WorldWideScience

Sample records for global rice trade

  1. An overview of global rice production, supply, trade, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Scott; Maberly, Glen F

    2014-09-01

    Rice is the staple food for over half the world's population. Approximately 480 million metric tons of milled rice is produced annually. China and India alone account for ∼50% of the rice grown and consumed. Rice provides up to 50% of the dietary caloric supply for millions living in poverty in Asia and is, therefore, critical for food security. It is becoming an important food staple in both Latin America and Africa. Record increases in rice production have been observed since the start of the Green Revolution. However, rice remains one of the most protected food commodities in world trade. Rice is a poor source of vitamins and minerals, and losses occur during the milling process. Populations that subsist on rice are at high risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency. Improved technologies to fortify rice have the potential to address these deficiencies and their associated adverse health effects. With the rice industry consolidating in many countries, there are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice for distribution or for use in government safety net programs that target those most in need, especially women and children. Multisectoral approaches are needed for the promotion and implementation of rice fortification in countries. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborte, Alice G.; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M. V.R.; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It

  3. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  4. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborte, Alice G; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M V R; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It consists of data on rice planting and harvesting dates by growing season and estimates of monthly production for all rice-producing countries. Sources used for planting and harvesting dates include global and regional databases, national publications, online reports, and expert knowledge. Monthly production data were estimated based on annual or seasonal production statistics, and planting and harvesting dates. RiceAtlas has 2,725 spatial units. Compared with available global crop calendars, RiceAtlas is nearly ten times more spatially detailed and has nearly seven times more spatial units, with at least two seasons of calendar data, making RiceAtlas the most comprehensive and detailed spatial database on rice calendar and production.

  5. GLOBALIZATION & REGIONALIZATION IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Frunză

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of globalization refers to the growing interdependence of countries, resulting from the increasing integration of trade, finance, investments, labor markets and ideas in one globalmarketplace. The most important elements of this process are the international trade and the cross-border investment flows. Economic globalization has increased the specialization of workers, while the companies compete in global markets. Even globalization has recently become a common topic in academic discourse, many economists focused, from the 1980s and 1990s, in addition to globalization, on regionalization - the growth of networks of interdependence within multinational regions of the world. The recent decades arecharacterized by the fact that the world trade grew faster than world output, which implies that an increasing share of world GDP crosses international borders. The trend is explained, mostly, by thesubstantially declining of the trade barriers during the same period, as a result of successive trade negotiation rounds under the auspices of the GATT/WTO, unilateral trade liberalization and regional tradeagreements. Even there are global connections between all the countries, the strongest political and economic integration is being created within a few specific regions of the world: Europe, North America and East Asia.

  6. Global Trade and Indian Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina

    2015-01-01

    -British Western partners, which could support their struggle for industrial self-reliance. This particular alignment of interests facilitated cooperation and shows that the so-called European experience is more diverse than research has shown so far. The analysis highlights global trading networks beyond...

  7. GLOBAL TRADE. THE KEY TO TRANSATLANTIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Laura CUCIURIANU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Global trade has an important characteristic in terms of open global markets by means of eliminating barriers to trade and investment. The United States and the European Union, two major international actors and competitors in the economic field, have both the opportunity to change the global trade by concluding the negotiations of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. For this reason, this paper tries to find the connections between global trade and transatlantic competitiveness in the way that the global trade can be considered a key to transatlantic competitiveness. The United States and the European Union are global actors and competitors in the global economy and the play field is the global trade. In order to be aware of the importance ofglobal trade in the transatlantic competitiveness, this paper includes also an analysis of the concrete actions that both economic powers are taking in key-sectors of the transatlantic economy.

  8. Water resources conservation and nitrogen pollution reduction under global food trade and agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wenfeng; Yang, Hong; Liu, Yu; Kummu, Matti; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Liu, Junguo; Schulin, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Global food trade entails virtual flows of agricultural resources and pollution across countries. Here we performed a global-scale assessment of impacts of international food trade on blue water use, total water use, and nitrogen (N) inputs and on N losses in maize, rice, and wheat production. We

  9. Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, M. Ataman; Beghin, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries explores the outstanding issues in global agricultural trade policy and evolving world production and trade patterns. This book presents research findings based on a series of commodity studies of significant economic importance to developing countries. Setting the stage with background chapters and investigations of cross-cutting issues, the authors describe trade and domestic policy regimes affecting agricultural and food markets and analyz...

  10. Global thermal coal trade outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, E.

    2008-01-01

    Wood Mackenzie operates coal consulting offices in several cities around the world and is the number one consulting company in terms of global coal coverage. The company offers a unique mine-by-mine research methodology, and owns a proprietary modeling system for coal and power market forecasting. This presentation provided an overview of global thermal markets as well as recent market trends. Seaborne markets have an impact on price far greater than the volume of trade would imply. Research has also demonstrated that the global thermal coal market is divided between the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. The current status of several major coal exporting countries such as Canada, the United States, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia, Australia, China, South Africa, and Russia was displayed in an illustration. The presentation included several graphs indicating that the seaborne thermal coal market is highly concentrated; traditional coal flow and pricing trends shift as Asian demand growth and supply constraints lead to chronic under supply; coal prices have risen to historic highs in recent times; and, the Asian power sector demand is a major driver of future growth. The correlation between oil and gas markets to thermal coal was illustrated along with two scenarios of coal use in the United States in a carbon-constrained world. The impact of carbon legislation on coal demand from selected coal regions in the United States was also discussed. Wood Mackenzie forecasts a very strong growth in global thermal coal demand, driven largely by emerging Asian economies. tabs., figs

  11. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of different quality traits that make up the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice ...

  12. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  13. Importing food damages domestic environment: Evidence from global soybean trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Mooney, Harold; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Tong, Yuxin; Xu, Zhenci; Huang, Baorong; Cheng, Yeqing; Yang, Xinjun; Wei, Dan; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Jianguo

    2018-05-22

    Protecting the environment and enhancing food security are among the world's Sustainable Development Goals and greatest challenges. International food trade is an important mechanism to enhance food security worldwide. Nonetheless, it is widely concluded that in international food trade importing countries gain environmental benefits, while exporting countries suffer environmental problems by using land and other resources to produce food for exports. Our study shows that international food trade can also lead to environmental pollution in importing countries. At the global level, our metaanalysis indicates that there was increased nitrogen (N) pollution after much farmland for domestically cultivated N-fixing soybeans in importing countries was converted to grow high N-demanding crops (wheat, corn, rice, and vegetables). The findings were further verified by an intensive study at the regional level in China, the largest soybean-importing country, where the conversion of soybean lands to corn fields and rice paddies has also led to N pollution. Our study provides a sharp contrast to the conventional wisdom that only exports contribute substantially to environmental woes. Our results suggest the need to evaluate environmental consequences of international trade of all other major goods and products in all importing countries, which have significant implications for fundamental rethinking in global policy-making and debates on environmental responsibilities among consumers, producers, and traders across the world.

  14. Feeding humanity through global food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, Joel A.; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; Vandoni, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    The recent intensification of international trade has led to a globalization of food commodities and to an increased disconnection between human populations and the land and water resources that support them through crop and livestock production. Several countries are not self-sufficient and depend on imports from other regions. Despite the recognized importance of the role of trade in global and regional food security, the societal reliance on domestic production and international trade remains poorly quantified. Here we investigate the global patterns of food trade and evaluate the dependency of food security on imports. We investigate the relationship existing between the trade of food calories and the virtual transfer of water used for their production. We show how the amount of food calories traded in the international market has more than doubled between 1986 and 2009, while the number of links in the trade network has increased by more than 50%. Likewise, global food production has increased by more than 50% in the same period, providing an amount of food that is overall sufficient to support the global population at a rate of 2700-3000 kcal per person per day. About 23% of the food produced for human consumption is traded internationally. The water use efficiency of food trade (i.e., food calories produced per unit volume of water used) has declined in the last few decades. The water use efficiency of food production overall increases with the countries' affluence; this trend is likely due to the use of more advanced technology.

  15. Global Rice Atlas: Disaggregated seasonal crop calendar and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balanza, Jane Girly; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Villano, Lorena; Nelson, A.D.; Zwart, S.J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Koo, Jawoo; Reinke, Russell; Murty, M. V.R.; Laborte, Alice G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Rice is an important staple crop cultivated in more than 163 million ha globally. Although information on the distribution of global rice production is available by country and, at times, at subnational level, information on its distribution within a year is often lacking in different rice

  16. ECONOMIC gROWTH, GLOBALIZATION AND TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between economic growth, globalization and trade. The manuscript uses the assumptions of the economic growth exogenous and endogenous models. It introduces new proxies for explain the economic growth as in intra-industry trade, foreign direct investment and globalization index. The results indicate that economic growth is a dynamic process. The intra-industry has a positive impact on economic growth. This paper confirms relevan...

  17. Global Electricity Trade Network: Structures and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ling; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nations increasingly trade electricity, and understanding the structure of the global power grid can help identify nations that are critical for its reliability. This study examines the global grid as a network with nations as nodes and international electricity trade as links. We analyze the structure of the global electricity trade network and find that the network consists of four sub-networks, and provide a detailed analysis of the largest network, Eurasia. Russia, China, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan have high betweenness measures in the Eurasian sub-network, indicating the degrees of centrality of the positions they hold. The analysis reveals that the Eurasian sub-network consists of seven communities based on the network structure. We find that the communities do not fully align with geographical proximity, and that the present international electricity trade in the Eurasian sub-network causes an approximately 11 million additional tons of CO2 emissions. PMID:27504825

  18. The Impact of Trade Credit on Customer Switching Behaviour: Evidence from the Tanzanian Rice Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N.; Kihanga, E.; Lensink, B.W.; Lutz, C.

    2012-01-01

    We use primary survey data to analyse the relationship between trade credit and customer switching in the context of trade transactions between wholesalers and retailers in the Tanzanian rice market. Results reveal a negative relation of trade credit and customer switching, that is, trade credit

  19. The impact of trade credit on customer switching behaviour : Evidence from the Tanzanian rice market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Kihanga, E.P.; Lensink, B.W.; Lutz, C.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    We use primary survey data to analyse the relationship between trade credit and customer switching in the context of trade transactions between wholesalers and retailers in the Tanzanian rice market. Results reveal a negative relation of trade credit and customer switching, that is, trade credit

  20. The determinants of trade credit use : the case of the Tanzanian rice market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels; Kihanga, Ernest; Lensink, Robert; Lutz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Most small businesses in the developing economies suffer from a lack of access to formal external finance. One important alternative source of finance for these entrepreneurs is trade credit. Applying a unique data-set containing data on specific trade relations between rice wholesalers and rice

  1. Making Education Markets through Global Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses the global trade negotiations and agreements, which include education sectors as potentially tradable services, to show the complex processes at work in making global education markets. Drawing on the work of Jens Beckert and others, I focus on the micro-processes of making capitalist orders and the challenges at hand in bringing…

  2. The idea of global CO2 trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO 2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO 2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost-effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The economic gains from 'hot air' distributions of permits and CO 2 trade make the system politically attractive to potential participants. For example, vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe are to be expected. It will probably not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further profitable trade. Also, a periodical renewal of permits makes it possible to tighten target levels in the future

  3. Contextualizing Embodied Resources in Global Food Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G. K.; Brauman, K. A.; Sun, S.; West, P. C.; Carlson, K. M.; Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Trade in agricultural commodities has created increasingly complex linkages between resource use and food supplies across national borders. Understanding the degree to which food production and consumption relies on trade is vital to understanding how to sustainably meet growing food demands across scales. We use detailed bilateral trade statistics and data on agricultural management to examine the land use and water consumption embodied in agricultural trade, which we relate to basic nutritional indicators to show how trade contributes to food availability worldwide. Agricultural trade carries enough calories to provide >1.7 billion people a basic diet each year. We identify key commodities and producer-consumer relationships that disproportionately contribute to embodied resource use and flows of food nutrition at the global scale. For example, just 15 disproportionately large soybean trades comprised ~10% the total harvested area embodied in export production. We conclude by framing these results in terms of the fraction of each country's food production and consumption that is linked to international trade. These findings help to characterize how countries allocate resources to domestic versus foreign food demand.

  4. The global diet: trade and novel infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimball Ann

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Practices designed to meet the demands of global trade can amplify food safety problems. Ever-increasing pressure to churn out more product and better sides of beef has generated processes that compromise existing safety measures. Among the concerns are intensified food production, use of antimicrobials and hormones as growth promoters, and poor sanitary infrastructure in some food producing countries. Accompanying the innovations designed to serve the diversifying global palate are emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, or "trade-related infections." The joint efforts of international public health and industry are required to effectively address these growing health challenges.

  5. Sea Global Containerized Trade. Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Boşneagu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The global economy, global trade and maritime transport show a trend of development in the next period of time, remaining still some serious risks with the potential to reduce the positive trend, including: modest economic recovery of developed economies, difficulties in emerging growth and development of increasing geopolitical tensions in many parts of the world. Stimulating measures are presently applied in order to achieve the world economic growth, the international trade, the investment and profit growth in consumer’s demand, especially in Western Asia and Africa, as well as increased exports of mineral resources.

  6. Saving water through global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water

  7. Ethical food standard schemes and global trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Botterill, Linda Courtenay

    2012-01-01

    Global food trade embodies a range of different interpretations of the nature of food and its role in society. On the one hand, the WTO food regulation regime, in particular the SPS agreement, is based upon a somewhat instrumental value of food consumption in which food is seen as a commodity...... base of each institution while giving expression to both materialist and postmaterialist understandings of the nature of food....... to be traded in accordance with international trade rules. At the same time, a number of private standards, such as GlobalG.A.P and various organic standards, are emerging which embody broadly postmaterialist values that suggest that food purchasing and consumption are also social, ethical and perhaps even...

  8. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    -effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The gains from CO2 trade may give vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe, for example, and it will probably not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further...

  9. Globalization, Trade and Poverty in Ghana

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Moreover, they find that trade liberalization in the manufacturing sector led to a fall .... can help policy makers design complementary pathways to enhance the benefits ... Jenkins, R. (2004), “Globalization, Production, Employment and Poverty: .... which imports could be exempted from duties and manufacturers could apply ...

  10. Does trade liberalization increase global pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beladi, Hamid; Oladi, Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a simple duopoly market in which a home firm and a foreign firm use labor to produce an identical product and supply it to the home market. Firms emit pollution as a by-product of production. We show conditions under which international trade liberalization decreases (increases) the global pollution. (author)

  11. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    -effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The economic gains from 'hot air' distributions of permits and CO2 trade make the system politically attractive to potential participants. For example, vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe are to be expected. It will probably...

  12. Starbucks's Fair Trade in the Edge of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Rizqiyanto, Saomi

    2017-01-01

    Starbucks as a global company that reflect American values plays an important role in the trade of coffee industry. In February 2000, Starbucks partially adopted the Fair Trade and in early 2001 Starbucks fully adopt Fair Trade. This research seeks to examine the relationship between Starbucks as a symbol of globalization with Starbucks as a global corporation who adopt Fair Trade. This study also seeks to explain how any practical Starbucks Fair Trade as a whole and uncover the reasons behin...

  13. Rising trade, declining stocks: The global gugul (Commiphora wightii) trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A B; Brinckmann, J A; Kulloli, R N; Schippmann, U

    2018-05-07

    Commiphora wightii is exploited in India and Pakistan for an oleo-resin (gum guggul) traditionally used in Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani medical systems. Processed C. wightii oleo-resin products are exported from India to 42 countries, including re-export to Pakistan, for anti-inflammatory use and as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-obesity treatment considered to lower cholesterol and lipid levels. The C. wightii export trade has particular relevance to the European Union because Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, and United Kingdom are importing countries. Demand and prices for C. wightii oleo-resin are increasing and wild stocks of C. wightii are in decline. The overexploitation of C. wightii after tapping for its commercially valuable oleo-resin is not a new problem, however, but one that has existed for over 50 years. Lopping and chopping trees to extract C. wightii oleo-resin has had a devastating impact on C. wightii populations since the 1960's. The aim of this study was to review the sustainability of the global trade in C. wightii oleo-resin. This included reviewing studies on resin tapping methods and the impacts of wild harvest on C. wightii populations in India and Pakistan. Firstly, we reviewed studies on impacts of C. wightii oleo-resin harvest and on the policy responses taken in relation to harvest and trade in C. wightii oleo-resin. Secondly, we reviewed studies on C. wightii cultivation. Thirdly, global trade data for C. wightii were analyzed. Destructive harvest to obtain the gum is the major threat facing this species. C. wightii populations are also fragmented by habitat loss through clearing for farming. Cutting and lopping in order to extract the medicinal gum are a major threat to C. wightii populations, as is poor recruitment due to grazing by livestock. As a result of over-exploitation, C. wightii oleo-resin production has declined in India. In Gujarat, a key production area, the decline over a 50-year period has

  14. Globalization and male sex trade in Ghana: Modernity or Immorality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization and male sex trade in Ghana: Modernity or Immorality? ... apolitical and less hypocritical way of discussing the issue devoid of criminalization, in the ... Key words: Globalization, homosexuality, male sex trade, sex culture, Ghana.

  15. Global Information Resources on Rice for Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri RAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Various issues concerning the progress of rice research are related to ambiguous germplasm identification, difficulty in tracing pedigree information, and lack of integration between genetic resources, characterization, breeding, evaluation and utilization data. These issues are the constraints in developing knowledge-intensive crop improvement programs. The rapid growth, development and the global spread of modern information and communication technology allow quick adoption in fundamental research. Thus, there is a need to provide an opportunity for the establishment of services which describe the rice information for better accessibility to information resources used by researchers to enhance the competitiveness. This work reviews some of available resources on rice bioinformatics and their roles in elucidating and propagating biological and genomic information in rice research. These reviews will also enable stakeholders to understand and adopt the change in research and development and share knowledge with the global community of agricultural scientists. The establishment like International Rice Information System, Rice Genome Research Project and Integrated Rice Genome Explorer are major initiatives for the improvement of rice. Creation of databases for comparative studies of rice and other cereals are major steps in further improvement of genetic compositions. This paper will also highlight some of the initiatives and organizations working in the field of rice improvement and explore the availability of the various web resources for the purpose of research and development of rice. We are developing a meta web server for integration of online resources such as databases, web servers and journals in the area of bioinformatics. This integrated platform, with acronym iBIRA, is available online at ibiranet.in. The resources reviewed here are the excerpts from the resources integrated in iBIRA.

  16. Securing global trade through secure freight transportation : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-16

    Given the increased probability of disruptions to global supply chains, and the significant impact these have on national and global economies, the problem is how to secure global trade. The concept of a global trade chain-of-custody has been develop...

  17. Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.

    2015-12-01

    The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.

  18. Peak globalization. Climate change, oil depletion and global trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Fred [Department of Economics, Drew University, Madison, NJ 07940 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The global trade in goods depends upon reliable, inexpensive transportation of freight along complex and long-distance supply chains. Global warming and peak oil undermine globalization by their effects on both transportation costs and the reliable movement of freight. Countering the current geographic pattern of comparative advantage with higher transportation costs, climate change and peak oil will thus result in peak globalization, after which the volume of exports will decline as measured by ton-miles of freight. Policies designed to mitigate climate change and peak oil are very unlikely to change this result due to their late implementation, contradictory effects and insufficient magnitude. The implication is that supply chains will become shorter for most products and that production of goods will be located closer to where they are consumed. (author)

  19. Peak globalization. Climate change, oil depletion and global trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Fred

    2009-01-01

    The global trade in goods depends upon reliable, inexpensive transportation of freight along complex and long-distance supply chains. Global warming and peak oil undermine globalization by their effects on both transportation costs and the reliable movement of freight. Countering the current geographic pattern of comparative advantage with higher transportation costs, climate change and peak oil will thus result in peak globalization, after which the volume of exports will decline as measured by ton-miles of freight. Policies designed to mitigate climate change and peak oil are very unlikely to change this result due to their late implementation, contradictory effects and insufficient magnitude. The implication is that supply chains will become shorter for most products and that production of goods will be located closer to where they are consumed. (author)

  20. Agricultural trade and the global phosphorus cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipanski, M.; Bennett, E.; Riskin, S.; Porder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Trends of increasing agricultural trade, increased concentration of livestock production systems, and increased human consumption of livestock products influence the distribution of nutrients across the global landscape. Phosphorus (P) represents a unique management challenge as we are rapidly depleting mineable reserves of this essential and non-renewable resource. At the same time, its overuse can lead to pollution of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the relative contributions of food crop, feed crop, and livestock product trade to P flows through agricultural soils for twelve countries from 1961 to 2007. We then used case studies of P fertilizer use in the world's three major soybean export regions: Iowa (USA), Mato Grosso (Brazil), and Buenos Aires (Argentina) to examine the influence of historical P management and soil types on agriculture's environmental consequences. Due to the intensification of agricultural production, average soil surface P balances more than tripled from 6 to 21 kg P per ha between 1961 and 2007 for the twelve study countries. Consequently, countries that are primarily agricultural exporters carried increased risks for water pollution or, for Argentina, reduced soil fertility due to soil P mining to support exports. In 2007, nations imported food and feed from regions with higher apparent P fertilizer use efficiencies than if those crops were produced domestically. However, this was largely because imports were sourced from regions depleting soil P resources to support export crop production. In addition, the pattern of regional specialization and intensification of production systems also reduced the potential to recycle P resources, with greater implications for livestock production than crop production. In a globalizing world, it will be increasingly important to integrate biophysical constraints of our natural resources and environmental impacts of agricultural systems into trade policy and agreements and to develop mechanisms that

  1. Evolution of the global virtual water trade network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Konar, Megan; Hanasaki, Naota; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-04-17

    Global freshwater resources are under increasing pressure from economic development, population growth, and climate change. The international trade of water-intensive products (e.g., agricultural commodities) or virtual water trade has been suggested as a way to save water globally. We focus on the virtual water trade network associated with international food trade built with annual trade data and annual modeled virtual water content. The evolution of this network from 1986 to 2007 is analyzed and linked to trade policies, socioeconomic circumstances, and agricultural efficiency. We find that the number of trade connections and the volume of water associated with global food trade more than doubled in 22 years. Despite this growth, constant organizational features were observed in the network. However, both regional and national virtual water trade patterns significantly changed. Indeed, Asia increased its virtual water imports by more than 170%, switching from North America to South America as its main partner, whereas North America oriented to a growing intraregional trade. A dramatic rise in China's virtual water imports is associated with its increased soy imports after a domestic policy shift in 2000. Significantly, this shift has led the global soy market to save water on a global scale, but it also relies on expanding soy production in Brazil, which contributes to deforestation in the Amazon. We find that the international food trade has led to enhanced savings in global water resources over time, indicating its growing efficiency in terms of global water use.

  2. Integrated rice-duck farming mitigates the global warming potential in rice season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Yu, Xichen; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM). During the rice growing seasons, IRDF decreased the CH 4 emission by 8.80-16.68%, while increased the N 2 O emission by 4.23-15.20%, when compared to CF. Given that CH 4 emission contributed to 85.83-96.22% of global warming potential (GWP), the strong reduction in CH 4 emission led to a significantly lower GWP of IRDF as compared to CF. The reason for this trend was because IRDF has significant effect on dissolved oxygen (DO) and soil redox potential (Eh), which were two pivotal factors for CH 4 and N 2 O emissions in this study. The IRDF not only mitigates the GWP, but also increases the rice yield by 0.76-2.43% compared to CF. Moreover, compared to RWS system, RF, RWB and RGM systems significantly reduced CH 4 emission by 50.17%, 44.89% and 39.51%, respectively, while increased N 2 O emission by 10.58%, 14.60% and 23.90%, respectively. And RWS system had the highest GWP. These findings suggest that mitigating GWP and improving rice yield could be simultaneously achieved by the IRDF, and employing suitable PUR would benefit for relieving greenhouse effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The globalization of international oilseeds trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittaine Jean-François

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised world, the trade of goods and services constitute the heart of the economic system. But the trade patterns may show extreme diversity depending upon the nature of the concerned products. The technical and functional constraints do impose their laws, particularly when they relate to biological products/commodities. The term globalization is generally used to describe a complex process of international integration. When referring to oilseeds, the term must also relate to agriculture and human nutritional requirements for a rising human population spread all over the world, particularly in large urban environment. With an annual harvest of about 450 Mn T, oilseeds are naturally “globalized” in their production patterns. The complexity of their production schemes associated with the diversity of their usage on widespread geographical regions gives this group of commodities a unique role on the world markets. This process of opened trade channels has enabled the sector to meet the supply requirements of a quickly rising demand coming from both the population and all the industrial usages including alternative “green” energy. However, for the time being, demand growth has not been fully counter-balanced by production growth. As a consequence, unless some strict reallocation of acreage is effectively organized or new high yielding technologies are developed, it is a fact that vegetable oil will keep a strong demand base for a long time, compounded by the mechanical demand from economic growth in highly populated emerging economies. The balancing of supply and demand is expected to remain a tight exercise every year. At the end of the day, the future of the entire industry largely lies in technology because the final stake is to ensure the proper feeding of a 9 billion people population in a not too far future.

  4. Networks of global bird invasion altered by regional trade ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife trade is a major pathway for introduction of invasive species worldwide. However, how exactly wildlife trade influences invasion risk, beyond the transportation of individuals to novel areas, remains unknown. We analyze the global trade network of wild-caught birds from 1995 to 2011 as reported by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). We found that before the European Union ban on imports of wild-caught birds, declared in 2005, invasion risk was closely associated with numbers of imported birds, diversity of import sources, and degree of network centrality of importer countries. After the ban, fluxes of global bird trade declined sharply. However, new trade routes emerged, primarily toward the Nearctic, Afrotropical, and Indo-Malay regions. Although regional bans can curtail invasion risk globally, to be fully effective and prevent rerouting of trade flows, bans should be global.

  5. Global agriculture and carbon trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-08-26

    Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ∼ 6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability.

  6. Global Coal Trade. From Tightness to Oversupply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Over the past four years, international coal trade has been reshaped by China's surging imports. China, which was still a net exporter in 2008, became the world's first coal importer in 2011, taking over the position that Japan has occupied for three decades. Its imports have continued their rising trend and reached a record level in 2012, despite the country's economic slowdown. China imported 289 million tons of coal in 2012, up 30% over 2011. It now accounts for 23% of global imports. Although China is the world's largest coal producer, several factors have contributed to the sudden rise in its imports, including the higher cost of domestic coal relative to international prices and bottlenecks in transporting domestic coal to south-eastern provinces. More recently, another event shook the international coal business: the United States have been back on the market. The collapse of U.S. gas prices, to $4/million Btu in 2011 and even $2.75/million Btu in 2012, linked with the 'shale gas revolution', has made coal uncompetitive in the electricity sector, its main outlet on the U.S. market. U.S. coal demand dropped 4% in 2011 and 11% in 2012. The reduction in domestic demand has forced U.S. miners to look for overseas outlets. Their exports surged by 31% in 2011 and 16% in 2012. They reached 112 million tons in 2012, more than twice the level of 2009. The United States, which almost disappeared from the international steam coal market in the 2000's, have regained a larger share of the total coal export market, 9% in 2012, against 6% in 2009. These developments, although not directly linked, have a huge impact on the global market and pricing of coal. Chinese imports have helped the market to quickly recover from its low level of 2008-2009. The speed and magnitude of China's coal imports even shifts the market from a sluggish to a tight situation. Prices started to rise after their collapse in the second half of 2008 caused by the economic and financial crisis

  7. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariafe Calingacion

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of the different traits that make up the quality of the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice is by no means a 'one size fits all' crop. Regional preferences are not only striking, they drive the market and hence are of major economic importance in any rice breeding / improvement strategy. In this analysis, we have engaged local experts across the world to perform a full assessment of all the major rice quality trait characteristics and importantly, to determine how these are combined in the most preferred varieties for each of their regions. Physical as well as biochemical characteristics have been monitored and this has resulted in the identification of no less than 18 quality trait combinations. This complexity immediately reveals the extent of the specificity of consumer preference. Nevertheless, further assessment of these combinations at the variety level reveals that several groups still comprise varieties which consumers can readily identify as being different. This emphasises the shortcomings in the current tools we have available to assess rice quality and raises the issue of how we might correct for this in the future. Only with additional tools and research will we be able to define directed strategies for rice breeding which are able to combine important agronomic features with the demands of local consumers for specific quality attributes and hence, design new, improved crop varieties which will be awarded success in the global market.

  8. Diversity of Global Rice Markets and the Science Required for Consumer-Targeted Rice Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calingacion, Mariafe; Laborte, Alice; Nelson, Andrew; Resurreccion, Adoracion; Concepcion, Jeanaflor Crystal; Daygon, Venea Dara; Mumm, Roland; Reinke, Russell; Dipti, Sharifa; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk; Manful, John; Sophany, Sakhan; Lara, Karla Cordero; Bao, Jinsong; Xie, Lihong; Loaiza, Katerine; El-hissewy, Ahmad; Gayin, Joseph; Sharma, Neerja; Rajeswari, Sivakami; Manonmani, Swaminathan; Rani, N. Shobha; Kota, Suneetha; Indrasari, Siti Dewi; Habibi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Maryam; Tavasoli, Fatemeh; Suzuki, Keitaro; Umemoto, Takayuki; Boualaphanh, Chanthkone; Lee, Huei Hong; Hung, Yiu Pang; Ramli, Asfaliza; Aung, Pa Pa; Ahmad, Rauf; Wattoo, Javed Iqbal; Bandonill, Evelyn; Romero, Marissa; Brites, Carla Moita; Hafeel, Roshni; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Cheaupun, Kunya; Jongdee, Supanee; Blanco, Pedro; Bryant, Rolfe; Thi Lang, Nguyen; Hall, Robert D.; Fitzgerald, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of the different traits that make up the quality of the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice is by no means a ‘one size fits all’ crop. Regional preferences are not only striking, they drive the market and hence are of major economic importance in any rice breeding / improvement strategy. In this analysis, we have engaged local experts across the world to perform a full assessment of all the major rice quality trait characteristics and importantly, to determine how these are combined in the most preferred varieties for each of their regions. Physical as well as biochemical characteristics have been monitored and this has resulted in the identification of no less than 18 quality trait combinations. This complexity immediately reveals the extent of the specificity of consumer preference. Nevertheless, further assessment of these combinations at the variety level reveals that several groups still comprise varieties which consumers can readily identify as being different. This emphasises the shortcomings in the current tools we have available to assess rice quality and raises the issue of how we might correct for this in the future. Only with additional tools and research will we be able to define directed strategies for rice breeding which are able to combine important agronomic features with the demands of local consumers for specific quality attributes and hence, design new, improved crop varieties which will be awarded success in the global market. PMID:24454799

  9. Multidimensionality and Gravity in Global Trade, 1950-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of global trade in the post-war period is subject to various interpretations. Some stress the trade-promoting role of the novel features in the world economy; some insist on the role of traditional factors, such as geographic distance, political difference and cultural dissimilarity, in continuously depressing trade flows; others…

  10. Globalization, Trade and Poverty in Ghana | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2012 ... The persistence of poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), in the face of increased globalization and rapid trade liberalization during the past two decades has inspired considerable debate on the impact of globalization, in general, and trade liberalization, in particular, on poverty. The standard argument is ...

  11. Global Trade Alert | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global Trade Alert (GTA) will provide information in real time on national measures taken during the current global economic downturn that are likely to discriminate against foreign commerce. GTA will complement and go beyond World Trade Organization (WTO) and World Bank monitoring initiatives by identifying affected ...

  12. The Rise of Middle Kingdoms: Emerging Economies in Global Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H. Hanson

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine changes in international trade associated with the integration of low- and middle-income countries into the global economy. Led by China and India, the share of developing economies in global exports more than doubled between 1994 and 2008. One feature of new trade patterns is greater South-South trade. China and India have booming demand for imported raw materials, which they use to build cities and factories. Industrialization throughout the South has deepened globa...

  13. Fairer global trade, better local health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussi, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    Trade is an inevitable part of human interaction, and our current economy is concerned more with quantity than with quality of trade. Trade justice is an essential part of sustainable development, and the Fairtrade movement allows us in the rich world to make clear commitment to this. The health benefits are not just in the poor world but benefit the rich too because of the importance of the social environment to our health.

  14. Global trade and health: key linkages and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, D W; Yach, D; Guindon, G E

    2000-01-01

    Globalization of trade, marketing and investment has important implications for public health, both negative and positive. This article considers the implications of the single package of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements for public health research and policy, focusing on three themes: commodities, intellectual property rights, and health services. The main aims of the analysis are as follows: to identify how trade issues are associated with the transnationalization of health risks and possible benefits; to identify key areas of research; and to suggest policy-relevant advice and interventions on trade and health issues. The next wave of international trade law will need to take more account of global public health issues. However, to become more engaged in global trade debates, the public health community must gain an understanding of the health effects of global trade agreements. It must also ensure that its own facts are correct, so that public health is not blindly used for political ends, such as justifying unwarranted economic protectionism. "Healthy trade" policies, based on firm empirical evidence and designed to improve health status, are an important step towards reaching a more sustainable form of trade liberalization.

  15. Starbucks’s Fair Trade in The Edge of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saomi Rizqiyanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Starbucks as a global company that reflect American values plays an important role in the trade of coffee industry. In February 2000, Starbucks partially adopted the Fair Trade and in early 2001 Starbucks fully adopt Fair Trade. This research seeks to examine the relationship between Starbucks as a symbol of globalization with Starbucks as a global corporation who adopt Fair Trade. This study also seeks to explain how any practical Starbucks Fair Trade as a whole and uncover the reasons behind Starbucks adopt Fair Trade. The research uses a case study method and using a primary and secondary reference sources in the form of books and journals. As a results, this study indicate that Starbucks has strong reasons that ultimately makes the company adopted the Fair Trade. The adoption of Fair Trade also known as CAFE Practices is apparently not spared from criticism of the observer of Fair Trade.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v16i2.5546

  16. Global Wood Pellet Industry and Trade Study 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrän, D.; Peetz, D.; Schaubach, K.; Mai-Moulin, T.; Junginger, H.M.; Lamers, P.; Visser, L.

    2017-01-01

    The report Global Wood Pellet Industry Market published in 2011 has always been the most downloaded document of IEA Bioenergy Task 40. We have decided to update the report and bring new insights on market trends and trade of the global wood pellets. The global wood pellet market has increased

  17. Uranium trade and global liberalization of markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagin, Yu.P.

    2003-01-01

    Present state of nuclear fuel market is reviewed. Political and economical aspects of nuclear fuel trade, traditional schemes of gain of nuclear fuel, tendencies and last innovations are treated. Price mechanisms, increase in part of traders, price indicators are discussed. Under the liberalization conditions the uranium market and common tendencies on the stages of nuclear fuel cycle as well as prospects of gain and sale of nuclear fuel, electronic trade are considered [ru

  18. Building a Rice Decision Support System to Support Global Food Security and Commodity Markets, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rice is an important crop globally that influences food security and the Earth system. Rice is the predominant food staple in many regions with approximately 700...

  19. Fair Trade: Social Regulation in Global Food Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the theoretical and empirical parameters of social regulation in contemporary global food markets, focusing on the rapidly expanding Fair Trade initiative. Fair Trade seeks to transform North/South relations by fostering ethical consumption, producer empowerment, and certified commodity sales. This initiative joins an array…

  20. Globalization, Trade and Poverty in Ghana | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Jan 1, 2012 ... ... debate on the impact of globalization, in general, and trade liberalization, in particular, on poverty. ... Maternal health research concerns men too ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ...

  1. Global timber trade pattern: the cards have changed

    OpenAIRE

    Roda Jean-Marc; Rohana Abd Rahman; Ismariah Ahmad; Lim Hin Fui; Mohd Parid Mamat

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the global timber trade has gradually evolved from a South-North trade to a South-South trade, with an acceleration of the phenomenon in the mid 1990s. Nowadays, Asia consumes more than 70% (in round wood equivalent) of the forest products originating from the tropics. Africa becomes the new frontier for the supplies of wood material for Asian giants, which now source raw wood from all over the world. Since the mid 1990s, the dynamics of the tropical timber trade have been in...

  2. What drives the formation of global oil trade patterns?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Ying; Ji, Qiang; Fan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the spatial characteristics of current global oil trade patterns are investigated by proposing a new indicator Moran-F. Meanwhile, the factors that influence the formation of oil trade patterns are identified by constructing four different kinds of spatial econometric models. The findings indicate that most oil exporters have an obvious export focus in North America and a relatively balanced export in Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. Besides supply and demand factors, technological progress and energy efficiency have also significantly influenced the oil trade. Moreover, there is a spillover effect of trade flow among different regions, but its impact is weak. In addition, oil importers in the same region have the potential to cooperate due to their similar import sources. Finally, promotion of oil importers' R&D investments can effectively reduce the demand for global oil trade. - Highlights: • A new spatial association Moran-F indicator that applies to trade flows is proposed. • Driving factors affecting the formation of oil trade patterns are identified. • Oil-exporting countries implement various export strategies in different regions. • Supply, demand and technological factors contribute to the oil trade patterns. • Spillover effect of each factor affecting oil trade flows does exist but is limited

  3. Human rights, global trade and moral values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Dehgan Simkani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, immoralities and prevalence of injustice and corruption on the one hand, and dissatisfaction of the world people due to not considering their natural rights on the other hand, show that there are certain problems in the foundations of human rights and declining of moral values. This article tries to show a weakening trend for moral values and human rights in practice, in the process of globalization and especially global trade, which today has a major impact on cultures. For this purpose, in the first part, in addition to studying the concept of human rights, the status of moral values in the intellectual foundations of the Declaration of Human Rights would investigated. In the second part, in addition to explaining the global trade, it shows that there is a decline trend in the moral values in the capitalist economy; and finally, in the third part, in addition to explaining the principles of human rights, the reasons for the weakening of moral values and not regarding human rights in practical consideration, recognized as having problems in the theoretical principles of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including relying on secularist worldview and humanist ideas. امروزه بی‌اخلاقی‌ها و رواج ظلم و فساد از یک طرف و نارضایتی مردمان جهان مبنی بر عدم دستیابی به حقوق طبیعیشان از طرف دیگر، نشانگر وجود مشکلات خاصی در مبانی حقوق بشر و رو به ضعف رفتنِ ارزش‌های اخلاقی است. این مقاله در پی آن است تا روند رو به ضعف ارزش‌های اخلاقی و حقوق‌بشر در مقام عمل را در فرآیند جهانی شدن و خصوصاً تجارت جهانی که امروزه بر تمام فرهنگ‌ها تأثیرات خاص خود را گذاشته است، نشان دهد. بدین منظور در بخش اوّل ضمن بررسی مفهوم

  4. Globalized Trade, Logistics and Intermodality: European Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henstra, D.; Ruijgrok, C.J.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Capineri, C.; Leinbach, T.; Black, W.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes megatrends that are shaping international trade, logistics organization and (multi)modal transport in Europe. It focuses on impacts on the European context, both from the peculiarities arising from the European uni?cation process and the European transport policies but also

  5. THE EFFECT OF ILLICIT TRADE IN NARCOTICS ON GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALASMARI Khaled

    2013-07-01

    Illicit markets especially those dealing with narcotics constitute grievous issues to the world’s economies, putting to test global safety, economic progress as well as security and many other aspects. Seemingly, illicit narcotics trade in the last decade – that is 2000 to 2011 underwent a significant boom, resulting from a wide spectrum of illegal drugs such as cocaine as well as heroin among many other hard drugs. In today’s global society, several concerns are emerging on the rise of illicit narcotics trade accompanied with organized crime, chiefly as major hindrances to consistent global economic progress. Apparently, some of the effects of illicit narcotics trade are that; this trade gradually turns upside down business rules, opening way for new unruly market players besides reconfiguring influence in global economics as well as politics. Surprisingly, the revenue from illegal drugs in 2011 alone was roughly 10% of the global GDP. Hence, exaggerating local economies’ incomes and triggering ceaseless conflicts among market players, while at the same time reducing legal business activities likewise disintegrating socioeconomic conditions. An empirical research method was adopted for this study, analyzing illicit trade in narcotics on the global arena as from 2000 to 2011 and its resultant effects. The research findings indicate that, illegal drugs trade particularly on the world economy besides growing at a high rate, it endangers the overall welfare of humans likewise the business environment. This is ostensibly because this trade has high chances of engrossing regional economies into illegal drugs business activities, causing them to neglect sustainable ethical businesses. Now, to effectively address negative economic issues related to illegal drugs trade, there is apparent need for integrated efforts from local as well as international authorities. Such efforts are chiefly to control not only the harmful effects resulting from the use of illicit

  6. Position of the European Union in the Global Trade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević Mladen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago, the main drivers of globalization were the exchange of goods and capital flows, while the global trading system of today, fuelled by rapid technological changes increasingly bases itself on knowledge. The Key events - such as the use of the Internet and the increasingly important role of the rising countries economies - have contributed to a faster global exchange, but to a new nature as well. In order to illustrate the scope of the increase, perhaps it would be the best to mention the fact that in the 1970’s the share of trade in the world GDP amounted to 20%, whereas today it makes about one half. On the other hand, modern products represent compounds of raw materials, components, technologies and services originating from different areas and different continents, which has globalized the products themselves. In such conditions of the market competition, imposed by globalization and liberalization, for the European Union to remain as a leader, it had to prepare a sound and well-founded foreign policy strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current position of the European Union in the global trading system, instruments of foreign trade policy, goals, foreign trade and the main challenges placed before the Union.

  7. Ecological network analysis on global virtual water trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhifeng; Mao, Xufeng; Zhao, Xu; Chen, Bin

    2012-02-07

    Global water interdependencies are likely to increase with growing virtual water trade. To address the issues of the indirect effects of water trade through the global economic circulation, we use ecological network analysis (ENA) to shed insight into the complicated system interactions. A global model of virtual water flow among agriculture and livestock production trade in 1995-1999 is also built as the basis for network analysis. Control analysis is used to identify the quantitative control or dependency relations. The utility analysis provides more indicators for describing the mutual relationship between two regions/countries by imitating the interactions in the ecosystem and distinguishes the beneficiary and the contributor of virtual water trade system. Results show control and utility relations can well depict the mutual relation in trade system, and direct observable relations differ from integral ones with indirect interactions considered. This paper offers a new way to depict the interrelations between trade components and can serve as a meaningful start as we continue to use ENA in providing more valuable implications for freshwater study on a global scale.

  8. The relation between global migration and trade networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrignoli, Paolo; Metulini, Rodolfo; Schiavo, Stefano; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop a methodology to analyze and compare multiple global networks, focusing our analysis on the relation between human migration and trade. First, we identify the subset of products for which the presence of a community of migrants significantly increases trade intensity, where to assure comparability across networks we apply a hypergeometric filter that lets us identify those links which intensity is significantly higher than expected. Next, proposing a new way to define country neighbors based on the most intense links in the trade network, we use spatial econometrics techniques to measure the effect of migration on international trade, while controlling for network interdependences. Overall, we find that migration significantly boosts trade across countries and we are able to identify product categories for which this effect is particularly strong.

  9. GLOBAL TO DOMESTIC PRICE TRANSMISSION BETWEEN THE SEGMENTED CEREALS MARKETS: A STUDY OF AFGHAN RICE MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najibullah Hassanzoy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines cointegration and the difference in the extent of price transmission, and speed of adjustment between global and domestic prices of high and low quality rice. Unit root tests, cointegration tests and error correction models are employed in the analysis. While there are no comparable studies in the literature, the findings of this study indicate that the dynamics of price transmission may be different between high and low quality rice markets. That is, the extent of price transmission appears to be larger for the global prices of low quality rice whereas the speed of adjustment to the long-run equilibrium may be faster for domestic prices of high quality rice. Moreover, a shock in the global prices of low quality rice may have a long-lasting effect on domestic prices of low quality rice as compared to their high quality counterparts affecting domestic prices of high quality rice.

  10. WHAT COMES NEXT? A GLOBAL TRADE WAR OR THE RENEGOTIATION OF US TRADE AGREEMENTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Câmpeanu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In March 2018, the US President announced additional tariffs on steel and aluminum imports to be applied to all exporters in the US market. The main reason behind these protectionist measures is the threat to national security caused by the US balance of trade, as reflected by annual losses of hundreds of billions of dollars. Strengthening of the US steel and aluminum industries, job creation and, hence, the consolidation of the US economy appear to be among the benefits of the new tariffs. This article aims to analyze US trade and issues related to the major trading partners, as well as the new protectionist measures initiated by president Trump, alongside the domestic and international responses. Finally, the article highlights the immediate and foreseeable consequences of these measures and concludes that rather than triggering a global trade war, the Trump administration is preparing the means to exert pressure to renegotiate the US trade agreements.

