; Cotelli, André; Rocha, Tiago L.

    2017-01-01

    In face the recently observed security menaces related to terrorist actions and natural disasters, there is a need for a major qualification and training of the agents responsible for avoid any problems regarding to abnormal conditions. In the conventional training procedures, however, field simulations are associated to logistical and operational constraints regarded to the execution of the tests which can expose the user to risk. On the other hand, the use of virtual simulations provides an alternative to such limitations besides of promote the qualifying of professionals with a great reliability. For this reason, this paper proposes the development of a collaborative virtual environment that will be used to prepare the security agents on identifying individuals suspected of carrying radioactive materials. The development of the virtual environment consisted on modeling using Autodesk 3ds Max, where the scene itself and the scene objects were modeled besides the terrain creation and basic features programming using the Game Engine Unity 3D. In the Engine Game were included radiation detectors and avatars. The security agents were able to communicate to each other by means of auxiliary external tools like a headset software that makes possible the communication, coordination and cooperation required for an effective collaboration. Experimental tests of the virtual simulations were performed with the participation of CNEN radiological protection agents and collaborators. The tests have shown that the proposed method can contribute to improve the training results of the basic collaborative skills required for a CNEN agent in an emergency situation without the need to expose him to any kind of risk. In face of that, we hope that it can contribute to minimize the demand for qualified security professionals. (author)

  13. A collaborative virtual environment for training of security agents in nuclear emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Sara I.; Passos, Cláudio A.; Silva, Marcio H.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Legey, Ana Paula; Mol, Antonio Carlos; Machado, Daniel M.; Cotelli, André; Rocha, Tiago L., E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Realidade Virtual

    2017-07-01

    In face the recently observed security menaces related to terrorist actions and natural disasters, there is a need for a major qualification and training of the agents responsible for avoid any problems regarding to abnormal conditions. In the conventional training procedures, however, field simulations are associated to logistical and operational constraints regarded to the execution of the tests which can expose the user to risk. On the other hand, the use of virtual simulations provides an alternative to such limitations besides of promote the qualifying of professionals with a great reliability. For this reason, this paper proposes the development of a collaborative virtual environment that will be used to prepare the security agents on identifying individuals suspected of carrying radioactive materials. The development of the virtual environment consisted on modeling using Autodesk 3ds Max, where the scene itself and the scene objects were modeled besides the terrain creation and basic features programming using the Game Engine Unity 3D. In the Engine Game were included radiation detectors and avatars. The security agents were able to communicate to each other by means of auxiliary external tools like a headset software that makes possible the communication, coordination and cooperation required for an effective collaboration. Experimental tests of the virtual simulations were performed with the participation of CNEN radiological protection agents and collaborators. The tests have shown that the proposed method can contribute to improve the training results of the basic collaborative skills required for a CNEN agent in an emergency situation without the need to expose him to any kind of risk. In face of that, we hope that it can contribute to minimize the demand for qualified security professionals. (author)

  14. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and

  15. Global climate change and international security. Report on a conference held at Argonne National Laboratory, May 8--10, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.

    1991-12-31

    On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

  16. Assessment of National Public Health and Reference Laboratory, Accra, Ghana, within Framework of Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogee-Nwankwo, Adaeze; Opare, David; Boateng, Gifty; Nyaku, Mawuli; Haynes, Lia M; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Conklin, Laura; Icenogle, Joseph P; Rota, Paul A; Waku-Kouomou, Diane

    2017-12-01

    The Second Year of Life project of the Global Health Security Agenda aims to improve immunization systems and strengthen measles and rubella surveillance, including building laboratory capacity. A new laboratory assessment tool was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assess the national laboratory in Ghana to improve molecular surveillance for measles and rubella. Results for the tool showed that the laboratory is well organized, has a good capacity for handling specimens, has a good biosafety system, and is proficient for diagnosis of measles and rubella by serologic analysis. However, there was little knowledge about molecular biology and virology activities (i.e., virus isolation on tissue culture was not available). Recommendations included training of technical personnel for molecular techniques and advocacy for funding for laboratory equipment, reagents, and supplies.

  17. Book Review: Cyber Security and Global Information Assurance: Threat Analysis and Response Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kessler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Knapp, K.J. (Ed. (2009. Cyber Security and Global Information Assurance: Threat Analysis and Response Solutions. Hershey, NY: Information Science Reference. 434 + xxii pages, ISBN: 978-1-60566-326-5, US$195.Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gck@garykessler.netI freely admit that this book was sent to me by the publisher for the expressed purpose of my writing a review and that I know several of the chapter authors. With that disclosure out of the way, let me say that the book is well worth the review (and I get to keep my review copy.The preface to the book cites the 2003 publication of The National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace by the White House, and the acknowledgement by the U.S. government that our economy and national security were fully dependent upon computers, networks, and the telecommunications infrastructure. This mayhave come as news to the general population but it was a long overdue public statement to those of us in the industry. The FBI's InfraGard program and the formation of the National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC pre-dated this report by at least a half-dozen years, so the report was hardly earthshattering. And the fact that the bulk of the telecom infrastructure is owned by the private sector is a less advertized fact. Nonetheless, reminding the community of these facts is always a Good Thing and provides the raison d’être of this book.(see PDF for full review

  18. Global security: The need for a new beginning, 12 October 2007, New Delhi, Hindustan Times Leadership Summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2007-01-01

    The search for security remains the overriding concern for many peoples and nations. But the definition of what constitutes security, and the strategies for attaining it, vary greatly. For billions of people, the quest is to 'secure' basic needs: food, water, shelter and health care - in other words, freedom from want. For others, it is to 'secure' other fundamental human rights: freedom of expression, freedom from oppression, freedom from fear. Even among States, security has different definitions. For some, it is the achievement of economic or military parity or superiority, for others the projection of power and influence, and for still others the resolution of grievances and disputes. If we look at the quest to secure basic needs, we are struck by the persistent inequity in the global distribution of wealth. If we look at the quest for other fundamental human rights, the picture is also grim in many regions, with problems ranging from religious intolerance and the lack of political freedom to systematic oppression and torture. Perhaps the most severe critique of our global progress in this area is reflected in our uneven approach to the sanctity of human life. If we look at the security of nation-States, our record is also poor, particularly as reflected in regional conflicts that have been allowed to fester for decades. The effort to curtail nuclear threats is still a work in progress. Consider the events of just the past few years. The war in Iraq over suspicions that nuclear and other weapons programmes had been revived. North Korea's withdrawal from the NPT and subsequent test of a nuclear weapon. Libya's relinquishment of a fledgling nuclear weapons programme. The discovery of A. Q. Khan's illicit nuclear procurement and distribution network. The still ongoing investigation of Iran's clandestine nuclear programme. And not least, a surge in the sophistication of extremist networks - underscoring the potential for nuclear and radiological terrorism. Add to

  19. Global food and fibre security threatened by current inefficiencies in fungal identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens severely impact global food and fibre crop security. Fungal species that cause plant diseases have mostly been recognized based on their morphology. In general, morphological descriptions remain disconnected from crucially important knowledge such as mating types, host specificity, life cycle stages and population structures. The majority of current fungal species descriptions lack even the most basic genetic data that could address at least some of these issues. Such information is essential for accurate fungal identifications, to link critical metadata and to understand the real and potential impact of fungal pathogens on production and natural ecosystems. Because international trade in plant products and introduction of pathogens to new areas is likely to continue, the manner in which fungal pathogens are identified should urgently be reconsidered. The technologies that would provide appropriate information for biosecurity and quarantine already exist, yet the scientific community and the regulatory authorities are slow to embrace them. International agreements are urgently needed to enforce new guidelines for describing plant pathogenic fungi (including key DNA information), to ensure availability of relevant data and to modernize the phytosanitary systems that must deal with the risks relating to trade-associated plant pathogens. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience’. PMID:28080994

  20. Global Water Cycle Diagrams Minimize Human Influence and Over-represent Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. W.; Bishop, K.; Zarnetske, J. P.; Minaudo, C.; Chapin, F. S., III; Plont, S.; Marçais, J.; Ellison, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Kolbe, T.; Ursache, O.; Hampton, T. B.; GU, S.; Chapin, M.; Krause, S.; Henderson, K. D.; Hannah, D. M.; Pinay, G.

    2017-12-01

    The diagram of the global water cycle is the central icon of hydrology, and for many people, the point of entry to thinking about key scientific concepts such as conservation of mass, teleconnections, and human dependence on ecological systems. Because humans now dominate critical components of the hydrosphere, improving our understanding of the global water cycle has graduated from an academic exercise to an urgent priority. To assess how the water cycle is conceptualized by researchers and the general public, we analyzed 455 water cycle diagrams from textbooks, scientific articles, and online image searches performed in different languages. Only 15% of diagrams integrated human activity into the water cycle and 77% showed no sign of humans whatsoever, although representation of humans varied substantially by region (lowest in China, N. America, and Australia; highest in Western Europe). The abundance and accessibility of freshwater resources were overrepresented, with 98% of diagrams omitting water pollution and climate change, and over 90% of diagrams making no distinction for saline groundwater and lakes. Oceanic aspects of the water cycle (i.e. ocean size, circulation, and precipitation) and related teleconnections were nearly always underrepresented. These patterns held across disciplinary boundaries and through time. We explore the historical and contemporary reasons for some of these biases and present a revised version of the global water cycle based on research from natural and social sciences. We conclude that current depictions of the global water cycle convey a false sense of water security and that reintegrating humans into water cycle diagrams is an important first step towards understanding and sustaining the hydrosocial cycle.

