WorldWideScience

Sample records for global resource base

  1. Managing Human Resource based Intellectual Capital in a Global setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Lemke, Sarah; Matiaske, Wenzel

    2014-01-01

    From a strategic management perspective human capital and the embedded knowledge can be viewed as intellectual capital and became inevitably important for companies in general as well as for multinationals. While national companies just have to (re-)combine resources within a homogeneous...... if culturally differentiated incentive systems are necessary for optimised retention management? In the empirical part of this study it was made us of data from 32 countries. The research results reveal a moderating impact of cultural dimensions and therefore a cultural dependency for the effectiveness...... of incentives on retention management and therewith implicates that retention management is significant for the process of developing and fostering a MNCs intellectual capital. To improve their human-resource based intellectual capital MNCs have to adapt their initiatives to the cultural background...

  2. The Global Resource Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together

  3. Born Global from the Resource-Based Theory: A Case Study in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tabares

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how a born global firm goes into international market from inception at its early years. The objective of this paper is to analyze from the resource-based theory how a born global firm engages in international market. This empirical investigation has been carried out as an explorative single-case study, a high-tech firm, Digital Partner, based in Medellin, Antioquia. The main findings of the research show that organizational capabilities based on intellectual capital are crucial for the development of a born global. Thus, capabilities such as entrepreneurship, global vision, internationally market knowledge, learning management, IT capabilities, technological innovation, collaborative work, networks and customer orientation are recurrent and they correspond to other similar research results. Contributions of the study are both academic (for the advance of the research in born global field and practical (for the design of governmental policies to foster born global firms.

  4. Global resource sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  5. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers : A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371572037; Boxem, T.; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Bruhn, David; Manzella, Adelle; Calcagno, Philippe; Beekman, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123556856; Cloetingh, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069161836; van Wees, J.-D.

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  6. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers: A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.; Boxem, T.; Pluymaekers, M.; Bruhn, D.; Manzella, A.; Calcagno, P.; Beekman, F.; Cloetingh, S.; Wees, J.D. van

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  7. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers : A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, Jon; Boxem, Thijs; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Bruhn, D.F.; Manzella, Adele; Calcagno, Philippe; Beekman, Fred; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; van Wees, Jan Diederik

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  8. Quantifying global exergy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Weston A.

    2006-01-01

    Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

  9. Global peat resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappalainen, E. [ed.] [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The book provides a detailed review of the world`s peat and peatland resources and their role in the biosphere. It was compiled by 68 peat experts. Reports present the valuable mire ecosystem, its characteristics, and the use of peatlands. Maps and photographs illustrate the distribution of mines and their special characteristics, including raised bogs, aapa mires, blanket bogs, mangrove swamps, swamp forests etc. The book contains a total of 57 chapters, the bulk of then giving surveys of peat resources and use in individual countries. They are grouped under the headings: peatlands in biosphere; general review; Europe; Asia; Africa; North America; Central and South America; Australia (and New Zealand); and use of peatlands. One chapter has been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM. 7 apps.

  10. Bicultural Resourcefulness in Global Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lisbeth; Keita, Maria H.

    2016-01-01

    Biculturals are increasingly viewed as a resource in global business. They are effective in multicultural teams, they are great boundary spanners between corporate headquarters and their subsidiaries, and their abilities are acknowl-edged in cross-cultural leadership. This article aims to generate...

  11. Optimal beneficiation of global resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisi de Larderel, J. (Industry and Environment Office, Paris (France). United Nations Environment Programme)

    1989-01-01

    The growth of the world's population and related human activities are clearly leaving major effects on the environment and on the level of use of natural resources: forests are disappearing, air pollution is leading to acid rains, changes are occuring in the atmospheric ozone and global climate, more and more people lack access to reasonable safe supplies of water, soil pollution is becoming a problem, mineral and energy resources are increasingly being used. Producing more with less, producing more, polluting less, these are basic challenges that the world now faces. Low- and non-waste technologies are certainly one of the keys to those challenges.

  12. Global climate change and California's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaux, H.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter records the deliberations of a group of California water experts about answers to these and other questions related to the impact of global warming on California's water resources. For the most part, those participating in the deliberations believe that the current state of scientific knowledge about global warming and its impacts on water resources is insufficient to permit hard distinctions to be made between short- and long-term changes. consequently, the ideas discussed here are based on a number of assumptions about specific climatic manifestations of global warming in California, as described earlier in this volume. Ultimately, however, effective public responses to forestall the potentially costly impacts of global climate change will probably depend upon the credible validation of the prospects of global climate warming. This chapter contains several sections. First, the likely effects of global warming on California's water resources and water-supply systems are identified and analyzed. Second, possible responses to mitigate these effects are enumerated and discussed. Third, the major policy issues are identified. A final section lists recommendations for action and major needs for information

  13. Towards an Ontology for the Global Geodynamics Project: Automated Extraction of Resource Descriptions from an XML-Based Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, L. I.; Aldridge, K. D.

    2005-12-01

    Using the Earth Science Markup Language (ESML), an XML-based data model for the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) was recently introduced [Lumb & Aldridge, Proc. HPCS 2005, Kotsireas & Stacey, eds., IEEE, 2005, 216-222]. This data model possesses several key attributes -i.e., it: makes use of XML schema; supports semi-structured ASCII format files; includes Earth Science affinities; and is on track for compliance with emerging Grid computing standards (e.g., the Global Grid Forum's Data Format Description Language, DFDL). Favorable attributes notwithstanding, metadata (i.e., data about data) was identified [Lumb & Aldridge, 2005] as a key challenge for progress in enabling the GGP for Grid computing. Even in projects of small-to-medium scale like the GGP, the manual introduction of metadata has the potential to be the rate-determining metric for progress. Fortunately, an automated approach for metadata introduction has recently emerged. Based on Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages (GRDDL, http://www.w3.org/2004/01/rdxh/spec), this bottom-up approach allows for the extraction of Resource Description Format (RDF) representations from the XML-based data model (i.e., the ESML representation of GGP data) subject to rules of transformation articulated via eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). In addition to introducing relationships into the GGP data model, and thereby addressing the metadata requirement, the syntax and semantics of RDF comprise a requisite for a GGP ontology - i.e., ``the common words and concepts (the meaning) used to describe and represent an area of knowledge'' [Daconta et al., The Semantic Web, Wiley, 2003]. After briefly reviewing the XML-based model for the GGP, attention focuses on the automated extraction of an RDF representation via GRDDL with XSLT-delineated templates. This bottom-up approach, in tandem with a top-down approach based on the Protege integrated development environment for ontologies (http

  14. Educational Resources for Global Health in Otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Melyssa; Hoa, Michael; Malekzadeh, Sonya

    2018-03-07

    Advances in modern communications and information technology have helped to improve access to, and quality of, health care and education. These enhancements include a variety of World Wide Web-based and mobile learning platforms, such as eLearning, mLearning, and open education resources. This article highlights the innovative approaches that have fostered improved collaboration and coordination of global health efforts in otolaryngology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Framing water and forests as global or local? Transnational community-based networks transforming common-pool resources essence and scales

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuits, Emilie; Pflieger, Géraldine

    2017-01-01

    The current era of globalization and commodification has had a substantial impact on common-pool resources governance. In direct response to this, community-based organizations managing water and forests at the local level began to create their own transnational networks. Primarily, these organizations aim to achieve direct representation in international decision-making arenas in order to promote their model of collective governance. By reframing the representations of common-pool resources ...

  16. Global Social Media Directory: A Resource Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, Christine F.; Piatt, Andrew W.

    2014-10-23

    The Global Social Media Directory is a resource guide providing information on social networking services around the globe. This information changes rapidly, therefore, this document will be updated on a regular basis and as funding permits.

  17. Concepts for a global resources information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, F. C.; Urena, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Global Resources Information System (GRIS) is to establish an effective and efficient information management system to meet the data access requirements of NASA and NASA-related scientists conducting large-scale, multi-disciplinary, multi-mission scientific investigations. Using standard interfaces and operating guidelines, diverse data systems can be integrated to provide the capabilities to access and process multiple geographically dispersed data sets and to develop the necessary procedures and algorithms to derive global resource information.

  18. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  19. Open Educational Resources: American Ideals, Global Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Educational relations between societies and cultures that begin with benevolent intentions can come to be seen as threats to national autonomy and local preferences. Indeed, side by side with the growth since the first years of this century of Open Educational Resources (OER) there has been worry about their impact on global educational…

  20. Lunar resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, John; Wise, Todd K.; Roy, Claude; Richter, Phil

    A lunar base that exploits local resources to enhance the productivity of a total SEI scenario is discussed. The goals were to emphasize lunar science and to land men on Mars in 2016 using significant amounts of lunar resources. It was assumed that propulsion was chemical and the surface power was non-nuclear. Three phases of the base build-up are outlined, the robotic emplacement of the first elements is detailed and a discussion of future options is included.

  1. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary material provides theoretical details and tables of data and parameters that enable this extensive database to be adapted to a variety of energy systems modelling frameworks. -- Highlights: ► Global energy potentials for all major energy resources are reported. ► Theory and methodology for calculating economic energy potentials is given. ► An uncertainty analysis for all energy economic potentials is carried out.

  2. "Global Human Resource Development" and Japanese University Education: "Localism" in Actor Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Aya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the actions of various actors involved in "global human resource development" and to clarify whether discussions on global human resources are based on local perspectives. The results of the analysis are as follows: 1) after the year 2000 began, industry started discussions on global human resources in…

  3. Sustainable resource use in the global water-food-energy nexus : Advances in process-based integrated assessment modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, D.L.

    2018-01-01

    Most of humanity's basic needs are related to the commodities water, food and energy. Driven by economic development and population growth, the use of water, food and energy has continued to increase rapidly during the past 40 years. However, the increasing extraction of natural resources has

  4. TRENDS OF NATURAL RESOURCES MARKET IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian, SIMA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources are not homogeneous in nature, having certain features in the productive process that require grouping them into different categories by different criteria. Consequently, natural resources cannot be addressed all at once, but only distinctly, according to relevant criteria selected based on the proposed goals. Changing approaches based resources (materials to the knowledge, from quantity to quality, from mass products to new concepts of higher added value, follows a development that is based on eco-efficiency and sustainable products and services. In this respect, integrated research will become key factors towards global processing. Also, global digitalization requires a new approach on the role of information in the development of economy and increase of competitiveness.

  5. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firor, John W.

    1994-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  6. Contextualizing Embodied Resources in Global Food Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G. K.; Brauman, K. A.; Sun, S.; West, P. C.; Carlson, K. M.; Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Trade in agricultural commodities has created increasingly complex linkages between resource use and food supplies across national borders. Understanding the degree to which food production and consumption relies on trade is vital to understanding how to sustainably meet growing food demands across scales. We use detailed bilateral trade statistics and data on agricultural management to examine the land use and water consumption embodied in agricultural trade, which we relate to basic nutritional indicators to show how trade contributes to food availability worldwide. Agricultural trade carries enough calories to provide >1.7 billion people a basic diet each year. We identify key commodities and producer-consumer relationships that disproportionately contribute to embodied resource use and flows of food nutrition at the global scale. For example, just 15 disproportionately large soybean trades comprised ~10% the total harvested area embodied in export production. We conclude by framing these results in terms of the fraction of each country's food production and consumption that is linked to international trade. These findings help to characterize how countries allocate resources to domestic versus foreign food demand.

  7. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy. - Highlights: ► The global industrial sector and its industries are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. ► Global industrial sector efficiencies are evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. ► Exergy analysis shows global industrial energy to be less efficient than does energy analysis. ► A misleadingly low margin for efficiency improvement is indicated by energy analysis. ► A significant and rational margin for efficiency improvement exists from an exergy perspective

  8. Environmental and resource footprints in a global context: Europe's structural deficit in resource endowments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Bulavskaya, T.; Giljum, S.; Koning, A. de; Lutter, S.; Simas, M.; Stadler, K.; Wood, R.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has proposed in its Resource-efficiency roadmap a ‘dashboard of indicators’ consisting of four headline indicators for carbon, water, land and materials. The EU recognizes the need to use a consumption-based (or ‘footprint’) perspective to capture the global dimension of

  9. Integrated Water Resources Management: A Global Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Cohen, M.; Akudago, J.; Keith, D.; Palaniappan, M.

    2011-12-01

    The diversity of water resources endowments and the societal arrangements to use, manage, and govern water makes defining a single paradigm or lens through which to define, prioritize and evaluate interventions in the water sector particularly challenging. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) emerged as the dominant intervention paradigm for water sector interventions in the early 1990s. Since then, while many successful implementations of IWRM have been demonstrated at the local, basin, national and trans-national scales, IWRM has also been severely criticized by the global water community as "having a dubious record that has never been comprehensively analyzed", "curiously ambiguous", and "ineffective at best and counterproductive at worst". Does IWRM hold together as a coherent paradigm or is it a convenient buzzword to describe a diverse collection of water sector interventions? We analyzed 184 case study summaries of IWRM interventions on the Global Water Partnership (GWP) website. The case studies were assessed to find the nature, scale, objectives and outcomes of IWRM. The analysis does not suggest any coherence in IWRM as a paradigm - but does indicate distinct regional trends in IWRM. First, IWRM was done at very different scales in different regions. In Africa two-thirds of the IWRM interventions involved creating national or transnational organizations. In contrast, in Asia and South America, almost two-thirds were watershed, basin, or local body initiatives. Second, IWRM interventions involved very different types of activities in different regions. In Africa and Europe, IWRM entailed creation of policy documents, basin plans and institution building. In contrast, in Asia and Latin America the interventions were much more likely to entail new technology, infrastructure or watershed measures. In Australia, economic measures, new laws and enforcement mechanisms were more commonly used than anywhere else.

  10. Open Educational Resources: American Ideals, Global Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Weiland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Educational relations between societies and cultures that begin with benevolent intentions can come to be seen as threats to national autonomy and local preferences. Indeed, side by side with the growth since the first years of this century of Open Educational Resources (OER there has been worry about their impact on global educational development. Evaluation and research have lagged behind the steady expansion of access to online resources, leaving estimates of the value of digital innovation to the enthusiasm of OER providers and technology minded educational reformers. The advent of the “Massive Open Online Course” (or MOOC has exacerbated the problem, with attention moving toward a form of OER reflecting the enthusiasm of leading institutions in industrialized nations. The American led movement on behalf of the MOOC requires new questions about the motives, impact, and future of OER. This essay accounts for the history of OER, culminating in the MOOC, including how the latter in particular is an expression of American pedagogical and institutional interests representing belief in the transformative educational powers of the latest communications technologies. Criticism of OER and MOOCs can reflect organizational, operational, and ideological considerations. But it should recognize what they offer when there are few other opportunities for formal learning, and as research demonstrates their uses and impact.

  11. Macroecology Meets Macroeconomics: Resource Scarcity and Global Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James H; Burger, Joseph R; Burnside, William R; Chang, Michael; Davidson, Ana D; Fristoe, Trevor S; Hamilton, Marcus J; Hammond, Sean T; Kodric-Brown, Astrid; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C; Okie, Jordan G

    2014-04-01

    The current economic paradigm, which is based on increasing human population, economic development, and standard of living, is no longer compatible with the biophysical limits of the finite Earth. Failure to recover from the economic crash of 2008 is not due just to inadequate fiscal and monetary policies. The continuing global crisis is also due to scarcity of critical resources. Our macroecological studies highlight the role in the economy of energy and natural resources: oil, gas, water, arable land, metals, rare earths, fertilizers, fisheries, and wood. As the modern industrial technological-informational economy expanded in recent decades, it grew by consuming the Earth's natural resources at unsustainable rates. Correlations between per capita GDP and per capita consumption of energy and other resources across nations and over time demonstrate how economic growth and development depend on "nature's capital". Decades-long trends of decreasing per capita consumption of multiple important commodities indicate that overexploitation has created an unsustainable bubble of population and economy.

  12. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Marc A

    2013-09-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Globalization on the Human Resource Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Globalization on the Human Resource Management Function in ... impact on the management of human resources in developing countries including Kenya. ... The non-core jobs have been outsourced which has led to an increase in ...

  14. Regulation of water resources for sustaining global future socioeconomic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; SHI, H.; Sivakumar, B.

    2016-12-01

    With population projections indicating continued growth during this century, socio-economic problems (e.g., water, food, and energy shortages) will be most likely to occur, especially if proper planning, development, and management strategies are not adopted. In the present study, firstly, we explore the vital role of dams in promoting economic growth through analyzing the relationship between dams and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at both global and national scales. Secondly, we analyze the current situation of global water scarcity based on the data representing water resources availability, dam development, and the level of economic development. Third, with comprehensive consideration of population growth as the major driving force, water resources availability as the basic supporting factor, and topography as the important constraint, this study addresses the question of dam development in the future and predicts the locations of future dams around the world.

  15. Global Social Media Directory. A Resource Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, Christine F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piatt, Andrew W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Social media platforms are internet-based applications focused on broadcasting user-generated content. While primarily web-based, these services are increasingly available on mobile platforms. Communities and individuals share information, photos, music, videos, provide commentary and ratings/reviews, and more. In essence, social media is about sharing information, consuming information, and repurposing content. Social media technologies identified in this report are centered on social networking services, media sharing, blogging and microblogging. The purpose of this Resource Guide is to provide baseline information about use and application of social media platforms around the globe. It is not intended to be comprehensive as social media evolves on an almost daily basis. The long-term goal of this work is to identify social media information about all geographic regions and nations. The primary objective is that of understanding the evolution and spread of social networking and user-generated content technologies internationally.

  16. Global-minded Human Resources and Expectations for Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroshi

    Under the globalized economy, Japanese corporations compete with rivals of the western countries and emerging economies. And domestically, they face with deflation, falling birth-rate, an aging society, and shrinking market. So they need to foster and retain global-minded human resources who can play an active role in global business, and who can drive innovation. What Japanese corporations expect for global-minded human resources are ability to meet challenges, ability to think independently free from conventional wisdom, communication skills in foreign languages, interests in foreign cultures and different values, and so on. In order to foster global-minded human resources, Keidanren work with the 13 universities selected under the Japanese Government‧s “Global 30” projects to undertake “Global-minded Human Resources Development Projects” .

  17. Strategic Coupling Based on Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Mads Martinus

    The topic of this thesis is the resourced-based industrialization of the Mekong River Delta (MRD) Region of Vietnam. It shows how a region is linked with the world market and how settlements and living conditions are being transformed as part of a globalized regional development. A modular theory......-building approach rooted in the Global Production Network (GPN) framework constitutes the analytical approach to the thesis, providing pertinent conceptualizations to explore and discuss how a globalized regional development unfolds. The main theoretical concept of the thesis is that of strategic coupling......, an established concept within the GPN framework that explores and explains how local assets are molded to complement the needs of the global market. However, existing applications of the notion of strategic coupling do not cover the situation in which a resource-based economy is coupled with the world market...

  18. Design principles for global commons: Natural resources and emerging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Stern

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ostrom’s design principles for managing common pool resources were developed largely by examining local commons involving natural resources. This paper enumerates several key characteristics that distinguish such commons from more complex commons involving global resources and the risks of emerging technologies. It considers the degree to which the design principles transfer to those commons and concludes that although they have considerable external validity, the list needs some modification and elaboration to apply to global resources and risk commons. A list of design principles is offered for global resource commons and the risks of emerging technologies. Applying Ostrom’s approach to global resources and emerging technologies can improve understanding and expand the solution set for these problems from international treaties, top-down national regulation, and interventions in market pricing systems to include non-governmental institutions that embody principles of self-governance.

  19. Influence Of Globalization On Human Resource Development In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper addressed the influence of Globalization on human resource development in Nigeria. It traced the origin of human resource development in Nigeria to the coming of the missionaries who spiritually colonized Africa and also educated their adherents. The human resource produced from the education offered were ...

  20. Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources URLs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset is a compilation of hyperlinks (URLs) for resources (databases, compendia, published articles, etc.) useful for exposure assessment specific to consumer...

  1. Sustainable and resource-conserving utilization of global land areas and biomass; Globale Landflaechen und Biomasse nachhaltig und ressourcenschonend nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jering, Almut; Klatt, Anne; Seven, Jan; Ehlers, Knut; Guenther, Jens; Ostermeier, Andreas; Moench, Lars

    2012-10-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the state of the art of biomass based land use as well as on existing and future global development trends. An ecologically compatible and socially equitable utilization of resources as well as priorities in the production and utilization of biomass are described in order to achieve their goals. Approaches to action, measures and policy recommendations are presented with respect to the development of a globally sustainable, resource-conserving utilization of land.

  2. Information empowerment: predeparture resource training for students in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Gurpreet K

    2014-04-01

    The Taubman Health Sciences Library (THL) collaborates with health sciences schools to provide information skills instruction for students preparing for international experiences. THL enhances students' global health learning through predeparture instruction for students who are involved in global health research, clinical internships, and international collaborations. This includes teaching international literature searching skills, providing country-specific data sources, building awareness of relevant mobile resources, and encouraging investigation of international news. Information skills empower creation of stronger global partnerships. Use of information resources has enhanced international research and training experiences, built lifelong learning foundations, and contributed to the university's global engagement. THL continues to assess predeparture instruction.

  3. The global human resource management casebook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Christiansen, L.; Farndale, E.; Biron Ben Gera, M.; Kuvaas, B.

    2017-01-01

    This casebook is a collection of international teaching cases focusing on contemporary human resource management issues. Each case centers primarily on one country and illustrates a significant challenge faced by managers and HR practitioners, helping students to understand how the issues they learn

  4. Resource subsidies between stream and terrestrial ecosystems under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Stefano; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Marti Roca, Maria Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Streams and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by permeable boundaries that are crossed by resource subsidies. Although the importance of these subsidies for riverine ecosystems is increasingly recognized, little is known about how they may be influenced by global environmental change. Drawing from available evidence, in this review we propose a conceptual framework to evaluate the effects of global change on the quality and spatiotemporal dynamics of stream–terrestrial subsidies. We illustrate how changes to hydrological and temperature regimes, atmospheric CO2 concentration, land use and the distribution of nonindigenous species can influence subsidy fluxes by affecting the biology and ecology of donor and recipient systems and the physical characteristics of stream–riparian boundaries. Climate-driven changes in the physiology and phenology of organisms with complex life cycles will influence their development time, body size and emergence patterns, with consequences for adjacent terrestrial consumers. Also, novel species interactions can modify subsidy dynamics via complex bottom-up and top-down effects. Given the seasonality and pulsed nature of subsidies, alterations of the temporal and spatial synchrony of resource availability to consumers across ecosystems are likely to result in ecological mismatches that can scale up from individual responses, to communities, to ecosystems. Similarly, altered hydrology, temperature, CO2 concentration and land use will modify the recruitment and quality of riparian vegetation, the timing of leaf abscission and the establishment of invasive riparian species. Along with morphological changes to stream–terrestrial boundaries, these will alter the use and fluxes of allochthonous subsidies associated with stream ecosystems. Future research should aim to understand how subsidy dynamics will be affected by key drivers of global change, including agricultural intensification, increasing water use and biotic

  5. Natural resources management in an era of global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, W.T. [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The international science community has issued a series of predictions of global atmospheric change that, if they verify, will have heretofore unexperienced impact on our forests. Convincing the public and their natural resource managers to respond to these effects must be high on the agenda of the science community. Mitigative and adapative responses we examine and propose, however, should stem from an understanding of the evolving role of the natural resource manager and how that role might be affected by global change.

  6. Protecting global soil resources for future generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The latest Status of World's Soil Resources report has highlighted that soils are increasingly under pressure by numerous human induced degradation processes in most parts of the world. The limits of our planetary boundaries concerning vital soil resources have been reached and without reversing this negative trend there will be a serious lack of necessary soil resources for future generations. It has been therefore of the highest importance to include soils within some of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) recently approved by the United Nations. Sustainable development can not be achieved without protecting the limited, non-renewable, soil resources of our planet. There is the need to limit on-going soil degradation processes and to implement extensive soil restoration activities in order to strive towards a land degradation neutral (LDN) world, as called upon by SDG 15. Sustainable soil management needs to be placed at the core of any LDN strategy and therefore it is of highest importance that the recently approved Voluntary Guidelines for Sustainable Soil Management (VGSSM) of FAO get fully implemented at National and local scale.Sustainable soil management is not only relevant for the protection of fertile soils for food production, but also to mitigate and adopt to climate change at to preserve the large soil biodiversity pool. Therefore the VGSSM are not only relevant to FAO, but also the the climate change convention (UNFCCC) and the biodiversity convention (CBD). An integrated assessment of the current land degradation processes and the available land restoration practices is needed in order to fully evaluate the potential for effectively achieving LDN by 2030. The on-going Land Degradation and Restoration Assessment (LDRA) of the Intergovernmental Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) will provide the necessary scientific basis for the full implementation of the necessary measures for achieving the planned SGS's relevant to land

  7. Global mega forces: Implications for the future of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Kubik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of leading global mega forces and their importance to the future of natural resource decisionmaking, policy development, and operation. Global mega forces are defined as a combination of major trends, preferences, and probabilities that come together to produce the potential for future high-impact outcomes. These...

  8. Human and climate impacts on global water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819

    2013-01-01

    Over past decades, terrestrial water fluxes have been affected by humans at an unprecedented scale and the fingerprints that humans have left on Earth’s water resources are turning up in a diverse range of records. In this thesis, a state-of-the-art global hydrological model (GHM) and global water

  9. Conflicts over natural resources in the Global South : conceptual approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavinck, M.; Pellegrini, L.; Mostert, E.

    2014-01-01

    Inhabitants of poor, rural areas in the Global South heavily depend on natural resources in their immediate vicinity. Conflicts over and exploitation of these resources - whether it is water, fish, wood fuel, minerals, or land - severely affect their livelihoods. The contributors to this volume

  10. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS IN GLOBAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As enterprise operations continue to be globalized through overseas expansions, joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions as well as strategic relationships and partnerships transnational organizations need to give attention to issues of culture in human resource management practices as a panacea for prosperity. The global organization is competent if only it is able to bridge the gap between management and culture so that personal relationships with other peoples in the organization and society become in harmony. This is critical because cultural relativity and reality in organizations influence operations. The study was designed to explore possible relationships between cultural dimensions and global human resource management. The survey research design was employed and data generated through primary and secondary sources. The participants comprised of 385 respondents from a cross-section of the population in Nigeria. By Chi-Square test, it was found that culture has a significant positive relationship with global human resource management.

  11. Rebalancing brain drain: exploring resource reallocation to address health worker migration and promote global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Timothy Ken; Liang, Bryan Albert

    2012-09-01

    Global public health is threatened by an imbalance in health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries. This "brain drain" results in health workforce shortages, health system weakening, and economic loss and waste, threatening the well-being of vulnerable populations and effectiveness of global health interventions. Current structural imbalances in resource allocation and global incentive structures have resulted in 57 countries identified by WHO as having a "critical shortage" of health workers. Yet current efforts to strengthen domestic health systems have fallen short in addressing this issue. Instead, global solutions should focus on sustainable forms of equitable resource sharing. This can be accomplished by adoption of mandatory global resource and staff-sharing programs in conjunction with implementation of state-based health services corps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of Global Wind Energy Resource Utilization Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M.; He, B.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, H.; Song, S.

    2017-09-01

    Development of wind energy resource (WER) is a key to deal with climate change and energy structure adjustment. A crucial issue is to obtain the distribution and variability of WER, and mine the suitable location to exploit it. In this paper, a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) model is constructed by integrating resource richness and stability, utilization value and trend of resource, natural environment with weights. The global resource richness is assessed through wind power density (WPD) and multi-level wind speed. The utilizable value of resource is assessed by the frequency of effective wind. The resource stability is assessed by the coefficient of variation of WPD and the frequency of prevailing wind direction. Regression slope of long time series WPD is used to assess the trend of WER. All of the resource evaluation indicators are derived from the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim with spatial resolution 0.125°. The natural environment factors mainly refer to slope and land-use suitability, which are derived from multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED 2010) and GlobalCover2009. Besides, the global WER utilization potential map is produced, which shows most high potential regions are located in north of Africa. Additionally, by verifying that 22.22 % and 48.8 9% operational wind farms fall on medium-high and high potential regions respectively, the result can provide a basis for the macroscopic siting of wind farm.

  13. The sustainable utilization of human resources in global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2010-01-01

    This empirical paper investigates the challenges global product development faces in regard to a sustainable utilization of resources through case studies and interviews in six Danish multinational corporations. Findings revealed 3 key challenges, which relates to increased rework in product...... development and production, overlapping work and a lack of utilization of knowledge and information at the supplier or subsidiary. The authors suggest the use of strategic simulation in order to gain greater transparency in the global network and thus utilize resources better. Strategic simulation...

  14. GLOBAL CATEGORIZATION OF THE WORLD'S INDIGENOUS LAND AND RESOURCES RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dubertret , Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    This document is a draft. It aims at providing a basis for discussion between the different organizations and indigenous land and resources rights experts involved in the wider project of building a world atlas of indigenous territories.; This working paper describes the process of establishing a global categorization of indigenous land and resources rights. From the analysis of a great variability of legislations regarding indigenous territories, common considered topics are identified, such...

  15. Cluster-based global firms' use of local capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Bøllingtoft, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Despite growing interest in clusters role for the global competitiveness of firms, there has been little research into how globalization affects cluster-based firms’ (CBFs) use of local knowledge resources and the combination of local and global knowledge used. Using the cluster......’s knowledge base as a mediating variable, the purpose of this paper is to examine how globalization affected the studied firms’ use of local cluster-based knowledge, integration of local and global knowledge, and networking capabilities. Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative case studies of nine firms...... in three clusters strongly affected by increasing global division of labour. Findings – The paper suggests that globalization has affected how firms use local resources and combine local and global knowledge. Unexpectedly, clustered firms with explicit procedures and established global fora for exchanging...

  16. Team-based global organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Lena; Butler, Christina; Mockaitis, Audra

    2015-01-01

    diversity in enhancing team creativity and performance, and 2) the sharing of knowledge in team-based organizations, while the other two themes address global team leadership: 3) the unprecedented significance of social capital for the success of global team leader roles; and 4) the link between shared......This chapter draws on a panel discussion of the future of global organizing as a team-based organization at EIBA 2014 in Uppsala, Sweden. We began by discussing contemporary developments of hybrid forms of hierarchy and teams-based organizing, but we venture to propose that as organizations become...... characterized by decreased importance of hierarchal structures, more fluidity across borders, even a possible dissolution of firm boundaries, we move towards team-based organizing as an alternative to more traditional forms of hierarchical-based organizing in global firms. To provide input for a discussion...

  17. Global water resources: vulnerability from climate change and population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörösmarty, C J; Green, P; Salisbury, J; Lammers, R B

    2000-07-14

    The future adequacy of freshwater resources is difficult to assess, owing to a complex and rapidly changing geography of water supply and use. Numerical experiments combining climate model outputs, water budgets, and socioeconomic information along digitized river networks demonstrate that (i) a large proportion of the world's population is currently experiencing water stress and (ii) rising water demands greatly outweigh greenhouse warming in defining the state of global water systems to 2025. Consideration of direct human impacts on global water supply remains a poorly articulated but potentially important facet of the larger global change question.

  18. Strategic Enterprise Resource Planning for Global Supply Chain Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswararao, A. V.; Sahu, Dasarathi; Mohan, V. Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Strategic Enterprise Resource planning (SERP) systems are networked and integrated information mechanisms which are developed to achieve competitive advantage for organizations operating in global scale. It plays a vital role in Integrating various stake holders and channel partners involved in day to day operations. In the present Globalized…

  19. Moral Entrepreneurship: Resource Based Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, V.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the role of entrepreneurship in business ethics and promotes a resource-based ethics. The need for and usefulness of this form of ethics emerge from an analysis of contemporary business ethics that appears to be inefficacious and from a moral business practice formed out of the

  20. How important are peatlands globally in providing drinking water resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiren; Morris, Paul; Holden, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    The potential role of peatlands as water stores and sources of downstream water resources for human use is often cited in publications setting the context for the importance of peatlands, but is rarely backed up with substantive evidence. We sought to determine the global role of peatlands in water resource provision. We developed the Peat Population Index (PPI) that combines the coverage of peat and the local population density to show focused (hotspot) areas where there is a combination of both large areas of peat and large populations who would potentially use water sourced from those peatlands. We also developed a method for estimating the proportion of river water that interacted with contributing peatlands before draining into rivers and reservoirs used as a drinking water resource. The Peat Reservoir Index (PRI) estimates the contribution of peatlands to domestic water use to be 1.64 km3 per year which is 0.35 % of the global total. The results suggest that although peatlands are widespread, the spatial distribution of the high PPI and PRI river basins is concentrated in European middle latitudes particularly around major conurbations in The Netherlands, northern England, Scotland (Glasgow) and Ireland (Dublin), although there were also some important systems in Florida, the Niger Delta and Malaysia. More detailed research into water resource provision in high PPI areas showed that they were not always also high PRI areas as often water resources were delivered to urban centres from non-peat areas, despite a large area of peat within the catchment. However, particularly in the UK and Ireland, there are some high PRI systems where peatlands directly supply water to nearby urban centres. Thus both indices are useful and can be used at a global level while more local refinement enables enhanced use which supports global and local peatland protection measures. We now intend to study the impacts of peatland degradation and climate change on water resource

  1. A GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY RESOURCES: NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M.; Westberg, D.; Whitlock, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's POWER project, or the Prediction of the Worldwide Energy Resources project, synthesizes and analyzes data on a global scale. The products of the project find valuable applications in the solar and wind energy sectors of the renewable energy industries. The primary source data for the POWER project are NASA's World Climate Research Project (WCRP)/Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project (Release 3.0) and the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) assimilation model (V 4.0.3). Users of the POWER products access the data through NASA's Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE, Version 6.0) website (http://power.larc.nasa.gov). Over 200 parameters are available to the users. The spatial resolution is 1 degree by 1 degree now and will be finer later. The data covers from July 1983 to December 2007, a time-span of 24.5 years, and are provided as 3-hourly, daily and monthly means. As of now, there have been over 18 million web hits and over 4 million data file downloads. The POWER products have been systematically validated against ground-based measurements, and in particular, data from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) archive, and also against the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). Parameters such as minimum, maximum, daily mean temperature and dew points, relative humidity and surface pressure are validated against the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) data. SSE feeds data directly into Decision Support Systems including RETScreen International clean energy project analysis software that is written in 36 languages and has greater than 260,000 users worldwide.

  2. Australia's Uranium and thorium resources and their global significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, I.B.; McKay, A.; Miezitis, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Australia's world-leading uranium endowment appears to result from the emplacement of uranium enriched felsic igneous rocks in three major periods during the geological evolution of the continent. Australia has over 27% of the world's total reasonably assured uranium resources (RAR) recoverable at < US$80/kgU (which approximates recent uranium spot prices). Olympic Dam is the largest known uranium deposit, containing approximately 19% of global RAR (and over 40% of global inferred resources) recoverable at < US$80/kg U; the uranium is present at low concentrations and the viability of its recovery is underpinned by co-production of copper and gold. Most of Australia's other identified resources are within Ranger, Jabiluka, Koongarra, Kintyre and Yeelirrie, the last four of which are not currently accessible for mining. In 2004, Australia's three operating uranium mines - Ranger, Olympic Dam, and Beverley -produced 22% of global production. Canada was the only country to produce more uranium (29%) and Kazakhstan (9%) ranked third. Considerably increased uranium production has been recently foreshadowed from Australia (through developing a large open pit at Olympic Dam), Canada (mainly through opening of the Cigar Lake mine), and Kazakhstan (developing several new in situ leach mines). These increases should go a long way towards satisfying demand from about 2010. Olympic Dam has sufficient resources to sustain such increased production over many decades. Thorium is expected to be used in some future generations of nuclear reactors. Australia also has major (but incompletely quantified) resources of this commodity, mainly in heavy mineral sands deposits and associated with alkaline igneous rocks. It is inevitable that the international community will be looking increasingly to Australia to sustain its vital role in providing fuels for future nuclear power generation, given its world-leading identified resources, considerable potential for new

  3. Global Information Resources on Rice for Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri RAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Various issues concerning the progress of rice research are related to ambiguous germplasm identification, difficulty in tracing pedigree information, and lack of integration between genetic resources, characterization, breeding, evaluation and utilization data. These issues are the constraints in developing knowledge-intensive crop improvement programs. The rapid growth, development and the global spread of modern information and communication technology allow quick adoption in fundamental research. Thus, there is a need to provide an opportunity for the establishment of services which describe the rice information for better accessibility to information resources used by researchers to enhance the competitiveness. This work reviews some of available resources on rice bioinformatics and their roles in elucidating and propagating biological and genomic information in rice research. These reviews will also enable stakeholders to understand and adopt the change in research and development and share knowledge with the global community of agricultural scientists. The establishment like International Rice Information System, Rice Genome Research Project and Integrated Rice Genome Explorer are major initiatives for the improvement of rice. Creation of databases for comparative studies of rice and other cereals are major steps in further improvement of genetic compositions. This paper will also highlight some of the initiatives and organizations working in the field of rice improvement and explore the availability of the various web resources for the purpose of research and development of rice. We are developing a meta web server for integration of online resources such as databases, web servers and journals in the area of bioinformatics. This integrated platform, with acronym iBIRA, is available online at ibiranet.in. The resources reviewed here are the excerpts from the resources integrated in iBIRA.

  4. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H. Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1 and 55.0 (Case 3 Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.

  5. Statistical model of global uranium resources and long-term availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnet, A.; Gabriel, S.; Percebois, J.

    2016-01-01

    Most recent studies on the long-term supply of uranium make simplistic assumptions on the available resources and their production costs. Some consider the whole uranium quantities in the Earth's crust and then estimate the production costs based on the ore grade only, disregarding the size of ore bodies and the mining techniques. Other studies consider the resources reported by countries for a given cost category, disregarding undiscovered or unreported quantities. In both cases, the resource estimations are sorted following a cost merit order. In this paper, we describe a methodology based on 'geological environments'. It provides a more detailed resource estimation and it is more flexible regarding cost modelling. The global uranium resource estimation introduced in this paper results from the sum of independent resource estimations from different geological environments. A geological environment is defined by its own geographical boundaries, resource dispersion (average grade and size of ore bodies and their variance), and cost function. With this definition, uranium resources are considered within ore bodies. The deposit breakdown of resources is modelled using a bivariate statistical approach where size and grade are the two random variables. This makes resource estimates possible for individual projects. Adding up all geological environments provides a distribution of all Earth's crust resources in which ore bodies are sorted by size and grade. This subset-based estimation is convenient to model specific cost structures. (authors)

  6. Remote sensing strategies for global resource exploration and environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Frederick B.

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing, when integrated with other exploration techniques, has demonstrated operational exploration and engineering cost savings and reduced exploration risks through improved geological mapping. Land and ocean remote sensing satellite systems under development for the 1990's by the United States, France, Japan, Canada, ESA, Russia, China, and others, will significantly increase our ability to explore for, develop, and manage energy and mineral resources worldwide. A major difference between these systems is the "Open Skies" and "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" policies as have been practiced by the U.S. and France and the restrictive nationalistic data policies as have been practiced by Russia and India. Global exploration will use satellite remote sensing to better map regional structural and basin-like features that control the distribution of energy and mineral resources. Improved sensors will better map lithologic and stratigraphic units and identify alteration effects in rocks, soils, and vegetation cover indicative of undiscovered subsurface resources. These same sensors will also map and monitor resource development. The use of satellite remote sensing data will grow substantially through increasing integration with other geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data using improved geographic information systems (GIS). International exploration will focus on underdeveloped countries rather than on mature exploration areas such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. Energy and mineral companies and government agencies in these countries and others will utilize available remote sensing data to acquire economic intelligence on global resources. If the "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" principle is observed by satellite producing countries, exploration will remain competitive "on the ground". In this manner, remote sensing technology will continue to be developed to better explore for and manage the world's needed resources

  7. Bringing the Global Scale to Education in Natural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Given the ominous trajectory of rapid global environmental change, environmental managers must grapple with global scale structures, processes, and concepts. The concept of the Anthropocene Epoch, albeit contested, is highly integrative across disciplines and temporal scales, and thus potentially helpful in the context of educating environmental managers. It can be framed temporally in terms of the geologic history of the global environment, the initiation and acceleration of anthropogenic impacts on the environment, and a future global environment that is highly dependent on human decisions. A key lesson from Earth's pre-human geologic history is that global climate has generally been linked to greenhouse gas concentrations, and many mass extinction events were associated with high greenhouse gas concentrations. The pervasive impacts of the contemporary technosphere on the biosphere point especially to the need to conserve biosphere capital. Scenarios of Earth's future environment, based on Earth system models, suggest that business-as-usual technologies and economic practices will set the stage for a biophysical environment that is hostile (if not inimical) to a high technology global civilization. These lessons can inform and inspire sub-global management efforts to mitigate and adapt to global environmental change.