  11. A Network of Networks Perspective on Global Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluck, Julian; Donner, Reik V

    2015-01-01

    Mutually intertwined supply chains in contemporary economy result in a complex network of trade relationships with a highly non-trivial topology that varies with time. In order to understand the complex interrelationships among different countries and economic sectors, as well as their dynamics, a holistic view on the underlying structural properties of this network is necessary. This study employs multi-regional input-output data to decompose 186 national economies into 26 industry sectors and utilizes the approach of interdependent networks to analyze the substructure of the resulting international trade network for the years 1990-2011. The partition of the network into national economies is observed to be compatible with the notion of communities in the sense of complex network theory. By studying internal versus cross-subgraph contributions to established complex network metrics, new insights into the architecture of global trade are obtained, which allow to identify key elements of global economy. Specifically, financial services and business activities dominate domestic trade whereas electrical and machinery industries dominate foreign trade. In order to further specify each national sector's role individually, (cross-)clustering coefficients and cross-betweenness are obtained for different pairs of subgraphs. The corresponding analysis reveals that specific industrial sectors tend to favor distinct directionality patterns and that the cross-clustering coefficient for geographically close country pairs is remarkably high, indicating that spatial factors are still of paramount importance for the organization of trade patterns in modern economy. Regarding the evolution of the trade network's substructure, globalization is well-expressed by trends of several structural characteristics (e.g., link density and node strength) in the interacting network framework. Extreme events, such as the financial crisis 2008/2009, are manifested as anomalies superimposed to

  12. Global Trade issues and Cultural Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa MARSON

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural exception has always been a key element in the French political and cultural field. It isbased on the principle that culture is not like any other merchandise because it goes beyond thecommercial. During the negotiations of the Uruguay Round (1986-1994 the United States offeredto liberalize cultural goods and services. Due to the sensitive nature of the cultural industries, theEuropean Union led by France refused to make an offer of liberalization on these fields. Afterheated debates between the United States and the European Union, cultural exception has finallybecome a global issue since 2005. On 20 October, the UNESCO convention on cultural diversitywas voted by 148 countries to two (The United States and Israel to legally and globally recognizethe specific nature of cultural goods and services in the liberalization process.

  13. Globalization Crises, Trade,and Development in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn

    Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises—the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its characterizat......Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises—the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its...... that dependence and bolster the domestic economy while continuing to restructure the economy toward greater emphasis on the private sector. Growth, employment and poverty alleviation have been maintained at the expense of renewed inflation, larger budget deficits, and currency depreciation. The ‘stop-go’ nature...

  14. International trade network: fractal properties and globalization puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiarz, Mariusz; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata

    2014-12-12

    Globalization is one of the central concepts of our age. The common perception of the process is that, due to declining communication and transport costs, distance becomes less and less important. However, the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade, which grows in time, indicates that the role of distance increases rather than decreases. This, in essence, captures the notion of the globalization puzzle. Here, we show that the fractality of the international trade system (ITS) provides a simple solution for the puzzle. We argue that the distance coefficient corresponds to the fractal dimension of ITS. We provide two independent methods, the box counting method and spatial choice model, which confirm this statement. Our results allow us to conclude that the previous approaches to solving the puzzle misinterpreted the meaning of the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade.

  15. Trading Platform for the Global Warrant Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif ZIMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warrant markets are among the most active financial markets in the retail derivatives investment landscape currently. In this context some of the most relevant markets in the last years have been the ones across Asia and in particular Hong Kong, Korea and Japan. This paper introduces the financial instruments used in connection with the warrant markets, pre-sents and offers suggestions for setting up a generic warrant market making system and in-troduces the main concepts and components that need to be taken into account when develop-ing these systems targeting an exchange driven or E-Businesscontext.

  16. Trading away what kind of jobs? Globalization, trade and tasks in the US economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Thomas; Rigby, David

    2012-04-01

    Economists and other social scientists are calling for a reassessment of the impact of international trade on labor markets in developed and developing countries. Classical models of globalization and trade, based upon the international exchange of finished goods, fail to capture the fragmentation of much commodity production and the geographical separation of individual production tasks. This fragmentation, captured in the growing volume of intra-industry trade, prompts investigation of the effects of trade within, rather than between, sectors of the economy. In this paper we examine the relationship between international trade and the task structure of US employment. We link disaggregate US trade data from 1972 to 2006, the NBER manufacturing database, the Decennial Census, and occupational and task data from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Within-industry shifts in task characteristics are linked to import competition and technological change. Our results suggest that trade has played a major role in the growth in relative demand for nonroutine tasks, particularly those requiring high levels of interpersonal interaction.

  17. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Korea’s Trade Strategies for Mega Free Trade Agreements in Regional and Global Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Chul Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea has developed rapidly since the 1960s. It is one of the four Asian tiger economies and a good model for developing countries. Korea shows the world how a developing country can develop its economy rapidly and become industrialized. Its development strategy has mainly been an export-oriented trade policy. As a result, its trade volume grew from $1 billion in 1966 to $1 trillion in 2011, which is a 1,000-fold increase within five decades. Since 2011, Korea has become one of seven countries with a trade volume over $1 trillion. However, the Korean economy has experienced turbulence as well as positive growth. It underwent severe economic crises such as the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the global financial crisis in 2008. Its economy has been extremely vulnerable to the external economic environment, although it has improved and strengthened, particularly since the global financial crisis. During those two crises, the government carried out an appropriate trade policy with a strategic approach to upgrade its industrial structure and competitiveness in global markets. This article comprehensively discusses Korean trade policy and strategy over the last five decades, and how its national economy has developed rapidly. It also explores how the government sets its strategic targets in Asia and the Asia Pacific region. It considers two mega free trade agreements (FTAs — the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and the Trans-Pacific Partnership — as new opportunities for further development. Therefore, it is wise to analyze these regional mega FTAs in order to maximize the national interest.

  19. Global Rice Watch: Spatial-temporal dynamics, driving factors, and impacts of paddy rice agriculture in the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Dong, J.; Zhang, G.; Xin, F.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Paddy rice croplands account for more than 12% of the global cropland areas, and provide food to feed more than 50% of the world population. Spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of paddy rice croplands have changed remarkably in the past decades, driven by growing human population and their changing diet structure, land use (e.g., urbanization, industrialization), climate, markets, and technologies. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive review of our current knowledge on (1) the spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of paddy rice croplands from agricultural statistics data and remote sensing approaches; (2) major driving factors for the observed changes in paddy rice areas, including social, economic, climate, land use, markets, crop breeding technology, and farming technology; and (3) major impacts on atmospheric methane concentration, land surface temperature, water resources and use, and so on. We will highlight the results from a few case studies in China and monsoon Asia. We will also call for a global synthesis analysis of paddy rice agriculture, and invite researchers to join the effort to write and edit a book that provides comprehensive and updated knowledge on paddy rice agriculture.

  20. Born Global Firms: A Foreign Trade Related Study on Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytaç GÖKMEN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the comprehensive advent in information and communication technologies and worldwide ease of transportation, the volume of international trade and business increased profoundly. Within this process, a Born Global Firm (BGF, right from its initiation, aims at creating competitive advantage by marketing a large volume of its products in various international markets by utilizing technological advances. Therefore, the rational behind the idea of BGF is to become an international firm in a short period of time and making international business affairs core of its business activities. Thus, the aim of this study is to review the concept of BGF theoretically and relate the issue to foreign trade affairs resting on significant sources related to the Turkish case mainly focusing on trade statistics as to review the potential development of BGFs in Turkey.

  1. A Network of Networks Perspective on Global Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluck, Julian; Donner, Reik V.

    2015-01-01

    Mutually intertwined supply chains in contemporary economy result in a complex network of trade relationships with a highly non-trivial topology that varies with time. In order to understand the complex interrelationships among different countries and economic sectors, as well as their dynamics, a holistic view on the underlying structural properties of this network is necessary. This study employs multi-regional input-output data to decompose 186 national economies into 26 industry sectors and utilizes the approach of interdependent networks to analyze the substructure of the resulting international trade network for the years 1990–2011. The partition of the network into national economies is observed to be compatible with the notion of communities in the sense of complex network theory. By studying internal versus cross-subgraph contributions to established complex network metrics, new insights into the architecture of global trade are obtained, which allow to identify key elements of global economy. Specifically, financial services and business activities dominate domestic trade whereas electrical and machinery industries dominate foreign trade. In order to further specify each national sector’s role individually, (cross-)clustering coefficients and cross-betweenness are obtained for different pairs of subgraphs. The corresponding analysis reveals that specific industrial sectors tend to favor distinct directionality patterns and that the cross-clustering coefficient for geographically close country pairs is remarkably high, indicating that spatial factors are still of paramount importance for the organization of trade patterns in modern economy. Regarding the evolution of the trade network’s substructure, globalization is well-expressed by trends of several structural characteristics (e.g., link density and node strength) in the interacting network framework. Extreme events, such as the financial crisis 2008/2009, are manifested as anomalies superimposed

  2. Local and global perspectives on the virtual water trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tamea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on fluxes of virtual water are showing how the global food and goods trade interconnects the water resources of different and distant countries, conditioning the local water balances. This paper presents and discusses the assessment of virtual water fluxes between a single country and its network of trading partners, delineating a country's virtual water budget in space and time (years 1986–2010. The fluxes between the country under study and its importing/exporting partners are visualized with a geographical representation shaping the trade network as a virtual river/delta. Time variations of exchanged fluxes are quantified to show possible trends in the virtual water balance, while characterizing the time evolution of the trade network and its composition in terms of product categories (plant-based, animal-based, luxury food, and non-edible. The average distance traveled by virtual water to arrive to the place of consumption is also introduced as a new measure for the analysis of globalization of the virtual water trade. Using Italy as an example, we find that food trade has a steadily growing importance compared to domestic production, with a major component represented by plant-based products, and luxury products taking an increasingly larger share (26% in 2010. In 2010 Italy had an average net import of 55 km3 of virtual water (38 km3 in 1986, a value which poses the country among the top net importers in the world. On average each cubic meter of virtual water travels nearly 4000 km before entering Italy, while export goes to relatively closer countries (average distance: 2600 km, with increasing trends in time which are almost unique among the world countries. Analyses proposed for Italy are replicated for 10 other world countries, triggering similar investigations on different socio-economic actualities.

  3. Local and global perspectives on the virtual water trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, S.; Allamano, P.; Carr, J. A.; Claps, P.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies on fluxes of virtual water are showing how the global food and goods trade interconnects the water resources of different and distant countries, conditioning the local water balances. This paper presents and discusses the assessment of virtual water fluxes between a single country and its network of trading partners, delineating a country's virtual water budget in space and time (years 1986-2010). The fluxes between the country under study and its importing/exporting partners are visualized with a geographical representation shaping the trade network as a virtual river/delta. Time variations of exchanged fluxes are quantified to show possible trends in the virtual water balance, while characterizing the time evolution of the trade network and its composition in terms of product categories (plant-based, animal-based, luxury food, and non-edible). The average distance traveled by virtual water to arrive to the place of consumption is also introduced as a new measure for the analysis of globalization of the virtual water trade. Using Italy as an example, we find that food trade has a steadily growing importance compared to domestic production, with a major component represented by plant-based products, and luxury products taking an increasingly larger share (26% in 2010). In 2010 Italy had an average net import of 55 km3 of virtual water (38 km3 in 1986), a value which poses the country among the top net importers in the world. On average each cubic meter of virtual water travels nearly 4000 km before entering Italy, while export goes to relatively closer countries (average distance: 2600 km), with increasing trends in time which are almost unique among the world countries. Analyses proposed for Italy are replicated for 10 other world countries, triggering similar investigations on different socio-economic actualities.

  4. Trade in water and commodities as adaptations to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, R. B.; Hertel, T. W.; Prousevitch, A.; Baldos, U. L. C.; Frolking, S. E.; Liu, J.; Grogan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The human capacity for altering the water cycle has been well documented and given the expected change due to population, income growth, biofuels, climate, and associated land use change, there remains great uncertainty in both the degree of increased pressure on land and water resources and in our ability to adapt to these changes. Alleviating regional shortages in water supply can be carried out in a spatial hierarchy through i) direct trade of water between all regions, ii) development of infrastructure to improve water availability within regions (e.g. impounding rivers), iii) via inter-basin hydrological transfer between neighboring regions and, iv) via virtual water trade. These adaptation strategies can be managed via market trade in water and commodities to identify those strategies most likely to be adopted. This work combines the physically-based University of New Hampshire Water Balance Model (WBM) with the macro-scale Purdue University Simplified International Model of agricultural Prices Land use and the Environment (SIMPLE) to explore the interaction of supply and demand for fresh water globally. In this work we use a newly developed grid cell-based version of SIMPLE to achieve a more direct connection between the two modeling paradigms of physically-based models with optimization-driven approaches characteristic of economic models. We explore questions related to the global and regional impact of water scarcity and water surplus on the ability of regions to adapt to future change. Allowing for a variety of adaptation strategies such as direct trade of water and expanding the built water infrastructure, as well as indirect trade in commodities, will reduce overall global water stress and, in some regions, significantly reduce their vulnerability to these future changes.

  5. Advancing Sustainable Development in Global Trade and Multilateral Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanWorld exports and imports are quickly recovering after the 2008-09 sharp decline in merchandise trade, as illustrated by global trade performances in the first and second quarters of 2010. In spite of this impressive recovery, domestic concerns in OECD countries about employment, competitiveness and China’s exchange rate policy have created a difficult political environment for further liberalisation under the Doha Round. Interestingly, developing countries, which were reluctant to engage in a new round of trade negotiations back in 2001, are now in the vanguard of those that wish for a swift conclusion of the talks, even if consensus on the ambitious ‘development package’ envisaged in Doha remains elusive. At the same time trade has been the subject of unprecedented attention and scrutiny in the climate change talks. In a world where multilateral cooperation is in crisis there is a dire need for the international community to generate new types of arrangements and innovative responses to the imperatives of development and the global transition to a low-carbon economy.

  6. Globalization and the trends of medical technology trade in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, Semih; Güldal, Dilek; Demiral, Yücel

    2007-05-01

    Medical technology trade is one of the most affected health areas by global regulations in the developing countries. The aim of the study is to examine recent changes in medical technology import and export and their results in Turkey. Data show that the total medical technology imports (MTI) increased from $ 34.6 million to $ 3427.9 million between 1970 and 2003. While MTI constituted 3.6% of total imports in 1970 and 1.3% in 1980, this ratio raised up to 4.9% in 2003. The ratio of MTI in total health expenditures were also increased from 7.6% in 1970 to 31.5% in 2003. Medical technology exports (MTE) have been increased from $ 0.9 million in 1970 to $ 303.2 million in 2003. The ratio of MTE to MTI increased from 2.7% to 13.9% between 1970 and 1990 and decreased after 1990, to 8.8%. Our study implied that the medical technology trade in Turkey has been negatively affected and in some respects differs from some other important industries in the globalization era. Nevertheless, detailed comparative studies in different developing countries such as China, Brazil, Mexico and India, are needed to explore the real state of medical technology trade, use and the effects of globalization on these topics.

  7. Organic rice production in developing countries with regard to fair trade (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlin, Charlotte; Mikkelsen, Henrik N.; Olsen, Lino Klit

    1999-01-01

    . Local certification is desirable from socio-economic considerations.2. Local work up of the products is likewise desirable for socio-economis reasons.3. The establishment of grower groups can ease the two points above.4. Education of the farmers with regard to understanding the organic production method......This report deals with the possibilities of organic rice production in developing countries under fair trade conditions - conditions which assures the producer a fair price for the delivered product.It is concluded that the following points should be worked with when carrying out such a project:1...... and the learning of soil improvement techniques.In connection with the choice of area it is concluded that the naturally most stable areas are also the most favourable for organic production.With regards to the ownership af the area which is chosen for organic production it is evaluated that the small family run...

  8. Social-environmental trade-offs for Systems of Rice Intensification in S. India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathorne-Hardy, A.; Reddy, D. N.; Motkuri, V.; Harriss-White, B.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems will only be sustainable if social and economic considerations are included in their design. Systems of Rice Intensification (SRI) has been proposed as more sustainable form of rice production due to reported higher yields and lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However there is a research gap concerning the wider social and economic implications of SRI. We developed a model to simultaneously analyse social, economic and environmental sustainability indicators (GHG emissions, ground water use, fossil/ non-fossil energy use, costs, profits, gender, employment quality and employment quantity) to compare SRI to conventional flooded rice production systems. Data was based on farmer-recall questionnaires in Andhra Pradesh, India. Data was collected per hectare and per kg of paddy. SRI substantially increased yields (157% of control), reduced ground-water requirements (64% ha-1, 42% kg-1, of control) and reduced GHG emissions (72% ha-1, 42% kg-1, of control). Costs were substantially lower for SRI systems, on both a hectare and a per kg basis. The high yields and lower costs resulted in a doubling of profits per hectare. However, these benefits are accrued to the farmer potentially at the expense of landless labourers. The role of agricultural employment in developing countries is a controversial issue, but in India, whose substantial economic growth has been largely jobless, agriculture retains a key role in reducing under- and un- employment. SRI labour demand was lower (70% of control ha-1). Simultaneously the ratio of male to female employment increased, from 67% female labour in control to 50% SRI. Thus trade-offs may exist between environmental, economic and social aspects of SRI. Understanding sustainability from a broad perspective facilitates better policy creation.

  9. Optimization Model for Mitigating Global Warming at the Farm Scale: An Application to Japanese Rice Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Masuda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, greenhouse gas emissions from rice production, especially CH4 emissions in rice paddy fields, are the primary contributors to global warming from agriculture. When prolonged midseason drainage for mitigating CH4 emissions from rice paddy fields is practiced with environmentally friendly rice production based on reduced use of synthetic pesticides and chemical fertilizers, Japanese rice farmers can receive an agri-environmental direct payment. This paper examines the economic and environmental effects of the agri-environmental direct payment on the adoption of a measure to mitigate global warming in Japanese rice farms using a combined application of linear programming and life cycle assessment at the farm scale. Eco-efficiency, which is defined as net farm income divided by global warming potential, is used as an integrated indicator for assessing the economic and environmental feasibilities. The results show that under the current direct payment level, the prolonged midseason drainage technique does not improve the eco-efficiency of Japanese rice farms because the practice of this technique in environmentally friendly rice production causes large economic disadvantages in exchange for small environmental advantages. The direct payment rates for agri-environmental measures should be determined based on the condition that environmentally friendly agricultural practices improve eco-efficiency compared with conventional agriculture.

  10. Globalization's effects on world agricultural trade, 1960–2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kym

    2010-01-01

    Recent globalization has been characterized by a decline in the costs of cross-border trade in farm and other products. It has been driven primarily by the information and communication technology revolution and—in the case of farm products—by reductions in governmental distortions to agricultural production, consumption and trade. Both have boosted economic growth and reduced poverty globally, especially in Asia. The first but maybe not the second of these drivers will continue in coming decades. World food prices will depend also on whether (and if so by how much) farm productivity growth continues to outpace demand growth and to what extent diets in emerging economies move towards livestock and horticultural products at the expense of staples. Demand in turn will be driven not only by population and income growth, but also by crude oil prices if they remain at current historically high levels, since that will affect biofuel demand. Climate change mitigation policies and adaptation, water market developments and market access standards particularly for transgenic foods will add to future production, price and trade uncertainties. PMID:20713399

  11. Upland and lowland rice in the Netherlands Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, H.

    2016-01-01

    The global trade in rice is historically recent and its total quantity relatively small. Colonial explorations were the main incentive for its development, but only beginning in the 19th century did rice-producing countries in Asia export rice outside the continent in bulk. In previous centuries

  12. Arms trade and its impact on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudi-Azer, Salahaddin

    2006-01-01

    The most obvious adverse impact of the arms trade on health is loss of life and maiming from the use of weapons in conflicts. Wealthy countries suffer damage to their health and human services when considerable resources are diverted to military expenditure. However, the relative impact of military expenditures and conflict on third world countries is much greater, and often devastating, by depriving a significant portion of the population of essential food, medicine, shelter, education, and economic opportunities. Further, the physical and psychological damage inflicted specifically on children is debilitating - through loss of (or separation from) families, loss of education, destruction of homes, exposure to murder and other violence, sexual abuse, abduction, torture, slavery, and forcible conscription as soldiers. This article outlines the socio-economic impact of the global arms trade in general and the damage done to human health and the environment, specifically.

  13. Global climate-friendly trade : Canada's chance to clean up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, D.

    2010-03-01

    This paper discussed the global trade and investment in climate-friendly technologies, Canada's current position in this market, and the policy changes that are necessary for Canadian businesses to gain a stronger foothold in this sector. The global market for climate-friendly technologies is growing rapidly, but Canadian businesses have generally failed to exploit opportunities to export climate-friendly technologies and have generally lagged other countries in adopting such technologies developed elsewhere. Although Canadian businesses generally underperform in this sector, Canada does have notable strengths in 13 identified areas, including waste management technologies, energy technologies, and in parts of the value chains associated with wind and solar power. Targeting these areas of relative strength for further development could position Canada as a global leader in some climate-friendly technologies. For this to happen, Canadian governments need to establish clear policies, invest in research and development, and remove domestic and international barriers to the development and trade in climate-friendly technologies. 30 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Identification of global oil trade patterns: An empirical research based on complex network theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Qiang; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Fan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A global oil trade core network is analyzed using complex network theory. • The global oil export core network displays a scale-free behaviour. • The current global oil trade network can be divided into three trading blocs. • The global oil trade network presents a ‘robust and yet fragile’ characteristic. - Abstract: The Global oil trade pattern becomes increasingly complex, which has become one of the most important factors affecting every country’s energy strategy and economic development. In this paper, a global oil trade core network is constructed to analyze the overall features, regional characteristics and stability of the oil trade using complex network theory. The results indicate that the global oil export core network displays a scale-free behaviour, in which the trade position of nodes presents obvious heterogeneity and the ‘hub nodes’ play a ‘bridge’ role in the formation process of the trade network. The current global oil trade network can be divided into three trading blocs, including the ‘South America-West Africa-North America’ trading bloc, the ‘Middle East–Asian–Pacific region’ trading bloc, and ‘the former Soviet Union–North Africa–Europe’ trading bloc. Geopolitics and diplomatic relations are the two main reasons for this regional oil trade structure. Moreover, the global oil trade network presents a ‘robust but yet fragile’ characteristic, and the impacts of trade interruption always tend to spread throughout the whole network even if the occurrence of export disruptions is localised

  15. Impact of globalization and animal trade on infectious disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Nina; Arguin, Paul M; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2007-12-01

    The articles on rabies and Marburg virus featured in this month's Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) zoonoses issue illustrate common themes. Both discuss zoonotic diseases with serious health implications for humans, and both have a common reservoir, the bat. These articles, and the excitement generated by this year's recognition of World Rabies Day on September 8, also described in this issue, remind us how globalization has had an impact on the worldwide animal trade. This worldwide movement of animals has increased the potential for the translocation of zoonotic diseases, which pose serious risks to human and animal health.

  16. Synergies and trade-offs in achieving global biodiversity targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Moreno; Butchart, Stuart H M; Visconti, Piero; Buchanan, Graeme M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    After their failure to achieve a significant reduction in the global rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, world governments adopted 20 new ambitious Aichi biodiversity targets to be met by 2020. Efforts to achieve one particular target can contribute to achieving others, but different targets may sometimes require conflicting solutions. Consequently, lack of strategic thinking might result, once again, in a failure to achieve global commitments to biodiversity conservation. We illustrate this dilemma by focusing on Aichi Target 11. This target requires an expansion of terrestrial protected area coverage, which could also contribute to reducing the loss of natural habitats (Target 5), reducing human-induced species decline and extinction (Target 12), and maintaining global carbon stocks (Target 15). We considered the potential impact of expanding protected areas to mitigate global deforestation and the consequences for the distribution of suitable habitat for >10,000 species of forest vertebrates (amphibians, birds, and mammals). We first identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on remaining forests and then identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on forest vertebrates (considering aggregate suitable habitat for species). Expanding protected areas toward locations with the highest deforestation rates (Target 5) or the highest potential loss of aggregate species' suitable habitat (Target 12) resulted in partially different protected area network configurations (overlapping with each other by about 73%). Moreover, the latter approach contributed to safeguarding about 30% more global carbon stocks than the former. Further investigation of synergies and trade-offs between targets would shed light on these and other complex interactions, such as the interaction between reducing overexploitation of natural resources (Targets 6, 7), controlling invasive alien species (Target 9), and preventing extinctions of native

  17. A New Leader in Asian Free Trade Agreements? Chinese Style Global Trade: New Rules, No Labor Protections

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    In 2017, after the election of Donald Trump and his subsequent language and actions surrounding global trade, Chinese President Xi Jinping took the world stage at the World Economic Forum’s Annual Meeting in a moment that led many to say he assumed the mantle of world leader on globalism and global trade, particularly in Asia. Previously, President Obama noted that the TPP presented an opportunity for the U.S., along with its partners, to write the rules of international trade with Asia-Pacif...

  18. Crisis, Compromise and Institutional Leadership in Global Trade: Unfair Trade, Sustainable Trade, and Durability of the Liberal Trading Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens L.

    2017-01-01

    The transformations of the current liberal order is fiercely order debate among liberals and realists in International Relations (IR). The article examines how the liberal claim of institutional leadership, even in complex networked orders, is challenged by realists and the reality of forum......-shifting and institutionalized hegemonic power. Yet, the article advances the constructivists argument that order and leadership rests on the compromise of social purpose and power, even if much IR tends to prioritize the domestic sources of leadership at the expense of international sources of institutional leadership......, and in light of recent modernization debate in Europe on the desirability of US-style enforcement provisions in future EU trade agreements....

  19. Economic-Social Analysis of Global Illicit Drug Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahedin Ghaderi

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Political unstability, less respect to the role of law, low life standards and suitable conditions for poppy/coca cultivation, have all affected on growing illicit drug international trafficking. Colombia is the center for global cocaine industry. Colombians had to use ship in the Carribean but now they pass Mexico where the costs are half of using ship. Mexican traffickers permit that the domestic poppy plants turned into herion, Colombian cocaine transited to USA and methamephtamine manufactured and distributed. Golden triangle in southeast Asia is one of the major regions for opium poppy cultivation. This region has seen many guerrilla warfare for selling illicit drugs especially in Myanmar. Manufactured hroin is usually dealt in Thailand. Golden Crescent region in southwest Asia has a suitable climate for opium poppy cultivation which provides necessay money for purchasing needed weapons by rival groups in northwestern border provinces of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Nigeria is one of the main centers for transporting heroin from Golden Crescent and cocaine from Brazil. Dominics run cocaine trade in New York and New England and Afro-American criminal organizations conduct heroin trading in big cities such as New york, Detroit, Chicago, Phila Delphia and Washington. Street trading of illicit drugs is mainly done by cultural or commanding gangs. Illicit drug traffickers apply many methods to laundering their profits including money exchange, smurfs, electronic transferring, and faced firms (the firms that are only registered.

  20. Trends in Global and Regional Integration by means of Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Șincai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we aim to emphasize several aspects of the economic integration realized through the channel of trade, from a double perspective. The first point of view is given by the formal framework, de jure, composed by the multitude of preferential trade agreements, while the second one, de facto, market-driven, is concretized by the global production networks. The first stance is exemplified through the agreements negotiated or concluded by the traditional trade powers, EU, US and Japan. Although, economically, EU is more present in Asia-Pacific than the US, the latter are politically more active and seem to gain ground. The second stance is underlined by means of the Asian integration specificity. East and South-East Asia represents the core of „Factory Asia” and is governed by the activity of the transnational corporations, their investment and cross-border networks, which makes the production process more fragmented and the regional economies more mutually dependent.

  1. Capturing the jobs from globalization: trade and employment in global value chains

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Jiang; William Milberg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract With the steady growth of global value chains (GVCs), each country’s trade now has a more complex relationship with the international division of labor. We decompose the employment effects of a country’s trade into five components, specifically the labour content (1) in exports, (2) in imports, (3) in the import content of exports, (4) in the export content of imports and (5) in intermediates contained in imports. The last three components relate strictly to a country’s participation...

  2. The Global Challenge of Human Rights and Solidarity to Nordic Global Companies and Trade Unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Schiller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea that corporations, besides making profit, have a social responsibility to society is not new in history. Nor is it new that unions besides representing material interests stand for a universal ambition as defenders of the oppressed in the world. The article argues that corporations’ social responsibility and trade union solidarity, to the extent both are based on universal principles of human rights, ought to open for cooperation concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, where trade unions should be recognized as important stakeholders in corporations. This idea is new, even if examples exist, and it challenges traditional concepts of the role of management and unions in the company. However, trade unions have taken a critical attitude to CSR, the implementation of which they have mainly been excluded from. Instead, they have tried to get global agreements, Global Framework Agreements (GFAs, with the MNCs.1 In the article the development of the attitudes of the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC and of the Nordic national centers is investigated. A long-term historical perspective, in addition to a general theory of collective action will be used to draft the hypothesis that, when unions as interest organizations, through the process of national integration, have achieved a strong position in the domestic labor market, they lack reasons to take transnational action and seek international trade union solidarity. This hypothesis is valid today for the well-established unions in the Nordic countries. But in questions concerning social responsibility and human rights, the article presents the possibility that GFAs might become a platform from which to extend the Nordic model of national partnership to the global level, while at the same time global competition will increasingly make it difficult for the unions to show international solidarity in interest questions of capital investments and outsourcing.

  3. China's evolving role in global production networks: Implications for Trump's trade war

    OpenAIRE

    Athukorala, Prema-chandra

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines China's evolving role in global production networks and its implications for assessing the potential impact of the "trade war" declared by President Trump. The analysis, which is based on a systematic disaggregation of trade based on global production sharing into components and final assembly, suggests that the Sino-US trade gap is a structural phenomenon driven by the pivotal role played by China within East Asia cantered production networks. The global competitiveness o...

  4. Export Trade Performance of Indian Economy during and Following the Global Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sumanjeet Singh

    2011-01-01

    Towards the end of 2008 the effects of global recession started getting reflectedin international trade. The fall in global demand and the slowing-down ineconomic growth translated into a substantial reduction in internationaltrade. It affected the cross-border trade of virtually all countries and economicsectors. Indian exports trade could not remain unaffected in a situation whereexternal demand was dwindling globally. The present paper reviews India’sexport performance during and following...

  5. Global trends of acceptance and trade in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matin, M A [Food and Environmental Protection Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2001-05-01

    Issues as relevant to wide scale application of food irradiation are presented in this paper to provide current status of the technology. Global development on key issues such as public acceptance, public health improvement, safety and wholesomeness, regulatory aspects, potential application of the technology to ease quarantine problems in the trade of food and agricultural commodities as a viable alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide have been presented. Irradiation ensures the hygienic quality of food and extends shelf-life. Many international organizations and respected regional/national bodies agree on the merits of the technique and valuable contribution that the process can offer to safeguard the food supply worldwide. Codex General Standard for irradiated food and the associated Code of Practice for operation of the irradiation facilities used for the treatment of foods adopted in 1983 forms the regulatory basis for commercial utilization of the processing technology. More than 40 countries of the world have Standards/Regulations to process one or more food products by the irradiation process. Efforts are underway to harmonise national regulations on food irradiation to remove obstacles for international trade of irradiated products. There is a rapid development on commercial application of food irradiation in the USA and elsewhere in the past few months. There are already several existing commercial irradiators available for treating food in the USA and many more are planned to be built. Such commercial food irradiation facilities are also in different stage of development in Brazil, India, Mexico, Thailand, People's Republic of China, Republic of Korea. Roles of irradiation ensuring food safety, contributing food security and facilitating trade are more and more recognized in developed and developing countries alike. (author)

  6. Global trends of acceptance and trade in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matin, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Issues as relevant to wide scale application of food irradiation are presented in this paper to provide current status of the technology. Global development on key issues such as public acceptance, public health improvement, safety and wholesomeness, regulatory aspects, potential application of the technology to ease quarantine problems in the trade of food and agricultural commodities as a viable alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide have been presented. Irradiation ensures the hygienic quality of food and extends shelf-life. Many international organizations and respected regional/national bodies agree on the merits of the technique and valuable contribution that the process can offer to safeguard the food supply worldwide. Codex General Standard for irradiated food and the associated Code of Practice for operation of the irradiation facilities used for the treatment of foods adopted in 1983 forms the regulatory basis for commercial utilization of the processing technology. More than 40 countries of the world have Standards/Regulations to process one or more food products by the irradiation process. Efforts are underway to harmonise national regulations on food irradiation to remove obstacles for international trade of irradiated products. There is a rapid development on commercial application of food irradiation in the USA and elsewhere in the past few months. There are already several existing commercial irradiators available for treating food in the USA and many more are planned to be built. Such commercial food irradiation facilities are also in different stage of development in Brazil, India, Mexico, Thailand, People's Republic of China, Republic of Korea. Roles of irradiation ensuring food safety, contributing food security and facilitating trade are more and more recognized in developed and developing countries alike. (author)

  7. Ecosystem service trade-offs across global contexts and scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Cavender-Bares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Meeting human needs while sustaining the planet's life support systems is the fundamental challenge of our time. What role sustenance of biodiversity and contrasting ecosystem services should play in achieving a sustainable future varies along philosophical, cultural, institutional, societal, and governmental divisions. Contrasting biophysical constraints and perspectives on human well-being arise both within and across countries that span the tropics and temperate zone. Direct sustenance of livelihoods from ecosystem services in East Africa contrasts with the complex and diverse relationships with the land in Mexico and the highly monetary-based economy of the United States. Lack of understanding of the contrasting contexts in which decision-making about trade-offs occurs creates impediments to collective global efforts to sustain the Earth's life support systems. While theoretical notions of the goals of sustainability science seek a unified path forward, realities on the ground present challenges. This Special Feature seeks to provide both an analytical framework and a series of case studies to illuminate impediments posed to sustainability by contrasting biophysical constraints and human perspectives on what should be sustained. The contributors aim to clarify the trade-offs posed to human welfare in sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem services and the challenges in managing for a sustainable future in which human well-being is not compromised as compared to today. Our goal is to provide novel insights on how sustainability can be achieved internationally through exploration of constraints, trade-offs, and human values examined at multiple scales, and across geographic regions from a range of cultural perspectives.

  8. Globalization, Competitiveness, International Trade, Industrial Policy and Employement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Novella

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness is presented as a variable key in the present context of a worldwide economy and extends its influence over the international trade tendencies, industrial policies and employment.The variations which trade relations at international level have undergone throughout the second half of the twentieth century have been accompanied by successive theoretical contributions, which have evolved from the traditional theories of the nineteenth century concerning comparative advantages and which introduce more complex factors.The product cycle model expounded by Vernon offers an explanation for the continual flow of sectors at international level as well as the characteristics of the most adequate industrial policy and the commercial patterns of each State revealing the importance of technology, human capital and international marketing as key factors for international competitiveness.This article explains the appearance of news procedures of international competitiveness based on product diferentiation, quality and brand image which, nowadays, coexist with traditional models such as costs and prices reductions.At every stage of a country’s development, a sectorial production structure together with some specific demand characteristics, salary and productivity levels correspond to it. All these latter aspects are interelated and should be analysed all together. With globalization, the speed with which a product passes from one phase to another has accelerated as well as the time it travels from the central countries to those intermediate ones and from there successively to those in the South, in such a way that these sectorialswings in international trade should be considered as a normal effect of it. Competition via salary reductions and social security benefits is not the only nor the most recommendable solution given that, in the long term, it affects the quality of production and social stability degrading as it does the standard of

  9. ARE INTERNATIONAL TRADE FLOWS A VECTOR OF GLOBALIZATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian-Florian ENEA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available International commerce and regional integration have long been considered key determinants of national development. The purpose of the present paper is to answer the question whether international trade flows are a vector of globalization and economic growth. In order to achieve this, we have conducted panel data analysis on a sample consisting of members from regional economic structures, such as the E.U., NAFTA, MERCOSUR and ASEAN, and covering a time span of 24 years, from 1990 to 2013. The results of the study underline the fact that, on average and taking into account the heterogeneity of the sample, international commerce counts from around 50 % of the annual economic growth. The future research direction will aim to conduct a more thorough analysis, by focusing more on the regional perspective.

  10. Impacts of Tariff and Non-tariff Trade Barriers on Global Forest Products Trade: An Application of the Global Forest Products Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.; Bogdanski, B.; Stennes, B.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Although there has been considerable analysis on the effects of trade measures on forest product markets, these have tended to focus on tariffs. There is growing concern about the impact of non-tariff trade measures on the global forest product sector. The objective of this study is to fill a gap

  11. Global value of GM rice: a review of expected agronomic and consumer benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demont, Matty; Stein, Alexander J

    2013-06-25

    Unlike the other major crops, no genetically modified (GM) varieties of rice have been commercialized at a large scale. Within the next 2-3 years new transgenic rice varieties could be ready for regulatory approval and subsequent commercialization, though. Given the importance of rice as staple crop for many of the world's poorest people, this will have implications for the alleviation of poverty, hunger and malnutrition. Thus, policy-makers need to be aware of the potential benefits of GM rice. We provide an overview of the literature and discuss the evidence on expected agronomic and consumer benefits of genetically engineered rice. We find that while GM rice with improved agronomic traits could deliver benefits similar to already commercialized biotechnology crops, expected benefits of consumer traits could be higher by an order of magnitude. By aggregating the expected annual benefits, we estimate the global value of GM rice to be US$64 billion per year. This is only an indicative value, as more GM varieties will become available in future. Nevertheless, such a figure can help guide policy-makers when deciding on the approval or funding of biotechnology crops and it may also raise awareness among consumers about what is at stake for their societies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Addressing the trade-climate change-energy nexus: China's explorations in a global governance landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Monkelbaan

    2014-12-01

    As a way forward, different approaches towards the governance of trade and climate change will be highlighted. Besides discussing the specific aspects of Chinese participation in global trade and climate change governance, this paper aims at offering broader insights into the nexus between trade, energy and climate governance in China.

  13. Some Physco-thermal properties of Rice Bran | Obetta | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of these properties were combined for study on their effect on thermal conductivity which was one of the thermal properties studied. Mean values of the thermal conductivity determined ranged from 0.2456 to 0.5764 W/m oC depending on the moisture content of the raw rice bran and the variety. The two major varieties ...

  14. Trade Finance and Trade Collapse during the Global Financial Crisis: Evidence from the Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    E. Young Song

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of trade finance in the trade collapse of 2008-09 from the perspective of the Korean economy. We use two approaches. Firstly, as background to a more formal analysis, we make a casual observation on the behavior of aggregate data on trade finance, on which Korea has relatively abundant data. Aggregate data do not convincingly support the view that trade finance played an active role in causing the trade collapse. The measures of trade finance and the value of trad...

  15. Accumulating trade costs and competitiveness in global value chains

    OpenAIRE

    Diakantoni, Antonia; Escaith, Hubert; Roberts, Michael; Verbeet, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Trade costs such as applied tariffs, transportation and insurance costs are amplified as they pass through the multiple production steps associated with modern supply chains. This so-called "cascade effect" arises since trade costs accumulate as intermediate goods are imported and then re-exported further downstream, going through different processing nodes before reaching the final consumer. Moreover, the financial impact of these trade costs is magnified in the "trade in tasks" rationale wh...

  16. Risks in global natural gas markets: Investment, hedging and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egging, Ruud; Holz, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Recent supply security concerns in Europe have revived interest into the natural gas market. We investigate infrastructure investment and trade in an imperfect market structure for various possible risks for both supply and demand. We focus on three possible scenarios in a stochastic global gas market model: (i) transit of Russian gas via Ukraine that may be disrupted from 2020 on; (ii) natural gas intensity of electricity generation in OECD countries that may lead to higher or lower natural gas demand after 2025; and (iii) availability of shale gas around the globe after 2030. We illustrate how the timing of investments is affected by inter-temporal hedging behavior of market agents, such as when LNG capacity provides ex-ante flexibility or an ex-post fallback option if domestic or nearby pipeline supply sources are low. Moreover, we find that investment in LNG capacities is more determined by demand side pull – due to higher needs in electric power generation – than by supply side push, e.g. higher shale gas supplies needing an outlet. We focus on Europe, North America, and China that are the world's most important gas consuming and supplying regions. - Highlights: •We use the stochastic variant of the multi-period Global Gas Model. •We investigate the effects of uncertainty in Russian exports, demand, and shale gas. •We find that LNG is preferred as hedging option in anticipation of uncertain events. •Pipelines may be chosen as recourse decision after uncertain events realized. •China will dominate the global natural gas market regardless the scenario.

  17. 78 FR 12787 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Institution of Investigation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ...; Examine U.S. and global digital trade, the relationship to other cross-border transactions (e.g., foreign direct investment), and the extent to which digital trade facilitates and enables trade in other sectors...

  18. CO2 embodied in international trade with implications for global climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2008-03-01

    The flow of pollution through international trade flows has the ability to undermine environmental policies, particularly for global pollutants. In this article we determine the CO2 emissions embodied in international trade among 87 countries for the year 2001. We find that globally there are over 5.3 Gt of CO2 embodied in trade and that Annex B countries are net importers of CO2 emissions. Depending on country characteristics--such as size variables and geographic location--there are considerable variations in the embodied emissions. We argue that emissions embodied in trade may have a significant impact on participation in and effectiveness of global climate policies such as the Kyoto Protocol. We discuss several policy options to reduce the impact of trade in global climate policy. If countries take binding commitments as a part of a coalition, instead of as individual countries, then the impacts of trade can be substantially reduced. Adjusting emission inventories for trade gives a more consistent description of a country's environmental pressures and circumvents many trade related issues. It also gives opportunities to exploit trade as a means of mitigating emissions. Not least, a better understanding of the role that trade plays in a country's economic and environmental development will help design more effective and participatory climate policy post-Kyoto.

  19. Trade Finance and Trade Collapse during the Global Financial Crisis: Evidence from the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young Song

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of trade finance in the trade collapse of 2008-09 from the perspective of the Korean economy. We use two approaches. Firstly, as background to a more formal analysis, we make a casual observation on the behavior of aggregate data on trade finance, on which Korea has relatively abundant data. Aggregate data do not convincingly support the view that trade finance played an active role in causing the trade collapse. The measures of trade finance and the value of trade both dropped sharply, but the ratio of trade finance over trade was stable and in some cases increased during the crisis period. Secondly, using quarterly data on listed firms in Korea, we conduct panel estimations to test whether firms that are more dependent on external finance experienced greater export contraction during the crisis. Our regression analysis suggests that the financial vulnerability of firms, measured by various financial ratios, did not contribute to export contraction during the financial crisis. This observation largely applies even to smaller firms, who are usually thought of as being more vulnerable financially. However, we find that small exporters that relied heavily on cross-border trade payables or receivables suffered larger drops in export growth during the crisis.

  20. The Government's Role in Facing the Injustice of Global Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Despite the controversy about the liberalization of trade, however the government of Indonesia has ratified the WTO provisions by the discharge of the Act Number 7 Year 1994 concerning the Agreement on establishment of the World Trade Organization. This is a fact of law that formed base on the political will of the Indonesian government to encourage the free trade system as an impact of the circulation of the vital flow of goods, services, capital and labor among countries in both the regiona...

  1. Proceedings of the Emissions trading conference : effective strategies for successful emissions trading in a global market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    There is growing interest everywhere in the topic of emissions trading in order to meet the commitments made under the Kyoto Protocol. During this conference, most aspects of emissions trading were discussed, ranging from the need to establish credible emission reduction estimates to the means of achieving those goals, to the trading activities of Ontario Power Generation in the field of emissions trading both at the domestic and the international level. There were presentations that focussed on greenhouse gas policies, markets and strategic plays, and the preparation for the regulation of greenhouse gas. An emissions trading regime for Canada was examined by one of the presenters. This conference provided a useful venue for all stakeholders to discuss various strategies and ideas related to emissions trading. Speakers represented governments, the private sector and utilities, as well as the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. tabs., figs

  2. Global Market, Colonial Economies and Trade Corporations: The consulates at Guadalajara and Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ibarra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine the global organization of two Spanish American colonial spaces during the era of free trade: the Hispanic North and Rio de la Plata. By studying the consular records on foreign trade, included in the derecho de avería records, I analyse how their economies were integrated into the circulation of silver, slaves, and imports. Moreover, I explain the institutional development of their trade communities, favored by the body of consulates in the cities of Guadalajara and Buenos Aires, viewed as institutional instruments of corporate negotiation, market administration, and interest organization against a backdrop of trade globalization.