  1. Analyzing the greenhouse gas impact potential of smallholder development actions across a global food security program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewer, Uwe; Nash, Julie; Gurwick, Noel; Bockel, Louis; Galford, Gillian; Richards, Meryl; Costa Junior, Ciniro; White, Julianna; Pirolli, Gillian; Wollenberg, Eva

    2018-04-01

    This article analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) impact potential of improved management practices and technologies for smallholder agriculture promoted under a global food security development program. Under ‘business-as-usual’ development, global studies on the future of agriculture to 2050 project considerable increases in total food production and cultivated area. Conventional cropland intensification and conversion of natural vegetation typically result in increased GHG emissions and loss of carbon stocks. There is a strong need to understand the potential greenhouse gas impacts of agricultural development programs intended to achieve large-scale change, and to identify pathways of smallholder agricultural development that can achieve food security and agricultural production growth without drastic increases in GHG emissions. In an analysis of 134 crop and livestock production systems in 15 countries with reported impacts on 4.8 million ha, improved management practices and technologies by smallholder farmers significantly reduce GHG emission intensity of agricultural production, increase yields and reduce post-harvest losses, while either decreasing or only moderately increasing net GHG emissions per area. Investments in both production and post-harvest stages meaningfully reduced GHG emission intensity, contributing to low emission development. We present average impacts on net GHG emissions per hectare and GHG emission intensity, while not providing detailed statistics of GHG impacts at scale that are associated to additional uncertainties. While reported improvements in smallholder systems effectively reduce future GHG emissions compared to business-as-usual development, these contributions are insufficient to significantly reduce net GHG emission in agriculture beyond current levels, particularly if future agricultural production grows at projected rates.

  2. Security

    OpenAIRE

    Leander, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that security belongs to a specific category of commodities: “contested commodities” around which there is an ongoing and unsettled symbolic struggle over whether or not they can and should be though of as commodities (section 1). The contested nature of commodification has implications for how markets function; market practices tend to be defined and organized in ways that minimize their contentiousness and obfuscate their expansion. The paper looks at the implications of t...

  3. Enhancing the Security of Customer Data in Cloud Environments Using a Novel Digital Fingerprinting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Chidambaram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid rise of the Internet and electronics in people’s life, the data related to it has also undergone a mammoth increase in magnitude. The data which is stored in the cloud can be sensitive and at times needs a proper file storage system with a tough security algorithm. Whereas cloud is an open shareable elastic environment, it needs impenetrable and airtight security. This paper deals with furnishing a secure storage system for the above-mentioned purpose in the cloud. To become eligible to store data a user has to register with the cloud database. This prevents unauthorized access. The files stored in the cloud are encrypted with RSA algorithm and digital fingerprint for the same has been generated through MD5 message digest before storage. The RSA provides unreadability of data to anyone without the private key. MD5 makes it impossible for any changes on data to go unnoticed. After the application of RSA and MD5 before storage, the data becomes resistant to access or modifications by any third party and to intruders of cloud storage system. This application is tested in Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud Web Services.

  4. The causal texture of trade union environments | Iyayi | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  5. Business environment and competitiveness of Serbian economy in the conditions of global economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Džunić, Marija; Golubović, Nataša; Džunić, Željko

    2013-01-01

    With the outbreak of the global financial and economic crisis, the trend of continuous improvement in global business environment as a result of economic growth, liberalization and investment in infrastructure was stopped, while in some areas, regressive movements are reported. Increasing the competitiveness of the domestic economy and stable economic growth presupposes the creation of a supportive business environment. Therefore, ensuring a healthy business environment that will facilitate b...

  6. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    Executive Summary The authors argue that challenges to capturing value from know-how and reputation through the use of different IP tools will be an increasingly important matter of strategy for global enterprises. This has important implications for management practice. Global enterprises...... will need to combine different institutional, market and non-market mechanisms. The precise combination of tools will depend on the local and regional institutional and market conditions. Abstract: This paper documents the strong growth in tools used by firms to protect their intellectual property (IP......), develop their know-how, and build and maintain their reputation globally during the last decades. We focus on three tools: patents, trademarks, and industrial designs. We find that, although most IP applications come from a few countries (the United States, European Union, Japan, China, and South Korea...

  7. Global warming threat on water resources and environment: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Zekai

    2009-03-01

    Global warming, greenhouse effect, and the climate change problems are long-term anthropogenic consequences that are expected to threaten water related demand and supply patterns in the near future. These problems may be identified linguistically on a logical basis to take the necessary precautions, and implement mitigation strategies after vulnerability possibilities are assessed using fuzzy logic. Climate change effects are the focus of many scientific, engineering, economic, social, cultural, and global nuisances, and these effects awaits cost-effective remedial solutions. Extreme events such as floods and droughts and modified groundwater recharge may be influenced by climate change.

  8. Environmental degradation, population displacement and global security: An overview of the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    An initial investigation is presented on the interrelationship between environmental degradation and population displacements, in the broader context of how this linkage affects human security. Emphasis is placed on both the causes and effects of population movements, with specific examples drawn from Southeast Asia. Types of migrants, the importance of environmental degradation with respect to other contributing factors, and the effects on origin and destination regions are considered. A key issue is the multi-causality of population displacements and the importance of improving understanding of the issues in order to develop appropriate policies. It is clear from the study that the discussion of environment as a cause or contributing factor to population displacement has, to date, been speculative, and the information provided largely anecdotal. 58 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  9. IRSN 2007 barometer: perception of risks and security by French people. Global results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    This report presents under the form of graphs and comments the results of the annual IRSN opinion poll on matters of risk and security. The IRSN is the French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety. Different themes are analysed: the present concerns for French people (in the present society, for the environment, about industrial risks and the image of science), the perception of expertise (who should control an installation, the role and the image of scientific experts, access to expertise documents), the public interest in risk issues (topic of interest, participation to information sessions), the attitude in front of 30 risk situations (presently perceived risks, confidence in public authorities to ensure their protection, truth about information on hazards, hierarchy of 30 situations). The last part is dedicated to the nuclear domain (nuclear risk, skill and credibility of interveners)

  10. Capturing value from Intellectual Property (IP) in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcácer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Globalization should provide firms with an opportunity to leverage their know-how and reputation across countries to create value. However, it remains challenging for them to actually capture that value using traditional Intellectual Property (IP) tools. In this paper, we document the strong grow...

  11. A Global Overview: Trends in Environment and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    The conditions and trends for four clusters of global issues--the air and the sky, the fishes and the sea, the creatures and the land, and people and poverty--are presented. The topics of climate change, the ozone hole, air pollution, biological diversity, deforestation, and desertification are discussed. (KR)

  12. Globalization in a Religiously Pluralistic Environment: The Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization has become one of the commonplace terms which describe the current world in which we live. The substantive ranks with such other adjectives like cybernetic, technological and democratic. Specifically the term points to the rallying together or homogeneity of world culture in its economic, technological and ...

  13. Education and Development in a Globalized Environment: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Again, in the present globalized society in which every nation is connected to the other, education is perhaps the only instrument for people to adequately cope with the new trend. In most contemporary nation-states including Nigeria, the level of educational attainment vary across regions. Such discrepancy also exist within ...

  14. Educating Part-Time MBAs for the Global Business Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, W. Alan

    2008-01-01

    To be successful managers in the business world of the 21st century, MBA students must acquire global skills of business acumen, reflection, cultural sensitivity, and multi-cultural teamwork. Developing these skills requires international experience, but educating part-time MBAs creates a special challenge demanding both rigor and efficiency. This…

  15. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  16. Four Scenarios for Europe. Based on UNEP's third Global Environment Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkes, J. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Gaponenko, N. [Analytical Centre on Science and Industrial Policy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mnatsakanian, R. [Central European University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2003-07-01

    The third Global Environment Outlook (GEO-3) was published on the eve of the Johannesburg summit (autumn 2002). GEO-3 looked back thirty years and forward thirty years. A set of what-if scenarios was used to explore the ways our society can advance, including implications for environmental and social goals. Characteristically, GEO-3 examines in a relatively deep fashion how its global scenarios can be interpreted in the context of each of the world's regions. This brochure presents the pan-European elaboration of the four GEO-3 scenarios. It focusses on the scenarios proper and their impacts in environmental terms. The scenarios are: The Markets First scenario envisages a world in which market-driven developments converge on the currently prevailing values and expectations in industrialized countries; In a Policy First world, strong actions are undertaken by governments in an attempt to achieve specific social and environmental goals; The Security First scenario assumes a world full of large disparities, where inequality and conflict, brought about by socio-economic and environmental stresses, prevail: and Sustainability First pictures a world in which a new development paradigm emerges in response to the challenge of sustainability supported by new, more equitable values and institutions. The second section describes 'the pan-European tale of the four futures' in a predominantly qualitative manner. Section 3 presents a regionally differentiated examination of the environmental implications of the scenarios. Details on input material, assumptions and methodologies applied, and actual results, can be found in Chapter 4 of GEO-3 'Outlook 2002-32' and in the Technical Background Report on GEO-3 Scenario Work.

  17. Four Scenarios for Europe. Based on UNEP's third Global Environment Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkes, J.; Gaponenko, N.; Mnatsakanian, R.

    2003-01-01

    The third Global Environment Outlook (GEO-3) was published on the eve of the Johannesburg summit (autumn 2002). GEO-3 looked back thirty years and forward thirty years. A set of what-if scenarios was used to explore the ways our society can advance, including implications for environmental and social goals. Characteristically, GEO-3 examines in a relatively deep fashion how its global scenarios can be interpreted in the context of each of the world's regions. This brochure presents the pan-European elaboration of the four GEO-3 scenarios. It focusses on the scenarios proper and their impacts in environmental terms. The scenarios are: The Markets First scenario envisages a world in which market-driven developments converge on the currently prevailing values and expectations in industrialized countries; In a Policy First world, strong actions are undertaken by governments in an attempt to achieve specific social and environmental goals; The Security First scenario assumes a world full of large disparities, where inequality and conflict, brought about by socio-economic and environmental stresses, prevail: and Sustainability First pictures a world in which a new development paradigm emerges in response to the challenge of sustainability supported by new, more equitable values and institutions. The second section describes 'the pan-European tale of the four futures' in a predominantly qualitative manner. Section 3 presents a regionally differentiated examination of the environmental implications of the scenarios. Details on input material, assumptions and methodologies applied, and actual results, can be found in Chapter 4 of GEO-3 'Outlook 2002-32' and in the Technical Background Report on GEO-3 Scenario Work

  18. Critical perspectives on changing media environments in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Erik

    The main aim of this article is to give a general overview and theoretically discuss how significant changes in the media landscapes in Global South countries alter existing spaces and create new spaces for political and socio-cultural exchange, thus changing the complex interrelationship between...... media and society. Knowing that media is only one of many aspects in current societal changes, the focus will be more on the interrelationship between media and society and less on other aspects like globalization, education and political reforms. At the macro level, the article will discuss how...... for political and socio-cultural exchange. Finally, at the micro level, the changing patterns of every day media use by ordinary people will be discussed....