  8. Patterns and Features of Global Uranium Resources and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Song, Zisheng; Cheng, Xianghu; Huanhuan, MA

    2017-11-01

    With the entry into force of the Paris Agreement, the development of clean and low-carbon energy has become the consensus of the world. Nuclear power is one energy that can be vigorously developed today and in the future. Its sustainable development depends on a sufficient supply of uranium resources. It is of great practical significance to understand the distribution pattern of uranium resources and production. Based on the latest international authoritative reports and data, this paper analysed the distribution of uranium resources, the distribution of resources and production in the world, and the developing tendency in future years. The results show that the distribution of uranium resources is uneven in the world, and the discrepancies between different type deposits is very large. Among them, sandstone-type uranium deposits will become the main type owing to their advantages of wide distribution, minor environmental damage, mature mining technology and high economic benefit.

  9. Improved Offshore Wind Resource Assessment in Global Climate Stabilization Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Sullivan, P.; Heimiller, D.; Lopez, A.; Eurek, K.; Badger, J.; Jorgensen, H. E.; Kelly, M.; Clarke, L.; Luckow, P.

    2012-10-01

    This paper introduces a technique for digesting geospatial wind-speed data into areally defined -- country-level, in this case -- wind resource supply curves. We combined gridded wind-vector data for ocean areas with bathymetry maps, country exclusive economic zones, wind turbine power curves, and other datasets and relevant parameters to build supply curves that estimate a country's offshore wind resource defined by resource quality, depth, and distance-from-shore. We include a single set of supply curves -- for a particular assumption set -- and study some implications of including it in a global energy model. We also discuss the importance of downscaling gridded wind vector data to capturing the full resource potential, especially over land areas with complex terrain. This paper includes motivation and background for a statistical downscaling methodology to account for terrain effects with a low computational burden. Finally, we use this forum to sketch a framework for building synthetic electric networks to estimate transmission accessibility of renewable resource sites in remote areas.

  10. Long-term availability of global uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnet, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    From a global perspective, a low-carbon path to development driven by a growth of nuclear power production raises issues about the availability of uranium resources. Future technologies allowing nuclear reactors to overcome the need for natural uranium will take time to fully deploy. To address these issues, we analyze the conditions of availability of uranium in the 21. century. The first two conditions are technical accessibility and economic interest, both related to the cost of production. We study them using a model that estimates the ultimate uranium resources (amounts of both discovered and undiscovered resources) and their costs. This model splits the world into regions and the resource estimate for each region derives from the present knowledge of the deposits and economic filtering. The output is a long-term supply curve that illustrates the quantities of uranium that are technically accessible as a function of their cost of production. We identify the main uncertainties of these estimates and we show that with no regional breakdown, the ultimate resources are underestimated. The other conditions of availability of uranium covered in our study are related to the market dynamics, i.e. they derive from the supply and demand clearing mechanism. To assess their influence, they are introduced as dynamic constraints in a partial equilibrium model. This model of the uranium market is deterministic, and market players are represented by regions. For instance, it takes into account the short-term correlation between price and exploration expenditures, which is the subject of a dedicate econometric study. In the longer term, constraints include anticipation of demand by consumers and a gradual depletion of the cheapest ultimate resources. Through a series of prospective simulations, we demonstrate the strong influence on long-term price trends of both the growth rate of demand during the 21. century and its anticipation. Conversely, the uncertainties related to the

  11. An Improved Global Wind Resource Estimate for Integrated Assessment Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eurek, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gleason, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hettinger, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This paper summarizes initial steps to improving the robustness and accuracy of global renewable resource and techno-economic assessments for use in integrated assessment models. We outline a method to construct country-level wind resource supply curves, delineated by resource quality and other parameters. Using mesoscale reanalysis data, we generate estimates for wind quality, both terrestrial and offshore, across the globe. Because not all land or water area is suitable for development, appropriate database layers provide exclusions to reduce the total resource to its technical potential. We expand upon estimates from related studies by: using a globally consistent data source of uniquely detailed wind speed characterizations; assuming a non-constant coefficient of performance for adjusting power curves for altitude; categorizing the distance from resource sites to the electric power grid; and characterizing offshore exclusions on the basis of sea ice concentrations. The product, then, is technical potential by country, classified by resource quality as determined by net capacity factor. Additional classifications dimensions are available, including distance to transmission networks for terrestrial wind and distance to shore and water depth for offshore. We estimate the total global wind generation potential of 560 PWh for terrestrial wind with 90% of resource classified as low-to-mid quality, and 315 PWh for offshore wind with 67% classified as mid-to-high quality. These estimates are based on 3.5 MW composite wind turbines with 90 m hub heights, 0.95 availability, 90% array efficiency, and 5 MW/km2 deployment density in non-excluded areas. We compare the underlying technical assumption and results with other global assessments.

  12. Global Health: Preparation for Working in Resource-Limited Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Nicole E; Pitt, Michael B; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; McCall, Natalie; Lukolyo, Heather; Arnold, Linda D; Audcent, Tobey; Batra, Maneesh; Chan, Kevin; Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Schutze, Gordon E; Butteris, Sabrina

    2017-11-01

    Trainees and clinicians from high-income countries are increasingly engaging in global health (GH) efforts, particularly in resource-limited settings. Concomitantly, there is a growing demand for these individuals to be better prepared for the common challenges and controversies inherent in GH work. This is a state-of-the-art review article in which we outline what is known about the current scope of trainee and clinician involvement in GH experiences, highlight specific considerations and issues pertinent to GH engagement, and summarize preparation recommendations that have emerged from the literature. The article is focused primarily on short-term GH experiences, although much of the content is also pertinent to long-term work. Suggestions are made for the health care community to develop and implement widely endorsed preparation standards for trainees, clinicians, and organizations engaging in GH experiences and partnerships. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Global status of nuclear power and the needed human resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernido, Corazon C.

    2009-01-01

    According to projections of the OECD/IEA, the world energy demand will expand by 45% from now until 2030, with coal accounting for more than a third of the overall rise. To reduce greenhouse gases and mitigate climate change, many countries are resorting to renewables and nuclear power. Some statistics about nuclear energy in the global energy mix and about nuclear power plants worldwide, as well as the energy situation in the country are presented. According to sources from the Department of Energy on the Philippine Energy Plan, nuclear power is a long-term energy option and will likely enter the energy mix by 2025. Preparation of the infrastructure for nuclear power has to start ten to fifteen years before the first plant comes online. The needed human resources, the education and training required are present. (Author)

  14. Model of global evaluation for energetic resources; Modelo de avaliacao global de recursos energeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Ricardo Junqueira; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: ricardo_fujii@pea.usp.br; daeta@pea.usp.br; lcgalvao@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The traditional energy planning usually takes into account the technical economical costs, considered alongside environmental and a few political restraints; however, there is a lack of methods to evenly assess environmental, economical, social and political costs. This work tries to change such scenario by elaborating a model to characterize an energy resource in all four dimensions - environmental, political, social and economical - in an integrated view. The model aims at two objectives: provide a method to assess the global cost of the energy resource and estimate its potential considering the limitations provided by these dimensions. To minimize the complexity of the integration process, the model strongly recommends the use of the Full Cost Accounting - FCA - method to assess the costs and benefits from any given resource. The FCA allows considering quantitative and qualitative costs, reducing the need of quantitative data, which are limited in some cases. The model has been applied in the characterization of the region of Aracatuba, located in the west part of the state of Sao Paulo - Brazil. The results showed that the potential of renewable sources are promising, especially when the global costs are considered. Some resources, in spite of being economically attractive, don't provide an acceptable global cost. It became clear that the model is a valuable tool when the conventional tools fail to address many issues, especially the need of an integrated view on the planning process; the results from this model can be applied in a portfolio selection method to evaluate the best options for a power system expansion. It has to be noticed that the usefulness of this model can be increased when adopted with a method to analyze demand side management measures, thus offering a complete set of possible choices of energy options for the decision maker. (author)

  15. Renewable resources and renewable energy a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasiero, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    As energy demands continue to surge worldwide, the need for efficient and environmentally neutral energy production becomes increasingly apparent. In its first edition, this book presented a well-rounded perspective on the development of bio-based feedstocks, biodegradable plastics, hydrogen energy, fuel cells, and other aspects related to renewable resources and sustainable energy production. The new second edition builds upon this foundation to explore new trends and technologies. The authors pay particular attention to hydrogen-based and fuel cell-based technologies and provide real-world c

  16. Carrara Marble: a nomination for Global Heritage Stone Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    primavori, piero

    2014-05-01

    In the collective memory, in ordinary people, or in any technical office not devoted expressly to stone, marble is automatically associated with the word Carrara (Italy). Indisputably, for decades and decades, there has been this word association: marble means Carrara and Carrara means marble. In few other commodity sectors is a word so automatically associated with a name, engendering an identification process that, despite the inexorable onslaught of globalization, continues to exist. Carrara Marble, probably one of the most famous dimension stone in the world, has been recently designated as a suitable "Global Heritage Stone Resource". The additional designation of "Global Ornamental Stone" has also been proposed. Quarried since pre-Roman times, this marble is the testimonial of an area/industry that was able - for a variety of reasons not easily repeatable in future stone history - from the dawn of the stone sector to trigger a flywheel-effect on a global scale. The term Carrara Marble, geographically referable to the marbles extracted in the sorroundings of Carrara town, is in reality a general one, erroneously used since long time to define a multitude of different marbles (more than two hundred commercial varieties) extracted in the whole Apuane Alps region, Nortwestern Tuscany, Italy. The district of Carrara Marble is part of a wider territory where five important extractive areas can be recognized: Lunigiana, Garfagnana, Versilia, Massa and the Carrara area sensu stricto. This region is approximately 30 km long and 12 km wide, with marble outcrops, useful for commercial purposes, covering over 75 km2. The Carrara Marble is currently excavated in more than 100 quarries, at a rate of about 1.500.000 tons per year, is processed almost everywhere, and sold all over the world. The most important commercial designations are the following: 1) "Marmo Bianco"/"Marmo Ordinario" (Carrara White marble/Ordinary marble); 2) "Marmo Venato" (Veined marble); 3) "Marmo

  17. Are world uranium resources sufficient to fuel global growth in nuclear generating capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Vance, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    Increased uranium prices since 2003 have produced more activity in the sector than the previous 20 years. Nuclear reactor construction is proceeding in some countries, ambitious expansion plans have been announced in others and several, particularly in the developing world, are considering introducing nuclear power as a means of meeting rising electricity demand without increasing greenhouse gas emissions. Others have recently decided to either withdraw from the use of nuclear power or not proceed with development plans following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011. Since the mid-1960, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency have jointly prepared a comprehensive update of global uranium resources, production and demand (commonly known as the 'Red Book'. The Red Book is based on government responses to a questionnaire that requests information on uranium exploration and mine development activity, resources and plans for nuclear development to 2035. This presentation provides an overview of the global situation based on the recently published 2011 edition. It features a compilation of global uranium resources, projected mine development and production capability in all the countries currently producing uranium or with plans to do so in the near future. This is compared to updated, post-Fukushima demand projections, reflecting nuclear phase-out plans announced in some countries and ambitious expansion plans of others. The 2011 Red Book shows that currently defined uranium resources are sufficient to meet high case projections of nuclear power development to 2035. (authors)

  18. Zarzalejo granite (Spain). A nomination for 'Global Heritage Stone Resource'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael; José Varas-Muriel, María

    2015-04-01

    Zarzalejo granite is quarried in the Sierra de Guadarrama (Spanish Central System) foothills, in and around Zarzalejo village, in the province of Madrid, Spain. It is an inequigranular monzogranite medium-to-coarse grained, with a slight porphyritic texture (feldspar phenocrysts) and mafic micro-grained enclaves. In this abstract the candidacy of Zarzalejo granite as a "Global Heritage Resource Stone" (GHSR) is presented. This stone ideally fits the newly proposed designation as it has been used in many heritage buildings and its good petrophysical properties and durability have allowed well preserved constructions such as a Roman road, San Pedro Church in Zarzalejo (1492), Descalzas Reales Monastery in Madrid (1559-1564) and the San Lorenzo del Escorial Royal Monastery (1563-1584), to be declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. This level of construction has been a landmark in the extraction and proliferation of historic quarries created due to the high demand that such colossal monuments and buildings with granite, have required for their construction. In the mid-20th century, More, Zarzalejo granite has also been used in restoration works including the Royal Palace and the Reina Sofía Museum (2001-2005), both buildings in Madrid, Spain. Extraction of granite ashlars from tors has been a very frequent activity in the Zarzalejo neighbourhood until mid-twentieth century. So there is also a need to preserve these historic quarries. This type of stone has created a landscape that has been preserved as an open-air museum today where you can see the marks left in the granite due to historic quarry operations. The granite industry has been one of the main pillars of the Zarzalejo regional economy. For centuries, the local community have been engaged in quarrying and have created a cultural landscape based on its building stone. A quarryman monument has been erected in Zarzalejo in honor of this traditional craft as well as an architecture museum at San Lorenzo del

  19. Global impacts of energy demand on the freshwater resources of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Robert Alan; Scott, Kate A; Flörke, Martina; Brown, Gareth; Ewers, Robert M; Farmer, Elizabeth; Kapos, Valerie; Muggeridge, Ann; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Taylor, Gail; Barrett, John; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2015-12-01

    The growing geographic disconnect between consumption of goods, the extraction and processing of resources, and the environmental impacts associated with production activities makes it crucial to factor global trade into sustainability assessments. Using an empirically validated environmentally extended global trade model, we examine the relationship between two key resources underpinning economies and human well--being-energy and freshwater. A comparison of three energy sectors (petroleum, gas, and electricity) reveals that freshwater consumption associated with gas and electricity production is largely confined within the territorial boundaries where demand originates. This finding contrasts with petroleum, which exhibits a varying ratio of territorial to international freshwater consumption, depending on the origin of demand. For example, although the United States and China have similar demand associated with the petroleum sector, international freshwater consumption is three times higher for the former than the latter. Based on mapping patterns of freshwater consumption associated with energy sectors at subnational scales, our analysis also reveals concordance between pressure on freshwater resources associated with energy production and freshwater scarcity in a number of river basins globally. These energy-driven pressures on freshwater resources in areas distant from the origin of energy demand complicate the design of policy to ensure security of fresh water and energy supply. Although much of the debate around energy is focused on greenhouse gas emissions, our findings highlight the need to consider the full range of consequences of energy production when designing policy.

  20. The "Global Heritage Stone Resource": Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry

    2013-04-01

    The "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation arose in 2007 as a suggested mechanism to enhance international recognition of famous dimension stones. There were also many aspects of dimension stone study that had no formal recognition in mainstream geology and which could be recognised in a formal geological sense via an internationally acceptable geological standard. Such a standard could also receive recognition by other professionals and the wider community. From the start, it was appreciated that active quarrying would an important aspect of the designation so a designation different to any other standard was needed. Also the project was linked to the long-established Commission C-10 Building Stone and Ornamental Rocks of the International Association of Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG C-10). Since 2007, the "Global Heritage Stone Resource" (GHSR) proposal has evolved in both in stature and purpose due to an increasing number of interested international correspondents that were actively sought via conference participation. The "English Stone Forum" in particular was pursuing similar aims and was quick to advise that English dimension stone types were being recognised as having international, national or regional importance. Furthermore the proposed designation was suggested as to having significant value in safeguarding designated stone types whilst also providing a potential mechanism in preventing heritage stone replacement by cheap substitutes. During development it also became apparent that stone types having practical applications such as roofing slates and millstones or even stone types utilised by prehistoric man can also be recognised by the new designation. The heritage importance of architects was also recognised. Most importantly an international network evolved, primarily including geologists, that now seems to be the largest international grouping of dimension stone professionals. This has assisted the project to affiliate with the

  1. Global health resource utilization associated with pacemaker complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru, Catherine; Steenrod, Anna; Wolff, Claudia; Eggington, Simon; Wright, David Jay; Wyrwich, Kathleen W

    2017-07-01

    To estimate health resource utilization (HRU) associated with the management of pacemaker complications in various healthcare systems. Electrophysiologists (EPs) from four geographical regions (Western Europe, Australia, Japan, and North America) were invited to participate. Survey questions focused on HRU in the management of three chronic pacemaker complications (i.e. pacemaker infections requiring extraction, lead fractures/insulation breaches requiring replacement, and upper extremity deep venous thrombosis [DVT]). Panelists completed a maximum of two web-based surveys (iterative rounds). Mean, median values, and interquartile ranges were calculated and used to establish consensus. Overall, 32 and 29 panelists participated in the first and second rounds of the Delphi panel, respectively. Consensus was reached on treatment and HRU associated with a typical pacemaker implantation and complications. HRU was similar across regions, except for Japan, where panelists reported the longest duration of hospital stay in all scenarios. Infections were the most resource-intensive complications and were characterized by intravenous antibiotics days of 9.6?13.5 days and 21.3?29.2 days for pocket and lead infections respectively; laboratory and diagnostic tests, and system extraction and replacement procedures. DVT, on the other hand, was the least resource intensive complication. The results of the panel represent the views of the respondents who participated and may not be generalizable outside of this panel. The surveys were limited in scope and, therefore, did not include questions on management of acute complications (e.g. hematoma, pneumothorax). The Delphi technique provided a reliable and efficient approach to estimating resource utilization associated with chronic pacemaker complications. Estimates from the Delphi panel can be used to generate costs of pacemaker complications in various regions.

  2. Modern Resource-Based Theory(ies)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Stieglitz, Nils

    We survey the resource-based view in strategic management, focusing on its roots in economics. We organize our discussion in terms of the Gavetti and Levinthal distinction between a “high church” and a “low church” resource-based view, and argue that these hitherto rather separate streams...

  3. Human resources for health: global crisis and international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Gustavo Zoio; Fehn, Amanda Cavada; Ungerer, Regina Lucia Sarmento; Poz, Mario Roberto Dal

    2017-07-01

    From the 1990s onwards, national economies became connected and globalized. Changes in the demographic and epidemiological profile of the population highlighted the need for further discussions and strategies on Human Resources for Health (HRH). The health workforce crisis is a worldwide phenomenon. It includes: difficulties in attracting and retaining health professionals to work in rural and remote areas, poor distribution and high turnover of health staff particularly physicians, poor training of health workforces in new sanitation and demographic conditions and the production of scientific evidence to support HRH decision making, policy management, programs and interventions. In this scenario, technical cooperation activities may contribute to the development of the countries involved, strengthening relationships and expanding exchanges as well as contributing to the production, dissemination and use of technical scientific knowledge and evidence and the training of workers and institutional strengthening. This article aims to explore this context highlighting the participation of Brazil in the international cooperation arena on HRH and emphasizing the role of the World Health Organization in confronting this crisis that limits the ability of countries and their health systems to improve the health and lives of their populations.

  4. Collaboration in Global Software Engineering Based on Process Description Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Harald; Rausch, Andreas; Fischer, Edward

    Globalization is one of the big trends in software development. Development projects need a variety of different resources with appropriate expert knowledge to be successful. More and more of these resources are nowadays obtained from specialized organizations and countries all over the world, varying in development approaches, processes, and culture. As seen with early outsourcing attempts, collaboration may fail due to these differences. Hence, the major challenge in global software engineering is to streamline collaborating organizations towards a successful conjoint development. Based on typical collaboration scenarios, this paper presents a structured approach to integrate processes in a comprehensible way.

  5. Assessing water resources in Azerbaijan using a local distributed model forced and constrained with global data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Laurène; Hegnauer, Mark; Schellekens, Jaap; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; ten Velden, Corine

    2017-04-01

    In many countries, data is scarce, incomplete and often not easily shared. In these cases, global satellite and reanalysis data provide an alternative to assess water resources. To assess water resources in Azerbaijan, a completely distributed and physically based hydrological wflow-sbm model was set-up for the entire Kura basin. We used SRTM elevation data, a locally available river map and one from OpenStreetMap to derive the drainage direction network at the model resolution of approximately 1x1 km. OpenStreetMap data was also used to derive the fraction of paved area per cell to account for the reduced infiltration capacity (c.f. Schellekens et al. 2014). We used the results of a global study to derive root zone capacity based on climate data (Wang-Erlandsson et al., 2016). To account for the variation in vegetation cover over the year, monthly averages of Leaf Area Index, based on MODIS data, were used. For the soil-related parameters, we used global estimates as provided by Dai et al. (2013). This enabled the rapid derivation of a first estimate of parameter values for our hydrological model. Digitized local meteorological observations were scarce and available only for limited time period. Therefore several sources of global meteorological data were evaluated: (1) EU-WATCH global precipitation, temperature and derived potential evaporation for the period 1958-2001 (Harding et al., 2011), (2) WFDEI precipitation, temperature and derived potential evaporation for the period 1979-2014 (by Weedon et al., 2014), (3) MSWEP precipitation (Beck et al., 2016) and (4) local precipitation data from more than 200 stations in the Kura basin were available from the NOAA website for a period up to 1991. The latter, together with data archives from Azerbaijan, were used as a benchmark to evaluate the global precipitation datasets for the overlapping period 1958-1991. By comparing the datasets, we found that monthly mean precipitation of EU-WATCH and WFDEI coincided well

  6. The Impact Of Climate Change On Water Resources: Global And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GHGs) is increasing and this has resulted to changing global climate with increasing temperature. The rise in global average temperatures since 1860 now exceeds 0.6OC. The effect of the GHGs concentration on global warming as at 2100 is ...

  7. Allocating Scarce Resources Strategically - An Evaluation and Discussion of the Global Fund's Pattern of Disbursements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, David; Kinyua, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Background The Global Fund is under pressure to improve its rationing of financial support. This study describes the GF's pattern of disbursements in relation to total health expenditure (THE), government health expenditure (GHE), income status and the burden of HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. It also examines the potential for recipient countries to increase domestic public financing for health. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 104 countries that received Global Fund disbursements in 2009. It analyses data on Global Fund disbursements; health financing indicators; government revenue and expenditure; and burden of disease. Findings Global Fund disbursements made up 0.37% of THE across all 104 countries; but with considerable country variation ranging from 0.002% to 53.4%. Global Fund disbursements to government amounted to 0.47% of GHE across the 104 countries, but again with considerable variation (in three countries more than half of GHE was based on Global Fund support). Although the Global Fund provides progressively more funding for lower income countries on average, there is much variation at the country such that here was no correlation between per capita GF disbursements and per capita THE, nor between per capita GF disbursement to government and per capita GHE. There was only a slight positive correlation between per capita GF disbursement and burden of disease. Several countries with a high degree of 'financial dependency' upon the Fund have the potential to increase levels of domestic financing for health. Discussion The Global Fund can improve its targeting of resources so that it better matches the pattern of global need. To do this it needs to: a) reduce the extent to which funds are allocated on a demand-driven basis; and b) align its funding model to broader health systems financing and patterns of health expenditure beyond the three diseases. PMID:22590496

  8. Allocating scarce resources strategically--an evaluation and discussion of the Global Fund's pattern of disbursements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David McCoy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Global Fund is under pressure to improve its rationing of financial support. This study describes the GF's pattern of disbursements in relation to total health expenditure (THE, government health expenditure (GHE, income status and the burden of HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. It also examines the potential for recipient countries to increase domestic public financing for health. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 104 countries that received Global Fund disbursements in 2009. It analyses data on Global Fund disbursements; health financing indicators; government revenue and expenditure; and burden of disease. FINDINGS: Global Fund disbursements made up 0.37% of THE across all 104 countries; but with considerable country variation ranging from 0.002% to 53.4%. Global Fund disbursements to government amounted to 0.47% of GHE across the 104 countries, but again with considerable variation (in three countries more than half of GHE was based on Global Fund support. Although the Global Fund provides progressively more funding for lower income countries on average, there is much variation at the country such that here was no correlation between per capita GF disbursements and per capita THE, nor between per capita GF disbursement to government and per capita GHE. There was only a slight positive correlation between per capita GF disbursement and burden of disease. Several countries with a high degree of 'financial dependency' upon the Fund have the potential to increase levels of domestic financing for health. DISCUSSION: The Global Fund can improve its targeting of resources so that it better matches the pattern of global need. To do this it needs to: a reduce the extent to which funds are allocated on a demand-driven basis; and b align its funding model to broader health systems financing and patterns of health expenditure beyond the three diseases.

  9. Building Virtual Watersheds: A Global Opportunity to Strengthen Resource Management and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Lee; Miller, Daniel; Barquin, Jose; McCleary, Richard; Cai, TiJiu; Ji, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Modern land-use planning and conservation strategies at landscape to country scales worldwide require complete and accurate digital representations of river networks, encompassing all channels including the smallest headwaters. The digital river networks, integrated with widely available digital elevation models, also need to have analytical capabilities to support resource management and conservation, including attributing river segments with key stream and watershed data, characterizing topography to identify landforms, discretizing land uses at scales necessary to identify human-environment interactions, and connecting channels downstream and upstream, and to terrestrial environments. We investigate the completeness and analytical capabilities of national to regional scale digital river networks that are available in five countries: Canada, China, Russia, Spain, and United States using actual resource management and conservation projects involving 12 university, agency, and NGO organizations. In addition, we review one pan-European and one global digital river network. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the majority of the regional, national, and global scale digital river networks in our sample lack in network completeness, analytical capabilities or both. To address this limitation, we outline a general framework to build as complete as possible digital river networks and to integrate them with available digital elevation models to create robust analytical capabilities (e.g., virtual watersheds). We believe this presents a global opportunity for in-country agencies, or international players, to support creation of virtual watersheds to increase environmental problem solving, broaden access to the watershed sciences, and strengthen resource management and conservation in countries worldwide.

  10. Global resources and energy trade. An overview for coal, natural gas, oil and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remme, U.; Blesl, M.; Fahl, U.

    2007-07-15

    Despite efforts to improve energy effi-ciency and increase the usage of renewable energy carriers, fossil fuels and nuclear energy will continue to be important sources of global energy supply for the coming decades. Present global oil and gas supply is characterized by a concentration of production in a few world areas, mainly the Middle East and the Former Soviet Union, and a transport from these regions to the industrialized countries. Depletion of conventional reserves, especially oil, in combination with a surge for energy in emerging economies, as China and India, how-ever, is expected to change this picture in the future: unconventional resources in other world regions may be exploited to cover the surge energy demand, infrastructure for energy transport along new routes may have to be established. To provide a data base for such ques-tions, this report gives an overview of the current global resource situation for coal, natural gas, oil and uranium. In the first part, an assessment of the con-ventional and unconventional reserves and resources as well as their supply costs is given for the different regions of the world. The second part describes the current energy trade infrastructure between world regions and estimates the costs for existing and new trade links between these regions. (orig.)

  11. Construction Cost Management in Resource Based Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Elazzazy, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Resource Based Economy tested according to criteria formulated from the construction cost management best practices. A cost management plan modeled to demonstrate the possibility of construction management under a new socio-economic system, which counts the consumed natural resources by construction as the dry cost to the environment.

  12. Resource sharing under global scheduling with partial processor bandwidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afshar, Sara; Behnam, Moris; Bril, Reinder J.; Nolte, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Resource efficient approaches are of great importance for resource constrained embedded systems. In this paper, we present an approach targeting systems where tasks of a critical application are partitioned on a multi-core platform and by using resource reservation techniques, the remaining

  13. Global change and water resources in the next 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Hirsch, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    in the first half of the 20th century. Decreased summer runoff affects water supply for agriculture, domestic water supply, cooling needs for thermoelectric power generation, and ecosystem needs. In addition to the reduced volume of streamflow during warm summer months, less water results in elevated stream temperature, which also has significant effects on cooling of power generating facilities and on aquatic ecosystem needs. We are now required to include fish and other aquatic species in negotiation over how much water to leave in the river, rather than, as in the past, how much water we could remove from a river. Additionally, we must pay attention to the quality of that water, including its temperature. This is driven in the US by the Endangered Species Act and the Clean Water Act. Furthermore, we must now better understand and manage the whole hydrograph and the influence of hydrologic variability on aquatic ecosystems. Man has trimmed the tails off the probability distribution of flows. We need to understand how to put the tails back on but can’t do that without improved understanding of aquatic ecosystems. Sea level rise presents challenges for fresh water extraction from coastal aquifers as they are compromised by increased saline intrusion. A related problem faces users of ‘run-of-the-river’ water-supply intakes that are threatened by a salt front that migrates further upstream because of higher sea level. We face significant challenges with water infrastructure. The U.S. has among the highest quality drinking water in the world piped to our homes. However, our water and sewage treatment plants and water and sewer pipelines have not had adequate maintenance or investment for decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that there are up to 3.5M illnesses per year from recreational contact with sewage from sanitary sewage overflows. Infrastructure investment needs have been put at 5 trillion nationally. Global change and water resources c

  14. Resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector: the reversion global reserve (RGR) and the guarantee global reserve (GGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Amaral Filho, J.B. de.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation makes the analysis of resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector, through reversion global reserve (RGR) and guarantee global reserve (GGR). RGR and GGR are funds. RGR finances sectorial investments in electric power and GGR aims the supply of deficient concessionaires. Governmental investments and the results of this application are showing. (M.V.M.). 55 refs, 2 figs, 61 tabs

  15. China's mineral resources security under economic globalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Environment and Spatial Informatics

    2002-10-01

    The concept and intention of mineral resources security are introduced. From the insurance and leverage that mineral resources has on China's socio-economic development, the strength of support, the opportunity and challenge imposed by globalised economy, the effect of mineral resource development on the safety of the eco-environment, the author analyses the basic situation and existing problem of the mineral resources security in China; summarizes the current research situation of mineral resources security and the main tactics which are used to ensure mineral resources security in the developed countries; presents the essence of mineral resources security, the basic principles of research and the problems focused; and points out the research areas and goals that should be strengthened urgently. 15 refs.

  16. Linking global scenarios to national assessments: Experiences from the Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda L. Langner; Peter J. Ince

    2012-01-01

    The Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment provides a nationally consistent analysis of the status and trends of the Nation's renewable forest resources. A global scenario approach was taken for the 2010 RPA Assessment to provide a shared world view of potential futures. The RPA Assessment scenarios were linked to the global scenarios and climate projections used...

  17. Asynchronous exposure to global warming: freshwater resources and terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerten, Dieter; Lucht, Wolfgang; Ostberg, Sebastian; Heinke, Jens; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W; Rastgooy, Johann; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim; Kowarsch, Martin; Kreft, Holger; Warren, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This modelling study demonstrates at what level of global mean temperature rise (ΔT g ) regions will be exposed to significant decreases of freshwater availability and changes to terrestrial ecosystems. Projections are based on a new, consistent set of 152 climate scenarios (eight ΔT g trajectories reaching 1.5–5 ° C above pre-industrial levels by 2100, each scaled with spatial patterns from 19 general circulation models). The results suggest that already at a ΔT g of 2 ° C and mainly in the subtropics, higher water scarcity would occur in >50% out of the 19 climate scenarios. Substantial biogeochemical and vegetation structural changes would also occur at 2 ° C, but mainly in subpolar and semiarid ecosystems. Other regions would be affected at higher ΔT g levels, with lower intensity or with lower confidence. In total, mean global warming levels of 2 ° C, 3.5 ° C and 5 ° C are simulated to expose an additional 8%, 11% and 13% of the world population to new or aggravated water scarcity, respectively, with >50% confidence (while ∼1.3 billion people already live in water-scarce regions). Concurrently, substantial habitat transformations would occur in biogeographic regions that contain 1% (in zones affected at 2 ° C), 10% (3.5 ° C) and 74% (5 ° C) of present endemism-weighted vascular plant species, respectively. The results suggest nonlinear growth of impacts along with ΔT g and highlight regional disparities in impact magnitudes and critical ΔT g levels. (letter)

  18. WTS - Risk Based Resource Targeting (RBRT) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Risk Based Resource Targeting (RBRT) application supports a new SMS-structured process designed to focus on safety oversight of systems and processes rather than...

  19. Canadian forests: A vulnerable resource with a global role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.F.W.

    1990-01-01

    Impending climatic change could jeopardize the national and global values of Canada's forests, and creates a new and urgent dimension to the objectives of the World Conservation Strategy. The first objective is the maintenance of essential ecological processes and life-support systems. The first priority requirement, reservation of prime crop lands, could bear directly on the forest sector in certain regions of Canada if new areas of prime crop land develop under improving climatic conditions. The second priority, maintenance of productive land capabilities, may be a more serious matter, although in the long run climate change should increase the productivity of much of Canada's land base. The second objective, preservation of genetic diversity, is significant due to the question of whether there is sufficient plasticity within the forest ecosystems, and particularly within their gene pools, for them to withstand changes envisaged over coming decades. The objective of sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems is especially pertinent to Canada, whose forest sector is based on native species in managed and unmanaged ecosystems. In response to the threat of widespread forest dieback resulting from stress and infestation, foresters might engage in premature harvesting followed by planting of more adapted genotypes. 14 refs

  20. Paradise lost: Sovereign State Interest, Global Resource Exploitation and the Politics of Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Taking its cue from the US Supreme Court judgment in Kiobel that restricted the extraterritorial reach of the Alien Tort Claims Act, this article explores how sovereignty structures the relationship between global resource exploitation and the localization of human rights in the international order of states. The argument situates international human rights law in an area of tension between national political self-determination and the global economic exploitation of natural resources. Global...

  1. Food Security: Selected Global and U.S. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Food security is researched and dealt with on local, regional, national, and global levels with solutions ranging from local farmers' market initiatives to increasing crop yields through genetically modified plants to streamlining global supply chains. Because of its broad, interdisciplinary nature, it is necessary to narrow the focus of this…

  2. The Global Fund's resource allocation decisions for HIV programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avdeeva, Olga; Lazarus, Jeff; Aziz, Mohamed Abdel

    2011-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2010, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria's investment in HIV increased substantially to reach US$12 billion. We assessed how the Global Fund's investments in HIV programmes were targeted to key populations in relation to disease burden and national income....

  3. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, W. C., LLNL

    1998-03-23

    regional water resources; As an evaluation tool for selecting appropriate remediation technologies for reclaiming water; and As an assessment tool for determining the effectiveness of implementing the remediation technologies. We have included a discussion on the appropriate strategy for LLNL to integrate its technical tools into the global business, geopolitical, and academic communities, whereby LLNL can form partnerships with technology proponents in the commercial, industrial, and public sectors.

  4. Caspian energy: Oil and gas resources and the global market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; Houweling, H.

    2003-01-01

    his article develops several concepts of critical geopolitics and relates them to the energy resources of the Caspian Region. Energy resources beyond borders may be accessed by trade, respectively by conquest, domination and changing property rights. These are the survival strategies of human groups

  5. A Global Rapid Integrated Monitoring System for Water Cycle and Water Resource Assessment (Global-RIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roads, John; Voeroesmarty, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The main focus of our work was to solidify underlying data sets, the data processing tools and the modeling environment needed to perform a series of long-term global and regional hydrological simulations leading eventually to routine hydrometeorological predictions. A water and energy budget synthesis was developed for the Mississippi River Basin (Roads et al. 2003), in order to understand better what kinds of errors exist in current hydrometeorological data sets. This study is now being extended globally with a larger number of observations and model based data sets under the new NASA NEWS program. A global comparison of a number of precipitation data sets was subsequently carried out (Fekete et al. 2004) in which it was further shown that reanalysis precipitation has substantial problems, which subsequently led us to the development of a precipitation assimilation effort (Nunes and Roads 2005). We believe that with current levels of model skill in predicting precipitation that precipitation assimilation is necessary to get the appropriate land surface forcing.

  6. Global change and water resources in the next 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.; Hirsch, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    in the first half of the 20th century. Decreased summer runoff affects water supply for agriculture, domestic water supply, cooling needs for thermoelectric power generation, and ecosystem needs. In addition to the reduced volume of streamflow during warm summer months, less water results in elevated stream temperature, which also has significant effects on cooling of power generating facilities and on aquatic ecosystem needs. We are now required to include fish and other aquatic species in negotiation over how much water to leave in the river, rather than, as in the past, how much water we could remove from a river. Additionally, we must pay attention to the quality of that water, including its temperature. This is driven in the US by the Endangered Species Act and the Clean Water Act. Furthermore, we must now better understand and manage the whole hydrograph and the influence of hydrologic variability on aquatic ecosystems. Man has trimmed the tails off the probability distribution of flows. We need to understand how to put the tails back on but can’t do that without improved understanding of aquatic ecosystems. Sea level rise presents challenges for fresh water extraction from coastal aquifers as they are compromised by increased saline intrusion. A related problem faces users of ‘run-of-the-river’ water-supply intakes that are threatened by a salt front that migrates further upstream because of higher sea level. We face significant challenges with water infrastructure. The U.S. has among the highest quality drinking water in the world piped to our homes. However, our water and sewage treatment plants and water and sewer pipelines have not had adequate maintenance or investment for decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that there are up to 3.5M illnesses per year from recreational contact with sewage from sanitary sewage overflows. Infrastructure investment needs have been put at 5 trillion nationally. Global change and water resources

  7. Global impacts of conversions from natural to agricultural ecosystems on water resources: Quantity versus quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Jolly, Ian; Sophocleous, Marios; Zhang, Lu

    2007-03-01

    Past land use changes have greatly impacted global water resources, with often opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Increases in rain-fed cropland (460%) and pastureland (560%) during the past 300 years from forest and grasslands decreased evapotranspiration and increased recharge (two orders of magnitude) and streamflow (one order of magnitude). However, increased water quantity degraded water quality by mobilization of salts, salinization caused by shallow water tables, and fertilizer leaching into underlying aquifers that discharge to streams. Since the 1950s, irrigated agriculture has expanded globally by 174%, accounting for ˜90% of global freshwater consumption. Irrigation based on surface water reduced streamflow and raised water tables resulting in waterlogging in many areas (China, India, and United States). Marked increases in groundwater-fed irrigation in the last few decades in these areas has lowered water tables (≤1 m/yr) and reduced streamflow. Degradation of water quality in irrigated areas has resulted from processes similar to those in rain-fed agriculture: salt mobilization, salinization in waterlogged areas, and fertilizer leaching. Strategies for remediating water resource problems related to agriculture often have opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Long time lags (decades to centuries) between land use changes and system response (e.g., recharge, streamflow, and water quality), particularly in semiarid regions, mean that the full impact of land use changes has not been realized in many areas and remediation to reverse impacts will also take a long time. Future land use changes should consider potential impacts on water resources, particularly trade-offs between water, salt, and nutrient balances, to develop sustainable water resources to meet human and ecosystem needs.

  8. Assessing the Impact of Land Use and Land Cover Change on Global Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, N.; Yang, Y. E.; Choi, H. I.; Islam, A.; Charlotte, D. F.; Cai, X.; Kumar, P.