  3. Testing the theory of emissions trading. Experimental evidence on alternative mechanisms for global carbon trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaassen, Ger; Nentjes, Andries; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Simulation models and theory prove that emission trading converges to market equilibrium. This paper sets out to test these results using experimental economics. Three experiments are conducted for the six largest carbon emitting industrialized regions. Two experiments use auctions, the first a single bid auction and the second a Walrasian auction. The third relies on bilateral, sequential trading. The paper finds that, in line with the standard theory, both auctions and bilateral, sequential trading capture a significant part (88% to 99%) of the potential cost savings of emission trading. As expected from trade theory, all experiments show that the market price converges (although not fully) to the market equilibrium price. In contrast to the theory, the results also suggest that not every country might gain from trading. In both the bilateral trading experiment and the Walrasian auction, one country actually is worse off with trade. In particular bilateral, sequential trading leads to a distribution of gains significantly different from the competitive market outcome. This is due to speculative behavior, imperfect foresight and market power

  4. Fair Trade Flowers: Global Certification, Environmental Sustainability, and Labor Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the organization of the fair trade flower industry, integration of Ecuadorian enterprises into these networks, and power of certification to address key environmental and social concerns on participating estates. Pursuing a social regulatory approach, I locate fair trade within the field of new institutions that establish and…

  5. A theory of global trade law and the WTO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Trade regulation may never have been in more flux than it is now. Other than the emergence of ‘megaregionals’ (such as the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership-TTIP or the Trans-pacific Partnership-TPP) and the difficulties in finalizing the Doha Development Agenda, increased heterogeneity

  6. The causal texture of trade union environments | Iyayi | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  7. The Influence of Low-carbon Economy on Global Trade Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-jing, Guo

    Since global warming has seriously endangered the living environment of human being and their health and safety, the development of low-carbon economy has become an irreversible global trend. Under the background of economic globalization, low-carbon economy will surely exert a significant impact on global trade pattern. Countries are paying more and more attention to the green trade. The emission permits trade of carbon between the developed countries and the developing countries has become more mature than ever. The carbon tariff caused by the distribution of the "big cake" will make the low-cost advantage in developing countries cease to exist, which will, in turn, affect the foreign trade, economic development, employment and people's living in developing countries. Therefore, under the background of this trend, we should perfect the relevant laws and regulations on trade and environment as soon as possible, optimize trade structure, promote greatly the development of service trade, transform thoroughly the mode of development in foreign trade, take advantage of the international carbon trading market by increasing the added value of export products resulted from technological innovation to achieve mutual benefit and win-win results and promote common development.

  8. The impacts of the global economic crisis on selected segments of the world trade in commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Horská

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impacts of the economic crisis on the world trade in order to highlight the mutual interdependence of the development of the world output and trade. The paper observes mutual correlation in development of the world trade and output. The results of the analysis indicate that changes in the value of world GDP and world trade are correlated by more than 90%. It is important to mention that in the years 2000–2009, the value of world trade and world output increased significantly (although in 2009, a significant decline in both value and volume of global production and trade was recorded due to the crisis. In relation to the world trade, it should be noted that its commodity structure is dominated by trade in manufactures. The crisis that occurred in the period 2008–2009 greatly affected the world economy and trade in particular. In this respect it should be pointed out that the crisis mainly affected trade in manufactures and then trade in fuels and mining outputs in terms of both absolute and relative indicators. Agrarian trade dealt with the crisis the best and the impact of the crisis on development of its values and volume was the least significant. This verifies the fact that agrarian and food products tend to be the most resistant to the crisis (on contrary, in times of global economic growth or reconstruction, the trade in agrarian and food products shows lower degree of elasticity in relation to the global GDP growth in comparison to other segments of commodities trade.

  9. The economic implications of greater global trade in livestock and livestock products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, J; Upton, M

    1999-08-01

    The Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established the World Trade Organization to supervise the reduction of barriers to, and liberalisation of, world trade. The application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures will be standardised to avoid use for protectionist purposes by countries or regional trade blocks. Harmonisation of animal disease control measures within regional blocks is essential if benefits to freer trade are to occur, but this harmonisation must be balanced against potential disease risks and costs associated with disease outbreaks. World trade in livestock products is concentrated among developed countries, although developing countries are responsible for approximately a third of poultry meat imports and exports. Despite liberalisation, the share of global trade by developing countries is unlikely to increase greatly in the short term. The benefits of trade and of freer trade are emphasised. Examples are given of the impacts of trade barriers on developing countries and of the harmonisation of European Union animal health standards. Economic implications for the future of greater global trade are assessed.

  10. Trade-offs and spatial dependency of rice production and environmental consequences at community level in Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Liu, Zhong; Wang, Lihua; Wan, Haibo; Jing, Changwei; Jiang, Jingang; Wu, Jiaping; Qi, Jiaguo

    2018-02-01

    Over the past three decades, farmers in China have increasingly used fertilizers to increase paddy rice production. While this approach has eased the rising demand for food, it is unclear whether it pays off in the long-run when costs associated with environmental consequences are considered. Using two case studies in Zhejiang Province, China, this paper analyzed field-based rice yields, fertilizer inputs, nitrogen leaching and greenhouse emissions and their socioeconomic values of different farm practices. The objective was to assess the trade-offs among economic gains from increased yield and environmental consequences of different paddy rice management practices. The results indicated short-term economic gains to farmers outweigh the environmental cost concerns. However, considering the lasting environmental effects, there is a significant imbalance toward a conservative farming practice. The results further indicated that synergies can be achieved if precision management practices are adopted. It was also indicated that a large spatial variation exists in yields and environmental impacts, suggesting ‘one-size fits all’ policies will likely be ineffective in reducing environmental impacts. Although only two case studies were demonstrated in this study, the approach may be generalized to other geographic regions to help guide paddy farmers in similar climatic and land use environments such as those in the subtropical regions of Southeast Asia, to achieve synergic environment practices.

  11. Vulnerability to shocks in the global seafood trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Rovenskaya, Elena; Dieckmann, Ulf; Pace, Michael L.; Brännström, Åke

    2016-03-01

    Trade can allow countries to overcome local or regional losses (shocks) to their food supply, but reliance on international food trade also exposes countries to risks from external perturbations. Countries that are nutritionally or economically dependent on international trade of a commodity may be adversely affected by such shocks. While exposure to shocks has been studied in financial markets, communication networks, and some infrastructure systems, it has received less attention in food-trade networks. Here, we develop a forward shock-propagation model to quantify how trade flows are redistributed under a range of shock scenarios and assess the food-security outcomes by comparing changes in national fish supplies to indices of each country’s nutritional fish dependency. Shock propagation and distribution among regions are modeled on a network of historical bilateral seafood trade data from UN Comtrade using 205 reporting territories grouped into 18 regions. In our model exposure to shocks increases with total imports and the number of import partners. We find that Central and West Africa are the most vulnerable to shocks, with their vulnerability increasing when a willingness-to-pay proxy is included. These findings suggest that countries can reduce their overall vulnerability to shocks by reducing reliance on imports and diversifying food sources. As international seafood trade grows, identifying these types of potential risks and vulnerabilities is important to build a more resilient food system.

  12. Effects of screenhouse cultivation and organic materials incorporation on global warming potential in rice fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Xiong, Ruiheng; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-03-01

    Global rice production will be increasingly challenged by providing healthy food for a growing population at minimal environmental cost. In this study, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a novel rice cultivation mode (screenhouse cultivation, SHC) and organic material (OM) incorporation (wheat straw and wheat straw-based biogas residue) on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions and rice yields. In addition, the environmental factors and soil properties were also determined. Relative to the traditional open-field cultivation (OFC), SHC decreased the CH 4 and N 2 O emissions by 6.58-18.73 and 2.51-21.35%, respectively, and the global warming potential (GWP) was reduced by 6.49-18.65%. This trend was mainly because of lower soil temperature and higher soil redox potential in SHC. Although the rice grain yield for SHC were reduced by 2.51-4.98% compared to the OFC, the CH 4 emissions and GWP per unit of grain yield (yield-scaled CH 4 emissions and GWP) under SHC were declined. Compared to use of inorganic fertilizer only (IN), combining inorganic fertilizer with wheat straw (WS) or wheat straw-based biogas residue (BR) improved rice grain yield by 2.12-4.10 and 4.68-5.89%, respectively. However, OM incorporation enhanced CH 4 emissions and GWP, leading to higher yield-scaled CH 4 emissions and GWP in WS treatment. Due to rice yield that is relatively high, there was no obvious effect of BR treatment on them. These findings suggest that apparent environmental benefit can be realized by applying SHC and fermenting straw aerobically before its incorporation.

  13. Trade networks evolution under the conditions of stock market globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopylova Olga Volodymyrivna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern perception of the stock market in terms of information technologies rapid development and under the institutionalists influence has been significantly modified and becomes multifaceted. It was detected that the main function of the market is activated, information asymmetry is minimized and more advanced financial architecture space is formed through trade networks. Formation of the modern trade networks has started on the basis of the old infrastructure, that had the highest tendency to self-organization and adaptation. The proposed architecture of trade networks of the stock market has a very clear vector of subordination – from top to bottom and has a number of positive points.

  14. Production and trading of biomass for energy - An overview of the global status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinimoe, J.; Junginger, M.

    2009-01-01

    The markets for industrially used biomass for energy purposes are developing rapidly toward being international commodity markets. Determining international traded biomass volumes for energy purposes is difficult, for several reasons, such as challenges regarding the compilation of statistics on the topic. While for some markets (pellets and ethanol) separate overviews exist, no comprehensive statistics and summaries aggregating separate biomass streams are available. The aim of this paper is to summarise trade volumes for various biomasses used for energy and to review the challenges related to measurement of internationally traded volumes of biofuels. International trade of solid and liquid biofuels was estimated to be about 0.9 EJ for 2006. Indirect trade of biofuels thorough trading of industrial roundwood and material byproducts comprises the largest proportion of trading, having a share of about 0.6 EJ. The remaining amount consisted of products that are traded directly for energy purposes, with ethanol, wood pellets, and palm oil being the most important commodities. In 2004-2006, the direct trade of biofuels increased 60%, whereas indirect trade has been almost constant. When compared to current global energy use of biomass (about 50 EJ yr -1 ) and to the long-term theoretical trading potential between the major regions of the world (80-150 EJ yr -1 ), the development of international trade of biomass for energy purposes is in its initial stage, but it is expected to continue to grow rapidly. (author)

  15. Fair Trade as a Solution for Inequality on the Global Market - Corporate Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Lovric

    2016-01-01

    New alternatives to free trade are evolving at the global market; their aim is to bring more ethics and morality into the relations between the trading parties (producers, corporations and buyers). This article analyses one of such alternatives i.e. Fair Trade from the perspective of influencing change of corporate politics. Due to the rising awareness of buyers about the origin of goods and the initiatives of forcing corporations into changing their practices based on unethica...

  16. Inequalities in Global Trade: A Cross-Country Comparison of Trade Network Position, Economic Wealth, Pollution and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Christina; Sun, Laixiang; Feng, Kuishuang; Myroniuk, Tyler W

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how structural patterns of international trade give rise to emissions inequalities across countries, and how such inequality in turn impact countries' mortality rates. We employ Multi-regional Input-Output analysis to distinguish between sulfur-dioxide (SO2) emissions produced within a country's boarders (production-based emissions) and emissions triggered by consumption in other countries (consumption-based emissions). We use social network analysis to capture countries' level of integration within the global trade network. We then apply the Prais-Winsten panel estimation technique to a panel data set across 172 countries over 20 years (1990-2010) to estimate the relationships between countries' level of integration and SO2 emissions, and the impact of trade integration and SO2 emission on mortality rates. Our findings suggest a positive, (log-) linear relationship between a country's level of integration and both kinds of emissions. In addition, although more integrated countries are mainly responsible for both forms of emissions, our findings indicate that they also tend to experience lower mortality rates. Our approach offers a unique combination of social network analysis with multiregional input-output analysis, which better operationalizes intuitive concepts about global trade and trade structure.

  17. Inequalities in Global Trade: A Cross-Country Comparison of Trade Network Position, Economic Wealth, Pollution and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Christina; Sun, Laixiang; Feng, Kuishuang; Myroniuk, Tyler W.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how structural patterns of international trade give rise to emissions inequalities across countries, and how such inequality in turn impact countries’ mortality rates. We employ Multi-regional Input-Output analysis to distinguish between sulfur-dioxide (SO2) emissions produced within a country’s boarders (production-based emissions) and emissions triggered by consumption in other countries (consumption-based emissions). We use social network analysis to capture countries’ level of integration within the global trade network. We then apply the Prais-Winsten panel estimation technique to a panel data set across 172 countries over 20 years (1990–2010) to estimate the relationships between countries’ level of integration and SO2 emissions, and the impact of trade integration and SO2 emission on mortality rates. Our findings suggest a positive, (log-) linear relationship between a country’s level of integration and both kinds of emissions. In addition, although more integrated countries are mainly responsible for both forms of emissions, our findings indicate that they also tend to experience lower mortality rates. Our approach offers a unique combination of social network analysis with multiregional input-output analysis, which better operationalizes intuitive concepts about global trade and trade structure. PMID:26642202

  18. Impacts of seaborne trade on coal importing countries: global summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    In recent years, there has been a convergence of international trade with traditional domestic markets, with import increasing into many coal producing regions, the influence of trade on domestic markets has been twofold. Firstly, imported coal displaces domestic production, and in doing so, secondly international price trends may drive prices of what remains of the indigenous market for coal. While international trade does not provide any additional benefits in terms of reduced CO2 at a coal-fired power stations, importing coal provides many benefits, such as cost savings, improved coal quality, enhanced supply diversity, and often fills a gap which is left where domestic supply is unable to fulfil. This report examines the various factors that have led to rise in popularity of seaborne-traded coal, and seeks to discuss the future of domestically produced coal in some of the major coal markets of the world.

  19. Measuring global oil trade dependencies: An application of the point-wise mutual information method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrazi, Ali; Fath, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Oil trade is one of the most vital networks in the global economy. In this paper, we analyze the 1998–2012 oil trade networks using the point-wise mutual information (PMI) method and determine the pairwise trade preferences and dependencies. Using examples of the USA's trade partners, this research demonstrates the usefulness of the PMI method as an additional methodological tool to evaluate the outcomes from countries' decisions to engage in preferred trading partners. A positive PMI value indicates trade preference where trade is larger than would be expected. For example, in 2012 the USA imported 2,548.7 kbpd despite an expected 358.5 kbpd of oil from Canada. Conversely, a negative PMI value indicates trade dis-preference where the amount of trade is smaller than what would be expected. For example, the 15-year average of annual PMI between Saudi Arabia and the U.S.A. is −0.130 and between Russia and the USA −1.596. We reflect the three primary reasons of discrepancies between actual and neutral model trade can be related to position, price, and politics. The PMI can quantify the political success or failure of trade preferences and can more accurately account temporal variation of interdependencies. - Highlights: • We analyzed global oil trade networks using the point-wise mutual information method. • We identified position, price, & politics as drivers of oil trade preference. • The PMI method is useful in research on complex trade networks and dependency theory. • A time-series analysis of PMI can track dependencies & evaluate policy decisions.

  20. Report to Congress on the Global Supply and Trade of Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report assembles available information on the global supply and trade of mercury, including both primary mercury mining as well as mercury that has been recovered from a wide variety of sources and redistilled to a high level of purity.

  1. Impact of Organic Amendments on Global Warming Potential of Diversified Tropical Rice Rotation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, B.; Weller, S.; Kraus, D.; Wassmann, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Ralf, K.

    2017-12-01

    Paddy rice cultivation is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, which is forcing farmers to change traditional rice cultivation from flooded double-rice systems to the introduction of well-aerated upland crops during dry season. Emissions of methane (CH4) are expected to decrease, while there is a risk of increasing emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and decreasing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks through volatilization in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). We present a unique dataset of long-term continuous greenhouse gas emission measurements (CH4 and N2O) in the Philippines to assess global warming potentials (GWP) of diversified rice crop rotations including different field management practices such as straw residue application and legume intercropping. Since 2012, more than four years of CH4 and N2O emissions in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) during dry season have been collected. Introduction of upland crops reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Although dry season N2O emissions increased twice- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction of CH4 led to a significantly lower annual GWP (CH4 + N2O) as compared to the traditional R-R system. Diversified crop management practices were first implemented during land-preparation for dry season 2015 where i) 6 t/ha rice straw was returned to the field and ii) mungbean was grown as a cover-crop between dry and wet season in addition to rice straw application. The input of organic material (straw and mungbean) led to higher substrate availability for methanogens during the following season. Therefore, GWP was 9-39% higher following straw incorporation than the control treatment. This increase was mainly driven by additional CH4 emissions. Even more, mungbean intercropping further increased GWPs, whereby the increment was highest in R-R rotation (88%) and lowest in R

  2. Competition, transmission and pattern evolution: A network analysis of global oil trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Ying; Ji, Qiang; Fan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the competition among oil importers using complex network theory, combined with several alternative measures of competition intensity, to analyze the evolution of the pattern and transmission of oil-trading competition. The results indicate that oil trade has formed a global competition pattern and that the role played by the Asian-Pacific region in the evolution of this competition pattern is becoming increasingly prominent. In addition, global competition intensity has continued to rise, and non-OECD countries have become the main driving force for this increase in global competition intensity. The large oil importers are the most significant parts of the global oil-trading competition pattern. They are not only the major participants in the competition for oil resources but also play important roles in the transmission of oil-trading competition. China and the United States especially display the feature of globalization, whose impacts of transmission reach across the whole oil-trading competition network. Finally, a “5C” (changeability, contestability, cooperation, commitment and circumstances) policy framework is put forward to maintain the stability of oil trade and improve the energy security of oil importers in various aspects. - Highlights: • An oil-trading competition network is constructed using complex network theory. • Oil trade has formed a global competition pattern and its intensity has kept rising. • The status of the Asian-Pacific region in the competition pattern becomes prominent. • Large oil importers play important roles in transmitting the trading competition. • A “5C” policy framework is put forward to cope with the intensive competition

  3. Estimation of the Carbon Footprint and Global Warming Potential in Rice Production Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastan, S.; Soltani, F.; Noormohamadi, G.; Madani, H.; Yadi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal management approaches can be adopted in order to increase crop productivity and lower the carbon footprint of grain products. The objective of this study was to estimate the carbon (C) footprint and global warming potential of rice production systems. In this experiment, rice production systems (including SRI, improved and conventional) were studied. All activities, field operations and data in production methods and at different input rates were monitored and recorded during 2012. Results showed that average global warming potential across production systems was equal to 2803.25 kg CO 2 -eq ha-1. The highest and least global warming potential were observed in the SRI and conventional systems, respectively. global warming potential per unit energy input was the least and most in SRI and conventional systems, respectively. Also, the SRI and conventional systems had the maximum and minimum global warming potential per unit energy output, respectively. SRI and conventional system had the greatest and least global warming potential per unit energy output, respectively. Therefore, the optimal management approach found in SRI resulted in a reduction in GHGs, global warming potential and the carbon footprint.

  4. Selenium Characterization In The Global Rice Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    For up to 1 billion people worldwide, insufficient dietary intake of selenium (Se) is a serious health constraint. Cereals are the dominant Se source for those on low protein diets, as typified by the global malnourished population. With crop Se content constrained largely by u...

  5. THE INCIDENCES OF THE GLOBAL CRISIS ON THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MIHĂILESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Having its origins in the excesses occurred in the Western financial system, the global crisis has affected the world economic circuit as a whole and thus its most dynamic flux: the international trade in goods. After the sharp and synchronized downturn of the transactions in 2009, the world trade in goods experienced a revival in 2010 and, again, a slowdown in growth in 2011. The emphasis on the protectionist tendencies in 2012 and the keeping of the risk factors surrounding the global economy maintain not a very optimistic perspective in this area. This paper reflects the evolution of the international trade in the current period as well as the changes occured in the hierarchy of the major retailers in the world. Also, the highlighting of the factors that caused increase and decrease oscillations to the global trade represents the main objective of this theme.

  6. Testing the theory of emissions trading : Experimental evidence on alternative mechanisms for global carbon trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Ger; Nentjes, Andries; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Simulation models and theory prove that emission trading converges to market equilibrium. This paper sets out to test these results using experimental economics. Three experiments are conducted for the six largest carbon emitting industrialized regions. Two experiments use auctions, the first a

  7. The effect of trade between China and the UK on national and global carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, You; Hewitt, C.N.

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the amount of carbon dioxide embodied in bi-lateral trade between the UK and China in 2004. Developing and applying the method of Shui and Harriss [2006. The role of CO 2 embodiment in US-China trade. Energy Policy 34, 4063-4068], the most recently available data on trade and CO 2 emissions have been updated and adjusted to calculate the CO 2 emissions embodied in the commodities traded between China and the UK. It was found that through trade with China, the UK reduced its CO 2 emissions by approximately 11% in 2004, compared with a non-trade scenario in which the same type and volume of goods are produced in the UK. In addition, due to the greater carbon-intensity and relatively less efficient production processes of Chinese industry, China-UK trade resulted in an additional 117 Mt of CO 2 to global CO 2 emissions in the same one year period, compared with a non-trade scenario in which the same type and volume of goods are produced in the UK. This represents an additional 19% to the reported national CO 2 emissions of the UK (555 Mt/y in 2004) and 0.4% of global emissions. These findings suggest that, through international trade, very significant environmental impacts can be shifted from one country to another, and that international trade can (but does not necessarily) result in globally increased greenhouse gas emissions. These results are additional to the environmental consequences of transporting goods, which are not robustly quantified here. (author)

  8. Potential impact of a transatlantic trade and Investment partnership on the global forest sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Paul Rougieux; Ahmed Barkaoui; Shushuai Zhu; Patrice Harou

    2014-01-01

    The effects of a transatlantic trade agreement on the global forest sector were assessed with the Global Forest Products Model, conditional on previous macroeconomic impacts predicted with a general equilibrium model. Comprehensive tariff elimination per se had little effect on the forest sector. However, with deeper reforms and integration consumption would increase...

  9. Identifying hubs and spokes in global supply chains using redirected trade in value added

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lejour, Arjan; Rojas-Romagosa, Hugo; Veenendaal, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The increasing importance of global supply chains has prompted the use of analytical tools based on trade in value added - instead of traditional measures in gross value. We use this analytical framework to develop indicators that identify production hubs and supply spokes in global supply chains.

  10. Capacity building for global health diplomacy: Thailand’s experience of trade and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiprayoon, Suriwan; Smith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A rapid expansion of trade liberalization in Thailand during the 1990s raised a critical question for policy transparency from various stakeholders. Particular attention was paid to a bilateral trade negotiation between Thailand and USA concerned with the impact of the ‘Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Rights (TRIPS) plus’ provisions on access to medicines. Other trade liberalization effects on health were also concerning health actors. In response, a number of interagency committees were established to engage with trade negotiations. In this respect, Thailand is often cited as a positive example of a country that has proactively sought, and achieved, trade and health policy coherence. This article investigates this relationship in more depth and suggests lessons for wider study and application of global health diplomacy (GHD). This study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 people involved in trade-related health negotiations, together with observation of 9 meetings concerning trade-related health issues. Capacity to engage with trade negotiations appears to have been developed by health actors through several stages; starting from the Individual (I) understanding of trade effects on health, through Nodes (N) that establish the mechanisms to enhance health interests, Networks (N) to advocate for health within these negotiations, and an Enabling environment (E) to retain health officials and further strengthen their capacities to deal with trade-related health issues. This INNE model seems to have worked well in Thailand. However, other contextual factors are also significant. This article suggests that, in building capacity in GHD, it is essential to educate both health and non-health actors on global health issues and to use a combination of formal and informal mechanisms to participate in GHD. And in developing sustainable capacity in GHD, it requires long term commitment and strong leadership from both health and non-health sectors. PMID

  11. Capacity building for global health diplomacy: Thailand's experience of trade and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiprayoon, Suriwan; Smith, Richard

    2015-11-01

    A rapid expansion of trade liberalization in Thailand during the 1990s raised a critical question for policy transparency from various stakeholders. Particular attention was paid to a bilateral trade negotiation between Thailand and USA concerned with the impact of the 'Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Rights (TRIPS) plus' provisions on access to medicines. Other trade liberalization effects on health were also concerning health actors. In response, a number of interagency committees were established to engage with trade negotiations. In this respect, Thailand is often cited as a positive example of a country that has proactively sought, and achieved, trade and health policy coherence. This article investigates this relationship in more depth and suggests lessons for wider study and application of global health diplomacy (GHD). This study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 people involved in trade-related health negotiations, together with observation of 9 meetings concerning trade-related health issues. Capacity to engage with trade negotiations appears to have been developed by health actors through several stages; starting from the Individual (I) understanding of trade effects on health, through Nodes (N) that establish the mechanisms to enhance health interests, Networks (N) to advocate for health within these negotiations, and an Enabling environment (E) to retain health officials and further strengthen their capacities to deal with trade-related health issues. This INNE model seems to have worked well in Thailand. However, other contextual factors are also significant. This article suggests that, in building capacity in GHD, it is essential to educate both health and non-health actors on global health issues and to use a combination of formal and informal mechanisms to participate in GHD. And in developing sustainable capacity in GHD, it requires long term commitment and strong leadership from both health and non-health sectors. Published by

  12. Global nitrogen budgets in cereals: A 50-year assessment for maize, rice, and wheat production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladha, J K; Tirol-Padre, A; Reddy, C K; Cassman, K G; Verma, Sudhir; Powlson, D S; van Kessel, C; de B Richter, Daniel; Chakraborty, Debashis; Pathak, Himanshu

    2016-01-18

    Industrially produced N-fertilizer is essential to the production of cereals that supports current and projected human populations. We constructed a top-down global N budget for maize, rice, and wheat for a 50-year period (1961 to 2010). Cereals harvested a total of 1551 Tg of N, of which 48% was supplied through fertilizer-N and 4% came from net soil depletion. An estimated 48% (737 Tg) of crop N, equal to 29, 38, and 25 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively, is contributed by sources other than fertilizer- or soil-N. Non-symbiotic N2 fixation appears to be the major source of this N, which is 370 Tg or 24% of total N in the crop, corresponding to 13, 22, and 13 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively. Manure (217 Tg or 14%) and atmospheric deposition (96 Tg or 6%) are the other sources of N. Crop residues and seed contribute marginally. Our scaling-down approach to estimate the contribution of non-symbiotic N2 fixation is robust because it focuses on global quantities of N in sources and sinks that are easier to estimate, in contrast to estimating N losses per se, because losses are highly soil-, climate-, and crop-specific.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential of traditional and diversified tropical rice rotation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Sebastian; Janz, Baldur; Jörg, Lena; Kraus, David; Racela, Heathcliff S U; Wassmann, Reiner; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Global rice agriculture will be increasingly challenged by water scarcity, while at the same time changes in demand (e.g. changes in diets or increasing demand for biofuels) will feed back on agricultural practices. These factors are changing traditional cropping patterns from double-rice cropping to the introduction of upland crops in the dry season. For a comprehensive assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, we measured methane (CH4 )/nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions and agronomic parameters over 2.5 years in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) in upland cultivation. Introduction of upland crops in the dry season reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Moreover, for practices including upland crops, CH4 emissions in the subsequent wet season with paddy rice were reduced by 54-60%. Although annual N2 O emissions increased two- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction in CH4 led to a significantly lower (P < 0.05) annual GWP (CH4  + N2 O) as compared to the traditional double-rice cropping system. Measurements of soil organic carbon (SOC) contents before and 3 years after the introduction of upland crop rotations indicated a SOC loss for the R-M system, while for the other systems SOC stocks were unaffected. This trend for R-M systems needs to be followed as it has significant consequences not only for the GWP balance but also with regard to soil fertility. Economic assessment showed a similar gross profit span for R-M and R-R, while gross profits for R-A were reduced as a consequence of lower productivity. Nevertheless, regarding a future increase in water scarcity, it can be expected that mixed lowland-upland systems will expand in SE Asia as water requirements were cut by more than half in both rotation systems with upland crops. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Globalization of water and food through international trade: impacts on food security, resilience and justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.; Suweis, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of water resources in general depends on geographic conditions but can be (virtually) modified by humans through mechanisms of globalization, such as trade, that make food commodities available to populations living far from the production regions. While trade is expected to improve access to food and (virtual) water, its impact on the global food system and its vulnerability to shocks remains poorly understood. It is also unclear who benefits from trade and whether it contributes to inequality and justice in resource redistribution. We reconstruct the global patterns of food trade and show with a simple model how the ongoing intensification of imports and exports has eroded the resilience of the global food system. Drawing on human rights theory, we investigate the relationship between inequality and injustice in access to water and food. We assess the fulfillment of positive and negative water and food rights and evaluate the obligations arising from the need to ensure that these rights are met throughout the world. We find that trade enhances the vulnerability to shocks but overall increase the number of people whose water and food rights are met.

  15. The Politics of Global Value Chains: Import-dependent Firms and EU-Asia Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Poletti, Arlo

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission released its Global Europe Communication, in which it announced a shift from a multilateral to a bilateral trade strategy. One of the key pillars of this new strategy was to strengthen the bilateral trade relations with key Asian countries. In contrast to existing analyses that focus on European Union (EU) decision makers' agency, we propose an explanation for this notable shift in the EU's trade policy that stresses the political role of import-dependent firms. In light of the increasing integration of such firms into global value chains, the article argues that a plausible case can be made, both theoretically and empirically, that import-dependent firms had a clear stake in the signing of preferential trade agreements between the EU and Asian countries and that their lobbying efforts significantly affected the EU's decision to start negotiations with South Korea, India and Vietnam.

  16. The Politics of Global Value Chains: Import-dependent Firms and EU–Asia Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Poletti, Arlo

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission released its Global Europe Communication, in which it announced a shift from a multilateral to a bilateral trade strategy. One of the key pillars of this new strategy was to strengthen the bilateral trade relations with key Asian countries. In contrast to existing analyses that focus on European Union (EU) decision makers’ agency, we propose an explanation for this notable shift in the EU’s trade policy that stresses the political role of import-dependent firms. In light of the increasing integration of such firms into global value chains, the article argues that a plausible case can be made, both theoretically and empirically, that import-dependent firms had a clear stake in the signing of preferential trade agreements between the EU and Asian countries and that their lobbying efforts significantly affected the EU’s decision to start negotiations with South Korea, India and Vietnam. PMID:28018131

  17. Fair Trade as a Solution for Inequality on the Global Market - Corporate Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lovric

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available New alternatives to free trade are evolving at the global market; their aim is to bring more ethics and morality into the relations between the trading parties (producers, corporations and buyers. This article analyses one of such alternatives i.e. Fair Trade from the perspective of influencing change of corporate politics. Due to the rising awareness of buyers about the origin of goods and the initiatives of forcing corporations into changing their practices based on unethical treatment of workers in the 3rd world countries, alternative ways of trade are becoming part of traditional corporate environment in the free trade chain. By elaborating fundamental principles of certification process, the article gives an answer to the question of creation of added ethical value in the aspect of positioning corporations in the “new economy”.

  18. Fashioning a New Regime for Agricultural Trade: New Issues and the Global Food Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Schoenbaum

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of issues such as the global food crisis, export controls on agricultural products, and food security on the agricultural trade negotiations currently underway in connection with the Doha Development Agenda convened by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. These important issues, which were not foreseen when the negotiations began, must now be squarely faced. Many international organizations, such as the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, t...

  19. EU Action against Climate Change. EU emissions trading. An open scheme promoting global innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The European Union is committed to global efforts to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from human activities that threaten to cause serious disruption to the world's climate. Building on the innovative mechanisms set up under the Kyoto Protocol to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - joint implementation, the clean development mechanism and international emissions trading - the EU has developed the largest company-level scheme for trading in emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), making it the world leader in this emerging market. The emissions trading scheme started in the 25 EU Member States on 1 January 2005

  20. ASEAN-India and ASEAN-Korea FTA: Global Trade Analysis Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Shohibul Manshur Al Ahmad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of the free trade agreement between ASEAN-India (AIFTA and ASEAN-Korea (AKFTA. The Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model was applied in this paper with a Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP database version 8. The GTAP simulations results show that AIFTA provides a greater positive impact than the AKFTA for each region. The greater improvement in terms of welfare, GDP, trade and investment is generated under the AIFTA scheme. Implication of this research is required of any reallocation of resources shared by each country heading on sectors which have a comparative advantage.

  1. New Faces of Globalization: Market Integration, Production Disintegration, Genesis of New Global Organizational Structures for Production and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmiza Pencea

    2010-01-01

    Due to trade liberalisation and ITC revolution, companies could imagine new and better ways of creating and delivering value. In search of higher efficiency, competitiveness and profits, they reorganise, choosing to focus on their core competencies and to globally outsource, or offshore non-core activities and functions. As a result, reorganisation and relocation became the new forces of change across economies, leading to the rise of new, more diverse and more efficient global organisational...

  2. The physical dimension of international trade. Part 1. Direct global flows between 1962 and 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, Monika; Bringezu, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The physical dimension of international trade is attaining increased importance. This article describes a method to calculate complete physical trade flows for all countries which report their trade to the UN. The method is based on the UN Comtrade database and it was used to calculate world-wide physical trade flows for all reporting countries in nine selected years between 1962 and 2005. The results show increasing global trade with global direct material trade flows reaching about 10 billion tonnes in 2005, corresponding to a physical trade volume of about 20 billion tonnes (adding both total imports and total exports). The share from European countries is declining, mainly in favour of Asian countries. The dominant traded commodity in physical units was fossil fuels, mainly oil. Physical trade balances were used to identify the dominant resource suppliers and demanders. Australia was the principal resource supplier over the period with a diverse material export structure. It was followed by mainly oil-exporting countries with varying volumes. As regards to regions, Latin America, south-east Asian islands and central Asia were big resource exporters, mostly with increasing absolute amounts of net exports. The largest net importers were Japan, the United States and single European countries. Emerging countries like the 'Asian Tigers' with major industrial productive sectors are growing net importers, some of them to an even higher degree than European countries. Altogether, with the major exception of Australia and Canada, industrialized countries are net importers and developing countries and transition countries are net exporters, but there are important differences within these groups. (author)

  3. Cocaine Hoppers : The Nigerian Involvement in the Global Cocaine Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oboh, Jude Roys

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, Nigerian criminal drug ‘barons’ and ‘gangs’ have come to dominate international cocaine trafficking via West Africa to destination countries globally, a trend that presents a serious security threat to Africa and the world. This work provides empirical evidence to define and

  4. Wood pellet market and trade: A global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, C.S.; Cocchi, M.; Junginger, H.M.; Marchal, D.; Thrän, D.; Hennig, C.; Heinimo, J.; Nikolaisen, L.; Schouwenberg, P.P.; Bradley, D.; Hess, R.F.; Jacobson, J.; Ovard, L.; Deutmeyer, M.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high signifi cance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million

  5. Linking environment-productivity trade-offs and correlated uncertainties: Greenhouse gas emissions and crop productivity in paddy rice production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kiyotada; Nagumo, Yoshifumi; Domoto, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    In comparative life cycle assessments of agricultural production systems, analyses of both the trade-offs between environmental impacts and crop productivity and of the uncertainties specific to agriculture such as fluctuations in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields are crucial. However, these two issues are usually analyzed separately. In this paper, we present a framework to link trade-off and uncertainty analyses; correlated uncertainties are integrated into environment-productivity trade-off analyses. We compared three rice production systems in Japan: a system using a pelletized, nitrogen-concentrated organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using closed-air composting techniques (high-N system), a system using a conventional organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using open-air composting techniques (low-N system), and a system using a chemical compound fertilizer (conventional system). We focused on two important sources of uncertainties in paddy rice cultivation—methane emissions from paddy fields and crop yields. We found trade-offs between the conventional and high-N systems and the low-N system and the existence of positively correlated uncertainties in the conventional and high-N systems. We concluded that our framework is effective in recommending the high-N system compared with the low-N system, although the performance of the former is almost the same as the conventional system. - Highlights: • Correlated uncertainties were integrated into environment-productivity trade-offs. • Life cycle GHG emissions and crop yields were analyzed using field and survey data. • Three rice production systems using chemical or organic fertilizers were compared. • There were portfolio (insurance) effects in matured technologies. • Analysis of trade-offs and correlated uncertainties will be useful for decisions.

  6. Linking environment-productivity trade-offs and correlated uncertainties: Greenhouse gas emissions and crop productivity in paddy rice production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kiyotada, E-mail: hayashi@affrc.go.jp [Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Nagumo, Yoshifumi [Crop Research Center, Niigata Agricultural Research Institute, 857 Nagakura-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-0826 (Japan); Domoto, Akiko [Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute, 530 Kawakita-cho, Ureshino, Matsusaka, Mie 515-2316 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    In comparative life cycle assessments of agricultural production systems, analyses of both the trade-offs between environmental impacts and crop productivity and of the uncertainties specific to agriculture such as fluctuations in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields are crucial. However, these two issues are usually analyzed separately. In this paper, we present a framework to link trade-off and uncertainty analyses; correlated uncertainties are integrated into environment-productivity trade-off analyses. We compared three rice production systems in Japan: a system using a pelletized, nitrogen-concentrated organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using closed-air composting techniques (high-N system), a system using a conventional organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using open-air composting techniques (low-N system), and a system using a chemical compound fertilizer (conventional system). We focused on two important sources of uncertainties in paddy rice cultivation—methane emissions from paddy fields and crop yields. We found trade-offs between the conventional and high-N systems and the low-N system and the existence of positively correlated uncertainties in the conventional and high-N systems. We concluded that our framework is effective in recommending the high-N system compared with the low-N system, although the performance of the former is almost the same as the conventional system. - Highlights: • Correlated uncertainties were integrated into environment-productivity trade-offs. • Life cycle GHG emissions and crop yields were analyzed using field and survey data. • Three rice production systems using chemical or organic fertilizers were compared. • There were portfolio (insurance) effects in matured technologies. • Analysis of trade-offs and correlated uncertainties will be useful for decisions.

  7. Uncovering the spatially distant feedback loops of global trade: A network and input-output approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Christina; Sun, Laixiang; Feng, Kuishuang; He, Jiaying; Hubacek, Klaus

    2017-05-15

    Land-use change is increasingly driven by global trade. The term "telecoupling" has been gaining ground as a means to describe how human actions in one part of the world can have spatially distant impacts on land and land-use in another. These interactions can, over time, create both direct and spatially distant feedback loops, in which human activity and land use mutually impact one another over great expanses. In this paper, we develop an analytical framework to clarify spatially distant feedbacks in the case of land use and global trade. We use an innovative mix of multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis and stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs) for analyzing the co-evolution of changes in trade network patterns with those of land use, as embodied in trade. Our results indicate that the formation of trade ties and changes in embodied land use mutually impact one another, and further, that these changes are linked to disparities in countries' wealth. Through identifying this feedback loop, our results support ongoing discussions about the unequal trade patterns between rich and poor countries that result in uneven distributions of negative environmental impacts. Finally, evidence for this feedback loop is present even when controlling for a number of underlying mechanisms, such as countries' land endowments, their geographical distance from one another, and a number of endogenous network tendencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic-Social Analysis of Global Illicit Drug Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Salahedin Ghaderi

    2003-01-01

    Political unstability, less respect to the role of law, low life standards and suitable conditions for poppy/coca cultivation, have all affected on growing illicit drug international trafficking. Colombia is the center for global cocaine industry. Colombians had to use ship in the Carribean but now they pass Mexico where the costs are half of using ship. Mexican traffickers permit that the domestic poppy plants turned into herion, Colombian cocaine transited to USA and methamephtamine manufac...

  9. Key Trends in the Development of Foreign Trade of France in the Global Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvirgzde Kateryna I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the nature and contemporary trends of foreign trade activity of France. In the process of evolutionary development of the economy of France in content, structure and directions of its foreign trade strategies occurred permanent modifications and transformations, resulting from the need to maintain optimal proportions between material, financial and human resources, production and consumption, commodity supply and purchasing power, as well as receipts and payments in the settlements with other countries. The article is concerned with an integrated analysis of progressive structural reforms in the economic system of France in the last decade, which led to fundamental changes in its foreign trade operations both in terms of monetary magnitude of export-import transactions and their product-species, geographical, institutional and regulatory structures. The nature, key indicators, trends and issues in the foreign trade strategy of France in the face of global volatility as well as ways for its improvement have been researched.

  10. Differences in net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity between major rice-based cropping systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhengqin; Liu, Yinglie; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Pingli; Huang, Taiqing

    2015-12-02

    Double rice (DR) and upland crop-single rice (UR) systems are the major rice-based cropping systems in China, yet differences in net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) between the two systems are poorly documented. Accordingly, a 3-year field experiment was conducted to simultaneously measure methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) in oil rape-rice-rice and wheat-rice (representing DR and UR, respectively) systems with straw incorporation (0, 3 and 6 t/ha) during the rice-growing seasons. Compared with the UR system, the annual CH4, N2O, grain yield and NGWP were significantly increased in the DR system, though little effect on SOC sequestration or GHGI was observed without straw incorporation. Straw incorporation increased CH4 emission and SOC sequestration but had no significant effect on N2O emission in both systems. Averaged over the three study years, straw incorporation had no significant effect on NGWP and GHGI in the UR system, whereas these parameters were greatly increased in the DR system, i.e., by 108% (3 t/ha) and 180% (6 t/ha) for NGWP and 103% (3 t/ha) and 168% (6 t/ha) for GHGI.

  11. Differences in net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity between major rice-based cropping systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhengqin; Liu, Yinglie; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Pingli; Huang, Taiqing

    2015-01-01

    Double rice (DR) and upland crop-single rice (UR) systems are the major rice-based cropping systems in China, yet differences in net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) between the two systems are poorly documented. Accordingly, a 3-year field experiment was conducted to simultaneously measure methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) in oil rape-rice-rice and wheat-rice (representing DR and UR, respectively) systems with straw incorporation (0, 3 and 6 t/ha) during the rice-growing seasons. Compared with the UR system, the annual CH4, N2O, grain yield and NGWP were significantly increased in the DR system, though little effect on SOC sequestration or GHGI was observed without straw incorporation. Straw incorporation increased CH4 emission and SOC sequestration but had no significant effect on N2O emission in both systems. Averaged over the three study years, straw incorporation had no significant effect on NGWP and GHGI in the UR system, whereas these parameters were greatly increased in the DR system, i.e., by 108% (3 t/ha) and 180% (6 t/ha) for NGWP and 103% (3 t/ha) and 168% (6 t/ha) for GHGI. PMID:26626733

  12. International Maritime Transport Sector Regulation Systems and their Impact on World Shipping and Global Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Grzelakowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyze the impact of two nowadays existing global regulatory systems of the world maritime transport sector on international shipping industry and global trade development. The author has focused on the characterization of the autonomous regulatory system represented in this sector by freight market with typical for it mechanism as well as on public regulatory system expressed in form of the existing international regulatory scheme introduced by IMO and other international organizations. Both regulatory mechanisms has been analyzed and viewed in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of their influence upon shipping industry and global commodity markets. At the end, the results of functioning of both regulatory subsystems have been assessed with the aim to indicate how they are able to create growth potential for the world maritime transport and trade sector as well as the global economy.

  13. Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

    2014-05-01

    To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Europe's global responsibility to govern trade and investment sustainability: climate, capital, CAP and Cotonou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, T.F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the progress made towards forging a Sustainable Development Strategy of the European Union on the basis of three structures of the global economy: Trade, Investment and Knowledge Generation. It identifies deficits in all three, and cites alternatives for improvement such as acknowledging ecological debt and setting up a Global Marshall Plan. It outlines how, over the medium term, compatibility with trade law could be maintained, and how Sustainability Impact Assessments (SIA) could cushion the effects of the current governance regimes. It then considers alternatives such as encouraging the EU's African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) partners to form Regional Trade Areas among themselves. Guidance is given regarding reform of the Common Agricultural Policy and the question as to whether the investment regime can be governed multilaterally and, if so, at which venue. (author)

  15. INTEGRATION OF TRADE AND DISINTEGRATION OF PRODUCTION IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Feenstra

    2003-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a spectacular integration of the global economy through trade. The rising integration of world markets has brought with it a disintegration of the production process, however, in which manufacturing or services activities done abroad are combined with those performed at home. The author compares several different measures of foreign outsourcing and argues that they have all increased since the 1970s. He also considers the implications of globalization for employ...

  16. Does the global economy mean more sweat? Trade, investment, migration and working hours in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Raess, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how international trade, investment and migration affect establishment-level standard weekly hours in Europe. These aspects of globalization have offsetting implications that make it unclear whether they spur, reduce or have little effect on standard hours. To explore these

  17. Global Trade Alert (GTA) - Phase II: Year 2 - Monitoring and Analysis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global Trade Alert (GTA), funded under project 105821, endeavors to provide information in real time on national measures that are likely to discriminate against foreign commerce. Building on inputs supplied by regional institutional partners and international experts, suspected protectionist measures are identified, ...

  18. Essays on globalization. Policies in trade, development, resources and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkelae, L.

    2009-07-01

    This research study on globalization consists of an introduction on the methodology applied, a summary and four independent essays focussing on applied policy research in international trade. The study follows the CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) research tradition. The simulation environment is the publicly available GTAP model. The essays examine the specific topics of trade and aid policies, price liberalization of the Russian energy markets, trade preferences in the sugar sector of the EU and the role of carbon sinks in mitigating climate change. The first essay examines trade and aid policies in Mozambique. The essay analyses the impact of alternative options like trade agreements, aid and trade facilitation. The results suggest that Mozambique has very little to gain from trade agreements or the Doha Round, although some agreements with the EU do yield some benefit. Trade facilitation and aid-for-trade programs on the other hand have the potential for larger benefits. The second essay examines the impact of liberalising RussiaAEs energy sector. The analysis is based on the implicit subsidies in regulated prices of electricity and gas and focuses on the effect of the different taxes and subsidies with respect to welfare and GDP in Russia and abroad. Increases in the price of electricity and gas improve efficiency and shift output from domestic markets to exports. The third essay investigates the impact of liberalising the EUAEs sugar sector by taking into account the complex structure of the EU sugar market and preferences in imports for developing countries. The fourth essay focuses on the effects of including carbon sinks into the analysis of the impacts of the Kyoto agreement. (orig.)