  19. Uncertainty and learning in a strategic environment. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Erin

    2005-01-01

    Global climate change is rife with uncertainties. Yet, we can expect to resolve much of this uncertainty in the next 100 years or so. Therefore, current actions should reflect the value of flexibility. Nevertheless, most models of climate change, particularly game-theoretic models, abstract from uncertainty. A model of the impacts of uncertainty and learning in a non-cooperative game shows that the level of correlation of damages across countries is crucial for determining optimal policy

  20. Open and Distance Education in Global Environment: Opportunities for Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    PULIST, Reviewed By Dr. S. K.

    2007-01-01

    Distance education system in India has undergone many stages and phases of evolution before it really reached the stage of what is called open education, ICT-enabled education and global education. During these phases, it has assimilated different aspects of ICT with all applauds and has been able to go hand-in-hand with it transcending the national and regional boundaries. The distance education institutions have now started giving a serious thought to explore the possibility of cross-board...

  1. COMPETITIVENESS OF PERU IN THE NEW GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Gomero Gonzáles, Nicko Alberto

    2014-01-01

    It is important that a country develop strong competitive to gaing solid macroeconomic result and keep constant growing. In Peru has been achieving these past years, and that have been showing in the principals indicator of economic management. The public policies implemented have created favorable scenarios to bring in investments in all productive sectors, At the same time the national companies have been develop capabilities to achieve with successes of the market globalization. The divers...

  2. Global Assessment of Bisphenol A in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jone Corrales

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Because bisphenol A (BPA is a high production volume chemical, we examined over 500 peer-reviewed studies to understand its global distribution in effluent discharges, surface waters, sewage sludge, biosolids, sediments, soils, air, wildlife, and humans. Bisphenol A was largely reported from urban ecosystems in Asia, Europe, and North America; unfortunately, information was lacking from large geographic areas, megacities, and developing countries. When sufficient data were available, probabilistic hazard assessments were performed to understand global environmental quality concerns. Exceedances of Canadian Predicted No Effect Concentrations for aquatic life were >50% for effluents in Asia, Europe, and North America but as high as 80% for surface water reports from Asia. Similarly, maximum concentrations of BPA in sediments from Asia were higher than Europe. Concentrations of BPA in wildlife, mostly for fish, ranged from 0.2 to 13 000 ng/g. We observed 60% and 40% exceedences of median levels by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Europe and Asia, respectively. These findings highlight the utility of coordinating global sensing of environmental contaminants efforts through integration of environmental monitoring and specimen banking to identify regions for implementation of more robust environmental assessment and management programs.

  3. Unraveling the nexus between water and food security in Latin America and the Caribbean: regional and global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaarts, Barbara; Garrido, Alberto; Soriano, Barbara; De Stefano, Lucia; López Gunn, Elena; Aldaya, Maite; Martínez-Santos, Pedro; Llamas, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) is a water and land abundant region, and plays a key role in meeting global food and water security. During the last decade, LAC has experience a rapid socio-economic growth, largely sustained by its competitive advantage in the production and exports of agricultural and mining products and by the high commodity prices in the global market. This study seeks to quantify the contribution of LAC's agriculture to global food and water security, i.e. virtual water trade, and evaluate the environmental and societal implications for regional development. Results show that between 2000 and 2011, LAC has increase its agricultural production 27%, and it now accounts for nearly 18% of the global agricultural market. As a result, the agricultural water footprint (WF) of LAC was augmented 65%; and yet, nearly 19% to 44% of the actual agricultural WF - depending on the countries - is virtual water exported to third countries. In fact, almost 50% of the increase in global virtual water trade during the last decade, corresponds to LAC. Such global contribution has significant implications for regional water and food security. From an environmental perspective, crop expansion (mostly rain-fed) resulted in the deforestation of nearly 1 million km2, turning this region into the second most important deforestation hotspots worldwide. This land clearing is having large impacts of ecosystem services, e.g. carbon sequestration, water quality or biodiversity conservation. From a socio-economic perspective, increasing agricultural production has improved regional food security indicators, although one every seven children is still stunted in LAC and nearly 10% of the population remains undernourished. Dietary shifts and socio-cultural factors also lag behind the growing problem of malnutrition in the region, i.e. overweight and obesity. Improvements of water access and sanitation, have had a positive impact on food security indicators, especially

  4. The Global Trends in the Alternative Energetics and Improvement of the State Policy in the Sphere of Fiscal Security: in Search for Equilibrium and Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnedina Kateryna V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative energetics is an important component of the competitiveness and security of the national economy. Its rapid development over the past 10 years is caused by both the attempts of individual countries to maintain and strengthen their competitive advantage in the world markets and the efforts of international organizations (UN, IRENA, IEA to consolidate different stakeholders to achieve energy and fiscal security, protection of environment and improvement of climate conditions. The article is aimed at generalizing global trends in alternative energetics in the context of development of the State policy in the sphere of fiscal security. A brief overview of the latest trends in the alternative energetics development, most of which focus on identifying the basic sectoral trends, has been provided. However, the issues of fiscal security in the energy sector remain poorly researched, especially in terms of formation of the State policy, consolidating interests of different groups of stakeholders. It has been determined that in the developed countries a significant growth of alternative energetics is caused by the consistent State policy on creation of conditions for formation of effective branch markets and the solving of so-called energy trilemma.

  5. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Using the Local Environment to Explore Global Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Deborah

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that water pollution is a global problem and presents statistics indicating how much of the world's water is threatened. Presents three elementary school classroom activities on water quality and local water resources. Includes a figure describing the work of the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network. (CFR)

  6. Role of nuclear produced hydrogen for global environment and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimo, M.; Kurosawa, A.; Ikeda, K.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability on economical growth, energy supply and environment are major issues for the 21. century. Within this context, one of the promising concepts is the possibility of nuclear-produced hydrogen. In this study, the effect of nuclear-produced hydrogen on the environment is discussed, based on the output of the computer code 'Grape', which simulates the effects of the energy, environment and economy in 21. century. Five cases are assumed in this study. The first case is 'Business as usual by Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)', the second 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by ICE', the third 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Hybrid Car', the fourth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) with Hydrogen produced by conventional Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)' and the fifth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by FCV with Nuclear Produced-Hydrogen'. The energy used for transportation is at present about 25% of the total energy consumption in the world and is expected to be the same in the future, if there is no improvement of energy efficiency for transportation. On this point, the hybrid car shows the much better efficiency, about 2 times better than traditional internal combustion engines. Fuel Cell powered Vehicles are expected to be a key to resolving the combined issue of the environment and energy in this century. The nuclear-produced hydrogen is a better solution than conventional hydrogen production method using steam methane reforming. (author)

  7. Development of Digital Instruction for Environment for Global Warming Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praneetham, Chuleewan; Thathong, Kongsak

    2016-01-01

    Technological education and instruction are widely used in the present education trend. Using of digital instruction for environmental subject can encourage students in learning and raise their awareness and attitude on environmental issues. The purposes of this research were: 1) to construct and develop the digital instruction for environment for…

  8. United States Global Security and the European Security and Defense Identity: A Case for European Military Autonomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cotton, John

    2000-01-01

    ...) continues to occupy the preemminent position worldwide. With the removal of Cold War restrictions and constrictions, the pursuit of globalization is the most significant driving force that will shape human endeavor for the foreseeable future...

  9. Globalisation, International Transport and the Global Environment (GITAGE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijkamp, P. [Department of Spatial Economics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    The title project aims to map the transport implications of current world-wide globalisation trends, with a particular view to the consequences of increased transport (of both passengers and goods) for global environmental quality as reflected in Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) (notably, but not exclusively CO2). In this study, environmental and climate consequences of globalisation are assessed in a quantitative sense for various modes of transport - in relation to international trade and person mobility - in a medium- to long-term perspective by using results and knowledge from the CPB World Scan Model and the IVM information base on global emissions. Four globalisation scenarios (quantified with WorldScan) formed the basis for various transport scenarios (on different scale levels) of which the consequences in terms of emissions were shown. Besides, the importance and possibilities of innovations in transport were clarified as this is of major importance in mapping out the future of transport. Also attention was paid to the possible impact of policy intervention. Under high economic growth and little political concern about climate change, CO2 emissions from transport might double to quadruple, depending on the region, in the period 1995-2020. It appears that European and Dutch emission levels can only be limited to around 1995 levels if, simultaneously, economic growth is limited, if under a trend towards sustainability transport intensities of economies decline and if all technical opportunities for reduction Of CO2 emissions are exploited. However, since transport is mainly a derived demand, the conclusion is that the transportation sector in itself has only a limited potential to offer a significant contribution towards a reduction in CO2 emissions. Transportation technology and logistics are mainly driven by competitive behaviour, so that an autonomous role of the transport sector in shaping a world characterised by sustainable development is rather limited. This

  10. Insights for the third Global Environment Outlook from related global scenario anlayses. Working paper for GEO-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkes JA; Goldewijk CGM; Meijer JR; Rothman DS; Vries HJM de; Woerden JW van; United Nations Environment; MNV

    2001-01-01

    This report relates to the ongoing development of scenarios for the third Global Environment Outlook (GEO-3) of UNEP. It illustrates the scale and type of environmental impacts that GEO-3 needs to consider. It does so by quantifying impacts using existing, recent studies whose scenarios come closest

  11. Insights for the third Global Environment Outlook from related global scenario anlayses. Working paper for GEO-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkes JA; Goldewijk CGM; Meijer JR; Rothman DS; Vries HJM de; Woerden JW van; MNV

    2001-01-01

    Dit rapport maakt deel uit van de voorbereiding van de derde Global Environment Outlook van UNEP. Het illustreert schaal en soort van de milieu-effecten die GEO in beeld zou moeten brengen. De efecten worden gekwantificeerd door materiaal dat is ontleend aan recente studies over men of meer

  12. Beneficial impacts of an international grain reserve on global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C.; Schewe, J.; Puma, M. J.; Frieler, K.