    2007-12-01

    Land use and land cover changes (LULCC) significantly modify the hydrological regime of the watersheds, affecting water resources and environment from regional to global scale. This study seeks to advance and integrate water and energy cycle observation, scientific understanding, and human impacts to assess future water availability. To achieve the research objective, we integrate and interpret past and current space based and in situ observations into a global hydrologic model (GHM). GHM is developed with enhanced spatial and temporal resolution, physical complexity, hydrologic theory and processes to quantify the impact of LULCC on physical variables: surface runoff, subsurface flow, groundwater, infiltration, ET, soil moisture, etc. Coupled with the common land model (CLM), a 3-dimensional volume averaged soil-moisture transport (VAST) model is expanded to incorporate the lateral flow and subgrid heterogeneity. The model consists of 11 soil-hydrology layers to predict lateral as well as vertical moisture flux transport based on Richard's equations. The primary surface boundary conditions (SBCs) include surface elevation and its derivatives, land cover category, sand and clay fraction profiles, bedrock depth and fractional vegetation cover. A consistent global GIS-based dataset is constructed for the SBCs of the model from existing observational datasets comprising of various resolutions, map projections and data formats. Global ECMWF data at 6-hour time steps for the period 1971 through 2000 is processed to get the forcing data which includes incoming longwave and shortwave radiation, precipitation, air temperature, pressure, wind components, boundary layer height and specific humidity. Land use land cover data, generated using IPCC scenarios for every 10 years from 2000 to 2100 is used for future assessment on water resources. Alterations due to LULCC on surface water balance components: ET, groundwater recharge and runoff are then addressed in the study. Land

  9. Strategy community development based on local resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirinawati; Prabawati, I.; Pradana, G. W.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of progressing regions is not far from economic problems and is often caused by the inability of the regions in response to changes in economic conditions that occur, so the need for community development programs implemented to solve various problems. Improved community effort required with the real conditions and needs of each region. Community development based on local resources process is very important, because it is an increase in human resource capability in the optimal utilization of local resource potential. In this case a strategy is needed in community development based on local resources. The community development strategy are as follows:(1) “Eight Line Equalization Plus” which explains the urgency of rural industrialization, (2) the construction of the village will be more successful when combining strategies are tailored to regional conditions, (3) the escort are positioning themselves as the Planner, supervisor, information giver, motivator, facilitator, connecting at once evaluators.

  10. Southward shift of the global wind energy resource under high carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    The use of wind energy resource is an integral part of many nations' strategies towards realizing the carbon emissions reduction targets set forth in the Paris Agreement, and global installed wind power cumulative capacity has grown on average by 22% per year since 2006. However, assessments of wind energy resource are usually based on today's climate, rather than taking into account that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions continue to modify the global atmospheric circulation. Here, we apply an industry wind turbine power curve to simulations of high and low future emissions scenarios in an ensemble of ten fully coupled global climate models to investigate large-scale changes in wind power across the globe. Our calculations reveal decreases in wind power across the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes and increases across the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, with substantial regional variations. The changes across the northern mid-latitudes are robust responses over time in both emissions scenarios, whereas the Southern Hemisphere changes appear critically sensitive to each individual emissions scenario. In addition, we find that established features of climate change can explain these patterns: polar amplification is implicated in the northern mid-latitude decrease in wind power, and enhanced land-sea thermal gradients account for the tropical and southern subtropical increases.

  11. Global demand for rare earth resources and strategies for green mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Tanushree [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Hyun, E-mail: kkim61@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Uchimiya, Minori [USDA-ARS Southern Regional Research Center, 1100 Robert E. Lee Boulevard, New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Kwon, Eilhann E. [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul 05006 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byong-Hun [Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Deep, Akash [Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIR-CSIO), Sector 30C, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Yun, Seong-Taek [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences and KU-KIST Green School, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for emerging renewable energy resources and ‘smart’ electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at an annual rate of 5% by 2020. This high growth rate will require a steady supply base of REEs in the long run. At present, China is responsible for 85% of global rare earth oxide (REO) production. To overcome this monopolistic supply situation, new strategies and investments are necessary to satisfy domestic supply demands. Concurrently, environmental, economic, and social problems arising from REE mining must be addressed. There is an urgent need to develop efficient REE recycling techniques from end-of-life products, technologies to minimize the amount of REEs required per unit device, and methods to recover them from fly ash or fossil fuel-burning wastes.

  12. Natural resources: adjusting and innovating - Hydro-Quebec in the global age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellet, D.

    1995-01-01

    Although it is believed that the information economy is replacing the mass economy, many companies continue to grow on economies based on natural resources. Recent aggressive growth by Hydro-Quebec in the highly competitive market for energy products was singled out as one of the success stories. Among other things, Hydro-Quebec was reported to focus attention on the globalization of electricity products, particularly in Asia, Europe and Africa. The corporation was said to cooperate with other utilities companies such as Ontario Hydro and Power Asia Assets Corporation to diversify its markets abroad. Hydro-Quebec is also marketing new products, developed in its laboratories and by subsidiaries, such as power system simulators and power system planning and management systems, on a global scale

  13. Community-based natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Nathan, Iben

    that deliver credible and easily accessible information. Checks and balances can be supported through civil society as well as the media. Finally, the private sector plays a key and potentially beneficial role in the harvest, transport and marketing of CBNRM products. Thus, dialogue partners should include......This technical note is the product of a long process of consultation with a wide range of resource persons who have over the years been involved in the Danish support to Community Based Natural Resource Management. It gives a brief introduction to community-based natural resource management (CBNRM...... from CBNRM will be useful when designing community-based climate adaptation strategies. Thus, this note is a contribution to an ongoing debate as well as a product of the long-standing experiences of Danida's environmental portfolio. CBNRM is not a stand-alone solution to secure poverty reduction...

  14. Global Behavior for a Strongly Coupled Predator-Prey Model with One Resource and Two Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujuan Jiao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a strongly coupled predator-prey model with one resource and two consumers, in which the first consumer species feeds on the resource according to the Holling II functional response, while the second consumer species feeds on the resource following the Beddington-DeAngelis functional response, and they compete for the common resource. Using the energy estimates and Gagliardo-Nirenberg-type inequalities, the existence and uniform boundedness of global solutions for the model are proved. Meanwhile, the sufficient conditions for global asymptotic stability of the positive equilibrium for this model are given by constructing a Lyapunov function.

  15. A high resolution global wind atlas - improving estimation of world wind resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Jake; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    to population centres, electrical transmission grids, terrain types, and protected land areas are important parts of the resource assessment downstream of the generation of wind climate statistics. Related to these issues of integration are the temporal characteristics and spatial correlation of the wind...... resources. These aspects will also be addressed by the Global Wind Atlas. The Global Wind Atlas, through a transparent methodology, will provide a unified, high resolution, and public domain dataset of wind energy resources for the whole world. The wind atlas data will be the most appropriate wind resource...

  16. Transnational Clientelism, Global (Resource) Governance and the Disciplining of Dissent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hönke, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Schemes for more responsible global governance have often come with new ways of thwarting meaningful voice, participation and dissent of those they are claimed to be beneficial for. This article argues that these processes extend beyond the more often criticized disciplinary effects of civil society

  17. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  18. World Reference Base for Soil Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, J.A.; Driessen, P.M.; Nachtergaele, F.O.; Spaargaren, O.C.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) officially adopted the world reference base for soil resources (WRB) as the Union's system for soil correlation. The structure, concepts, and definitions of the WRB are strongly influenced by the FAO-UNESCO legend of the soil map of the world

  19. Participation in community based natural resource management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on participation in Community Based Natural Resource Management Programme (CBNRMP) and its socio-economic effect on rural families in Ikwerre Area, Rivers State Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to 60 beneficiaries of the programme. Data collected were subjected to descriptive ...

  20. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVES TOWARDS GLOBAL WORKPLACE BY 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Sonia Chetan; Deekshitha

    2016-01-01

    Globalisation has led to different and varied outcomes in the modern days business by fierce competition, rapid change, emerging market trends and adoption of new technologies. A global workplace is a borderless workplace, which facilitate facing new challenges and compete in changing work culture. Today’s buzz words are ‘Manage change or perish’. The demographics and size of the workplace are changing considerably since 21st century. Hence the organizations are trying to cope with the chang...

  1. Sustainable growth and renewable resources in the global economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Ploeg, Frederick; Ligthart, Jenny E. [University of Amsterdam, Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1993-02-01

    An endogenous growth model is developed to study the concept of sustainable growth in the context of two countries that exploit a common-property renewable resource. The strategic interactions between countries are analysed within the framework of a differential game. In the absence of international policy coordination too much renewable natural resources are used in production which boosts the rate of economic growth and depresses environmental quality. However, if apart from international environmental externalities there are international knowledge spill-overs in production and productive government spending benefits the productivity of capital in other countries as well, international policy coordination may lead to a higher rate of economic growth and a worse environmental quality. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 20 refs.

  2. Sustainable growth and renewable resources in the global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Ploeg, Frederick; Ligthart, Jenny E.

    1993-02-01

    An endogenous growth model is developed to study the concept of sustainable growth in the context of two countries that exploit a common-property renewable resource. The strategic interactions between countries are analysed within the framework of a differential game. In the absence of international policy coordination too much renewable natural resources are used in production which boosts the rate of economic growth and depresses environmental quality. However, if apart from international environmental externalities there are international knowledge spill-overs in production and productive government spending benefits the productivity of capital in other countries as well, international policy coordination may lead to a higher rate of economic growth and a worse environmental quality. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 20 refs

  3. Water resources conservation and nitrogen pollution reduction under global food trade and agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wenfeng; Yang, Hong; Liu, Yu; Kummu, Matti; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Liu, Junguo; Schulin, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Global food trade entails virtual flows of agricultural resources and pollution across countries. Here we performed a global-scale assessment of impacts of international food trade on blue water use, total water use, and nitrogen (N) inputs and on N losses in maize, rice, and wheat production. We

  4. Managing Human Resource Capabilities for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: An Empirical Analysis from Indian Global Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, Aradhana; Sharma, Anuradha

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine the role of human resource capability (HRC) in organisational performance and sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) in Indian global organisations. Design/Methodology/Approach: To carry out the present study, an empirical research on a random sample of 300 line or human resource managers from…

  5. Globalization: Ecological consequences of global-scale connectivity in people, resources and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globalization is a phenomenon affecting all facets of the Earth System. Within the context of ecological systems, it is becoming increasingly apparent that global connectivity among terrestrial systems, the atmosphere, and oceans is driving many ecological dynamics at finer scales and pushing thresh...

  6. Measuring globalization-based acculturation in Ladakh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon; Schwartz, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Theories and methodologies within acculturation psychology have been advanced in orderto capture the complex process of intercultural contact in various contexts. Differentiatingglobalization-based acculturation from immigrant-based acculturation has broadened thefield of acculturation psychology...... to include groups who are exposed to global culturalstreams without international migration. The globalization-based acculturation process inthe North Indian region of Ladakh appears to be a tricultural encounter, suggesting anaddendum to the bidimensional acculturation model for this group (and perhaps...... for othersas well). This study explores the development, usability, and validity of a tridimensionalacculturation measure aiming to capture the multicultural orientations initiated by theprocess of globalization in Ladakh. The tridimensional acculturation scale was found to fitthe data significantly better...

  7. A Multilevel Congestion-Based Global Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Rakai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in nanometer nodes creates an elevated level of importance for low-congestion routing. At the same time, advances in mathematical programming have increased the power to solve complex problems, such as the routing problem. Hence, new routing methods need to be developed that can combine advanced mathematical programming and modeling techniques to provide low-congestion solutions. In this paper, a hierarchical mathematical programming-based global routing technique that considers congestion is proposed. The main contributions presented in this paper include (i implementation of congestion estimation based on actual routing solutions versus purely probabilistic techniques, (ii development of a congestion-based hierarchy for solving the global routing problem, and (iii generation of a robust framework for solving the routing problem using mathematical programming techniques. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed global router is capable of reducing congestion and overflow by as much as 36% compared to the state-of-the-art mathematical programming models.

  8. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Yan, Zhe; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Xiuhua; Luo, Yanxia; Yan, Aoshuang

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus vaccine (IVV) is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a) designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b) presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO) patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation. PMID:26372160

  9. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Liu, Yun; Cheng, Yijie; Liu, Long; Yan, Zhe; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Xiuhua; Luo, Yanxia; Yan, Aoshuang

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus vaccine (IVV) is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a) designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b) presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO) patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation.

  10. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chen

    Full Text Available Influenza virus vaccine (IVV is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation.

  11. Awarding global grades in OSCEs: evaluation of a novel eLearning resource for OSCE examiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Gerard J; Johnston, Jenny; Thomson, Clare; McGlade, Kieran

    2012-01-01

    A novel online resource has been developed to aid OSCE examiner training comprising a series of videos of OSCE performances that allow inter-examiner comparison of global grade decisions. To evaluate this training resource in terms of usefulness and ability to improve examiner confidence in awarding global grades in OSCEs. Data collected from the first 200 users included global grades awarded, willingness to change grades following peer comparison and confidence in awarding grades before and after training. Most (86.5%) agreed that the resource was useful in developing global grade scoring ability in OSCEs, with a significant improvement in confidence in awarding grades after using the training package (p<0.001). This is a useful and effective online training package. As an adjunct to traditional training it offers a practical solution to the problem of availability of examiners.

  12. Pakistan's water resources development and the global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, M.; Sufi, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan's economy is dependent on irrigated agriculture. About 80% of agriculture is irrigated. It contributes 30% of GDP. Agriculture provides 55% job opportunities. This sector provides 60% of country's exports. The development of agriculture will prosper and up-lift 70% of the total population that is annually growing by 3%. The total area of Pakistan is 197.7 MA (79.6 Mha). Out of which about 103.2 MA (41.77 Mha) comprises of rugged mountains, narrow valleys and foot hills, the remaining area of 93.5 MA (37.83 Mha) consists about 54.6 MA (22.1 Mha) is currently cultivated. Remaining 22.5 MA (9.1 Mha) is lying barren lacking water for irrigation. The total surface water availability is 154.5 MAF. Population density is the highest in the canal irrigated areas in the north east of Indus Plains. The increasing population and the associated social, technical and economic activities all depend, directly or indirectly, on the exploitation of water-as a resource. The total surface water availability is 154.5 MAF. Presently water diverted at canal heads is 106 MAF. In Vision 2025 Programme WAPDA has identified to build water sector and hydropower projects such as: i) Water Sector Projects (Gomal Zam, Mirani, Raised Mangla, Satpara. Kurram Tangi Dams and Greater Thai, Kachhi and Rainee Canals) and ii) Hydropower Projects (Jinnah Barrage, Allai Khwar, Khan Khwar, Duber Khwar, Golen Gole, Neelum Jhelum and Low Head Hydropower Project). Besides the above some more projects are under various stages of planning i.e.; (i) Basha Diamer Dam Project - Feasibility Detailed Design and Tenders, (ii) Akhori Dam Project - Feasibility, (iii) Sehwan Barrage - Feasibility. (iv) Chashma Right Bank Canal Lift Scheme Feasibility and Design, (v) Bunji Hydropower Project Pre-feasibility, (vi) Dasu Hydropower Project - Pre-feasibility and Skardu Dam - Prefeasibility. While, keeping in view the planning and development activities regarding water sector and hydropower projects, the country will

  13. Processes Adopted to Integrate Intangible Resources in Global Acquisitions among Container Lines: Perceptions of Acquirer and Acquired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indika Sigera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of strategic co-operations among container lines varies from loose-knitted slot charters, liner conferences, shipping alliances, joint services and consortia, through to mergers and acquisitions (M&As. However, these forms of strategic co-operations have not always been able to achieve the intended synergetic growth resulting from the integration of resources. The Resource Based View (RBV suggests that integrating intangible resources, which are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable (VRIN, can make a significant contribution to the performance of post strategic co-operations. This research paper investigates the contribution of intangible resources to the post acquisition success six global acquisitions among container lines. The nine senior managers attached to global container lines were the main participants of this study. Five of them represented acquired container lines, four represented acquirer container lines. The paper explains their personnel experience on the processes adopts to integrate intangible resources in acquisitions. Keywords: Merger and Acquisitions, Intangible Resources, Container Lines, Task Integration, Human Integration

  14. New global ICT-based business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The New Global Business model (NEWGIBM) book describes the background, theory references, case studies, results and learning imparted by the NEWGIBM project, which is supported by ICT, to a research group during the period from 2005-2011. The book is a result of the efforts and the collaborative ...... The NEWGIBM Cases Show? The Strategy Concept in Light of the Increased Importance of Innovative Business Models Successful Implementation of Global BM Innovation Globalisation Of ICT Based Business Models: Today And In 2020......The New Global Business model (NEWGIBM) book describes the background, theory references, case studies, results and learning imparted by the NEWGIBM project, which is supported by ICT, to a research group during the period from 2005-2011. The book is a result of the efforts and the collaborative....... The NEWGIBM book serves as a part of the final evaluation and documentation of the NEWGIBM project and is supported by results from the following projects: M-commerce, Global Innovation, Global Ebusiness & M-commerce, The Blue Ocean project, International Center for Innovation and Women in Business, NEFFICS...

  15. Global assessment of onshore wind power resources considering the distance to urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Herran, Diego; Dai, Hancheng; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed global onshore wind power resources considering the distance to urban areas in terms of transmission losses and costs, and visibility (landscape impact) restrictions. Including this factor decreased the economic potential considerably depending on the level of supply cost considered (at least 37% and 16% for an economic potential below 10 and 14 US cents/kWh, respectively). Its importance compared to other factors was secondary below 15 US cents/kWh. At higher costs it was secondary only to land use, and was more important than economic and technical factors. The impact of this factor was mixed across all regions of the world, given the heterogeneity of wind resources in remote and proximal areas. Regions where available resources decreased the most included the European Union, Japan, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. The supply cost chosen to evaluate the economic potential and uncertainties influencing the estimation of distance to the closest urban area are critical for the assessment. Neglecting the restrictions associated with integration into energy systems and social acceptability resulted in an overestimation of global onshore wind resources. These outcomes are fundamental for global climate policies because they help to clarify the limits of wind energy resource availability. - Highlights: • Global onshore wind resources were assessed including the distance to urban areas. • We evaluate the impact of transmission losses and cost, and visibility restrictions. • The distance to urban areas' impact was considerable, depending on the supply cost. • This factor's importance was secondary to economic, land use, and technical factors. • Neglecting this factor resulted in an overestimation of global wind resources.

  16. Governing the management and use of pooled microbial genetic resources: Lessons from the global crop commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Halewood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights lessons learned over the last thirty years establishing a governance structure for the global crop commons that are of relevance to current champions of the microbial commons. It argues that the political, legal and biophysical situation in which microbial genetic resources (and their users are located today are similar to the situation of plant genetic resources in the mid-1990s, before the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources was negotiated. Consequently, the paper suggests that it may be useful to look to the model of global network of ex situ plant genetic resources collections as a precedent to follow – even if only loosely – in developing an intergovernmentally endorsed legal substructure and governance framework for the microbial commons.

  17. Global Seismic Imaging Based on Adjoint Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdag, E.; Lefebvre, M.; Lei, W.; Peter, D. B.; Smith, J. A.; Zhu, H.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

    2013-12-01

    Our aim is to perform adjoint tomography at the scale of globe to image the entire planet. We have started elastic inversions with a global data set of 253 CMT earthquakes with moment magnitudes in the range 5.8 ≤ Mw ≤ 7 and used GSN stations as well as some local networks such as USArray, European stations, etc. Using an iterative pre-conditioned conjugate gradient scheme, we initially set the aim to obtain a global crustal and mantle model with confined transverse isotropy in the upper mantle. Global adjoint tomography has so far remained a challenge mainly due to computational limitations. Recent improvements in our 3D solvers (e.g., a GPU version) and access to high-performance computational centers (e.g., ORNL's Cray XK7 "Titan" system) now enable us to perform iterations with higher-resolution (T > 9 s) and longer-duration (200 min) simulations to accommodate high-frequency body waves and major-arc surface waves, respectively, which help improve data coverage. The remaining challenge is the heavy I/O traffic caused by the numerous files generated during the forward/adjoint simulations and the pre- and post-processing stages of our workflow. We improve the global adjoint tomography workflow by adopting the ADIOS file format for our seismic data as well as models, kernels, etc., to improve efficiency on high-performance clusters. Our ultimate aim is to use data from all available networks and earthquakes within the magnitude range of our interest (5.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7) which requires a solid framework to manage big data in our global adjoint tomography workflow. We discuss the current status and future of global adjoint tomography based on our initial results as well as practical issues such as handling big data in inversions and on high-performance computing systems.

  18. A Resource Based Framework for Planning and Replanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss a rigorous unifying framework for both planning and replanning, extending an existing logic-based approach to resource-based planning. The primitive concepts in this Action Resource Framework (ARF) are actions and resources. Actions consume and produce resources. Plans are structures

  19. Resource allocation based on cost efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehnokhalaji, Akram; Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Korhonen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    -objective linear programming problem using two different strategies. First, we propose an RA model which keeps the cost efficiencies of units unchanged. This is done assuming fixed technical and allocative efficiencies. The approach is based on the assumption that the decision maker (DM) may not have big changes......In this paper, we consider a resource allocation (RA) problem and develop an approach based on cost (overall) efficiency. The aim is to allocate some inputs among decision making units (DMUs) in such way that their cost efficiencies improve or stay unchanged after RA. We formulate a multi...... in the structure of DMUs within a short term. The second strategy does not impose any restrictions on technical and allocative efficiencies. It guarantees that none of the cost efficiencies of DMUs get worse after RA, and the improvement for units is possible if it is feasible and beneficial. Two numerical...

  20. Polio eradication is just over the horizon: the challenges of global resource mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirio, Gregory Alonso; Kaufmann, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This study draws lessons from the resource mobilization experiences of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). As the GPEI launched its eradication effort in 1988, it underestimated both the difficulty and the costs of the campaign. Advocacy for resource mobilization came as an afterthought in the late 1990s, when achieving eradication by the target date of 2000 began to look doubtful. The reality of funding shortfalls undercutting eradication leads to the conclusion that advocacy for resource mobilization is as central to operations as are scientific and technical factors.

  1. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  2. Land use, climate, and water resourcesglobal stages of interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land use and climate change can accelerate the depletion of freshwater resources that support humans and ecosystem services on a global scale. Here, we briefly review studies from around the world, including those in this special issue. We identify stages, which characterize i...

  3. 32 CFR Enclosure 2 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Foreign Nations and Protected Global Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a serious public health risk; or (2) a physical project that is prohibited or strictly regulated in... of global importance designated for protection by the President or, in the case of such a resource... studies—bilateral or multilateral environmental studies, relevant or related to the proposed action, by...

  4. Global modeling of withdrawal, allocation and consumptive use of surface water and groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water withdrawal and consumptive water use have been increasing rapidly. To analyze the human perturbation on water resources consistently over a large scale, a number of macro-scale hydrological models (MHMs) have been

  5. Global modeling of withdrawal, allocation and consumptive use of surface water and groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2014-01-01

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water withdrawal and consumptive water use have been increasing rapidly. To analyze the human perturbation on water resources consistently over large scales, a number of macro-scale hydrological models (MHMs) have been

  6. Competition and Constraint : Economic Globalization and Human Resource Practices in 23 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ferry; Wittek, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Economic globalization is often considered to be one of the main causes of recent changes in the workplace and the way in which organizations manage their human resources. Nevertheless, an empirical study putting this claim to the test by relating the internationalization of the economy to the use

  7. Paradise lost : Sovereign State Interest, Global Resource Exploitation and the Politics of Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel

    Taking its cue from the US Supreme Court judgment in Kiobel that restricted the extraterritorial reach of the Alien Tort Claims Act, this article explores how sovereignty structures the relationship between global resource exploitation and the localization of human rights in the international order

  8. Preliminary research on quantitative methods of water resources carrying capacity based on water resources balance sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqiu; Huang, Xiaorong; Gao, Linyun; Guo, Biying; Ma, Kai

    2018-06-01

    Water resources are not only basic natural resources, but also strategic economic resources and ecological control factors. Water resources carrying capacity constrains the sustainable development of regional economy and society. Studies of water resources carrying capacity can provide helpful information about how the socioeconomic system is both supported and restrained by the water resources system. Based on the research of different scholars, major problems in the study of water resources carrying capacity were summarized as follows: the definition of water resources carrying capacity is not yet unified; the methods of carrying capacity quantification based on the definition of inconsistency are poor in operability; the current quantitative research methods of water resources carrying capacity did not fully reflect the principles of sustainable development; it is difficult to quantify the relationship among the water resources, economic society and ecological environment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a better quantitative evaluation method to determine the regional water resources carrying capacity. This paper proposes a new approach to quantifying water resources carrying capacity (that is, through the compilation of the water resources balance sheet) to get a grasp of the regional water resources depletion and water environmental degradation (as well as regional water resources stock assets and liabilities), figure out the squeeze of socioeconomic activities on the environment, and discuss the quantitative calculation methods and technical route of water resources carrying capacity which are able to embody the substance of sustainable development.

  9. Global Journalism Ethics: Widening the Conceptual Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. A. Ward

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For most of its history, journalism ethics has been highly practical in aim, in theorizing, and in application. Inquiry analyzed what was occurring inside newsrooms and its scope was parochial. Starting from the premise that a parochial approach no longer serves journalism, the study of journalism, or the public of journalism, in this paper it is argued that a major task of journalism ethics is to construct a more non-parochial ethics—a global journalism ethics informed by critical work from various disciplines and cultures. The discussion presented charts the trajectory of journalism ethics over several centuries to explain the role of parochialism and the limits of theorizing in journalism ethics. This historical perspective also serves as a foundation for outlining what a future journalism ethics might look like, if we widen the conceptual base by incorporating new knowledge of media from outside journalism ethics, and by redefining journalism ethics as a global enterprise.

  10. Multi-Scale Governance of Sustainable Natural Resource Use—Challenges and Opportunities for Monitoring and Institutional Development at the National and Global Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bringezu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized economy, the use of natural resources is determined by the demand of modern production and consumption systems, and by infrastructure development. Sustainable natural resource use will require good governance and management based on sound scientific information, data and indicators. There is a rich literature on natural resource management, yet the national and global scale and macro-economic policy making has been underrepresented. We provide an overview of the scholarly literature on multi-scale governance of natural resources, focusing on the information required by relevant actors from local to global scale. Global natural resource use is largely determined by national, regional, and local policies. We observe that in recent decades, the development of public policies of natural resource use has been fostered by an “inspiration cycle” between the research, policy and statistics community, fostering social learning. Effective natural resource policies require adequate monitoring tools, in particular indicators for the use of materials, energy, land, and water as well as waste and GHG emissions of national economies. We summarize the state-of-the-art of the application of accounting methods and data sources for national material flow accounts and indicators, including territorial and product-life-cycle based approaches. We show how accounts on natural resource use can inform the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and argue that information on natural resource use, and in particular footprint indicators, will be indispensable for a consistent implementation of the SDGs. We recognize that improving the knowledge base for global natural resource use will require further institutional development including at national and international levels, for which we outline options.

  11. An integrated model for the assessment of global water resources – Part 2: Applications and assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanasaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess global water resources from the perspective of subannual variation in water availability and water use, an integrated water resources model was developed. In a companion report, we presented the global meteorological forcing input used to drive the model and six modules, namely, the land surface hydrology module, the river routing module, the crop growth module, the reservoir operation module, the environmental flow requirement module, and the anthropogenic withdrawal module. Here, we present the results of the model application and global water resources assessments. First, the timing and volume of simulated agriculture water use were examined because agricultural use composes approximately 85% of total consumptive water withdrawal in the world. The estimated crop calendar showed good agreement with earlier reports for wheat, maize, and rice in major countries of production. In major countries, the error in the planting date was ±1 mo, but there were some exceptional cases. The estimated irrigation water withdrawal also showed fair agreement with country statistics, but tended to be underestimated in countries in the Asian monsoon region. The results indicate the validity of the model and the input meteorological forcing because site-specific parameter tuning was not used in the series of simulations. Finally, global water resources were assessed on a subannual basis using a newly devised index. This index located water-stressed regions that were undetected in earlier studies. These regions, which are indicated by a gap in the subannual distribution of water availability and water use, include the Sahel, the Asian monsoon region, and southern Africa. The simulation results show that the reservoir operations of major reservoirs (>1 km3 and the allocation of environmental flow requirements can alter the population under high water stress by approximately −11% to +5% globally. The integrated model is applicable to

  12. Opening Up Natural Resource Based Industries for Innovation (LAC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Opening Up Natural Resource Based Industries for Innovation (LAC). Commodities based on natural resources account for at least half of the exports of two-thirds of the countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). There is growing concern, however, that existing natural resource-based industries are ...

  13. Resource Based Multi Agent Plan Merging : Framework and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; Witteveen, C.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss a resource-based planning framework where agents are able to merge plans by exchanging resources. In this framework, plans are specified as structured objects composed of resource consuming and resource producing processes (actions). A plan itself can also be conceived as a process

  14. Recent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources: reassuring or misleading? An in-depth literature review of global estimates of phosphate rock reserves and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edixhoven, J. D.; Gupta, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2013-09-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) is a finite mineral indispensible for fertilizer production and a major pollutant. High grade PR is obtained from deposits which took millions of years to form and are gradually being depleted. Over the past three years, global PR reserves as reported by US Geological Survey (USGS) have seen a massive increase, from 16 000 Mt PR in 2010 to 65 000 Mt PR in 2011. The bulk of this four-fold increase is based on a 2010 report by International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), which increased Moroccan reserves from 5700 Mt PR as reported by USGS, to 51 000 Mt PR, reported as upgraded ("beneficiated") concentrate. IFDC used a starkly simplified classification compared to the classification used by USGS and proposed that agreement should be reached on PR resource terminology which should be as simple as possible. The report has profoundly influenced the PR scarcity debate, shifting the emphasis from depletion to the pollution angle of the phosphate problem. Various analysts adopted the findings of IFDC and USGS, and argued that that following depletion of reserves, uneconomic deposits (resources and occurrences) will remain available which will extend the lifetime of available deposits to thousands of years. Given the near total dependence of food production on PR, data on PR deposits must be transparent, comparable, reliable and credible. Based on an in-depth literature review, we analyze (i) how IFDC's simplified terminology compares to international best practice in resource classification and whether it is likely to yield data that meets the abovementioned requirements; (ii) whether the difference between ore reserves and reserves as concentrate is sufficiently noted in the literature, and (iii) whether the IFDC report and its estimate of PR reserves and resources is reliable. We conclude that, while there is a global development toward common criteria in resource reporting, IFDC's definitions contravene this development and - due to their

  15. Global comparative healthcare effectiveness research: Evaluating sustainable programmes in low & middle resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Balkrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to focus healthcare expenditures on innovative and sustainable health systems that efficiently use existing effective therapies are the major drivers stimulating Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER across the globe. Lack of adequate access and high cost of essential medicines and technologies in many countries increases morbidity and mortality and cost of care that forces people and families into poverty due to disability and out-of-pocket expenses. This review illustrates the potential of value-added global health care comparative effectiveness research in shaping health systems and health care delivery paradigms in the "global south". Enabling the development of effective CER systems globally paves the way for tangible local and regional definitions of equity in health care because CER fosters the sharing of critical assets, resources, skills, and capabilities and the development of collaborative of multi-sectorial frameworks to improve health outcomes and metrics globally.

  16. Global contrast based salient region detection

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming

    2011-08-25

    Reliable estimation of visual saliency allows appropriate processing of images without prior knowledge of their contents, and thus remains an important step in many computer vision tasks including image segmentation, object recognition, and adaptive compression. We propose a regional contrast based saliency extraction algorithm, which simultaneously evaluates global contrast differences and spatial coherence. The proposed algorithm is simple, efficient, and yields full resolution saliency maps. Our algorithm consistently outperformed existing saliency detection methods, yielding higher precision and better recall rates, when evaluated using one of the largest publicly available data sets. We also demonstrate how the extracted saliency map can be used to create high quality segmentation masks for subsequent image processing.

  17. Global contrast based salient region detection

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Guo-Xin; Mitra, Niloy J.; Huang, Xiaolei; Hu, Shi-Min

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimation of visual saliency allows appropriate processing of images without prior knowledge of their contents, and thus remains an important step in many computer vision tasks including image segmentation, object recognition, and adaptive compression. We propose a regional contrast based saliency extraction algorithm, which simultaneously evaluates global contrast differences and spatial coherence. The proposed algorithm is simple, efficient, and yields full resolution saliency maps. Our algorithm consistently outperformed existing saliency detection methods, yielding higher precision and better recall rates, when evaluated using one of the largest publicly available data sets. We also demonstrate how the extracted saliency map can be used to create high quality segmentation masks for subsequent image processing.

  18. Base-of-the-pyramid global strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boşcor, D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global strategies for MNCs should focus on customers in emerging and developing markets instead of customers in developed economies. The “base-of-the-pyramid segment” comprises 4 billion people in the world. In order to be successful, companies will be required to form unconventional partnerships- with entities ranging from local governments to non-profit organizations - to gain the community’s trust and understand the environmental, infrastructure and political issues that may affect business. Being able to provide affordable, high-quality products and services in this market segment often means new approaches to marketing- new packaging and pricing structures, and using unfamiliar distribution structures.

  19. Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Rosemary T.; Egeghy, Peter P.; Hakkinen, Pertti J.

    2016-01-01

    This publication serves as a global comprehensive resource for readers seeking exposure factor data and information relevant to consumer exposure assessment. It describes the types of information that may be found in various official surveys and online and published resources. The relevant exposure factors cover a broad range, including general exposure factor data found in published compendia and databases and resources about specific exposure factors, such as human activity patterns and housing information. Also included are resources on exposure factors related to specific types of consumer products and the associated patterns of use, such as for a type of personal care product or a type of children’s toy. Further, a section on using exposure factors for designing representative exposure scenarios is included, along with a look into the future for databases and other exposure science developments relevant for consumer exposure assessment. PMID:27455300

  20. Global Squeeze: Assessing Climate-Critical Resource Constraints for Coastal Climate Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, N. T.; Becker, A.; Schwegler, B.; Fischer, M.

    2014-12-01

    The projected impacts of climate change in the coastal zone will require local planning and local resources to adapt to increasing risks of social, environmental, and economic consequences from extreme events. This means that, for the first time in human history, aggregated local demands could outpace global supply of certain "climate-critical resources." For example, construction materials such as sand and gravel, steel, and cement may be needed to fortify many coastal locations at roughly the same point in time if decision makers begin to construct new storm barriers or elevate coastal lands. Where might adaptation bottlenecks occur? Can the world produce enough cement to armour the world's seaports as flood risks increase due to sea-level rise and more intense storms? Just how many coastal engineers would multiple such projects require? Understanding such global implications of adaptation requires global datasets—such as bathymetry, coastal topography, local sea-level rise and storm surge projections, and construction resource production capacity—that are currently unavailable at a resolution appropriate for a global-scale analysis. Our research group has identified numerous gaps in available data necessary to make such estimates on both the supply and demand sides of this equation. This presentation examines the emerging need and current availability of these types of datasets and argues for new coordinated efforts to develop and share such data.

  1. [HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT BASED ON COMPETENCIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larumbe Andueza, Ma Carmen; De Mendoza Cánton, Juana Hermoso

    2016-05-01

    We are living in a time with a lot of changes in which health organizations have more challenges to face. One of them is to recognize, strengthen, develop and retain the talent they have. Competency-based human resources management is emerging as a tool that contributes to achieve that aim. Competencies from the generic or characteristic perspective: personality traits, values and motivations, which are deeply rooted in the person. Through elaborating a competencies map for the organization, and identifying the job competencies profile, above all in key jobs, the employees know what it is going to expect from them. After, detect and cover the learning needs, it is possible to achieve better adjust between worker-job. The nursing unit manager is a key job because it is a link between management team and nursing team. The way that it is performed, it will have impact on the quality of care and its team motivation. So, the most adequate person who covers this job would have a part of knowledge, skills, attitudes and compatible interests with her job. Competency-based management helps identify both the potential and learning needs to performing this job.

  2. Globally sustainable and stable nuclear energy resources for the next millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, Romney B.

    2010-09-15

    We address the issues of future resource unsustainability, energy demand uncertainty and supply unpredictability. Inexorably growing global energy demand increases the costs of energy sources, and raises concerns about security of energy supply and environmental emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). Taking the viewpoint of developing a sustainable global fuel cycle, we propose alternate paths outside the present rather traditional thinking. Nevertheless, they still represent existing and known technology opportunities that may run counter to many current national positions, and today's commercial and technical interests, while still presenting very large opportunities.

  3. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  4. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  5. Assessing the contribution of Community-Based Natural Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adisa, B.O.

    2013-09-20

    Sep 20, 2013 ... environmental sustainability in Ondo State, Nigeria. Adisa, Banji O. ... Key words: Assessment, community-based, natural resources, socio-environmental sustainability, ... Natural resources occur within environments that are.

  6. Designing for multiple global user populations: increasing resource allocation efficiency for greater sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadadur, G; Parkinson, M B

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to identify opportunities for increasing the efficiency of raw material allocation decisions for products that are simultaneously targeted at multiple user populations around the world. The values of 24 body measures at certain key percentiles were used to estimate the best-fitting anthropometric distributions for female and male adults in nine national populations, which were selected to represent the diverse target markets multinational companies must design for. These distributions were then used to synthesize body measure data for combined populations with a 1:1 female:male ratio. An anthropometric range metric (ARM) was proposed for assessing the variation of these body measures across the populations. At any percentile, ARM values were calculated as the percentage difference between the highest and lowest anthropometric values across the considered user populations. Based on their magnitudes, plots of ARM values computed between the 1st and 99 th percentiles for each body measure were grouped into low, medium, and high categories. This classification of body measures was proposed as a means of selecting the most suitable strategies for designing raw material-efficient products. The findings in this study and the contributions of subsequent work along these lines are expected to help achieve greater efficiencies in resource allocation in global product development.

  7. Further assessment of scavenging feed resource base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonaiya, E.B.; Dazogbo, J.S.; Olukosi, O.A.

    2002-01-01

    The scavenging feed resource base (SFRB) was estimated in four villages located in a rainforest ecozone in Nigeria. The average SFRB estimated for the villages was 110 kg dry weight/family flock/year. Productivity of the birds in the villages was low. A low survivability of chicks was detected indicating a lot of wastage of eggs that could have been used for human consumption. The SFRB was low in nutritive value with less than 2 g crude protein (CP) available to each bird daily. To more quantitatively describe the SFRB, the concept of using bird unit in determining what is available to each bird is suggested. This helped in evaluating at first glance the differential accessibility of each class of bird to the SFRB and assisted in strategic supplementation of the SFRB. The use of predictors of the SFRB could help in establishing prediction equation which would help in predicting the carrying capacity of the SFRB and in determining the optimum flock biomass more accurately. (author)

  8. Cooperation in Global Environmental Governance for Building A Conflict Prevention Architecture in Natural Resources Torno

    OpenAIRE

    Padilha, Norma Sueli; Cardoso, Simone Alves

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the effectiveness and the importance of cooperation in global environmental governance arrangements to prevent conflicts and promote pea- cebuilding through analysis the partnership between the European Union (EU) and the United Nations (UN) around the natural resources and conflict prevention. The problem to be addressed and the challenge to overcome by the international community is the fra- gility of some countries in creating and maintaining institutions t...

  9. Patient flow based allocation of hospital resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, J M

    1995-01-01

    The current practice of allocating resources within a hospital introduces peaks and troughs in the workloads of departments and leads therefore to loss of capacity. This happens when requirements for capacity coordination are not adequately taken into account in the decision making process of allocating resources to specialties. The first part of this research involved an analysis of the hospital's production system on dependencies between resources, resulting in a number of capacity coordination requirements that need to be fulfilled for optimized resource utilization. The second, modelling, part of the study involved the development of a framework for resource management decision making, of a set of computer models to support hospital managerial decision making on resource allocation issues in various parts of the hospital, and of an implementation strategy for the application of the models to concrete hospital settings. The third part of the study was devoted to a number of case-studies, illustrating the use of the models when applied in various resource management projects, such as a reorganization of an operating theatre timetable, or the development of a master plan for activities of a group of general surgeons serving two locations of a merged hospital system. The paper summarizes the main findings of the study and concludes with a discussion of results obtained with the new allocation procedure and with recommendations for future research.