  19. The Challenges for the Multilateral Trading System Raised by the Ongoing Structural Transformations in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, international trade has been growing faster than global production, steadily increasing interdependence among nations. Sustained trade growth has been accompanied by profound changes in the patterns of trade flows, reflecting new production structures emerging under the impact of rapid progress in the development of transport, communications and information technologies, major shifts in the patterns of demand, rapid expansion of global production networks, and increasing...

  20. Trade Policies and the Changing Patterns of Protectionism during the Global Financial and Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession of 2008–09 provided a fertile ground for protectionist pressures to increase. It caused a negative shock to the global economy that is comparable with the Great Depression of the 1930s. International trade suffered a historical collapse in 2009, but trade flows quickly rebounded thereafter. And unlike the Great Depression of the 1930s, the recent global economic contraction did not trigger a massive wave of protectionism as expected. Despite important adjustments in many countries’ trade policies during the crisis and, hence, a quite notable increase in the incidence of protectionist measures, there is a widely shared belief that crisis related protectionism has been kept under control, being rather modest and limited compared with both the negative effects of the crisis and the initial concerns. A large agreement emerged also among analysts on the important role of WTO’s multilateral rules and disciplines in preventing exacerbation of economic nationalism and protectionism. The views on intensity, dynamics and potential impact of current contemporary protectionism continue, however, to diverge as they reflect in part the significant differences between the results of the different monitoring exercises, carried out particularly by the WTO and Global Trade Alert. But beyond these differences, the latest monitoring reports contain alarming signs of escalating protectionism over the post-crisis years due to the growing difficulties in the world economy. This paper takes a look at the main trends in global protectionism during and after the crisis and some of its potential implications. In doing so, the paper starts by contrasting protectionism that accompanied the Great Depression of the 1930s with the present-day protectionist phenomenon in order to briefly outline the peculiarities of the latter. Then it addresses the main factors contributing to staving off trade protectionism during the recent crisis. Relying on the

  1. Global maize trade and food security: implications from a social network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we developed a social network model of the global trade of maize: one of the most important food, feed, and industrial crops worldwide, and critical to food security. We used this model to analyze patterns of maize trade among nations, and to determine where vulnerabilities in food security might arise if maize availability was decreased due to factors such as diversion to nonfood uses, climatic factors, or plant diseases. Using data on imports and exports from the U.N. Commodity Trade Statistics Database for each year from 2000 to 2009 inclusive, we summarized statistics on volumes of maize trade between pairs of nations for 217 nations. There is evidence of market segregation among clusters of nations; with three prominent clusters representing Europe, Brazil and Argentina, and the United States. The United States is by far the largest exporter of maize worldwide, whereas Japan and the Republic of Korea are the largest maize importers. In particular, the star-shaped cluster of the network that represents U.S. maize trade to other nations indicates the potential for food security risks because of the lack of trade these other nations conduct with other maize exporters. If a scenario arose in which U.S. maize could not be exported in as large quantities, maize supplies in many nations could be jeopardized. We discuss this in the context of recent maize ethanol production and its attendant impacts on food prices elsewhere worldwide. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Understanding the impact of global trade liberalization on health systems pursuing universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reemerging universalistic approaches to health care, the objective of this article was to contribute to the discussion by highlighting the potential influence of global trade liberalization on the balance between health demand and the capacity of health systems pursuing universal health coverage (UHC) to supply adequate health care. Being identified as a defining feature of globalization affecting health, trade liberalization is analyzed as a complex and multidimensional influence on the implementation of UHC. The analysis adopts a systems-thinking approach and refers to the six building blocks of World Health Organization's current "framework for action," emphasizing their interconnectedness. While offering new opportunities to increase access to health information and care, in the absence of global governance mechanisms ensuring adequate health protection and promotion, global trade tends to have negative effects on health systems' capacity to ensure UHC, both by causing higher demand and by interfering with the interconnected functioning of health systems' building blocks. The prevention of such an impact and the effective implementation of UHC would highly benefit from a more consistent commitment and stronger leadership by the World Health Organization in protecting health in global policymaking fora in all sectors. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Export Trade Performance of Indian Economy during and Following the Global Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sumanjeet Singh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Towards the end of 2008 the effects of global recession started getting reflectedin international trade. The fall in global demand and the slowing-down ineconomic growth translated into a substantial reduction in internationaltrade. It affected the cross-border trade of virtually all countries and economicsectors. Indian exports trade could not remain unaffected in a situation whereexternal demand was dwindling globally. The present paper reviews India’sexport performance during and following the global financial crisis. Indianexports started to decline in July 2008. It declined from US$ 17,095 millionin July 2008 to US$ 11,516 million in March 2009, which accounts for almost33 per cent decline. This growth contraction has come after a robust 25 percent-plus average export growth since 2003. But, as a result of governmentpolicy measures and recovery in global economy, India’s exports growthturned positive and exports grew by a whopping 54.1 per cent in March 2010and recorded the highest growth rate among the world’s top 70 economiesin merchandise exports. India’s merchandise exports during April 2010 at US$16.9 billion recorded a growth of 36.3 per cent as compared with a declineof 32.8 per cent registered in April 2009. Exports witnessed huge annualizedgrowth of 56.9 per cent to $25.9 billion in May 2011 in a bright spot for theIndian economy, which is battling high inflation amid signs of a slowdown.

  4. Building Trust in Emissions Reporting. Global Trends in Emissions Trading Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruijd, J.; Walrecht, A.; Laseur, J.; Schoolderman, H.; Gledhill, R.

    2007-02-15

    This report highlights the key characteristics of the world's main emission trading schemes, presents a new vision for compliance in emissions trading and calls for global action to develop this. Climate change is now at the top of the political and business agenda. Al Gore's 'An Inconvenient Truth', the Stern Review and the now almost daily press coverage of climate change science and impacts have engaged many of the global leaders in government and in business. Emissions trading is increasingly seen as a central plank in the response to climate change. But market mechanisms like this depend on trust and confidence. Any widespread or systemic failure, as a result of deficient monitoring and reporting, flawed compliance processes or fraud, could undermine confidence in markets and regulation and jeopardise the crucial policy goals that they are designed to address. Key to this trust are the three central criteria of transparency, accountability and integrity. The PricewaterhouseCoopers report looks at how the patchwork of trading schemes that are emerging around the globe stacks up against these criteria. Despite good intentions across the board, the general picture is one of new and immature markets, inconsistent and complex compliance frameworks and risk. PricewaterhouseCoopers make the case for urgent and coordinated action to develop a framework of generally accepted principles and practice that will underpin trust and efficiency in these new markets - in effect, a new Global Emissions Compliance Language.

  5. Aflatoxin regulations and global pistachio trade: insights from social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui-Klimke, Travis R; Guclu, Hasan; Kensler, Thomas W; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations' aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996-2010. The main pistachio producing countries are Iran and the United States (US), which together contribute to nearly 75% of the total global pistachio market. Over this time period, during which many nations developed or changed their aflatoxin regulations in pistachios, global pistachio trade patterns changed; with the US increasingly exporting to countries with stricter aflatoxin standards. The US pistachio crop has had consistently lower levels of aflatoxin than the Iranian crop over this same time period. As similar trading patterns have also been documented in maize, public health may be affected if countries without aflatoxin regulations, or with more relaxed regulations, continually import crops with higher aflatoxin contamination. Unlike the previous studies on maize, this analysis includes a dynamic element, examining how trade patterns change over time with introduction or adjustment of aflatoxin regulations.

  6. Building Trust in Emissions Reporting. Global Trends in Emissions Trading Schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruijd, J.; Walrecht, A.; Laseur, J.; Schoolderman, H.; Gledhill, R.

    2007-02-01

    This report highlights the key characteristics of the world's main emission trading schemes, presents a new vision for compliance in emissions trading and calls for global action to develop this. Climate change is now at the top of the political and business agenda. Al Gore's 'An Inconvenient Truth', the Stern Review and the now almost daily press coverage of climate change science and impacts have engaged many of the global leaders in government and in business. Emissions trading is increasingly seen as a central plank in the response to climate change. But market mechanisms like this depend on trust and confidence. Any widespread or systemic failure, as a result of deficient monitoring and reporting, flawed compliance processes or fraud, could undermine confidence in markets and regulation and jeopardise the crucial policy goals that they are designed to address. Key to this trust are the three central criteria of transparency, accountability and integrity. The PricewaterhouseCoopers report looks at how the patchwork of trading schemes that are emerging around the globe stacks up against these criteria. Despite good intentions across the board, the general picture is one of new and immature markets, inconsistent and complex compliance frameworks and risk. PricewaterhouseCoopers make the case for urgent and coordinated action to develop a framework of generally accepted principles and practice that will underpin trust and efficiency in these new markets - in effect, a new Global Emissions Compliance Language

  7. Can trade opportunities and returns be generated in a trend persistent series? Evidence from global indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S. K.; Bawa, Jaslene

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we explore the possibility of generating trade opportunities and returns when a financial stock index series is trend persistent. Through application of Hurst coefficient based on the modified range to standard deviation analysis (Weron, 2002) in a sample of 31 leading global indices during the period December 2000 to November 2015, we found periods of trend persistence. We developed and tested a set of trading strategies on these periods of trend persistent in the financial series and found that significant positive returns can be generated when a series displayed upward trend persistence.

  8. Structural Changes of International Trade Flows under the Impact of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes of international trade flows indicate modifications in competitiveness of countries, in terms of production, technological upgrading and exports under the pressure of globalization. The paper aims to point out sources of competitive advantages especially in manufacturing exports of different groups of countries. The focus is on the shifts in the structure of manufacturing in the European Union and their effects on international rankings in export performances. An important issue refers to the opportunities given by the enlargement of the European Union and their impact on EU trade structures.

  9. Impact Of The Oil Trade On The Global Economy And The Role Of Giant Fields In Predicting Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Wayne; Bishop, Richard

    2010-09-15

    Confusion about global oil supply ('peak oil') is a distraction from the economic issue of massive wealth transfer associated with oil trading and its potential to destabilize the world economy. Without an accurate forecast of oil volumes (resources, reserves and supply), timing and cost, there is no reliable way to model the consequences of the oil trade on the global economy. This paper illustrates why it is imperative to improve our understanding of the oil trade on the global economy and proposes a method of forecasting oil supply for input into a credible global economic model.

  10. Globalization, international trade and animal health: the new roles of OIE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, Alejandro B

    2005-02-01

    In order for countries and their stakeholders to maximize the benefits of globalization they must become familiar with, and must adhere to, the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization (WTO) under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS). For the purpose of trade in animals and animal products, they must also adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Countries are also encouraged to participate in this standard setting process of the OIE. Only after implementing these requirements and after strengthening the veterinary infrastructures and their surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from these new international trade rules.

  11. GLOBALIZATION AND TRADE LIBERALIZATION: “A THREAT OR AN OPPORTUNITY”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Stefan Enghiş

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to evaluate the global economic system through the perspective of neoliberalism, which advocates for the continuous liberalization of trade and the progressive opening of the markets in different economic sectors. Seeking to observe the neoliberal vision on the world economy, the study relies on two speeches delivered by the former European Union’s Trade Commissioner, Pascal Lamy in a time span of four years, between 2000 and 2004, a period marked by two important WTO Ministerial Conferences: the Doha 2001 WTO Ministerial Conference and the Cancun 2003 WTO Ministerial Conference. Nonetheless, in order to provide a balanced analysis of the world economic system, the study provides a brief introspection into the other theoretical vision, alterglobalism, which advocates for a different understanding of the relations between trade liberalization, state intervention in the economy and the reduction of the existent economic disparities. The analysis is divided into three sections: the first section portrays the two antithetical visions, neoliberalism and alterglobalism, while the second one focuses exclusively on the person of Pascal Lamy and on the speeches that represent the core of this study. The third section consists in a comparative analysis of the two divergent economic perspectives, trying to identify the main opposing points, as well as those points on which the two economic perspectives may converge. The conclusion looks closely at the relations between globalization and trade liberalization and the criticism brought about by alterglobalism, the archrival of neoliberalism and trade liberalization. It also considers the relation between the two neoliberal speeches of the former EU Trade Commissioner, attempting to identify potential links or divergent attitudes between the two.

  12. New Faces of Globalization: Market Integration, Production Disintegration, Genesis of New Global Organizational Structures for Production and Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiza Pencea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to trade liberalisation and ITC revolution, companies could imagine new and better ways of creating and delivering value. In search of higher efficiency, competitiveness and profits, they reorganise, choosing to focus on their core competencies and to globally outsource, or offshore non-core activities and functions. As a result, reorganisation and relocation became the new forces of change across economies, leading to the rise of new, more diverse and more efficient global organisational structures for investment, production and trade. A number of developing countries with adequate comparative advantages could better benefit from these processes, accelerating their own industralization and modernization, increasing their access to new technologies and managerial know-how and turning themselves into successful, high-rate growing, „ emerging” economies. The paper concludes that under such a global backdrop, taking part in global value chains (GVC and in international production networks (IPNs could be the best strategic option for both company strategies and governmental catch-up policies, provided that, or especially if companies enjoy high competences and tacit skills which make them capable of assuming complex tasks and of climbing further the technological ladder.

  13. The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

  14. Economic and Environmental Impact of Rice Blast Pathogen (Magnaporthe oryzae) Alleviation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalley, Lawton; Tsiboe, Francis; Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Shew, Aaron; Thoma, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) is a key concern in combating global food insecurity given the disease is responsible for approximately 30% of rice production losses globally-the equivalent of feeding 60 million people. These losses increase the global rice price and reduce consumer welfare and food security. Rice is the staple crop for more than half the world's population so any reduction in rice blast would have substantial beneficial effects on consumer livelihoods. In 2012, researchers in the US began analyzing the feasibility of creating blast-resistant rice through cisgenic breeding. Correspondingly, our study evaluates the changes in producer, consumer, and environmental welfare, if all the rice produced in the Mid-South of the US were blast resistant through a process like cisgenics, using both international trade and environmental assessment modeling. Our results show that US rice producers would gain 69.34 million dollars annually and increase the rice supply to feed an additional one million consumers globally by eliminating blast from production in the Mid-South. These results suggest that blast alleviation could be even more significant in increasing global food security given that the US is a small rice producer by global standards and likely experiences lower losses from blast than other rice-producing countries because of its ongoing investment in production technology and management. Furthermore, results from our detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) show that producing blast-resistant rice has lower environmental (fossil fuel depletion, ecotoxicity, carcinogenics, eutrophication, acidification, global warming potential, and ozone depletion) impacts per unit of rice than non-blast resistant rice production. Our findings suggest that any reduction in blast via breeding will have significantly positive impacts on reducing global food insecurity through increased supply, as well as decreased price and environmental impacts in production.

  15. Economic and Environmental Impact of Rice Blast Pathogen (Magnaporthe oryzae Alleviation in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawton Nalley

    Full Text Available Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae is a key concern in combating global food insecurity given the disease is responsible for approximately 30% of rice production losses globally-the equivalent of feeding 60 million people. These losses increase the global rice price and reduce consumer welfare and food security. Rice is the staple crop for more than half the world's population so any reduction in rice blast would have substantial beneficial effects on consumer livelihoods. In 2012, researchers in the US began analyzing the feasibility of creating blast-resistant rice through cisgenic breeding. Correspondingly, our study evaluates the changes in producer, consumer, and environmental welfare, if all the rice produced in the Mid-South of the US were blast resistant through a process like cisgenics, using both international trade and environmental assessment modeling. Our results show that US rice producers would gain 69.34 million dollars annually and increase the rice supply to feed an additional one million consumers globally by eliminating blast from production in the Mid-South. These results suggest that blast alleviation could be even more significant in increasing global food security given that the US is a small rice producer by global standards and likely experiences lower losses from blast than other rice-producing countries because of its ongoing investment in production technology and management. Furthermore, results from our detailed life cycle assessment (LCA show that producing blast-resistant rice has lower environmental (fossil fuel depletion, ecotoxicity, carcinogenics, eutrophication, acidification, global warming potential, and ozone depletion impacts per unit of rice than non-blast resistant rice production. Our findings suggest that any reduction in blast via breeding will have significantly positive impacts on reducing global food insecurity through increased supply, as well as decreased price and environmental impacts in

  16. Graduated Sovereignty and Global Governance Gaps: Special Economic Zones and the Illicit Trade In Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Illicit trade in tobacco products has been a significant problem globally for many years. It allows cigarettes to be sold far below their legal price and thus contributes to higher consumption, morbidity and mortality, and deprives state treasuries of a substantial amount of revenue. This article identifies special economic zones (SEZs), particularly free trade zones, as a key conduit for this illicit trade. The development of SEZs as weak points in the global governance architecture is explained with reference to the concept of 'graduated sovereignty', whereby the uniform management of territory by modern states has given way to a more spatially selective form of territorial governance, in which some slices of territory are more fully integrated into the world economy than others via various forms of differential regulation. Attempts to comprehensively (re)regulate SEZs, in the face of growing evidence of the dysfunctionalities that they can engender, have so far been unsuccessful. It is concluded that the neo-liberal global economy has facilitated a regulatory 'race to the bottom', a problem that can only ultimately be overcome by international negotiation and agreement.

  17. Information data systems for a global change technology initiative architecture trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nicholas D.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Change Technology Initiative (GCTI) was established to develop technology which will enable use of satellite systems of Earth observations on a global scale, enable use of the observations to predictively model Earth's changes, and provide scientists, government, business, and industry with quick access to the resulting information. At LaRC, a GCTI Architecture Trade Study was undertaken to develop and evaluate the architectural implications to meet the requirements of the global change studies and the eventual implementation of a global change system. The output of the trade study are recommended technologies for the GCTI. That portion of the study concerned with the information data system is documented. The information data system for an earth global change modeling system can be very extensive and beyond affordability in terms of today's costs. Therefore, an incremental approach to gaining a system is most likely. An options approach to levels of capability versus needed technologies was developed. The primary drivers of the requirements for the information data system evaluation were the needed science products, the science measurements, the spacecraft orbits, the instruments configurations, and the spacecraft configurations and their attendant architectures. The science products requirements were not studied here; however, some consideration of the product needs were included in the evaluation results. The information data system technology items were identified from the viewpoint of the desirable overall information system characteristics.

  18. Why Globally GDP, Trade, Profits, Wages, Employment Decrease and Why Poverty Increases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Štrukelj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to propose a scientific explanation ofwhy GDP, trade, profits, wages and employment have been globallydecreasing and why poverty has been globally increasing betweenthe 2nd quarter of 2008 and the 3rd quarter of 2009. I explainthese facts in a scientific manner, that is, by deriving thepresent state of the global economy (crisis from the principles ofthe present global economy (predominately organized in a capitalisticmanner. I therefore prove that the crisis necessarily followsfrom the way the present global economy functions. I arguethat the reason for the crisis is the fundamental contradiction betweenthe purpose of companies (increasing profits and necessaryways in which companies try to increase profits, and that theconsequences of this fundamental contradiction are triggered bya general lack of credits.

  19. The Challenges for the Multilateral Trading System Raised by the Ongoing Structural Transformations in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, international trade has been growing faster than global production, steadily increasing interdependence among nations. Sustained trade growth has been accompanied by profound changes in the patterns of trade flows, reflecting new production structures emerging under the impact of rapid progress in the development of transport, communications and information technologies, major shifts in the patterns of demand, rapid expansion of global production networks, and increasing integration of developing countries into the world economy. While global trade relations experienced a dramatic transformation during the last decade, the multilateral trading system and the WTO – the venue for international trade cooperation – failed to keep pace with the rapidly changing trade environment. Consequently, the world trade rule-book that is currently guiding international trade relations as a result of the Uruguay Round (1986-1994 and the creation of the WTO (in 1995 is stuck in the requirements of 20st century trade. Improving and adjusting multilateral trade rules and disciplines ranked among the main objectives of the Doha Round launched in 2001. However, trade negotiations have been stalled since 2008. And with this impasse, the legislative function of the WTO responsible for the elaboration of new rules has been also blocked, hindering thus the process of adjustment. This paper addresses the main challenges confrunting the multilateral trading system both in the long and short-term in its endeavour to adjust to the new realities of 21st century trade. More specifically, it takes a look at the key problems arising for international cooperation in trade from: (1 the continually shifting weight of economic power and influence within the world economy; (2 the dynamic spread of global production networks operated by TNCs; and (3 the explosion of regionalism and preferential trade agreements. Finally, the paper highlights the vital

  20. Integrated rice-duck farming decreases global warming potential and increases net ecosystem economic budget in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Feng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2018-05-31

    Over the past decades, many attempts have been made to assess the effects of integrated rice-duck farming on greenhouse gas emissions, use efficient of energy, soil fertility, and economic significance. However, very few studies have been focused on the effects of the farming on net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB). Here, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to comprehensively investigate the effects of ducks raised in paddy fields on CH 4 and N 2 O emissions, global warming potential (GWP), rice grain yield, and NEEB in central China. The experiment included two treatments: integrated rice-duck farming (RD) and conventional rice farming (R). The introduction of ducks into the paddy fields markedly increased the rice grain yield due to enhanced tiller number and root bleeding rate. RD treatment significantly elevated the N 2 O emissions (p < 0.05) but decreased CH 4 emissions (p < 0.05) during rice growing seasons compared with R treatment. Analysis of GWP based on CH 4 and N 2 O emissions showed that compared with R treatment, RD treatment significantly decreased the GWP by 28.1 and 28.0% and reduced the greenhouse gas intensity by 30.6 and 29.8% in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In addition, RD treatment increased NEEB by 40.8 and 39.7% respectively in 2009 and 2010 relative to R treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that the integrated rice-duck farming system is an effective strategy to optimize the economic and environmental benefits of paddy fields in central China.

  1. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  2. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM 2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM 2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM 2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  3. Trade Liberalization and Climate Change: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis of the Impacts on Global Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Rehdanz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on predicted changes in the magnitude and distribution of global precipitation, temperature and river flow under the A1B and A2 scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES, this study assesses the potential impacts of climate change and CO2 fertilization on global agriculture, and its interactions with trade liberalization, as proposed for the Doha Development Round. The analysis uses the new version of the GTAP-W model, which distinguishes between rainfed and irrigated agriculture and implements water as an explicit factor of production for irrigated agriculture. Significant reductions in agricultural tariffs lead to modest changes in regional water use. Patterns are non-linear. On the regional level, water use may go up for partial liberalization, and down for more complete liberalization. This is because different crops respond differently to tariff reductions, and because trade and competition matter too. Moreover, trade liberalization tends to reduce water use in water scarce regions, and increase water use in water abundant regions, even though water markets do not exist in most countries. Considering impacts of climate change, the results show that global food production, welfare and GDP fall over time while food prices increase. Larger changes are observed under the SRES A2 scenario for the medium term (2020 and under the SRES A1B scenario for the long term (2050. Combining scenarios of future climate change with trade liberalization, countries are affected differently. However, the overall effect on welfare does not change much.

  4. 76 FR 81965 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Submission of Questionnaire for OMB Review AGENCY..., Markets, and Trade, instituted under the authority of section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C... leader Alan Treat ( [email protected] or (202) 205-3426) or deputy project leader Jeremy Wise ( jeremy...

  5. From food insufficiency towards trade dependency: a historical analysis of global food availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miina Porkka

    Full Text Available Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965-2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (15% of dietary energy supply increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security.

  6. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Embodied Carbon Emission in Global Trade Flows: 41 Economies and 35 Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Tian; Hua Liao; Ce Wang

    2014-01-01

    The spatial-temporal variations of embodied carbon emissions in international trade at global scope are still unclear. This paper studies the variations of outflows and inflows of embodied carbon emissions at 35-disaggregated sectors level of 41 countries and regions, and an integrated world input-output model is employed. It also examines what would happen if there were not international trade flows in China, USA and Finland, the representatives of three different levels of the global balanc...

  7. Global estimations of the inventory and mitigation potential of methane emissions from rice cultivation conducted using the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyuan; Akiyama, Hiroko; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2009-06-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) regularly publishes guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories and methane emission (CH4) from rice paddies has been an important component of these guidelines. While there have been many estimates of global CH4 emissions from rice fields, none of them have been obtained using the IPCC guidelines. Therefore, we used the Tier 1 method described in the 2006 IPCC guidelines to estimate the global CH4 emissions from rice fields. To accomplish this, we used country-specific statistical data regarding rice harvest areas and expert estimates of relevant agricultural activities. The estimated global emission for 2000 was 25.6 Tg a-1, which is at the lower end of earlier estimates and close to the total emission summarized by individual national communications. Monte Carlo simulation revealed a 95% uncertainty range of 14.8-41.7 Tg a-1; however, the estimation uncertainty was found to depend on the reliability of the information available regarding the amount of organic amendments and the area of rice fields that were under continuous flooding. We estimated that if all of the continuously flooded rice fields were drained at least once during the growing season, the CH4 emissions would be reduced by 4.1 Tg a-1. Furthermore, we estimated that applying rice straw off season wherever and whenever possible would result in a further reduction in emissions of 4.1 Tg a-1 globally. Finally, if both of these mitigation options were adopted, the global CH4 emission from rice paddies could be reduced by 7.6 Tg a-1. Although draining continuously flooded rice fields may lead to an increase in nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, the global warming potential resulting from this increase is negligible when compared to the reduction in global warming potential that would result from the CH4 reduction associated with draining the fields.

  8. Economists, capitalists, and the making of globalization: North American free trade in comparative-historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Malcolm

    2014-03-01

    Why did globalization happen? Current explanations point to a variety of conditions under which states have made the free market policy changes driving international economic integration since the 1980s. Such accounts disagree, however, about the key actors involved. This article provides a reconciliation, showing how two different combinations of actors, and two different political economic pathways, have led to globalization in recent decades. In developed countries, mobilization by business has been central; elsewhere, technocrats both constrained and empowered by international finance have pursued globalization more independently of business. In both contexts, economists' technical authority has helped legitimate liberalization, despite the limited diffusion of their ideas. The article validates and elaborates this model using a comparative-historical study of how the United States, Canada, and Mexico proposed, negotiated, and ratified agreements for free trade in North America.

  9. Yield-scaled global warming potential of two irrigation management systems in a highly productive rice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Tarlera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water management impacts both methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from rice paddy fields. Although controlled irrigation is one of the most important tools for reducing CH4emission in rice production systems it can also increase N2O emissions and reduce crop yields. Over three years, CH4 and N2O emissions were measured in a rice field in Uruguay under two different irrigation management systems, using static closed chambers: conventional water management (continuous flooding after 30 days of emergence, CF30; and an alternative system (controlled deficit irrigation allowing for wetting and drying, AWDI. AWDI showed mean cumulative CH4 emission values of 98.4 kg CH4 ha−1, 55 % lower compared to CF30, while no differences in nitrous oxide emissions were observed between treatments ( p > 0.05. No yield differences between irrigation systems were observed in two of the rice seasons ( p > 0.05 while AWDI promoted yield reduction in one of the seasons ( p< 0.05. When rice yield and greenhouse gases (GHG emissions were considered together, the AWDI irrigation system allowed for lower yield-scaled total global warming potential (GWP. Higher irrigation water productivity was achieved under AWDI in two of the three rice seasons. These findings suggest that AWDI could be an option for reducing GHG emissions and increasing irrigation water productivity. However, AWDI may compromise grain yield in certain years, reflecting the importance of the need for fine tuning of this irrigation strategy and an assessment of the overall tradeoff between relationships in order to promote its adoption by farmers.

  10. Global impacts of the meat trade on in-stream organic river pollution: the importance of spatially distributed hydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2018-01-01

    In many regions of the world, intensive livestock farming has become a significant source of organic river pollution. As the international meat trade is growing rapidly, the environmental impacts of meat production within one country can occur either domestically or internationally. The goal of this paper is to quantify the impacts of the international meat trade on global organic river pollution at multiple scales (national, regional and gridded). Using the biological oxygen demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we compute the spatially distributed organic pollution in global river networks with and without a meat trade, where the without-trade scenario assumes that meat imports are replaced by local production. Our analysis reveals a reduction in the livestock population and production of organic pollutants at the global scale as a result of the international meat trade. However, the actual environmental impact of trade, as quantified by in-stream BOD concentrations, is negative; i.e. we find a slight increase in polluted river segments. More importantly, our results show large spatial variability in local (grid-scale) impacts that do not correlate with local changes in BOD loading, which illustrates: (1) the significance of accounting for the spatial heterogeneity of hydrological processes along river networks, and (2) the limited value of looking at country-level or global averages when estimating the actual impacts of trade on the environment.

  11. Global resources and energy trade. An overview for coal, natural gas, oil and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remme, U.; Blesl, M.; Fahl, U.

    2007-07-15

    Despite efforts to improve energy effi-ciency and increase the usage of renewable energy carriers, fossil fuels and nuclear energy will continue to be important sources of global energy supply for the coming decades. Present global oil and gas supply is characterized by a concentration of production in a few world areas, mainly the Middle East and the Former Soviet Union, and a transport from these regions to the industrialized countries. Depletion of conventional reserves, especially oil, in combination with a surge for energy in emerging economies, as China and India, how-ever, is expected to change this picture in the future: unconventional resources in other world regions may be exploited to cover the surge energy demand, infrastructure for energy transport along new routes may have to be established. To provide a data base for such ques-tions, this report gives an overview of the current global resource situation for coal, natural gas, oil and uranium. In the first part, an assessment of the con-ventional and unconventional reserves and resources as well as their supply costs is given for the different regions of the world. The second part describes the current energy trade infrastructure between world regions and estimates the costs for existing and new trade links between these regions. (orig.)

  12. International Trade Drives Global Resource Use: A Structural Decomposition Analysis of Raw Material Consumption from 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Barbara; Eisenmenger, Nina; Schaffartzik, Anke; Wiedenhofer, Dominik

    2018-04-03

    Globalization led to an immense increase of international trade and the emergence of complex global value chains. At the same time, global resource use and pressures on the environment are increasing steadily. With these two processes in parallel, the question arises whether trade contributes positively to resource efficiency, or to the contrary is further driving resource use? In this article, the socioeconomic driving forces of increasing global raw material consumption (RMC) are investigated to assess the role of changing trade relations, extended supply chains and increasing consumption. We apply a structural decomposition analysis of changes in RMC from 1990 to 2010, utilizing the Eora multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model. We find that changes in international trade patterns significantly contributed to an increase of global RMC. Wealthy developed countries play a major role in driving global RMC growth through changes in their trade structures, as they shifted production processes increasingly to less material-efficient input suppliers. Even the dramatic increase in material consumption in the emerging economies has not diminished the role of industrialized countries as drivers of global RMC growth.

  13. Two Islands, One Commodity: Cuba, Java, and the Global Sugar Trade (1790-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Curry-Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar had become, by the eighteenth century, a global commodity. Originating in East Asia, plantations in the Americas fed the growing taste for its use in Europe, with its consumption increasingly popularised. The 1791 Revolution in Saint Domingue (Haiti and the 1807 British abolition of the slave trade prompted shifts in the epicentres of sugar, the most important of these being arguably to Cuba and Java. These two fertile islands saw the burgeoning development of sugar-plantation systems with major inputs of foreign capital and forced labour. In the process the two islands each, respectively, became central to the very much truncated Spanish and Dutch colonial empires left after the Napoleonic wars and the Latin American wars of liberation; and by the mid-nineteenth century in the case of Cuba, and by the late nineteenth century in the case of Java, they had been catapulted to global sugar pre-eminence. There has been an abundance of study on the two islands each in their own right, but none systematically examines their parallel trajectories. Yet the question arises as to how sugar came to dominate the agriculture, industry and trade of these two islands; and how these two islands in particular, in two different colonial systems and parts of the world, should rise to sugar pre-eminence in the way they did and when they did. Are there connections and similarities between the two that help explain this phenomenon? This article analyses the conditions that led Java and Cuba to become the prime cane-sugar exporters of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Initiative for this came from the linkages between their dominant elites and the transnational, transimperial networks of trade and capital. This furthered the stimulation of technological and scientific innovation in both, enabled not only through the introduction of the latest advances in machinery and method, but also the immigration of technical skilled workers from Europe and North

  14. A multiplex PCR mini-barcode assay to identify processed shark products in the global trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cardeñosa

    Full Text Available Protecting sharks from overexploitation has become global priority after widespread population declines have occurred. Tracking catches and trade on a species-specific basis has proven challenging, in part due to difficulties in identifying processed shark products such as fins, meat, and liver oil. This has hindered efforts to implement regulations aimed at promoting sustainable use of commercially important species and protection of imperiled species. Genetic approaches to identify shark products exist but are typically based on sequencing or amplifying large DNA regions and may fail to work on heavily processed products in which DNA is degraded. Here, we describe a novel multiplex PCR mini-barcode assay based on two short fragments of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene. This assay can identify to species all sharks currently listed on the Convention of International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES and most shark species present in the international trade. It achieves species diagnosis based on a single PCR and one to two downstream DNA sequencing reactions. The assay is capable of identifying highly processed shark products including fins, cooked shark fin soup, and skin-care products containing liver oil. This is a straightforward and reliable identification method for data collection and enforcement of regulations implemented for certain species at all governance levels.

  15. A Global Maritime Emissions Trading System. Design and Impacts on the Shipping Sector, Countries and Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Markowska, A.; Eyring, V.; Cionni, I.; Selstad, E. Shipping / Emissions trading / Economy / Costs / Effects / Developing countries Publication number:

    2010-01-15

    This report designs a global cap-and-trade scheme for maritime transport and assesses its impacts on the shipping sector, regions and groups of countries. It shows that it is feasible to implement a cap-and-trade scheme for greenhouse gas emissions in the maritime transport sector. Such a scheme ensures that the environmental target is met, while allowing the sector to grow and ensuring that the target is met in the most cost-effective way. An emissions trading scheme would result in an increase in the costs of shipping of less than 10%, depending on the price of allowances. The increase in import values is likely to be less than 1% for most commodity groups, and the impact on consumer prices even lower. Using new data on emissions of ships sailing to regions and country groups, this report demonstrates that the additional costs of imports for most regions and country groups are estimated to be less than 0.2% of GDP, with a few exceptions. This report demonstrates that it is possible to compensate developing countries for the increased costs of imports by using approximately two thirds of the revenues of the auction. The remainder of the revenues can be used for other aims, such as R and D into fuel-efficiency of ships.

  16. A global analysis of alternative tillage and crop establishment practices for economically and environmentally efficient rice production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debashis; Ladha, Jagdish Kumar; Rana, Dharamvir Singh; Jat, Mangi Lal; Gathala, Mahesh Kumar; Yadav, Sudhir; Rao, Adusumilli Narayana; Ramesha, Mugadoli S; Raman, Anitha

    2017-08-24

    Alternative tillage and rice establishment options should aim at less water and labor to produce similar or improved yields compared with traditional puddled-transplanted rice cultivation. The relative performance of these practices in terms of yield, water input, and economics varies across rice-growing regions. A global meta and mixed model analysis was performed, using a dataset involving 323 on-station and 9 on-farm studies (a total of 3878 paired data), to evaluate the yield, water input, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost and net return with five major tillage/crop establishment options. Shifting from transplanting to direct-seeding was advantageous but the change from conventional to zero or reduced tillage reduced yields. Direct-seeded rice under wet tillage was the best alternative with yield advantages of 1.3-4.7% (p Direct-seeding under zero tillage was another potential alternative with high savings in water input and cost of cultivation, with no yield penalty. The alternative practices reduced methane emissions but increased nitrous oxide emissions. Soil texture plays a key role in relative yield advantages, and therefore refinement of the practice to suit a specific agro-ecosystem is needed.

  17. Creating British Global Leadership: The Liberal Trading Community from 1750 to 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whiteneck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the process by which Great Britain rose to a position of global leadership in the 1800s. It examines the critical period from 1750 to 1792 when Great Britain moved from global leadership based on colonial/mercantile power to leadership based on industrial/commercial power. I hypothesize that the roots of the Pax Britannica of 1815-1873 have their source in the emerging liberal trading community created by the British in the fifty years before the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. This coalition of states was created around a dominant new idea (economic liberalism based in the distribution of positive benefits from inclusion in the community, and intended to provide an innovative solution to the problems of international political economy created by the burgeoning industrial revolution. The community was created through the actions of successive British governments throughout the period, and served as the basis for the British-led coalitions which emerged victorious from the global wars of 1792 to 1815. This case study helps answer important questions about how Great Britain was able to move from one period of global leadership to another, and on a more general level provides some insights into the role coalition-building plays in attaining and exercising global power.

  18. Socio-Economic Inequality, Human Trafficking, and the Global Slave Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Barner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss human trafficking within the broader framework of socio-economic inequality. The presence of socio-economic inequality in the world creates a system where those in power very easily dominate and take advantage of those people without power. One of the most serious contemporary effects of inequalities between and within nations is the phenomenon of global sex trade or human trafficking for the purposes of sex. Deriving from unequal power relations, human trafficking is a serious global crime that involves the exploitation of many, but mostly females and children. This paper provides an extensive discussion of inequality and its links with human trafficking as contemporary slavery. In conclusion, the paper provides a list of selected intra-national and multi-national service organizations that are adopting strategies for combating trafficking through the reduction of social and economic inequality. Implications for social welfare advocates and international collaborative efforts are highlighted.

  19. 77 FR 11157 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change in Start Time of Public Hearing AGENCY... investigation No. 332-525, Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Project Leader Alan Treat (202-205- 3426 or [email protected] ), Deputy Project Leader...

  20. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J.; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution6, 7, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region14, 19, 20, 21, 22. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions23, air quality14 and health24 have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  1. Impact of inter-sectoral trade on national and global CO2 emissions: An empirical analysis of China and US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jie; Zou Lele; Wei Yiming

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the CO 2 emissions embodied in Sino-US international trade using a sector approach. Based on an input-output model established in this study, we quantify the impact of Sino-US international trade on national and global CO 2 emissions. Our initial findings reveal that: In 2005, the US reduced 190.13 Mt CO 2 emissions through the consumption of imported goods from China, while increasing global CO 2 emissions by about 515.25 Mt. Similarly, China reduced 178.62 Mt CO 2 emissions through the consumption of US goods, while reducing global CO 2 emissions by 129.93 Mt. Sino-US international trade increased global CO 2 emissions by 385.32 Mt as a whole, of which the Chemical, Fabricated Metal Products, Non-metallic Mineral Products and Transportation Equipment sectors contributed an 86.71% share. Therefore, we suggest that accelerating the adjustment of China's trade structure and export of US advanced technologies and experience related to clean production and energy efficiency to China as the way to reduce the negative impact of Sino-US trade on national and global CO 2 emissions. This behavior should take into account the processing and manufacturing industries as a priority, especially the Chemical, Fabricated Metal Products, Non-metallic Mineral Products and Transportation Equipment sectors.

  2. Addressing the trade-climate change-energy nexus: China's explorations in a global governance landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Monkelbaan, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We have arrived at a critical juncture when it comes to understanding the numerous ways in which trade interacts with climate change and energy (trade-climate-energy nexus). Trade remains crucial for the sustainable development of the world's greatest trading nation: China. After clarifying the linkages within the trade, climate change and energy nexus, this article delves into China's specific needs and interests related to trade, climate change and energy. Then it explores the ways in which...

  3. Towards Global Simulation of Irrigation in a Land Surface Model: Multiple Cropping and Rice Paddy in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Rodell, Matthew; Ozdogan, Mutlu

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural land use significantly influences the surface water and energy balances. Effects of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes include repartitioning of latent and sensible heat fluxes, an increase in net radiation, and an increase in soil moisture and runoff. We are working on representing irrigation practices in continental- to global-scale land surface simulation in NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Because agricultural practices across the nations are diverse, and complex, we are attempting to capture the first-order reality of the regional practices before achieving a global implementation. This study focuses on two issues in Southeast Asia: multiple cropping and rice paddy irrigation systems. We first characterize agricultural practices in the region (i.e., crop types, growing seasons, and irrigation) using the Global data set of monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000 (MIRCA2000) dataset. Rice paddy extent is identified using remote sensing products. Whether irrigated or rainfed, flooded fields need to be represented and treated explicitly. By incorporating these properties and processes into a physically based land surface model, we are able to quantify the impacts on the simulated states and fluxes.

  4. PREDICTION AND ANALYSIS OF SLOVAKIAN TIMBER TRADE ON GLOBAL MARKET CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Gejdoš

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Slovakian forestry the main source of finance is the wood sale. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the assortments supply structure (quality management, prices development for the coniferous sawlogs and to set the future prediction of this development in new global market conditions, which are affected mainly by the global climate changes. Price changes were analysed for the period of the years from 2000 to March 2016 for the spruce and fir sawlogs. Data about the volume supply of raw-wood assortments in Slovakia for years 2005-2014 were collected from “Green Reports“ published by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic. From the influence factors in the studied period, the biggest impact was assigned to the global economic crisis. The prediction captures the further decline of prices of raw-wood assortments. In the second half of the year 2016 the price of sawlogs decreased by € 4 per 1 m3. Local impacts, the structure of wood processors and specific trade area in Slovakia affected substantially the structure of assortments on Market. There is also some space for a better evaluation of harvested wood.

  5. A review of existing and emerging digital technologies to combat the global trade in fake medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2017-05-01

    The globalization of the pharmaceutical supply chain has introduced new challenges, chief among them, fighting the international criminal trade in fake medicines. As the manufacture, supply, and distribution of drugs becomes more complex, so does the need for innovative technology-based solutions to protect patients globally. Areas covered: We conducted a multidisciplinary review of the science/health, information technology, computer science, and general academic literature with the aim of identifying cutting-edge existing and emerging 'digital' solutions to combat fake medicines. Our review identified five distinct categories of technology including mobile, radio frequency identification, advanced computational methods, online verification, and blockchain technology. Expert opinion: Digital fake medicine solutions are unifying platforms that integrate different types of anti-counterfeiting technologies as complementary solutions, improve information sharing and data collection, and are designed to overcome existing barriers of adoption and implementation. Investment in this next generation technology is essential to ensure the future security and integrity of the global drug supply chain.

  6. Global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in rice agriculture driven by high yields and nitrogen use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xu, Xin; Liu, Yinglie; Wang, Jinyang; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of how global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is affected by management practices aimed at food security with respect to rice agriculture remains limited. In the present study, a field experiment was conducted in China to evaluate the effects of integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM) on GWP and GHGI after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions from all sources, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, agrochemical inputs and farm operations and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon sequestration). The ISSM mainly consisted of different nitrogen (N) fertilization rates and split, manure, Zn and Na2SiO3 fertilization and planting density for the improvement of rice yield and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Four ISSM scenarios consisting of different chemical N rates relative to the local farmers' practice (FP) rate were carried out, namely, ISSM-N1 (25 % reduction), ISSM-N2 (10 % reduction), ISSM-N3 (FP rate) and ISSM-N4 (25 % increase). The results showed that compared with the FP, the four ISSM scenarios significantly increased the rice yields by 10, 16, 28 and 41 % and the agronomic NUE by 75, 67, 35 and 40 %, respectively. In addition, compared with the FP, the ISSM-N1 and ISSM-N2 scenarios significantly reduced the GHGI by 14 and 18 %, respectively, despite similar GWPs. The ISSM-N3 and ISSM-N4 scenarios remarkably increased the GWP and GHGI by an average of 69 and 39 %, respectively. In conclusion, the ISSM strategies are promising for both food security and environmental protection, and the ISSM scenario of ISSM-N2 is the optimal strategy to realize high yields and high NUE together with low environmental impacts for this agricultural rice field.

  7. Natural gas as a traded global commodity : no longer just a continental resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, A.

    2004-01-01

    Many consider natural gas to be the fuel of choice for the future because it is abundant, clean and cost competitive. This presentation reviewed how gas markets are changing in terms of globalization, the critical role of liquefied natural gas (LNG), the politics, technology and how the evolution will differ from oil. Other topics of discussion included the expanding world trade of LNG, LNG markets, supply countries, LNG flows in 2002 and potential future flows. Developments in the market were reviewed with reference to limited LNG spot market, mix of contract types, and the role of powerful aggregator partners. The impact of joining suppliers and markets was also discussed along with the value chain of the tramline model. Shell's LNG shipping position was outlined. Shell wholly owns 4 LNG ships and partly owns and operates 16 more ships. The presentation listed existing, permitted, publicly announced and scouting LNG regas terminals in North America, along with Shell interests. It was noted that LNG has the potential to meet some of the growing deficit in North American gas production. The issues that require consideration include permitting uncertainties, basis risk, impact of imports on basis, expansion possibilities, constraints on pipeline infrastructure, marketing capabilities, global supply issues and finance possibilities. figs

  8. Trade brokerage property of industrial sectors on the global value chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lizhi; Xu, Xiaoyu; Guan, Jun; Dong, Xianlei

    2017-08-01

    ICIO data have proven itself to be a reliable source for the analysis of economic globalization, with which sectors all over the world could be constructed into a sophisticated GVC, bringing the advantages of simultaneous study on international and domestic economies in detail as a holistic network. This paper uses OECD-WTO TiVA data to set up GIVCN-TiVA networks as the general analytical framework, depicting the transferring process of intermediate goods among sectors of various countries/regions. Secondly, the conception of brokerage roles in SNA has been adopted to redefine sector’s function while linkage exists between its upstream providers and downstream consumers, referred to as “Trade Brokerage Property”, as well as to quantify the ratio of each types of the roles. Thirdly, a set of simulations have been defined to testify the contribution that different TBPs incur to the robustness of global economic system. Finally, analyses on TBPs and NTBPs have been carried out in the levels of industry and country/region, respectively.