    2017-12-01

    Highly volatile food prices on global markets challenge food security. Only in the last decade, two pronounced food price spikes severely affected vulnerable populations worldwide by increasing malnutrition and hunger. This has stirred up the debate upon the usefulness of an international grain reserve. Whereas advocates argue that it could damp damaging price extremes, opponents question its effectiveness and are concerned about associated market distortions and costs. However, to our knowledge, a comprehensive quantitative assessment is still missing. For this purpose, we introduce an agent-based dynamic multi-regional model that consistently accounts for intra-annual strategic as well as commercial storage holding. For the case of wheat, we first show that the model is able to reproduce historical world market prices (see Fig. 1(a)) and regional ending stocks (stocks see Fig.1(b) for global ending stocks) from 1980 to the present. Having a bi-annual timestep, the model enables us to single out the main drivers of past short-term price volatility: regional, mainly weather induced, production variations followed by trade policies as the second most important driver. The latter include, both, long-term stockholding management decisions as well as short-term regional political responses to scarcity situations such as export restrictions and restocking attempts. We then quantitatively model a strategic wheat reserve managed by an international body such as the UN. We discuss a management scheme for the reserve that aims at stabilizing prices within a price band by buying at low and selling at high prices (cf. Fig. 1). Importantly, in order to minimize market distortions, this scheme is not designed to damp out price volatility completely, but to merely avoid damaging price extremes. Thus, it preserves the incentive for producers to invest in agricultural development and it can only complement and not replace local efforts to increase the food system's resilience

  13. Evaluating data distribution and drift vulnerabilities of machine learning algorithms in secure and adversarial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kevin; Corbin, George; Blowers, Misty

    2014-05-01

    Machine learning is continuing to gain popularity due to its ability to solve problems that are difficult to model using conventional computer programming logic. Much of the current and past work has focused on algorithm development, data processing, and optimization. Lately, a subset of research has emerged which explores issues related to security. This research is gaining traction as systems employing these methods are being applied to both secure and adversarial environments. One of machine learning's biggest benefits, its data-driven versus logic-driven approach, is also a weakness if the data on which the models rely are corrupted. Adversaries could maliciously influence systems which address drift and data distribution changes using re-training and online learning. Our work is focused on exploring the resilience of various machine learning algorithms to these data-driven attacks. In this paper, we present our initial findings using Monte Carlo simulations, and statistical analysis, to explore the maximal achievable shift to a classification model, as well as the required amount of control over the data.

  14. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Laser Control & Monitoring in New Materials, Biomedicine, Environment, Security & Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Trevor J; Paredes, Sofia A; Extreme Photonics & Applications

    2010-01-01

    "Extreme Photonics & Applications" arises from the 2008 NATO Advanced Study Institute in Laser Control & Monitoring in New Materials, Biomedicine, Environment, Security and Defense. Leading experts in the manipulation of light offered by recent advances in laser physics and nanoscience were invited to give lectures in their fields of expertise and participate in discussions on current research, applications and new directions. The sum of their contributions to this book is a primer for the state of scientific knowledge and the issues within the subject of photonics taken to the extreme frontiers: molding light at the ultra-finest scales, which represents the beginning of the end to limitations in optical science for the benefit of 21st Century technological societies. Laser light is an exquisite tool for physical and chemical research. Physicists have recently developed pulsed lasers with such short durations that one laser shot takes the time of one molecular vibration or one electron rotation in an ...

  15. Work Environment and Health Status of the Nurses in Social Security (ESSALUD), Army and Private Hospitals in Lima - 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Loli Ponce, Amalia; Departamento de Enfermería Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To know and compare the main characteristics of work environment (WE) and health status (HS) through nurses opinions in the three classes of health care centers (HCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional study. 3259 nurses frorri social security, private entities and army hospitals were selected randomly and interviewed. RESULTS: Laboral regimens of nurses working at army hospitals or social security, consist of about 30 to 40 hours/week in which they h...

  16. Preparing Information Systems (IS) Graduates to Meet the Challenges of Global IT Security: Some Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauls, Jeff; Gudigantala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Managing IT security and assurance is a top priority for organizations. Aware of the costs associated with a security or privacy breach, organizations are constantly vigilant about protecting their data and IT systems. In addition, organizations are investing heavily in IT resources to keep up with the challenges of managing their IT security and…

  17. [Disembedding and remoralization. Old age security and intergenerational relations in globalized welfare capitalism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisering, L

    2002-08-01

    The article reconstructs the changes in provision for old age since the 19th century with regard to the ensuing change in intergenerational relationships. The first finding is a broadening of the arenas of provision for old age, a historical cumulation of family (which is still relevant), welfare state and, increasingly, private provision in financial markets, adding up to a 'welfare mix' in old age. This implies a complexification of intergenerational relationships. The second finding is an ambivalent qualitative change: on the one hand relationships between generations become more anonymous and disembedded from primary social relationships; on the other hand they are politicized (they become a public issue) and remoralized. This ambivalence applies to bureaucratic provision for old age in the welfare state, i.e., to social insurance. The main thesis is that--contrary to neoliberal belief--private old-age security in global financial markets cannot be seen as individualistic and moral-free but constitutes an anonymous exchange relationship between generations on financial markets that also raises issues of intergenerational justice. We can expect that these abstract relationships between generations will be politicized and remoralized as a consequence. Welfare state and financial markets offer solutions to problems of previous forms of provision for old age but they also produce new problems of intergenerational relationships.

  18. Global food chains and environment: agro-food production and processing in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriwichailamphan, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study on the global food chain and the environment, the objective is to understand the dynamics of food safety and environmental improvements among the large and medium-sized agro-food processing industries and farmers in Thailand that operate in the global

  19. Global food chains and environment: agro-food production and processing in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriwichailamphan, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study on the global food chain and the environment, the objective is to understand the dynamics of food safety and environmental improvements among the large and medium-sized agro-food processing industries and farmers in Thailand that operate in the global market. This study assesses

  20. How Does the Global Economic Environment Influence the Demand for IMF Resources?

    OpenAIRE

    Selim Elekdağ

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to quantify the relationship between the global economic environment and Stand-By Arrangements (SBAs) with the IMF. The results suggest that oil prices, world interest rates, and the global business cycle are the most influential indicators that affect the number of SBAs being requested. In addition, the empirical model seems to have reasonable accuracy when predicting SBAs. Furthermore, when oil prices, interest rates, and the global business cycle are adv...

  1. Strengthening Safety Culture as an Overriding Priority, in Achieving Global Nuclear Security Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolundzija, V.

    2006-01-01

    In the IAEA glossary safety culture is defined as the assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals, which establishes that, as an overriding priority, protection and safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance. It has been observed that a safety culture, as a part of both security and safety, possesses a few obstacles that should be noticed: safety culture cannot be directly regulated; variation in national cultures means that what constitutes as a good approach to enhancing safety culture in one country may not be the best approach in another. Three stages have been identified in developing and strengthening safety culture: 1 A technical issue (rules and regulations)/ first stage 2 Good safety performance (primarily in terms of safety targets or goals)/ second stage 3 A continuing process of improvement to which everyone can contribute/ third stage There are several key issues in safety culture, such as: a commitment, use of procedures, a conservative decision making (STAR) a reporting culture. Organizations and individuals should have attention on these. Overall common goals are to achieve and maintain a high level of safety and security of radioactive sources as well as facilities. Measures that are concerned on safeguards restrict access to the radioactive sources, conditioning and/or recycling of sources, and systems for detection the passage of the radioactive sources at strategic points, have gained main support. The main partners in implementation these measures are: IAEA, USA, Russian Federation, G8- Global Partnership, and European Union The member states of the IAEA have at their disposal internationally agreed standards. Current differences in applying standards in the IAEA member states are mainly related to state preparedness to cope with demands. Developing and less developed countries with small and medium nuclear programmes have difficulties to accept rules and regulations, to establish

  2. Use Trust Management Framework to Achieve Effective Security Mechanisms in Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Toumi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is an Internet based Computing where virtual shared servers provide software, infrastructure, platform and other resources to the customer on pay-as-you-use basis. Cloud Computing is increasingly becoming popular as many enterprise applications and data are moving into cloud platforms. However, with the enormous use of Cloud, the probability of occurring intrusion also increases. There is a major need of bringing security, transparency and reliability in cloud model for client satisfaction. One of the security issues is how to reduce the impact of any type of intrusion in this environment. To address this issue, a security solution is proposed in this paper. We provide a collaborative framework between our Hybrid Intrusion Detection System (Hy-IDS based on Mobile Agents and virtual firewalls. Therefore, our hybrid intrusion detection system consists of three types of IDS namely IDS-C, IDS-Cr and IDS-M, which are dispatched over three layer of cloud computing. In the first layer, we use IDS-C over our framework to collect, analyze and detect malicious data using Mobile Agents. In case of attack, we collect at the level of the second layer all the malicious data detected in the first layer for the generation of new signatures using IDS-Cr, which is based on a Signature Generation Algorithm (SGA and network intrusion detection system (NIDS. Finally, through an IDS-M placed in the third layer, the new signatures will be used to update the database NIDS belonging to IDS-Cr, then the database to NIDS belonging of IDS-Cr the cluster neighboring and also their IDS-C. Hardware firewall is unable to control communication between virtual machines on the same hypervisor. Moreover, they are blind to virtual traffic. Mostly, they are deployed at Virtual Machine Monitor- level (VMM under Cloud provider’s control. Equally, the mobile agents play an important role in this collaboration. They are used in our framework for investigation of hosts

  3. Expansion of plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism under global environment change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Collins, S. L.; Carr, D.

    2016-12-01

    contrast to the case of the strong competitive effect from B. mollis. Overall, these research improves understanding of mechanisms underlying the expansion of CAM plants with important implications on shifts in dryland vegetation composition, bioenergy production, food security, and adaptation to global environment change.