  10. An improved resource management model based on MDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Man; Sun, Changying; Li, Pengfei; Sun, Yongdong; He, Rui

    2005-11-01

    GRID technology provides a kind of convenient method for managing GRID resources. This service is so-called monitoring, discovering service. This method is proposed by Globus Alliance, in this GRID environment, all kinds of resources, such as computational resources, storage resources and other resources can be organized by MDS specifications. However, this MDS is a theory framework, particularly, in a small world intranet, in the case of limit of resources, the MDS has its own limitation. Based on MDS, an improved light method for managing corporation computational resources and storage resources is proposed in intranet(IMDS). Firstly, in MDS, all kinds of resource description information is stored in LDAP, it is well known although LDAP is a light directory access protocol, in practice, programmers rarely master how to access and store resource information into LDAP store, in such way, it limits MDS to be used. So, in intranet, these resources' description information can be stored in RDBMS, programmers and users can access this information by standard SQL. Secondly, in MDS, how to monitor all kinds of resources in GRID is not transparent for programmers and users. In such way, it limits its application scope, in general, resource monitoring method base on SNMP is widely employed in intranet, therefore, a kind of resource monitoring method based on SNMP is integrated into MDS. Finally, all kinds of resources in the intranet can be described by XML, and all kinds of resources' description information is stored in RDBMS, such as MySql, and retrieved by standard SQL, dynamic information for all kinds of resources can be sent to resource storage by SNMP, A prototype resource description, monitoring is designed and implemented in intranet.

  11. participation in Community Based Natural Resource Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Resource Management Programme had empowered the beneficiaries in problem identification, ways of seeking for solution, project planning, implementation, ..... International Journal of Research, Innovations and Sustainable Development,.

  12. Management of business process design in global implementation of enterprise resource planning systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh

    on process standardization with corporate international management strategy and structural characteristics. Furthermore, business process design can be supported by establishing permanent central governance for BPM and horizontally integrating the BPM function with the IT function at the strategic......Investments in global enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are typically carried out as a part of the globalization process in multinational corporations (MNCs). Global ERP systems support integration and control in MNCs in an important way by establishing a common language across an MNC...... and findings from case studies in nine organizations, the study addresses the three prescriptive research questions through five descriptive studies. First, by deploying alternative theories, this study explores the strategic, institutional, organizational, and relational factors that influence business...

  13. The Spanish Food Industry on Global Supply Chains and Its Impact on Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the impact of economic activities on natural resources through global supply chains is increasingly demanded in the context of the growing globalization of economies and product fragmentation. Taking Spain as a case study and a sector with significant economic and environmental impacts, the agri-food industry, the objective of this work is two-fold. First, we estimate the associated water impact, both from the production and consumption perspectives, paying special attention to the water embodied in production exchanges among countries and sectors. To that aim, we use an environmentally-extended multiregional input-output model (MRIO. Second, we assess the main driving factors behind changes in direct and embodied water consumption between the years 1995 and 2009 by means of a structural decomposition analysis. The MRIO model provides a comprehensive estimate of the economic linkages among regions and economic sectors and, therefore, allows calculating the environmental impacts over international value chains. The results indicate that the food industry exerts large impacts on global water resources, particularly given the remarkable interactions with the domestic and foreign agricultural sectors, These growing linkages show how consumption patterns, and, therefore, lifestyles, involve large environmental impacts through the whole and global supply chains.

  14. A satellite-based global landslide model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farahmand

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are devastating phenomena that cause huge damage around the world. This paper presents a quasi-global landslide model derived using satellite precipitation data, land-use land cover maps, and 250 m topography information. This suggested landslide model is based on the Support Vector Machines (SVM, a machine learning algorithm. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC landslide inventory data is used as observations and reference data. In all, 70% of the data are used for model development and training, whereas 30% are used for validation and verification. The results of 100 random subsamples of available landslide observations revealed that the suggested landslide model can predict historical landslides reliably. The average error of 100 iterations of landslide prediction is estimated to be approximately 7%, while approximately 2% false landslide events are observed.

  15. The global resource balance table, an integrated table of energy, materials and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Haruki

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the Global Resource Balance Table (GRBT), which is an extension of the energy balance tables that expresses the relationships between energy, materials and the environment. The material division of the GRBT includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. In contrast, the environmental division of the GRBT includes oxygen, CO 2 and methane. The transaction division rows in the GRBT include production, conversion, end use and stock. Each cell of the GRBT contains the quantities of the respective resources that were generated or consumed. The relationships between the cells were constructed from the laws of conservation of the materials and energy. We constructed a GRBT for 2007 and discussed the increasing air temperature due to waste heat and the CO 2 equivalent from human breathing. The GRBT is a comprehensive integrated table that represents the resources that are consumed by human activities and is useful for energy and environmental studies. - Highlights: • We extended energy balance table and introduced Global Resource Balance Table. • It shows relationships between energy, materials and the environment. • The material division includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. • The environmental division includes oxygen, CO 2 and methane. • We discussed on waste heat and CO 2 emission by human breathing

  16. Bioenergy and the Sustainability Transition: from Local Resource to Global Commodity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Francis X.

    2007-07-01

    The looming threat of climate change and the invaluable role of energy in development have complicated the global transition to sustainable energy while also increasing the urgency of the transition. Bioenergy has a key role in this transition due to its unique characteristics among renewable energy sources, the concentration of bioenergy potential in major developing country regions, and the close relationship between biomass resources and carbon management strategies. This paper offers a conceptual model for bioenergy's role in the transition, outlining its key elements and their significance with respect to environment and development. In spite of the globalising economy, the security of energy supply continues to be threatened by geo-political conflicts. Continued expansion of energy consumption is constrained by its environmental impacts. At the same time two billion persons have little or no access to modern energy services. The diversity and flexibility of bioenergy systems offers opportunities to bridge some of the key divisions-technical, political, economic, and environmental-that have complicated international efforts to address climate change and promote equitable development of global resources. The challenge is to take advantage of the heterogeneity of biomass resources to facilitate the most effective use of those resources in the emerging bio-economy. (auth)

  17. TVA GIS-based biomass resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noon, C.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The focus of this paper is a computer-based system for estimating the costs of supplying wood fuel. The system is being developed for the Tennessee Valley Authority and is referred to as the Biomass Resource Assessment Version One (BRAVO) system. The main objective in developing the BRAVO system is to assist TVA in estimating the costs for supplying wood fuel to any one of its twelve coal-fired plants. The BRAVO system is developed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and is designed to allow a user to perform {open_quotes}what if{close_quotes} analyses related to the costs of wood fuel supply. Three types of wood fuel are considered in the BRAVO system: mill residues, logging residues and short-rotation woody crops (SRWC). Each type of wood fuel has unique economic and supply characteristics. The input data for the system includes the specific locations, amount, and prices of the various types of wood fuel throughout the TVA region. The system input is completed by data on political boundaries, power plant locations, road networks and a model for estimating transportation costs as a function of distance. The result is a comprehensive system which includes information on all possible wood fuel supply joints, demand points and product movement costs. In addition, the BRAVO system has been designed to allow a user to perform sensitivity analysis on a variety of supply system parameters. This will enable TVA to thoroughly investigate the financial impacts of issues such as increased competition for wood fuel, environmental policies, fuel taxes, and regional economic cycles.

  18. TVA GIS-based biomass resource assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noon, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a computer-based system for estimating the costs of supplying wood fuel. The system is being developed for the Tennessee Valley Authority and is referred to as the Biomass Resource Assessment Version One (BRAVO) system. The main objective in developing the BRAVO system is to assist TVA in estimating the cost for supplying wood fuel to any one of its twelve coal-fired power plants. The BRAVO system is developed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and is designed to allow a user to perform open-quotes what ifclose quotes analyses related to the costs of wood fuel supply. Three types of wood fuel are considered in the Bravo system: mill residues, logging residues and short-rotation woody crops (SRWC). Each type of wood fuel has unique economic and supply characteristics. The input data for the system includes the specific locations, amounts, and prices of the various types of wood fuel throughout the TVA region. The system input is completed by data on political boundaries, power plant locations, road networks and a model for estimating transportation costs as a function of distance. The result is a comprehensive system which includes information on all possible wood fuel supply points, demand points and product movement costs. In additions, the BRAVO system has been designed to allow a user to perform sensitivity analysis on a variety of supply system parameters. This will enable TVA to thoroughly investigate the financial impacts of issues such as increased competition for wood fuel, environmental policies, fuel taxes, and regional economic cycles

  19. Statistics-Based Compression of Global Wind Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Jaehong

    2017-02-07

    Wind has the potential to make a significant contribution to future energy resources. Locating the sources of this renewable energy on a global scale is however extremely challenging, given the difficulty to store very large data sets generated by modern computer models. We propose a statistical model that aims at reproducing the data-generating mechanism of an ensemble of runs via a Stochastic Generator (SG) of global annual wind data. We introduce an evolutionary spectrum approach with spatially varying parameters based on large-scale geographical descriptors such as altitude to better account for different regimes across the Earth\\'s orography. We consider a multi-step conditional likelihood approach to estimate the parameters that explicitly accounts for nonstationary features while also balancing memory storage and distributed computation. We apply the proposed model to more than 18 million points of yearly global wind speed. The proposed SG requires orders of magnitude less storage for generating surrogate ensemble members from wind than does creating additional wind fields from the climate model, even if an effective lossy data compression algorithm is applied to the simulation output.

  20. Statistics-Based Compression of Global Wind Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Jaehong; Castruccio, Stefano; Crippa, Paola; Genton, Marc G.

    2017-01-01

    Wind has the potential to make a significant contribution to future energy resources. Locating the sources of this renewable energy on a global scale is however extremely challenging, given the difficulty to store very large data sets generated by modern computer models. We propose a statistical model that aims at reproducing the data-generating mechanism of an ensemble of runs via a Stochastic Generator (SG) of global annual wind data. We introduce an evolutionary spectrum approach with spatially varying parameters based on large-scale geographical descriptors such as altitude to better account for different regimes across the Earth's orography. We consider a multi-step conditional likelihood approach to estimate the parameters that explicitly accounts for nonstationary features while also balancing memory storage and distributed computation. We apply the proposed model to more than 18 million points of yearly global wind speed. The proposed SG requires orders of magnitude less storage for generating surrogate ensemble members from wind than does creating additional wind fields from the climate model, even if an effective lossy data compression algorithm is applied to the simulation output.

  1. A seamless global hydrological monitoring and forecasting system for water resources assessment and hydrological hazard early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Justin; He, Xiaogang; Wood, Eric; Pan, Ming; Wanders, Niko; Zhan, Wang; Peng, Liqing

    2017-04-01

    surface model-flood inundation model to produce hydrological variables and indices at daily, 0.25-degree resolution, globally. The system is updated in near real-time (products from the system include real-time and forecast drought indices for precipitation, soil moisture, and streamflow, and flood magnitude and extent indices. The model outputs are complemented by satellite based products and indices based on satellite data for vegetation health (MODIS NDVI) and soil moisture (SMAP). We show examples of the validation of the system at regional scales, including how local information can significantly improve predictions, and examples of how the system can be used to understand large-scale water resource issues, and in real-world contexts for early warning, decision making and planning.

  2. National water resource management as a global problem: The example of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshorbagy, A. A.; Abdelkader, A. A.; Tuninetti, M.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.; Fahmy, H.

    2017-12-01

    The engineering redistribution of water remains limited in its spatial scope, when compared with the socioeconomic redistribution of water in its virtual form. Virtual water (VW) embedded in products has its own human-induced cycle by moving across the globe. There is a significant body of literature on global VW trade networks (VWTN), with most studies focused on the network structure and the variables controlling its behavior. It was shown that the importing nations will play an important role in the evolution of the network dynamics. The increased connectivity of the global network highlights the risk of systemic disruptions and the vulnerability of the global food, especially when exporting countries change to non-exporting ones. The existing models of VWTN characterize the properties of the network, along with its nodes and links. Acknowledging its contribution to understand the global redistribution of virtual water, hardly can this approach attract potential users to adopt it. The VW trade (VWT) modeling needs to be repositioned to allow resource managers and policy makers at various scales to benefit from it and link global VW dynamics to their local decisions. The aim of this research is to introduce a new modeling approach for the VWT where detailed national scale water management is nested within the coarser global VWTN. The case study of Egypt, the world biggest importer of wheat, is considered here because its population growth and limitations of water and arable land position it as a significant node in the global network. A set of potential scenarios of Egypt's future, driven by population growth, development plans, consumption patterns, technology change, and water availability are developed. The annual national food and water balance in every scenario is calculated to estimate the potential for VW export and import of Egypt. The results indicate that Egypt's demand for food might cause unexpectedly higher demands on other countries' water resources

  3. The ways of harmonization of uranium resources accounting systems on a global scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, S.S.; Shumilin, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Resource classification systems used today in different countries make reference to the same principals: geological variability, commercial importance and level of preparedness for production. However, some countries with mining industries and established traditions use different classifications that are difficult to harmonize. To assist in developing a common international classification four issues are proposed for discussion: 1) existence of production facilities for producing resources; 2) need for low production cost categories compatible with current market prices; 3) specifying the degree of accuracy for various categories of resources and 4) in situ versus recoverable resource estimates. Based on these concepts revisions are proposed to the IAEA uranium classification system. Examples are also given of resource classifications for the Streltzovskoe deposit, Krasnokamensk. (author)

  4. The global coastal hazards data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornitz, V.; White, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    A rise of sea level between 0.5 and 1.5 m, caused by predicted climate warming in the next century, could jeopardize low-lying radioactive waste disposal sites near the coast, due to permanent and episodic inundation, increased shoreline retreat, and changes in the water table. The effects of global sea level rise on the shoreline will not be spatially uniform. Therefore, site selection will depend on assessment of these differential vulnerabilities, in order to avoid high-risk coasts. The coastal hazards data base described here could provide an appropriate framework. The coastal hazards data base integrates relevant topographic, geologic, geomorphologic, erosional and subsidence information in a Geographic Information System (GIS), to identify high-risk shorelines characterized by low coastal relief, an erodible substrate, present and past evidence of subsidence, extensive shoreline retreat, and high wave/tide energies. Data for seven variables relating to inundation and erosion hazards are incorporated into the ORNL ARC/INFO Geographic Information System (GIS). Data compilation has been completed for the US and is being extended to North America, and ultimately the world. A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) has been designed to flag high risk coastal segments. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Theological foundations for an effective Christian response to the global disease burden in resource-constrained regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. O’Neill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the global disease burden and resource disparity that exists in the world and the globalization of Christianity, Christians are in a critical position to effect radical change in individuals, communities and systems for human flourishing. This paper describes the theological basis of seven key elements that the Church can contribute to sustainable development, global health equity, and universal access as an expanding movement: defining health, speaking truth, providing care, making peace, cooperating, setting priorities, and mobilizing resources for maximum stewardship in low resource settings.

  6. Climate change impact on available water resources obtained using multiple global climate and hydrology models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hagemann

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter the hydrological cycle resulting in large-scale impacts on water availability. However, future climate change impact assessments are highly uncertain. For the first time, multiple global climate (three and hydrological models (eight were used to systematically assess the hydrological response to climate change and project the future state of global water resources. This multi-model ensemble allows us to investigate how the hydrology models contribute to the uncertainty in projected hydrological changes compared to the climate models. Due to their systematic biases, GCM outputs cannot be used directly in hydrological impact studies, so a statistical bias correction has been applied. The results show a large spread in projected changes in water resources within the climate–hydrology modelling chain for some regions. They clearly demonstrate that climate models are not the only source of uncertainty for hydrological change, and that the spread resulting from the choice of the hydrology model is larger than the spread originating from the climate models over many areas. But there are also areas showing a robust change signal, such as at high latitudes and in some midlatitude regions, where the models agree on the sign of projected hydrological changes, indicative of higher confidence in this ensemble mean signal. In many catchments an increase of available water resources is expected but there are some severe decreases in Central and Southern Europe, the Middle East, the Mississippi River basin, southern Africa, southern China and south-eastern Australia.

  7. Building human resources capability in health care: a global analysis of best practice--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zairi, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper is the second from a series of three, addressing human resource practices using best practice examples. The analysis covered is based on the experiences of organisations that have won the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) in the USA. The subcriteria covered in this benchmarking comparative analysis covers the following areas: human resource planning and management; employee involvement; employee education and training; employee performance and recognition; employee wellbeing and satisfaction. The paper concludes by reflecting on the likely implications for health-care professionals working in the human resource field.

  8. GIDEON: a comprehensive Web-based resource for geographic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Stephen A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract GIDEON (Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Network is a web-based computer program designed for decision support and informatics in the field of Geographic Medicine. The first of four interactive modules generates a ranked differential diagnosis based on patient signs, symptoms, exposure history and country of disease acquisition. Additional options include syndromic disease surveillance capability and simulation of bioterrorism scenarios. The second module accesses detailed and current information regarding the status of 338 individual diseases in each of 220 countries. Over 50,000 disease images, maps and user-designed graphs may be downloaded for use in teaching and preparation of written materials. The third module is a comprehensive source on the use of 328 anti-infective drugs and vaccines, including a listing of over 9,500 international trade names. The fourth module can be used to characterize or identify any bacterium or yeast, based on laboratory phenotype. GIDEON is an up-to-date and comprehensive resource for Geographic Medicine.

  9. Problem solving for breast health care delivery in low and middle resource countries (LMCs): consensus statement from the Breast Health Global Initiative.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harford, J.B.; Otero, I.V.; Anderson, B.O.; Cazap, E.; Gradishar, W.J.; Gralow, J.R.; Kane, G.M.; Niens, L.M.; Porter, P.L.; Reeler, A.V.; Rieger, P.T.; Shockney, L.D.; Shulman, L.N.; Soldak, T.; Thomas, D.B.; Thompson, B.; Winchester, D.P.; Zelle, S.G.; Badwe, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    International collaborations like the Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) can help low and middle income countries (LMCs) to establish or improve breast cancer control programs by providing evidence-based, resource-stratified guidelines for the management and control of breast cancer. The Problem

  10. Geothermal-resource verification for Air Force bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, P.R. Jr.

    1981-06-01

    This report summarizes the various types of geothermal energy reviews some legal uncertainties of the resource and then describes a methodology to evaluate geothermal resources for applications to US Air Force bases. Estimates suggest that exploration costs will be $50,000 to $300,000, which, if favorable, would lead to drilling a $500,000 exploration well. Successful identification and development of a geothermal resource could provide all base, fixed system needs with an inexpensive, renewable energy source.

  11. Born Again Globals and the reconfiguration of Resources in the Internationalization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servais, Per; Decker, Arnim

    perspective in depth in the context of international new ventures (INVs) and particularly toward their marketing activities, but even fewer studies has research the very same in ”born-again” globals firms (Bell et al. 2001). Internationalization is recognized as a valuable strategy for organizations’ growth......Internationalization has become an issue in most small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), and literature has emphasized the role of strategic choices focusing on several aspects, such as motivations, entry mode choices, internationalization process. Few studies have examined the social capital...... pathways taken by the family firm are identified eg. the level of commitment toward internationalization, the resources available, and the ability to commit and use those resources to develop the required capabilities. Furthermore, how the owner makes international decisions is explored and four...

  12. A scenario based approach for flexible resource loading under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wullink, Gerhard; Gademann, Noud; Hans, Elias W.; van Harten, Aart

    2003-01-01

    Order acceptance decisions in manufacture-to-order environments are often made based on incomplete or uncertain information. To promise reliable due dates and to manage resource capacity adequately, resource capacity loading is an indispensable supporting tool. We propose a scenario based approach

  13. Global Fund investments in human resources for health: innovation and missed opportunities for health systems strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, Diana; Sparkes, Susan Powers; Mitchell, Andrew; Bossert, Thomas J; Bärnighausen, Till; Gedik, Gulin; Atun, Rifat

    2014-12-01

    Since the early 2000s, there have been large increases in donor financing of human resources for health (HRH), yet few studies have examined their effects on health systems. To determine the scope and impact of investments in HRH by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund), the largest investor in HRH outside national governments. We used mixed research methodology to analyse budget allocations and expenditures for HRH, including training, for 138 countries receiving money from the Global Fund during funding rounds 1-7. From these aggregate figures, we then identified 27 countries with the largest funding for human resources and training and examined all HRH-related performance indicators tracked in Global Fund grant reports. We used the results of these quantitative analyses to select six countries with substantial funding and varied characteristics-representing different regions and income levels for further in-depth study: Bangladesh (South and West Asia, low income), Ethiopia (Eastern Africa, low income), Honduras (Latin America, lower-middle income), Indonesia (South and West Asia, lower-middle income), Malawi (Southern Africa, low income) and Ukraine (Eastern Europe and Central Asia, upper-middle income). We used qualitative methods to gather information in each of the six countries through 159 interviews with key informants from 83 organizations. Using comparative case-study analysis, we examined Global Fund's interactions with other donors, as well as its HRH support and co-ordination within national health systems. Around US$1.4 billion (23% of total US$5.1 billion) of grant funding was allocated to HRH by the 138 Global Fund recipient countries. In funding rounds 1-7, the six countries we studied in detail were awarded a total of 47 grants amounting to US$1.2 billion and HRH budgets of US$276 million, of which approximately half were invested in disease-focused in-service and short-term training activities. Countries employed

  14. Evidence-based human resource management: a study of nurse leaders' resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerström, Lisbeth

    2009-05-01

    The aims were to illustrate how the RAFAELA system can be used to facilitate evidence-based human resource management. The theoretical framework of the RAFAELA system is based on a holistic view of humankind and a view of leadership founded on human resource management. Nine wards from three central hospitals in Finland participated in the study. The data, stemming from 2006-2007, were taken from the critical indicators (ward-related and nursing intensity information) for national benchmarking used in the RAFAELA system. The data were analysed descriptively. The daily nursing resources per classified patient ratio is a more specific method of measurement than the nurse-to-patient ratio. For four wards, the nursing intensity per nurse surpassed the optimal level 34% to 62.2% of days. Resource allocation was clearly improved in that a better balance between patients' care needs and available nursing resources was maintained. The RAFAELA system provides a rational, systematic and objective foundation for evidence-based human resource management. Data from a systematic use of the RAFAELA system offer objective facts and motives for evidence-based decision making in human resource management, and will therefore enhance the nurse leaders' evidence and scientific based way of working.

  15. Managing the relationship between strategic resources and competitive priorities through the resource-based view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Fabiana Gohr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Firms should develop and improve strategic resources that are important for the competitive priorities, especially those that are important to customers. Using resource-based view of the firm as a theoretical perspective, this paper aims to analyze how strategic resources can contribute to the competitive priorities of an organization that operates in the logistic sector. The research method used was the case study using as the main technique of data collection semi-structured and structured interviews; and, systematic observations. The resources that contribute effectively to competitive priorities that need improvement are sales control, loyal customer base, partners experience and agile feedback to customers. However, only the experience of the partners provides to the company sustainable competitive advantage. Others resources identified in the field research provide only a competitive parity, despite this, support important competitive priorities.

  16. Traveling-wave reactors: A truly sustainable and full-scale resource for global energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, T.; Petroski, R.; Hejzlar, P.; Zimmerman, G.; McAlees, D.; Whitmer, C.; Touran, N.; Hejzlar, J.; Weave, K.; Walter, J. C.; McWhirter, J.; Ahlfeld, C.; Burke, T.; Odedra, A.; Hyde, R.; Gilleland, J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Wood, L.; Myhrvold, N.; Gates Iii, W. H.

    2010-01-01

    Rising environmental and economic concerns have signaled a desire to reduce dependence on hydrocarbon fuels. These concerns have brought the world to an inflection point and decisions made today will dictate what the global energy landscape will look like for the next half century or more. An optimal energy technology for the future must meet stricter standards than in the past; in addition to being economically attractive, it now must also be environmentally benign, sustainable and scalable to global use. For stationary energy, only one existing resource comes close to fitting all of the societal requirements for an optimal energy source: nuclear energy. Its demonstrated economic performance, power density, and emissions-free benefits significantly elevate nuclear electricity generation above other energy sources. However, the current nuclear fuel cycle has some attributes that make it challenging to expand on a global scale. Traveling-wave reactor (TWR) technology, being developed by TerraPower, LLC, represents a potential solution to these limitations by offering a nuclear energy resource which is truly sustainable at full global scale for the indefinite future and is deployable in the near-term. TWRs are capable of offering a ∼40-fold gain in fuel utilization efficiency compared to conventional light-water reactors burning enriched fuel. Such high fuel efficiency, combined with an ability to use uranium recovered from river water or sea-water (which has been recently demonstrated to be technically and economically feasible) suggests that enough fuel is readily available for TWRs to generate electricity for 10 billion people at United States per capita levels for million-year time-scales. Interestingly, the Earth's rivers carry into the ocean a flux of uranium several times greater than that required to replace the implied rate-of-consumption, so that the Earth's slowly-eroding crust will provide a readily-accessible flow of uranium sufficient for all of

  17. Efficient Resources Provisioning Based on Load Forecasting in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongdong Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud providers should ensure QoS while maximizing resources utilization. One optimal strategy is to timely allocate resources in a fine-grained mode according to application’s actual resources demand. The necessary precondition of this strategy is obtaining future load information in advance. We propose a multi-step-ahead load forecasting method, KSwSVR, based on statistical learning theory which is suitable for the complex and dynamic characteristics of the cloud computing environment. It integrates an improved support vector regression algorithm and Kalman smoother. Public trace data taken from multitypes of resources were used to verify its prediction accuracy, stability, and adaptability, comparing with AR, BPNN, and standard SVR. Subsequently, based on the predicted results, a simple and efficient strategy is proposed for resource provisioning. CPU allocation experiment indicated it can effectively reduce resources consumption while meeting service level agreements requirements.

  18. Exploring Terra Incognita: Preliminary Reflections on the Impact of the Global Financial Crisis upon Human Resource Management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagelmeyer, S.J.; Gollan, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007, the global financial crisis (GFC) appears not only to have shaken the foundations of the financial markets and the real economy; it also appears to have harmed the social and political life of many countries. For human resource management (HRM), the global crisis represents an external

  19. How can urbanization be sustainable? : a reflection on the role of city resources in global sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira Roders, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the debate on the role of city resources in global sustainable development. It discusses the evolution of models in which urbanization is defined to be sustainable, as well as, their relation to the conservation of city resources. Further, it provides an in-depth

  20. Porphyry copper assessment of northeast Asia: Far East Russia and northeasternmost China: Chapter W in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Wallis, John C.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey assesses resources (mineral, energy, water, environmental, and biologic) at regional, national, and global scales to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources in undiscovered deposits.

  1. The effects of global climate change on fish and wildlife resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRose, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Climate models predict a global temperature rise of 3±1 degree C, a sea level rise of 0.5-1.0 m, increased frequency of extreme events, and possible doubling of ultraviolet B radiation by 2050. A significant decrease in precipitation will have the most important effect on fish and wildlife in the Great Plains region. Temperature change in the Great Plains region is likely to exceed the global average increase, due to lack of ocean buffering. Human competition for dwindling water resources is likely to exacerbate the impact on wildlife. Wetlands and waterfowl will be the most severely impacted groups on the Plains. The diversity of aquatic invertebrates is expected to decline, due to loss of brackish wetlands. A net decline in population of fish and amphibians is expected, due to the reduction in hydrologic regimes outweighing any temperature increase benefits. Loss of old growth, climax, and late successional stages is expected to be particularly severe. Rapid global climate change is expected to lead to a higher extinction rate. Effectiveness of existing protected areas is expected to decline

  2. Governance of global health research consortia: Sharing sovereignty and resources within Future Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-02-01

    Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia that conduct programs of research in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). An ethical framework has been developed that describes how the governance of consortia comprised of institutions from high-income countries and LMICs should be structured to promote health equity. It encompasses initial guidance for sharing sovereignty in consortia decision-making and sharing consortia resources. This paper describes a first effort to examine whether and how consortia can uphold that guidance. Case study research was undertaken with the Future Health Systems consortium, performs research to improve health service delivery for the poor in Bangladesh, China, India, and Uganda. Data were thematically analysed and revealed that proposed ethical requirements for sharing sovereignty and sharing resources are largely upheld by Future Health Systems. Facilitating factors included having a decentralised governance model, LMIC partners with good research capacity, and firm budgets. Higher labour costs in the US and UK and the funder's policy of allocating funds to consortia on a reimbursement basis prevented full alignment with guidance on sharing resources. The lessons described in this paper can assist other consortia to more systematically link their governance policy and practice to the promotion of health equity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Resource allocation in smart homes based on Banker's algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virag, A.; Bogdan, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for improved energy management in smart homes by means of resource allocation. For this purpose, a Banker's algorithm based strategy has been developed. It is used to control the system and decide which of the given processes should be provided with resources at the

  4. Consumer-resource stoichiometry in detritus-based streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt F. Cross; Jonathan P. Benstead; Amy D. Rosemond; J. Bruce Wallace

    2003-01-01

    Stoichiometric relationships between consumers and resources in detritus-based ecosystems have received little attention, despite the importance of detritus in most food webs. We analysed carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) content of invertebrate consumers, and basal food resources in two forested headwater streams (one reference and the other nutrient-...

  5. Hydrogen based global renewable energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akai, Makoto [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, AIST, MITI, Namiki, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    In the last quarter of this century, global environmental problem has emerged as a major scientific, political and social issue. Specific Problems include: depletion of ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), acid rain, destruction of tropical forests and desertification, pollution of the sea and global wanning due to the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide and others. Among these problems, particular attention of the world has been focused on the global warming because it has direct linkage to energy consumption which our economic development depends on so far. On the other hand, the future program of The Sunshine Project for alternative energy technology R&D, The Moonlight Project for energy conservation technology R&D, and The Global Environmental Technology Program for environmental problem mitigating technology R&D which are Japan`s national projects being promoted by their Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have been reexamined in view of recent changes in the situations surrounding new energy technology. In this regard, The New Sunshine Program will be established by integrating these three activities to accelerate R&D in the field of energy and environmental technologies. In the reexamination, additional stress has been laid on the contribution to solving global environmental problem through development of clean renewable energies which constitute a major part of the {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes}, a comprehensive, long-term and international cooperative program proposed by MITI. The present paper discusses the results of feasibility study on hydrogen energy system leading to the concept of WE-NET following a brief summary on R&D status on solar and wind energy in Japan.

  6. Building human resources capability in health care: a global analysis of best practice--Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zairi, M

    1998-01-01

    This is the last part of a series of three papers which discussed very comprehensively best practice applications in human resource management by drawing special inferences to the healthcare context. It emerged from parts I and II that high performing organisations plan and intend to build sustainable capability through a systematic consideration of the human element as the key asset and through a continuous process of training, developing, empowering and engaging people in all aspects of organisational excellence. Part III brings this debate to a close by demonstrating what brings about organisational excellence and proposes a road map for effective human resource development and management, based on world class standards. Healthcare human resource professionals can now rise to the challenge and plan ahead for building organisational capability and sustainable performance.

  7. Limited Resources, Limited Opportunities, and the Accumulation of Disadvantage: Evidence from the Global Survey of Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2012-03-01

    Using the results of the Global Survey of Physicists, which we conducted in collaboration with the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Working Group on Women, we document the effect of limited resources and opportunities on women physicists' careers. We find that women respondents are less likely than men to report access to a variety of resources and opportunities that would be helpful in advancing a scientific career. These include access to funding, travel money, lab and office space, equipment, clerical support, and availability of employees or students to help with research. When asked about specific opportunities, women report fewer invited talks and overseas research opportunities. Women who responded are less likely to have been journal editors, acted as bosses or managers, advised graduate students, served on thesis or dissertation committees, and served on committees for grant agencies. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Women who responded are more likely than men to have changed their work situations upon becoming parents. Mothers are more likely than men and women without children to report that their careers have progressed more slowly than colleagues who finished their degrees at the same time. Furthermore, women are more likely than men to report that their careers affected the decisions they made about marriage and children. The results of this survey draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. 15,000 physicists in 130 countries answered this survey, and across all these countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

  8. Full waveform inversion using envelope-based global correlation norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2018-05-01

    To increase the feasibility of full waveform inversion on real data, we suggest a new objective function, which is defined as the global correlation of the envelopes of modelled and observed data. The envelope-based global correlation norm has the advantage of the envelope inversion that generates artificial low-frequency information, which provides the possibility to recover long-wavelength structure in an early stage. In addition, the envelope-based global correlation norm maintains the advantage of the global correlation norm, which reduces the sensitivity of the misfit to amplitude errors so that the performance of inversion on real data can be enhanced when the exact source wavelet is not available and more complex physics are ignored. Through the synthetic example for 2-D SEG/EAGE overthrust model with inaccurate source wavelet, we compare the performance of four different approaches, which are the least-squares waveform inversion, least-squares envelope inversion, global correlation norm and envelope-based global correlation norm. Finally, we apply the envelope-based global correlation norm on the 3-D Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) data from the North Sea. The envelope-based global correlation norm captures the strong reflections from the high-velocity caprock and generates artificial low-frequency reflection energy that helps us recover long-wavelength structure of the model domain in the early stages. From this long-wavelength model, the conventional global correlation norm is sequentially applied to invert for higher-resolution features of the model.

  9. Resources available for school based mental health services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resources available for school based mental health services in Enugu urban and head teachers' knowledge of childhood mental health problems. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ...

  10. NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Data Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1985, NOAA launched the Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Program to develop a consistent data base on the distribution, relative abundance, and life...

  11. Global Equity and Resource Sustainability: the Central Roles of Conservation and Enhanced Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2002-05-01

    The terrestrial biosphere arose at approximately 3.5 Ga, and since the early Archean, evolving life has maintained a dynamic equilibrium with solar energy and resources derived from the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. This well-integrated system persisted after the emergence of Homo sapiens while we remained in a hunter/gatherer mode. Beginning about 10,000 years ago, settled agriculture allowed for division of labor, and the rise of civilization. World population now exceeds six billion individuals, and is growing at about ninety million annually. By about 2050, demographic estimates put our numbers at 9-10 billion. Approximately 85 percent of humanity now reside in the Developing Nations. Most people desire the increased standard of living now confined to the Industrialized Nations (due largely to exploitation of the planet). The present distribution of wealth is grossly inequitable and politically destabilizing. But can all people be afforded reasonably comfortable lives without destroying planetary habitability? Of the Earth's net primary biological production, humans control about a third, and our share is increasing. The impact on the environment is largely adverse, resulting in heightened air and water pollution, accelerated loss of biodiversity, ecosystem services, topsoil, fisheries, tropical rain forests, and in global warming + sea-level rise. Implications for human welfare and for viability of the web of life are ominous. Modern societies are sustained by the extraction of energy, water, and other Earth materials far beyond renewal rates, limiting future global carrying capacity. Island communities (e. g., Easter Island, Haiti, Madagascar) provide sobering examples of the fate of cultures that overexploit their environments. The biological carrying capacity of the planet is unknown but finite, hence humanity eventually must reach a managed steady state involving efficient, universal resource recovery and world-wide conservation, while

  12. On the global economic potentials and marginal costs of non-renewable resources and the price of energy commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    A model is presented in this work for simulating endogenously the evolution of the marginal costs of production of energy carriers from non-renewable resources, their consumption, depletion pathways and timescales. Such marginal costs can be used to simulate the long term average price formation of energy commodities. Drawing on previous work where a global database of energy resource economic potentials was constructed, this work uses cost distributions of non-renewable resources in order to evaluate global flows of energy commodities. A mathematical framework is given to calculate endogenous flows of energy resources given an exogenous commodity price path. This framework can be used in reverse in order to calculate an endogenous marginal cost of production of energy carriers given an exogenous carrier demand. Using rigid price inelastic assumptions independent of the economy, these two approaches generate limiting scenarios that depict extreme use of natural resources. This is useful to characterise the current state and possible uses of remaining non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels and natural uranium. The theory is however designed for use within economic or technology models that allow technology substitutions. In this work, it is implemented in the global power sector model FTT:Power. Policy implications are given. - Highlights: • Theoretical model to forecast marginal costs of non-renewable resources. • Tracks the consumption and costs of non-renewable resources. • For use in economic or technology models

  13. An integrated system for land resources supervision based on the IoT and cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shifeng; Zhu, Yunqiang; Xu, Lida; Zhang, Jinqu; Zhou, Peiji; Luo, Kan; Yang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Integrated information systems are important safeguards for the utilisation and development of land resources. Information technologies, including the Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing, are inevitable requirements for the quality and efficiency of land resources supervision tasks. In this study, an economical and highly efficient supervision system for land resources has been established based on IoT and cloud computing technologies; a novel online and offline integrated system with synchronised internal and field data that includes the entire process of 'discovering breaches, analysing problems, verifying fieldwork and investigating cases' was constructed. The system integrates key technologies, such as the automatic extraction of high-precision information based on remote sensing, semantic ontology-based technology to excavate and discriminate public sentiment on the Internet that is related to illegal incidents, high-performance parallel computing based on MapReduce, uniform storing and compressing (bitwise) technology, global positioning system data communication and data synchronisation mode, intelligent recognition and four-level ('device, transfer, system and data') safety control technology. The integrated system based on a 'One Map' platform has been officially implemented by the Department of Land and Resources of Guizhou Province, China, and was found to significantly increase the efficiency and level of land resources supervision. The system promoted the overall development of informatisation in fields related to land resource management.

  14. COMADRE: a global data base of animal demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R; Archer, C Ruth; Bein, Christoph; de Buhr, Hendrik; Farack, Claudia; Gottschalk, Fränce; Hartmann, Alexander; Henning, Anne; Hoppe, Gabriel; Römer, Gesa; Ruoff, Tara; Sommer, Veronika; Wille, Julia; Voigt, Jakob; Zeh, Stefan; Vieregg, Dirk; Buckley, Yvonne M; Che-Castaldo, Judy; Hodgson, David; Scheuerlein, Alexander; Caswell, Hal; Vaupel, James W

    2016-03-01

    The open-data scientific philosophy is being widely adopted and proving to promote considerable progress in ecology and evolution. Open-data global data bases now exist on animal migration, species distribution, conservation status, etc. However, a gap exists for data on population dynamics spanning the rich diversity of the animal kingdom world-wide. This information is fundamental to our understanding of the conditions that have shaped variation in animal life histories and their relationships with the environment, as well as the determinants of invasion and extinction. Matrix population models (MPMs) are among the most widely used demographic tools by animal ecologists. MPMs project population dynamics based on the reproduction, survival and development of individuals in a population over their life cycle. The outputs from MPMs have direct biological interpretations, facilitating comparisons among animal species as different as Caenorhabditis elegans, Loxodonta africana and Homo sapiens. Thousands of animal demographic records exist in the form of MPMs, but they are dispersed throughout the literature, rendering comparative analyses difficult. Here, we introduce the COMADRE Animal Matrix Database, an open-data online repository, which in its version 1.0.0 contains data on 345 species world-wide, from 402 studies with a total of 1625 population projection matrices. COMADRE also contains ancillary information (e.g. ecoregion, taxonomy, biogeography, etc.) that facilitates interpretation of the numerous demographic metrics that can be derived from its MPMs. We provide R code to some of these examples. We introduce the COMADRE Animal Matrix Database, a resource for animal demography. Its open-data nature, together with its ancillary information, will facilitate comparative analysis, as will the growing availability of databases focusing on other aspects of the rich animal diversity, and tools to query and combine them. Through future frequent updates of COMADRE, and

  15. SAR-Based Wind Resource Statistics in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Peña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean winds in the Baltic Sea are expected to power many wind farms in the coming years. This study examines satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images from Envisat ASAR for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 900 collocated pairs of wind speed from SAR wind maps and from 10 meteorological masts, established specifically for wind energy in the study area, are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a root mean square error of 1.17 m s−1, bias of −0.25 m s−1, standard deviation of 1.88 m s−1 and correlation coefficient of R2 0.783. Wind directions from a global atmospheric model, interpolated in time and space, are used as input to the geophysical model function CMOD-5 for SAR wind retrieval. Wind directions compared to mast observations show a root mean square error of 6.29° with a bias of 7.75°, standard deviation of 20.11° and R2 of 0.950. The scale and shape parameters, A and k, respectively, from the Weibull probability density function are compared at only one available mast and the results deviate ~2% for A but ~16% for k. Maps of A and k, and wind power density based on more than 1000 satellite images show wind power density values to range from 300 to 800 W m−2 for the 14 existing and 42 planned wind farms.