  9. Critiquing the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) : Systemic Consequences for Global Governance and the Rule of Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larik, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the implications of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) for the architecture of global (economic) governance, including the international rule of law, the article addresses some of the most pertinent systemic consequences TTIP is likely to produce, based on the

  10. Trends of the World Input and Output Network of Global Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río-Chanona, Rita María; Grujić, Jelena; Jeldtoft Jensen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The international trade naturally maps onto a complex networks. Theoretical analysis of this network gives valuable insights about the global economic system. Although different economic data sets have been investigated from the network perspective, little attention has been paid to its dynamical behaviour. Here we take the World Input Output Data set, which has values of the annual transactions between 40 different countries of 35 different sectors for the period of 15 years, and infer the time interdependence between countries and sectors. As a measure of interdependence we use correlations between various time series of the network characteristics. First we form 15 primary networks for each year of the data we have, where nodes are countries and links are annual exports from one country to the other. Then we calculate the strengths (weighted degree) and PageRank of each country in each of the 15 networks for 15 different years. This leads to sets of time series and by calculating the correlations between these we form a secondary network where the links are the positive correlations between different countries or sectors. Furthermore, we also form a secondary network where the links are negative correlations in order to study the competition between countries and sectors. By analysing this secondary network we obtain a clearer picture of the mutual influences between countries. As one might expect, we find that political and geographical circumstances play an important role. However, the derived correlation network reveals surprising aspects which are hidden in the primary network. Sometimes countries which belong to the same community in the original network are found to be competitors in the secondary networks. E.g. Spain and Portugal are always in the same trade flow community, nevertheless secondary network analysis reveal that they exhibit contrary time evolution.

  11. Trends of the World Input and Output Network of Global Trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita María Del Río-Chanona

    Full Text Available The international trade naturally maps onto a complex networks. Theoretical analysis of this network gives valuable insights about the global economic system. Although different economic data sets have been investigated from the network perspective, little attention has been paid to its dynamical behaviour. Here we take the World Input Output Data set, which has values of the annual transactions between 40 different countries of 35 different sectors for the period of 15 years, and infer the time interdependence between countries and sectors. As a measure of interdependence we use correlations between various time series of the network characteristics. First we form 15 primary networks for each year of the data we have, where nodes are countries and links are annual exports from one country to the other. Then we calculate the strengths (weighted degree and PageRank of each country in each of the 15 networks for 15 different years. This leads to sets of time series and by calculating the correlations between these we form a secondary network where the links are the positive correlations between different countries or sectors. Furthermore, we also form a secondary network where the links are negative correlations in order to study the competition between countries and sectors. By analysing this secondary network we obtain a clearer picture of the mutual influences between countries. As one might expect, we find that political and geographical circumstances play an important role. However, the derived correlation network reveals surprising aspects which are hidden in the primary network. Sometimes countries which belong to the same community in the original network are found to be competitors in the secondary networks. E.g. Spain and Portugal are always in the same trade flow community, nevertheless secondary network analysis reveal that they exhibit contrary time evolution.

  12. Canada and the North American Free Trade Agreement: Between globalization and regional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina García Segura

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to analize, from Canada’s perspective, the choice regarding the model of state as well as of economic and commercial policy which the decision to participate in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA implies. The debatewhich NAFTA provoked in Canada expresses in concrete terms that debate which, in much larger terms, takes place at the international level regarding the multilateralization and/or the regionalization of commercial exchanges. It is a reflection of the tension between theintegrating forces (process of globalization and the fragmenting ones (processes of regionalization which characterize the dynamics of the contemporary international system. The hypothesis of this work is that in spite of being a commercial agreement, the Canadian government’s decision to participate in NAFTA was a decision of a political nature which was not determined exclusively by the reality of the existing commercial exchanges between Canada and Mexico or by the perspectives of improving them inthe short term. The immediate objective of Canada was to avoid that a possible bilateral agreement between its prinicipal economic member, the United States, and Mexico would empty out the contents of the existing Free Trade Agreement (FTA between Canada and the United States. In this sense, NAFTA was the possible remedy to an unwanted situation (the negotiation of a US-Mexico bilateral agreement. The objective in the medium and long term is use the platform of regional integration as a trampoline from where the Canadian economy can be reorientated and driven in order to attain international competitiveness. In this sense, Canada’s true option had already beenrealised with the FTA.

  13. China's food economy in the early 21st Century; Development of China's food economy and its impact on global trade and on the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, van F.W.; Huang, J.

    2004-01-01

    Development of Chinese food economy and Chinese agricultural policies. Simulations of future developments in China and in global trade with a model for the Chinese food economy and a model for global trade analysis. Simulation of developments in a 'business as usual' scenario. Assesment of impacts

  14. A letter by the Regional Editor for Oceania: China and wine: Its impact on the global wine trade

    OpenAIRE

    Larry Lockshin

    2014-01-01

    China׳s growing wine consumption is having a major effect on the global trade in wine. Growing awareness and consumption of grape-based wine in China has moved from a small number of very wealthy and often older buyers to an increasing number of younger, middle-class consumers. In this editorial, I will explore some of the effects I think this growing market is having on the wine trade and how this shapes the future research agenda for wine business related to China.

  15. Global economic trade-offs between wild nature and tropical agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Luis R; Webb, Edward L; Symes, William S; Koh, Lian P; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2017-07-01

    Global demands for agricultural and forestry products provide economic incentives for deforestation across the tropics. Much of this deforestation occurs with a lack of information on the spatial distribution of benefits and costs of deforestation. To inform global sustainable land-use policies, we combine geographic information systems (GIS) with a meta-analysis of ecosystem services (ES) studies to perform a spatially explicit analysis of the trade-offs between agricultural benefits, carbon emissions, and losses of multiple ecosystem services because of tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012. Even though the value of ecosystem services presents large inherent uncertainties, we find a pattern supporting the argument that the externalities of destroying tropical forests are greater than the current direct economic benefits derived from agriculture in all cases bar one: when yield and rent potentials of high-value crops could be realized in the future. Our analysis identifies the Atlantic Forest, areas around the Gulf of Guinea, and Thailand as areas where agricultural conversion appears economically efficient, indicating a major impediment to the long-term financial sustainability of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) schemes in those countries. By contrast, Latin America, insular Southeast Asia, and Madagascar present areas with low agricultural rents (ARs) and high values in carbon stocks and ES, suggesting that they are economically viable conservation targets. Our study helps identify optimal areas for conservation and agriculture together with their associated uncertainties, which could enhance the efficiency and sustainability of pantropical land-use policies and help direct future research efforts.

  16. Effects of nitrogen application rates on net annual global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in double-rice cropping systems of the Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongdu; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Hailin; Liu, Shengli

    2016-12-01

    The net global warming potential (NGWP) and net greenhouse gas intensity (NGHGI) of double-rice cropping systems are not well documented. We measured the NGWP and NGHGI including soil organic carbon (SOC) change and indirect emissions (IE) from double-crop rice fields with fertilizing systems in Southern China. These experiments with three different nitrogen (N) application rates since 2012 are as follows: 165 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 225 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N1), which was the local N application rates as the control; 135 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 180 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N2, 20 % reduction); and 105 kgN ha -1 for early rice and 135 kgN ha -1 for late rice (N3, 40 % reduction). Results showed that yields increased with the increase of N application rate, but without significant difference between N1 and N2 plots. Annual SOC sequestration rate under N1 was estimated to be 1.15 MgC ha -1  year -1 , which was higher than those under other fertilizing systems. Higher N application tended to increase CH 4 emissions during the flooded rice season and significantly increased N 2 O emissions from drained soils during the nonrice season, ranking as N1 > N2 > N3 with significant difference (P < 0.05). Two-year average IE has a huge contribution to GHG emissions mainly coming from the higher N inputs in the double-rice cropping system. Reducing N fertilizer usage can effectively decrease the NGWP and NGHGI in the double-rice cropping system, with the lowest NGHGI obtained in the N2 plot (0.99 kg CO 2 -eq kg -1 yield year -1 ). The results suggested that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be simultaneously achieved by properly reducing N fertilizer application in double-rice cropping systems.

  17. "Globalization and the Changing Trade Debate: Suggestions for a New Agenda"

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas I. Palley

    2007-01-01

    The failure of the Doha Development Round of World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations in July 2006 was the first major collapse of a multilateral trade round since World War II. Research Associate Thomas I. Palley sees the failure as an event that could mark the close of a 60-year era of trade policy largely centered on increasing market access and reducing tariffs, quotas, and subsidies. Doha’s demise represents an opportunity to challenge the intellectual dominance of the current WTO par...

  18. The role of global trade and transport network topology in the human-mediated dispersal of alien species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Natalie Clare; Paini, Dean Ronald; Bayliss, Kirsty Louise; Hodda, Michael

    2015-02-01

    More people and goods are moving further and more frequently via many different trade and transport networks under current trends of globalisation. These networks can play a major role in the unintended introduction of exotic species to new locations. With the continuing rise in global trade, more research attention is being focused on the role of networks in the spread of invasive species. This represents an emerging field of research in invasion science and the substantial knowledge being generated within other disciplines can provide ecologists with new tools with which to study invasions. For the first time, we synthesise studies from several perspectives, approaches and disciplines to derive the fundamental characteristics of network topology determining the likelihood of spread of organisms via trade and transport networks. These characteristics can be used to identify critical points of vulnerability within these networks and enable the development of more effective strategies to prevent invasions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Neoliberalism and global capital mobility: a necessary reconsideration of textbook trade theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUNIBERT RAFFER

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Textbook theory ignores capital flows: trade determines exchange rates and specialisation. Approaches taking the effects of capital movements adequately into account are needed, and a new theory of economic policy including measures to protect the real economy from external volatility. Equilibrating textbook mechanisms cannot work unless trade-caused surpluses and deficits set exchange rates. To allow orthodox trade theory to work one must hinder capital flows from destroying its very basis, which the IMF and wrong regulatory decisions have done, penalising production and trade. A new, real economy based theory is proposed, a Neoclassical agenda of controlling capital flows and speculation.

  20. Trade law and alcohol regulation: what role for a global Alcohol Marketing Code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew D; Casben, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Following calls for restrictions and bans on alcohol advertising, and in light of the tobacco industry's challenge to Australia's tobacco plain packaging measure, a tobacco control measure finding support in the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, this paper considers what role, if any, an international alcohol marketing code might have in preventing or reducing the risk of challenges to domestic alcohol marketing restrictions under trade rules. Narrative review of international trade and health instruments and international trade court judgements regarding alcohol products and marketing restrictions. The experience of European trade courts in the litigation of similar measures suggests that World Trade Organization rules have sufficient flexibility to support the implementation of alcohol marketing restrictions. However, the experience also highlights the possibility that public health measures have disproportionate and unjustifiable trade effects and that the ability of a public health measure to withstand a challenge under trade rules will turn on its particular design and implementation. Measures implemented pursuant to international public health instruments are not immune to trade law challenges. Close collaboration between health policymakers, trade officials and lawyers, from as early as the research stage in the development of a measure to ensure a robust evidence base, will ensure the best chance of regulatory survival for an international marketing code. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Accounting for sampling patterns reverses the relative importance of trade and climate for the global sharing of exotic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Helen R.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2017-01-01

    AimThe distributions of exotic species reflect patterns of human-mediated dispersal, species climatic tolerances and a suite of other biotic and abiotic factors. The relative importance of each of these factors will shape how the spread of exotic species is affected by ongoing economic globalization and climate change. However, patterns of trade may be correlated with variation in scientific sampling effort globally, potentially confounding studies that do not account for sampling patterns.LocationGlobal.Time periodMuseum records, generally from the 1800s up to 2015.Major taxa studiedPlant species exotic to the United States.MethodsWe used data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) to summarize the number of plant species with exotic occurrences in the United States that also occur in each other country world-wide. We assessed the relative importance of trade and climatic similarity for explaining variation in the number of shared species while evaluating several methods to account for variation in sampling effort among countries.ResultsAccounting for variation in sampling effort reversed the relative importance of trade and climate for explaining numbers of shared species. Trade was strongly correlated with numbers of shared U.S. exotic plants between the United States and other countries before, but not after, accounting for sampling variation among countries. Conversely, accounting for sampling effort strengthened the relationship between climatic similarity and species sharing. Using the number of records as a measure of sampling effort provided a straightforward approach for the analysis of occurrence data, whereas species richness estimators and rarefaction were less effective at removing sampling bias.Main conclusionsOur work provides support for broad-scale climatic limitation on the distributions of exotic species, illustrates the need to account for variation in sampling effort in large biodiversity databases, and highlights the

  2. Global Trade Alert (GTA) - Phase II: Year 2 - Monitoring and Analysis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Trade data provided by the major international institutions such as the United Nations (UN) ... are not only ponderous and slow to appear, but also focus on traditional border tax ... Building on inputs supplied by regional institutional partners and ... High-level Dialogue on Trade Agreements, Competition and Development.

  3. Nitrogen use in the global food system: past trends and future trajectories of agronomic performance, pollution, trade, and dietary demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassaletta, Luis; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Bouwman, Lex; Velazquez, Eduardo; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Gerber, James S.

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) limits crop and grass production, and it is an essential component of dietary proteins. However, N is mobile in the soil-plant system and can be lost to the environment. Estimates of N flows provide a critical tool for understanding and improving the sustainability and equity of the global food system. This letter describes an integrated analysis of changes in N in human diets, N use efficiency (NUE) of cropping and livestock systems, N pollution and N in traded food and feed products for 12 world regions for the period 1960-2050. The largest absolute change in consumption of animal proteins during the period 1960-2009 is seen in China, while the largest share of animal protein per capita is currently observed in North America, Europe and Oceania. Due to the substantial growth of the livestock sector, about three quarters of contemporary global crop production (expressed in protein and including fodder crops and bioenergy byproducts) is allocated to livestock. Trends and levels of NUE and N surpluses in crop production are also diverse, as some regions show soil N depletion (developing regions, e.g. Africa), improving efficiency (industrialized regions, e.g. USA and Europe) and excessive N use (e.g. China, India). Global trade between the 12 regions has increased by a factor of 7.5 for vegetable proteins and by a factor of 10 for animal proteins. The scenarios for 2050 demonstrate that it would be possible to feed the global population in 2050 with moderate animal protein consumption but with much less N pollution, and less international trade than today. In such a scenario, optimal allocation of N inputs among regions to maximize NUE would further decrease pollution, but would require increased levels of N trade comparable to those in a BAU scenario.

  4. Emissions embodied in global trade have plateaued due to structural changes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Li, Shantong; Zhou, Dequn; Zhou, Peng

    2017-09-01

    In the 2000s, the rapid growth of CO2 emitted in the production of exports from developing to developed countries, in which China accounted for the dominant share, led to concerns that climate polices had been undermined by international trade. Arguments on "carbon leakage" and "competitiveness"—which led to the refusal of the U.S. to ratify the Kyoto Protocol—put pressure on developing countries, especially China, to limit their emissions with Border Carbon Adjustments used as one threat. After strong growth in the early 2000s, emissions exported from developing to developed countries plateaued and could have even decreased since 2007. These changes were mainly due to China: In 2002-2007, China's exported emissions grew by 827 MtCO2, amounting to almost all the 892 MtCO2 total increase in emissions exported from developing to developed countries, while in 2007-2012, emissions exported from China decreased by 229 MtCO2, contributing to the total decrease of 172 MtCO2 exported from developing to developed countries. We apply Structural Decomposition Analysis to find that, in addition to the diminishing effects of the global financial crisis, the slowdown and eventual plateau was largely explained by several potentially permanent changes in China: Decline in export volume growth, improvements in CO2 intensity, and changes in production structure and the mix of exported products. We argue that growth in China's exported emissions will not return to the high levels during the 2000s, therefore the arguments for climate polices focused on embodied emissions such as Border Carbon Adjustments are now weakened.

  5. Assessing the evolving fragility of the global food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Michael J.; Bose, Satyajit; Chon, So Young; Cook, Benjamin I.

    2015-02-01

    The world food crisis in 2008 highlighted the susceptibility of the global food system to price shocks. Here we use annual staple food production and trade data from 1992-2009 to analyse the changing properties of the global food system. Over the 18 year study period, we show that the global food system is relatively homogeneous (85% of countries have low or marginal food self-sufficiency) and increases in complexity, with the number of global wheat and rice trade connections doubling and trade flows increasing by 42 and 90%, respectively. The increased connectivity and flows within these global trade networks suggest that the global food system is vulnerable to systemic disruptions, especially considering the tendency for exporting countries to switch to non-exporting states during times of food scarcity in the global markets. To test this hypothesis, we superimpose continental-scale disruptions on the wheat and rice trade networks. We find greater absolute reductions in global wheat and rice exports along with larger losses in network connectivity as the networks evolve due to disruptions in European wheat and Asian rice production. Importantly, our findings indicate that least developed countries suffer greater import losses in more connected networks through their increased dependence on imports for staple foods (due to these large-scale disturbances): mean (median) wheat losses as percentages of staple food supply are 8.9% (3.8%) for 1992-1996, increasing to 11% (5.7%) for 2005-2009. Over the same intervals, rice losses increase from 8.2% (2.2%) to 14% (5.2%). Our work indicates that policy efforts should focus on balancing the efficiency of international trade (and its associated specialization) with increased resilience of domestic production and global demand diversity.

  6. Assessing the evolving fragility of the global food system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puma, Michael J; Bose, Satyajit; Chon, So Young; Cook, Benjamin I

    2015-01-01

    The world food crisis in 2008 highlighted the susceptibility of the global food system to price shocks. Here we use annual staple food production and trade data from 1992–2009 to analyse the changing properties of the global food system. Over the 18 year study period, we show that the global food system is relatively homogeneous (85% of countries have low or marginal food self-sufficiency) and increases in complexity, with the number of global wheat and rice trade connections doubling and trade flows increasing by 42 and 90%, respectively. The increased connectivity and flows within these global trade networks suggest that the global food system is vulnerable to systemic disruptions, especially considering the tendency for exporting countries to switch to non-exporting states during times of food scarcity in the global markets. To test this hypothesis, we superimpose continental-scale disruptions on the wheat and rice trade networks. We find greater absolute reductions in global wheat and rice exports along with larger losses in network connectivity as the networks evolve due to disruptions in European wheat and Asian rice production. Importantly, our findings indicate that least developed countries suffer greater import losses in more connected networks through their increased dependence on imports for staple foods (due to these large-scale disturbances): mean (median) wheat losses as percentages of staple food supply are 8.9% (3.8%) for 1992–1996, increasing to 11% (5.7%) for 2005–2009. Over the same intervals, rice losses increase from 8.2% (2.2%) to 14% (5.2%). Our work indicates that policy efforts should focus on balancing the efficiency of international trade (and its associated specialization) with increased resilience of domestic production and global demand diversity. (letter)

  7. Assessing the Evolving Fragility of the Global Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Michael Joseph; Bose, Satyajit; Chon, So Young; Cook, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    The world food crisis in 2008 highlighted the susceptibility of the global food system to price shocks. Here we use annual staple food production and trade data from 1992-2009 to analyse the changing properties of the global food system. Over the 18-year study period, we show that the global food system is relatively homogeneous (85 of countries have low or marginal food self-sufficiency) and increases in complexity, with the number of global wheat and rice trade connections doubling and trade flows increasing by 42 and 90, respectively. The increased connectivity and flows within these global trade networks suggest that the global food system is vulnerable to systemic disruptions, especially considering the tendency for exporting countries to switch to non-exporting states during times of food scarcity in the global markets. To test this hypothesis, we superimpose continental-scale disruptions on the wheat and rice trade networks. We find greater absolute reductions in global wheat and rice exports along with larger losses in network connectivity as the networks evolve due to disruptions in European wheat and Asian rice production. Importantly, our findings indicate that least developed countries suffer greater import losses in more connected networks through their increased dependence on imports for staple foods (due to these large-scale disturbances): mean (median) wheat losses as percentages of staple food supply are 8.9 (3.8) for 1992-1996, increasing to 11 (5.7) for 20052009. Over the same intervals, rice losses increase from 8.2 (2.2) to 14 (5.2). Our work indicates that policy efforts should focus on balancing the efficiency of international trade (and its associated specialization) with increased resilience of domestic production and global demand diversity.

  8. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  9. Virtual CO2 Emission Flows in the Global Electricity Trade Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shen; Li, Yun; Liang, Sai; Yuan, Jiahai; Xu, Ming

    2018-05-14

    Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions due to electricity consumption is crucial for climate mitigation in the electric power sector. Current practices primarily use production-based emission factors to quantify emissions for electricity consumption, assuming production and consumption of electricity take place within the same region. The increasingly intensified cross-border electricity trade complicates the accounting for emissions of electricity consumption. This study employs a network approach to account for the flows in the whole electricity trade network to estimate CO 2 emissions of electricity consumption for 137 major countries/regions in 2014. Results show that in some countries, especially those in Europe and Southern Africa, the impacts of electricity trade on the estimation of emission factors and embodied emissions are significant. The changes made to emission factors by considering intergrid electricity trade can have significant implications for emission accounting and climate mitigation when multiplied by total electricity consumption of the corresponding countries/regions.

  10. Global trade in environmental goods and services Performance and Challenges of Mexican Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Lara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the environmental industries of Mexico and the United States Within the framework of the North American Free Trade NAFTA, where Mexican industry lags behind lack of funds due to recurring economic crises. Should this situation not be overcome, the benefits of foreign trade for the Mexican environmental industry will remain low.

  11. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko

    2015-12-23

    Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis-eQTLs. Expression

  12. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searles Andrew

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora, it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'. It remains uncertain what sort of impacts – if any – the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA' will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC'-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent animportant precedent in a global strategy by industry oncost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also beof great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions.

  13. The rice fields around the estuaries of the Tejo and Sado are a critical stopover area for the globally near-threatened Black-tailed Godwit Limosa l. limosa : Site description, international importance and conservation proposals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenço, Pedro M.; Groen, Niko; Hooijmeijer, Jos C.E.W.; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-01-01

    Rice fields are a globally important habitat for waterbirds. Portugal is one of the main rice producers in Europe, but little is known about how these rizicultures are used by the avifauna. The continental Black-tailed Godwit Limosa l. limosa is likely the most important avian population using

  14. Assessing a moderating effect and the global fit of a PLS model on online trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. García-Machado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a PLS Model for the study of Online Trading. Traditional investing has experienced a revolution due to the rise of e-trading services that enable investors to use Internet conduct secure trading. On the hand, model results show that there is a positive, direct and statistically significant relationship between personal outcome expectations, perceived relative advantage, shared vision and economy-based trust with the quality of knowledge. On the other hand, trading frequency and portfolio performance has also this relationship. After including the investor’s income and financial wealth (IFW as moderating effect, the PLS model was enhanced, and we found that the interaction term is negative and statistically significant, so, higher IFW levels entail a weaker relationship between trading frequency and portfolio performance and vice-versa. Finally, with regard to the goodness of overall model fit measures, they showed that the model is fit for SRMR and dG measures, so it is likely that the model is true.

  15. The role of plant functional trade-offs for biodiversity changes and biome shifts under scenarios of global climatic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Reu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The global geographic distribution of biodiversity and biomes is determined by species-specific physiological tolerances to climatic constraints. Current vegetation models employ empirical bioclimatic relationships to predict present-day vegetation patterns and to forecast biodiversity changes and biome shifts under climatic change. In this paper, we consider trade-offs in plant functioning and their responses under climatic changes to forecast and explain changes in plant functional richness and shifts in biome geographic distributions.

    The Jena Diversity model (JeDi simulates plant survival according to essential plant functional trade-offs, including ecophysiological processes such as water uptake, photosynthesis, allocation, reproduction and phenology. We use JeDi to quantify changes in plant functional richness and biome shifts between present-day and a range of possible future climates from two SRES emission scenarios (A2 and B1 and seven global climate models using metrics of plant functional richness and functional identity.

    Our results show (i a significant loss of plant functional richness in the tropics, (ii an increase in plant functional richness at mid and high latitudes, and (iii a pole-ward shift of biomes. While these results are consistent with the findings of empirical approaches, we are able to explain them in terms of the plant functional trade-offs involved in the allocation, metabolic and reproduction strategies of plants. We conclude that general aspects of plant physiological tolerances can be derived from functional trade-offs, which may provide a useful process- and trait-based alternative to bioclimatic relationships. Such a mechanistic approach may be particularly relevant when addressing vegetation responses to climatic changes that encounter novel combinations of climate parameters that do not exist under contemporary climate.

  16. Mexico into the globalization: Nuevo Leon, the safe border for international trade program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barragan, J.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The presentation of this research paper in the 10th annual Conference of the Western Hemispheric Development in the University of Texas A&M in Laredo Texas, (April 23-25, 2005 brought a great opportunity to reflect the efforts of a region in the north of Mexico for the world’s peace and security inside the International trade with the gowth factors important for any and all nations. In this investigation the combined efforts of USA and Mexico are shown to protect the International Trade against the acts of terrorism and smuggling of illegal drugs which constantly try to infiltrate their illicit activities, delivering a great damage to companies that carry out activities of international trade. Relevant conclusions are presented at the end of the paper.

  17. Global Invasion History of the Tropical Fire Ant, Solenopsis geminata: A Stowaway on the First Global Trade Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological invasions are largely thought to be contemporary, having recently increased sharply in the wake of globalization. However, human commerce had already become global in scope by the mid-16th century, when the Spanish connected the New World with Europe and Asia via their Manila galleon and ...

  18. Capacity building program: Framework of Standards to secure and facilitate Global Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koech, H K [Program Manager CBP/DHS Office Number 363-6109 Cell Number 0722-774-912, Office Location: Ground Floor U.S. Embassy Nairobi (Kenya)

    2010-07-01

    Effective implementation of capacity building program in Kenya will result in maximum protection against terrorist activity/counter terrorism worldwide due to countries meeting the requirements of the program via safety and security measures at land borders, seaports, and airports. It will also result in enforcement of illegal trade pertaining to terrorist financing, money laundering, trade fraud, strategic cases including weapons of mass destruction, child pornography, intellectual property rights, document fraud, alien smuggling, drug smuggling, and general smuggling. It will also facilitate legitimate commerce.

  19. Capacity building program: Framework of Standards to secure and facilitate Global Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koech, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    Effective implementation of capacity building program in Kenya will result in maximum protection against terrorist activity/counter terrorism worldwide due to countries meeting the requirements of the program via safety and security measures at land borders, seaports, and airports. It will also result in enforcement of illegal trade pertaining to terrorist financing, money laundering, trade fraud, strategic cases including weapons of mass destruction, child pornography, intellectual property rights, document fraud, alien smuggling, drug smuggling, and general smuggling. It will also facilitate legitimate commerce.

  20. Globalization and international trade in the twenty-first century: opportunities for and threats to the health sector in the south.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, E; McLeod, K

    2000-01-01

    Globalization and international trade are important forces at the turn of the century. This article explores how freer international trade will affect developing countries that are net importers of health care goods and services. Four commodities are used as special cases for discussion: pharmaceuticals, health care technologies, pesticides, and tobacco and its related products. The authors discuss the role of international specialized agencies, such as the World Trade Organization, World Health Organization, and World Bank, that are concerned with international trade and its health and health care consequences, and argue that closer collaboration is required among these agencies if the negative effects of trade liberalization on developing countries are to be mitigated. The authors pose a number of research questions that could help in developing proactive policies for the South on the trade of goods and services with harmful effects on health as well as those with potential health and economic benefits.

  1. Flora, life form characteristics, and plan for the promotion of biodiversity in South Korea's Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System, the traditional Gudeuljang irrigated rice terraces in Cheongsando

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Chul PARK; Choong Hyeon OH

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the biodiversity of the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces in Cheongsando,South Korea's representative GIAHS (Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System) site,with reference to position and land-use features,and to develop a plan to promote agricultural biodiversity in the region.We confirmed approximately 54,000 m2 of Gudeuljang paddy fields by an on-site survey.Of the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces confirmed by onsite inspection,our survey showed that approximately 24,000 m2 are currently being used as paddy fields,approximately 15,000 m2 are being used as dry fields,and approximately 14,000 m2 are fallow.In terms of other non-agricultural land use,there was grassland,including graveyards;artificial arboreal land,such as orchards,rivers and wetlands,and man-made facilities,such as roads and residences.We also confirmed that the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces had higher plant species diversity than conventional terraced rice paddies,and there was a difference in life form characteristics between the two types.Although the superficial topsoil structure is the same for the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces (TGIRTs) and conventional terraced rice paddies,it is thought that the differences in the subsurface structure of the TGIRTs contribute greatly to species and habitat diversity.However,the TGIRTs in Cheongsando are facing degeneration,due to damage and reduction in agricultural activity.The main cause is the reduction in the number of farming households due to an aging population in Cheongsando.In order to address this problem,we proposed a management plan,related to fallow paddy fields in South Korea,to initiate voluntary activities in the TGIRTs.

  2. The limits of a success story: Fair trade and the history of postcolonial globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, P.

    2015-01-01

    The history of fair trade is the matter of a heated debate wrapped up in differences regarding the ideals, goals and allies of a movement which has achieved highly visible successes in recent years. The emerging historiography challenges the common narrative of recent and sudden success. It draws

  3. Globalization, increasing returns in component production, and the pattern of trade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovaříková Arro, Anu

    -, č. 265 (2005), s. 1-52 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : monopolistic competition * external and internal economies of scale * trade across the stages of production Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp265.pdf

  4. The Lexus or the olive tree? Trading off between global convergence and local divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Koert; Wong, Nancy

    To operate effectively in global markets, marketing managers need to understand that consumer response to globalization may be more complex than is commonly assumed. We examine a proposed conceptual framework to describe consumers' responses to globalization through a cross-national survey on

  5. Slave trading and slavery in the Dutch colonial empire: A global comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik van Welie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Compares slave trading and slavery in the Dutch colonial empire, specifically between the former trading and territorial domains of the West India Company (WIC, the Americas and West Africa, and of the East India Company (VOC, South East Asia, the Indian Ocean region, and South and East Africa. Author presents the latest quantitative assessments concerning the Dutch transatlantic as well as Indian Ocean World slave trade, placing the volume, direction, and characteristics of the forced migration in a historical context. He describes how overall the Dutch were a second-rate player in Atlantic slavery, though in certain periods more important, with according to recent estimates a total of about 554.300 slaves being transported by the Dutch to the Americas. He indicates that while transatlantic slave trade and slavery received much scholarly attention resulting in detailed knowledge, the slave trade and slavery in the Indian Ocean World by the Dutch is comparatively underresearched. Based on demand-side estimates throughout Dutch colonies of the Indonesian archipelago and elsewhere, he deduces that probably close to 500.000 slaves were transported by the Dutch in the Indian Ocean World. In addition, the author points at important differences between the nature and contexts of slavery, as in the VOC domains slavery was mostly of an urban and domestic character, contrary to its production base in the Americas. Slavery further did in the VOC areas not have a rigid racial identification like in WIC areas, with continuing, postslavery effects, and allowed for more flexibility, while unlike the plantation colonies in the Caribbean, as Suriname, not imported slaves but indigenous peoples formed the majority. He also points at relative exceptions, e.g. imported slaves for production use in some VOC territories, as the Banda islands and the Cape colony, and a certain domestic and urban focus of slavery in Curaçao.

  6. Canada and Associate Membership in the Pacific Alliance: An Important Part of a Global Trade Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Stephens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable coverage lately of Canada’s ongoing efforts to secure preferential access to overseas markets in Asia, while trying to save NAFTA and promote its “progressive” trade agenda. The “progressive” trade agenda hit a few recent road bumps, first in Vietnam in November when a planned announcement of an “agreement in principle” on the “TPP 11 Agreement” was postponed at the last minute, and in December in Beijing when Chinese authorities balked at including additional “progressive” chapters in a free trade agreement, the negotiation of which many expected would be announced during Mr. Trudeau’s visit. Although a breakthrough on the TPP11, now known as the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership, was announced on January 23, NAFTA negotiations continue to be difficult. One area that has been overlooked in all the coverage of recent events, and which holds potential for advancing Canadian trade interests in both Latin America and the Asia Pacific, is the Pacific Alliance and Canada’s pursuit of associate member status. The PA trade pact, comprising Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, is currently in the process of discussing with several countries, including Canada, the possibility of becoming “associate members.” Associate member status is novel, thus it is not clear what precisely it will entail or when it will come into effect. However, the possibility of Canada moving from its current "observer" status to becoming a more active part of the PA (or possibly an expanded version of the Alliance, offers significant benefit for Canada. For all the focus on the TPP and the NAFTA renegotiations, not to mention Canada’s recently concluded economic partnership agreement with the EU and potential free-trade negotiations with China, very little attention has been paid in Canada to the developments with the PA. And yet, this is one trade bloc that holds some of the greatest promise for

  7. Mitigating global warming potentials of methane and nitrous oxide gases from rice paddies under different irrigation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Hoque, M Anamul; Kim, Pil Joo

    2013-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Bangladesh Agricultural University Farm to investigate the mitigating effects of soil amendments such as calcium carbide, calcium silicate, phosphogypsum, and biochar with urea fertilizer on global warming potentials (GWPs) of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases during rice cultivation under continuous and intermittent irrigations. Among the amendments phosphogypsum and silicate fertilizer, being potential source of electron acceptors, decreased maximum level of seasonal CH4 flux by 25-27 % and 32-38 % in continuous and intermittent irrigations, respectively. Biochar and calcium carbide amendments, acting as nitrification inhibitors, decreased N2O emissions by 36-40 % and 26-30 % under continuous and intermittent irrigations, respectively. The total GWP of CH4 and N2O gases were decreased by 7-27 % and 6-34 % with calcium carbide, phosphogypsum, and silicate fertilizer amendments under continuous and intermittent irrigations, respectively. However, biochar amendments increased overall GWP of CH4 and N2O gases.

  8. National and International Inequalities in Income and Wealth in a Global Growth with Free Trade and National Inflation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI-BIN ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study global monetary economic growth with heterogeneous households under free trade. The paper examines dynamics of global and national wealth and income distribution in association with monetary economic growth within an integrated framework. Money is introduced via the cash-in-advance (CIA approach. We show that the dynamics of the world economy (with any number of countries is described by a set of differential equations. We simulate equilibrium of the global economy with three countries and two types of households in each country. We also demonstrate effects of changes in technology and inflation policy. Our model demonstrates, as Grier and Grier (2007 empirically show, that the global economy exhibits absolute divergence in output levels if some determinants of steady state income are different. The study shows that as one country increases its inflation policy, the equilibrium values of the global output, consumption level and physical wealth are enhanced, and the rate of interest is lowered. The country which raises its inflation policy benefits in every aspect, but the other countries suffer in some aspects and benefit in others.

  9. Current subsidies in the agricultural sector of the global trade system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Voronina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the provisions of the WTO agreements regulating the use of subsidies in the agricultural sector by the member-states. It analyzes current practices of the WTO member-states’ in subsidizing their agricultural production. It also outlines the main trends in improving the practices of subsidizing agricultural producers in the leading countries of the world. The article also describes the major coalitions within the WTO that actively participate in the development and improvement of international trade rules in agricultural produce. In the current context whereby Ukraine seeks WTO accession, the structure of domestic measures in support of agriculture pursuant to the requirements of this international organization is given special attention. The article also considers the prospects for further liberalization of international trade in agricultural produce.

  10. Tracking global carbon revenues: A survey of carbon taxes versus cap-and-trade in the real world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, Jeremy; Fedor, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the current use of public revenues which are generated through both carbon taxes and cap-and-trade systems. More than $28.3 billion in government “carbon revenues” are currently collected each year in 40 countries and another 16 states or provinces around the world. Of those revenues, 27% ($7.8 billion) are used to subsidize “green” spending in energy efficiency or renewable energy; 26% ($7.4 billion) go toward state general funds; and 36% ($10.1 billion) are returned to corporate or individual taxpayers through paired tax cuts or direct rebates. Cap-and-trade systems ($6.57 billion in total public revenue) earmark a larger share of revenues for “green” spending (70%), while carbon tax systems ($21.7 billion) more commonly refund revenues or otherwise direct them towards government general funds (72% of revenues). Drawing from an empirical dataset, we also identify various trends in systems’ use of “carbon revenues” in terms of the total revenues collected annually per capita in each jurisdiction and offer commensurate qualitative observations on carbon policy design choices. - Highlights: •We analyze public revenue generated from global carbon tax and cap-and-trade systems. •70% of cap-and-trade revenues ($4.60 billion) are earmarked for “green spending”. •72% of carbon tax revenues ($15.6 billion) are refunded or used in general funds. •Revenues per capita vary widely and are a useful qualitative explanatory variable.

  11. Results of a Global Survey on International Biomass Trade for Energy: Opportunities, Risks and Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pelkmans, L.; Van Dael, Miet; Del Campo, I.; Sanchez, D.; Rutz, D.; Janssen, R.; Junginger, M.; Mai-Moulin, T.; Iriarte, L.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Elbersen, B.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Elbersen, W.

    2016-01-01

    European targets set by 2020 in the Climate and Energy package and the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) will require a serious increase in biomass demand for energy purposes. The analysis of the data reported by the Member States in their National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAP) shows that biomass is expected to contribute more than half of the 20% renewable objective of the gross final energy consumption. However the data provided and trade statistics have revealed that the quan...

  12. Global trade will accelerate plant invasions in emerging economies under climate change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seebens, H.; Essl, F.; Dawson, W.; Fuentes, N.; Moser, D.; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; van Kleunen, M.; Weber, E.; Winter, M.; Blasius, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 11 (2015), s. 4128-4140 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * climate change * trade Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 8.444, year: 2015

  13. China’s Role at Global and Regional Levels from the Perspective of Trade and FDI Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Șincai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration its economic scale and growth potential, we can assert that China represents a regional as well a global player. Gradually, its growth model centred on exports becomes one based on innovation in which exports have a complementary role. Our objective is to reflect China’s role in the field of trade and FDI at regional and global level as well as its transformation into an economy centred on innovation. Following this rationale, the present paper is structured around four main sections, as follows. First, we bring to the forefront the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the Chinese economy and on two of its growth engines: the internal demand and exports. Second, we present China’s trade in goods as one of the main engines of its economic growth. Third, we demonstrate that China represents the linkage between the Eastern, Southern and South-Eastern Asian countries through FDI flows. Fourth, we reflect how China becomes gradually an economy centred on innovation.

  14. Globalisation and global trade influence molecular viral population genetics of Torque Teno Sus Viruses 1 and 2 in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortey, Martí; Pileri, Emanuela; Segalés, Joaquim; Kekarainen, Tuija

    2012-04-23

    Globalisation, in terms of the rapid and free movement of people, animals and food, has created a new paradigm, increasing the range and rate of distribution of many pathogens. In the present study, Torque teno sus viruses (TTSuVs) have been used as a model to evaluate the effects of global trade on viral heterogeneity, and how the movement of live pigs can affect the distribution and composition of virus populations. Seventeen countries from different parts of the world have been screened for TTSuV1 and TTSuvV2. High levels of genetic diversity have been found as well as two new TTSuV subtypes. A small fraction of this diversity (50%) was best explained by the exchange of live pigs among countries, pointing to the direct relationship between the movement of hosts and the diversity of their accompanying viruses. Taking TTSuVs as sentinels, this study revealed that the distribution and diversity of comensal microflora in live animals subjected to global trade is shaped by the commercial movements among countries. In the case of TTSuVs, it appears that commercial movements of animals are eroding the genetic composition of the virus populations that may have been present in pig herds since their domestication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding the biological invasion risk posed by the global wildlife trade: propagule pressure drives the introduction and establishment of Nearctic turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díaz, Pablo; Ross, Joshua V; Ayres, César; Cassey, Phillip

    2015-03-01

    Biological invasions are a key component of human-induced global change. The continuing increase in global wildlife trade has raised concerns about the parallel increase in the number of new invasive species. However, the factors that link the wildlife trade to the biological invasion process are still poorly understood. Moreover, there are analytical challenges in researching the role of global wildlife trade in biological invasions, particularly issues related to the under-reporting of introduced and established populations in areas with reduced sampling effort. In this work, we use high-quality data on the international trade in Nearctic turtles (1999-2009) coupled with a statistical modelling framework, which explicitly accounts for detection, to investigate the factors that influence the introduction (release, or escape into the wild) of globally traded Nearctic turtles and the establishment success (self-sustaining exotic populations) of slider turtles (Trachemys scripta), the most frequently traded turtle species. We found that the introduction of a species was influenced by the total number of turtles exported to a jurisdiction and the age at maturity of the species, while the establishment success of slider turtles was best associated with the propagule number (number of release events), and the number of native turtles in the jurisdiction of introduction. These results indicate both a direct and indirect association between the wildlife trade and the introduction of turtles and establishment success of slider turtles, respectively. Our results highlight the existence of gaps in the number of globally recorded introduction events and established populations of slider turtles, although the expected bias is low. We emphasize the importance of researching independently the factors that affect the different stages of the invasion pathway. Critically, we observe that the number of traded individuals might not always be an adequate proxy for propagule pressure

  16. Global Reverse Supply Chain Redesign for Household Plastic Waste under the Emission Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.; Chabaane, A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing global resource scarcity, waste becomes a resource that can be managed globally. A reverse supply chain network for waste recycling needs to process all the waste with minimum costs and environmental impact. As re-processing of waste is one of the major sources of pollution in the

  17. Re-envisioning global agricultural trade: time for a paradigm shift to ensure food security and population health in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, Catherine M; Poliquin, Hélène; Sia, Drissa; Kouakou, Kouassi Joseph; Sagna, Tani

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary, we use examples from West Africa to highlight how the liberalization of global agricultural trade exacerbates population health inequalities by threatening the livelihoods and food security of communities in low-income settings. We highlight the exploitative nature of trade agreements with West African countries demonstrating how these agreements disincentivize local agricultural investment and take jobs away from small-scale farmers. Further, we link agricultural trade liberalization to increased food insecurity, malnutrition, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Finally, we propose a paradigm shift that advocates for food sovereignty and the right to food. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Impacts of integrated nutrient management on methane emission, global warming potential and carbon storage capacity in rice grown in a northeast India soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharali, Ashmita; Baruah, Kushal Kumar; Baruah, Sunitee Gohain; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2018-02-01

    Rice soil is a source of emission of two major greenhouse gases (methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O)) and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The effect of inorganic fertilizers in combination with various organics (cow dung, green manure (Sesbania aculeata) Azolla compost, rice husk) on CH 4 emission, global warming potential, and soil carbon storage along with crop productivity were studied at university farm under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design for 2 years in a monsoon rice (cv. Ranjit) ecosystem (June-November, 2014 and 2015). Combined application of inorganic (NPK) with Sesbania aculeata resulted in high global warming potential (GWP) of 887.4 kg CO 2 ha -1 and low GWP of 540.6 kg CO 2 ha -1 was recorded from inorganic fertilizer applied field. Irrespective of the type of organic amendments, flag leaf photosynthesis of the rice crop increased over NPK application (control). There was an increase in CH 4 emission from the organic amended fields compared to NPK alone. The combined application of NPK and Azolla compost was effective in the buildup of soil carbon (16.93 g kg -1 ) and capacity of soil carbon storage (28.1 Mg C ha -1 ) with high carbon efficiency ratio (16.9). Azolla compost application along with NPK recorded 15.66% higher CH 4 emission with 27.43% yield increment over control. Azolla compost application significantly enhanced carbon storage of soil and improved the yielding ability of grain (6.55 Mg ha -1 ) over other treatments.

  19. International Trade and Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  20. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Liam; Ross, Ian; Foster, John; Hankamer, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015) reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature 'well below 2°C' and to 'aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C'. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1) is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP), which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN), energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison). Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international 'pro-growth' strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve 'sustainable development' goals.

  1. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Wagner

    Full Text Available The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015 reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature 'well below 2°C' and to 'aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C'. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1 is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP, which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN, energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison. Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international 'pro-growth' strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve 'sustainable development' goals.

  2. The determinants of trade credit use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels; Kihanga, Ernest; Lensink, Robert; Lutz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Most small businesses in the developing economies suffer from a lack of access to formal external finance. One important alternative source of finance for these entrepreneurs is trade credit. Applying a unique data-set containing data on specific trade relations between rice wholesalers and rice

  3. 77 FR 25681 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... services related to compliance with customs' requirements; sales and marketing; export brokerage; foreign marketing and analysis; foreign market development; overseas advertising and promotion; rice and rice...: Consulting and trade strategy, converting harvest rice to marketable finished rice products via the drying...