  4. Catastrophic Declines in Wilderness Areas Undermine Global Environment Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James E M; Shanahan, Danielle F; Di Marco, Moreno; Allan, James; Laurance, William F; Sanderson, Eric W; Mackey, Brendan; Venter, Oscar

    2016-11-07

    Humans have altered terrestrial ecosystems for millennia [1], yet wilderness areas still remain as vital refugia where natural ecological and evolutionary processes operate with minimal human disturbance [2-4], underpinning key regional- and planetary-scale functions [5, 6]. Despite the myriad values of wilderness areas-as critical strongholds for endangered biodiversity [7], for carbon storage and sequestration [8], for buffering and regulating local climates [9], and for supporting many of the world's most politically and economically marginalized communities [10]-they are almost entirely ignored in multilateral environmental agreements. This is because they are assumed to be relatively free from threatening processes and therefore are not a priority for conservation efforts [11, 12]. Here we challenge this assertion using new comparable maps of global wilderness following methods established in the original "last of the wild" analysis [13] to examine the change in extent since the early 1990s. We demonstrate alarming losses comprising one-tenth (3.3 million km 2 ) of global wilderness areas over the last two decades, particularly in the Amazon (30%) and central Africa (14%). We assess increases in the protection of wilderness over the same time frame and show that these efforts are failing to keep pace with the rate of wilderness loss, which is nearly double the rate of protection. Our findings underscore an immediate need for international policies to recognize the vital values of wilderness and the unprecedented threats they face and to underscore urgent large-scale, multifaceted actions needed to maintain them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, David K. A.; Galgani, Francois; Thompson, Richard C.; Barlaz, Morton

    2009-01-01

    One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every contin...

  6. Trends in Multinational Business and Global Environments: A Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    William A Dymsza

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews and synthesizes the emergency and growth of U.S., Western European, and Japanese MNCs in the postwar environment, the growing role of state enterprises, and the recent emergence of Third World MNCs. While U.S. foreign direct investments have expanded and continue to be highly significant, some important recent developments are the more rapid growth of Western European and Japanese MNCs, the increased role of the U.S. as a host country for investments, the emergence of mul...

  7. Impacts of ozone-vegetation coupling and feedbacks on global air quality, ecosystems and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, A. P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Surface ozone is an air pollutant of significant concerns due to its harmful effects on human health, vegetation and crop productivity. Chronic ozone exposure is shown to reduce photosynthesis and interfere with gas exchange in plants, thereby influencing surface energy balance and biogeochemical fluxes with important ramifications for climate and atmospheric composition, including possible feedbacks onto ozone itself that are not well understood. Ozone damage on crops has been well documented, but a mechanistic understanding is not well established. Here we present several results pertaining to the effects of ozone-vegetation coupling on air quality, ecosystems and agriculture. Using the Community Earth System Model (CESM), we find that inclusion of ozone damage on plants reduces the global land carbon sink by up to 5%, while simulated ozone is enhanced by up to 6 ppbv North America, Europe and East Asia. This strong positive feedback on ozone air quality via ozone-vegetation coupling arises mainly from reduced stomatal conductance, which induces two feedback pathways: 1) reduced dry deposition and ozone uptake; and 2) reduced evapotranspiration that enhances vegetation temperature and thus isoprene emission. Using the same ozone-vegetation scheme in a crop model within CESM, we further examine the impacts of historical ozone exposure on global crop production. We contrast our model results with a separate statistical analysis designed to characterize the spatial variability of crop-ozone-temperature relationships and account for the confounding effect of ozone-temperature covariation, using multidecadal global datasets of crop yields, agroclimatic variables and ozone exposures. We find that several crops (especially C4 crops such as maize) exhibit stronger sensitivities to ozone than found by field studies or in CESM simulations. We also find a strong anticorrelation between crop sensitivities and average ozone levels, reflecting biological adaptive ozone

  8. A retrospect of anthropogenic radioactivity in the global marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1998-01-01

    to assess the radiological exposure from radioactivity in North European marine waters. In 1986 the Chernobyl accident occurred and the Baltic and the Black Seas in particular were contaminated. In the 1990s military dumping activities carried out previously by the FSU in the Arctic Ocean have been in focus......Man-made radionuclides were introduced into the marine environment in the mid forties with the exploitation of nuclear fission for military purposes. Plutonium production reactors at Hanford, USA, released radioactivity to the Pacific Ocean via the Columbia River. In the former Soviet Union (FSU......) the military nuclear establishment at Cheliabinsk (later MAYAK) a few years later began direct discharging of fission products to the nearby Techa River, which is a part of the Ob river system, and the Arctic Ocean received man made radioactivity. In the 1950s, when atmospheric testing of thermonuclear weapons...

  9. Energy and the environment. A global view and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.

    1988-01-01

    It should be recognized that the key to the future is in the rational use of energy, that is, a more efficient use of energy rather than a continuous increase in the supply of energy. Every unit of energy saved is a unit of energy which does not have to be produced, and whose environmental impacts do not have to be dealt with. Massive reductions in the growth rates, and, where possible, in the absolute use of energy will help us to gain time to better understand and develop response strategies to problems like climate change on the acidification of the environment. In this sense the rational use of energy, including intensified energy efficiency measures is the most environmentally sound energy option with which we should move into the next century. 25 refs., 4 figs

  10. Reducing the global threat of radiological terrorism in Central Asia and Caucus regions. The global threat reduction initiative approach to radioactive source security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    2010-01-01

    The security of radioactive sources is of worldwide concern, due to their wide use in civilian commerce and the potentially devastating effects of their misuse. In cooperation with host countries and international partners, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative has utilized a proven process for providing technical and financial assistance to protect radioactive sources in diverse uses and unique circumstances at hundreds of sites worldwide. The mission of the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's program includes reducing the risk posed by vulnerable radiological materials that could be used in a Radioactive Dispersal Device). The program's objectives are to identify, consolidate, secure, and/or dispose of high-activity radiological materials to prevent their theft and malicious use. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative Program's scope is global, with projects in over 100 countries at more than 755 radiological sites, including industrial, medical and commercial facilities. In addition to working bilaterally, the Program works closely with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other partner countries. (author)

  11. The Global Environment Facility (GEF): Right mechanism for improved implementation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Steinar; Rosendal, Kristin G.

    2012-11-01

    The purpose is to feed into the international discussions of environmental financial mechanisms such as for forestry and mercury by examining the performance of the GEF. We discuss performance against effectiveness and legitimacy and focus on institutional set-up and key actors as explanatory factors. Methodologically, we use document and literature analysis and interviews with key actors in organizations, state representatives and NGOs. The dominant position of the USA and the World Bank has probably contributed to the bias towards a northern environmental agenda and emphasis on effectiveness and climate change projects. The GEF has somewhat predictably diverted the flow of international money from the poorest countries to more rapidly developing countries. Still, despite turf battles between the organizations involved, the broad organisational and thematic composition of the GEF has comparative advantages. This enhances the score on legitimacy especially for biodiversity projects, although they receive less overall funding. The GEF may be seen as an indication of how, regardless of choosing established or new institutions, basic power structures and interests of dominating parties will be largely decisive for what can be achieved in global environmental governance.(auth)

  12. Energy security in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torosyan, Emil

    2009-09-01

    Yemen, situated in the Arab world, has considerable energy resources. However, its history of repeated revolts, civil wars and terrorism and also the presence of the Wahabi movement and al Qaeda in the country constitute security issues for the energy industry and its infrastructure. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact level on the security of the energy sector in Yemen and the effect that the threats to that sector could have on global energy security. Analyses of the political environment, the security threats and the measures taken to respond to these threats have been carried out. Results showed that Yemen's resources are depleting and that the government is having trouble containing the escalation of conflicts; this situation could lead to Yemen's political collapse which could have an important impact on global energy security.

  13. Global informal learning environments and the making of Chinese middle class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommaert, Jan; Dong, Kathy

    This paper engages with the ways in which formal learning environments increasingly have to compete with informal ones, where such informal learning environments can be seen as penetrations from global 'scapes' into local conditions of circulation and uptake of semiotic resources. The study is based

  14. An Analysis of Cloud Model-Based Security for Computing Secure Cloud Bursting and Aggregation in Real Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pritesh Jain; Vaishali Chourey; Dheeraj Rane

    2011-01-01

    Cloud Computing has emerged as a major information and communications technology trend and has been proved as a key technology for market development and analysis for the users of several field. The practice of computing across two or more data centers separated by the Internet is growing in popularity due to an explosion in scalable computing demands. However, one of the major challenges that faces the cloud computing is how to secure and protect the data and processes the data of the user. ...

  15. Physics of societal issues calculations on national security, environment, and energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2007-01-01

    Why this book on the Physics of Societal Issues? The subdivisions of physics - nuclear physics, particle physics, condensed-matter physics, biophysics - have their textbooks, while the subdivision of physics and society lacks an equation-oriented text on the physics of arms, energy and the environment. Physics of Societal Issues is intended for undergraduate and doctoral students who may work on applied topics, or who simply want to know why things are the way they are. Decisions guiding policies on nuclear arms, energy and the environment often seem mysterious and contradictory. What is the science behind the deployment of MIRVed ICBMs, the quest for space-based beam weapons, the fear of powerline EM fields, the wholesale acceptance of SUVs, the issues of climactic change, and the failure of the pre-embargo market to produce buildings and appliances that now save over 50 power plants? Physics of Societal Issues is three "mini-texts" in one: National Security (5 chapters): Weapons, offense, defense, verificat...

  16. Global assessments of the state of the marine environment: Contemporary initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewers, J.M.; Boelens, R.G.V.