  16. The Future of Evapotranspiration: Global requirements for ecosystem functioning, carbon and climate feedbacks, agricultural management, and water resources

    KAUST Repository

    Fisher, Joshua B.; Melton, Forrest; Middleton, Elizabeth; Hain, Christopher; Anderson, Martha; Allen, Richard; McCabe, Matthew; Hook, Simon; Baldocchi, Dennis; Townsend, Philip A.; Kilic, Ayse; Tu, Kevin; Miralles, Diego G.; Perret, Johan; Lagouarde, Jean-Pierre; Waliser, Duane; Purdy, Adam J.; French, Andrew; Schimel, David; Famiglietti, James S.; Stephens, Graeme; Wood, Eric F.

    2017-01-01

    The fate of the terrestrial biosphere is highly uncertain given recent and projected changes in climate. This is especially acute for impacts associated with changes in drought frequency and intensity on the distribution and timing of water availability. The development of effective adaptation strategies for these emerging threats to food and water security are compromised by limitations in our understanding of how natural and managed ecosystems are responding to changing hydrological and climatological regimes. This information gap is exacerbated by insufficient monitoring capabilities from local to global scales. Here, we describe how evapotranspiration (ET) represents the key variable in linking ecosystem functioning, carbon and climate feedbacks, agricultural management, and water resources, and highlight both the outstanding science and applications questions and the actions, especially from a space-based perspective, necessary to advance them. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. The Future of Evapotranspiration: Global requirements for ecosystem functioning, carbon and climate feedbacks, agricultural management, and water resources

    KAUST Repository

    Fisher, Joshua B.

    2017-03-11

    The fate of the terrestrial biosphere is highly uncertain given recent and projected changes in climate. This is especially acute for impacts associated with changes in drought frequency and intensity on the distribution and timing of water availability. The development of effective adaptation strategies for these emerging threats to food and water security are compromised by limitations in our understanding of how natural and managed ecosystems are responding to changing hydrological and climatological regimes. This information gap is exacerbated by insufficient monitoring capabilities from local to global scales. Here, we describe how evapotranspiration (ET) represents the key variable in linking ecosystem functioning, carbon and climate feedbacks, agricultural management, and water resources, and highlight both the outstanding science and applications questions and the actions, especially from a space-based perspective, necessary to advance them. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. The Future of Evapotranspiration: Global Requirements for Ecosystem Functioning, Carbon and Climate Feedbacks, Agricultural Management, and Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joshua B.; Melton, Forrest; Middleton, Elizabeth; Hain, Christopher; Anderson, Martha; Allen, Richard; McCabe, Matthew F.; Hook, Simon; Baldocchi, Dennis; Townsend, Philip A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The fate of the terrestrial biosphere is highly uncertain given recent and projected changes in climate. This is especially acute for impacts associated with changes in drought frequency and intensity on the distribution and timing of water availability. The development of effective adaptation strategies for these emerging threats to food and water security are compromised by limitations in our understanding of how natural and managed ecosystems are responding to changing hydrological and climatological regimes. This information gap is exacerbated by insufficient monitoring capabilities from local to global scales. Here, we describe how evapotranspiration (ET) represents the key variable in linking ecosystem functioning, carbon and climate feedbacks, agricultural management, and water resources, and highlight both the outstanding science and applications questions and the actions, especially from a space-based perspective, necessary to advance them.

  19. Supportive and palliative care for metastatic breast cancer: resource allocations in low- and middle-income countries. A Breast Health Global Initiative 2013 consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, James; Ddungu, Henry; Distelhorst, Sandra R; Ripamonti, Carla; Rodin, Gary M; Bushnaq, Mohammad A; Clegg-Lamptey, Joe N; Connor, Stephen R; Diwani, Msemo B; Eniu, Alexandru; Harford, Joe B; Kumar, Suresh; Rajagopal, M R; Thompson, Beti; Gralow, Julie R; Anderson, Benjamin O

    2013-10-01

    Many women diagnosed with breast cancer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) present with advanced-stage disease. While cure is not a realistic outcome, site-specific interventions, supportive care, and palliative care can achieve meaningful outcomes and improve quality of life. As part of the 5th Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) Global Summit, an expert international panel identified thirteen key resource recommendations for supportive and palliative care for metastatic breast cancer. The recommendations are presented in three resource-stratified tables: health system resource allocations, resource allocations for organ-based metastatic breast cancer, and resource allocations for palliative care. These tables illustrate how health systems can provide supportive and palliative care services for patients at a basic level of available resources, and incrementally add services as more resources become available. The health systems table includes health professional education, patient and family education, palliative care models, and diagnostic testing. The metastatic disease management table provides recommendations for supportive care for bone, brain, liver, lung, and skin metastases as well as bowel obstruction. The third table includes the palliative care recommendations: pain management, and psychosocial and spiritual aspects of care. The panel considered pain management a priority at a basic level of resource allocation and emphasized the need for morphine to be easily available in LMICs. Regular pain assessments and the proper use of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions are recommended. Basic-level resources for psychosocial and spiritual aspects of care include health professional and patient and family education, as well as patient support, including community-based peer support. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Signature-based global searches at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocker, James Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Data collected in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron are searched for indications of new electroweak scale physics. Rather than focusing on particular new physics scenarios, CDF data are analyzed for discrepancies with respect to the Standard Model prediction. Gross features of the data, mass bumps, and significant excesses of events with large summed transverse momentum are examined in a model-independent and quasi-model-independent approach. This global search for new physics in over three hundred exclusive final states in 2 fb -1 of p(bar p) collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV reveals no significant indication of physics beyond the Standard Model

  1. Open Data as Open Educational Resources: Towards Transversal Skills and Global Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera Atenas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Open Data is the name given to datasets which have been generated by international organisations, governments, NGOs and academic researchers, and made freely available online and openly-licensed. These datasets can be used by educators as Open Educational Resources (OER to support different teaching and learning activities, allowing students to gain experience working with the same raw data researchers and policy-makers generate and use. In this way, educators can facilitate students to understand how information is generated, processed, analysed and interpreted. This paper offers an initial exploration of ways in which the use of Open Data can be key in the development of transversal skills (including digital and data literacies, alongside skills for critical thinking, research, teamwork, and global citizenship, enhancing students’ abilities to understand and select information sources, to work with, curate, analyse and interpret data, and to conduct and evaluate research. This paper also presents results of an exploratory survey that can guide further research into Open Data-led learning activities. Our goal is to support educators in empowering students to engage, critically and collaboratively, as 21st century global citizens.

  2. Global Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production and Associated Resource Decoupling: 2010-2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanbin; Elshkaki, Ayman; Graedel, T E

    2018-02-06

    Human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) methodology has previously been developed to assess the intensity of anthropogenic extraction of biomass resources. However, there is limited analysis concerning future trends of HANPP. Here we present four scenarios for global biomass demand and HANPP harv (the most key component of HANPP) from 2010 to 2050 by incorporating data on expanded historical drivers and disaggregated biomass demand (food, wood material, and fuelwood). The results show that the biomass demand has the lowest value in the equitability world scenario (an egalitarian vision) and the highest value in the security foremost scenario (an isolationist vision). The biomass demand for food and materials increases over time, while fuelwood demand decreases over time. Global HANPP harv rises to between 8.5 and 10.1 Pg C/yr in 2050 in the four scenarios, 14-35% above its value in 2010, and some 50% of HANPP harv is calculated to be crop residues, wood residues, and food losses in the future. HANPP harv in developing regions (Asia, Africa, and Latin America) increases faster than that in more-developed regions (North America and Europe), due to urbanization, population growth, and increasing income. Decoupling of HANPP harv and socioeconomic development is also discussed in this work.

  3. Land Use, Climate, and Water Resources-Global Stages of Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Gold, Arthur J; Mayer, Paul M

    2017-10-24

    Land use and climate change can accelerate the depletion of freshwater resources that support humans and ecosystem services on a global scale. Here, we briefly review studies from around the world, and highlight those in this special issue. We identify stages that characterize increasing interaction between land use and climate change. During the first stage, hydrologic modifications and the built environment amplify overland flow via processes associated with runoff-dominated ecosystems (e.g., soil compaction, impervious surface cover, drainage, and channelization). During the second stage, changes in water storage impact the capacity of ecosystems to buffer extremes in water quantity and quality (e.g., either losses in snowpack, wetlands, and groundwater recharge or gains in water and nutrient storage behind dams in reservoirs). During the third stage, extremes in water quantity and quality contribute to losses in ecosystem services and water security (e.g., clean drinking water, flood mitigation, and habitat availability). During the final stage, management and restoration strategies attempt to regain lost ecosystem structure, function, and services but need to adapt to climate change. By anticipating the increasing interaction between land use and climate change, intervention points can be identified, and management strategies can be adjusted to improve outcomes for realistic expectations. Overall, global water security cannot be adequately restored without considering an increasing interaction between land use and climate change across progressive stages and our ever-increasing human domination of the water cycle from degradation to ecosystem restoration.

  4. Lost food, wasted resources: global food supply chain losses and their impacts on freshwater, cropland, and fertiliser use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M; de Moel, H; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Varis, O; Ward, P J

    2012-11-01

    Reducing food losses and waste is considered to be one of the most promising measures to improve food security in the coming decades. Food losses also affect our use of resources, such as freshwater, cropland, and fertilisers. In this paper we estimate the global food supply losses due to lost and wasted food crops, and the resources used to produce them. We also quantify the potential food supply and resource savings that could be made by reducing food losses and waste. We used publically available global databases to conduct the study at the country level. We found that around one quarter of the produced food supply (614 kcal/cap/day) is lost within the food supply chain (FSC). The production of these lost and wasted food crops accounts for 24% of total freshwater resources used in food crop production (27 m(3)/cap/yr), 23% of total global cropland area (31 × 10(-3)ha/cap/yr), and 23% of total global fertiliser use (4.3 kg/cap/yr). The per capita use of resources for food losses is largest in North Africa & West-Central Asia (freshwater and cropland) and North America & Oceania (fertilisers). The smallest per capita use of resources for food losses is found in Sub-Saharan Africa (freshwater and fertilisers) and in Industrialised Asia (cropland). Relative to total food production, the smallest food supply and resource losses occur in South & Southeast Asia. If the lowest loss and waste percentages achieved in any region in each step of the FSC could be reached globally, food supply losses could be halved. By doing this, there would be enough food for approximately one billion extra people. Reducing the food losses and waste would thus be an important step towards increased food security, and would also increase the efficiency of resource use in food production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing a Resource for Implementing ArcSWAT Using Global Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, M.; Caraballo Álvarez, I. O.; Mueller, C.; Palacios, S. L.; Schmidt, C.; Milesi, C.; Palmer-Moloney, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    This project developed a comprehensive user manual outlining methods for adapting and implementing global datasets for use within ArcSWAT for international and worldwide applications. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a hydrologic model that looks at a number of hydrologic variables including runoff and the chemical makeup of water at a given location on the Earth's surface using Digital Elevation Models (DEM), land cover, soil, and weather data. However, the application of ArcSWAT for projects outside of the United States is challenging as there is no standard framework for inputting global datasets into ArcSWAT. This project aims to remove this obstacle by outlining methods for adapting and implementing these global datasets via the user manual. The manual takes the user through the processes of data conditioning while providing solutions and suggestions for common errors. The efficacy of the manual was explored using examples from watersheds located in Puerto Rico, Mexico and Western Africa. Each run explored the various options for setting up a ArcSWAT project as well as a range of satellite data products and soil databases. Future work will incorporate in-situ data for validation and calibration of the model and outline additional resources to assist future users in efficiently implementing the model for worldwide applications. The capacity to manage and monitor freshwater availability is of critical importance in both developed and developing countries. As populations grow and climate changes, both the quality and quantity of freshwater are affected resulting in negative impacts on the health of the surrounding population. The use of hydrologic models such as ArcSWAT can help stakeholders and decision makers understand the future impacts of these changes enabling informed and substantiated decisions.

  6. International Trade Drives Global Resource Use: A Structural Decomposition Analysis of Raw Material Consumption from 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Barbara; Eisenmenger, Nina; Schaffartzik, Anke; Wiedenhofer, Dominik

    2018-04-03

    Globalization led to an immense increase of international trade and the emergence of complex global value chains. At the same time, global resource use and pressures on the environment are increasing steadily. With these two processes in parallel, the question arises whether trade contributes positively to resource efficiency, or to the contrary is further driving resource use? In this article, the socioeconomic driving forces of increasing global raw material consumption (RMC) are investigated to assess the role of changing trade relations, extended supply chains and increasing consumption. We apply a structural decomposition analysis of changes in RMC from 1990 to 2010, utilizing the Eora multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model. We find that changes in international trade patterns significantly contributed to an increase of global RMC. Wealthy developed countries play a major role in driving global RMC growth through changes in their trade structures, as they shifted production processes increasingly to less material-efficient input suppliers. Even the dramatic increase in material consumption in the emerging economies has not diminished the role of industrialized countries as drivers of global RMC growth.

  7. A Global Look at Future Trends in the Renewable Energy Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Freedman, J. M.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Brower, M.

    2017-12-01

    With the aggressive deployment of utility-scale and distributed generation of wind and solar energy systems, an accurate estimate of the uncertainty associated with future resource trends and plant performance is crucial in maintaining financial integrity in the renewable energy markets. With continuing concerns regarding climate change, the move towards energy resiliency, and the cost-competitiveness of renewables, a rapidly expanding fleet of utility-scale wind and solar power facilities and distributed generation of both resources is now being incorporated into the electric distribution grid. Although solar and wind account for about 3% of global power production, renewable energy is now and will continue to be the world's fastest-growing energy source. With deeper penetration of renewables, confidence in future power production output on a spectrum of temporal and spatial scales is crucial to grid stability for long-term planning and achieving national and international targets in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we use output from a diverse subset of Earth System Models (Climate Model Inter-comparison Project-Phase 5 members) to produce projected trends and uncertainties in regional and global seasonal and inter-annual wind and solar power production and respective capacity factors through the end of the 21st century. Our trends and uncertainty analysis focuses on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. For wind and solar energy production estimates, we extract surface layer wind (extrapolated to hub height), irradiance, cloud fraction, and temperature (air temperature affects density [hence wind power production] and the efficiency of photovoltaic [PV] systems), output from the CMIP5 ensemble mean fields for the period 2020 - 2099 and an historical baseline for POR of 1986 - 2005 (compared with long-term observations and the ERA-Interim Reanalysis). Results include representative statistics such as the

  8. Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie

    2012-01-01

    Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm is proposed, and a fitness function is provided. Simulations are conducted using the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm, the simulated annealing algorithm, the quantum genetic algorithm and the simple genetic algorithm, respectively. The results show that the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm performs better than the other three algorithms in terms of the multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation, and has quick convergence speed and strong global searching capability, which effectively reduces the system power consumption and bit error rate. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  9. Management of Globally Distributed Component-Based Software Development Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kotlarsky (Julia)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractGlobally Distributed Component-Based Development (GD CBD) is expected to become a promising area, as increasing numbers of companies are setting up software development in a globally distributed environment and at the same time are adopting CBD methodologies. Being an emerging area, the

  10. Natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada: the resource base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osadetz, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) has an ongoing national hydrocarbon resource assessment project which examines, characterizes and quantifies the hydrocarbon resource potential of Canada. In this paper the distribution, characteristics and sizes of conventional and unconventional natural gas resources in Canada are summarized. Four topics were addressed: (1) the origins of conventional and unconventional natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada, (2) the resource assessment techniques used at the GSC, with emphasis on predicting undiscovered reserves, (3) the setting, distribution and size of the conventional natural gas endowment of Canada in a geographic and geological context, and (4) the indications of unconventional natural gas resource endowment in Canada. Conventional in-place natural gas resources for Canada was estimated at 26.8 trillion cubic metres of which 54 per cent comes from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The national inventory of unconventional in-place gas resource is 3,460 trillion cubic metres. At current rates of production, the expected life expectancy for the in-place conventional natural gas resource base was estimated to be about 150 years. 1 tab., 9 figs

  11. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie; Zeng Chang-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed

  12. Biomarker detection of global infectious diseases based on magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinelli, Soledad; Martí, Mercè; Alegret, Salvador; Pividori, María Isabel

    2015-09-25

    Infectious diseases affect the daily lives of millions of people all around the world, and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths, mostly in the developing world. Although most of these major infectious diseases are treatable, the early identification of individuals requiring treatment remains a major issue. The incidence of these diseases would be reduced if rapid diagnostic tests were widely available at the community and primary care level in low-resource settings. Strong research efforts are thus being focused on replacing standard clinical diagnostic methods, such as the invasive detection techniques (biopsy or endoscopy) or expensive diagnostic and monitoring methods, by affordable and sensitive tests based on novel biomarkers. The development of new methods that are needed includes solid-phase separation techniques. In this context, the integration of magnetic particles within bioassays and biosensing devices is very promising since they greatly improve the performance of a biological reaction. The diagnosis of clinical samples with magnetic particles can be easily achieved without pre-enrichment, purification or pretreatment steps often required for standard methods, simplifying the analytical procedures. The biomarkers can be specifically isolated and preconcentrated from complex biological matrixes by magnetic actuation, increasing specificity and the sensitivity of the assay. This review addresses these promising features of the magnetic particles for the detection of biomarkers in emerging technologies related with infectious diseases affecting global health, such as malaria, influenza, dengue, tuberculosis or HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strategic Entrepreneurship Based Model of Catch-up University in Global Rankings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will help answer the question, why only few universities managed to succeed significantly in their global ranking advancement, while most of their competitors fail. For this purpose it will introduce a new strategically entrepreneurial catch-up university framework, based on the combination of the resource based view, dynamic capabilities, strategic entrepreneurship and latecomer organization concepts. The new framework logics explains the advantages of being ambidextrous for ranking oriented universities and pursuing new potentially more favorable opportunities for research development. It will propose that substantial increase in the level of dynamic capabilities of the universities and their resource base accumulation is based on the use of the new combination of financial, human and social capital combined with strategic management of these resources in the process of identification and exploitation of greater opportunities.

  14. Tracking Global Fund HIV/AIDS resources used for sexual and reproductive health service integration: case study from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookherji, Sangeeta; Ski, Samantha; Huntington, Dale

    2015-05-27

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria (GF) strives for high value for money, encouraging countries to integrate synergistic services and systems strengthening to maximize investments. The GF needs to show how, and how much, its grants support more than just HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) has been part of HIV/AIDS grants since 2007. Previous studies showed the GF PBF system does not allow resource tracking for SRH integration within HIV/AIDS grants. We present findings from a resource tracking case study using primary data collected at country level. Ethiopia was the study site. We reviewed data from four HIV/AIDS grants from January 2009-June 2011 and categorized SDAs and activities as directly, indirectly, or not related to SRH integration. Data included: GF PBF data; financial, performance, in-depth interview and facility observation data from Ethiopia. All HIV/AIDS grants in Ethiopia support SRH integration activities (12-100%). Using activities within SDAs, expenditures directly supporting SRH integration increased from 25% to 66% for the largest HIV/AIDS grant, and from 21% to 34% for the smaller PMTCT-focused grant. Using SDAs to categorize expenditures underestimated direct investments in SRH integration; activity-based categorization is more accurate. The important finding is that primary data collection could not resolve the limitations in using GF GPR data for resource tracking. The remedy is to require existing activity-based budgets and expenditure reports as part of PBF reporting requirements, and make them available in the grant portfolio database. The GF should do this quickly, as it is a serious shortfall in the GF guiding principle of transparency. Showing high value for money is important for maximizing impact and replenishments. The Global Fund should routinely track HIV/AIDs grant expenditures to disease control, service integration, and overall health systems strengthening. The current PBF system

  15. Science-based natural resource management decisions: what are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.J. Mills; T.M. Quigley; F.J. Everest

    2001-01-01

    While many people interested in natural resources management propose science-based decisions, it is not clear what “science-based” means. Science-based decisions are those that result from the full and complete consideration of the relevant science information. We offer five guidelines to focus the scientist’s contributions to science-based decisionmaking and use the...

  16. Adaptive capacity and community-based natural resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Derek

    2005-06-01

    Why do some community-based natural resource management strategies perform better than others? Commons theorists have approached this question by developing institutional design principles to address collective choice situations, while other analysts have critiqued the underlying assumptions of community-based resource management. However, efforts to enhance community-based natural resource management performance also require an analysis of exogenous and endogenous variables that influence how social actors not only act collectively but do so in ways that respond to changing circumstances, foster learning, and build capacity for management adaptation. Drawing on examples from northern Canada and Southeast Asia, this article examines the relationship among adaptive capacity, community-based resource management performance, and the socio-institutional determinants of collective action, such as technical, financial, and legal constraints, and complex issues of politics, scale, knowledge, community and culture. An emphasis on adaptive capacity responds to a conceptual weakness in community-based natural resource management and highlights an emerging research and policy discourse that builds upon static design principles and the contested concepts in current management practice.

  17. Piedra Pajarilla: A candidate for nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores; Gimeno, Ana; del Barrio, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Piedra Pajarilla is a tourmaline bearing leucogranite outcropping at Martinamor, near Salamanca, Spain. It is part of the Hercynian granitic chain in the Spanish Central System. The stone received the local name "Piedra Pajarilla", meaning "Little Bird Stone" due to the shape of the many tourmaline aggregates that are the main visual feature of the rock. This local name has been extrapolated to every granitic stone used in the area, even if they differ significantly in mineralogy, and as recently tested in physical and mechanical properties as well. Here we present the nomination of Piedra Pajarilla as a suitable "Global Heritage Stone Resource". This stone ideally fits the newly proposed designation as it has been used since Roman times in Salamanca (Spain) and since the Middle Ages in the construction of major historic buildings, including both the Old and New Cathedrals, and many additional churches, castles and walls in the Salamanca area. Salamancás historic city core has been granted UNESCO World Heritage status in 1988, and all associated buildings, monuments and pedestrian streets are constructed from original materials. One of utilised materials, Piedra Pajarilla, was quarried for centuries from the immediate area. It was also the preferred building stone of many internationally renowned architects of Spanish origin during the 18th and 19th centuries especially involved in reconstruction following the Lisbon earthquake. Although the associated quarries are no longer active, the Piedra Pajarilla quarry sites remain relatively undisturbed and accessible. A renewal of quarrying is consequently feasible if additional stone supplies are required for heritage restoration. Thus there is also a need to preserve these historic quarries in anticipation of such work. The importance of Salamanca as emblematic heritage makes the historic stone quarries worthwhile to preserve as well. At the same time, Piedra Pajarilla can be considered as the first of several natural

  18. Role of nuclear energy to a future society of shortage of energy resources and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Shinzo, E-mail: saito.shinzo@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Human society entered into the society of large energy consumption since the industrial revolution and consumes more than 10 billion tons of oil equivalent energy a year in the world in the present time, in which over 80% is provided by fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Total energy consumption is foreseen to increase year by year from now on due to significant economical and population growth in the developing countries such as China and India. However, fossil fuel resources are limited with conventional crude oil estimated to last about 40 years, and it is said that the peak oil production time has come now. On the other hand, global warming due to green house gases (GHG) emissions, especially carbon dioxide, has become a serious issue. Nuclear energy plays an important role as means to resolve energy security and global warming issues. Four hundred twenty-nine nuclear power plants are operating world widely producing 16% of the total electric power with total plant capacity of 386 GWe without emission of CO{sub 2} as of 2006. It is estimated that another 250 GWe nuclear power is needed to keep the same level contribution of electricity generation in 2030. On the other hand, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) developed the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) named high temperature gas-cooled engineering test reactor (HTTR) and carbon free hydrogen production process (IS process). Nuclear energy utilization will surely widen in, not only electricity generation, but also various industries such as steel making, chemical industries, together with hydrogen production for transportation by introduction of HTGRs. The details of development of the HTTR and IS process are also described.

  19. Application of Resource Utilization in Dementia (RUD) instrument in a global setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimo, Anders; Gustavsson, Anders; Jönsson, Linus; Winblad, Bengt; Hsu, Ming-Ann; Gannon, Brenda

    2013-07-01

    The Resource Utilization in Dementia (RUD) questionnaire is the most widely used instrument for resource use data collection in dementia, enabling comparison of costs of care across countries with differing health care provisions. Recent feedback from payers questioned its face validity given that health care provisions have changed since the initial development of the RUD in 1998. The aim of this study was to update the RUD to improve its face validity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical research and its utility for health care resource allocation. An extensive PubMed review was conducted of current relevant resource items in AD in 15 countries. The findings were complemented by interviews with local care providers and experts in dementia care and health economics. Their proposed revisions were discussed with five leading dementia experts in North and South America, northern and southern Europe, and Asia. A new version of the RUD was developed based on their recommendations. RUD users identified a need for more information relevant to coverage decisions. Proposed revisions included changes to existing questions (e.g., to capture more accurately the number and type of health care visits) and the addition of new questions (e.g., on informal caregiver hours and the primary caregiver's hours of sleep). Several minor changes were made to the RUD instrument to improve the accuracy and precision of the data while maintaining comparability with the original version and reflecting current medical practice. The RUD Complete Version 4.0 is now available for use in future AD clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chunk-Based Energy Efficient Resource Allocation in OFDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency (EE capacity analysis of the chunk-based resource allocation is presented by considering the minimum spectrum efficiency (SE constraint in downlink multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems. Considering the minimum SE requirement, an optimization problem to maximize EE with limited transmit power is formulated over frequency selective channels. Based on this model, a low-complexity energy efficient resource allocation is proposed. The effects of system parameters, such as the average channel gain-to-noise ratio (CNR and the number of subcarriers per chunk, are evaluated. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for balancing the EE and SE.

  1. The Servitization of Manufacturing: A Resource-Based Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Boer, Harry; Johansen, John

    2010-01-01

    The traditional focus of manufacturing strategy is tremendously impacted by the emergence of servitization as a new empirical phenomenon and the resource-based view (RBV) as a (relatively) new theoretical perspective. In order to understand their influence, this paper firstly tracks the evolution....... Based on the case analyses and inspired by open source software (OSS) and open innovation, a new, open and capability (development) based role of manufacturing is suggested....

  2. The International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA): A New Resource for Global Efficiency Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F; McNeil, Michael A; Tu, Thomas; Xu, Feiyang

    2017-09-06

    A major barrier to effective appliance efficiency program design and evaluation is a lack of data for determination of market baselines and cost-effective energy savings potential. The data gap is particularly acute in developing countries, which may have the greatest savings potential per unit GDP. To address this need, we are developing the International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA), which automatically compiles data from a wide variety of online sources to create a unified repository of information on efficiency, price, and features for a wide range of energy-consuming products across global markets. This paper summarizes the database framework and demonstrates the power of IDEA as a resource for appliance efficiency research and policy development. Using IDEA data for refrigerators in China and India, we develop robust cost-effectiveness indicators that allow rapid determination of savings potential within each market, as well as comparison of that potential across markets and appliance types. We discuss implications for future energy efficiency policy development.

  3. Emergence of Global Adaptive Governance for Stewardship of Regional Marine Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Österblom

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Overfishing has historically caused widespread stock collapses in the Southern Ocean. Until recently, illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU fishing threatened to result in the collapse of some of the few remaining valuable fish stocks in the region and vulnerable seabird populations. Currently, this unsustainable fishing has been reduced to less than 10% of former levels. We describe and analyze the emergence of the social-ecological governance system that made it possible to curb the fisheries crisis. For this purpose, we investigated the interplay between actors, social networks, organizations, and institutions in relation to environmental outcomes. We drew on a diversity of methods, including qualitative interviews, quantitative social network and survey data, and literature reviews. We found that the crisis triggered action of an informal group of actors over time, which led to a new organization (ISOFISH that connected two independent networks (nongovermental organizations and the fishing industry, and later (COLTO linked to an international body and convention (CCAMLR. The emergence of the global adaptive governance systems for stewardship of a regional marine resource took place over a 15-year period. We describe in detail the emergence process and illustrate the usefulness of analyzing four features of governance and understanding social-ecological processes, thereby describing structures and functions, and their link to tangible environmental outcomes.

  4. 76 FR 19174 - In the Matter of Circuit Systems, Inc., Global Energy Group, Inc., Integrated Medical Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION File No. 500-1 In the Matter of Circuit Systems, Inc., Global Energy Group, Inc., Integrated Medical Resources, Inc., iNTELEFILM Corp., and Lot$off Corp.; Order of... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Circuit Systems, Inc. because it...

  5. Critical Spaces for Critical Times: Global Conversations in Literacy Research as an Open Professional Development and Practices Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Peggy; Cho, A. Ram; Shin, Ji Hye; Pang, Myoung Eun; Angay-Crowder, Tuba; Jung, Jin Kyeong; Pace, Christi L.; Sena, Mandi; Turnbull, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects an OER (Open Educational Resources) critical literacy project, Global Conversations in Literacy Research (GCLR), (www.globalconversationsinliteracy.wordpress.com), now in its fourth year. GCLR annually hosts seven web seminars presented by internationally recognized literacy and education scholars. We outline key dimensions of…

  6. Web-based tools from AHRQ's National Resource Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Caitlin M; Shah, Sapna

    2008-11-06

    The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has made an investment of over $216 million in research around health information technology (health IT). As part of their investment, AHRQ has developed the National Resource Center for Health IT (NRC) which includes a public domain Web site. New content for the web site, such as white papers, toolkits, lessons from the health IT portfolio and web-based tools, is developed as needs are identified. Among the tools developed by the NRC are the Compendium of Surveys and the Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Resources. The Compendium of Surveys is a searchable repository of health IT evaluation surveys made available for public use. The CDS Resources contains content which may be used to develop clinical decision support tools, such as rules, reminders and templates. This live demonstration will show the access, use, and content of both these freely available web-based tools.

  7. Resources based factors of competitiveness of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyja Małgorzata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Among many different definitions of competitiveness it is difficult to pinpoint the most appropriate one. In the paper it was defined as the ability to be profitable by effective use of available resources. The profitability ratios (ROS, ROA, ROE and value index were proposed as measures of competitiveness and resources were indicated as one of the group of factors that has an impact on it. Precisely, the purpose of the paper was to examine the relationship between selected resourced based factors and competitiveness of agricultural enterprises. The study was done with the use of correlation analysis on the basis of statistical data on selected Polish companies operating in agriculture. The main finding was that the analyzed resources (the level of labour, size and quality of agricultural land and size of assets were weakly correlated with competitiveness. This observation means that other factors have stronger impact on agricultural company’s competitiveness. They can refer to intangible resources (such as relational capital, know-how, managerial competencies, technological resources etc. and external conditions (such as climate, legal issues of agricultural enterprises.

  8. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.

    2016-03-23

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  9. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  10. The Resource-Based View and Value: The Customer-Based View of the Firm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clulow, Val; Barry, Carol; Gerstman, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The resource-based view (RBV) explores the role of key resources, identified as intangible assets and capabilities, in creating competitive advantage and superior performance. To a great extent the conceptual analysis and empirical research within the RBV has focused on the firm's perspective of key resources and the value to the firm of…

  11. Creating Online Training for Procedures in Global Health with PEARLS (Procedural Education for Adaptation to Resource-Limited Settings).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensman, Rachel S; Slusher, Tina M; Butteris, Sabrina M; Pitt, Michael B; On Behalf Of The Sugar Pearls Investigators; Becker, Amanda; Desai, Brinda; George, Alisha; Hagen, Scott; Kiragu, Andrew; Johannsen, Ron; Miller, Kathleen; Rule, Amy; Webber, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    The authors describe a multiinstitutional collaborative project to address a gap in global health training by creating a free online platform to share a curriculum for performing procedures in resource-limited settings. This curriculum called PEARLS (Procedural Education for Adaptation to Resource-Limited Settings) consists of peer-reviewed instructional and demonstration videos describing modifications for performing common pediatric procedures in resource-limited settings. Adaptations range from the creation of a low-cost spacer for inhaled medications to a suction chamber for continued evacuation of a chest tube. By describing the collaborative process, we provide a model for educators in other fields to collate and disseminate procedural modifications adapted for their own specialty and location, ideally expanding this crowd-sourced curriculum to reach a wide audience of trainees and providers in global health.

  12. Gender-based abuse: the global epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heise Lori

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender Based violence-including rape, domestic violence, murder and sexual abuse-is a profund health problem for women across the globe. Although a significant cause of female morbidity and mortality, violence against women has only recently begun to be recognized as an issue for public health. This paper draws together existing data on the dimensions of violence against women worldwide and reviews available literature on the health consequences of abuse. It argues that the health sector has an important role to play in combatting violence against women through increased research, screening and referral of victims, and behavioral interventions. Any strategy to confrnt violence must address the root causes of abuse in addition to meeting the immediate needs of victims. This means challenging the social attitudes and beliefs that undergird men's violence and renegotiating the balance of power between women and men at all levels of society.

  13. Global trends in satellite-based emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Stefan; Giulio-Tonolo, Fabio; Lyons, Josh; Kučera, Jan; Jones, Brenda; Schneiderhan, Tobias; Platzeck, Gabriel; Kaku, Kazuya; Hazarika, Manzul Kumar; Czaran, Lorant; Li, Suju; Pedersen, Wendi; James, Godstime Kadiri; Proy, Catherine; Muthike, Denis Macharia; Bequignon, Jerome; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, scientists and disaster responders have increasingly used satellite-based Earth observations for global rapid assessment of disaster situations. We review global trends in satellite rapid response and emergency mapping from 2000 to 2014, analyzing more than 1000 incidents in which satellite monitoring was used for assessing major disaster situations. We provide a synthesis of spatial patterns and temporal trends in global satellite emergency mapping efforts and show that satellite-based emergency mapping is most intensively deployed in Asia and Europe and follows well the geographic, physical, and temporal distributions of global natural disasters. We present an outlook on the future use of Earth observation technology for disaster response and mitigation by putting past and current developments into context and perspective.

  14. Resource management in Diffserv measurement-based admission control PHR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westberg, L.; Heijenk, Geert; Karagiannis, Georgios; Oosthoek, S.; Partain, D.; Rexhepi, Vlora; Szabo, R.; Wallentin, P.; El Allali, H.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this draft is to present the Resource Management in Diffserv (RMD) Measurement-Based Admission Control (RIMA) Per Hop Reservation (PHR) protocol. The RIMA PHR protocol is used on a per-hop basis in a Differentiated Services (Diffserv) domain and extends the Diffserv Per Hop Behavior

  15. Scenario-based approach for flexible resource loading under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wullink, G.; Gademann, A.J.R.M.; Hans, E.W.; Harten, van A.

    2004-01-01

    Order acceptance decisions in manufacture-to-order environments are often made based on incomplete or uncertain information. To quote reliable due dates in order processing, manage resource capacity adequately and take into account uncertainty, the paper presents and analyses models and tools for

  16. Incorporating Campus-Based Cultural Resources into Humanities Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, Amy E.; Nedd, Rolecia

    2018-01-01

    In this article, the authors reviewed one effort to deepen students' connections to the humanities through the use of campus-based cultural resources at Queensborough Community College (QCC) of the City University of New York (CUNY), a minority-serving institution in one of the most diverse counties in the United States. Focusing specifically on…

  17. Assessing the contribution of Community-Based Natural Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed Community-Based Natural Resources Management Programme (CBNRMP) for environmental sustainability in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were gathered through a structured interview schedule from 120 rural dwellers participating in CBNRMP. Data collected were described with descriptive statistical ...

  18. Development of Computer-Based Resources for Textile Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Teresa; Thomas, Andrew; Bailey, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Describes the production of computer-based resources for students of textiles and engineering in the United Kingdom. Highlights include funding by the Teaching and Learning Technology Programme (TLTP), courseware author/subject expert interaction, usage test and evaluation, authoring software, graphics, computer-aided design simulation, self-test…

  19. Community-based Natural Resource Management of the Jozani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is an approach that has generally .... rules in use across a broad range of CPR user- communities .... identified these social clusters and vocational groupings as ..... satisfied with the agreement and the villagers .... protection measures for the red colobus monkey ...

  20. Global Regulatory Differences for Gene- and Cell-Based Therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppens, Delphi G M; De Bruin, Marie L; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2017-01-01

    Gene- and cell-based therapies (GCTs) offer potential new treatment options for unmet medical needs. However, the use of conventional regulatory requirements for medicinal products to approve GCTs may impede patient access and therapeutic innovation. Furthermore, requirements differ between...... jurisdictions, complicating the global regulatory landscape. We provide a comparative overview of regulatory requirements for GCT approval in five jurisdictions and hypothesize on the consequences of the observed global differences on patient access and therapeutic innovation....

  1. Multiprocessor Global Scheduling on Frame-Based DVFS Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Berten, Vandy; Goossens, Joël

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this work, we are interested in multiprocessor energy efficient systems where task durations are not known in advance but are known stochastically. More precisely we consider global scheduling algorithms for frame-based multiprocessor stochastic DVFS (Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling) systems. Moreover we consider processors with a discrete set of available frequencies. We provide a global scheduling algorithm, and formally show that no deadline will ever be mi...

  2. Attribution d'un financement de base au Global Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Attribution d'un financement de base au Global Development Network (GDN) - phase II. La Banque mondiale a lancé le Global Development Network (GDN) en 1999 en s'appuyant sur le principe que des recherches bien menées sur les politiques et appliquées comme il se doit peuvent accélérer le processus de ...

  3. New Temperature-based Models for Predicting Global Solar Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Gasser E.; Youssef, M. Elsayed; Mohamed, Zahraa E.; Ali, Mohamed A.; Hanafy, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New temperature-based models for estimating solar radiation are investigated. • The models are validated against 20-years measured data of global solar radiation. • The new temperature-based model shows the best performance for coastal sites. • The new temperature-based model is more accurate than the sunshine-based models. • The new model is highly applicable with weather temperature forecast techniques. - Abstract: This study presents new ambient-temperature-based models for estimating global solar radiation as alternatives to the widely used sunshine-based models owing to the unavailability of sunshine data at all locations around the world. Seventeen new temperature-based models are established, validated and compared with other three models proposed in the literature (the Annandale, Allen and Goodin models) to estimate the monthly average daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. These models are developed using a 20-year measured dataset of global solar radiation for the case study location (Lat. 30°51′N and long. 29°34′E), and then, the general formulae of the newly suggested models are examined for ten different locations around Egypt. Moreover, the local formulae for the models are established and validated for two coastal locations where the general formulae give inaccurate predictions. Mostly common statistical errors are utilized to evaluate the performance of these models and identify the most accurate model. The obtained results show that the local formula for the most accurate new model provides good predictions for global solar radiation at different locations, especially at coastal sites. Moreover, the local and general formulas of the most accurate temperature-based model also perform better than the two most accurate sunshine-based models from the literature. The quick and accurate estimations of the global solar radiation using this approach can be employed in the design and evaluation of performance for

  4. Can Resilience be Reconciled with Globalization and the Increasingly Complex Conditions of Resource Degradation in Asian Coastal Regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Armitage

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between resilience and globalization. We are concerned, most importantly, with whether resilience is a suitable conceptual framework for natural resource management in the context of the rapid changes and disruptions that globalization causes in social-ecological systems. Although theoretical in scope, we ground this analysis using our experiences in two Asian coastal areas: Junagadh District in Gujarat State, India and Banawa Selatan, in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We present the histories of resource exploitation in the two areas, and we attempt to combine a resilience perspective with close attention to the impact of globalization. Our efforts serve as a basis from which to examine the conceptual and practical compatibility of resilience with globalization. The first challenge we address is epistemological: given that resilience and globalization have roots in different disciplines, do they share a sufficiently common perception of change and human action to be compatible? Second, we address the issue of how resilience can be a viable management objective in the rapidly changing context of globalization. We identify scale as particularly important in this regard.