  4. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  5. Ancestral origins and invasion pathways in a globally invasive bird correlate with climate and influences from bird trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hazel; Strubbe, Diederik; Tollington, Simon; Prys-Jones, Robert; Matthysen, Erik; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-08-01

    Invasive species present a major threat to global biodiversity. Understanding genetic patterns and evolutionary processes that reinforce successful establishment is paramount for elucidating mechanisms underlying biological invasions. Among birds, the ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri) is one of the most successful invasive species, established in over 35 countries. However, little is known about the evolutionary genetic origins of this species and what population genetic signatures tell us about patterns of invasion. We reveal the ancestral origins of populations across the invasive range and explore the potential influence of climate and propagule pressure from the pet trade on observed genetic patterns. Ring-necked parakeet samples representing the ancestral native range (n = 96) were collected from museum specimens, and modern samples from the invasive range (n = 855) were gathered from across Europe, Mauritius and Seychelles, and sequenced for two mitochondrial DNA markers comprising 868 bp of cytochrome b and control region, and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. Invasive populations comprise birds that originate predominantly from Pakistan and northern areas of India. Haplotypes associated with more northerly distribution limits in the ancestral native range were more prevalent in invasive populations in Europe, and the predominance of Asian haplotypes in Europe is consistent with the higher number of Asian birds transported by the pet trade outside the native range. Successful establishment of invasive species is likely to be underpinned by a combination of environmental and anthropogenic influences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A modified GHG intensity indicator: Toward a sustainable global economy based on a carbon border tax and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrahi Moghaddam, Reza; Farrahi Moghaddam, Fereydoun; Cheriet, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    It will be difficult to gain the agreement of all the actors on any proposal for climate change management, if universality and fairness are not considered. In this work, a universal measure of emissions to be applied at the international level is proposed, based on a modification of the Greenhouse Gas Intensity (GHG-INT) measure. It is hoped that the generality and low administrative cost of this measure, which we call the Modified Greenhouse Gas Intensity measure (MGHG-INT), will eliminate any need to classify nations. The core of the MGHG-INT is what we call the IHDI-adjusted Gross Domestic Product (IDHIGDP), based on the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). The IDHIGDP makes it possible to propose universal measures, such as MGHG-INT. We also propose a carbon border tax applicable at national borders, based on MGHG-INT and IDHIGDP. This carbon tax is supported by a proposed global Emissions Trading System (ETS). The proposed carbon tax is analyzed in a short-term scenario, where it is shown that it can result in a significant reduction in global emissions while keeping the economy growing at a positive rate. In addition to annual GHG emissions, cumulative GHG emissions over two decades are considered with almost the same results. - Highlights: ► An IHDI-adjusted GDP (IHDIGDP) is introduced to universally account the activities of nations. ► A modified GHG emission intensity (MGHG-INT) is introduced based on the IHDIGDP. ► Based on green and red scenarios, admissible emissions and RED percentage are introduced. ► The RED percentage is used to define a border carbon tax (BCT) and emission trading system. ► The MGHG-INT can provide a universal control on emissions while allowing high economical growth

  7. Sustainable supply chain governance systems: conditions for effective market based governance in global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, W.J.V.

    2010-01-01

    In this article I discuss the conceptualisation and existing empirical research on the creation of sustainable global product chains. This papers sets steps in moving from normative prescriptive approaches towards an empirical descriptive approach, comparing available research in various forms of

  8. Examining the resilience of national energy systems: Measurements of diversity in production-based and consumption-based electricity in the globalization of trade networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrazi, Ali; Sato, Masahiro; Yarime, Masaru; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Yu, Yadong; Kraines, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Energy is a critical component of achieving sustainable development. In addition to the three aspects of promoting access, renewables, and efficiency, the dimension of resilience in energy systems should also considered. The implementation of resilient energy systems requires a quantitative understanding of the socio-economic practices underlying such systems. Specifically, in line with the increasing globalization of trade, there remains a critical knowledge gap on the link between embodied energy in the production and consumption of traded goods. To bridge this knowledge gap, we investigate the resilience of global energy systems through an examination of a diversity measure of global embodied electricity trade based on multi-regional input-output (MRIO) networks. The significance of this research lies in its ability to utilize high resolution MRIO data sets in assessing the resilience of national energy systems. This research indicates that secure and responsible consumption requires the diversification of not only energy generation but also energy imports. This research will lay the ground for further research in the governance of resilience in global energy networks. - Highlights: • We examine the resilience of global embodied energy based on (MRIO) trade networks. • We propose a secure and responsible mode of thinking for national energy consumption. • Secure & responsible consumption requires diversity in energy generation and imports.

  9. How does trade-mediated technology transfer affect interregional and intersectoral competition? Exploring multi-sectoral effects in a global trade model

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Gouranga

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, all technology transfers are embodied in trade flows within a three-region, six-tradedcommodity version of the GTAP model. 4% Hicks-Neutral technical progress in heavy manufacturing in one region has uneven impacts on productivity elsewhere. Why? Destination regions’ ability to harness new technology depends on their absorptive capacity and on the structural congruence of the source and destination. Together with trade volume, these two factors determine the recipi...

  10. The new rules for global trade: certification of origin and quality for safety food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni Satiko Sato

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to describe and to analyze the new context of the global markets for foods, with focus in the certifications of origin and quality, used mechanisms to guarantee the safe, differentiated, traceable food and without frauds. The methodology is characterized as exploratory and descriptive and searched to deepen some excellent concepts on the economy of the quality to agriculture. The complexity of global market and the technology innovations in agriculture and food processing, make the consumer and origin of production so far. The asymmetries of information on the product had grown and increased the transaction costs and, a form to manage the chain productive was to create mechanisms of identification and reputation of the product.

  11. Global brand of the country in modern technologies of the trade and marketing activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Tsyhankova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article there have been studied the technologies of creation and measurement of country’s brand power. There was proved that the existing approach to formation of the international rating of countries’ brands needs methodological and organizational updating. There were suggested the priority-driven directions of positive image creation of Ukraine and formation of the brand-awareness in the format of global index determination of the national brand.

  12. Global trade and assisted reproductive technologies: regulatory challenges in international surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    International surrogacy is an increasingly common phenomenon and an important global health challenge. Legal rules are a key consideration for the participants in international surrogacy arrangements. In some cases the law can help to resolve the complex issues that arise in this context, but it is important to consider the role played by law in contributing to the complex conflicts that such arrangements can generate. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  13. The choice of emission trading to combat global warming. Lessons from an economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helioui, K.

    2004-06-01

    The Kyoto Protocol adopted Emission Trading (ET) to control world's greenhouse house gas emissions. However, the viability of this system is under question. This thesis assesses it potential sources of efficiency losses: transaction costs, market power, and dynamic distortions. We show that the last phenomenon is the most worrying. To what extent a control on domestic policies might reduce these distortions? The idea proves impracticable: too many uncertainties surround the relevant control parameters. Comparing quantity against price instruments, we propose a hybrid scheme, ET combined with an international carbon tax, as a compromise between economic efficiency and political acceptability. While ET remains relevant to initiate and enlarge a climate coalition, the introduction of an international carbon tax could, in a second stage, strengthen coordination performances: since it diminishes permit value, it would reduce dynamic distortions and facilitate an agreement on the allocation of future emission rights. Such a hybrid instrument may ensure the long term viability of ET and contribute to the revival of a renewed climate action. (author)

  14. 77 FR 58809 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 12-00005] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Colombia Rice Export Quota, Inc. (``COL-RICE'') (Application 12-00005). SUMMARY: On August 28, 2012, the U.S...

  15. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity as affected by different water management strategies in Chinese double rice-cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohong; Wang, Wei; Xie, Xiaoli; Yin, Chunmei; Hou, Haijun; Yan, Wende; Wang, Guangjun

    2018-01-15

    This study provides a complete account of global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in relation to a long-term water management experiment in Chinese double-rice cropping systems. The three strategies of water management comprised continuous (year-round) flooding (CF), flooding during the rice season but with drainage during the midseason and harvest time (F-D-F), and irrigation only for flooding during transplanting and the tillering stage (F-RF). The CH 4 and N 2 O fluxes were measured with the static chamber method. Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates were estimated based on the changes in the carbon stocks during 1998-2014. Longer periods of soil flooding led to increased CH 4 emissions, reduced N 2 O emissions, and enhanced SOC sequestration. The net GWPs were 22,497, 8,895, and 1,646 kg CO 2 -equivalent ha -1 yr -1 for the CF, F-D-F, and F-RF, respectively. The annual rice grain yields were comparable between the F-D-F and CF, but were reduced significantly (by 13%) in the F-RF. The GHGIs were 2.07, 0.87, and 0.18 kg CO 2 -equivalent kg -1 grain yr -1 for the CF, F-D-F, and F-RF, respectively. These results suggest that F-D-F could be used to maintain the grain yields and simultaneously mitigate the climatic impact of double rice-cropping systems.

  16. Global climate regulation and border adjustment mechanisms: the case of carbon importers inclusion in the european trading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    The creation of an inclusion mechanism applied to imports whose production process increases significantly the global climate risk is looked upon as a solution to a collective-action problem. Such a mechanism would provide those States that will sign the next United Nations Convention on Climate Change with a potential remedy if and when gaps between quantified objects, to which all are committed, entail significant competition distortions. Whether this mechanism assumes the form of an external carbon tax or consists in including importers in the European system of CO 2 quota exchanges, it would surely respond to the re-distributive need generated by global warming, provided that the proceeds are used to help bring industrial production in developing countries up to standard. These restrictive measures aimed at preserving the planet are probably compatible with the extraordinary regimes applied by the WTO, which already uses exogenous non-trade norms to arbitrate conflicts. This would validate further the legitimacy of authority transfers onto the WTO, whose scope of legal authority increases constantly, along with that of conflicts that stem from collective preferences. (author)

  17. The role of Latin America's land and water resources for global food security: environmental trade-offs of future food production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity's major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC's agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)-a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector-to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths.

  18. The Role of Latin America’s Land and Water Resources for Global Food Security: Environmental Trade-Offs of Future Food Production Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity’s major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC’s agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)—a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector—to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths. PMID:25617621

  19. The impact of global trends on Czech trade in agrarian and foodstuff products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Rosochatecká

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech retail market has changed its structure and form during the last twenty years. The influence of two factors is especially significant. The first one is the growth of internationalization and the second one is market concentration growth. The significant opening process of the Czech economy, accompanied by the liberalization of the Czech market process, enabled the international retail companies to penetrate the national retail market. The most powerful European retail companies are now present in the Czech market. The available shopping area/cap is also one of the largest in Europe. Retail chains have taken a dominant position in the market, and because of their market power they are able to determine trade/contract conditions for domestic suppliers. Retail chains’ sales have been constantly growing. While in 2006 the value of sales was about 258.5 billion CZK, in 2008 it was about 312.2 billion CZK. The impact of the economic crisis on the Czech retail market has not been as stressful as it was abroad. In 2009, a slowdown of the Czech retail market was recorded, but the value of sales decreased by only 3 billion CZK (in comparison with 2008. The highest sales (59 billion CZK were recorded by the Lidl & Schwarz-Gruppe, which is the owner of two dominant retail chains in the Czech retail market (Kaufland and Lidl. The main aim of the paper is to evaluate the selected aspects, which have been influencing the relationship between multinational companies (retail companies – supermarkets and hypermarkets and local (Czech suppliers of agrarian and foodstuff products (farmers and foodstuff companies. The paper analyses the problem of abuse of multinational companies’ significant market power in relation to their suppliers. Based on a pilot project, the efficiency of market force law, and its use in practice, are analysed. The main idea is to analyse the following problems: the impact of 30 days payment period for goods delivered, under

  20. Black Rice (Oryza sativa L., Poaceae) Extract Reduces Hippocampal Neuronal Cell Death Induced by Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun-Nyoung; Kim, Jae-Cheon; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Iqbal Hossain; Kim, Joo Youn; Yang, Ji Seon; Yoon, Shin Hee; Yoon, Kee Dong; Kim, Seong Yun

    2018-04-01

    Rice is the most commonly consumed grain in the world. Black rice has been suggested to contain various bioactive compounds including anthocyanin antioxidants. There is currently little information about the nutritional benefits of black rice on brain pathology. Here, we investigated the effects of black rice ( Oryza sativa L ., Poaceae) extract (BRE) on the hippocampal neuronal damage induced by ischemic insult. BRE (300 mg/kg) was orally administered to adult male C57BL/6 mice once a day for 21 days. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) was performed for 23 min on the 8th day of BRE or vehicle administration. Histological analyses conducted on the 22nd day of BRE or vehicle administration revealed that administering BRE profoundly attenuated neuronal cell death, inhibited reactive astrogliosis, and prevented loss of glutathione peroxidase expression in the hippocampus when compared to vehicle treatment. In addition, BRE considerably ameliorated BCCAO-induced memory impairment on the Morris water maze test from the 15th day to the 22nd day of BRE or vehicle administration. These results indicate that chronic administration of BRE is potentially beneficial in cerebral ischemia.

  1. Tobacco industry's elaborate attempts to control a global track and trace system and fundamentally undermine the Illicit Trade Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Gallagher, Allen W A; Rowell, Andy

    2018-06-13

    The Illicit Trade Protocol (ITP) requires a global track and trace (T&T) system to reduce tobacco smuggling. Given the tobacco industry's (TI) historical involvement in tobacco smuggling, it stipulates that T&T 'shall not be performed by or delegated to the tobacco industry'. This paper explores the rationale for & nature of the TI's effors to influence the ITP & its T&T system. Analysis of leaked TI documents and publicly available data; ,investigation of front groups, trademark and patent ownership. Growing & diverse sources of evidence indicate that the TI remains involved in tobacco smuggling and that TI cigarettes account for around two-thirds of the illicit cigarette market. The TI therefore has a vested interest in controlling the global T&T system aimed to curtail this behaviour. To this end, Philip Morris International (PMI) adapted its pack marker system, Codentify, to meet T&T requirements, licensed it for free to its three major competitors who then collectively promoted it to governments using front groups and third parties including companies claiming to be independent despite clear TI links. PMI also sought to suggest Codentify was independent by selling some parts of its intellectual property on Codentify while retaining others, leaving a complex web of shared interests. In Africa, British American Tobacco used payments to obtain data suggesting its smaller competitor companies were evading taxes and secure influence with tax authorities. Regulatory capture has been enhanced by a public relations effort involving TI funding for conferences, training, research, and international police and anti-corruption organisations. Collectively this has created public messaging and a powerful network of organisations supportive of the TI's misleading postion on illicit. Governments should assume the TI seeks to control T&T systems in order to avoid scrutiny and minimise excise tax payments and that any T&T system based on Codentify, on intellectual property

  2. Trading carbon for food: global comparison of carbon stocks vs. crop yields on agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Paul C; Gibbs, Holly K; Monfreda, Chad; Wagner, John; Barford, Carol C; Carpenter, Stephen R; Foley, Jonathan A

    2010-11-16

    Expanding croplands to meet the needs of a growing population, changing diets, and biofuel production comes at the cost of reduced carbon stocks in natural vegetation and soils. Here, we present a spatially explicit global analysis of tradeoffs between carbon stocks and current crop yields. The difference among regions is striking. For example, for each unit of land cleared, the tropics lose nearly two times as much carbon (∼120 tons·ha(-1) vs. ∼63 tons·ha(-1)) and produce less than one-half the annual crop yield compared with temperate regions (1.71 tons·ha(-1)·y(-1) vs. 3.84 tons·ha(-1)·y(-1)). Therefore, newly cleared land in the tropics releases nearly 3 tons of carbon for every 1 ton of annual crop yield compared with a similar area cleared in the temperate zone. By factoring crop yield into the analysis, we specify the tradeoff between carbon stocks and crops for all areas where crops are currently grown and thereby, substantially enhance the spatial resolution relative to previous regional estimates. Particularly in the tropics, emphasis should be placed on increasing yields on existing croplands rather than clearing new lands. Our high-resolution approach can be used to determine the net effect of local land use decisions.

  3. Sheila Jeffreys: The Industrial Vagina. The Political Economy of the Global Sex Trade. London: Routledge 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hofmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sheila Jeffreys analysiert die Prozesse, die zu einer Industrialisierung und Globalisierung von Prostitution im späten 20. und 21. Jahrhundert geführt haben. Hauptverantwortlich für die gegenwärtige Diskursverschiebung um Prostitution ist für Jeffreys zum einen die sexuelle Revolution der 1970er Jahre und zum anderen die massive Finanzierung von Unterstützer/-innen der Sexarbeiterinnen zur HIV-Prävention in den 1980ern. Jeffreys legt wie in früheren Arbeiten ihre radikal-feministische Position dar und fordert eine Abschaffung der Prostitution. In ihrer Abrechnung mit dem liberalen feministischen Diskurs, für den eine Unterstützung von Sexarbeiterinnen prioritär ist, ignoriert sie die Widersprüchlichkeiten und Komplexitäten der gelebten Realitäten. An vielen Stellen ihres Buches bekräftigt Jeffreys stereotypische Männlichkeitsvorstellungen, was durch einen Blick über den Tellerrand des ihr vertrauten wissenschaftlichen Bezugsrahmens hätte vermieden werden können.Sheila Jeffreys analyzes the processes that led to the industrialization and globalization of prostitution in the late 20th and 21th centuries. Jeffreys considers those primary factors responsible for the current shift in discourse on prostitution, which can be attributed to the sexual revolution of the 1970s on the one hand, and to massive financing of HIV prevention in the 1980s by sex worker supporters on the other. As in earlier studies, Jeffreys presents readers with her radical-feminist position and demands prostitution be abolished. In her confrontation with liberal-feminist discourse, in which the support of sex workers takes priority, she ignores the inconsistencies and complexities of real lived experience. At many points throughout her book, Jeffreys affirms stereotypical male conceptions, which could have been avoided had she looked beyond the theoretical frame of reference that makes up her comfort zone.

  4. Effects of drought stress on global gene expression profile in leaf and root samples of Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fantao; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Meng; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun

    2017-06-30

    Drought is a serious constraint to rice production throughout the world, and although Dongxiang wild rice ( Oryza rufipogon , DXWR) possesses a high degree of drought resistance, the underlying mechanisms of this trait remains unclear. In the present study, cDNA libraries were constructed from the leaf and root tissues of drought-stressed and untreated DXWR seedlings, and transcriptome sequencing was performed with the goal of elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in drought-stress response. The results indicated that 11231 transcripts were differentially expressed in the leaves (4040 up-regulated and 7191 down-regulated) and 7025 transcripts were differentially expressed in the roots (3097 up-regulated and 3928 down-regulated). Among these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), the detection of many transcriptional factors and functional genes demonstrated that multiple regulatory pathways were involved in drought resistance. Meanwhile, the DEGs were also annotated with gene ontology (GO) terms and key pathways via functional classification and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes (KEGG) pathway mapping, respectively. A set of the most interesting candidate genes was then identified by combining the DEGs with previously identified drought-resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL). The present work provides abundant genomic information for functional dissection of the drought resistance of DXWR, and findings will further help the current understanding of the biological regulatory mechanisms of drought resistance in plants and facilitate the breeding of new drought-resistant rice cultivars. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. The Effect of Tariff Reduction in Agricultural Sector on Macroeconomic Variables: Using Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Economic effects of membership in the WTO in recent years, has been one of the most important issues for Iranian economy. If Iran joins the WTO, in this process, tariff reduction in agricultural sector will be one of the policies which has to be employed. Therefore, investigating economic effects of tariff reduction or even its elimination in this sector will be necessary in running effective policies to minimize the probabilistic losses of accession. Tariffs on agricultural products in Iran are determined merely on the basis of annual country economy, and have no long term strategy. Government is just obliged to impose effective tariffs on agricultural products imports, in order to protect local productions. On the other hand, according to the census of population and housing, the share of agricultural sector in employment has reduced during the past decade. Moreover, Iran central bank information indicated the reduction in the share of agricultural sector in GDP for the past decade. Declining the share of agriculture in production and employment, considering the high number of university graduates in the field of agriculture along with rising unemployment rate of this group, motivated this study to investigate the effect of tariff reduction in this sector on macroeconomic variables. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed the welfare effects of import tariffs reduction in agricultural sector from Iran most important commercial partners and vice versa, using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP, based on computable general equilibrium (CGE model. Moreover, the effects of tariffs reduction, is investigated on output, price level and transfer of production factors between different economic sectors. In order to simulate the above model, we used GTAP version 8 which covers 57 commodities and 113 regions with economic information of these regions. This model uses Social Accounting Matrix of countries as data information. Our

  6. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  7. Unification of roles of the World Trade Organization (WTO and International Financial Institutions (IFIs in Education: The maintenance of global neoliberal hegemony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Trisnawati Abbott

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Education is viewed as an instrument for development. Therein lies the importance of education for social change. It is education that makes people aware of the situation around them. Yet, in a different way, education is also an instrument to maintain hegemony. At the international level, the institutions of the World Trade Organization (WTO and the International Financial Institutions (IFIs, such as the World Bank (WB, and International Monetary Fund (IMF are crucial to the determination of the real meaning of education; whether or not education is an instrument for development for maintaining hegemony. The WTO system is arguably more than simply an international institution, but rather it is a center of hegemonic power. The emergence of neoliberalism has been accompanied by the coercion of hegemonic power that results in deleterious effects on human life. In the education sector, through the provision of the WTO General Agreement of Trade and Services (GATS, trade barriers in education are eliminated. Not only education is becoming globalized but also increasingly becoming a competitive commodity. Thus, the commodification of education means that education serves those who can afford to pay. The controversies surrounding the role of the WTO in the trade of education are significant to the debates about Neoliberal ideology and the problems of governance in the realm of globalization. These debates arise not only because of the actions of the WTO, which is deeply informed by Neoliberal ideology, but also because of the diverse beliefs about world economic governance. Not only the WTO, but also the roles of International Financial Institutions in global education revealed controversies. State intervention, for instance is minimized. Government spending in the education sector is reduced. Privatization and commercialization are encouraged. Social injustice seems to be the source of the presupposition of these controversies. This research

  8. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    The global financial crisis has contributed to the redirection of trade towards new markets outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift, based......-specific investments are particularly difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... on Swedish firm-level trade data. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduce the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Trade in industries that are characterized by a high frequency of trade conflicts and where transactions require extensive relationship...

  9. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results...... difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....... suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively...

  10. Metabolic Trade-offs between Biomass Synthesis and Photosynthate Export at Different Light Intensities in a Genome–Scale Metabolic Model of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Graham Poolman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have used a genome scale model of rice metabolism to describe how metabolism reconfigures at different light intensities in an expanding leaf of rice. Although this established that the metabolism of the leaf was adequatelyrepresented, in the model, the scenario was not that of the typical function of the leaf --- to provide material for the rest of the plant. Here we extend our analysis to explore the transition to a source leaf as export of photosynthate increases at the expense of making leaf biomass precursors, again as a function of light intensity. In particular we investigate whether, when the leaf is making a smaller range of compounds for export to the phloem, the same changes occur in the interactions between mitochondrial and chloroplast metabolism as seen in biomass synthesis for growth when light intensity increases. Our results show that the same changes occur qualitatively, though there are slight quantitative differences reflecting differences in the energy and redox requirements for the different metabolic outputs.

  11. Rice microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of plant structure is desirable to obtain a clear idea of the overall impact of a crop. A mature rice plant consists of leafy components (left in the field post-harvest) and paddy rice (collected). The rice plant is supported by a hollow stem (culm) with leaf sheaths attached to nod...

  12. Tracing trade-related telecouplings in the global land-system using the embodied human appropriation of net primary production framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, H.; Kastner, T.; Schaffartzik, A.; Erb, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Global land-system change is influenced by a complex set of drivers that transcend spatial, institutional and temporal scales. The notion of "telecouplings" is gaining importance in Land System Science as a framework to address that complexity of drivers. One of them is the trade in land-based products, which forges connections between different geographic regions. Trade in land-based products is growing rapidly, thereby creating an increasing spatial disconnect between the locations where primary products (e.g. crops, fodder or timber) are grown and harvested and where the related environmental pressures occur, and the locations where final products (e.g. food, fiber or bioenergy) are consumed. Governing land-related sustainability issues such as GHG emissions or pressures on biodiversity and ecosystems related with land-use changes requires information on trade-related telecouplings, e.g. in order to avoid leakage effects. However, tracing land use (change) related with flows of traded products is challenging, among others due to (a) the lack of easily implementable metrics to account for differences in land quality and land-use intensity, and (b) the lack of satisfactory methods to allocate land to products that are traded and consumed. Drawing from a database derived from FAO statistics that allows tracing bilateral trade flows between ~200 countries at a resolution of ~500 products for the time period 1986-2006, this presentation will discuss how the framework of embodied human appropriation of net primary production (eHANPP) can help tackling these difficult issues. The HANPP framework allows to consistently represent important aspects of land quality and land-use intensity, e.g. natural productivity potential or land-use efficiency. In terms of allocation of land to products, eHANPP is a factor-based approach, and the presentation will discuss differences to alternative methods such as environmentally extended input-output analysis. We will use the available

  13. Modeling impacts of alternative practices on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from rice-wheat annual rotation in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluating the net exchange of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions in conjunction with soil carbon sequestration may give a comprehensive insight on the role of agricultural production in global warming. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Measured data of methane (CH(4 and nitrous oxide (N(2O were utilized to test the applicability of the Denitrification and Decomposition (DNDC model to a winter wheat - single rice rotation system in southern China. Six alternative scenarios were simulated against the baseline scenario to evaluate their long-term (45-year impacts on net global warming potential (GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI. PRINCIPAL RESULTS: The simulated cumulative CH(4 emissions fell within the statistical deviation ranges of the field data, with the exception of N(2O emissions during rice-growing season and both gases from the control treatment. Sensitivity tests showed that both CH(4 and N(2O emissions were significantly affected by changes in both environmental factors and management practices. Compared with the baseline scenario, the long-term simulation had the following results: (1 high straw return and manure amendment scenarios greatly increased CH(4 emissions, while other scenarios had similar CH(4 emissions, (2 high inorganic N fertilizer increased N(2O emissions while manure amendment and reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenarios decreased N(2O emissions, (3 the mean annual soil organic carbon sequestration rates (SOCSR under manure amendment, high straw return, and no-tillage scenarios averaged 0.20 t C ha(-1 yr(-1, being greater than other scenarios, and (4 the reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario produced the least N loss from the system, while all the scenarios produced comparable grain yields. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of net GWP and GHGI for the comprehensive assessment of climate change and crop production, reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario followed by no-tillage scenario would be advocated for this specified

  14. Assessing the environmental consequences of global climate and economic changes in Venezuela: Impacts of the greenhouse effect and of free trade agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, M.F.; Harwell, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The ecological resources of most Latin American countries are subject to intense pressures for economic and industrial development which need to be balanced with local and global concerns about the long term sustainability of that resource base. Global issues and their potential long term effects should not be ignored when environmental policy strategies at the national level are elaborated. In this paper, the potential environmental consequences of two important global changes are examined, by taking Venezuela as a country case study: changes in climate, temperature, precipitation and radiation, generated by the greenhouse effect and changes in environmental stresses originating from shifts in local economic activity due to changing global trade, specifically free trade agreements. Both assessments are conducted using scenario-consequence approaches and expert judgment. The first analysis reported here is an example of the application of simulation models of global climate and local ecosystems, whereas the second analysis demonstrates the application of screening methodology which relies on processing of qualitative information. The approaches illustrated here are generic and can be applied to other Latin American countries

  15. Global Trade, Local Impacts: Lessons from California on Health Impacts and Environmental Justice Concerns for Residents Living near Freight Rail Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-01-01

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry—in the U.S. alone—has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more “environmentally just” siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered. PMID:24518649

  16. Physicochemical Characteristics of Artificial Rice from Composite Flour: Modified Cassava Starch, Canavalia ensiformis and Dioscorea esculenta

    OpenAIRE

    Sumardiono Siswo; Pudjihastuti Isti; Abyor Handayani Noer; Kusumayanti Heny

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is the third largest country on the global paddy rice production and also considered as a rice importer. Even, Indonesia has the biggest per capita consumption of paddy rice (140 kg of paddy rice per person per year). Product diversification using local commodities. Artificial rice is potential to be developed as a new value product using different types of grains. It is one of appropriate solutions for reducing imported rice rate. Artificial rice was produced using high nutrition c...

  17. A Review of Policies, Acts and Initiatives in Rice Innovation System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of rice policies, acts and initiatives in Nigeria is presented under ... World Bank, World Trade Organization, and International Monetary Fund (IMF) ... the desirable political will by government and sound agricultural rice policy are ...

  18. Analysis of the characteristics of the global virtual water trade network using degree and eigenvector centrality, with a focus on food and feed crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-H. Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the characteristics of global virtual water trade (GVWT, such as the connectivity of each trader, vulnerable importers, and influential countries, using degree and eigenvector centrality during the period 2006–2010. The degree centrality was used to measure the connectivity, and eigenvector centrality was used to measure the influence on the entire GVWT network. Mexico, Egypt, China, the Republic of Korea, and Japan were classified as vulnerable importers, because they imported large quantities of virtual water with low connectivity. In particular, Egypt had a 15.3 Gm3 year−1 blue water saving effect through GVWT: the vulnerable structure could cause a water shortage problem for the importer. The entire GVWT network could be changed by a few countries, termed "influential traders". We used eigenvector centrality to identify those influential traders. In GVWT for food crops, the USA, Russian Federation, Thailand, and Canada had high eigenvector centrality with large volumes of green water trade. In the case of blue water trade, western Asia, Pakistan, and India had high eigenvector centrality. For feed crops, the green water trade in the USA, Brazil, and Argentina was the most influential. However, Argentina and Pakistan used high proportions of internal water resources for virtual water export (32.9 and 25.1 %; thus other traders should carefully consider water resource management in these exporters.

  19. Analysis of the characteristics of the global virtual water trade network using degree and eigenvector centrality, with a focus on food and feed crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Mohtar, Rabi H.; Choi, Jin-Yong; Yoo, Seung-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to analyze the characteristics of global virtual water trade (GVWT), such as the connectivity of each trader, vulnerable importers, and influential countries, using degree and eigenvector centrality during the period 2006-2010. The degree centrality was used to measure the connectivity, and eigenvector centrality was used to measure the influence on the entire GVWT network. Mexico, Egypt, China, the Republic of Korea, and Japan were classified as vulnerable importers, because they imported large quantities of virtual water with low connectivity. In particular, Egypt had a 15.3 Gm3 year-1 blue water saving effect through GVWT: the vulnerable structure could cause a water shortage problem for the importer. The entire GVWT network could be changed by a few countries, termed "influential traders". We used eigenvector centrality to identify those influential traders. In GVWT for food crops, the USA, Russian Federation, Thailand, and Canada had high eigenvector centrality with large volumes of green water trade. In the case of blue water trade, western Asia, Pakistan, and India had high eigenvector centrality. For feed crops, the green water trade in the USA, Brazil, and Argentina was the most influential. However, Argentina and Pakistan used high proportions of internal water resources for virtual water export (32.9 and 25.1 %); thus other traders should carefully consider water resource management in these exporters.

  20. From iron rice bowl to the world's biggest sweatshop: globalization, institutional constraints, and the rights of Chinese workers

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, CK; Peng, Z

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how China's institutional constraints combine with its integration into the global economy to suppress its workers' rights. The rapid expansion of China's market economy is the consequence of the government's active embrace of global capitalism and global capitalists' ongoing search for new markets and lower production costs. China's traditional socialist labor relationships collapsed as a result of state-owned enterprise (SOE) reform and the emergence of private enterp...

  1. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko; Harushima, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Mochizuki, Takako; Fujita, Masahiro; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue

  2. Supplementary Material for: Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko; Harushima, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Mochizuki, Takako; Fujita, Masahiro; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis

  3. Analysis Of Agricultural Productivity And Growth On Safta (South Asian Free Trade Agreement And Its Imact On Economy Of Pakistan By Using CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmed GOPANG

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research explore the opportunities and analyzing the cost andbenefit on Pak-India trade on South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTAand its possible impact on the welfare of both countries. Pak-India trade on SAFTA create opportunities for the both countries in export Laid growth. In First Scenario when normal trading relation will be restores and given MFN(Most Favored Nations status given to each other to attack the trade between two countries. The Global trade analysis GTAP model is used to analyze the possible impact of SAFTA on Pakistan in a multi country, multi sector applied General equilibrium frame work. After employing the simplified static analysis framework, the analysis based on simulations revealsthat current demand for Pakistani Basmati Rice and other consumer items like leather and cotton-made garments will expand after the FTA and consumer surplus will increase. The export of Rice, leather and cotton-made garments may be conducted by two scenarios, i.e. when normal trading relations between Pakistan and India will be restored and when there will be a free trade between Pakistan and India in the presence of South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA. Results based on this research reveal that on SAFTA, grounds, there will be net export benefi ts in Pakistan’s economy.

  4. Analysis of global gene expression profile of rice in response to methylglyoxal indicates its possible role as a stress signal molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charanpreet eKaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylglyoxal (MG is a toxic metabolite produced primarily as a byproduct of glycolysis. Being a potent glycating agent, it can readily bind macromolecules like DNA, RNA or proteins, modulating their expression and activity. In plants, despite the known inhibitory effects of MG on growth and development, still limited information is available about the molecular mechanisms and response pathways elicited upon elevation in MG levels. To gain insight into the molecular basis of MG response, we have investigated changes in global gene expression profiles in rice upon exposure to exogenous MG using GeneChip microarrays. Initially, growth of rice seedlings was monitored in response to increasing MG concentrations which could retard plant growth in a dose-dependent manner. Upon exposure to 10 mM concentration of MG, a total of 1685 probe sets were up- or down-regulated by more than 1.5-fold in shoot tissues within 16 h. These were classified into ten functional categories. The genes involved in signal transduction such as, protein kinases and transcription factors, were significantly over-represented in the perturbed transcriptome, of which several are known to be involved in abiotic and biotic stress response indicating a cross-talk between MG-responsive and stress-responsive signal transduction pathways. Through in silico studies, we could predict 7-8 bp long conserved motif as a possible MG-responsive element (MGRE in the 1 kb upstream region of genes that were more than ten-fold up- or down-regulated in the analysis. Since several perturbations were found in signaling cascades in response to MG, we hereby suggest that it plays an important role in signal transduction probably acting as a stress signal molecule.

  5. [Effects of biochar application three-years ago on global warming potentials of CH4 and N2O in a rice-wheat rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen; Dong, Yu Bing; Xiong, Zheng Qin

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of biochar amendment on greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs), a field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of 3-year field-aged biochar (B 3 ) and fresh biochar (B 0 ) on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) in a typical rice-wheat rotation system. Four treatments were established as control without nitrogen fertilizer (CK), urea without biochar (N), urea with fresh biochar amended in 2015 (NB 0 ), and urea with 3-year field-aged biochar amended in 2012 (NB 3 ). Results showed that both the NB 0 and NB 3 treatments obviously increased soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and influenced the potential activity of functional microorganisms related to GHGs compared to the N treatment. Relative to the N treatment, the NB 3 treatment significantly improved crop yield by 14.1% while reduced the CH 4 and N 2 O emissions by 9.0% and 34.0%, respectively. In addition, the NB 0 treatment significantly improved crop yield by 9.3%, while reduced the N 2 O emission by 38.6% though increased the CH 4 emissions by 4.7% relative to the N treatment. Moreover, both the NB 0 and NB 3 treatments could significantly reduce both GWP and GHGI, with NB 3 being more effective in simultaneously mitigating the GHGs emissions and enhancing crop yield. Since field-aged biochar showed obvious effects on GHGs mitigation and carbon sequestration after 3 years, biochar incorporations had long-term effect on GHGs mitigation and crop production in the rice-wheat rotation system.

  6. Lateral Pressure and Deforestation A Review Essay of Environmental Impacts of Globalization and Trade: A Systems Study by Corey L Lofdahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Jorgenson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What are the effects of increased stuctural integration of international trade on the environment of relatively poorer countries, particularly in the southern hemisphere? This is the key question addressed by Corey Lofdahl in his book Environmental Impacts of Globalization and Trade:A Systems Study. Given the theme for this special issue of the Journal of World-Systems Research, a discussion and evaluation of this book seems rather timely and relevant. An immediate fact of interest is that Lofdahl is not an environmental sociologist, let alone acquainted with relevant empirical works grounded in a world-systems perspective. Rather, he is trained as a political scientist, and works in the simulation and information technology sector.

  7. Global warming agreements, international trade and energy/carbon embodiments: an input-output approach to the Italian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongelli, I.; Tassielli, G.; Notarnicola, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the Kyoto Protocol the absence of Green House Gases (GHGs) commitments of developing countries (non-Annex I) and the more flexible terms of implementation which are allowed to countries shifting toward a market economy (transition economies) naturally lead to the absence or to less constraining national measures and policies of reduction of the GHGs emissions which, in turn, may determine a comparative advantage in the production of the highest energy/carbon intensive commodities for these countries. These arguments are valid also considering the future implementation of the European Emission Allowance Trading Scheme (EATS). Thus, developing countries may become a haven for the production of not environmental-friendly commodities; in this case, the so-called Pollution Haven Hypothesis, stating that due to freer international trade the comparative advantage may change the economic structure and consequently the trade patterns of the countries linked by trade relationships, could occur. This would lead to the increase of the transfers of energy and carbon embodied in traded commodities from developing countries and transition economies toward Kyoto or EATS constrained countries. The aim of this paper is to verify if for Italy, as a Kyoto and EATS complying country, evidence of a change in the trade patterns, occurred on the basis of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis, does exist and to estimate the magnitude of the under-estimation of the carbon actually emitted: the carbon leakage. The Input-Output model has been used to calculate the intensities of energy consumption and the related Green House Gases emission, for each Italian economic sector

  8. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  9. The Spatial Dimension of Trade- and FDI-driven Productivity Growth in Chinese Provinces – A Global Cointegration Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özyurt, Selin; Mitze, Timo

    Since the introduction of its “open door” policy in the late 1970s, China has been attracting a growing share of FDI inflows and its international trade integration has advanced considerably. In this study, we take a closer look at the regional growth impact of the Chinese internationalization......-run relationship, regional labour productivity is indeed driven by direct and indirect spatial effects of FDI and trade activity next to further supply side factors such as the regional infrastructure equipment and human capital endowment. Similarly, in the short-run, changes in FDI activity and especially human...

  10. Preparing the veterinary profession for corporate and trade issues in the Americas: proceedings of a conference on synergism and globalization, Santiago, Chile, May 6-8, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C; Carbajal, I; Wagner, G

    2001-01-01

    The complex and rapid-paced development of international trade, coupled with increasing societal demands for the production not only of abundant and inexpensive food, but also of food that is safe and has been raised in a humane and environmentally friendly manner, demands immediate attention from the veterinary community. The new culture of global trade agreements, spurred by the development of the WTO, dictates massive changes and increasing integration of public and private sectors. This is a huge growth area for our profession and will require individuals with a skill set we do not yet provide in our educational framework. In North America, veterinary education is parochial and focused on specialization. This strong orientation toward companion animals fails to provide adequate training for those interested in acquiring the necessary skills for the emerging area of globalization and trade. In South America, curricula are less harmonized with one another and there is tremendous variation in degree programs, rendering it difficult to ascertain whether veterinarians are prepared to assume decision-making responsibilities regarding international transport of food. If we do not begin to prepare our graduates adequately for this emerging market demand, the positions will be filled by other professions. These other professions lack broad-based scientific knowledge about animal physiology and disease causation. Decisions made without adequate background could have devastating consequences for society, including incursions of unwelcome diseases, food safety problems, and public health issues. To prepare our new veterinary graduates for the future and this emerging market, it is important to nurture a global mindset within our academic communities and to promote communications, languages, and an interdependent team mentality. Areas of technical expertise that need a place, perhaps a parallel track, in the curriculum include production medicine, public health, food safety

  11. Analyses of advanced rice anther transcriptomes reveal global tapetum secretory functions and potential proteins for lipid exine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Der; Wei, Fu-Jin; Wu, Cheng-Cheih; Hsing, Yue-Ie Caroline; Huang, Anthony H C

    2009-02-01

    The anthers in flowers perform important functions in sexual reproduction. Several recent studies used microarrays to study anther transcriptomes to explore genes controlling anther development. To analyze the secretion and other functions of the tapetum, we produced transcriptomes of anthers of rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica) at six progressive developmental stages and pollen with sequencing-by-synthesis technology. The transcriptomes included at least 18,000 unique transcripts, about 25% of which had antisense transcripts. In silico anther-minus-pollen subtraction produced transcripts largely unique to the tapetum; these transcripts include all the reported tapetum-specific transcripts of orthologs in other species. The differential developmental profiles of the transcripts and their antisense transcripts signify extensive regulation of gene expression in the anther, especially the tapetum, during development. The transcriptomes were used to dissect two major cell/biochemical functions of the tapetum. First, we categorized and charted the developmental profiles of all transcripts encoding secretory proteins present in the cellular exterior; these transcripts represent about 12% and 30% of the those transcripts having more than 100 and 1,000 transcripts per million, respectively. Second, we successfully selected from hundreds of transcripts several transcripts encoding potential proteins for lipid exine synthesis during early anther development. These proteins include cytochrome P450, acyltransferases, and lipid transfer proteins in our hypothesized mechanism of exine synthesis in and export from the tapetum. Putative functioning of these proteins in exine formation is consistent with proteins and metabolites detected in the anther locule fluid obtained by micropipetting.

  12. 76 FR 44606 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ..., trade, and investment in U.S. remanufactured goods, including a discussion of recent trends. To the extent possible, the report will also include the following: An assessment of foreign direct investment... of employment, investment, and sales (including in the domestic market and exports); The U.S. market...

  13. Prevention and control of rabies in an age of global travel: a review of travel- and trade-associated rabies events--United States, 1986-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, E W; Cohen, N J; Jentes, E S; Adams, L E; Bell, T R; Blanton, J D; Buttke, D; Galland, G G; Maxted, A M; Tack, D M; Waterman, S H; Rupprecht, C E; Marano, N

    2014-08-01

    Rabies prevention and control efforts have been successful in reducing or eliminating virus circulation regionally through vaccination of specific reservoir populations. A notable example of this success is the elimination of canine rabies virus variant from the United States and many other countries. However, increased international travel and trade can pose risks for rapid, long-distance movements of ill or infected persons or animals. Such travel and trade can result in human exposures to rabies virus during travel or transit and could contribute to the re-introduction of canine rabies variant or transmission of other viral variants among animal host populations. We present a review of travel- and trade-associated rabies events that highlight international public health obligations and collaborative opportunities for rabies prevention and control in an age of global travel. Rabies is a fatal disease that warrants proactive coordination among international public health and travel industry partners (such as travel agents, tour companies and airlines) to protect human lives and to prevent the movement of viral variants among host populations. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. International trade and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Sh¯ujir¯o; Narjoko, Dionisius A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of globalization on equality has become a serious concern for many countries. More evidence that challenges the theoretical prediction of positive impact of international trade on income distribution has increasingly become available recently. This paper addresses this subject, surveying the empirical findings on the impact of international trade on inequalities from various perspectives. The survey reveals that an increase in trade openness by developing countries appears to have ...

  15. [Effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions and their global warming potentials in paddy fields with double-rice cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Shen, Jian-Lin; Zheng, Liang; Liu, Jie-Yun; Qin, Hong-Ling; Li, Yong; Wu, Jin-Shui

    2014-08-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions, which were measured using the static chamber/gas chromatography method, and their global warming potentials in typical paddy fields with double-rice cropping in Hunan province. The results showed that the combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers did not change the seasonal patterns of CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy soils, but significantly changed the magnitudes of CH4 and N2O fluxes in rice growing seasons as compared with sole application of chemical fertilizers. During the two rice growing seasons, the cumulative CH4 emissions for the pig manure and chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer each contributing to 50% of the total applied N (1/2N + PM) treatment were higher than those for the treatments of no N fertilizer (ON), half amount of chemical N fertilizer (1/2N) and 100% chemical N fertilizer (N) by 54.83%, 33.85% and 43.30%, respectively (P global warming potential (GWP) in both rice growing seasons, which contributed more than 99% to the integrated GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions for all the four treatments. Both GWP and yield-scaled GWP for the treatment of 1/2N + PM were significantly higher than the other three treatments. The yield-scaled GWP for the treatment of 1/2N + PM was higher than those for the N, 1/2N and ON treatments by 58.21%, 26.82% and 20. 63%, respectively. Therefore, combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers in paddy fields would increase the GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions during rice growing seasons and this effect should be considered in regional greenhouse gases emissions inventory.