    1999-01-01

    A large number of assessments of regional marine areas have been conducted in recent years for a variety of purposes. Periodic reviews of the state of the marine environment have been undertaken by the United Nations Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP). The most recent of these global assessments was published in 1990. The international adoption of a Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities in 1995 has led to additional demand for regional assessments and a global review. The regional assessments are either completed or in train largely through mechanisms associated with the UNEP Regional Seas Programme. The global assessment has been assigned to GESAMP and incorporated into its plans for the preparation of a new global review to be completed in the year 2002. The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, (IOC) the Scientific Committee for Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) are collaborating in a review of ocean science. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) recently approved funding for a 'Global International Waters Assessment' (GIWA) partly as a means of determining priorities within its International Waters Portfolio. This paper outlines the nature of, and contemporary activities within, these various assessments. (author)

  17. Insights for the third Global Environment Outlook from related global scenario anlayses. Working paper for GEO-3

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkes JA; Goldewijk CGM; Meijer JR; Rothman DS; Vries HJM de; Woerden JW van; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); MNV

    2001-01-01

    This report relates to the ongoing development of scenarios for the third Global Environment Outlook (GEO-3) of UNEP. It illustrates the scale and type of environmental impacts that GEO-3 needs to consider. It does so by quantifying impacts using existing, recent studies whose scenarios come closest to the current tentative global storylines for GEO-3. With a view to GEO-3;s envisaged role as input for the Rio+10 Earth Summit in 2002, this report suggests a focus for the GEO-3 scenario analys...

  18. Fractal Eaarth: Visualizing the Global Environment in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekan, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay offers a postcolonial critique of recent environmentalist literature and exhibitions that frame the Anthropocene using the NASA Apollo mission’s Earthrise (1968 and Blue Marble (1972 photographs from space. Building on the work of Dennis Cosgrove and Donna Haraway, as well as historical evidence from the U.N. Environmental Summit in Stockholm in 1972, the essay explores how the attempt to depict Anthropos as a unitary geophysical agent resurrects the appeal to the Whole Earth environmentalism of the 1970s without attending to the U.S. imperialist and racist connotations of the disembodied “god trick” found in these extraterrestrial photographs. As evidenced already in the 1950s at the landmark Man and Nature conference at Princeton and in the wildlife documentaries of Bernhard and Michael Grzimek, moreover, the first decades of the Great Acceleration witnessed the growing use of aerial images to chart the “disappearance of the outside” and to advocate for wilderness areas in the Global South as a “cultural heritage of mankind.” The confluence of geophysical tipping points, universalist history, and political struggle over decolonization resulted in eco-images that subsumed all parts of the globe—most especially Africa—into a doomsday narrative of human profligacy that lost sight of a kaleidoscopic patchwork of cultural landscapes. Fractal topographies, by contrast, serve as more effective indices of the recursive layering found in digital representations such as Google Earth and help us to stretch our historical imagination and cultural criticism into scale-dependent and multi-agentic realms that lie beyond the Apollonian visions of the late Holocene.

  19. Developing Global Leaders: Building Effective Global- Intercultural Collaborative Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Karen Lynne-Daniels

    2017-01-01

    This paper shares the findings of a study conducted on a virtual inter-cultural global leadership development learning project. Mixed Methods analysis techniques were used to examine the interviews of U.S. and Uganda youth project participants. The study, based on cultural and social constructivist learning theories, investigated the effects of…

  20. Guaranteerring Security of Financial Transaction by Using Quantum Cryptography in Banking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghernaouti-Hélie, Solange; Sfaxi, Mohamed Ali

    Protocols and applications could profit of quantum cryptography to secure communications. The applications of quantum cryptography are linked to telecommunication services that require very high level of security such as bank transactions.

  1. From Independence to Alliance: NATO Impact on Latvian Security Environment in the Post Cold War Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lokmanis, Arnis

    2004-01-01

    .... In recognition that NATO is becoming an organization able to extend stability and security throughout all of Europe, Latvia has considered membership into NATO a key to the solution of the Baltic security dilemma...

  2. Evaluation of Proposed Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2008-12-01

    This study reviews and ranks major proposed solutions to global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy security while considering other impacts of the proposed solutions, such as on water supply, land use, wildlife, resource availability, thermal pollution, water chemical pollution, nuclear proliferation, and undernutrition. Nine electric power sources and two liquid fuel options are considered. The electricity sources include solar-photovoltaics (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP), wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, wave, tidal, nuclear, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. The liquid fuel options include corn-E85 and cellulosic E85. To place the electric and liquid fuel sources on an equal footing, we examine their comparative abilities to address the problems mentioned by powering new-technology vehicles, including battery-electric vehicles (BEVs), hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs), and flex-fuel vehicles run on E85. Twelve combinations of energy source-vehicle type are considered. Upon ranking and weighting each combination with respect to each of 11 impact categories, four clear divisions of ranking, or tiers, emerge. Tier 1 (highest-ranked) includes wind-BEVs and wind-HFCVs. Tier 2 includes CSP-BEVs, geothermal-BEVs, PV-BEVs, tidal-BEVs, and wave-BEVs. Tier 3 includes hydro-BEVs, nuclear-BEVs, and CCS-BEVs. Tier 4 includes corn- and cellulosic-E85. Wind-BEVs ranked first in six out of 11 categories, including the two most important, mortality and climate damage reduction. Although HFCVs are less efficient than BEVs, wind- HFCVs ranked second among all combinations. Tier 2 options provide significant benefits and are recommended. Tier 3 options are less desirable. However, hydroelectricity, which was ranked ahead of coal- CCS and nuclear with respect to climate and health, is an excellent load balancer, thus strongly recommended. The Tier-4 combinations (cellulosic- and corn-E85) were ranked lowest overall and with respect to

  3. USMILGP Colombia: Transforming Security Cooperation in the Global War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muller, Christopher W

    2006-01-01

    .... As exemplified in Colombia, Security Assistance Organizations must build and increase the capabilities of our partner nations' militaries and be prepared to rapidly expand to support a partner...

  4. The Sustainable Development Goals and the Global Health Security Agenda: exploring synergies for a sustainable and resilient world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Sulzhan; Taaffe, Jessica

    2017-05-01

    Both the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) represent bold initiatives to address systematically gaps in previous efforts to assure that societies can be resilient when confronted with potentially overwhelming threats to health. Despite their obvious differences, and differing criticisms of both, they shift away from vertical (problem- or disease-specific) to horizontal (comprehensive) solutions. Despite the comprehensiveness of the SDGs, they lack a specific target for global health security. The GHSA focuses primarily on infectious diseases and neglects non-communicable diseases and socioeconomic drivers of health. Even though each agenda has limitations and unique challenges, they are complementary. We discuss ways to understand and implement the two agendas synergistically to hasten progress toward a more sustainable and resilient world.

  5. American perspectives on security: energy, environment, nuclear weapons, and terrorism: 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.

    2011-01-01

    We report findings from an Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone among the American public in mid-2010 on US energy and environmental security. Key areas of investigation include public perceptions shaping the context for debate about a comprehensive national energy policy, and what levels of importance are assigned to various prospective energy technologies. Additionally, we investigate how public views on global climate change are evolving, how the public assesses the risks and benefits of nuclear energy, preferences for managing used nuclear fuel, and public trust in sources of scientific and technical information. We also report findings from a national Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone in mid-2010 on public views of the relevance of US nuclear weapons today, support for strategic arms control, and assessments of the potential for nuclear abolition. Additionally, we analyze evolving public views of the threat of terrorism, assessments of progress in the struggle against terrorism, and tolerance for intrusive antiterror policies. Where possible, findings from each survey are compared with previous surveys in this series for analyses of trends.

  6. American perspectives on security : energy, environment, nuclear weapons, and terrorism : 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, Kerry Gale (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Silva, Carol L. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK)

    2011-03-01

    We report findings from an Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone among the American public in mid-2010 on US energy and environmental security. Key areas of investigation include public perceptions shaping the context for debate about a comprehensive national energy policy, and what levels of importance are assigned to various prospective energy technologies. Additionally, we investigate how public views on global climate change are evolving, how the public assesses the risks and benefits of nuclear energy, preferences for managing used nuclear fuel, and public trust in sources of scientific and technical information. We also report findings from a national Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone in mid-2010 on public views of the relevance of US nuclear weapons today, support for strategic arms control, and assessments of the potential for nuclear abolition. Additionally, we analyze evolving public views of the threat of terrorism, assessments of progress in the struggle against terrorism, and tolerance for intrusive antiterror policies. Where possible, findings from each survey are compared with previous surveys in this series for analyses of trends.

  7. Challenges in food safety as part of food security : lessons learnt on food safety in a globalized world

    OpenAIRE

    Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Boeck, Elien; Jacxsens, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Food safety should accomplish food and nutrition security. A key challenge to scale up food safety globally is to better leverage existing capacity and research working towards evidence-based decisions. At Ghent University since 2009 an annual 3-months international Intensive Training Program on Food Safety, Quality Assurance and Risk Analysis has been organized (www.itpfoodsafety.UGent.be). The trainees were asked to express their opinion on food safety concerns in their country and to selec...

  8. Impact of the global economic crisis on social security systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to examine the impact and implications of the current economic crisis in Africa, with a particular emphasis on social security systems. The overall aim is to develop policy proposals and approaches on how best social security systems in Africa can alleviate the social impact of the current ...

  9. Hardware security and trust design and deployment of integrated circuits in a threatened environment

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, Ricardo; Natale, Giorgio; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to hardware security, from specification to implementation. Applications discussed include embedded systems ranging from small RFID tags to satellites orbiting the earth. The authors describe a design and synthesis flow, which will transform a given circuit into a secure design incorporating counter-measures against fault attacks. In order to address the conflict between testability and security, the authors describe innovative design-for-testability (DFT) computer-aided design (CAD) tools that support security challenges, engineered for compliance with existing, commercial tools. Secure protocols are discussed, which protect access to necessary test infrastructures and enable the design of secure access controllers. Covers all aspects of hardware security including design, manufacturing, testing, reliability, validation and utilization; Describes new methods and algorithms for the identification/detection of hardware trojans; Defines new architectures capable o...

  10. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I. -I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas. PMID:25982028

  11. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I-I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-05-18

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas.

  12. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security against invasive species requires a strong federal program in systematic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilda Diaz-Soltero; Amy Y. Rossman

    2011-01-01

    Systematics is the science that identifies and groups organisms by understanding their origins, relationships, and distributions. It is fundamental to understanding life on earth, our crops, wildlife, and diseases, and it provides the scientific foundation to recognize and manage invasive species. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security...