  5. Sustainability Investigation of Resource-Based Cities in Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Improving the sustainability of traditional resource-based cities in China has been a core issue and policy-priority for Chinese government to establish long-term ecological civilization, particularly for northeastern China which is recognized as a typical agglomeration area of resources cities. In this study, we establish a three-layer index system consisting of a comprehensive layer, systemic layer, and variable layer, and including 22 indicators which are grouped into economic, social and environmental subsystems. After that, the TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution method was applied to measure and rank the sustainability of the selected 15 typical resource-based cities in northeast China, and then a GIS (Geographical Information System technique based on the software of SuperMap was applied to map the sustainability in terms of the spatial effects among these cities. The results reveal that a unilateral improvement of a subsystem did not mean an improvement or contribution to whole system. In detail, during the past 15 years from 2000 to 2015, the comprehensive sustainability of resource-based cities in Northeastern China shows a declining trend in the mass, and the sustainability of the economic subsystem shows increase; the sustainability of the social system remains stable, while the environmental subsystem shows decrease. These situations might result from policy interventions during the past 15 years, therefore, promoting the sustainability of resource-based cities needs a historical approach, which should focus on the coordinated development of its economic, social, and environmental subsystems.

  6. Nomination of the Globigerina Limestone of the Maltese Islands as a "Global Heritage Stone Resource"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar, JoAnn

    2016-04-01

    the prehistoric Temples. Even today, this local building stone is still much in demand, with many modern buildings still being constructed in this material; it is also widely used for the repair and restoration of historic buildings and many local quarries are still active, with this stone even today being a keystone of the local economy. This stone is thus being nominated as a suitable "Global Heritage Stone Resource".

  7. Resource-based optimization of electric power production (in Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghzadeh, Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    This paper is about electric power production optimization and chiefly discusses on the types of resources available in Iran. The modeling has been based on the marginal cost of different energy resources and types of technologies used. the computed costs are the basic standards for optimization of the production system of energy. the costs associated with environmental pollution and also pollution control are considered. the present paper also studied gas fossil fuel, hydro, nuclear, renewable and co-generation of heat and power. The results are discussed and reported at the last of the paper

  8. Developing a Theory-Based Simulation Educator Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christine M; Sievers, Lisa D; Kellgren, Molly; Manning, Sara J; Rojas, Deborah E; Gamblian, Vivian C

    2015-01-01

    The NLN Leadership Development Program for Simulation Educators 2014 faculty development group identified a lack of a common language/terminology to outline the progression of expertise of simulation educators. The group analyzed Benner's novice-to-expert model and applied its levels of experience to simulation educator growth. It established common operational categories of faculty development and used them to organize resources that support progression toward expertise. The resulting theory-based Simulator Educator Toolkit outlines levels of ability and provides quality resources to meet the diverse needs of simulation educators and team members.

  9. Lioz: The Stone that made Lisbon reborn - A Global Heritage Stone Resource Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Lioz: The Stone that made Lisbon reborn - A Global Heritage Stone Resource Proposal Explored since the Roman Period, the Lioz (Cenomanian age microcrystalline fossiliferous limestone) is the main stone used in the buildings and monuments of Lisbon. After the great cataclysm of 1755 (earthquake, tsunami and fire) of 1755, the already known great quality and the near occurrence of these limestones were wisely used in the great reconstruction of the "Capital do Império" (Capital of the Empire). At the time, Lisbon was one of the largest European cities and great business center of the World, so the necessary and urgent reconstruction was not so difficult to start. Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, better known as "Marquês de Pombal", Secretary of King José I, successfully took up the challenge of rebuilding Lisbon. Inside the actual Portuguese capital geographical limits, several quarries of the Cretaceous limestone were explored; some still exist and are classified as geomonuments (i.e., Rio Seco Geomonument, 38 ° 42'21 .67''N; 9 ° 11 '30.37''W). As the City boundaries expanded, the quarries stopped and now there is no one asset in Lisbon. The most important exploitation and processing Lioz stone center was situated in Pêro Pinheiro, 20 km NW of Lisbon. Most of the stones used in the National Palace-Convent of Mafra (1717) belongs to the four main types of Lioz (the cream/white "Abancado", the pink/dark pink "Encarnadão", the yellow "Amarelo de Negrais" and the blueish grey "Azulino"), either cut "against" (perpendicular to the bedding plane) or "along" (parallel to the bedding plane). The orientation stone cut deeply controls texture and mechanical properties of the rocks that behaves as different ones were considered. In the last two decades, the Lioz extraction was almost extinguished. However, some of the old quarries was reactivated and produces first quality blocks needed both for new works and restoration of historic buildings and monuments. The

  10. Teaching and Learning about Universal Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law: Digital Resources and Global Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Rosemary Ann

    2013-01-01

    Today's education for civic engagement requires a global dimension. To live responsibly in their own communities, young people need to situate their personal and local interests in the context of their global interconnections. Bridging the personal, local, and global begins with an awareness of the universal aspirations for dignity and human…

  11. A global change data base using thematic mapper data: Earth monitoring educational system (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Antoni, H.L.; Peterson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System integrated with the research interests of NASA Ames Research Center and one or more university schools is proposed. This would be a first step in a new educational system at an international scale. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, the EMES will promote AS, BS, MS and PhDs in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extra-curricular courses for multilevel audiences. These would range as appropriate from ministers to resource managers to students. Both programs will be conducted under a systemic approach, through active learning, coordination and correlation practices. They will be aimed to: (1) train specialists, (2) establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool, and (3) transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. The main goal of the extra-curricular courses would be to provide readily usable knowledge to the decision-making levels of all the participant countries and institutions. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project. This work is consistent with the educational goals of the International Space year in 1992

  12. Country-scale phosphorus balancing as a base for resources conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyhan, D.

    2009-01-01

    In order to effectively conserve the non-renewable resource phosphorus (P), flows and stocks of P must be known at national, regional and global scales. P is a key non-renewable resource because its use as fertilizer cannot be substituted posing a constraint on the global food production in the

  13. Characterizing contract-based multiagent resource allocation in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bo; Lesser, Victor

    2010-06-01

    We consider a multiagent resource allocation problem where individual users intend to route traffic by requesting the help of entities across a network, and a cost is incurred at each network node that depends on the amount of traffic to be routed. We propose to study contract-based network resource allocation. In our model, users and nodes in the network make contracts before nodes route traffic for the users. The problem is an interesting self-interested negotiation problem because it requires the complete assembly of a set of distinct resources, and there are multiple combinations of distinct resources that could satisfy the goal of negotiation. First, we characterize the network allocation problem and show that finding optimal allocations is NP-complete and is inapproximable. We take both Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium as the solution concepts to characterize the equilibrium allocations. We find that, for any resource allocation game, Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium always exist. In addition, socially optimal allocations are always supported by Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium. We introduce best-response dynamics in which each agent takes a myopic best-response strategy and interacts with each other to dynamically form contracts. We analyze the convergence of the dynamics in some special cases. We also experimentally study the convergence rate of the dynamics and how efficient the evolved allocation is as compared with the optimal allocation in a variety of environments.

  14. Global change impact on water resources at the regional scale - a reflection on participatory modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Roland; Büttner, Hannah; Nickel, Darla; Seidl, Roman

    2015-04-01

    Participatory modeling (PM) has become an essential part of environmental impact assessment and planning in the field of water resources research and management. This is mainly because of the notion that models developed by scientists for scientific purposes are often not suitable for practical management for several reasons, such as (too) high complexity, low user-friendliness and lack of problem/solution orientation. Participation is seen as a key concept for bridging the gap between modelers and stakeholders. In this submission we focus on the PM-process in the GLOWA-Danube (GD) project (German Ministry of Education and Research, 2001-2011). GD was carried out by an interdisciplinary consortium of 17 research organizations. The main goal was to develop and to use the integrated modelling system DANUBIA as a tool to evaluate the impact of global change on the Upper Danube Catchment (Southern Germany, 77,000 km^2) and to discuss the implications with relevant stakeholders. An intensive stakeholder dialoged was carried out to include the perspective of stakeholders and end-users in the model and scenario development - with the final goal of facilitating implementation of DANUBIA in practical management after termination of the scientific project. This contribution looks at the specific conditions for PM in the field of global change scenarios and complex integrated models. The different phases of the PM process in GD are presented along with a discussion of the respective results. Overall, the impact of stakeholder interaction on the model development was much lower than expected. The ultimate goal of using the PM process to develop DANUBIA as a tool used in practical management after termination of the scientific project was not reached. However, implications of climate change and modelling could be discussed with the stakeholders involved and relevant learning processes on both sides (scientists and stakeholders) were facilitated in the final phase. In the

  15. Resource-based learning strategies: implications for students and institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Ryan

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In its strategic plan, the University of Greenwich envisages a significant shift to resource-based learning (RBL. Enterprise in Higher Education (EHE has funded five pilot RBL projects during the past year, including one in introductory economics. The project was managed by three lecturers in the School of Social Sciences, supported by an Academic Development Officer. Learning outcomes were completely revised, and a range of assessment strategies, including computer-based tests, was identified. A resources guide was produced which identified the materials and activities that would enable students to achieve the learning outcomes. A number of innovations were adopted, including: • computer-based curriculum delivery, assessment, and student evaluation of the course; • an open approach to assessment; • abolishing lectures in favour of a diverse range of teaching and learning activities.

  16. Raw material monitoring assists companies. German Mineral Resources Agency at BGR provides information on global developments in resource markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Germany is dependent on imports for its metalliferous natural resources. Although prices have been declining significantly in recent months, numerous raw materials such as platinum, cobalt and rare earth elements continue to be exposed to price and supply risks. To ensure that German industry can respond better to this situation in their procurement activities, the German Mineral Resources Agency (DERA) at BGR has developed a raw material monitoring system on behalf of the German government. DERA experts have con figured a screening method for the early identification of possible procurement risks. This is the platform which enables German companies to gain the specific advice they require. All of the most important information on this issue is bundled within DERA 's internet portal (www.deutsche-rohstoffagentur.de). BGR also provides its expertise in other important fields with great societal relevance. BGR has been advising the national commission on ''Storage of High-level Radioactive Waste'' since 2014. Due to their comprehensive research activities in the field of radioactive waste disposal, BGR scientists are important technical experts to which the commission can turn to for geological information and advice.

  17. Making sense of the global economy: 10 resources for health promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, K S; Labonté, Ronald

    2010-09-01

    Population health is shaped by more than local or national influences-the global matters. Health promotion practitioners and researchers increasingly are challenged to engage with upstream factors related to the global economy, such as global prescriptions for national macroeconomic policies, debt relief and international trade. This paper identifies 10 books (A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism, The World is Not Flat: Inequality and Injustice in Our Global Economy, Globalization and its Discontents, The Debt Threat: How Debt is Destroying the Developing World, Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy, A Race Against Time, Globalization and Health: An Introduction, Global Public Goods for Health: Health Economics and Public Health Perspectives, Trade and Health: Seeking Common Ground) and several key reports that we found to be particularly useful for understanding the global economy's effects on people's health. We draw attention to issues helpful in understanding the present global financial crisis.

  18. Scarcity in a Sea of Plenty? Global Resource Scarcities and Policies in the European Union and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, A.G.; Slingerland, S.; Manders, A.J.G.; Lucas, P.L.; Hilderink, H.B.M.; Kok, M.T.J.

    2011-03-01

    Current high prices of food, oil and many other resources are indications of increasing scarcity. This scarcity, however, has little to do with stock depletion. Badly functioning markets and wrong policy reactions play a particularly important role. For most resources, global stocks will be sufficient to meet increasing demand, over the coming decades. However, these stocks are not equally distributed over the world; they tend to be located in a limited number of countries. This causes an increasing European dependency on imports, which, in turn, feeds the fear of a decrease in security of supply.

  19. JEDI - an executive dashboard and decision support system for lean global military medical resource and logistics management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Elliot B; Rosow, Eric; Adam, Joe; Shine, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Each individual U.S. Air Force, Army, and Navy Surgeon General has integrated oversight of global medical supplies and resources using the Joint Medical Asset Repository (JMAR). A Business Intelligence system called the JMAR Executive Dashboard Initiative (JEDI) was developed over a three-year period to add real-time interactive data-mining tools and executive dashboards. Medical resources can now be efficiently reallocated to military, veteran, family, or civilian purposes and inventories can be maintained at lean levels with peaks managed by interactive dashboards that reduce workload and errors.

  20. Web-based resources for critical care education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpell, Ruth; Ely, E Wesley; Williams, Ged; Liolios, Antonios; Ward, Nicholas; Tisherman, Samuel A

    2011-03-01

    To identify, catalog, and critically evaluate Web-based resources for critical care education. A multilevel search strategy was utilized. Literature searches were conducted (from 1996 to September 30, 2010) using OVID-MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature with the terms "Web-based learning," "computer-assisted instruction," "e-learning," "critical care," "tutorials," "continuing education," "virtual learning," and "Web-based education." The Web sites of relevant critical care organizations (American College of Chest Physicians, American Society of Anesthesiologists, American Thoracic Society, European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, Society of Critical Care Medicine, World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine, American Association of Critical Care Nurses, and World Federation of Critical Care Nurses) were reviewed for the availability of e-learning resources. Finally, Internet searches and e-mail queries to critical care medicine fellowship program directors and members of national and international acute/critical care listserves were conducted to 1) identify the use of and 2) review and critique Web-based resources for critical care education. To ensure credibility of Web site information, Web sites were reviewed by three independent reviewers on the basis of the criteria of authority, objectivity, authenticity, accuracy, timeliness, relevance, and efficiency in conjunction with suggested formats for evaluating Web sites in the medical literature. Literature searches using OVID-MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature resulted in >250 citations. Those pertinent to critical care provide examples of the integration of e-learning techniques, the development of specific resources, reports of the use of types of e-learning, including interactive tutorials, case studies, and simulation, and reports of student or learner satisfaction, among other general

  1. Vision-based coaching: optimizing resources for leader development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarelli, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaders develop in the direction of their dreams, not in the direction of their deficits. Yet many coaching interactions intended to promote a leader’s development fail to leverage the benefits of the individual’s personal vision. Drawing on intentional change theory, this article postulates that coaching interactions that emphasize a leader’s personal vision (future aspirations and core identity) evoke a psychophysiological state characterized by positive emotions, cognitive openness, and optimal neurobiological functioning for complex goal pursuit. Vision-based coaching, via this psychophysiological state, generates a host of relational and motivational resources critical to the developmental process. These resources include: formation of a positive coaching relationship, expansion of the leader’s identity, increased vitality, activation of learning goals, and a promotion–orientation. Organizational outcomes as well as limitations to vision-based coaching are discussed. PMID:25926803

  2. Vision-based coaching: Optimizing resources for leader development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Passarelli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaders develop in the direction of their dreams, not in the direction of their deficits. Yet many coaching interactions intended to promote a leader’s development fail to leverage the developmental benefits of the individual’s personal vision. Drawing on Intentional Change Theory, this article postulates that coaching interactions that emphasize a leader’s personal vision (future aspirations and core identity evoke a psychophysiological state characterized by positive emotions, cognitive openness, and optimal neurobiological functioning for complex goal pursuit. Vision-based coaching, via this psychophysiological state, generates a host of relational and motivational resources critical to the developmental process. These resources include: formation of a positive coaching relationship, expansion of the leader’s identity, increased vitality, activation of learning goals, and a promotion-orientation. Organizational outcomes as well as limitations to vision-based coaching are discussed.

  3. Satellite based wind resource assessment over the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2014-01-01

    variations are clearly visible across the domain; for instance sheltering effects caused by the land masses. The satellite based wind resource maps have two shortcomings. One is the lack of information at the higher vertical levels where wind turbines operate. The other is the limited number of overlapping...... years of WRF data – specifically the parameters heat flux, air temperature, and friction velocity – are used to calculate a long-term correction for atmospheric stability effects. The stability correction is applied to the satellite based wind resource maps together with a vertical wind profile...... from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are particularly suitable for offshore wind energy applications because they offer a spatial resolution up to 500 m and include coastal seas. In this presentation, satellite wind maps are used in combination with mast observations and numerical...

  4. Human resource recommendation algorithm based on ensemble learning and Spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zihan; Zhang, Xingming; Wang, Haoxiang; Xu, Hongjie

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at the problem of “information overload” in the human resources industry, this paper proposes a human resource recommendation algorithm based on Ensemble Learning. The algorithm considers the characteristics and behaviours of both job seeker and job features in the real business circumstance. Firstly, the algorithm uses two ensemble learning methods-Bagging and Boosting. The outputs from both learning methods are then merged to form user interest model. Based on user interest model, job recommendation can be extracted for users. The algorithm is implemented as a parallelized recommendation system on Spark. A set of experiments have been done and analysed. The proposed algorithm achieves significant improvement in accuracy, recall rate and coverage, compared with recommendation algorithms such as UserCF and ItemCF.

  5. Managing Knowledge-Based Resource Capabilities Under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Janice E. Carrillo; Cheryl Gaimon

    2004-01-01

    A firm's ability to manage its knowledge-based resource capabilities has become increasingly important as a result of performance threats triggered by technology change and intense competition. At the manufacturing plant level, we focus on three repositories of knowledge that drive performance. First, the physical production or information systems represent knowledge embedded in the plant's technical systems. Second, the plant's workforce has knowledge, including diverse scientific informatio...

  6. Entrepreneurship, Subjectivism, and the Resource-based View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.; Kor, Yasemin Y.

    This paper maintains that the consistent application of subjectivism helps to reconcile contemporary entrepreneurship theory with strategic management research in general, and the resource−based view in particular. The paper synthesizes theoretical insights from Austrian economics and Penrose......'s (1959) resources approach, arguing that entrepreneurship is inherently subjective and firm specific. This new synthesis describes how entrepreneurship is manifested in teams, and is driven by both heterogeneity of managerial mental models and shared team experiences....

  7. "Belgian black and red marbles" as potential candidates for Global Heritage Stone Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourneur, Francis; Pereira, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    examples of historical buildings are known around the world, for examples the decoration of the harem of Topkapi in Istanbul in the 19th c. or in the floors of the St-Pieter basilica in Rom. Today, only one quarry is active, in Vodelée, a village close to Philippeville but all the varieties of colors and textures can be obtained from this unique source. Both referred materials present the characteristics needed to be candidates to the Global Heritage Stone Resource designation.

  8. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone

  9. Awareness-based game-theoretic space resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Genshe; Chen, Huimin; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Cruz, Jose B., Jr.

    2009-05-01

    Over recent decades, the space environment becomes more complex with a significant increase in space debris and a greater density of spacecraft, which poses great difficulties to efficient and reliable space operations. In this paper we present a Hierarchical Sensor Management (HSM) method to space operations by (a) accommodating awareness modeling and updating and (b) collaborative search and tracking space objects. The basic approach is described as follows. Firstly, partition the relevant region of interest into district cells. Second, initialize and model the dynamics of each cell with awareness and object covariance according to prior information. Secondly, explicitly assign sensing resources to objects with user specified requirements. Note that when an object has intelligent response to the sensing event, the sensor assigned to observe an intelligent object may switch from time-to-time between a strong, active signal mode and a passive mode to maximize the total amount of information to be obtained over a multi-step time horizon and avoid risks. Thirdly, if all explicitly specified requirements are satisfied and there are still more sensing resources available, we assign the additional sensing resources to objects without explicitly specified requirements via an information based approach. Finally, sensor scheduling is applied to each sensor-object or sensor-cell pair according to the object type. We demonstrate our method with realistic space resources management scenario using NASA's General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) for space object search and track with multiple space borne observers.

  10. A Hierarchical Auction-Based Mechanism for Real-Time Resource Allocation in Cloud Robotic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lujia; Liu, Ming; Meng, Max Q-H

    2017-02-01

    Cloud computing enables users to share computing resources on-demand. The cloud computing framework cannot be directly mapped to cloud robotic systems with ad hoc networks since cloud robotic systems have additional constraints such as limited bandwidth and dynamic structure. However, most multirobotic applications with cooperative control adopt this decentralized approach to avoid a single point of failure. Robots need to continuously update intensive data to execute tasks in a coordinated manner, which implies real-time requirements. Thus, a resource allocation strategy is required, especially in such resource-constrained environments. This paper proposes a hierarchical auction-based mechanism, namely link quality matrix (LQM) auction, which is suitable for ad hoc networks by introducing a link quality indicator. The proposed algorithm produces a fast and robust method that is accurate and scalable. It reduces both global communication and unnecessary repeated computation. The proposed method is designed for firm real-time resource retrieval for physical multirobot systems. A joint surveillance scenario empirically validates the proposed mechanism by assessing several practical metrics. The results show that the proposed LQM auction outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for resource allocation.

  11. July: "Soils are living: Overview of soil biodiversity, global issues, and new resources"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The July poster will provide an overview of soil biology and the many ecosystem functions that soil organisms drive including their impact on global biodiversity, climate regulation, soil health/stability, and plant growth. Five main global issues related to soil biodiversity will be presented such ...

  12. The Global Index of Vegetation-Plot Databases 1 (GIVD): a new resource for vegetation science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dengler, J.; Jansen, F.; Glockler, F.; Schaminee, J.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Question: How many vegetation plot observations (relevés) are available in electronic databases, how are they geographically distributed, what are their properties and how might they be discovered and located for research and application? Location: Global. Methods: We compiled the Global Index of

  13. Deforestation: Can We Balance Resource Conservation with Economic Growth? Global Environmental Change Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This book is the second installment in the Global Environmental Change Series that links the ecology and biology of global environmental changes with insights and information from other disciplines. This series teaches students how to gather a wide range of information from pertinent areas of study and encourages them to develop their own opinions…

  14. Resource Discovery in Activity-Based Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucur, Doina; Bardram, Jakob

    This paper proposes a service discovery protocol for sensor networks that is specifically tailored for use in humancentered pervasive environments. It uses the high-level concept of computational activities (as logical bundles of data and resources) to give sensors in Activity-Based Sensor Networks...... (ABSNs) knowledge about their usage even at the network layer. ABSN redesigns classical network-level service discovery protocols to include and use this logical structuring of the network for a more practically applicable service discovery scheme. Noting that in practical settings activity-based sensor...

  15. The Alliance Capability of Technology-Based Born Globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxtorp, Liliya Altshuler; Elg, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the aspects comprising the alliance capability of technology-based born globals. Alliance capability is regarded as a set of organizational skills necessary from the decision to search for a partner for a technology collaboration, which may also involve a marketing...... and risks of collaborating with MNEs.Methodology: A longitudinal process study of a Danish technology born global with three embedded cases of its R&D and marketing alliances with Asian MNEs.Findings: The organisational skills comprising the alliance capability are defined to be internal and external...

  16. The solar energy based global economy. A policy leading to the ecological era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    1999-01-01

    Bound in its fossil energy and raw materials supply chains, the global economy is heading for a global ecological crisis and dramatically aggravating conflicts. Moreover, this exclusive dependence on fossil energy and materials resources forces a global concentration process increasingly undermining democratic and free market systems. But the will to survive is not the only reason to consider a new industrial revolution to be imperative. Such a sweeping change, from a fossil energy based regime to a system relying exclusively on renewable energy sources and raw materials, would open up unique opportunities for the evolution of a peaceful and democratic global economy fostering the development of superior technologies and sustainable regional economic systems. The author of the book elaborates the scenario permitting such a radical change, and explains the necessary basic approaches and appropriate policies relating to technology, the economy, ecology, and the social system. The ultimate goal is that the evolution of the solar energy based global economy will be accompanied by an intrinsic economic driving force eventually leading to an ecological era. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  18. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  19. Involvement of Higher Education in Building Human Resources Character in the Era of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishomuddin

    2015-01-01

    In general, the objectives of this study were to explain the role played by universities in improving its human resources are office holders, lecturers, and students, explain the program what is being done related to the improvement of human resources, and explains the non-academic program to support the implementation of a program that has been…

  20. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather

    2013-12-12

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site () has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  1. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwossen A Gebreyes

    Full Text Available Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011 and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013 were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1 development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2 skilled-personnel capacity building, (3 accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4 improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to

  2. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  3. A first telecoupling analysis of multi-species poaching trade in Nepal: When outside demands seek and distribute a local resource in times of globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, G. R.; Lama, R. P.; Puri, G.; Huettmann, F.

    2016-12-01

    Asia remains one of the last wilderness resources in the world. It's widely praised for those resources and they are in a global appreciation and demand. Considering open borders, many of them virtually uncontrollable in Asia, and globalization in full swing, precious local resources become available to a global audience without much constraint though. Nepal and its unique biodiversity presents us with one of such cases while hard data remain elusive. Here we present a first telecoupling analysis based on poaching and crime statistics presented in the public print national daily newspapers (Kantipur and Gorkhapatra) in Nepal. This review highlights a few high-profile species (timber: Sal Shorea robusta , Sissoo Dalbergia sissoo, Pine Pinus species; aromatic and medicinal plants: Red Sandal Wood Santalum album, Orchid Orchid species, Paris Paris polyphylla, Jatamashi Nardostachys grandiflora, Kutki Picrorhyza scrophulariiflora and wildlife: Royal Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris, Rhino Rhinoceros unicornis, Pangolin Manis species, Common Leopard Panthera pardus, Red Panda Ailurus fulgens, Snow Leopard Panthera uncia) in Nepal, traded out directly and illegally to India and China. We provide a wider perspective regarding sending, receiving and spill-over agents. Arguably, the western world as the spill-over agent set up a globalization framework that allows for items, virtually any items, to be shipped across borders, e.g. done on foot, by car or plane. It further allows to create and satisfy a demand by the receiver (=nations in wider Asia), and a system that circumvents the legal structure in the sending location (=Nepal and its biodiversity hotspots and wilderness). We extend the traditional telecoupling analysis with a flow analysis of money, remittance payments and banking networks. This research describes for the first time such a system which is by now essentially found worldwide, how it operates, what devastating impacts it leaves behind on landscapes, and

  4. Geothermal resources in Oregon: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justus, D.L.

    1979-04-01

    An inventory of resources based on available information is presented. Potential for utilization and the legal and institutional environment in which development is likely to occur were also considered. Sites selected for this investigation include the 13 identified KGRA's, one PGRA which was chosen because of substantial local interest expressed in favor of development, and one major geologic fault zone which shows indications of high potential. Each chapter represents a planning region and is introduced by a regional overview of the physical setting followed by a narrative summary statement of the specific resource location and characteristics, existing utilization and potential end-uses for future development. Detailed site information in the form of data sheets follows each narrative. (MHR)

  5. Towards minimal resources of measurement-based quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdrix, Simon

    2007-01-01

    We improve the upper bound on the minimal resources required for measurement-only quantum computation (M A Nielsen 2003 Phys. Rev. A 308 96-100; D W Leung 2004 Int. J. Quantum Inform. 2 33; S Perdrix 2005 Int. J. Quantum Inform. 3 219-23). Minimizing the resources required for this model is a key issue for experimental realization of a quantum computer based on projective measurements. This new upper bound also allows one to reply in the negative to the open question presented by Perdrix (2004 Proc. Quantum Communication Measurement and Computing) about the existence of a trade-off between observable and ancillary qubits in measurement-only QC

  6. Location-based resource allocation for OFDMA cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2010-01-01

    In cognitive radio systems, in order for the secondary users to opportunistically share the spectrum without interfering the primary users, an accurate spectrum measurement and a precise estimation of the interference at the primary users are necessary but are challenging tasks. Since it is impractical in cognitive radio systems to assume that the channel state information of the interference link is available at the cognitive transmitter, the interference at the primary users is hard to be estimated accurately. This paper introduces a resource allocation algorithm for OFDMA-based cognitive radio systems, which utilizes location information of the primary and secondary users instead of the channel state information of the interference link. Simulation results show that it is indeed effective to incorporate location information into resource allocation so that a near-optimal capacity is achieved.

  7. Identifying city PV roof resource based on Gabor filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhang, Xu; Zhilin, Liu; Yong, Huang; Xiaoyu, Zhang

    2017-06-01

    To identify a city’s PV roof resources, the area and ownership distribution of residential buildings in an urban district should be assessed. To achieve this assessment, remote sensing data analysing is a promising approach. Urban building roof area estimation is a major topic for remote sensing image information extraction. There are normally three ways to solve this problem. The first way is pixel-based analysis, which is based on mathematical morphology or statistical methods; the second way is object-based analysis, which is able to combine semantic information and expert knowledge; the third way is signal-processing view method. This paper presented a Gabor filter based method. This result shows that the method is fast and with proper accuracy.

  8. Virtual network embedding in cross-domain network based on topology and resource attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Zhizhong; Feng, Linlin; Liu, Lilan

    2018-03-01

    Aiming at the network architecture ossification and the diversity of access technologies issues, this paper researches the cross-domain virtual network embedding algorithm. By analysing the topological attribute from the local and global perspective of nodes in the virtual network and the physical network, combined with the local network resource property, we rank the embedding priority of the nodes with PCA and TOPSIS methods. Besides, the link load distribution is considered. Above all, We proposed an cross-domain virtual network embedding algorithm based on topology and resource attributes. The simulation results depicts that our algorithm increases the acceptance rate of multi-domain virtual network requests, compared with the existing virtual network embedding algorithm.

  9. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Collins, Allen G.; Collins, Timothy; Crandall, Keith; Distel, Daniel; Dunn, Casey; Giribet, Gonzalo; Haddock, Steven; Knowlton, Nancy; Martindale, Mark; Medina, Monica; Messing, Charles; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Paulay, Gustav; Putnam, Nicolas; Ravasi, Timothy; Rouse, Greg W.; Ryan, Joseph F.; Schulze, Anja; Worheide, Gert; Adamska, Maja; Bailly, Xavier; Breinholt, Jesse; Browne, William E.; Diaz, M. Christina; Evans, Nathaniel; Flot, Jean-Francois; Fogarty, Nicole; Johnston, Matthew; Kamel, Bishoy; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Laberge, Tammy; Lavrov, Dennis; Michonneau, Francois; Moroz, Leonid L.; Oakley, Todd; Osborne, Karen; Pomponi, Shirley A.; Rhodes, Adelaide; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio; Santos, Scott R.; Satoh, Nori; Thacker, Robert W.; Van de Peer, Yves; Voolstra, Christian R.; Welch, David Mark; Winston, Judith; Zhou, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative

  10. Malenco Serpentine: proposed as a candidate for "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavori, Piero

    2017-04-01

    of the valley on sleighs and carts and sold in two distinct markets: Sundrium (now Sondrio) and throughout the region, or carried up on an old Roman caravan route to the region formerly called Rezia. From early on, Serpentinoscisto gained a reputation as an outstanding roofing material and, over the centuries, it has had a significant impact on the social and cultural life of the valley, and continues to do so today. The excavation has been moved open-cast from the initially adopted underground system, with the use of modern technologies; but processing and installation have maintained the truly original, traditional and artisanal systems. Apart from its intrinsic geological, petrographic, commercial and technical properties, several issues related to the Malenco Serpentine are considered to be of relevant importance for its candidature for the designation as a "Global Heritage Stone Resource". Among the most important, there are: the peculiarity of some applications (tools, tradition, technical rules), the architecture and urban landscape of the area, the importance of the whole territory (Malenco Valley is known as "a world of geology"), the presence of an EcoMuseum, the local Historical Consortium.

  11. Roman Travertine: proposed as a candidate for "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavori, Piero

    2017-04-01

    , and artistic buildings, making Rome the "city of travertine". After its diffusion in Italy, the Roman Travertine has known an uninterrupted expansion abroad, becoming a sort of reference in the commercial worldwide category of the travertines; and this is probably why it has been sold and applied almost everywhere, irrespective of the geography, of the cultural landmarks, of the local culture and architectural styles. Nowadays, it is comparable to an icon of the Made in Italy, evoking what is still appointed the "eternal city" (Rome) and the remarkable heritage this city has accumulated. For the role this stone has played in the national context, for its history, the worldwide diffusion, the great importance in the social and cultural aspects, the Roman Travertine is here proposed as a candidate for the designation as "Global Heritage Stone Resource".

  12. China's role as a global health donor in Africa: what can we learn from studying under reported resource flows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grépin, Karen A; Fan, Victoria Y; Shen, Gordon C; Chen, Lucy

    2014-12-30

    There is a growing recognition of China's role as a global health donor, in particular in Africa, but there have been few systematic studies of the level, destination, trends, or composition of these development finance flows or a comparison of China's engagement as a donor with that of more traditional global health donors. Using newly released data from AidData on China's development finance activities in Africa, developed to track under reported resource flows, we identified 255 health, population, water, and sanitation (HPWS) projects from 2000-2012, which we descriptively analyze by activity sector, recipient country, project type, and planned activity. We compare China's activities to projects from traditional donors using data from the OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Creditor Reporting System. Since 2000, China increased the number of HPWS projects it supported in Africa and health has increased as a development priority for China. China's contributions are large, ranking it among the top 10 bilateral global health donors to Africa. Over 50% of the HPWS projects target infrastructure, 40% target human resource development, and the provision of equipment and drugs is also common. Malaria is an important disease priority but HIV is not. We find little evidence that China targets health aid preferentially to natural resource rich countries. China is an important global health donor to Africa but contrasts with traditional DAC donors through China's focus on health system inputs and on malaria. Although better data are needed, particularly through more transparent aid data reporting across ministries and agencies, China's approach to South-South cooperation represents an important and distinct source of financial assistance for health in Africa.

  13. Risk based maintenance: Resource requirements and organizational challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerakkody, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    10CFR50.65 'Requirements for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants' required licensees to monitor the performance or condition of structures, systems, or components (SSCs) against licensee established goals, in a manner sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that such SSCs are capable of fulfilling their intended functions. The goals were required to be commensurate with safety significance and operating experience. Northeast Utilities relied upon PRAs to implement 10CFR50.65, which is also referred to as the 'Maintenance Rule'. The Maintenance Rule changed some aspects of maintenance of structures, systems, and components (SSC) at nuclear power plants. One objective of the rule was to focus the maintenance resources based on risk significance of components. This paper will discuss the organizational challenges and resource requirements associated with implementation of the Maintenance Rule at nuclear facilities that are supported by the Northeast Utilities Services Company (NUSCo). The paper will discuss (a) how these challenges were addressed, (b) the resources required for ongoing efforts to support the Maintenance Rule, and (c) several key safety benefits derived from the implementation of the Maintenance Rule. (author)

  14. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with the China Geological Survey to conduct a mineral-resource assessment of resources in porphyry copper deposits on the Tibetan Plateau in western China. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Yulong and Qulong deposits, each containing at least 7,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper. However, large parts of the area are underexplored and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  15. Global warming and climate change in Amazonia: Climate-vegetation feedback and impacts on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, José; Nobre, Carlos A.; Betts, Richard A.; Cox, Peter M.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Salazar, Luis

    This chapter constitutes an updated review of long-term climate variability and change in the Amazon region, based on observational data spanning more than 50 years of records and on climate-change modeling studies. We start with the early experiments on Amazon deforestation in the late 1970s, and the evolution of these experiments to the latest studies on greenhouse gases emission scenarios and land use changes until the end of the twenty-first century. The "Amazon dieback" simulated by the HadCM3 model occurs after a "tipping point" of CO2 concentration and warming. Experiments on Amazon deforestation and change of climate suggest that once a critical deforestation threshold (or tipping point) of 40-50% forest loss is reached in eastern Amazonia, climate would change in a way which is dangerous for the remaining forest. This may favor a collapse of the tropical forest, with a substitution of the forest by savanna-type vegetation. The concept of "dangerous climate change," as a climate change, which induces positive feedback, which accelerate the change, is strongly linked to the occurrence of tipping points, and it can be explained as the presence of feedback between climate change and the carbon cycle, particularly involving a weakening of the current terrestrial carbon sink and a possible reversal from a sink (as in present climate) to a source by the year 2050. We must, therefore, currently consider the drying simulated by the Hadley Centre model(s) as having a finite probability under global warming, with a potentially enormous impact, but with some degree of uncertainty.

  16. Essays on globalization. Policies in trade, development, resources and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkelae, L.

    2009-07-01

    This research study on globalization consists of an introduction on the methodology applied, a summary and four independent essays focussing on applied policy research in international trade. The study follows the CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) research tradition. The simulation environment is the publicly available GTAP model. The essays examine the specific topics of trade and aid policies, price liberalization of the Russian energy markets, trade preferences in the sugar sector of the EU and the role of carbon sinks in mitigating climate change. The first essay examines trade and aid policies in Mozambique. The essay analyses the impact of alternative options like trade agreements, aid and trade facilitation. The results suggest that Mozambique has very little to gain from trade agreements or the Doha Round, although some agreements with the EU do yield some benefit. Trade facilitation and aid-for-trade programs on the other hand have the potential for larger benefits. The second essay examines the impact of liberalising RussiaAEs energy sector. The analysis is based on the implicit subsidies in regulated prices of electricity and gas and focuses on the effect of the different taxes and subsidies with respect to welfare and GDP in Russia and abroad. Increases in the price of electricity and gas improve efficiency and shift output from domestic markets to exports. The third essay investigates the impact of liberalising the EUAEs sugar sector by taking into account the complex structure of the EU sugar market and preferences in imports for developing countries. The fourth essay focuses on the effects of including carbon sinks into the analysis of the impacts of the Kyoto agreement. (orig.)

  17. Resource Discovery in Activity-Based Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucur, Doina; Bardram, Jakob

    This paper proposes a service discovery protocol for sensor networks that is specifically tailored for use in humancentered pervasive environments. It uses the high-level concept of computational activities (as logical bundles of data and resources) to give sensors in Activity-Based Sensor Networ....... ABSN enhances the generic Extended Zone Routing Protocol with logical sensor grouping and greatly lowers network overhead during the process of discovery, while keeping discovery latency close to optimal.......This paper proposes a service discovery protocol for sensor networks that is specifically tailored for use in humancentered pervasive environments. It uses the high-level concept of computational activities (as logical bundles of data and resources) to give sensors in Activity-Based Sensor Networks...... (ABSNs) knowledge about their usage even at the network layer. ABSN redesigns classical network-level service discovery protocols to include and use this logical structuring of the network for a more practically applicable service discovery scheme. Noting that in practical settings activity-based sensor...

  18. Parallel Harmony Search Based Distributed Energy Resource Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a harmony search based parallel optimization algorithm to minimize voltage deviations in three phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems and to maximize active power outputs of distributed energy resources (DR). The main contribution is to reduce the adverse impacts on voltage profile during a day as photovoltaics (PVs) output or electrical vehicles (EVs) charging changes throughout a day. The IEEE 123- bus distribution test system is modified by adding DRs and EVs under different load profiles. The simulation results show that by using parallel computing techniques, heuristic methods may be used as an alternative optimization tool in electrical power distribution systems operation.

  19. Renewable resources-based approach to biantennary glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabandeh, Mojtaba; Salman, Abbas Abdulameer; Goh, Ean Wai; Heidelberg, Thorsten; Hussen, Rusnah Syahila Duali

    2018-01-31

    A new synthesis approach towards biantennary lipids of Guerbet glycoside type was developed based on oleic acid as sustainable resource. Functionalization of the double bond provided access to primary alcohols with α-branched C 19 -skeleton. Formulation studies with corresponding lactosides indicated formation of vesicles with high assembly stability. A relatively narrow bimodal size distribution of the latter, which turns into a narrow unimodal distribution of small vesicles upon addition of an ionic cosurfactant, suggests potential for a vesicular drug delivery system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Morpheme matching based text tokenization for a scarce resourced language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zobia; Anwar, Waqas; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Xuan, Wang; Chaoying, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Text tokenization is a fundamental pre-processing step for almost all the information processing applications. This task is nontrivial for the scarce resourced languages such as Urdu, as there is inconsistent use of space between words. In this paper a morpheme matching based approach has been proposed for Urdu text tokenization, along with some other algorithms to solve the additional issues of boundary detection of compound words, affixation, reduplication, names and abbreviations. This study resulted into 97.28% precision, 93.71% recall, and 95.46% F1-measure; while tokenizing a corpus of 57000 words by using a morpheme list with 6400 entries.

  1. AN OVERVIEW OF SEARCHING AND DISCOVERING WEB BASED INFORMATION RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar VASILESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet becomes for most of us a daily used instrument, for professional or personal reasons. We even do not remember the times when a computer and a broadband connection were luxury items. More and more people are relying on the complicated web network to find the needed information.This paper presents an overview of Internet search related issues, upon search engines and describes the parties and the basic mechanism that is embedded in a search for web based information resources. Also presents ways to increase the efficiency of web searches, through a better understanding of what search engines ignore at websites content.