  16. DNA-based identification reveals illegal trade of threatened shark species in a global elasmobranch conservation hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Leonardo Manir; Martins, Ana Paula Barbosa; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Macedo, Wagner; Monteiro, Iann Leonardo; Gemaque, Romário; Nunes, Jorge Luiz Silva; Gomes, Fernanda; Schneider, Horácio; Sampaio, Iracilda; Souza, Rosália; Sales, João Bráullio; Rodrigues-Filho, Luís Fernando; Tchaicka, Lígia; Carvalho-Costa, Luís Fernando

    2018-02-20

    Here, we report trading of endangered shark species in a world hotspot for elasmobranch conservation in Brazil. Data on shark fisheries are scarce in Brazil, although the northern and northeastern regions have the highest indices of shark bycatch. Harvest is made primarily with processed carcasses lacking head and fins, which hampers reliable species identification and law enforcement on illegal catches. We used partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes (COI and/or NADH2) to identify 17 shark species from 427 samples being harvested and marketed on the northern coast of Brazil. Nine species (53%) are listed under some extinction threat category according to Brazilian law and international authorities (IUCN - International Union for Conservation of Nature; CITES - Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). The number increases to 13 (76%) if we also consider the Near Threatened category. Hammerhead sharks are under threat worldwide, and composed 18.7% of samples, with Sphyrna mokarran being the fourth most common species among samples. As illegal trade of threatened shark species is a worldwide conservation problem, molecular identification of processed meat or specimens lacking diagnostic body parts is a highly effective tool for species identification and law enforcement.

  17. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  18. The Jena Diversity-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (JeDi-DGVM: a diverse approach to representing terrestrial biogeography and biogeochemistry based on plant functional trade-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pavlick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial biosphere models typically abstract the immense diversity of vegetation forms and functioning into a relatively small set of predefined semi-empirical plant functional types (PFTs. There is growing evidence, however, from the field ecology community as well as from modelling studies that current PFT schemes may not adequately represent the observed variations in plant functional traits and their effect on ecosystem functioning. In this paper, we introduce the Jena Diversity-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (JeDi-DGVM as a new approach to terrestrial biosphere modelling with a richer representation of functional diversity than traditional modelling approaches based on a small number of fixed PFTs. JeDi-DGVM simulates the performance of a large number of randomly generated plant growth strategies, each defined by a set of 15 trait parameters which characterize various aspects of plant functioning including carbon allocation, ecophysiology and phenology. Each trait parameter is involved in one or more functional trade-offs. These trade-offs ultimately determine whether a strategy is able to survive under the climatic conditions in a given model grid cell and its performance relative to the other strategies. The biogeochemical fluxes and land surface properties of the individual strategies are aggregated to the grid-cell scale using a mass-based weighting scheme. We evaluate the simulated global biogeochemical patterns against a variety of field and satellite-based observations following a protocol established by the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project. The land surface fluxes and vegetation structural properties are reasonably well simulated by JeDi-DGVM, and compare favourably with other state-of-the-art global vegetation models. We also evaluate the simulated patterns of functional diversity and the sensitivity of the JeDi-DGVM modelling approach to the number of sampled strategies. Altogether, the results demonstrate the

  19. Trade Analysis and Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, R.; Schot, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to verify compliance with safeguards and draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) collects and analyses trade information that it receives from open sources as well as from Member States. Although the IAEA does not intervene in national export controls, it has to monitor the trade of dual use items. Trade analysis helps the IAEA to evaluate global proliferation threats, to understand States' ability to report exports according to additional protocols but also to compare against State declarations. Consequently, the IAEA has explored sources of trade-related information and has developed analysis methodologies beyond its traditional safeguards approaches. (author)

  20. Game theoretic analysis for carbon emission permits trading among multiple world regions with an optimizing global energy model; Saitekikagata sekai energy model ni motozuku tachiikikan CO2 haishutsu kyokasho torihiki no game ronteki bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, K.; Matsunaga, A.; Fujii, Y. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan); Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    Carbon emissions which would cause global warming were agreed to be constrained at COP3 in Kyoto. In addition, carton emission permits trading was also approved to be introduced. The emission permits trading is expected to achieve efficient carbon emission reduction, equalizing the marginal costs of the emission reduction for the participating countries. In other words, the permits trading allows participants to reduce emissions where it is least expensive to do so. However, the inadequate introduction of the trading systems may impose unfairly greater burden on some countries, and therefore careful evaluation of the system would be indispensable for its implementation. In this paper, we attempt to analyze the emission permits trading. using the theory of cooperative games with a global energy model of optimization type. We assumed that seven world regions as players participate the permits trading system under the condition of the emission reduction target presented at COP3 and so on, and show the nucleolus of the grand coalition games, and the computational results of primary energy supplies and CO2 shadow prices. The insights of this research indicate that in order to stabilize the grand coalition, a noticeable amount of additional transfer of money would be needed besides the payments associated with the emission permits trading. 10 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  2. Are Preferential Trade Agreements with Non-trade Objectives a Stumbling Block for Multilateral Liberalization?

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Limão

    2007-01-01

    In many preferential trade agreements (PTAs), countries exchange not only reductions in trade barriers but also cooperation in non-trade issues such as labour and environmental standards, intellectual property, etc. We provide a model of PTAs motivated by cooperation in non-trade issues and analyse its implications for global free trade and welfare. We find that such PTAs increase the cost of multilateral tariff reductions and thus cause a stumbling block to global free trade. This occurs bec...

  3. Greenhouse gas trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazilov, P. [Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage is a market leader in natural gas, electricity, coal, and weather, emissions with a total of more than $2 billion by volume in emissions transactions in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Europe. This power point presentation addressed issues dealing with global warming, the Kyoto Protocol, and explained where we are in terms of reaching commitments for the first compliance period between 2008-2012. The paper focused on international emissions trading (IET), joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) and explained how greenhouse gases are traded. Emissions trading refers to the trade of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, perfluoro-carbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluorides. The motivational drivers for trading were outlined in terms of liability for buyers and assets for sellers. To date, trading activity is nearly 120 transactions with nearly 70 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. tabs., figs.

  4. Kyoto PLUS: Efficient global emission trade for an effective future climate policy; Kyoto PLUS: Effizienter globaler Emissionshandel fuer eine zukuenftig wirksame Weltklimapolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicke, L. [Inst. fuer Umwelt-Management (IfUM) an der ESCP-EAP, Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    The majority of climate protection experts believe that the Kyoto Protocol in its present version provides a basis for preventing the climate change from taking on disastrous dimensions. In the meantime however a mainstream of opinion has developed which advocates the establishment of a functioning global climate protection system for the post-Kyoto phase. Kyoto Plus, a global climate certification system, is a concept developed by the author of three expert opinions for the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg which takes the principles of the Kyoto Protocol a step forward while striving to eliminate its weaknesses and which has matured sufficiently to be put into practice. Systems of this or a similar kind could enable Germany to make a decisive additional contribution to global climate protection, as the author stated at the BT Hearing on 23 May 2007.

  5. The export potential of traditional varieties of rice from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Stringfellow, Rachel; Swetman, Tony

    1996-01-01

    This research is funded by the Overseas Development Administration's Crops Post Harvest Programme. The objective of the research is to bring together information on prevailing quality/price relationships for traditional varieties of rice in Bangladesh and for competing products on the world market in order to make a judgement about Bangladesh's ability to enter the export trade for speciality rices.

  6. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  7. Addressing legal and political barriers to global pharmaceutical access: options for remedying the impact of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the imposition of TRIPS-plus standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Kohler, Jillian Clare; Forman, Lisa; Lipkus, Nathaniel

    2008-07-01

    Despite myriad programs aimed at increasing access to essential medicines in the developing world, the global drug gap persists. This paper focuses on the major legal and political constraints preventing implementation of coordinated global policy solutions - particularly, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and bilateral and regional free trade agreements. We argue that several policy and research routes should be taken to mitigate the restrictive impact of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus rules, including greater use of TRIPS flexibilities, advancement of human rights, and an ethical framework for essential medicines distribution, and a broader campaign that debates the legitimacy of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus standards themselves.

  8. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Luca De Benedictis; Rodolfo Helg

    2002-01-01

    This paper looks at some aspect of globalisation. After a discussion on its definition, the first part highlights historical evolution of globalisation in its major components (trade flows, foreign direct investments, portfolio movements and migration). The evidence shows that (1) globalisation its not new; (2) it is not irreversible; (3) the new elements in the last phase of globalisation are the low international mobility of labour, the changes in trade policy, the relevance in financial ca...

  9. The new transnational payments law and global consumer trade : Online platforms as providers of private legal orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janczuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    This article uses the example of one of the best-known global payment systems provided by an online platform, PayPal, to analyze the role of private legal orders in creating new markets beyond jurisdictional borders. It shows that a relatively uniform legal order reduces risks involved in

  10. Copenhagen 2009: Could a Cap-and-Trade Market Combat Global Warming and Conserve Earth's Tropical Forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedle, Harold; Calhoun, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    As the world increasingly comes to terms with the reality of global warming, international negotiators are struggling to work out the terms of a new climate change framework to be finalized this December in Copenhagen, Denmark. One aspect being discussed is a plan to compensate developing countries for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by…

  11. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice ( L. is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  12. Feeding a Hungry World: Focus on Rice in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Gary; And Others

    This unit introduces students to the diversity of rice culture and rice-based farming systems in Asia and the Pacific. Students examine issues related to the needs of the future global population. Six rice-producing countries are under study: Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, and Thailand. The lessons include: (1) "Rice in…

  13. A first telecoupling analysis of multi-species poaching trade in Nepal: When outside demands seek and distribute a local resource in times of globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, G. R.; Lama, R. P.; Puri, G.; Huettmann, F.

    2016-12-01

    Asia remains one of the last wilderness resources in the world. It's widely praised for those resources and they are in a global appreciation and demand. Considering open borders, many of them virtually uncontrollable in Asia, and globalization in full swing, precious local resources become available to a global audience without much constraint though. Nepal and its unique biodiversity presents us with one of such cases while hard data remain elusive. Here we present a first telecoupling analysis based on poaching and crime statistics presented in the public print national daily newspapers (Kantipur and Gorkhapatra) in Nepal. This review highlights a few high-profile species (timber: Sal Shorea robusta , Sissoo Dalbergia sissoo, Pine Pinus species; aromatic and medicinal plants: Red Sandal Wood Santalum album, Orchid Orchid species, Paris Paris polyphylla, Jatamashi Nardostachys grandiflora, Kutki Picrorhyza scrophulariiflora and wildlife: Royal Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris, Rhino Rhinoceros unicornis, Pangolin Manis species, Common Leopard Panthera pardus, Red Panda Ailurus fulgens, Snow Leopard Panthera uncia) in Nepal, traded out directly and illegally to India and China. We provide a wider perspective regarding sending, receiving and spill-over agents. Arguably, the western world as the spill-over agent set up a globalization framework that allows for items, virtually any items, to be shipped across borders, e.g. done on foot, by car or plane. It further allows to create and satisfy a demand by the receiver (=nations in wider Asia), and a system that circumvents the legal structure in the sending location (=Nepal and its biodiversity hotspots and wilderness). We extend the traditional telecoupling analysis with a flow analysis of money, remittance payments and banking networks. This research describes for the first time such a system which is by now essentially found worldwide, how it operates, what devastating impacts it leaves behind on landscapes, and

  14. Reassessing supplier reputation in international trade coordination – a German and Australian perspective of global organic food networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernzen, Amelie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties are especially high among importing firms and for products with sensitive and ‘critical’ quality characteristics in a societal context, such as food. While much recent literature on this issue has focused on the implementation of standards and certification systems, I argue that reputation also plays an important role for trading firms in mitigating uncertainties across large distances. Reputation may or may not reflect reality and is based on public (e.g. media and networked (from individuals information. This article draws on Convention Theory in a case study based on qualitative interviews among organic food importers to Germany and Australia. I first show that the degree of their public exposure implies specific risks and strongly influences importers’ coordination strategy. I then go on to examine how, in these firms’ supplier relations and risk management, not only the reputation of (potential suppliers counts, but also the reputation of supplier countries and institutional systems such as standards and certification bodies. Intensive involvement and first-hand experience with certifiers and suppliers in exporting countries can, in some cases, cause firms to challenge their existing beliefs. I conclude that a good reputation is still essential for (improving market access, even when basic prerequisites such as legally mandatory certification are fulfilled.

  15. Combined effects of climate and land-use change on the provision of ecosystem services in rice agro-ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerwisch, Fanny; Václavík, Tomáš; von Bloh, Werner; Vetter, Tobias; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    Irrigated rice croplands are among the world’s most important agro-ecosystems. They provide food for more than 3.5 billion people and a range of other ecosystem services (ESS). However, the sustainability of rice agro-ecosystems is threatened by continuing climate and land-use changes. To estimate their combined effects on a bundle of ESS, we applied the vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL to seven study areas in the Philippines and Vietnam. We quantified future changes in the provision of four essential ESS (carbon storage, carbon sequestration, provision of irrigation water and rice production) under two climate scenarios (until 2100) and three site-specific land-use scenarios (until 2030), and examined the synergies and trade-offs in ESS responses to these drivers. Our results show that not all services can be provided in the same amounts in the future. In the Philippines and Vietnam the projections estimated a decrease in rice yields (by approximately 30%) and in carbon storage (by 15%) and sequestration (by 12%) towards the end of the century under the current land-use pattern. In contrast, the amount of available irrigation water was projected to increase in all scenarios by 10%-20%. However, the results also indicate that land-use change may partially offset the negative climate impacts in regions where cropland expansion is possible, although only at the expense of natural vegetation. When analysing the interactions between ESS, we found consistent synergies between rice production and carbon storage and trade-offs between carbon storage and provision of irrigation water under most scenarios. Our results show that not only the effects of climate and land-use change alone but also the interaction between ESS have to be considered to allow sustainable management of rice agro-ecosystems under global change.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Warming Potential of Traditional and Diversified Tropical Rice Rotation Systems including Impacts of Upland Crop Management Practices i.e. Mulching and Inter-crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Baldur; Weller, Sebastian; Kraus, David; Wassmann, Reiner; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Paddy rice cultivation is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, while at the same time changes in demand (e.g. changes in diets or increasing demand for biofuels) will feed back on agricultural practices. These factors are changing traditional cropping patterns from flooded double-rice systems to the introduction of well-aerated upland crop systems in the dry season. Emissions of methane (CH4) are expected to decrease, while emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) will increase and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks will most likely be volatilized in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). We measured greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines to provide a comparative assessment of the global warming potentials (GWP) as well as yield scaled GWPs of different crop rotations and to evaluate mitigation potentials or risks of new management practices i.e. mulching and inter-crop cultivation. New management practices of mulching and intercrop cultivation will also have the potential to change SOC dynamics, thus can play the key role in contributing to the GWP of upland cropping systems. To present, more than three years of continuous measurement data of CH4 and N2O emissions in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) in upland cultivation have been collected. Introduction of upland crops in the dry season reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Moreover, for practices including upland crops, CH4 emissions in the subsequent wet season with paddy rice were reduced by 54-60%. Although annual N2O emissions increased twice- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction of CH4 led to a significantly lower (pbalance but also with regard to soil fertility. New upland crop management practices where first implemented during land-preparation for dry season (July) 2015 where i) 6t/ha rice straw

  17. The Impact of Agricultural Policy Distortions on the Productivity Gap: Evidence from the Rice Production

    OpenAIRE

    Rakotoarisoa, Manitra A.

    2008-01-01

    This study determines how production and trade policy distortions affected rice productivity in thirty-three rice-producing countries. A rice-productivity index for each country is constructed, and a model linking the productivity gap with policy distortions is presented. After controlling for the differences in infrastructure, openness, and human capital, this article shows that high subsidies and protection in developed countries combined with taxation of rice farming in poor countries have...

  18. The Influence of Cyclicality of the Global Economic System Development on the Structure and Dynamics of Ukraine’s Foreign Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revyakin Georgiy V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the structure and dynamics of Ukraine’s foreign trade under the influence of cyclicality of the global economic system development. There analyzed reasons for the predominance of primary sector goods in the structure of Ukraine’s production, which causes a relatively high seasonal volatility of the economic growth rates. The raw material orientation of Ukraine’s exports explains the instability of the Ukrainian economy regarding the fluctuations of the world market conjuncture. Ukraine’s critical dependence on the cyclical fluctuations of the global economic system manifested itself in 2009, when the adverse conjuncture of the world prices for metals and commodities led to a sharp decline in the production volumes in the national economy. It is concluded that the possible ways of solving the above problems in the national economy of Ukraine is the modernization and restructuring of industrial production, increase in the production volumes of goods for domestic consumption, technological and organizational renewal of the fixed assets of manufacturing enterprises, as well as reorientation of the Ukrainian industry to producing goods with a higher degree of processing along with increasing the share of high-tech products in the total exports.

  19. 77 FR 59591 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... marketing and analysis; foreign market development; overseas advertising and promotion; Products-related... marketing or sale, or U.S. business plans, strategies, or methods, unless such information is already... to: consulting and trade strategy; converting harvest rice to marketable finished rice products via...

  20. Firm Based Trade Models and Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer ARGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all international trade models, only The Firm Based Trade Models explains firm’s action and behavior in the world trade. The Firm Based Trade Models focuses on the trade behavior of individual firms that actually make intra industry trade. Firm Based Trade Models can explain globalization process truly. These approaches include multinational cooperation, supply chain and outsourcing also. Our paper aims to explain and analyze Turkish export with Firm Based Trade Models’ context. We use UNCTAD data on exports by SITC Rev 3 categorization to explain total export and 255 products and calculate intensive-extensive margins of Turkish firms.

  1. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... tics, led us to predict that pollen cell abortion in this type of rice when ... averages of natural day-light-lengths and temperatures were used. A natural long ... blocks were allowed to grow under natural growth conditions (which.

  2. Smart trade logistics - Compliance as an opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    Facilitation of trade logistics aims at simplification and harmonization of border procedures and related documentation. This is an accelerator for global trade and economic growth and therefore a priority in global trade policy. Trends in logistics and supply chain security and innovations in

  3. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  4. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  5. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopala Krishnan S

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. RESULTS: We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts. Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  6. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan S, Gopala; Waters, Daniel L E; Henry, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  7. A genome-wide association study of a global rice panel reveals resistance in Oryza sativa to root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Stanley O N; Lahari, Zobaida; Shrestha, Roshi; Douglas, Alex; Gheysen, Godelieve; Price, Adam H

    2016-02-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola is one of the most serious nematode pests worldwide and represents a major constraint on rice production. While variation in the susceptibility of Asian rice (Oryza sativa) exists, so far no strong and reliable resistance has been reported. Quantitative trait loci for partial resistance have been reported but no underlying genes have been tagged or cloned. Here, 332 accessions of the Rice Diversity Panel 1 were assessed for gall formation, revealing large variation across all subpopulations of rice and higher susceptibility in temperate japonica accessions. Accessions Khao Pahk Maw and LD 24 appeared to be resistant, which was confirmed in large pot experiments where no galls were observed. Detailed observations on these two accessions revealed no nematodes inside the roots 2 days after inoculation and very few females after 17 days (5 in Khao Pahk Maw and 100 in the susceptible controls). These two cultivars appear ideal donors for breeding root-knot nematode resistance. A genome-wide association study revealed 11 quantitative trait loci, two of which are close to epistatic loci detected in the Bala x Azucena population. The discussion highlights a small number of candidate genes worth exploring further, in particular many genes with lectin domains and genes on chromosome 11 with homology to the Hordeum Mla locus. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  9. LNG trumped : the burst of enthusiasm for shale gas could put LNG on the sidelines of global gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie-Brown, P.

    2010-01-01

    The growing interest in shale gas is largely due to rapid innovation in down-hole technologies such as horizontal drilling, better bit design, coil tubing, down-hole motors, geosteering, microseismic, measurement while drilling tools and more powerful fracing systems. Despite these advances in shale gas technology, price will be the deciding factor in the competition between liquefied natural gas (LNG) and shale gas. This article discussed the 3 sources of gas that are of interest to North American producers. The first is the great success of shale gas production in the United States and Canada. The second is the evolution of a global market for LNG. This development has eliminated the need for pipelines to tie stranded gas into the world's industrial markets. For example, Qatar is developing liquefaction facilities for an offshore reservoir with more than a quadrillion cubic feet of proved reserves. The gas industry's third area of interest lies in the huge conventional gas reserves in Alaska and the Northwest Territories. However, there is doubt that any proposed pipelines to deliver the resources to southern markets will be built, particularly since shale gas formations like the Montney and Horn River have great potential and are located right next to existing infrastructure. 2 figs.

  10. Insider trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslechko, W.S.

    1998-01-01

    The policy arguments for and against prohibiting insider trading within the petroleum industry are discussed. Legal definitions of all relevant terms (e.g. 'special relationship' 'tippees', 'material facts', material changes' 'generally disclosed' information', 'necessary course of business') are provided. Enforcement of insider trading/tipping prohibitions are also defined. The recommended practice is: do not trade; do not tell or advise; encourage timely disclosure; do not speculate; implement a corporate disclosure and trading policy

  11. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.; Kimman, R.; Schweickardt, H.E.

    2001-05-01

    This document brings together 18 testimonies of experts about energy trading: 1 - the energy trading experience on European deregulated markets: structure of deregulated energy markets in Europe, case study: a two years experience of a power exchange in western Europe, case study: European energy exchanges (experience of spot and future trading), case study: risk management on energy deregulated markets; 2 - the trading activity environment and realities in France: the French electrical law and the purchase for resale, experience feedback: status after 3 months of trading in France (the first experience of a French producer), the access to the power transportation network, which legal constraints for trading in France, the access of eligible clients to the French power market, conditions of implementation of a power exchange market in France, which real trading possibilities in France for producers and self-producers in the legal frame, case study: the role of trading in the company (main part or link to process), convergence of gas and electricity markets, gas-electricity trading: which pricing models; 3 - risk management and use of new technologies potentiality, the results outside the French borders: case study: what differences between the European and US markets, prices volatility and commodity risk management: towards the on-line trading, role and developments of E-business in energy trading, how to simplify trade in a liberalized market. (J.S.)

  12. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) - 35 Years of Global Efforts to Ensure That International Trade in Wild Animals and Plants Is Legal and Sustainable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnstekers, W

    2011-01-01

    CITES is a 35-year-old convention with a current total of 175 signatories, or parties. It regulates international trade in live specimens and products of more than 30,000 animal and plant species under three different trade regimes. CITES has clearly proved its importance for nature conservation, but its regulations often are difficult to implement and enforce, leading to unacceptably high levels of unsustainable and illegal trade in many wildlife species. There are ways, however, to improve the situation and to make compliance with CITES regulations both easier and more attractive. Copyright © 2011 Central Police University.

  13. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  14. The World Trade Organization and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P.K.

    2000-09-01

    This book explains the role and limitations of liberalized international trade on the global environment and sustainable development. A distinguishing feature of this book is an integration of trade, environment and development perspectives for operationally meaningful policy purposes. The topics explored include an analysis of the global trade regimes, their interrelationships with the existing multilateral environmental agreements, institutional mechanisms governed by the World Trade Organization, and a framework for pragmatic reforms. (author)

  15. Challenges to the Multilateral Trading System

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Sutherland

    2007-01-01

    Ever since the GATT was established in 1948, the growth in international trade and economic growth has been remarkable. The traditional mercantilism of trade relations is less and less appropriate for the global economy. Bilateral trade deals make the business environment more complex and unpredictable. Preferential trading agreements erode the principle of non-discrimination. They distort trade away from the underlying comparative advantage; create rents which are appropriated by special pro...

  16. Trade in the US and Mexico helps reduce environmental costs of agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Melendez, Luz A.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing international crop trade has enlarged global shares of cropland, water and fertilizers used to grow crops for export. Crop trade can reduce the environmental burden on importing countries, which benefit from embedded environmental resources in imported crops, and from avoided environmental impacts of production in their territory. International trade can also reduce the universal environmental impact of food production if crops are grown where they are produced in the most environmentally efficient way. We compared production efficiencies for the same crops in the US and Mexico to determine whether current crop trade between these two countries provides an overall benefit to the environment. Our economic and environmental accounting for the key traded crops from 2010 to 2014 shows that exports to Mexico are just 3% (∼16 thousand Gg) of the total production of these crops in the US, and exports to US represent roughly 0.13% (∼46 Gg) of Mexican total production of the same crops. Yields were higher in US than Mexico for all crops except wheat. Use of nitrogen fertilizer was higher in US than in Mexico for all crops except corn. Current trade reduces some, but not all, environmental costs of agriculture. A counterfactual trade scenario showed that an overall annual reduction in cultivated land (∼371 thousand ha), water use (∼923 million m3), fertilizer use (∼122 Gg; ∼68 Gg nitrogen) and pollution (∼681 tonnes of N2O emissions to the atmosphere and ∼511 tonnes of leached nitrogen) can be achieved by changing the composition of food products traded. In this case, corn, soybeans and rice should be grown in the US, while wheat, sorghum and barley should be grown in Mexico. Assigning greater economic weight to the environmental costs of agriculture might improve the balance of trade to be more universally beneficial, environmentally.

  17. Trade Finance during the 2008–9 Trade Collapse : Key Takeaways

    OpenAIRE

    Chauffour, Jean-Pierre; Malouche, Mariem

    2011-01-01

    Trade finance matters for trade, and when financial markets and world trade collapsed three years ago, a shortage in trade finance was hailed as a possible culprit. Because of the potential for global repercussions, world leaders called on the international community to act swiftly to avoid a depression. Governments and international institutions intervened to mitigate the impacts of the c...

  18. International climate policy and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuik, O.

    2000-01-01

    If a country takes steps to counter the greenhouse effect, it could influence the country's foreign trade. If a large group of countries consider such measures, e.g. the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol, that could possibly have major consequences for global trading patterns. How will the measures work out for countries, industries, and climate policy itself? Can countries mitigate any negative consequences for their trade balance? The results of a study to answer those questions are discussed

  19. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  20. Extension Resources for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  1. Energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, K.; Schroeter, S.

    2009-01-01

    Two brief articles and two interviews deal with the subject of energy trading. Power and gas exchanges in Europe multiply, but, experts say, we are nowhere near a mature, integrated European energy market as yet. Trading regulations need to be improved and harmonised and interconnections expanded. European Energy Review assesses the state of energy trading in Europe and interviews the ceo's of NordPool (the Nordic power exchange) and APX (Amsterdam Power Exchange)

  2. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  3. Testing climate-smart irrigation strategies to reduce methane emissions from rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Approximately 11% of the global 308 Tg CH4 anthropogenic emissions are currently attributed to rice cultivation. In this study, the impact of water conservation practices on rice field CH4 emissions was evaluated in Arkansas, the leading state in US rice cultivation. While conserving water, the Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) irrigation practice can also reduce CH4 emissions through the deliberate, periodic introduction of aerobic conditions. Seasonal CH4emissions from a pair of adjacent, production-sized rice fields were estimated and compared during the 2015 to 2017 growing seasons using the eddy covariance method on each field. The fields were alternately treated with continuous flood (CF) and AWD irrigation. In 2015, the seasonal cumulative carbon losses by CH4 emission were 30.3 ± 6.3 and 141.9 ± 8.6 kg CH4-C ha-1 for the AWD and CF treatments, respectively. Data from 2016 and 2017 will be analyzed and shown within this presentation; an initial view demonstrates consistent findings to 2015. When accounting for differences in field conditions and soils, the AWD practice is attributable to a 36-51% reduction in seasonal emissions. The substantial decrease in CH4 emissions by AWD supports previous chamber-based research and offers strong evidence for the efficacy of AWD in reducing CH4 emissions in Arkansas rice production. The AWD practice has enabled the sale of credits for carbon offsets trading and this new market could encourage CH4 emissions reductions on a national scale. These eddy covariance towers are being placed into a regional perspective including crop and forest land in the three states comprising the Mississippi Delta: Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

  4. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  5. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  6. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  7. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  8. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  9. Breeding of ozone resistant rice: Relevance, approaches and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations have been rising across Asia, and will continue to rise during the 21st century. Ozone affects rice yields through reductions in spikelet number, spikelet fertility, and grain size. Moreover, ozone leads to changes in rice grain and straw quality. Therefore the breeding of ozone tolerant rice varieties is warranted. The mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) using bi-parental populations identified several tolerance QTL mitigating symptom formation, grain yield losses, or the degradation of straw quality. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated substantial natural genotypic variation in ozone tolerance in rice, and revealed that the genetic architecture of ozone tolerance in rice is dominated by multiple medium and small effect loci. Transgenic approaches targeting tolerance mechanisms such as antioxidant capacity are also discussed. It is concluded that the breeding of ozone tolerant rice can contribute substantially to the global food security, and is feasible using different breeding approaches. - Highlights: • Tropospheric ozone affects millions of hectares of rice land. • Ozone affects rice yield and quality. • Breeding approaches to adapt rice to high ozone are discussed. • Challenges in the breeding of ozone resistant rice are discussed. - This review summarizes the effects of tropospheric ozone on rice and outlines approaches and challenges in the breeding of adapted varieties

  10. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  11. The continental free trade area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    The Trade Law Centre (tralac) has recently capitalised upon the prerelease Version 9.2 of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database and the recent excellent data sets from the World Bank and other publishing quality data on trade barriers across the African continent. It undertook a series...... of simulations examining regional integration and intra-African trade barrier reductions. The results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising. But the real news is in confirming that these barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers except for tariffs. Especially...... impressive results were forecast by simulating a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with the particular African problem of transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. These gains are significantly above both just intraAfrican tariff elimination and what may...

  12. Trade, investment and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, H.; Brack, D.

    2000-01-01

    As liberalisation of global trade and investment accelerates, what happens to the environment? As the world heads for confrontation in Seattle, the questions intensify. Does foreign direct investment mean forsaking environmental protection? Or do multinational corporations export higher standards when they invest abroad? Can a powerful trading nation ban imports of tropical timber produced unsustainably? Should the World Trade Organisation take the views of industry or environmental groups into account when deciding? Must world trade rules be changed to accommodate environmental concerns? This book analyzes key issues in this increasingly controversial arena and includes contributions from Renato Ruggiero, former Director General of the World Trade Organization; The Rt Hon Brian Wilson MP, former UK Minister of Trade; Dr Magda Shahin, Deputy Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs at the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Pradeep Mehta, Secretary General, Consumer Unity and Trust Society, India; and Dr Michel Potier, Head of the Economics Division at the OECD's Environment Directorate. (Author)

  13. Discovery of global genomic re-organization based on comparison of two newly sequenced rice mitochondrial genomes with cytoplasmic male sterility-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Mari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondrial genomes are known for their complexity, and there is abundant evidence demonstrating that this organelle is important for plant sexual reproduction. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is a phenomenon caused by incompatibility between the nucleus and mitochondria that has been discovered in various plant species. As the exact sequence of steps leading to CMS has not yet been revealed, efforts should be made to elucidate the factors underlying the mechanism of this important trait for crop breeding. Results Two CMS mitochondrial genomes, LD-CMS, derived from Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica (434,735 bp, and CW-CMS, derived from Oryza rufipogon Griff. (559,045 bp, were newly sequenced in this study. Compared to the previously sequenced Nipponbare (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica mitochondrial genome, the presence of 54 out of 56 protein-encoding genes (including pseudo-genes, 22 tRNA genes (including pseudo-tRNAs, and three rRNA genes was conserved. Two other genes were not present in the CW-CMS mitochondrial genome, and one of them was present as part of the newly identified chimeric ORF, CW-orf307. At least 12 genomic recombination events were predicted between the LD-CMS mitochondrial genome and Nipponbare, and 15 between the CW-CMS genome and Nipponbare, and novel genetic structures were formed by these genomic rearrangements in the two CMS lines. At least one of the genomic rearrangements was completely unique to each CMS line and not present in 69 rice cultivars or 9 accessions of O. rufipogon. Conclusion Our results demonstrate novel mitochondrial genomic rearrangements that are unique in CMS cytoplasm, and one of the genes that is unique in the CW mitochondrial genome, CW-orf307, appeared to be the candidate most likely responsible for the CW-CMS event. Genomic rearrangements were dynamic in the CMS lines in comparison with those of rice cultivars, suggesting that 'death' and possible 'birth' processes of the

  14. International trade and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, D.; Grubb, M.; Windram, C.

    2000-01-01

    Can the World Trade Organisation deal with climate change? Can a world of liberalised trade implement the Kyoto Protocol? As trade and environment head for a global collision, this book provides an essential guide to one of the key confrontations. It analyzes the conflicts now intensifying. How will climate change policies, including energy and carbon taxation and the removal of energy subsidies, affect overall trade structures and volumes? Will countries tackling climate change become less competitive? What of taxing international aviation and marine fuels? Will the 'flexibility mechanisms' of the Kyoto Protocol, such as emissions trading, fall under WTO disciplines? Can trade restrictions be applied to enforce the Kyoto Protocol? (Author)

  15. The Anatomy of Digital Trade Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukanova, Boriana; Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Henningsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In global supply chains information about transactions resides in fragmented pockets within business and government systems. The introduction of digital trade infrastructures (DTI) that transcend organizational and systems domains is driven by the prospect of reducing this information fragmentation......, thereby enabling improved security and efficiency in trade process. To understand the problem at hand and build cumulative knowledge about its resolution a way to conceptualize the different digital trade infrastructure initiatives is needed. This paper develops the Digital Trade Infrastructure Framework...

  16. The Doha Trade Round and Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, Channing

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the potential implications of the Doha Development Agenda, as well as other trade liberalization scenarios, for Mozambique. An applied general equilibrium model, which accounts for high marketing margins and home consumption in the Mozambique economy, is linked to results from the GTAP model of global trade. In addition, a microsimulation module is used to consider the subsequent implications of trade liberalization for poverty. The implications of trade liberalization, p...

  17. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  18. Rice bran phytochemicals and dietary colon chemoprevention teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing body of evidence supports that dietary rice bran exhibits gastrointestinal cancer control and prevention activity using carcinogen induced animal models and human colon cancer cell lines. Our laboratory has recently reported metabolomic differences in rice from globally and genetically dis...

  19. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indic...

  20. On-farm management practices against rice root weevil (Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall)

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Pandey; Ajit Kumar Chaturvedi; Rudal Prasad Chaudhary; Rajendra Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of over half the world's population and occupies almost one-fifth of the global cropland under cereals. The rice root weevil, Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has posed a problem in paddy cultivation areas in India. The damage by this root weevil results in a significant decrease in root and shoot biomass and ultimately the yield of rice plants. Studies were conducted to test the effective management practices of rice root weevil using a seedli...

  1. Firms, Technology and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Caldera Sanchez, Aida

    2010-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation studies the effect of economic integration on the performance of firms. The ongoing process of global economic integration has been characterized by dismantling of trade barriers and openness to foreign direct investments (FDI). These changes have not only brought opportunities to firms in terms of market access and the possibility to learn about foreign technologies brought in by foreign counterparts. The new economic environment has also posed new challenges throu...

  2. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  3. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple, brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the properties of these rice varieties of Thailand. Thus, the current study was aimed to assess the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of three rice varieties (Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice of different cultivars of northern Thailand. Rice bran extracts of these three cultivars were prepared with different solvents (polar and non-polar for the evaluation of total phytochemical content and anti-oxidant free-radical-scavenging properties. Chiang Mai Black rice contained higher concentration of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (Cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin chloride. Chiang Mai Black rice is richer in free-radical-scavenging compounds and activities than the other tested varieties. Polar extractions of rice bran are high in anti-oxidative compounds and activities than non-polar extractions.

  4. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...] Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development Facility... The STDF is a unique global partnership established by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World... cooperative agreement in fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and...

  5. The game of trading jobs for emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arto, I.; Rueda-Cantuche, J.M.; Andreoni, V.; Mongelli, I.; Genty, A.

    2014-01-01

    Following the debate on the implications of international trade for global climate policy, this paper introduces the topic of the economic benefits from trade obtained by exporting countries in relation to the emissions generated in the production of exports. In 2008, 24% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and 20% of the employment around the world were linked to international trade. China “exported” 30% of emissions and hosted 37.5% of the jobs generated by trade worldwide. The European Union and the United States of America were the destination of 25% and 18.4% of the GHG emissions embodied in trade. The imports of these two regions contributed to the creation of 45% of the employment generated by international trade. This paper proposes the idea of including trade issues in international climate negotiations, taking into account not only the environmental burden generated by developed countries when displacing emissions to developing countries through their imports, but also the economic benefits of developing countries producing the goods exported to developed countries. - Highlights: • Employment and trade issues should be considered in GHG emission reduction policies. • In 2008 24% of global GHG emissions and 20% of the employment are linked to trade. • 43% of GHG and 45% of employment embedded in trade are due to EU and US imports. • China exports 30% of the GHG and hosts 38% of the jobs generated by trade worldwide

  6. Trade liberalization and gender inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Pieters, Janneke

    2015-01-01

    Women consistently work less in the labor market and earn lower wages than men. While economic empowerment of women is an important objective in itself, women's economic activity also matters as a condition for sustained economic growth. The political debate on the labor market impacts of international trade typically differentiates workers by their educational attainment or skills. Gender is a further dimension in which the impacts of trade liberalization can differ. In a globalizing world i...

  7. Organ trade using social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed Alrogy; Dunia Jawdat; Muhannad Alsemari; Abdulrahman Alharbi; Abdullah Alasaad; Ali H Hajeer

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to Febru...

  8. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indicators of the efficiency of foreign trade from the economic and environmental perspectives are proposed. Underlining the need for enterprises to switch over to environmentally responsible trade, the author proposes instruments to achieve this end.

  9. INTERACTION OF TRADE AND FINANCIAL LINKAGES IN THE FREE TRADE ZONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shevchenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Different models of free trade agreements (FTA and free trade zones (FTZ are considered in the article, argued the complex approach to their structures and results under unstable global economic environment. The typology of the free trade zones models and financial linkages types between countries have been developed. Approaches to the results of the free trade zones have been argued. It has been discovered that for the free trade zones of transitional countries the prevailing are tarde flows concentration whereas financial and investment linkages are acting with developed countries. The main directions of increasing of the financial linkages results in the free trade zones have been discovered.

  10. What Prospects for the World Trading System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New developments and dramatic changes are under way in the world trading system. This paper aims to take stock of the latest and most relevant developments and highlight the prospects for global trade governance. The focus is on three major issues, i.e. : (1 the outcome of the Ninth WTO Ministerial Conference in December 2013 in Bali (Indonesia and especially its significance for enhancing the multilateral trading system; (2 the accelerated pace and scale of negotiations on regional trade agreements (RTAs and their wider impact; and (3 the positive results of continued unilateral trade liberalization efforts, in contrast with the pervasiveness of crisis-related protectionist measures. The paper concludes that, despite improved prospects for multilateral trade liberalization following the last WTO Ministerial Conference, the world trading system is becoming more fragmented and less coherent, and also more uncertain, being increasingly driven by RTAs and a variable geometry approach to WTO trade agreements.

  11. Universal Health Coverage - The Critical Importance of Global Solidarity and Good Governance Comment on "Ethical Perspective: Five Unacceptable Trade-offs on the Path to Universal Health Coverage".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Andreas A

    2016-06-07

    This article provides a commentary to Ole Norheim' s editorial entitled "Ethical perspective: Five unacceptable trade-offs on the path to universal health coverage." It reinforces its message that an inclusive, participatory process is essential for ethical decision-making and underlines the crucial importance of good governance in setting fair priorities in healthcare. Solidarity on both national and international levels is needed to make progress towards the goal of universal health coverage (UHC). © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  12. Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade. Evaluating the impact of sustainability criteria and policy on past and future bioenergy supply and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Within a single decade, bioenergy has shifted from a largely local energy source with marginal trade volumes to a globally traded item. The primary objective of this thesis is to evaluate the links between national renewable energy support and trade policies and market forces on past global

  13. Trade and the Crisis; Protect or Recover

    OpenAIRE

    Mika Saito; Christian Henn; Rob Gregory; Brad J. McDonald

    2010-01-01

    The pace of trade reforms waned from the mid-2000s as protectionist sentiment began to increase. With the onset of the global financial crisis, reform progress not only halted but began to reverse. As we show in this note, new trade restrictions have had—in the limited products they targeted—a strong negative impact on trade. The aggregate impact of new restrictions is modest, at about 0.25 percent of global trade, as most countries have resisted a widespread resort to protectionism. Looking ...

  14. Methane emission from wetland rice fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    1996-01-01


    Methane (CH 4 ) is an important greenhouse gas and plays a key role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Wetland rice fields are an important source of methane, accounting for approximately 20% of the global anthropogenic

  15. Environmental pollution and world trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Ravi; Beladi, Hamid; Frasca, Ralph

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present a model that highlights the relationship between international trade and environmental pollution. It includes a small open economy that produces a domestic composite good and imports another composite good and energy products. The pollution is created by local production, global production and transportation. Given this model we demonstrate that free trade within the current political and economic context may produce a suboptimal level of welfare. The rationale is based upon the argument that transportation is energy-intensive and that, therefore, trade itself is a source of pollution. Consequently, under certain global conditions the introduction of an energy tariff in a small open economy raises social welfare and is superior to free trade. A consumption tariff adopted by a single nation will not have similar consequences because it has no impact upon local usage. However, when a consumption tariff is globally adopted there is the opportunity for a net benefit. Finally, we argue that a global tariff that raises both the price of energy and the price of the imported composite good may generate the greatest increase in welfare by reducing both energy-intensive production and energy-intensive trade

  16. Environmental pollution and world trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, Ravi [Department of Economics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0496 (United States); Beladi, Hamid; Frasca, Ralph [Department of Economics and Finance, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469-2240 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In this paper we present a model that highlights the relationship between international trade and environmental pollution. It includes a small open economy that produces a domestic composite good and imports another composite good and energy products. The pollution is created by local production, global production and transportation. Given this model we demonstrate that free trade within the current political and economic context may produce a suboptimal level of welfare. The rationale is based upon the argument that transportation is energy-intensive and that, therefore, trade itself is a source of pollution. Consequently, under certain global conditions the introduction of an energy tariff in a small open economy raises social welfare and is superior to free trade. A consumption tariff adopted by a single nation will not have similar consequences because it has no impact upon local usage. However, when a consumption tariff is globally adopted there is the opportunity for a net benefit. Finally, we argue that a global tariff that raises both the price of energy and the price of the imported composite good may generate the greatest increase in welfare by reducing both energy-intensive production and energy-intensive trade

  17. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WHITH RAPESEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study takes into consideration the international trade situation of rapeseed worldwide. To highlight the situation are analyzed sequentially imports and exports in five units continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania. Applicability and interest increased for trade with this product is emphasized by references from Romania. The study takes into consideration 2008-2010. In terms of world imports and their structure is noted preponderance Europe and Asia in the quantities imported - 87.38% (both, the weights low enough for Oceania and Africa - 0.04 together. If we analyze the situation of exports is apparent fact that Europe remains, as in the case of imports, the main player on the market (48.11%, but not followed by Asia, but of America with a very close relative weight (44 , 45%. Oceania owns more than 5% of world quantitatively of exports, while Asia and Africa have shares almost insignificant - 0.36 and 0.05% respectively. Regarding the situation of global trade balance exchanges for rapeseed can be seen a globally deficient character.

  18. Trade Facilitation Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Discriminatory or Non-discriminatory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innwon Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The RTAs with trade facilitation provisions have been expected to generate a larger net trade-creating effect and complement the discriminatory feature of RTAs but have yet to be empirically proven. Recognizing the limitations of existing studies, we conducted a quantitative analysis on the effects of RTAs with and without trade facilitation provisions on both intra- and extra-bloc trade by using a modified gravity equation. We applied the Poisson Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood (PPML estimation with time varying exporter and importer fixed effect method to panel data consisting of 45,770 country pairs covering 170 countries for 2000-2010. We found that the trade facilitation provisions in existing RTAs are non-discriminatory by generating more intra- and extra-bloc trade in general. In particular, we found that the trade effects of RTAs in the APEC region are much stronger than the general case covering all RTAs in the world. In addition, as we control the trade effect of a country's trade facilitation, which is ranked by the World Bank's logistic performance index, RTAs consisting of trade facilitation provisions are discriminatory for trade in final goods and non-discriminatory for trade in intermediate goods. Overall, we endeavor to "explain," instead of "hypothesizing," why most of the recent RTAs contain trade facilitation provisions, especially in light of the deepening regional interdependence through trade in parts and components under global value chains and support the necessity of multilateralizing RTAs by implementing non-discriminatory trade facilitation provisions.

  19. Avian foods, foraging and habitat conservation in world rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture typically involves seasonal flooding and soil tillage, which provides a variety of microhabitats and potential food for birds. Water management in rice fields creates conditions ranging from saturated mud flats to shallow (seed mass from North America ranging from 66672 kg/ha. Although initially abundant after harvest, waste rice availability can be temporally limited. Few abundance estimates for other foods, such as vertebrate prey or forage vegetation, exist for rice fields. Outside North America, Europe and Japan, little is known about abundance and importance of any avian food in rice fields. Currently, flooding rice fields after harvest is the best known management practice to attract and benefit birds. Studies from North America indicate specific agricultural practices (e.g. burning stubble) may increase use and improve access to food resources. Evaluating and implementing management practices that are ecologically sustainable, increase food for birds and are agronomically beneficial should be global priorities to integrate rice production and avian conservation. Finally, land area devoted to rice agriculture appears to be stable in the USA, declining in China, and largely unquantified in many regions. Monitoring trends in riceland area may provide information to guide avian conservation planning in rice-agriculture ecosystems.