  13. Adolescents' Perception of the Psychological Security of School Environment, Emotional Development and Academic Performance in Secondary Schools in Gombe Metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Meshak, Bibi; Sagir, Jummai Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine adolescents' perceptions of the psychological security of their schools environments and their relationship with their emotional development and academic performance in secondary schools in Gombe Metropolis. A sample of 239 (107 males and 133 females) secondary school students selected via stratified…

  14. The Future Security Environment: Why the U.S. Army Must Differentiate and Grow Millennial Officer Talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    USAWC students is available to Army and Department of Defense leaders, the Strategic Studies Institute publishes selected papers in its “Carlisle Papers...a security environment that now, more than ever, demands innovation, entrepreneurship , and adaptive leadership in an economy 4 that struggles to

  15. Remote sensing evaluation of fire hazard : Towards operational tools for improving the security of citizens and protecting the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maffei, C.; Gambardella, C.; Menenti, M.

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires are a threat for both the environment and the security of citizens. This is particularly relevant in the Mediterranean, where the population density is high, and long dry summers drive vegetation into fireprone conditions. Policy makers underline the key role of prevention over damage

  16. The Role of Divine Revelation and Religious Teachings in Human Rights System: Security and Global Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghayyoum Zadeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Peace and security have always been considered as one of man’s concerns. The basis of peace and security should be sought in the theoretical foundations. However, the drafters of universal human rights have struggled to attain peace and security away from religious principles. The present article intends to introduce universal human rights in the light of religious teachings and elaborate on the related religious principles. It also deals with the distinctions between the principles governing the present world with regard to human rights and religious principles to show that if religious principles are seriously followed in the international relations, they will bring about perpetual peace and security for mankind. Therefore, Religion has a unique role in peace and security.

  17. A Secure and Robust User Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for Hierarchical Multi-medical Server Environment in TMIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Goswami, Adrijit

    2015-09-01

    The telecare medicine information system (TMIS) helps the patients to gain the health monitoring facility at home and access medical services over the Internet of mobile networks. Recently, Amin and Biswas presented a smart card based user authentication and key agreement security protocol usable for TMIS system using the cryptographic one-way hash function and biohashing function, and claimed that their scheme is secure against all possible attacks. Though their scheme is efficient due to usage of one-way hash function, we show that their scheme has several security pitfalls and design flaws, such as (1) it fails to protect privileged-insider attack, (2) it fails to protect strong replay attack, (3) it fails to protect strong man-in-the-middle attack, (4) it has design flaw in user registration phase, (5) it has design flaw in login phase, (6) it has design flaw in password change phase, (7) it lacks of supporting biometric update phase, and (8) it has flaws in formal security analysis. In order to withstand these security pitfalls and design flaws, we aim to propose a secure and robust user authenticated key agreement scheme for the hierarchical multi-server environment suitable in TMIS using the cryptographic one-way hash function and fuzzy extractor. Through the rigorous security analysis including the formal security analysis using the widely-accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic, the formal security analysis under the random oracle model and the informal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. Furthermore, we simulate our scheme using the most-widely accepted and used Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool. The simulation results show that our scheme is also secure. Our scheme is more efficient in computation and communication as compared to Amin-Biswas's scheme and other related schemes. In addition, our scheme supports extra functionality features as compared to

  18. Security Investigation Database (SID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Security Investigation & Personnel Security Clearance - COTS personnel security application in a USAID virtualized environement that can support USAID's business...

  19. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  20. The AgMIP Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Elliott, Joshua; Antle, John

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has been working since 2010 to construct a protocol-based framework enabling regional assessments (led by regional experts and modelers) that can provide consistent inputs to global economic and integrated assessment models. These global models can then relay important global-level information that drive regional decision-making and outcomes throughout an interconnected agricultural system. AgMIPs community of nearly 800 climate, crop, livestock, economics, and IT experts has improved the state-of-the-art through model intercomparisons, validation exercises, regional integrated assessments, and the launch of AgMIP programs on all six arable continents. AgMIP is now launching Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of climate change impacts on agriculture and food security to link global and regional crop and economic models using a protocol-based framework. The CGRA protocols are being developed to utilize historical observations, climate projections, and RCPsSSPs from CMIP5 (and potentially CMIP6), and will examine stakeholder-driven agricultural development and adaptation scenarios to provide cutting-edge assessments of climate changes impact on agriculture and food security. These protocols will build on the foundation of established protocols from AgMIPs 30+ activities, and will emphasize the use of multiple models, scenarios, and scales to enable an accurate assessment of related uncertainties. The CGRA is also designed to provide the outputs necessary to feed into integrated assessment models (IAMs), nutrition and food security assessments, nitrogen and carbon cycle models, and additional impact-sector assessments (e.g., water resources, land-use, biomes, urban areas). This presentation will describe the current status of CGRA planning and initial prototype experiments to demonstrate key aspects of the protocols before wider implementation ahead of the IPCC Sixth Assessment

  1. The AgMIP Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Antle, J. M.; Elliott, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has been working since 2010 to construct a protocol-based framework enabling regional assessments (led by regional experts and modelers) that can provide consistent inputs to global economic and integrated assessment models. These global models can then relay important global-level information that drive regional decision-making and outcomes throughout an interconnected agricultural system. AgMIP's community of nearly 800 climate, crop, livestock, economics, and IT experts has improved the state-of-the-art through model intercomparisons, validation exercises, regional integrated assessments, and the launch of AgMIP programs on all six arable continents. AgMIP is now launching Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of climate change impacts on agriculture and food security to link global and regional crop and economic models using a protocol-based framework. The CGRA protocols are being developed to utilize historical observations, climate projections, and RCPs/SSPs from CMIP5 (and potentially CMIP6), and will examine stakeholder-driven agricultural development and adaptation scenarios to provide cutting-edge assessments of climate change's impact on agriculture and food security. These protocols will build on the foundation of established protocols from AgMIP's 30+ activities, and will emphasize the use of multiple models, scenarios, and scales to enable an accurate assessment of related uncertainties. The CGRA is also designed to provide the outputs necessary to feed into integrated assessment models (IAMs), nutrition and food security assessments, nitrogen and carbon cycle models, and additional impact-sector assessments (e.g., water resources, land-use, biomes, urban areas). This presentation will describe the current status of CGRA planning and initial prototype experiments to demonstrate key aspects of the protocols before wider implementation ahead of the IPCC Sixth Assessment

  2. Data on the global environment. The state of Denmark's environment compared with other industrial countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A summary, and a selection of significant information, taken from the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) documents: The State of the Environment (1991) and Environmental Indicators (1991) and the ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) report: The Environment in Europe and North America: Annotated Statistics 1992, and from a few other sources. The document is a translation of the Swedish publication: Miljoevaer(l)den. Statistics and other information relate to air pollution, flora and fauna, the condition of forests and of the North and Baltic Seas, water pollution, wastes, chemicals, oil spills, energy production and consumption, traffic, environmental hazards, public anxiety related to the environment, environmental protection, population densities during 1989 and international conventions on environmental protection. Most of the datas relate to the nineteen eighties. (AB)

  3. Key Based Mutual Authentication (KBMA Mechanism for Secured Access in MobiCloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A. Cecil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC fuels innovation in Mobile Computing and opens new pathways between mobile devices and infrastructures. There are several issues in MCC environment as it integrates various technologies. Among all issues, security lies on the top where many users are not willing to adopt the cloud services. This paper focuses on the authentication. The objective of this paper is to provide a mechanism for authenticating all the entities involved in accessing the cloud services. A mechanism called Key Based Mutual Authentication (KBMA is proposed which is divided into two processes namely registration and authentication. Registration is a one-time process where the users are registered for accessing the cloud services by giving the desired unique information. Authentication process is carried out mutually to verify the identities of Device and Cloud Service Provider (CSP. Scyther tool is used for analysing the vulnerability in terms of attacks. The result claims show that the proposed mechanism is resilient against various attacks.

  4. Physics of societal issues calculations on national security, environment, and energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the reader with essential tools needed to analyze complex societal issues and demonstrates the transition from physics to modern-day laws and treaties. This second edition features new equation-oriented material and extensive data sets drawing upon current information from experts in their fields. Problems to challenge the reader and extend discussion are presented on three timely issues:   •        National Security: Weapons, Offense, Defense, Verification, Nuclear Proliferation, Terrorism •        Environment: Air/Water, Nuclear, Climate Change, EM Fields/Epidemiology •        Energy: Current Energy Situation, Buildings, Solar Buildings, Renewable  Energy, Enhanced End-Use Efficiency, Transportation, Economics   Praise for the first edition: "This insight is needed in Congress and the Executive Branch. Hafemeister, a former Congressional fellow with wide Washington experience, has written a book for physicists, chemists and engineers who want to learn science...

  5. Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) through a Common Global Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badwan, Faris M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Michael Conrad [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pshakin, Gennady [Obninsk Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-23

    Small Modular Reactors (SMR) with power levels significantly less than the currently standard 1000 to 1600-MWe reactors have been proposed as a potential game changer for future nuclear power. SMRs may offer a simpler, more standardized, and safer modular design by using factory built and easily transportable components. Additionally, SMRs may be more easily built and operated in isolated locations, and may require smaller initial capital investment and shorter construction times. Because many SMRs designs are still conceptual and consequently not yet fixed, designers have a unique opportunity to incorporate updated design basis threats, emergency preparedness requirements, and then fully integrate safety, physical security, and safeguards/material control and accounting (MC&A) designs. Integrating safety, physical security, and safeguards is often referred to as integrating the 3Ss, and early consideration of safeguards and security in the design is often referred to as safeguards and security by design (SSBD). This paper describes U.S./Russian collaborative efforts toward developing an internationally accepted common approach for implementing SSBD/3Ss for SMRs based upon domestic requirements, and international guidance and requirements. These collaborative efforts originated with the Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security working group established under the U.S.-Russia Bilateral Presidential Commission during the 2009 Presidential Summit. Initial efforts have focused on review of U.S. and Russian domestic requirements for Security and MC&A, IAEA guidance for security and MC&A, and IAEA requirements for international safeguards. Additionally, example SMR design features that can enhance proliferation resistance and physical security have been collected from past work and reported here. The development of a U.S./Russian common approach for SSBD/3Ss should aid the designer of SMRs located anywhere in the world. More specifically, the application of this approach may

  6. INTERCULTURAL BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: AN ANALYSIS OF ETHNOCENTRISM IN A GLOBALIZED BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin C. Washington

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-first century organizations, rather small, medium, or large are increasingly finding themselves competing in global rather than local markets. This paper explores the current literature on the increasing global influence of ethnocentrism and its affect on international business communication. It also provides a model for overcoming ethnocentrism in a multicultural business environment. The goal of the paper is to provide practitioners with a realistic approach for overcoming ethnocentr...