  2. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  3. Predicting Global Fund grant disbursements for procurement of artemisinin-based combination therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Megan E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate forecast of global demand is essential to stabilize the market for artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and to ensure access to high-quality, life-saving medications at the lowest sustainable prices by avoiding underproduction and excessive overproduction, each of which can have negative consequences for the availability of affordable drugs. A robust forecast requires an understanding of the resources available to support procurement of these relatively expensive antimalarials, in particular from the Global Fund, at present the single largest source of ACT funding. Methods Predictive regression models estimating the timing and rate of disbursements from the Global Fund to recipient countries for each malaria grant were derived using a repeated split-sample procedure intended to avoid over-fitting. Predictions were compared against actual disbursements in a group of validation grants, and forecasts of ACT procurement extrapolated from disbursement predictions were evaluated against actual procurement in two sub-Saharan countries. Results Quarterly forecasts were correlated highly with actual smoothed disbursement rates (r = 0.987, p Conclusion This analysis derived predictive regression models that successfully forecasted disbursement patterning for individual Global Fund malaria grants. These results indicate the utility of this approach for demand forecasting of ACT and, potentially, for other commodities procured using funding from the Global Fund. Further validation using data from other countries in different regions and environments will be necessary to confirm its generalizability.

  4. Introduction to a Special Issue of the Journal of Immunological Methods: Building global resource programs to support HIV/AIDS clinical trial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana M; Denny, Thomas N; O'Gorman, Maurice

    2014-07-01

    This Special Issue of the Journal of Immunological Methods includes 16 manuscripts describing quality assurance activities related to virologic and immunologic monitoring of six global laboratory resource programs that support international HIV/AIDS clinical trial studies: Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery (CAVD); Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI); External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL); HIV Vaccine Trial Network (HVTN); International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI); and Immunology Quality Assessment (IQA). The reports from these programs address the many components required to develop comprehensive quality control activities and subsequent quality assurance programs for immune monitoring in global clinical trials including: all aspects of processing, storing, and quality assessment of PBMC preparations used ubiquitously in HIV clinical trials, the development and optimization of assays for CD8 HIV responses and HIV neutralization, a comprehensive global HIV virus repository, and reports on the development and execution of novel external proficiency testing programs for immunophenotyping, intracellular cytokine staining, ELISPOT and luminex based cytokine measurements. In addition, there are articles describing the implementation of Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP) in a large quality assurance laboratory, the development of statistical methods specific for external proficiency testing assessment, a discussion on the ability to set objective thresholds for measuring rare events by flow cytometry, and finally, a manuscript which addresses a framework for the structured reporting of T cell immune function based assays. It is anticipated that this series of manuscripts covering a wide range of quality assurance activities associated with the conduct of global clinical trials will provide a resource for individuals and programs involved in improving the harmonization, standardization, accuracy, and sensitivity of

  5. Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission status and application of satellite-based global rainfall map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Misako; Shimizu, Shuji; Kubota, Takuji; Yoshida, Naofumi; Oki, Riko; Kojima, Masahiro; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji

    2010-05-01

    As accuracy of satellite precipitation estimates improves and observation frequency increases, application of those data to societal benefit areas, such as weather forecasts and flood predictions, is expected, in addition to research of precipitation climatology to analyze precipitation systems. There is, however, limitation on single satellite observation in coverage and frequency. Currently, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is scheduled under international collaboration to fulfill various user requirements that cannot be achieved by the single satellite, like the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). The GPM mission is an international mission to achieve high-accurate and high-frequent rainfall observation over a global area. GPM is composed of a TRMM-like non-sun-synchronous orbit satellite (GPM core satellite) and constellation of satellites carrying microwave radiometer instruments. The GPM core satellite carries the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR), which is being developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and microwave radiometer provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Development of DPR instrument is in good progress for scheduled launch in 2013, and DPR Critical Design Review has completed in July - September 2009. Constellation satellites, which carry a microwave imager and/or sounder, are planned to be launched around 2013 by each partner agency for its own purpose, and will contribute to extending coverage and increasing frequency. JAXA's future mission, the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) - Water (GCOM-W) satellite will be one of constellation satellites. The first generation of GCOM-W satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2011, and it carries the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), which is being developed based on the experience of the AMSR-E on EOS Aqua satellite

  6. A Case Study of the Global Group for Sharing Knowledge and Efforts in Human Resources within the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: One of the main conclusions from the IAEA’s HRD Conference in 2014 was that people and organisations in the global nuclear industry could cooperate more in sharing information and efforts. This was an inspiring conclusion, and there seemed an especially great opportunity for such sharing of information and efforts related to the attraction, recruitment, development and retention of people within the nuclear workforce. Founding members include people from the IAEA, WNA, WANO, EDF and OPG amongst others, the global working group for Human Resource matters aimed at “Building and Sustaining a Competent Nuclear Workforce” was established. This global working group is free to join and is open to anyone concerned with Building and Sustaining a Competent NuclearWorkforce. The objectives of the group are to share useful information, find others with similar objectives to cooperate with, ask questions, share opinions and crucially to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. The group already has 160 members from more than 15 countries and is currently hosted as a group on the LinkedIn website. The vision for the group is that it will become an invaluable resource for people across the world in the nuclear industry for sharing information and efforts. (author

  7. A physically based model of global freshwater surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Eikelboom, Tessa; van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2012-09-01

    Temperature determines a range of physical properties of water and exerts a strong control on surface water biogeochemistry. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime directly affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism and indirectly through their tolerance to parasites and diseases. Models used to predict surface water temperature range between physically based deterministic models and statistical approaches. Here we present the initial results of a physically based deterministic model of global freshwater surface temperature. The model adds a surface water energy balance to river discharge modeled by the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to advection of energy from direct precipitation, runoff, and lateral exchange along the drainage network, energy is exchanged between the water body and the atmosphere by shortwave and longwave radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Also included are ice formation and its effect on heat storage and river hydraulics. We use the coupled surface water and energy balance model to simulate global freshwater surface temperature at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of 0.5° on a regular grid for the period 1976-2000. We opt to parameterize the model with globally available data and apply it without calibration in order to preserve its physical basis with the outlook of evaluating the effects of atmospheric warming on freshwater surface temperature. We validate our simulation results with daily temperature data from rivers and lakes (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), limited to the USA) and compare mean monthly temperatures with those recorded in the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) data set. Results show that the model is able to capture the mean monthly surface temperature for the majority of the GEMS stations, while the interannual variability as derived from the USGS and NOAA data was captured reasonably well. Results are poorest for

  8. Understanding How Resources and Capabilities Affect Performance: Actively Applying the Resource-Based View in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Norman T.

    2006-01-01

    The resource-based view is a strategic framework for understanding why some firms outperform others. Its importance is reflected in its wide inclusion in strategy texts as a tool for assessing a firm's internal strengths and weaknesses. This article outlines an experiential exercise that demonstrates how different bundles of resources and…

  9. Application of risk-based methodologies to prioritize safety resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.; Sursock, J.P.; Hosler, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) started a program entitled risk-based prioritization in 1992. The purpose of this program is to provide generic technical support to the nuclear power industry relative to its recent initiatives in the area of operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost control using state-of-the-art risk methods. The approach uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), or similar techniques, to allocate resources commensurate with the risk posed by nuclear plant operations. Specifically, those items or events that have high risk significance would receive the most attention, while those with little risk content would command fewer resources. As quantified in a companion paper,close-quote the potential O ampersand M cost reduction inherent in this approach is very large. Furthermore, risk-based methods should also lead to safety improvements. This paper outlines the way that the EPRI technical work complements the technical, policy, and regulatory initiatives taken by others in the industry and provides an example of the approach as used to prioritize motor-operated valve (MOV) testing in response to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Letter 89-10

  10. Distributed energy resources at naval base ventura county building 1512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a preliminary assessment of the cost effectiveness of distributed energy resources at Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC) Building 1512. This study was conducted in response to the base's request for design assistance to the Federal Energy Management Program. Given the current tariff structure there are two main decisions facing NBVC: whether to install distributed energy resources (DER), or whether to continue the direct access energy supply contract. At the current effective rate, given assumptions about the performance and structure of building energy loads and available generating technology characteristics, the results of this study indicate that if the building installed a 600 kW DER system with absorption cooling and heat capabilities chosen by cost minimization, the energy cost savings would be about 14 percent, or $55,000 per year. However, under current conditions, this study also suggests that significant savings could be obtained if Building 1 512 changed from the direct access contract to a SCE TOU-8 (Southern California Edison time of use tariff number 8) rate without installing a DER system. At current SCE TOU-8 tariffs, the potential savings from installation of a DER system would be about 4 percent, or $15,000 per year

  11. Open Manufacturing: Impacts of Resource Based View and Servitisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John

    2010-01-01

    The environment of manufacturing has faced significant changes in the past decade. Meanwhile, the traditional focus of manufacturing strategy is also impacted by resource-based view and servitisation. Thus, no matter from a practical or theoretical perspective, it is time to rethink what kind...... of view we can have on manufacturing. In this paper, the literature is reviewed firstly to track the evolution of theories on manufacturing strategy and to investigate new views on manufacturing from a theoretical perspective. This is followed by three case studies, which are used to explore how...... manufacturing is used from a practical perspective. The usages of manufacturing are classified into three groups and their relationships are discussed further. Based on these findings and inspired by open source software (OSS) and open innovation, a new paradigm on manufacturing termed as “open manufacturing...

  12. Pakistan's resources proficiency in global fever, greenhouse gases and atmospheric pollution control and need of their mobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    The temperature of earth planet is rising at an alarming rate and environmental changes, green house gasses emission and atmospheric pollution are approaching very critical limits. Ozone layer hole is increasing at very fast rate. On account of these very serious issues, the earth planet is heading at a very fast rate towards total collapse of life on it. For overcoming these very dangerous global problems Pakistan has very ideal resources subject to their proper management and well planned and timely mobilization. The efficient scientific utilization of these resources will not resolve its own pollution problems along contributing towards its own agricultural, industrial and economic growth, but also heavily contribute to the very critical global issues endangering the very existence of life on the earth along with contributing towards its own agricultural, industrial and economic growth. This will also forbid it to join hand with the rations already engaged in contributing toward the world's destruction by adding to these highly dangerous factors. In this work role of proper management of its water flow, gradient and storage resources in hydroelectric power generation and irrigation of its vast fertile agricultural fields and substantial control of these very dangerous global issues in highlighted. Also the economic boost of Pakistan due to its firm footing in respect economy, agricultural and industrial output, energy employment and flood damages control as a result of this mobilization is elaborated. At the end world's political leaders, electronic media, scientific and financial institutions are urged to help Pakistan in playing its role not only for welfare but very existence of mankind on this planet. (author)

  13. Global heterogeneous resource harvesting: the next-generation PanDA Pilot for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA), used for workload management in the ATLAS Experiment for over a decade, has in recent years expanded its reach to diverse new resource types such as HPCs, and innovative new workflows such as the Event Service. PanDA meets the heterogeneous resources it harvests in the PanDA pilot, which has embarked on a next-generation reengineering to efficiently integrate and exploit the new platforms and workflows. The new modular architecture is the product of a year of design and prototyping in conjunction with the design of a completely new component, Harvester, that will mediate a richer flow of control and information between pilot and PanDA. Harvester will enable more intelligent and dynamic matching between processing tasks and resources, with an initial focus on HPCs, simplifying the operator and user view of a PanDA site but internally leveraging deep information gathering on the resource to accrue detailed knowledge of a site's capabilities and dynamic sta...

  14. Global heterogeneous resource harvesting: the next-generation PanDA pilot for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA), used for workload management in the ATLAS Experiment for over a decade, has in recent years expanded its reach to diverse new resource types such as HPCs, and innovative new workflows such as the event service. PanDA meets the heterogeneous resources it harvests in the PanDA pilot, which has embarked on a next-generation reengineering to efficiently integrate and exploit the new platforms and workflows. The new modular architecture is the product of a year of design and prototyping in conjunction with the design of a completely new component, Harvester, that will mediate a richer flow of control and information between pilot and PanDA. Harvester will enable more intelligent and dynamic matching between processing tasks and resources, with an initial focus on HPCs, simplifying the operator and user view of a PanDA site but internally leveraging deep information gathering on the resource to accrue detailed knowledge of a site's capabilities and dynamic sta...

  15. Managing common resources in local and global systems. Applying theory across scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sylvia [ed.

    1997-12-31

    The main point brought forward in this publication is the productiveness of applying theoretical elements, developed within common property resource (CPR) literature, to a broader field of cases on different scales. The common framework for the contributions is a series of seminars held at the Department of Water and Environmental Studies in the spring of 1996, covering expanding work during the last decade on common property resource (CPR) management. It is obvious that there were a broad range of definitions of the concept CPR in the literature. The common pool/property resource concepts are both used, often depending on the resource studied, and authors in this volume have used both terms accordingly. Certain points are raised from empirical cases presented in this volume that are partly missing or not thoroughly stressed in other work in the area of CPR management and which crystallized much clearer when contrasting the situation for cases from different scales. Separate abstracts have been performed for five of the seven contributions

  16. Managing common resources in local and global systems. Applying theory across scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sylvia [ed.

    1998-12-31

    The main point brought forward in this publication is the productiveness of applying theoretical elements, developed within common property resource (CPR) literature, to a broader field of cases on different scales. The common framework for the contributions is a series of seminars held at the Department of Water and Environmental Studies in the spring of 1996, covering expanding work during the last decade on common property resource (CPR) management. It is obvious that there were a broad range of definitions of the concept CPR in the literature. The common pool/property resource concepts are both used, often depending on the resource studied, and authors in this volume have used both terms accordingly. Certain points are raised from empirical cases presented in this volume that are partly missing or not thoroughly stressed in other work in the area of CPR management and which crystallized much clearer when contrasting the situation for cases from different scales. Separate abstracts have been performed for five of the seven contributions

  17. Global patient safety and antiretroviral drug-drug interactions in the resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seden, Kay; Khoo, Saye H; Back, David; Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Lamorde, Mohammed; Ryan, Mairin; Merry, Concepta

    2013-01-01

    Scale-up of HIV treatment services may have contributed to an increase in functional health facilities available in resource-limited settings and an increase in patient use of facilities and retention in care. As more patients are reached with medicines, monitoring patient safety is increasingly important. Limited data from resource-limited settings suggest that medication error and antiretroviral drug-drug interactions may pose a significant risk to patient safety. Commonly cited causes of medication error in the developed world include the speed and complexity of the medication use cycle combined with inadequate systems and processes. In resource-limited settings, specific factors may contribute, such as inadequate human resources and high disease burden. Management of drug-drug interactions may be complicated by limited access to alternative medicines or laboratory monitoring. Improving patient safety by addressing the issue of antiretroviral drug-drug interactions has the potential not just to improve healthcare for individuals, but also to strengthen health systems and improve vital communication among healthcare providers and with regulatory agencies.

  18. Global Demand for Natural Resources Eliminated More Than 100,000 Bornean Orangutans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt, M.; Wich, S.A.; Ancrenaz, M.; Meijaard, E.; Abram, N.; Banes, G.L.; Campbell-Smith, G.; d'Arcy, L.J.; Delgado, R.A.; Erman, A.; Gaveau, D.; Goossens, B.; Heinicke, S.; Houghton, M.; Husson, S.J.; Leiman, A.; Sanchez, K.L.; Makinuddin, N.; Marshall, A.J.; Meididit, A.; Miettinen, J.; Mundry, R.; Musnanda,; Nardiyono,; Nurcahyo, A.; Odom, K.; Panda, A.; Prasetyo, D.; Priadjati, A.; Purnomo,; Rafiastanto, A.; Russon, A.E.; Santika, T.; Sihite, J.; Spehar, S.; Struebig, M.; Sulbaran-Romero, E.; Tjiu, A.; Wells, J.; Wilson, K.A.; Kühl, H.S.

    2018-01-01

    Unsustainable exploitation of natural resources is increasingly affecting the highly biodiverse tropics [1, 2]. Although rapid developments in remote sensing technology have permitted more precise estimates of land-cover change over large spatial scales [3–5], our knowledge about the effects of

  19. A global index for mapping the exposure of water resources to wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois-Nicolas Robinne; Carol Miller; Marc-Andre Parisien; Monica B. Emelko; Kevin D. Bladon; Uldis Silins; Mike Flannigan

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are keystone components of natural disturbance regimes that maintain ecosystem structure and functions, such as the hydrological cycle, in many parts of the world. Consequently, critical surface freshwater resources can be exposed to post-fire effects disrupting their quantity, quality and regularity. Although well studied at the local scale, the potential...

  20. The Lavender Ceiling atop the Global Closet: Human Resource Development and Lesbian Expatriates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This literature review will examine international assignments as career development opportunities and uncover multiple issues and considerations with respect to lesbians and international assignments. There is a clear interest in the fields of management and human resource management in the privileges, challenges, and opportunities of…

  1. Searching for a global reserves standard - The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch-Bell, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The UNFC-2009 applies to fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources located on or below the Earth's surface and is intended to serve the needs for classification at a global level for governments, for industry and for financial reporting. UNFC-2009 is a generic system in which quantities are classified on the basis of the three fundamental criteria of economic and social viability (E), field project status and feasibility (F), and geological knowledge (G), using a numerical coding system. The aim of this paper is to explore whether the UNFC-2009 can meet the needs of all internal and external stakeholders.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  3. Securing the Global Airspace System Via Identity-Based Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Current telecommunications systems have very good security architectures that include authentication and authorization as well as accounting. These three features enable an edge system to obtain access into a radio communication network, request specific Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements and ensure proper billing for service. Furthermore, the links are secure. Widely used telecommunication technologies are Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) This paper provides a system-level view of network-centric operations for the global airspace system and the problems and issues with deploying new technologies into the system. The paper then focuses on applying the basic security architectures of commercial telecommunication systems and deployment of federated Authentication, Authorization and Accounting systems to provide a scalable, evolvable reliable and maintainable solution to enable a globally deployable identity-based secure airspace system.

  4. A Process-based Model of Global Lichen Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens and biotic crusts are abundant in most ecosystems of the world. They are the main autotrophic organisms in many deserts and at high altitudes and they can also be found in large amounts as epiphytes in some forests, especially in the boreal zone. They are characterised by a great variety of physiological properties, such as growth form, productivity or color. Due to the vast land surface areas covered by lichens, they may contribute significantly to the global terrestrial net carbon uptake. Furthermore, they potentially play an important role with respect to nutrient cycles in some ecosystems and they have the ability to enhance weathering at the surface on which they grow. A possible way to quantify these processes at the global scale is presented here in form of a process-based lichen model. This approach is based on the concepts used in many dynamical vegetation models and extends these methods to account for the specific properties of lichens. Hence, processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and water exchange are implemented as well as important trade-offs like photosynthetic capacity versus respiratory load and water content versus CO2 conductivity. The great physiological variability of lichens is incorporated directly into the model through ranges of possible parameter values, which are randomly sampled. In this way, many artificial lichen "species" are created and climate then acts as a filter to determine the species which are able to survive permanently. By averaging over the surviving "species", the model predicts lichen productivity as a function of climate input data such as temperature, radiation and precipitation at the global scale. Consequently, the contribution of lichens to the global carbon balance can be quantified. Moreover, global patterns of lichen biodiversity and other properties can be illustrated. The model can be extended to account for the nutrient dynamics of lichens, such as nitrogen fixation and the acquisition and

  5. Artifact-based reflective interviews for identifying pragmatic epistemological resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, Christopher Walden

    Physics Education Research studies the science of teaching and learning physics. The process of student learning is complex, and the factors that affect it are numerous. Describing students' understanding of physics knowledge and reasoning is the basis for much productive research; however, such research fails to account for certain types of student learning difficulties. In this dissertation, I explore one source of student difficulty: personal epistemology, students' ideas about knowledge and knowing. Epistemology traditionally answers three questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge created? And, how do we know what we know? An individual's responses to these questions can affect learning in terms of how they approach tasks involving the construction and application of knowledge. The key issue addressed in this dissertation is the effect of methodological choices on the validity and reliability of claims concerning personal epistemology. My central concern is contextual validity, how what is said about one's epistemology is not identical to how one behaves epistemologically. In response to these issues, I present here a new methodology for research on student epistemology: video artifact-based reflective interview protocols. These protocols begin with video taping students in their natural classroom activities, and then asking the participants epistemological questions immediately after watching selected scenes from their activity, contextually anchoring them in their actual learning experience. The data from these interviews is viewed in the framework of Epistemological Resource Theory, a framework of small bits of knowledge whose coordination in a given context is used to describe personal epistemology. I claim that the privileged data from these interviews allows detailed epistemological resources to be identified, and that these resources can provide greater insight into how student epistemologies are applied in learning activities. This research

  6. Long time management of fossil fuel resources to limit global warming and avoid ice age onsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Gary

    2009-02-01

    There are about 5000 billion tons of fossil fuel carbon in accessible reserves. Combustion of all this carbon within the next few centuries would force high atmospheric CO2 content and extreme global warming. On the other hand, low atmospheric CO2 content favors the onset of an ice age when changes in the Earth's orbit lead to low summer insolation at high northern latitudes. Here I present Earth System Model projections showing that typical reduction targets for fossil fuel use in the present century could limit ongoing global warming to less than one degree Celcius above present. Furthermore, the projections show that combustion pulses of remaining fossil fuel reserves could then be tailored to raise atmospheric CO2 content high and long enough to parry forcing of ice age onsets by summer insolation minima far into the future. Our present interglacial period could be extended by about 500,000 years in this way.

  7. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kurevija, Tomislav; Kukulj, Nenad; Rajković, Damir

    2007-01-01

    Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned...

  8. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ning; Liu, Yun; Cheng, Yijie; Liu, Long; Yan, Zhe; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Xiuhua; Luo, Yanxia; Yan, Aoshuang

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus vaccine (IVV) is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this pa...

  9. Resource Allocation and Justice-based Arguments for Funding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... healthcare system that would ensure Nigerians, access to glaucoma treatment ...... proceeds from the sales of common patrimony of natural resources ..... Besides, it would plausibly optimize use of healthcare resources and.

  10. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  11. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Elliott, D.B.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost effective energy projects at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Patrick AFB which is located south of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume.2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance, and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value and value index of each ERO.

  12. The Holy Grail of Resource Assessment: Low Cost Ground-Based Measurements with Good Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Bill; Smith, Benjamin

    2017-06-22

    Using performance data from some of the millions of installed photovoltaic (PV) modules with micro-inverters may afford the opportunity to provide ground-based solar resource data critical for developing PV projects. The method used back-solves for the direct normal irradiance (DNI) and the diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) from the micro-inverter ac production data. When the derived values of DNI and DHI were then used to model the performance of other PV systems, the annual mean bias deviations were within +/- 4%, and only 1% greater than when the PV performance was modeled using high quality irradiance measurements. An uncertainty analysis shows the method better suited for modeling PV performance than using satellite-based global horizontal irradiance.

  13. Exploring Global Change In Place-Based Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity of global climate change makes the subject challenging for the average student, particularly given the nuanced feedbacks and exceptions to the general "warming" or "drying" trend that may be experienced at the local and regional level at which most people experience geologic processes. Geoscience educators can reduce these barriers and draw in student learners by adopting a place-based approach to teaching and researching geologic principles that relate to global change. Assisting students in recognizing and understanding the geologic environment in which they live and study has the side benefit of making the potential effect of climate change tangible. This presentation will review several approaches for using place-based case studies to explore global climate change issues in large lecture, small seminar, field research and service learning environments. The special place project used in large introductory physical geology courses requires each student to select a place familiar and unique to them for an in depth study of the common course content as the semester progresses. Students are specifically tasked with identifying how their site came to be, the geologic processes that act upon it today, how the site may have been different during the last glacial advance and how global climate change (specifically warming of 3OC over 50 years) might impact the site. The concept that change has occurred at the student's site in the past, even far from glacial environments, opens students to the scale of potential anthropogenic climate change. A freshman seminar Global Warming & Climate Change - Service in Preparation for Climate Change: The Second Battle of New Orleans focused on the environmental threats to New Orleans and southeastern Louisiana resulting from regional land use decisions in the centuries before Hurricane Katrina, and the threat that global change relating to sea level rise, acceleration of the hydrologic cycle and intensification of

  14. Evaluation of Web-Based Ostomy Patient Support Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Joyce; Nichols, Thom; Rawl, Susan M

    To evaluate currently available, no-cost, Web-based patient support resources designed for those who have recently undergone ostomy surgery. Descriptive, correlational study using telephone survey. The sample comprised 202 adults who had ostomy surgery within the previous 24 months in 1 of 5 hospitals within a large healthcare organization in the Midwestern United States. Two of the hospitals were academic teaching hospitals, and 3 were community hospitals. The study was divided into 2 phases: (1) gap analysis of 4 Web sites (labeled A-D) based on specific criteria; and (2) telephone survey of individuals with an ostomy. In phase 1, a comprehensive checklist based on best practice standards was developed to conduct the gap analysis. In phase 2, data were collected from 202 participants by trained interviewers via 1-time structured telephone interviews that required approximately 30 minutes to complete. Descriptive analyses were performed, along with correlational analysis of relationships among Web site usage, acceptability and satisfaction, demographic characteristics, and medical history. Gap analysis revealed that Web site D, managed by a patient advocacy group, received the highest total content score of 155/176 (88%) and the highest usability score of 31.7/35 (91%). Two hundred two participants completed the telephone interview, with 96 (48%) reporting that they used the Internet as a source of information. Sixty participants (30%) reported that friends or family member had searched the Internet for ostomy information on their behalf, and 148 (75%) indicated they were confident they could get information about ostomies on the Internet. Of the 90 participants (45%) who reported using the Internet to locate ostomy information, 73 (82%) found the information on the Web easy to understand, 28 (31%) reported being frustrated during their search for information, 24 (27%) indicated it took a lot of effort to get the information they needed, and 39 (43%) were

  15. NOx from lightning: 1. Global distribution based on lightning physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin; Penner, Joyce; Prather, Michael

    1997-03-01

    This paper begins a study on the role of lightning in maintaining the global distribution of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the troposphere. It presents the first global and seasonal distributions of lightning-produced NOx (LNOx) based on the observed distribution of electrical storms and the physical properties of lightning strokes. We derive a global rate for cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes of 20-30 flashes/s with a mean energy per flash of 6.7×109 J. Intracloud (IC) flashes are more frequent, 50-70 flashes/s but have 10% of the energy of CG strokes and, consequently, produce significantly less NOx. It appears to us that the majority of previous studies have mistakenly assumed that all lightning flashes produce the same amount of NOx, thus overestimating the NOx production by a factor of 3. On the other hand, we feel these same studies have underestimated the energy released in CG flashes, resulting in two negating assumptions. For CG energies we adopt a production rate of 10×1016 molecules NO/J based on the current literature. Using a method to simulate global lightning frequencies from satellite-observed cloud data, we have calculated the LNOx on various spatial (regional, zonal, meridional, and global) and temporal scales (daily, monthly, seasonal, and interannual). Regionally, the production of LNOx is concentrated over tropical continental regions, predominantly in the summer hemisphere. The annual mean production rate is calculated to be 12.2 Tg N/yr, and we believe it extremely unlikely that this number is less than 5 or more than 20 Tg N/yr. Although most of LNOx, is produced in the lowest 5 km by CG lightning, convective mixing in the thunderstorms is likely to deposit large amounts of NOx, in the upper troposphere where it is important in ozone production. On an annual basis, 64% of the LNOx, is produced in the northern hemisphere, implying that the northern hemisphere should have natural ozone levels as much as 2 times greater than the southern hemisphere

  16. Cross stratum resources protection in fog-computing-based radio over fiber networks for 5G services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaoyong; Shao, Sujie; Wang, Yao; Yang, Hui

    2017-09-01

    In order to meet the requirement of internet of things (IoT) and 5G, the cloud radio access network is a paradigm which converges all base stations computational resources into a cloud baseband unit (BBU) pool, while the distributed radio frequency signals are collected by remote radio head (RRH). A precondition for centralized processing in the BBU pool is an interconnection fronthaul network with high capacity and low delay. However, it has become more complex and frequent in the interaction between RRH and BBU and resource scheduling among BBUs in cloud. Cloud radio over fiber network has been proposed in our previous work already. In order to overcome the complexity and latency, in this paper, we first present a novel cross stratum resources protection (CSRP) architecture in fog-computing-based radio over fiber networks (F-RoFN) for 5G services. Additionally, a cross stratum protection (CSP) scheme considering the network survivability is introduced in the proposed architecture. The CSRP with CSP scheme can effectively pull the remote processing resource locally to implement the cooperative radio resource management, enhance the responsiveness and resilience to the dynamic end-to-end 5G service demands, and globally optimize optical network, wireless and fog resources. The feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture with CSP scheme are verified on our software defined networking testbed in terms of service latency, transmission success rate, resource occupation rate and blocking probability.

  17. The earth knowledge base and the global information society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Martynenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Today many countries have applied the strategy of developing an information-oriented society and data infrastructure. Although varying it their details and means of realization, all these policies have the same aim - to build a global information society. Here in Russia this crucial role belongs to the Electronic (Digital Earth initiative, which integrates geoinformation technologies in the Earth Knowledge Base (EKB. It i designed to promote the economic, social and scientific progress. An analysis of the problem has been done in the article.

  18. World Resources: A guide to the Global Environment, 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book, produced in collaboration with the U.N., is a basic information source on the impact humans have had on the earth's environment, with a theme of sustainable development. Part I is an essay on sustainable development, examined in the contest of industrial, industrializing, and non-industrial countries. Part II is a description of the environmental devastation in central Europe. Part III examines global environmental conditions and trends, and part IV consists of tables, each with an interductory text and citations, including such topics as population, development, land cover, food, forests, wildlife, habitats, energy, water, atmosphere, and climate

  19. A global health delivery framework approach to epilepsy care in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Maggie F; Berkowitz, Aaron L

    2015-11-15

    The Global Health Delivery (GHD) framework (Farmer, Kim, and Porter, Lancet 2013;382:1060-69) allows for the analysis of health care delivery systems along four axes: a care delivery value chain that incorporates prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of a medical condition; shared delivery infrastructure that integrates care within existing healthcare delivery systems; alignment of care delivery with local context; and generation of economic growth and social development through the health care delivery system. Here, we apply the GHD framework to epilepsy care in rural regions of low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) where there are few or no neurologists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Global brain metastases management strategy: a multidisciplinary-based approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métellus, P; Tallet, A; Dhermain, F; Reyns, N; Carpentier, A; Spano, J-P; Azria, D; Noël, G; Barlési, F; Taillibert, S; Le Rhun, É

    2015-02-01

    Brain metastases management has evolved over the last fifteen years and may use varying strategies, including more or less aggressive treatments, sometimes combined, leading to an improvement in patient's survival and quality of life. The therapeutic decision is subject to a multidisciplinary analysis, taking into account established prognostic factors including patient's general condition, extracerebral disease status and clinical and radiological presentation of lesions. In this article, we propose a management strategy based on the state of current knowledge and available therapeutic resources. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. Global Demand for Natural Resources Eliminated More Than 100,000 Bornean Orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Maria; Wich, Serge A; Ancrenaz, Marc; Meijaard, Erik; Abram, Nicola; Banes, Graham L; Campbell-Smith, Gail; d'Arcy, Laura J; Delgado, Roberto A; Erman, Andi; Gaveau, David; Goossens, Benoit; Heinicke, Stefanie; Houghton, Max; Husson, Simon J; Leiman, Ashley; Sanchez, Karmele Llano; Makinuddin, Niel; Marshall, Andrew J; Meididit, Ari; Miettinen, Jukka; Mundry, Roger; Musnanda; Nardiyono; Nurcahyo, Anton; Odom, Kisar; Panda, Adventus; Prasetyo, Didik; Priadjati, Aldrianto; Purnomo; Rafiastanto, Andjar; Russon, Anne E; Santika, Truly; Sihite, Jamartin; Spehar, Stephanie; Struebig, Matthew; Sulbaran-Romero, Enrique; Tjiu, Albertus; Wells, Jessie; Wilson, Kerrie A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2018-03-05

    Unsustainable exploitation of natural resources is increasingly affecting the highly biodiverse tropics [1, 2]. Although rapid developments in remote sensing technology have permitted more precise estimates of land-cover change over large spatial scales [3-5], our knowledge about the effects of these changes on wildlife is much more sparse [6, 7]. Here we use field survey data, predictive density distribution modeling, and remote sensing to investigate the impact of resource use and land-use changes on the density distribution of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Our models indicate that between 1999 and 2015, half of the orangutan population was affected by logging, deforestation, or industrialized plantations. Although land clearance caused the most dramatic rates of decline, it accounted for only a small proportion of the total loss. A much larger number of orangutans were lost in selectively logged and primary forests, where rates of decline were less precipitous, but where far more orangutans are found. This suggests that further drivers, independent of land-use change, contribute to orangutan loss. This finding is consistent with studies reporting hunting as a major cause in orangutan decline [8-10]. Our predictions of orangutan abundance loss across Borneo suggest that the population decreased by more than 100,000 individuals, corroborating recent estimates of decline [11]. Practical solutions to prevent future orangutan decline can only be realized by addressing its complex causes in a holistic manner across political and societal sectors, such as in land-use planning, resource exploitation, infrastructure development, and education, and by increasing long-term sustainability [12]. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Project Scheduling Heuristics-Based Standard PSO for Task-Resource Assignment in Heterogeneous Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Maw Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The task scheduling problem has been widely studied for assigning resources to tasks in heterogeneous grid environment. Effective task scheduling is an important issue for the performance of grid computing. Meanwhile, the task scheduling problem is an NP-complete problem. Hence, this investigation introduces a named “standard“ particle swarm optimization (PSO metaheuristic approach to efficiently solve the task scheduling problems in grid. Meanwhile, two promising heuristics based on multimode project scheduling are proposed to help in solving interesting scheduling problems. They are the best performance resource heuristic and the latest finish time heuristic. These two heuristics applied to the PSO scheme are for speeding up the search of the particle and improving the capability of finding a sound schedule. Moreover, both global communication topology and local ring communication topology are also investigated for efficient study of proposed scheme. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach in this investigation can successfully solve the task-resource assignment problems in grid computing and similar scheduling problems.

  3. PROFILE: Integrating Stressor and Response Monitoring into a Resource-Based Water-Quality Assessment Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROUX; KEMPSTER; KLEYNHANS; VAN; DU

    1999-01-01

    / South African water law as well as the country's water resource management policies are currently under review. The Water Law Principles, which were established as part of this review process, indicate a commitment to sustainable development of water resources and the protection of an ecological "reserve." Such policy goals highlight the limitations of traditional and current water-quality management strategies, which rely on stressor monitoring and associated regulation of pollution. The concept of an assimilative capacity is central to the implementation of the current water-quality management approach. Weaknesses inherent in basing water management on the concept of assimilative capacity are discussed. Response monitoring is proposed as a way of addressing some of the weaknesses. Following a global trend, the new policy goals emphasize the need to protect rather than to use the ability of ecosystems to recover from disturbances. This necessitates the adoption of response measurements to quantify ecological condition and monitor ecological change. Response monitoring focuses on properties that are essential to the sustainability of the ecosystem. These monitoring tools can be used to establish natural ranges of ecological change within ecosystems, as well as to quantify conceptually acceptable and unacceptable ranges of change. Through a framework of biological criteria and biological impairment standards, the results of response monitoring can become an integral part of future water resource management strategies in South Africa. KEY WORDS: Stressor monitoring; Response monitoring; Assimilative capacity; Ecosystem stability; Resilience; Biocriteria

  4. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  5. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  6. Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties

    2012-12-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata).

  7. Natural gas as a traded global commodity : no longer just a continental resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, A.

    2004-01-01

    Many consider natural gas to be the fuel of choice for the future because it is abundant, clean and cost competitive. This presentation reviewed how gas markets are changing in terms of globalization, the critical role of liquefied natural gas (LNG), the politics, technology and how the evolution will differ from oil. Other topics of discussion included the expanding world trade of LNG, LNG markets, supply countries, LNG flows in 2002 and potential future flows. Developments in the market were reviewed with reference to limited LNG spot market, mix of contract types, and the role of powerful aggregator partners. The impact of joining suppliers and markets was also discussed along with the value chain of the tramline model. Shell's LNG shipping position was outlined. Shell wholly owns 4 LNG ships and partly owns and operates 16 more ships. The presentation listed existing, permitted, publicly announced and scouting LNG regas terminals in North America, along with Shell interests. It was noted that LNG has the potential to meet some of the growing deficit in North American gas production. The issues that require consideration include permitting uncertainties, basis risk, impact of imports on basis, expansion possibilities, constraints on pipeline infrastructure, marketing capabilities, global supply issues and finance possibilities. figs

  8. Resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector: the reversion global reserve (RGR) and the guarantee global reserve (GGR); Centralizacao e transferencia de recursos no setor eletrico brasileiro: a reserva global de reversao (RGR) e a reserva global de garantia (RGG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Amaral Filho, J.B. de

    1991-12-31

    This dissertation makes the analysis of resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector, through reversion global reserve (RGR) and guarantee global reserve (GGR). RGR and GGR are funds. RGR finances sectorial investments in electric power and GGR aims the supply of deficient concessionaires. Governmental investments and the results of this application are showing. (M.V.M.). 55 refs, 2 figs, 61 tabs.

  9. Resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector: the reversion global reserve (RGR) and the guarantee global reserve (GGR); Centralizacao e transferencia de recursos no setor eletrico brasileiro: a reserva global de reversao (RGR) e a reserva global de garantia (RGG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Amaral Filho, J.B. de

    1992-12-31

    This dissertation makes the analysis of resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector, through reversion global reserve (RGR) and guarantee global reserve (GGR). RGR and GGR are funds. RGR finances sectorial investments in electric power and GGR aims the supply of deficient concessionaires. Governmental investments and the results of this application are showing. (M.V.M.). 55 refs, 2 figs, 61 tabs.

  10. Griffiss Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Electric resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Shankle, S.A.; Elliott, D.B.; Stucky, D.J.; Keller, J.M.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Dagle, J.E.; Gu, A.Y.

    1993-09-01

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). FEMP, with support from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is designing this model program for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. The program with Griffiss AFB will (1) identify and evaluate all cost-effective electric energy projects; (2) develop a schedule for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have them procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the ACC Griffiss AFB facility located near Rome, New York. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in seven common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO provides information on the initial cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. The evaluation methodology and technical and cost assumptions are also described for each ERO. Summary tables present the operational performance of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  11. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Dittmer, A.L.; Elliott, D.B.; Halverson, M.A.; Hickman, B.J.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command (SPACECOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the SPACECOM VAFB facility located approximately 50 miles northwest of Santa Barbara, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analysis of EROs are presented in ten common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). In addition, a case study of process loads at Space Launch Complex-4 (SLC-4) is included. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O and M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and value index (VI) of each ERO. Finally, an appendix includes a summary of an economic analysis case study of the South Vandenberg Power Plant (SVPP) operating scenarios.

  12. The effect of resource based view on sustainable capability advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jafari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is important to achieve and to sustain an organization’s competitive advantage in complex environments. This paper evaluates different concepts that have led to such benefits. The study sheds light on resource based view (RBV and its role to reach sustainable competitive advantage (SCA within banking industry of Iran. A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey of 150 top- and middle-level managers from Mellat bank of Iran. With a response rate of 81.3 percent, 122 questionnaires were returned while a number of valid and usable questionnaires were 101. In order to determine validity of questionnaire, the content validity and Cronbach's alpha were used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire (RBV questionnaire 0.934, SCA questionnaire 0.843. The study utilized structural equation modelling, and a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and they tested the integrated model of MKM and SCA. Statistical support was found for the hypothesized relationships. Moreover it has been shown that RBV had the greatest effect on the market centered SCA, while it had the least influence on the financial centered. The findings offer valuable insights on the generalizability of MKM in a research setting. Structural equation modeling has been implemented and the study also used freedman test to rank the factors and the results show that communication was the most important factor (4.41, followed by process (4.03, knowledge implementation (2.79, decision making (2.54 and human resources (1.22 was the last important factor.