  20. Energy and environmental impact analysis of rice cultivation and straw management in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodkhum, Sanwasan; Sampattagul, Sate; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2018-04-17

    Rice cultivation and energy use for rice production can produce the environmental impacts, especially related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Also, rice straw open burning by farmers generally practiced after harvesting stage in Thailand for removing the residues in the rice field is associated with emissions of air pollutants, especially particulate matter formation that affects human health and global climate. This study assessed the environmental burdens, consisting of GHG emissions, energy use, and particulate matter formation (PM10), from rice cultivation in Thailand by life cycle assessment (LCA) and compared the environmental burdens of rice straw management scenarios: open burning, incorporation into soil, and direct combustion for electricity generation. The data were collected from the rice production cooperative in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, via onsite records and face-to-face questionnaires in 2016. The environmental impacts were evaluated from cradle-to-farm gate. The results showed that the total GHG emissions were 0.64 kg CO 2 -eq per kilogram of paddy rice, the total energy use was 1.80 MJ per kilogram of paddy rice and the PM10 emissions were 0.42 g PM10-eq per kilogram of paddy rice. The results of rice straw management scenarios showed that rice straw open burning had the highest GHG and PM10 emissions. However, rice straw utilization by incorporation into soil and direct combustion for electricity generation could reduce these impacts substantially.

  1. Physicochemical Characteristics of Artificial Rice from Composite Flour: Modified Cassava Starch, Canavalia ensiformis and Dioscorea esculenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Pudjihastuti, Isti; Handayani, Noer Abyor; Kusumayanti, Heny

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is the third largest country on the global paddy rice production and also considered as a rice importer. Even, Indonesia has the biggest per capita consumption of paddy rice (140 kg of paddy rice per person per year). Product diversification using local commodities. Artificial rice is potential to be developed as a new value product using different types of grains. It is one of appropriate solutions for reducing imported rice rate. Artificial rice was produced using high nutrition composite flours (modified cassava starch, corn, Canavalian ensiformis, and Dioscorea esculenta). This study consists of three main stages, preparation of composite flour, formulation, and artificial rice production using hot extruder capacity 10 kg/day. The objectives of this studies were to investigate some formulation in compare with commercial paddy rice. Artificial rice has been successfully conducted using prototype of hot extruder with the temperature 95°C. Physical analyses (color and water absorption) were carried out to artificial rice product and commercial paddy rice. Chemical analyses (nutrition and amylose content) of product will be also presented in this study. The best formulation of artificial rice was achieved in 80% modified cassava starch, 10% Canavalian ensiformis, and 10% Dioscorea esculenta, respectively.

  2. Physicochemical Characteristics of Artificial Rice from Composite Flour: Modified Cassava Starch, Canavalia ensiformis and Dioscorea esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumardiono Siswo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the third largest country on the global paddy rice production and also considered as a rice importer. Even, Indonesia has the biggest per capita consumption of paddy rice (140 kg of paddy rice per person per year. Product diversification using local commodities. Artificial rice is potential to be developed as a new value product using different types of grains. It is one of appropriate solutions for reducing imported rice rate. Artificial rice was produced using high nutrition composite flours (modified cassava starch, corn, Canavalian ensiformis, and Dioscorea esculenta. This study consists of three main stages, preparation of composite flour, formulation, and artificial rice production using hot extruder capacity 10 kg/day. The objectives of this studies were to investigate some formulation in compare with commercial paddy rice. Artificial rice has been successfully conducted using prototype of hot extruder with the temperature 95°C. Physical analyses (color and water absorption were carried out to artificial rice product and commercial paddy rice. Chemical analyses (nutrition and amylose content of product will be also presented in this study. The best formulation of artificial rice was achieved in 80% modified cassava starch, 10% Canavalian ensiformis, and 10% Dioscorea esculenta, respectively.

  3. 76 FR 2720 - Trade Adjustment Assistance Program; Designation of Certifying Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... their employment by certain types of foreign trade. The Trade and Globalization Adjustment Assistance... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Trade Adjustment Assistance Program; Designation of Certifying Officers AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice...

  4. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...... in adverse institutional contexts, can be effective when they reinvent their repertoires of contention, through political action or campaigning along global value chains....

  5. Trade Logistic and Regional Integration in Latin America & the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Guerrero; Krista Lucenti; Sebastián Galarza S.

    2009-01-01

    During the past few decades, the landscape of the world economy has changed. New trade patterns reflect the globalization of the supply chain and intra-industry trade, and increasing flows between neighboring countries and trading blocs with similar factor endowments. Similarly, the approach to production, trade, and transportation has evolved incorporating freight logistics as an important valueadded service in the global production. This integrated approach have become essential, and as suc...

  6. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M Ángeles

    2016-09-16

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870-2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system.

  7. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system. PMID:27633649

  8. Aspects related to 'emission trading'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutuianu, Ovidiu

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the aspects of international GHG (greenhouse gases) emission trading, such as: quality of GHG emission data, possible partners, monitoring activity, market mechanisms and difficulties. The following conclusions are drown: - debates on international trade with GHG emissions are currently in a very early stage; - actions are possible and feasible, particularly after Kyoto Conference, as versatile mechanism (besides the Joint Implementation Projects) which have in view the lowering of the global emission costs in different zones of the planet; - difficulties concerning monitoring, reporting and verification, practically preclude implementing a system of emission trading covering all the GHG, all the sources and reservoirs; - an international viable system of emission trading could initiate with a limited number of participants and consideration of only emission categories easy to be confined and surveyed; - existence of a national market and corresponding institutions for monitoring which could booster an international system development

  9. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  10. Framing international trade and chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Mohindra, Katia S; Lencucha, Raphael

    2011-07-04

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks.

  11. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  12. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohindra Katia S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs. This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011. Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks.

  13. A Global Optimizing Policy for Decaying Items with Ramp-Type Demand Rate under Two-Level Trade Credit Financing Taking Account of Preservation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory system for deteriorating items, with ramp-type demand rate, under two-level trade credit policy taking account of preservation technology is considered. The objective of this study is to develop a deteriorating inventory policy when the supplier provides to the retailer a permissible delay in payments, and during this credit period, the retailer accumulates the revenue and earns interest on that revenue; also the retailer invests on the preservation technology to reduce the rate of product deterioration. Shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. Sufficient conditions of the existence and uniqueness of the optimal replenishment policy are provided, and an algorithm, for its determination, is proposed. Numerical examples draw attention to the obtained results, and the sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to leading parameters of the system is carried out.

  14. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  15. Trading volume and the number of trades

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan Izzeldin

    2007-01-01

    Trading volume and the number of trades are both used as proxies for market activity, with disagreement as to which is the better proxy for market activity. This paper investigates this issue using high frequency data for Cisco and Intel in 1997. A number of econometric methods are used, including GARCH augmented with lagged trading volume and number of trades, tests based on moment restrictions, regression analysis of volatility on volume and trades, normality of returns when standardized by...

  16. Foreign experience of regulating international trade transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko L. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the international experience of state regulating international trade transactions; nature, directions and contradictions of contemporary processes of globalization are defined; components of regulatory and incentive means in system of state supporting foreign trade activity of commodity producers are considered; general provisions for the improvement of state regulation mechanisms of export-import activities in Ukraine are determined.

  17. Estimativa da produtividade de arroz irrigado em função da radiação solar global e da temperatura mínima do ar Rice yield estimates based on global solar radiation and minimum air temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Steinmetz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a importância da produção do arroz irrigado no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e que o seu desempenho é influenciado pelas condições meteorológicas, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a produtividade de grãos dessa cultura em função da radiação solar global e da temperatura mínima do ar, usando procedimentos de análise de regressão linear simples e múltipla. Realizou-se um experimento de campo, em Capão do Leão, RS, durante três anos agrícolas. Empregaram-se, em cada ano agrícola, seis datas de semeadura e oito cultivares de diferentes grupos de comprimento de ciclo. Dez colmos principais de cada cultivar foram marcados, para determinarem-se os principais estádios de desenvolvimento. A variável dependente (Y foi a média da produtividade de quatro repetições, de cada época de semeadura, e as variáveis independentes foram: a média da radiação solar global (X¹, a média da temperatura mínima do ar (X² e a média da temperatura mínima do ar elevada ao quadrado (X³, computadas em quatro períodos de desenvolvimento da planta para a radiação solar global e em três períodos para a temperatura mínima do ar. A maioria das variáveis, quando testadas isoladamente, apresentou uma relação linear significativa com a produtividade, mas os coeficientes de determinação (r² foram mais elevados nas regressões lineares múltiplas envolvendo as principais variáveis. Modelos de regressão que utilizam como variáveis preditoras a radiação solar global e a temperatura mínima do ar, em diferentes períodos de desenvolvimento da planta, mostram-se adequados para a estimativa da produtividade de grãos de arroz irrigado.Considering the importance of irrigated rice production in the State of Rio Grande do Sul and that its performance is influenced by the weather conditions, the objective of this study was to estimate the grain yield of this crop as a function of global solar radiation and minimum air

  18. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  19. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  20. Rice Bran Fermented with Saccharomyces boulardii Generates Novel Metabolite Profiles with Bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence supporting chronic disease fighting properties of rice bran has advanced the development of stabilized rice bran for human use as a functional food and dietary supplement. A global and targeted metabolomic investigation of stabilized rice bran fermented with Saccharomyces boulardii was performed in three rice varieties. Metabolites from S. boulardii-fermented rice bran were detected by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS) and assessed for bioactivity compared to nonfermented rice bran in normal and malignant lymphocytes. Global metabolite profiling revealed significant differences in the metabolome that led to discovery of candidate compounds modulated by S. boulardii fermentation. Fermented rice bran extracts from three rice varieties reduced growth of human B lymphomas compared to each variety’s nonfermented control and revealed that fermentation differentially altered bioactive compounds. These data support that integration of global and targeted metabolite analysis can be utilized for assessing health properties of rice bran phytochemicals that are enhanced by yeast fermentation and that differ across rice varieties. PMID:21306106

  1. 77 FR 31151 - World Trade Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... entrepreneurs, and productive workers, we have met a global demand for goods and services designed and produced... signed legislation to implement three trade agreements that will make it easier for American companies...

  2. The anatomy of digital trade infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rukanova, B.D.; Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Henningsson, Stefan; Tan, Y.

    2017-01-01

    In global supply chains information about transactions resides in fragmented pockets within business and government systems. The introduction of digital trade infrastructures (DTI) that transcend organizational and systems domains is driven by the prospect of reducing this information fragmentation,

  3. The FRISBEE tool, a software for optimising the trade-off between food quality, energy use, and global warming impact of cold chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwanpua, S.G.; Verboven, P.; Leducq, D.; Brown, T.; Verlinden, B.E.; Bekele, E.; Aregawi, W. Evans, J.; Foster, A.; Duret, S.; Hoang, H.M.; Sluis, S. van der; Wissink, E.; Hendriksen, L.J.A.M.; Taoukis, P.; Gogou, E.; Stahl, V.; El Jabri, M.; Le Page, J.F.; Claussen, I.; Indergård, E.; Nicolai, B.M.; Alvarez, G.; Geeraerd, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Food quality (including safety) along the cold chain, energy use and global warming impact of refrigeration systems are three key aspects in assessing cold chain sustainability. In this paper, we present the framework of a dedicated software, the FRISBEE tool, for optimising quality of refrigerated

  4. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WITH ONIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the global trade situation with onion, 2008-2010. Besides presenting the existing situation of the five units continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania study shows worldwide level of imports and exports, as well as its contribution to the performing acts of international exchange. Quantitative aspects of trade are filled with values data, that allowed the preparation of trade exchanges for this product. The main importer (in quantitative terms is represented by Asia, followed by Europe and at greater distance by the America, while the value of imports was dominated by operations performed in Europe, Asia and America - weights of 39.7 , 38.1 and 18.6% respective (of the world total. Concerning the quantity, the major players on the market exports are represented by Asia and Europe. They have dominated the world market, achieving 45.6 and respective 30.8% of world exports. America ranks third with a share of 17.4%. In terms of value, world exports were dominated by Asia, Europe and America (33.5, 32.7 and respective 26.7%, with a downward trend in the share of Asia and increasing European weights and American (compared to the specific situation of the quantities exported

  5. Effects of water-saving irrigation practices and drought resistant rice variety on greenhouse gas emissions from a no-till paddy in the central lowlands of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ying; Ge, Junzhu; Tian, Shaoyang; Li, Shuya [MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Cultivation (The Middle Reaches of Yangtze River), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Nguy-Robertson, Anthony L. [Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies, School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0973 (United States); Zhan, Ming, E-mail: zhanming@mail.hzau.edu.cn [MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Cultivation (The Middle Reaches of Yangtze River), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Cao, Cougui, E-mail: ccgui@mail.hzau.edu.cn [MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Cultivation (The Middle Reaches of Yangtze River), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-02-01

    As pressure on water resources increases, alternative practices to conserve water in paddies have been developed. Few studies have simultaneously examined the effectiveness of different water regimes on conserving water, mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG), and maintaining yields in rice production. This study, which was conducted during the drought of 2013, examined all three factors using a split-plot experiment with two rice varieties in a no-till paddy managed under three different water regimes: 1) continuous flooding (CF), 2) flooded and wet intermittent irrigation (FWI), and 3) flooded and dry intermittent irrigation (FDI). The Methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions were measured using static chamber-gas measurements, and the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were monitored using a soil CO{sub 2} flux system (LI-8100). Compared with CF, FWI and FDI irrigation strategies reduced CH{sub 4} emissions by 60% and 83%, respectively. In contrast, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O fluxes increased by 65% and 9%, respectively, under FWI watering regime and by 104% and 11%, respectively, under FDI managed plots. Although CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions increased, the global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of all three GHG decreased by up to 25% and 29% (p < 0.01), respectively, using water-saving irrigation strategies. The rice variety also affected yields and GHG emissions in response to different water regimes. The drought-resistance rice variety (HY3) was observed to maintain yields, conserve water, and reduce GHG under the FWI irrigation management compared with the typical variety (FYY299) planted in the region. The FYY299 only had significantly lower GWP and GHGI when the yield was reduced under FDI water regime. In conclusion, FWI irrigation strategy could be an effective option for simultaneously saving water and mitigating GWP without reducing rice yields using drought-resistant rice varieties, such as HY3

  6. The enterprises reorganization in the international trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ultemar da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This present article aims to make an approach to the international trade, showing the competitiveness in the business world, as well as the companies/enterprises need in preparing themselves to face the great competition in the international trade, into a more and more globalized and competitive environment. At the ending 90’s, facing to crises and so many other economic models, some Brazilian enterprises began to adopt an undertaken-mindedness searching insertion in the global market.

  7. The Potential of Polarimetric and Compact SAR Data in Rice Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Y; Li, K; Liu, L; Yang, Z; Brisco, B

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a major food staple in the world, and provides food for more than one-third of the global population. The monitoring and mapping of paddy rice in a timely and efficient manner is very important for governments and decision makers. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been proved to be a significant data source in rice monitoring. In this study, RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data were used to simulate compact polarimetry data. The simulated compact data and polarimetric data were then used to evaluate the information content for rice identification. The results indicate that polarimetric SAR can be used for rice identification based on the scattering mechanisms. The compact polarization RH and the RH/RL ratio are very promising for the discrimination of transplanted rice and direct-sown rice. These results require verification in further research

  8. Fuel trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part of this report proposes an overview of trends and predictions. After a synthesis on the sector changes and trends, it indicates and comments the most recent predictions for the consumption of refined oil products and for the turnover of the fuel wholesale market, reports the main highlights concerning the sector's life, and gives a dashboard of the sector activity. The second part proposes the annual report on trends and competition. It presents the main operator profiles and fuel categories, the main determining factors of the activity, the evolution of the sector context between 2005 and 2015 (consumptions, prices, temperature evolution). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity and indicators (sales, turnovers, prices, imports). Financial performances of enterprises are presented. The economic structure of the sector is described (evolution of the economic fabric, structural characteristics, French foreign trade). Actors are then presented and ranked in terms of turnover, of added value, and of result

  9. Digital Trade Infrastructures: A Framework for Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriana Boriana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In global supply chains, information about transactions resides in fragmented pockets within business and government systems. The lack of reliable, accurate and complete information makes it hard to detect risks (such as safety, security, compliance and commercial risks and at the same time makes international trade inefficient. The introduction of digital infrastructures that transcend organizational and system domains is driven by the prospect of reducing the fragmentation of information, thereby enabling improved security and efficiency in the trading process. This article develops a digital trade infrastructure framework through an empirically grounded analysis of four digital infrastructures in the trade domain, using the conceptual lens of digital infrastructure.

  10. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels this century will significantly deplete the nutritional quality of rice affecting the health of rice-dependent populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globally, rice is the primary food crop and caloric source for the least economically developed countries, especially in Asia. Although studies have explored the impacts of increased carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2] and climate change on rice production, there is limited quantification of the di...

  11. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Gautier M; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  12. Trade Integration and Trade Imbalances in the European Union: A Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Gautier M.; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network. PMID:24465381

  13. The Vulnerability of Rice Value Chains in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanen Terdoo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important food crops in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change, variability, and economic globalization threatens to disrupt rice value chains across the subcontinent, undermining their important role in economic development, food security, and poverty reduction. This paper maps existing research on the vulnerability of rice value chains, synthesizes the evidence and the risks posed by climate change and economic globalization, and discusses agriculture and rural development policies and their relevance for the vulnerability of rice value chains in sub-Saharan Africa. Important avenues for future research are identified. These include the impacts of multiple, simultaneous pressures on rice value chains, the effects of climate change and variability on parts of the value chain other than production, and the forms and extent to which different development policies hinder or enhance the resilience of rice value chains in the face of climatic and other pressures.

  14. Pol??tica exterior y comercio internacional en la Uni??n Europea en un mundo globalizado = European foreign policy and international trade under a globalized world

    OpenAIRE

    Fern??ndez D??az, Paula

    2017-01-01

    El consiguiente trabajo proporciona una visi??n general del Comercio Internacional en la Uni??n Europea y el lugar que esta ocupa en el contexto internacional. Para realizar un an??lisis completo de la pol??tica comercial de la UE, se debe tener en cuenta la globalizaci??n y la importancia que tiene la Uni??n Europea como participante en el intercambio de bienes a nivel global. Por ello, este estudio se inicia situando a la UE en el Mercado Internacional, ya que est?? es la eco...

  15. The role of biotechnology to ensure rice food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    Rice as a food is key to the survival of more than 60% of the world population, most of whom live in Asia. Food security in Asia is therefore strongly dependent on an adequate, available supply of affordable rice. Experts estimate that global rice supply would need to increase at an average of 1.7% per annum for the next 20 years, and average rice yields must roughly double in the next 20 years in both the irrigated and favourable rainfed lowland environments, if a global shortage is to be avoided. At the same time that the need to increase total production, and unit area productivity is being felt, society is also demanding that agricultural practices be environment friendly and be part of a sustainable agricultural system. Rice breeders have seen increased difficulties to source and utilize new genetic resources for genetic improvement of yield potential from within the rice genome. As with other cereals, rice yield potential has not been dramatically increased in the last decade when compared to the quantum increase of the early Green Revolution years. Furthermore, pest-induced losses currently account for up to 30% of the loss in yield potential. Biotechnology, especially recombinant DNA technology, offers tools to transfer genes from outside the rice genome to address the critical issues of raising the yield potential, increasing tolerance or resistance to insects, diseases and a biotic stresses, to increase the efficiency of pest management, and also to improve the nutritive value of the rice grain. Genetically modified crops have a demonstrated record of environmental and food safety, and all such crops undergo a process of safety assessment and regulatory approval before they are put into the marketplace. Serious social issues, however, arise in matching the capacity of biotechnology to change crops, and in what changes society is willing to accept; and at this early stage of biotechnology applications, science-based approaches are important so that emotion

  16. Demethylation of methylmercury in growing rice plants: An evidence of self-detoxification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaohan; Zhao, Jiating; Li, Yunyun; Fan, Yuqin; Zhu, Nali; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Bai; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that poses a serious threat to human and the environment. Rice was found as an important source for human exposure to Hg in some areas. In this study, the transportation and transformation of IHg and MeHg in rice plants exposed to IHg or MeHg were investigated. The IHg and MeHg concentrations in rice roots and shoots collected every five days were analyzed by HPLC-ICP-MS and SR-XANES. When exposed to MeHg, the percent of IHg in rice roots and shoots increased while MeHg decreased significantly, suggesting prominent demethylation of MeHg occurred. However no notable MeHg was found in both roots and shoots of rice plant when exposed to IHg. SR-XANES analysis further confirmed the demethylation of MeHg with rice. This study provides a new finding that demethylation of MeHg could occur in growing rice, which may be a self-defense process of rice plant. - Graphical abstract: Inorganic mercury in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants exposed to methylmercury was detected: An evidence of rice plant against methylmercury phytotoxicity. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Demethylation of MeHg in rice plant was found in rice root. • Hg in rice roots mainly present as MeHg-SR or RS-Hg-SR form. • MeHg-SR in roots can be gradually transformed to RS-Hg-SR with rice growth. - Demethylation of MeHg in growing rice.

  17. The Algerian Foreign Trade between the Multilateral Trading System and the Regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayreddine Belaaze

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims at highlighting a major challenge facing global trade and trade in developing countries. Indeed, regional and preferential trade agreements are now more than ever inconsistent and incoherent and one of the principles of the World Trade Organization, the clause of the most favored nation requiring eliminated all forms of discrimination between trading parties, but what we see in regional trade agreements that the preferential tariffs based on a principle of discrimination. All regional trade agreements granting preferential tariffs between member countries, these preferences do not include the remains of non-member countries (rest of world. On the other hand, preferential tariffs are lower than MFN rates. Meanwhile, the number of regional agreements has doubled since 1995 date creation of the WTO, and Algeria like other developing countries considered one of countries which have not benefit a lot from this situation.

  18. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  19. A Survey of the Economics of Fair Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Dammert, Ana C.; Mohan, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Fair Trade has spread in developing countries as an initiative aimed at lifting poor smallholder farmers out of poverty by providing them with premium prices, availability of credit, and improved community development and social goods. Fair Trade is also viewed as a niche market for high value products in a context of globalization and trade liberalization policies that affect smallholder farmers in developing countries. The question of whether Fair Trade affects the welfare of rural farmers,...

  20. Transfer of gaseous iodine from atmosphere to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Misako; Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Shuho; Obata, Hitoshi.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to obtain information required for establishing transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine (I 2 ) to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice. The gaseous iodine deposited on young rice plants before the heading period was scarcely found in the rough rice harvested at the full ripe stage. The biological half life of iodine in hull, however, was much slower than that in leaves of 14 days. The translocation of iodine from leaves and stalks to rough rice was not clearly recognized. Therefore, it was deduced that iodine found in brown rice mainly should originate from that deposited on the hull. The distribution ratios of iodine between rough rice and brown rice, and between brown rice and polished rice were 100:4 and 100:30 on 100 grains basis, respectively. If average normalized deposition velocity (V d(m) ) or derived deposition velocity (V s ) are given, the transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine to rough rice (TF r ), brown rice (TF b ) and polished rice (TF p ) could be calculated. (author)

  1. Nicotianamine, a novel enhancer of rice iron bioavailability to humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqing Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polished rice is a staple food for over 50% of the world's population, but contains little bioavailable iron (Fe to meet human needs. Thus, biofortifying the rice grain with novel promoters or enhancers of Fe utilization would be one of the most effective strategies to prevent the high prevalence of Fe deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in the developing world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We transformed an elite rice line cultivated in Southern China with the rice nicotianamine synthase gene (OsNAS1 fused to a rice glutelin promoter. Endosperm overexpression of OsNAS1 resulted in a significant increase in nicotianamine (NA concentrations in both unpolished and polished grain. Bioavailability of Fe from the high NA grain, as measured by ferritin synthesis in an in vitro Caco-2 cell model that simulates the human digestive system, was twice as much as that of the control line. When added at 1:1 molar ratio to ferrous Fe in the cell system, NA was twice as effective when compared to ascorbic acid (one of the most potent known enhancers of Fe bioavailability in promoting more ferritin synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that NA is a novel and effective promoter of iron utilization. Biofortifying polished rice with this compound has great potential in combating global human iron deficiency in people dependent on rice for their sustenance.

  2. Carbon trading: Current schemes and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdan, Slobodan; Azapagic, Adisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading schemes and examines the prospects of carbon trading. The first part of the paper gives an overview of several mandatory GHG trading schemes around the world. The second part focuses on the future trends in carbon trading. It argues that the emergence of new schemes, a gradual enlargement of the current ones, and willingness to link existing and planned schemes seem to point towards geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading. However, such expansion would need to overcome some considerable technical and non-technical obstacles. Linking of the current and emerging trading schemes requires not only considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems, but also necessitates clear regulatory and policy signals, continuing political support and a more stable economic environment. Currently, the latter factors are missing. The global economic turmoil and its repercussions for the carbon market, a lack of the international deal on climate change defining the Post-Kyoto commitments, and unfavourable policy shifts in some countries, cast serious doubts on the expansion of emissions trading and indicate that carbon trading enters an uncertain period. - Highlights: → The paper provides an extensive overview of mandatory emissions trading schemes around the world. → Geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading are identified as future trends. → The expansion requires considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems. → Clear policy signals, political support and a stable economic environment are needed for the expansion. → A lack of the post-Kyoto commitments and unfavourable policy shifts indicate an uncertain future for carbon trading.

  3. Leaf gas films contribute to rice (Oryza sativa) submergence tolerance during saline floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Max; Konnerup, Dennis; Pedersen, Ole

    2018-01-01

    Floods and salinization of agricultural land adversely impact global rice production. We investigated whether gas films on leaves of submerged rice delay salt entry during saline submergence. Two-week-old plants with leaf gas films (+GF) or with gas films experimentally removed (-GF) were submerged...

  4. Reducing Potential Disaster Impacts in Irrigated Rice Fields in West Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sianturi, R.S.

    2018-01-01

    The increasing global population inevitably demands for stable food production. As an important food crop, rice plays a major role in maintaining food security. However, irrigated rice fields are increasingly suffered from natural hazard occurrences worldwide, disrupting livelihoods of millions of

  5. Rice in cropping systems - Modelling transitions between flooded and non-flooded soil environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaydon, D.S.; Probert, M.E.; Buresh, R.J.; Meinke, H.B.; Suriadi, A.; Dobermann, A.; Bouman, B.A.M.; Timsina, J.

    2012-01-01

    Water shortages in many rice-growing regions, combined with growing global imperatives to increase food production, are driving research into increased water use efficiency and modified agricultural practices in rice-based cropping systems. Well-tested cropping systems models that capture

  6. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) response to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Pires, Inê s S.; Negrã o, Só nia; Oliveira, M. Margarida; Purugganan, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    affected by salt stress in rice, which puts in question the importance of K+/Na+ when analyzing rice salt stress response. Not only do our results contribute to improve our global understanding of salt stress response in an important crop, but we also use

  7. Geographic authentication of Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) using multi-elemental and stable isotopic data combined with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Sung-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Hee; Son, Na-Young; Jin, Yong-Ik; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the world's third largest food crop after wheat and corn. Geographic authentication of rice has recently emerged asan important issue for enhancing human health via food safety and quality assurance. Here, we aimed to discriminate rice of six Asian countries through geographic authentication using combinations of elemental/isotopic composition analysis and chemometric techniques. Principal components analysis could distinguish samples cultivated from most countries, except for those cultivated in the Philippines and Japan. Furthermore, orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis provided clear discrimination between rice cultivated in Korea and other countries. The major common variables responsible for differentiation in these models were δ 34 S, Mn, and Mg. Our findings contribute to understanding the variations of elemental and isotopic compositions in rice depending on geographic origins, and offer valuable insight into the control of fraudulent labeling regarding the geographic origins of rice traded among Asian countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Burkholderia glumae: next major pathogen of rice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Melanson, Rebecca A; Rush, Milton C

    2011-05-01

    Burkholderia glumae causes bacterial panicle blight of rice, which is an increasingly important disease problem in global rice production. Toxoflavin and lipase are known to be major virulence factors of this pathogen, and their production is dependent on the TofI/TofR quorum-sensing system, which is mediated by N-octanoyl homoserine lactone. Flagellar biogenesis and a type III secretion system are also required for full virulence of B. glumae. Bacterial panicle blight is thought to be caused by seed-borne B. glumae; however, its disease cycle is not fully understood. In spite of its economic importance, neither effective control measures for bacterial panicle blight nor rice varieties showing complete resistance to the disease are currently available. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying B. glumae virulence and of the rice defence mechanisms against the pathogen would lead to the development of better methods of disease control for bacterial panicle blight. Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia. Gram-negative, capsulated, motile, lophotrichous flagella, pectolytic. Aborted seed, empty grains as a result of failure of grain filling, brown spots on panicles, seedling rot. Seed sterilization, planting partially resistant lines (no completely resistant line is available). KNOWN VIRULENCE FACTORS: Toxoflavin, lipase, type III effectors. © 2010 LSU AGCENTER. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2010 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  9. Organ trade using social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrogy, Waleed; Jawdat, Dunia; Alsemari, Muhannad; Alharbi, Abdulrahman; Alasaad, Abdullah; Hajeer, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to February 19, 2016. The search was conducted on Twitter, Google answers, and Facebook using the following terms: kidney for sale, kidneys for sale, liver for sale, kidney wanted, liver wanted, kidney donor, and liver donor. We found a total of 557 adverts on organ trade, 165 (30%) from donors or sellers, and 392 (70%) from recipients or buyers. On Twitter, we found 472 (85%) adverts, on Google answers 61 (11%), and on Facebook 24 (4%). Organ trade is a global problem, and yet it is increasingly seen in many countries. Although the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation by-laws specifically prohibits and monitors any form of commercial transplantation, it is still essential to enforce guidelines for medical professionals to detect and prevent such criminal acts.

  10. Organ trade using social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Alrogy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to February 19, 2016. The search was conducted on Twitter, Google answers, and Facebook using the following terms: kidney for sale, kidneys for sale, liver for sale, kidney wanted, liver wanted, kidney donor, and liver donor. We found a total of 557 adverts on organ trade, 165 (30% from donors or sellers, and 392 (70% from recipients or buyers. On Twitter, we found 472 (85% adverts, on Google answers 61 (11%, and on Facebook 24 (4%. Organ trade is a global problem, and yet it is increasingly seen in many countries. Although the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation by-laws specifically prohibits and monitors any form of commercial transplantation, it is still essential to enforce guidelines for medical professionals to detect and prevent such criminal acts.

  11. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  12. On financial markets trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matassini, Lorenzo; Franci, Fabio

    2001-01-01

    Starting from the observation of the real trading activity, we propose a model of a stockmarket simulating all the typical phases taking place in a stock exchange. We show that there is no need of several classes of agents once one has introduced realistic constraints in order to confine money, time, gain and loss within an appropriate range. The main ingredients are local and global coupling, randomness, Zipf distribution of resources and price formation when inserting an order. The simulation starts with the initial public offer and comprises the broadcasting of news/advertisements and the building of the book, where all the selling and buying orders are stored. The model is able to reproduce fat tails and clustered volatility, the two most significant characteristics of a real stockmarket, being driven by very intuitive parameters.

  13. Uptake of C-14 tagged acetate by rice in a paddy soil-to-rice plant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    rice plants in the control group. Similar phenomena should also be found for spiked group so that it was difficult to estimate root uptake rate from soil. The highest activity was 1.3 x 10{sup 3} ± 2.3 x 10{sup 2} Bq/g of the rice husk sample in the spiked group, and the C-14 activities in each plant part of the spiked group decreased in the same order as those of the control group. The average soil-to-plant transfer factor for C-14 in white rice (TF: Bq/g-dry of C-14 in white rice/ Bq/g-dry of C-14 in the soil) was 6.8. This TF includes the C-14 uptake by rice plants from the atmosphere. Therefore, new environmental parameter, which considers the transfer of C-14 from atmosphere, is desired. This work has been partially supported by the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) Japan. (authors)

  14. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  15. The uranium International trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez U, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the understanding of how the present dynamic of uranium International trade is developed, the variables which fall into, the factors that are affecting and conditioning it, in order to clarify which are going to be the outlook in the future of this important resource in front of the present ecological situation and the energetic panorama of XXI Century. For this purpose, as starting point, the uranium is considered as a strategic material which importance take root in its energetic potential as alternate energy source, and for this reason in Chapter I, the general problem of raw materials, its classification and present situation in the global market is presented. In Chapter II, by means of a historical review, is explain what uranium is, how it was discovered, and how since the end of the past Century and during the last three decades of present, uranium pass of practically unknown element, to the position of a strategic raw material, which by degrees, generate an International market, owing to its utilization as a basic resource in the generation of energy. Chapter III, introduce us in the roll played by uranium, since its warlike applications until its utilization in nuclear reactors for the generation of electricity. Also is explain the reason for this change in the perception at global level. Finally, in Chapter IV we enter upon specifically in the present conditions of the International market of this mineral throughout the trends of supply and demand, the main producers, users, price dynamics, and the correlation among these economical variables and other factors of political, social and ecological nature. All of these with the purpose to found out, if there exist, a meaning of the puzzle that seems to be the uranium International trade

  16. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  17. Rice Yellow Mottle Virus stress responsive genes from susceptible and tolerant rice genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siré Christelle

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of viral infection involve concomitant plant gene variations and cellular changes. A simple system is required to assess the complexity of host responses to viral infection. The genome of the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is a single-stranded RNA with a simple organisation. It is the most well-known monocotyledon virus model. Several studies on its biology, structure and phylogeography have provided a suitable background for further genetic studies. 12 rice chromosome sequences are now available and provide strong support for genomic studies, particularly physical mapping and gene identification. Results The present data, obtained through the cDNA-AFLP technique, demonstrate differential responses to RYMV of two different rice cultivars, i.e. susceptible IR64 (Oryza sativa indica, and partially resistant Azucena (O. s. japonica. This RNA profiling provides a new original dataset that will enable us to gain greater insight into the RYMV/rice interaction and the specificity of the host response. Using the SIM4 subroutine, we took the intron/exon structure of the gene into account and mapped 281 RYMV stress responsive (RSR transcripts on 12 rice chromosomes corresponding to 234 RSR genes. We also mapped previously identified deregulated proteins and genes involved in partial resistance and thus constructed the first global physical map of the RYMV/rice interaction. RSR transcripts on rice chromosomes 4 and 10 were found to be not randomly distributed. Seven genes were identified in the susceptible and partially resistant cultivars, and transcripts were colocalized for these seven genes in both cultivars. During virus infection, many concomitant plant gene expression changes may be associated with host changes caused by the infection process, general stress or defence responses. We noted that some genes (e.g. ABC transporters were regulated throughout the kinetics of infection and differentiated susceptible and

  18. Food, Globalization and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Sonnenfeld, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of

  19. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Zaman, W.; Salman, M.; Jabeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  20. Rice management interventions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Saddam; Peng, Shaobing; Fahad, Shah; Khaliq, Abdul; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2015-03-01

    Global warming is one of the gravest threats to crop production and environmental sustainability. Rice, the staple food of more than half of the world's population, is the most prominent cause of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture and gives way to global warming. The increasing demand for rice in the future has deployed tremendous concerns to reduce GHG emissions for minimizing the negative environmental impacts of rice cultivation. In this review, we presented a contemporary synthesis of existing data on how crop management practices influence emissions of GHGs in rice fields. We realized that modifications in traditional crop management regimes possess a huge potential to overcome GHG emissions. We examined and evaluated the different possible options and found that modifying tillage permutations and irrigation patterns, managing organic and fertilizer inputs, selecting suitable cultivar, and cropping regime can mitigate GHG emissions. Previously, many authors have discussed the feasibility principle and the influence of these practices on a single gas or, in particular, in the whole agricultural sector. Nonetheless, changes in management practices may influence more than one gas at the same time by different mechanisms or sometimes their effects may be antagonistic. Therefore, in the present attempt, we estimated the overall global warming potential of each approach to consider the magnitude of its effects on all gases and provided a comprehensive assessment of suitable crop management practices for reducing GHG emissions in rice culture.

  1. Regional Trade Agreement and Agricultural Trade in East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra-EAC trade is very low, that is, at 9 per cent of the total regional trade, but it is on upward trend. Agricultural trade accounts for over 40 per cent of the intra-EAC trade. This study investigated the effect of EAC regional trade agreement on the regions agricultural trade by analyzing the degree of trade creation and ...

  2. CONSIDERATIONS ON TRANSACTIONS OF FOREIGN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliu-Popa Lucia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the complex connection process of national economies to global economy flows, an important role has the foreign trade, which in recent decades has become, in the market economy conditions, one of the factors determining for economic growth. Foreign trade, as a separate branch of the national economy is an important factor of economic growth, caused by the internationalization of business and determining for the process of globalization. For Romania, a country still in transition and recent member of the European Union is particularly important to enhance the participation to international trade in goods and services, but also attracting foreign investments in the economy as the main possibilities for the re-industry and restructuring the national economy in order to creation and maintenance of sustainable competitive advantages. Starting from these considerations, in this article I addressed/aproached the theoretical aspects of foreign trade, without omitting intracomunity purchases and deliveries of goods.

  3. A FRAMEWORK FOR TRANSPARENCY IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Turnes, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to cover the gap in literature about transparency in the context of international trade facilitation. It focuses on the importance of transparency in achieving growth in international trade and the differences between non-transparent practices and corruption in global trade. Managing the disclosure of information about rules, regulations and laws is not the only trade policy instrument where transparency becomes important. To build a framework on levels of transparency we developed a matrix classifying the transparency of each country based on ease of doing business and levels of bribery. Four different strategies are explained based on the different scenarios of transparency in international trade. The main conclusions reflect that disclosure of information is not enough to guarantee transparency and monitoring of transparency must be improved.

  4. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......" provides comprehensive coverage of different types of derivatives, including exchange traded contracts and over-the-counter instruments as well as real options. There is an equal emphasis on the practical application of derivatives and their actual uses in business transactions and corporate risk...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  5. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment...... be defended in all cases. Especially, the developing countries' benefits from trade have been very dubious. Furthermore, the trading system has contributed to environmental problems in several ways, e.g. generating undervaluation of natural resources, stimulating economic growth with environmental....... The purpose of this article is to critically assess the "free trade dogma" and to investigate the validity of widely used arguments concerning the relations between trade and development and between trade and environment. It is argued that the trading system is not something inherently good, which should...

  6. How Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Responds to Elevated As under Different Si-Rich Soil Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, William A; Limmer, Matthew A; Seyfferth, Angelia L

    2017-09-19

    Several strategies exist to mitigate As impacts on rice and each has its set of trade-offs with respect to yield, inorganic As content in grain, and CH 4 emissions. The addition of Si to paddy soil can decrease As uptake by rice but how rice will respond to elevated As when soil is amended with Si-rich materials is unresolved. Here, we evaluated yield impacts and grain As content and speciation in rice exposed to elevated As in response to different Si-rich soil amendments including rice husk, rice husk ash, and CaSiO 3 in a pot study. We found that As-induced yield losses were alleviated by Husk amendment, partially alleviated by Ash amendment, and not affected by CaSiO 3 amendment. Furthermore, Husk was the only tested Si-amendment to significantly decrease grain As concentrations. Husk amendment was likely effective at decreasing grain As and improving yield because it provided more plant-available Si, particularly during the reproductive and ripening phases. Both Husk and Ash provided K, which also played a role in yield improvement. This study demonstrates that while Si-rich amendments can affect rice uptake of As, the kinetics of Si dissolution and nutrient availability can also affect As uptake and toxicity in rice.

  7. From cigarette smuggling to illicit tobacco trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Tax policy is considered the most effective strategy to reduce tobacco consumption and prevalence. Tax avoidance and tax evasion therefore undermine the effectiveness of tax policies and result in less revenue for governments, cheaper prices for smokers and increased tobacco use. Tobacco smuggling and illicit tobacco trade have probably always existed, since tobacco's introduction as a valuable product from the New World, but the nature of the trade has changed. This article clarifies definitions, reviews the key issues related to illicit trade, describes the different ways taxes are circumvented and looks at the size of the problem, its changing nature and its causes. The difficulties of data collection and research are discussed. Finally, we look at the policy options to combat illicit trade and the negotiations for a WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) protocol on illicit tobacco trade. Twenty years ago the main type of illicit trade was large-scale cigarette smuggling of well known cigarette brands. A change occurred as some major international tobacco companies in Europe and the Americas reviewed their export practices due to tax regulations, investigations and lawsuits by the authorities. Other types of illicit trade emerged such as illegal manufacturing, including counterfeiting and the emergence of new cigarette brands, produced in a rather open manner at well known locations, which are only or mainly intended for the illegal market of another country. The global scope and multifaceted nature of the illicit tobacco trade requires a coordinated international response, so a strong protocol to the FCTC is essential. The illicit tobacco trade is a global problem which needs a global solution.

  8. Neglecting rice milling yield and quality underestimates economic losses from high-temperature stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel B Lyman

    Full Text Available Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1 °C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers.

  9. Uncertainties in predicting rice yield by current crop models under a wide range of climatic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Yin, X.; Zhu, Y.; Boote, K.; Adam, M.; Bregaglio, S.; Buis, S.; Confalonieri, R.; Fumoto, T.; Gaydon, D.; Marcaida III, M.; Nakagawa, H.; Oriol, P.; Ruane, A.C.; Ruget, F.; Singh, B.; Singh, U.; Tang, L.; Yoshida, H.; Zhang, Z.; Bouman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting rice (Oryza sativa) productivity under future climates is important for global food security. Ecophysiological crop models in combination with climate model outputs are commonly used in yield prediction, but uncertainties associated with crop models remain largely unquantified. We

  10. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  11. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  12. Trade Liberalization and Women's Integration into National Labor Markets: A Cross-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lisa B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of trade liberalization and the risks associated with participation in the global trading system on women's integration into national labor markets. Using data from 1970 to 1995, I identify two global determinants of the female share of national labor markets: trade openness and transnational corporate penetration.…

  13. INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL TRADE WITH POTATOES (2009 - 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Mihai MEDELETE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the situation related to the potato world trade, 2009-2011. Defining aspects of this issue begin by presenting the sequence of continental entities defined by the FAO (Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania, and then presents the study of global imports and exports, and positioning Romania in performing acts of international exchange - in the context of those mentioned above. During the material, given the composition of the trade balance of international trade presents strict export and import situation - in terms of value, subject to quantitative aspects of other scientific approaches. This (look value is more relevant to what is happening on the international market.

  14. Trade Openness and Domestic Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qian; Konar, Megan

    2018-01-01

    We contribute to the debate over globalization and the environment by asking, what is the impact of trade on national water use? To address this question, we employ econometric methods to quantify the causal relationship between trade openness and water use. Specifically, we use the instrumental variables methodology to evaluate the impact of trade openness on domestic water withdrawals in agriculture and industry. We find that trade openness does not have a significant impact on total or industrial water withdrawals. However, we show that one percentage point increase in trade openness leads to a 5.21% decrease in agricultural water withdrawals. We find that trade openness reduces water use in agriculture primarily through the intensive margin effect, by leading farmers to produce more with less water, such as through the adoption of technology. We do not find evidence for extensive margin or crop mix impacts on agricultural water withdrawals. Significantly, these results demonstrate that trade openness leads to less water use in agriculture. This finding has broad scientific and policy relevance as we endeavor to untangle causal relationships in the complex global food system and develop policies to achieve water and food security.

  15. Measuring Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Torben M.; Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate technique of factor analysis is used to combine several indicators of economic integration and international transactions into a single measure or index of globalization. The index is an alternative to the simple measure of openness based on trade, and it produces a ranking of countries over time for 23 OECD countries. Ireland is ranked as the most globalized country during the 1990?s, while the UK was at the top during the 1980?s. Some of the most notable changes in the rank...

  16. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Megan; Caylor, Kelly

    2014-05-01

    A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit `infrastructure sharing' across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tends to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.

  17. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit "infrastructure sharing" across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tend to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.

  18. Rice Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Possible Herbicide Quinclorac Detoxification Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinclorac is a highly selective auxin-type herbicide, and is widely used in the effective control of barnyard grass in paddy rice fields, improving the world’s rice yield. The herbicide mode of action of quinclorac has been proposed and hormone interactions affect quinclorac signaling. Because of widespread use, quinclorac may be transported outside rice fields with the drainage waters, leading to soil and water pollution and environmental health problems.In this study, we used 57K Affymetrix rice whole-genome array to identify quinclorac signaling response genes to study the molecular mechanisms of action and detoxification of quinclorac in rice plants. Overall, 637 probe sets were identified with differential expression levels under either 6 or 24 h of quinclorac treatment. Auxin-related genes such as GH3 and OsIAAs responded to quinclorac treatment. Gene Ontology analysis showed that genes of detoxification-related family genes were significantly enriched, including cytochrome P450, GST, UGT, and ABC and drug transporter genes. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that top candidate P450 families such as CYP81, CYP709C and CYP72A genes were universally induced by different herbicides. Some Arabidopsis genes for the same P450 family were up-regulated under quinclorac treatment.We conduct rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis and the first global identification of quinclorac response genes. This work may provide potential markers for detoxification of quinclorac and biomonitors of environmental chemical pollution.

  19. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGSheng-xiang; WEIXing-hua; ELJavier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5 million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  20. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Sheng-xiang; WEI Xing-hua; E L Javier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.