  7. Development of building security integration system using sensors, microcontroller and GPS (Global Positioning System) based android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, P.; Siregar, Y. M.; Tarigan, J. T.; Jaya, I.; Turnip, A.

    2018-03-01

    Security system is one of the common problems to protect an environment such as personal house or a warehouse. There are numerous methods and technologies that can be used as part of a security system. In this paper, we present a security system that offers a better efficiency. The purpose of this study is to build a system that can monitor home security at any time in particular fire and theft. Through sensors, the system will be able to provide warning information of hazard conditions via LCD monitor, sound, and alarm. This information will be sent automatically to the home owner’s smartphone as well as to the corresponding to the security agency. Thus the prevention of theft and fire hazards can be immediately anticipated by the police and firefighters. The system will also notify the position of the coordinates of the location of the building (the house) by a link to the Google map in order to make it easier to get the location quickly.

  8. Dust storm monitoring: effects on the environment, human health, and potential security conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davara, Fernando; de la Cruz, Antonio

    2004-10-01

    Monitoring dust storms with recently available medium and moderate resolution satellites (Meris, Modis and SeaWiFS) is providing new global information regarding the sources, transportation tracks and affected areas. Saharan dust plumes reach the SE region of the United States and the Caribbean region in summer and the Amazon basin in winter. Generally these Saharan plumes branch off in dust tracks along the North Atlantic reaching Western Europe as far north as the Scandinavian countries. Furthermore, dust storms originating in the Eastern Sahara and Northern African deserts form dust plumes propagated by the Sirocco winds that, after crossing the Mediterranean Sea, affect Southern and Central Europe particularly during spring and summer. Dust storms originating in the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts blow in an easterly direction propagating dust plumes affecting Korea, Japan and reach the United States after crossing the Pacific Ocean. The large amount of cyclic deposition generated by dust storms produces an environmental impact that causes the decay of coral reefs in the Caribbean, the origin and distribution of red tides and the disappearance of sea grasses. The relationship of dust plumes with the increasing number of asthma and allergy cases in the Caribbean correlates well with the appearance of similar cases in Europe and elsewhere during the mid 1980s. The recurrence presence of insecticides in regions where these products were banned long ago, or where they were never used, may be partly due to Saharan dust plumes. The loss of agricultural soil, literally blown away by dust storms in the source areas, creates hardship, hunger and forced-migration. Dust storms should be considered as an important security issue.

  9. U.S.-Philippine Security Relations: Its Implications for the Global War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Supapo, Romulo

    2004-01-01

    .... American and Philippine security interests dovetail in this respect. The terrorist threat, which has known international, regional, and local linkages, has long besieged the United States and the Philippines...

  10. Air Force Strategy: Sovereign Options for Securing Global Stability and Prosperity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ... competition for resources and influence. This strategic context demands that we retain our position of international political and military leadership because security and economic health closely intertwine with international political...

  11. Towards an integrative post-2015 sustainable development goal framework: Focusing on global justice – peace, security and basic human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. Lueddeke

    2015-12-01

    To strengthen the likelihood of realizing the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, particularly with regard to “planet and population” health and well-being , UN and other decision-makers are urged to consider the adoption of an integrated SDG framework that is based on (i a vision of global justice - underpinned by peace, security and basic human rights; (ii the development of interdependent and interconnected strategies for each of the eleven thematic indicators identified in the UN document The World We Want; and (iii the application of guiding principles to measure the impact of SDG strategies in terms of holism, equity, sustainability, ownership, and global obligation. While current discussions on the SDGs are making progress in a number of areas, the need for integration of these around a common global vision and purpose seems especially crucial to avoid MDG shortcomings.

  12. Climate change damage functions in LCA – (1) from global warming potential to natural environment damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    Energy use often is the most significant contributor to the impact category ‘global warming’ in life cycle impact assessment. However, the potential global warming effects on the climate at regional level and consequential effects on the natural environment are not thoroughly described within LCA...... methodology. The current scientific understanding of the extent of climate change impacts is limited due to the immense complexity of the multi-factorial environmental changes and unknown adaptive capacities at process, species and ecosystem level. In the presentation we argue that the global warming impacts...

  13. Networking of research information on global environment protection technologies; Chikyu kankyo taisaku gijutsu no kenkyu joho network jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Networking is being executed with an objective of exchanging information on global environment technologies at an international level. In order to further promote the information exchange, and to make web sites user-friendly, fiscal 1998 has performed structuring a thesis renewal system. As a result of structuring the thesis renewal system, researchers can use the system as using a word processor by inputting data from a terminal in their laboratories. The data can also be made into a data base nearly semi-automatically. In addition to reducing time loss, delay and input errors because of re-entry, the researchers can make the data into a database on nearly a real time basis, and can provide their own theses to any part of the world through Internet. With regard to retaining Internet security, the security software having been introduced last year was renewed. In addition, detailed status such as daily access has become possible of identification as a result of introducing the net intellect. (NEDO)

  14. Biosurveillance capability requirements for the global health security agenda: lessons from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoto, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The biosurveillance capabilities needed to rapidly detect and characterize emerging biological threats are an essential part of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA). The analyses of the global public health system's functioning during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic suggest that while capacities such as those identified in the GHSA are essential building blocks, the global biosurveillance system must possess 3 critical capabilities: (1) the ability to detect outbreaks and determine whether they are of significant global concern, (2) the ability to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of the pathogen responsible, and (3) the ability to track the pathogen's spread through national populations and around the world and to measure the impact of control strategies. The GHSA capacities-laboratory and diagnostic capacity, reporting networks, and so on-were essential in 2009 and surely will be in future events. But the 2009 H1N1 experience reminds us that it is not just detection but epidemiologic characterization that is necessary. Similarly, real-time biosurveillance systems are important, but as the 2009 H1N1 experience shows, they may contain inaccurate information about epidemiologic risks. Rather, the ability of scientists in Mexico, the United States, and other countries to make sense of the emerging laboratory and epidemiologic information that was critical-an example of global social capital-enabled an effective global response. Thus, to ensure that it is meeting its goals, the GHSA must track capabilities as well as capacities.

  15. Securing Distributed Research

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Global science calls for global infrastructure. A typical large-scale research group will use a suite of international services and involve hundreds of collaborating institutes and users from around the world. How can these users access those services securely? How can their digital identities be established, verified and maintained? We will explore the motivation for distributed authentication and the ways in which research communities are addressing the challenges. We will discuss security incident response in distributed environments - a particular challenge for the operators of these infrastructures. Through this course you should gain an overview of federated identity technologies and protocols, including x509 certificates, SAML and OIDC.

  16. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  17. Interworking between IP security and NAT-PT under IPv4/IPv6 co-existent environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Run-Guo; Yu, Shu-Yao; Yang, Hong-Wei; Song, Chuck

    2005-02-01

    Similar to conventional NAT gateways, NAT-PT gateways break traditional TCP/IP"s end-to-end argument property; hence, any IP-based applications protected by IPSec protocol cannot traverse NAT-PT gateways properly. The interworking issues between IPSec and NAT-PT gateways under IPv4/IPv6 co-existent environments were studied: this paper first pointed out the deficiency of current NAT-Traversal scheme when interworking with NAT-PT gateways and proposed an enhanced scheme, which enabled interworking between IPSec and NAT-PT gateways and served the following three scenarios: 1) secure communication between IPv6 hosts and IPv4 hosts; 2) secure communication between IPv6 subnets and IPv4 subnets; 3) secure communication between remote IPv6 hosts and legacy IPv4 subnets.

  18. Overview of security culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulanya, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear Security culture concept has been aggressively promoted over the past several years as a tool to improve the physical protection of the nuclear and radioactive materials due to growing threats of catastrophic terrorism and other new security challenges. It is obvious that, the scope of nuclear security and the associated cultures need to be extended beyond the traditional task of protecting weapons-usable materials. The role of IAEA is to strengthen the nuclear security framework globally and in leading the coordination of international activities in this field. Therefore all governments should work closely with the IAEA to take stronger measures to ensure the physical protection, the safety and security of the nuclear and radioactive materials. In the effort to reflect this new realities and concerns, the IAEA in 2008 came up with the document, the Nuclear Security Culture, Nuclear Security Series No. 7, Implementing Guide to the member states which urged every member state to take appropriate measures to promote security culture with respect to nuclear and radioactive materials. The document depicted this cultural approach as the way to protect individual, society and the environment. Among other things, the document defined nuclear security culture as characteristics and attitudes in organizations and of individuals which establishes that, nuclear security issues receives attention warranted by their significance. (au)

  19. Nuclear power and the global challenges of energy security, 6 September 2007, London, England, World Nuclear Association Annual Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Atoms for Peace speech given by US President Eisenhower in 1953 - the speech that paved the way for the creation of the IAEA - he declared that a special purpose of Atoms for Peace would be 'to provide abundant electrical energy in the power-starved areas of the world'. That vision has yet to be realized. And it should not be taken to mean that nuclear power is the solution for all countries, or for all developing countries. But I would reiterate what I said at the outset - that the global challenges of security and development are interlinked, and that addressing the energy security needs of all countries will be a key to progress on both fronts. It is incumbent upon us to see to it that nuclear power will fulfil its potential in addressing these challenges

  20. Security an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Purpura, Philip P

    2011-01-01

    Section I The History and Profession of SecurityDefinition, Role, and History of Security Security Defined The Contexts of Security The Roles of Security The History of Security Security in an Environment of Threats, Terrorism, and All-Hazards Threats and Hazards Terrorism National Strategies The Profession and Business of Security The Business of Security Professionalism and Security Associations Ethics Regulation of the Security Industry Security Training Higher Education Careers Section II Protecting People and AssetsSecurity Methodology Methodology Defined Security Business Proposals Secur