  13. Climate-based models for pulsed resources improve predictability of consumer population dynamics: outbreaks of house mice in forest ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Penelope Holland

    Full Text Available Accurate predictions of the timing and magnitude of consumer responses to episodic seeding events (masts are important for understanding ecosystem dynamics and for managing outbreaks of invasive species generated by masts. While models relating consumer populations to resource fluctuations have been developed successfully for a range of natural and modified ecosystems, a critical gap that needs addressing is better prediction of resource pulses. A recent model used change in summer temperature from one year to the next (ΔT for predicting masts for forest and grassland plants in New Zealand. We extend this climate-based method in the framework of a model for consumer-resource dynamics to predict invasive house mouse (Mus musculus outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Compared with previous mast models based on absolute temperature, the ΔT method for predicting masts resulted in an improved model for mouse population dynamics. There was also a threshold effect of ΔT on the likelihood of an outbreak occurring. The improved climate-based method for predicting resource pulses and consumer responses provides a straightforward rule of thumb for determining, with one year's advance warning, whether management intervention might be required in invaded ecosystems. The approach could be applied to consumer-resource systems worldwide where climatic variables are used to model the size and duration of resource pulses, and may have particular relevance for ecosystems where global change scenarios predict increased variability in climatic events.

  14. Titan TTCN-3 Based Test Framework for Resource Constrained Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushev Artem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communication systems more and more become part of our daily live. Especially with the Internet of Things (IoT the overall connectivity increases rapidly since everyday objects become part of the global network. For this purpose several new wireless protocols have arisen, whereas 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks can be seen as one of the most important protocols within this sector. Originally designed on top of the IEEE802.15.4 standard it is a subject to various adaptions that will allow to use 6LoWPAN over different technologies; e.g. DECT Ultra Low Energy (ULE. Although this high connectivity offers a lot of new possibilities, there are several requirements and pitfalls coming along with such new systems. With an increasing number of connected devices the interoperability between different providers is one of the biggest challenges, which makes it necessary to verify the functionality and stability of the devices and the network. Therefore testing becomes one of the key components that decides on success or failure of such a system. Although there are several protocol implementations commonly available; e.g., for IoT based systems, there is still a lack of according tools and environments as well as for functional and conformance testing. This article describes the architecture and functioning of the proposed test framework based on Testing and Test Control Notation Version 3 (TTCN-3 for 6LoWPAN over ULE networks.

  15. The FaceBase Consortium: a comprehensive resource for craniofacial researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, James F.; Fisher, Shannon; Harris, Matthew P.; Holmes, Greg; Hooper, Joan E.; Wang Jabs, Ethylin; Jones, Kenneth L.; Kesselman, Carl; Klein, Ophir D.; Maas, Richard L.; Marazita, Mary L.; Selleri, Licia; Spritz, Richard A.; van Bakel, Harm; Visel, Axel; Williams, Trevor J.; Wysocka, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The FaceBase Consortium, funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, is designed to accelerate understanding of craniofacial developmental biology by generating comprehensive data resources to empower the research community, exploring high-throughput technology, fostering new scientific collaborations among researchers and human/computer interactions, facilitating hypothesis-driven research and translating science into improved health care to benefit patients. The resources generated by the FaceBase projects include a number of dynamic imaging modalities, genome-wide association studies, software tools for analyzing human facial abnormalities, detailed phenotyping, anatomical and molecular atlases, global and specific gene expression patterns, and transcriptional profiling over the course of embryonic and postnatal development in animal models and humans. The integrated data visualization tools, faceted search infrastructure, and curation provided by the FaceBase Hub offer flexible and intuitive ways to interact with these multidisciplinary data. In parallel, the datasets also offer unique opportunities for new collaborations and training for researchers coming into the field of craniofacial studies. Here, we highlight the focus of each spoke project and the integration of datasets contributed by the spokes to facilitate craniofacial research. PMID:27287806

  16. Global positioning method based on polarized light compass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yang, Jiangtao; Wang, Yubo; Tang, Jun; Shen, Chong

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a global positioning method based on a polarized light compass system. A main limitation of polarization positioning is the environment such as weak and locally destroyed polarization environments, and the solution to the positioning problem is given in this paper which is polarization image de-noising and segmentation. Therefore, the pulse coupled neural network is employed for enhancing positioning performance. The prominent advantages of the present positioning technique are as follows: (i) compared to the existing position method based on polarized light, better sun tracking accuracy can be achieved and (ii) the robustness and accuracy of positioning under weak and locally destroyed polarization environments, such as cloudy or building shielding, are improved significantly. Finally, some field experiments are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed global positioning technique. The experiments have shown that our proposed method outperforms the conventional polarization positioning method, the real time longitude and latitude with accuracy up to 0.0461° and 0.0911°, respectively.

  17. Location-Based Resource Allocation for OFDMA Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2011-05-01

    Cognitive radio is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless communication. It has been proposed as a suitable solution for the spectrum scarcity caused by the increase in frequency demand. The concept is based on allowing unlicensed users, called cognitive or secondary users, to share the unoccupied frequency bands with their owners, called the primary users, under constraints on the interference they cause to them. In order to estimate this interference, the cognitive system usually uses the channel state information to the primary user, which is often impractical to obtain. However, we propose to use location information, which is easier to obtain, to estimate this interference. The purpose of this work is to propose a subchannel and power allocation method which maximizes the secondary users\\' total capacity under the constraints of limited budget power and total interference to the primary under certain threshold. We model the problem as a constrained optimization problem for both downlink and uplink cases. Then, we propose low-complexity resource allocation schemes based on the waterfilling algorithm. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed method with comparison to the exhaustive search algorithm.

  18. Integrating Globality and Locality for Robust Representation Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The representation based classification method (RBCM has shown huge potential for face recognition since it first emerged. Linear regression classification (LRC method and collaborative representation classification (CRC method are two well-known RBCMs. LRC and CRC exploit training samples of each class and all the training samples to represent the testing sample, respectively, and subsequently conduct classification on the basis of the representation residual. LRC method can be viewed as a “locality representation” method because it just uses the training samples of each class to represent the testing sample and it cannot embody the effectiveness of the “globality representation.” On the contrary, it seems that CRC method cannot own the benefit of locality of the general RBCM. Thus we propose to integrate CRC and LRC to perform more robust representation based classification. The experimental results on benchmark face databases substantially demonstrate that the proposed method achieves high classification accuracy.

  19. The effects of global climate variability on water resources and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adibe, E.C.

    1990-06-01

    Widespread improvements in agricultural productivity have been achieved over the last century using a wide range of technological advances. Future improvements, however, are likely to be constrained by the decreasing quality of new lands brought into production, growing limitations on capital for crop expansion and mechanization, and increasing population pressures. On top of these constraints are new uncertainties about future climatic conditions and the effects of anthropogenic climatic changes on water availability. In order to better understand some of the impacts of climatic changes on food security, plausible changes in water supply are explored and the possible effects on food production investigated. The cases discussed here include increases and decreases in both the average and the variability of water resource availability. (author). 30 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  20. SoilGrids1km — Global Soil Information Based on Automated Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengl, Tomislav; de Jesus, Jorge Mendes; MacMillan, Robert A.; Batjes, Niels H.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Ribeiro, Eloi; Samuel-Rosa, Alessandro; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Gonzalez, Maria Ruiperez

    2014-01-01

    Background Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We present SoilGrids1km — a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution — containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths): soil organic carbon (g kg−1), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg m−3), cation-exchange capacity (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), soil organic carbon stock (t ha−1), depth to bedrock (cm), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders. Our predictions are based on global spatial prediction models which we fitted, per soil variable, using a compilation of major international soil profile databases (ca. 110,000 soil profiles), and a selection of ca. 75 global environmental covariates representing soil forming factors. Results of regression modeling indicate that the most useful covariates for modeling soils at the global scale are climatic and biomass indices (based on MODIS images), lithology, and taxonomic mapping units derived from conventional soil survey (Harmonized World Soil Database). Prediction accuracies assessed using 5–fold cross-validation were between 23–51%. Conclusions/Significance SoilGrids1km provide an initial set of examples of soil spatial data for input into global models at a resolution and consistency not previously available. Some of the main limitations of the current version of SoilGrids1km are: (1) weak relationships between soil properties/classes and explanatory variables due to scale mismatches, (2) difficulty to obtain covariates that capture soil forming factors, (3) low sampling density and spatial clustering of soil profile locations. However, as the Soil

  1. SoilGrids1km--global soil information based on automated mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hengl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present SoilGrids1km--a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution--containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths: soil organic carbon (g kg-1, soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%, bulk density (kg m-3, cation-exchange capacity (cmol+/kg, coarse fragments (%, soil organic carbon stock (t ha-1, depth to bedrock (cm, World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders. Our predictions are based on global spatial prediction models which we fitted, per soil variable, using a compilation of major international soil profile databases (ca. 110,000 soil profiles, and a selection of ca. 75 global environmental covariates representing soil forming factors. Results of regression modeling indicate that the most useful covariates for modeling soils at the global scale are climatic and biomass indices (based on MODIS images, lithology, and taxonomic mapping units derived from conventional soil survey (Harmonized World Soil Database. Prediction accuracies assessed using 5-fold cross-validation were between 23-51%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SoilGrids1km provide an initial set of examples of soil spatial data for input into global models at a resolution and consistency not previously available. Some of the main limitations of the current version of SoilGrids1km are: (1 weak relationships between soil properties/classes and explanatory variables due to scale mismatches, (2 difficulty to obtain covariates that capture soil forming factors, (3 low sampling density and spatial clustering of soil profile locations. However, as the SoilGrids system is

  2. Simulation-based crisis resource management training for pediatric critical care medicine: a review for instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Donoghue, Aaron; Gilfoyle, Elaine; Eppich, Walter

    2012-03-01

    To review the essential elements of crisis resource management and provide a resource for instructors by describing how to use simulation-based training to teach crisis resource management principles in pediatric acute care contexts. A MEDLINE-based literature source. OUTLINE OF REVIEW: This review is divided into three main sections: Background, Principles of Crisis Resource Management, and Tools and Resources. The background section provides the brief history and definition of crisis resource management. The next section describes all the essential elements of crisis resource management, including leadership and followership, communication, teamwork, resource use, and situational awareness. This is followed by a review of evidence supporting the use of simulation-based crisis resource management training in health care. The last section provides the resources necessary to develop crisis resource management training using a simulation-based approach. This includes a description of how to design pediatric simulation scenarios, how to effectively debrief, and a list of potential assessment tools that instructors can use to evaluate crisis resource management performance during simulation-based training. Crisis resource management principles form the foundation for efficient team functioning and subsequent error reduction in high-stakes environments such as acute care pediatrics. Effective instructor training is required for those programs wishing to teach these principles using simulation-based learning. Dissemination and integration of these principles into pediatric critical care practice has the potential for a tremendous impact on patient safety and outcomes.

  3. SoilGrids1km— global soil information based on automated mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengl, T.; Mendes de Jesus, J.S.; Macmillan, R.A.; Batjes, N.H.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Carvalho Ribeiro, E.D.; Samuel Rosa, A.; Kempen, B.; Leenaars, J.G.B.; Walsh, M.G.; Ruiperez Gonzalez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited

  4. An assessment of global meteorological droughts based on HAPPI experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Sun, Fubao; Lim, Wee Ho; Zhang, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Droughts caused water shortages could lead to serious consequences on the socioeconomic and environmental well-being. In the context of changing climate, droughts monitoring, attributions and impact assessments have been performed using observations (e.g., Sun et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2016) and climate model projections (e.g., Liu et al., 2016, 2017); with expectation that such scientific knowledge would feed into long-term adaptation and mitigation plans to tackle potentially unfavorable future drought impacts in a warming world. Inspired by the 2015 Paris Agreement, the HAPPI (Half a degree Additional warming, Projections, Prognosis and Impacts) experiments were set up to better inform international policymakers about the socioeconomic and environmental impacts under less severe global warming conditions. This study aims to understand the potential shift in meteorological droughts from the past into the future on a global scale. Based on the HAPPI data, we evaluate the change in drought related indices (i.e., PET/P, PDSI) from the past to the future scenarios (1.5 and 2 degrees Celsius warming). Here we present some early results (MIROC5 as demonstration) on identified hotspots and discuss the differences in severity of droughts between these warming worlds and associated consequences. References: Liu W, and Sun F, 2017. Projecting and attributing future changes of evaporative demand over China in CMIP5 climate models, Journal of Hydrometeorology, doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0204.1 Liu W, and Sun F, 2016. Assessing estimates of evaporative demand in climate models using observed pan evaporation over China. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere 121, 8329-8349 Zhang J, Sun F, Xu J, Chen Y, Sang Y, -F, and Liu C, 2016. Dependence of trends in and sensitivity of drought over China (1961-2013) on potential evaporation model. Geophysical Research Letters 43, 206-213 Sun F, Roderick M, Farquhar G, 2012. Changes in the variability of global land precipitation

  5. Exploration and Description of Faith-Based Health Resources: Findings Inform Advancing Holistic Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyess, Susan MacLeod

    2015-01-01

    It is important to use all holistic resource opportunities in communities, such as integrative healing centers, and mind-body-spirit approaches to health. These holistic approaches may be realized through nontraditional avenues, such as faith-based resources. This article reports on an exploratory study that describes faith-based resources supporting holistic health in a southeastern region of the United States. A working definition for "faith-based health resources" was "ecumenical and interfaith community-based, open-access health resources that include in mission for service a reference to faith." Excluded from the definition were institutional services from hospitals, focused social services from area agencies, and federally funded services.

  6. Autonomic Resource Provisioning for Cloud-Based Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamshidi, Pooyan; Ahmad, Aakash; Pahl, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Elasticity endows a software system with the ability to maintain optimal user experience by automatically acquiring and releasing resources, while paying only for what they require. The mechanism for automatically adding or removing resources on the fly is referred to as auto-scaling. The state-o...

  7. Effectiveness of community-based mangrove management for sustainable resource use and livelihood support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damastuti, Ekaningrum; Groot, de Dolf

    2017-01-01

    Community-Based Mangrove Management (CBMM) is implemented with different approaches and outcomes. This study examined the effectiveness of various CBMM practices to achieve sustainable management of mangrove resources. We analyzed local mangrove resource management strategies in four coastal

  8. Performance evaluation of data center service localization based on virtual resource migration in software defined elastic optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Tan, Yuanlong; Lin, Yi; Han, Jianrui; Lee, Young

    2015-09-07

    Data center interconnection with elastic optical network is a promising scenario to meet the high burstiness and high-bandwidth requirements of data center services. In our previous work, we implemented cross stratum optimization of optical network and application stratums resources that allows to accommodate data center services. In view of this, this study extends the data center resources to user side to enhance the end-to-end quality of service. We propose a novel data center service localization (DCSL) architecture based on virtual resource migration in software defined elastic data center optical network. A migration evaluation scheme (MES) is introduced for DCSL based on the proposed architecture. The DCSL can enhance the responsiveness to the dynamic end-to-end data center demands, and effectively reduce the blocking probability to globally optimize optical network and application resources. The overall feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture are experimentally verified on the control plane of our OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of MES scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on DCSL architecture in terms of path blocking probability, provisioning latency and resource utilization, compared with other provisioning scheme.

  9. Global Calibration of Multiple Cameras Based on Sphere Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global calibration methods for multi-camera system are critical to the accuracy of vision measurement. Proposed in this paper is such a method based on several groups of sphere targets and a precision auxiliary camera. Each camera to be calibrated observes a group of spheres (at least three, while the auxiliary camera observes all the spheres. The global calibration can be achieved after each camera reconstructs the sphere centers in its field of view. In the process of reconstructing a sphere center, a parameter equation is used to describe the sphere projection model. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation are carried out to analyze the factors that affect the calibration accuracy. Simulation results show that the parameter equation can largely improve the reconstruction accuracy. In the experiments, a two-camera system calibrated by our method is used to measure a distance about 578 mm, and the root mean squared error is within 0.14 mm. Furthermore, the experiments indicate that the method has simple operation and good flexibility, especially for the onsite multiple cameras without common field of view.

  10. Glass viscosity calculation based on a global statistical modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegel, Alex

    2007-02-01

    A global statistical glass viscosity model was developed for predicting the complete viscosity curve, based on more than 2200 composition-property data of silicate glasses from the scientific literature, including soda-lime-silica container and float glasses, TV panel glasses, borosilicate fiber wool and E type glasses, low expansion borosilicate glasses, glasses for nuclear waste vitrification, lead crystal glasses, binary alkali silicates, and various further compositions from over half a century. It is shown that within a measurement series from a specific laboratory the reported viscosity values are often over-estimated at higher temperatures due to alkali and boron oxide evaporation during the measurement and glass preparation, including data by Lakatos et al. (1972) and the recently published High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling by Seward et al. (2005). Similarly, in the glass transition range many experimental data of borosilicate glasses are reported too high due to phase separation effects. The developed global model corrects those errors. The model standard error was 9-17°C, with R^2 = 0.985-0.989. The prediction 95% confidence interval for glass in mass production largely depends on the glass composition of interest, the composition uncertainty, and the viscosity level. New insights in the mixed-alkali effect are provided.

  11. Water pollution in low and middle resources countries: a global health public problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Gómez-Duarte

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El agua es un elemento esencial para la vida de todos los seres vivientes del planeta, además es un derecho humano fundamental (1. El 97.2% del agua en el planeta Tierra es salina y solo el 2.5% corresponde a agua fresca; de ese 2.5%, 30% es subterránea, 68% está en los glaciares y otras capas de nieve y solo el 1.2% es superficial y se encuentra en ríos, lagos y otras formas de agua de superficie (2. El agua potable está amenazada por la continua contaminación que genera la actividad humana y por la disminución de los recursos hídricos como consecuencia del calentamiento global (3. Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, desde el año 2015 solo el 89% de la población mundial tiene acceso a agua apta para consumo y se anticipa que este porcentaje continuará disminuyendo (4, aunque se estima que la situación ya es crítica para 260 millones de personas que carecen de agua apta para el consumo (5.

  12. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  13. The Urban Transition Performance of Resource-Based Cities in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Tan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Resource-based cities face unique challenges when undergoing urban transitions because their non-renewable resources will eventually be exhausted. In this article, we introduce a new method of evaluating the urban transition performance of resource-based cities from economic, social and eco-environmental perspectives. A total of 19 resource-based cities in Northeast China are studied from 2003 to 2012. The results show that resource-based cities in Jilin and Liaoning provinces performed better than those in Heilongjiang province. Liaoyuan, Songyuan and Baishan were ranked as the top three resource-based cities; and Jixi, Yichun and Heihe were ranked last. Multi-resource and petroleum resource-based cities performed better than coal and forestry resource-based cities. We also analyzed the factors influencing urban transition performance using the method of the geographic detector. We found that capital input, road density and location advantage had the greatest effects on urban transition performance, followed by urban scale, remaining resources and the level of sustainable development; supporting policies and labor input had the smallest effects. Based on these insights, we have formulated several recommendations to facilitate urban transitions in China’s resource-based cities.

  14. Resource based view of the firm: measures of reputation among health service-sector businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D

    2008-01-01

    Application of the strategic leverage of Resource Based View of the Firm (RBV) directly advocates that a company's competitive advantage is derived from its ability to assemble and exploit an appropriate combination of resources (both tangible and intangible assets). The three companies that were selected were Pittsburgh-based companies that were within relatively easy access, representing healthcare service-related industries, and can be reviewed for the principles of the RBV. The particular firms represented a variety of establishments and included Baptist Homes (a long-term care facility), University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC)(a provider of hospital and other health services), and GlaxoSmithKline, Consumer Healthcare, North America (GSK-CHNA)(a global provider of healthcare products and services). Through the case studies, it was found that not all intangible assets are strategic, and by extension, not all measures of reputation are strategic either. For an intangible asset to be considered strategic, in this case reputation, it must be valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable, and non-substitutable.

  15. Towards the Sigma Online Learning Model for crowdsourced recommendations of good web-based learning resources

    OpenAIRE

    Aaberg, Robin Garen

    2016-01-01

    The web based learning resources is believed to be playing an active role in the learning environment of higher education today. This qualitative study is exploring how students at Bergen University College incorporate web-based learning resources in their learning activities. At the core of this research is the problem of retrieving good web-resources after their first discovery. Usefull and knowledge granting web-resources are discovered within a context of topics, objectives. It is here ar...

  16. Global radioxenon emission inventory based on nuclear power reactor reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Martin B; Tuma, Matthias P

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric radioactivity is monitored for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, with xenon isotopes 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe and 135Xe serving as important indicators of nuclear explosions. The treaty-relevant interpretation of atmospheric concentrations of radioxenon is enhanced by quantifying radioxenon emissions released from civilian facilities. This paper presents the first global radioxenon emission inventory for nuclear power plants, based on North American and European emission reports for the years 1995-2005. Estimations were made for all power plant sites for which emission data were unavailable. According to this inventory, a total of 1.3PBq of radioxenon isotopes are released by nuclear power plants as continuous or pulsed emissions in a generic year.

  17. Monte Carlo evaluation of derivative-based global sensitivity measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucherenko, S. [Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.kucherenko@ic.ac.uk; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M. [Process Engineering Group, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, Spanish Council for Scientific Research (C.S.I.C.), C/ Eduardo Cabello, 6, 36208 Vigo (Spain); Pantelides, C.; Shah, N. [Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    A novel approach for evaluation of derivative-based global sensitivity measures (DGSM) is presented. It is compared with the Morris and the Sobol' sensitivity indices methods. It is shown that there is a link between DGSM and Sobol' sensitivity indices. DGSM are very easy to implement and evaluate numerically. The computational time required for numerical evaluation of DGSM is many orders of magnitude lower than that for estimation of the Sobol' sensitivity indices. It is also lower than that for the Morris method. Efficiencies of Monte Carlo (MC) and quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling methods for calculation of DGSM are compared. It is shown that the superiority of QMC over MC depends on the problem's effective dimension, which can also be estimated using DGSM.

  18. Monte Carlo evaluation of derivative-based global sensitivity measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucherenko, S.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M.; Pantelides, C.; Shah, N.

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach for evaluation of derivative-based global sensitivity measures (DGSM) is presented. It is compared with the Morris and the Sobol' sensitivity indices methods. It is shown that there is a link between DGSM and Sobol' sensitivity indices. DGSM are very easy to implement and evaluate numerically. The computational time required for numerical evaluation of DGSM is many orders of magnitude lower than that for estimation of the Sobol' sensitivity indices. It is also lower than that for the Morris method. Efficiencies of Monte Carlo (MC) and quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling methods for calculation of DGSM are compared. It is shown that the superiority of QMC over MC depends on the problem's effective dimension, which can also be estimated using DGSM.

  19. Comparison through a LCA evaluation analysis of food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi-Hyung; Kim, Jung-Wk

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated feed manufacturing including dry feeding and wet feeding, composting, and landfilling for food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery. The method of the expanded system boundaries was employed in order to compare different by-products. The whole stages of disposal involved in the systems such as separate discharge, collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal, were included in the system boundary and evaluated. The Global Warming Potential generated from 1 tonne of food wastes for each disposal system was analyzed by the life cycle assessment method. The results showed that 200 kg of CO 2 -eq could be produced from dry feeding process, 61 kg of CO 2 -eq from wet feeding process, 123 kg of CO 2 -eq from composting process, and 1010 kg of CO 2 -eq from landfilling. Feed manufacturing and composting, the common treatment methods currently employed, have been known to be environment friendlier than other methods. However, this study shows that they can negatively affect the environment if their by-products are not appropriately utilized as intended.

  20. Comparison through a LCA evaluation analysis of food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi-Hyung, E-mail: mhkim9@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Wk, E-mail: kimjw@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated feed manufacturing including dry feeding and wet feeding, composting, and landfilling for food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery. The method of the expanded system boundaries was employed in order to compare different by-products. The whole stages of disposal involved in the systems such as separate discharge, collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal, were included in the system boundary and evaluated. The Global Warming Potential generated from 1 tonne of food wastes for each disposal system was analyzed by the life cycle assessment method. The results showed that 200 kg of CO{sub 2}-eq could be produced from dry feeding process, 61 kg of CO{sub 2}-eq from wet feeding process, 123 kg of CO{sub 2}-eq from composting process, and 1010 kg of CO{sub 2}-eq from landfilling. Feed manufacturing and composting, the common treatment methods currently employed, have been known to be environment friendlier than other methods. However, this study shows that they can negatively affect the environment if their by-products are not appropriately utilized as intended.

  1. Modeling Oil Exploration and Production: Resource-Constrained and Agent-Based Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, Kristofer

    2010-05-01

    Energy is essential to the functioning of society, and oil is the single largest commercial energy source. Some analysts have concluded that the peak in oil production is soon about to happen on the global scale, while others disagree. Such incompatible views can persist because the issue of 'peak oil' cuts through the established scientific disciplines. The question is: what characterizes the modeling approaches that are available today, and how can they be further developed to improve a trans-disciplinary understanding of oil depletion? The objective of this thesis is to present long-term scenarios of oil production (Paper I) using a resource-constrained model; and an agent-based model of the oil exploration process (Paper II). It is also an objective to assess the strengths, limitations, and future development potentials of resource-constrained modeling, analytical economic modeling, and agent-based modeling. Resource-constrained models are only suitable when the time frame is measured in decades, but they can give a rough indication of which production scenarios are reasonable given the size of the resource. However, the models are comprehensible, transparent and the only feasible long-term forecasting tools at present. It is certainly possible to distinguish between reasonable scenarios, based on historically observed parameter values, and unreasonable scenarios with parameter values obtained through flawed analogy. The economic subfield of optimal depletion theory is founded on the notion of rational economic agents, and there is a causal relation between decisions made at the micro-level and the macro-result. In terms of future improvements, however, the analytical form considerably restricts the versatility of the approach. Agent-based modeling makes it feasible to combine economically motivated agents with a physical environment. An example relating to oil exploration is given in Paper II, where it is shown that the exploratory activities of individual

  2. Critical Spaces for Critical Times: Global Conversations in Literacy Research as an Open Professional Development and Practices Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Albers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects an OER (Open Educational Resources critical literacy project, Global Conversations in Literacy Research (GCLR, (www.globalconversationsinliteracy.wordpress.com, now in its fourth year. GCLR annually hosts seven web seminars presented by internationally recognized literacy and education scholars. We outline key dimensions of GCLR not only as an OER but as an open educational practice (OEP (Andrade et al., 2011 that through its design, not only provides open access to scholarship, but also understands the critical nexus among resources, practices and theory. Informed by data from a longitudinal study, this paper situates these dimensions within professional development literature, and outlines GCLR as a critical space designed for critical times, and the importance of intentionality when accessing OER. Like scholars before us, we argue that that availability is not the only consideration when using OER (Andrade et al., 2011; OER must be considered in relation to pedagogical considerations and how OER are used as a critical component to online professional development.

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC Effluent Discharge Options on Global OTEC Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Nihous

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple algorithm previously used to evaluate steady-state global Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC resources is extended to probe the effect of various effluent discharge methodologies. It is found that separate evaporator and condenser discharges potentially increase OTEC net power limits by about 60% over a comparable mixed discharge scenario. This stems from a relatively less severe degradation of the thermal resource at given OTEC seawater flow rates, which corresponds to a smaller heat input into the ocean. Next, the most practical case of a mixed discharge into the mixed layer is found to correspond to only 80% of the so-called baseline case (mixed discharge at a water depth of initial neutral buoyancy. In general, locating effluent discharges at initial neutral-buoyancy depths appears to be nearly optimal in terms of OTEC net power production limits. The depth selected for the OTEC condenser effluent discharge, however, has by far the greatest impact. Clearly, these results are preliminary and should be investigated in more complex ocean general circulation models.

  4. A global data base using thematic mapper data: Scientific rationale and technical considerations of the LANDSAT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.L.; Clarke, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    A global data base using Thematic Mapper data is proposed. The data base for continental regions would be acquired over a short time period, preferably one growing season. For the first time it would be possible for the states of and changes in land cover to be assessed over the entire globe. This data base would provide information of special value at all levels of scientific analysis and resource assessment and planning, from global to local and regional. Technical and legal inhibitions exist for a direct acquisition of the data base from the TM data stream due to commercialization of Landsat. Several alternatives are available to assemble the data base either directly or indirectly, without losing the most important qualities: spatial resolution and spectral variation. The best exploitation and analysis of the data base combines advanced image processing technology and local interpretation, training and education. The interpreted data base would provide urgently needed improvement in estimates of land cover change for global analyses of: trace gas production, ecosystem fragmentation, soil erosion potential, and more and could work complementary with coarse resolution data such as AVHRR. The data base, broken up into continental, country to small regional sections, would be valuable for regional and local applications. The latter applications are critical to the world's hope that people can change their land use habits in order to begin to ameliorate the powerful effect that their current practices, taken collectively, are having on global processes

  5. Een resource-based portfoliobenadering : strategieën op basis van de resource-based view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santema, S.C.; Rijt, van de J.

    1999-01-01

    In dit artikel wordt met behulp van de Resourcebased View (RBV) een portfoliomodel voor resources ontwikkeld. De RBV kenmerkt zich tot op heden als een theorie met een eenzijdige focus op sterke, niet-imiteerbare, immobiele resources. In dit artikel wordt weergegeven hoe een onderneming kan omgaan

  6. Generation of real-time global ionospheric map based on the global GNSS stations with only a sparse distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zishen; Wang, Ningbo; Li, Min; Zhou, Kai; Yuan, Yunbin; Yuan, Hong

    2017-04-01

    The Earth's ionosphere is part of the atmosphere stretching from an altitude of about 50 km to more than 1000 km. When the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal emitted from a satellite travels through the ionosphere before reaches a receiver on or near the Earth surface, the GNSS signal is significantly delayed by the ionosphere and this delay bas been considered as one of the major errors in the GNSS measurement. The real-time global ionospheric map calculated from the real-time data obtained by global stations is an essential method for mitigating the ionospheric delay for real-time positioning. The generation of an accurate global ionospheric map generally depends on the global stations with dense distribution; however, the number of global stations that can produce the real-time data is very limited at present, which results that the generation of global ionospheric map with a high accuracy is very different when only using the current stations with real-time data. In view of this, a new approach is proposed for calculating the real-time global ionospheric map only based on the current stations with real-time data. This new approach is developed on the basis of the post-processing and the one-day predicted global ionospheric map from our research group. The performance of the proposed approach is tested by the current global stations with the real-time data and the test results are also compared with the IGS-released final global ionospheric map products.

  7. Research on Green Manufacturing Innovation Based on Resource Environment Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Xu

    2017-11-01

    Green manufacturing is a trend of manufacturing industry in the future, and is of great significance to resource protection and environmental protection. This paper first studies the green manufacturing innovation system, and then decomposes the green manufacturing innovation dimensions, and constructs the green manufacturing innovation dimension space. Finally, from the view of resource protection and environmental protection, this paper explores the path of green manufacturing innovation.

  8. The Global Financial Crisis: Increasing IMF Resources and the Role of Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-05

    may borrow on concessional repayment terms from the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility ( PRGF ) and the Exogenous Shocks Facility (ESF). To qualify...Association (IDA). Most borrowers have per capita income levels of about $865 a year. PRGF loans are intended to help low-income countries surmount BOP...or financial crises. Unlike SBA and other loans, however, conditionality for PRGF loans is based more on the economic strategies outlined in Poverty

  9. Global school-based childhood obesity interventions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J; McMullen, Jennifer; Haider, Taj; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-08-28

    The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) primary research; (2) overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3) school-based; (4) studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5) published in the English language; (6) child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7) studies that reported outcome data. A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.

  10. Global School-Based Childhood Obesity Interventions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda J. Ickes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1 primary research; (2 overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3 school-based; (4 studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5 published in the English language; (6 child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7 studies that reported outcome data. Results: A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Discussion: Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.

  11. Opportunities for Fundamental University-Based Research in Energy and Resource Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M. D.; Hitzman, M.; Tester, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    In this talk we present, from a university perspective, a few examples of fundamental research needs related to improved energy and resource recovery. One example of such a research need is related to the fact that it is not widely recognized that meeting domestic and worldwide energy needs with renewables such as wind and solar will be materials intensive. If widely deployed, the elements required by renewable technologies will be needed in significant quantities and shortage of these "energy critical elements" could significantly inhibit the adoption of otherwise game changing energy technologies. It is imperative to better understand the geology, metallurgy, and mining engineering of critical mineral deposits if we are to sustainably develop these new technologies. Unfortunately, there is currently no consensus among federal and state agencies, the national and international mining industry, the public, and the U.S. academic community regarding the importance of economic geology in the context of securing sufficient energy critical elements to undertake large-scale renewable energy development. Another option for transitioning away from our current hydrocarbon-based energy system to non-carbon based sources, is geothermal energy - from both conventional hydrothermal resources and enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Although geothermal energy is currently used for both electric and non-electric applications worldwide from conventional hydrothermal resources and in ground source heat pumps, most of the emphasis in the US has been generating electricity. To this end, there is a need for research, development and demonstration in five important areas - estimating the magnitude and distribution of recoverable geothermal resources, establishing requirements for extracting and utilizing energy from EGS reservoirs the including drilling, reservoir design and stimulation, exploring end use options for district heating, electricity generation and co

  12. A THEORETICAL APPROACH TO THE TRANSITION FROM A RESOURCE BASED TO A KNOWLEDGE-ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GIOACASI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic development and the emergence of new technologies have changed the optics on the factors that are generating added value. The transition from a resource-dependent economy to one focused on tangible non-financial factors has progressed in a gradual manner and took place under the influence of globalization and of the internet boom. The aim of this article is to provide a theoretical approach to this phenomenon from the perspective of the temporal evolution of enterprise resources.

  13. Global Crop Monitoring: A Satellite-Based Hierarchical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfang Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of multiple new remote sensing data sources, especially from Chinese satellites, the CropWatch system has expanded the scope of its international analyses through the development of new indicators and an upgraded operational methodology. The approach adopts a hierarchical system covering four spatial levels of detail: global, regional, national (thirty-one key countries including China and “sub-countries” (for the nine largest countries. The thirty-one countries encompass more that 80% of both production and exports of maize, rice, soybean and wheat. The methodology resorts to climatic and remote sensing indicators at different scales. The global patterns of crop environmental growing conditions are first analyzed with indicators for rainfall, temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR as well as potential biomass. At the regional scale, the indicators pay more attention to crops and include Vegetation Health Index (VHI, Vegetation Condition Index (VCI, Cropped Arable Land Fraction (CALF as well as Cropping Intensity (CI. Together, they characterize crop situation, farming intensity and stress. CropWatch carries out detailed crop condition analyses at the national scale with a comprehensive array of variables and indicators. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, cropped areas and crop conditions are integrated to derive food production estimates. For the nine largest countries, CropWatch zooms into the sub-national units to acquire detailed information on crop condition and production by including new indicators (e.g., Crop type proportion. Based on trend analysis, CropWatch also issues crop production supply outlooks, covering both long-term variations and short-term dynamic changes in key food exporters and importers. The hierarchical approach adopted by CropWatch is the basis of the analyses of climatic and crop conditions assessments published in the quarterly “CropWatch bulletin” which

  14. The Future of the Global Environment: A Model-based Analysis Supporting UNEP's First Global Environment Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkes JA; Woerden JW van; Alcamo J; Berk MM; Bol P; Born GJ van den; Brink BJE ten; Hettelingh JP; Langeweg F; Niessen LW; Swart RJ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenia; MNV

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the scenario analysis in UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook, published at the same time as the scenario analysis. This Outlook provides a pilot assessment of developments in the environment, both global and regional, between now and 2015, with a further projection to 2050. The study was carried out in support of the Agenda 21 interim evaluation, five years after 'Rio' and ten years after 'Brundtland'. The scenario analysis is based on only one scenario, Conventional...

  15. A resource-based theory of market structure and organizational form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Witteloostuijn, A.; Boone, C.A.J.J.

    We argue that combining the insights from both the industrial organization and organizational ecology perspectives is likely to produce value added. We develop a resource-based theory of market structure, where resources pertain to the environmental assets (together forming the resource space)

  16. A URI-based approach for addressing fragments of media resources on the Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Mannens; D. van Deursen; R. Troncy (Raphael); S. Pfeiffer; C. Parker (Conrad); Y. Lafon; A.J. Jansen (Jack); M. Hausenblas; R. van de Walle

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractTo make media resources a prime citizen on the Web, we have to go beyond simply replicating digital media files. The Web is based on hyperlinks between Web resources, and that includes hyperlinking out of resources (e.g., from a word or an image within a Web page) as well as hyperlinking

  17. FPGA Accelerator for Wavelet-Based Automated Global Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet-based automated global image registration (WAGIR is fundamental for most remote sensing image processing algorithms and extremely computation-intensive. With more and more algorithms migrating from ground computing to onboard computing, an efficient dedicated architecture of WAGIR is desired. In this paper, a BWAGIR architecture is proposed based on a block resampling scheme. BWAGIR achieves a significant performance by pipelining computational logics, parallelizing the resampling process and the calculation of correlation coefficient and parallel memory access. A proof-of-concept implementation with 1 BWAGIR processing unit of the architecture performs at least 7.4X faster than the CL cluster system with 1 node, and at least 3.4X than the MPM massively parallel machine with 1 node. Further speedup can be achieved by parallelizing multiple BWAGIR units. The architecture with 5 units achieves a speedup of about 3X against the CL with 16 nodes and a comparative speed with the MPM with 30 nodes. More importantly, the BWAGIR architecture can be deployed onboard economically.

  18. FPGA Accelerator for Wavelet-Based Automated Global Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Baofeng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wavelet-based automated global image registration (WAGIR is fundamental for most remote sensing image processing algorithms and extremely computation-intensive. With more and more algorithms migrating from ground computing to onboard computing, an efficient dedicated architecture of WAGIR is desired. In this paper, a BWAGIR architecture is proposed based on a block resampling scheme. BWAGIR achieves a significant performance by pipelining computational logics, parallelizing the resampling process and the calculation of correlation coefficient and parallel memory access. A proof-of-concept implementation with 1 BWAGIR processing unit of the architecture performs at least 7.4X faster than the CL cluster system with 1 node, and at least 3.4X than the MPM massively parallel machine with 1 node. Further speedup can be achieved by parallelizing multiple BWAGIR units. The architecture with 5 units achieves a speedup of about 3X against the CL with 16 nodes and a comparative speed with the MPM with 30 nodes. More importantly, the BWAGIR architecture can be deployed onboard economically.

  19. Global land cover mapping at 30 m resolution: A POK-based operational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Chen, Jin; Liao, Anping; Cao, Xin; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Xuehong; He, Chaoying; Han, Gang; Peng, Shu; Lu, Miao; Zhang, Weiwei; Tong, Xiaohua; Mills, Jon

    2015-05-01

    Global Land Cover (GLC) information is fundamental for environmental change studies, land resource management, sustainable development, and many other societal benefits. Although GLC data exists at spatial resolutions of 300 m and 1000 m, a 30 m resolution mapping approach is now a feasible option for the next generation of GLC products. Since most significant human impacts on the land system can be captured at this scale, a number of researchers are focusing on such products. This paper reports the operational approach used in such a project, which aims to deliver reliable data products. Over 10,000 Landsat-like satellite images are required to cover the entire Earth at 30 m resolution. To derive a GLC map from such a large volume of data necessitates the development of effective, efficient, economic and operational approaches. Automated approaches usually provide higher efficiency and thus more economic solutions, yet existing automated classification has been deemed ineffective because of the low classification accuracy achievable (typically below 65%) at global scale at 30 m resolution. As a result, an approach based on the integration of pixel- and object-based methods with knowledge (POK-based) has been developed. To handle the classification process of 10 land cover types, a split-and-merge strategy was employed, i.e. firstly each class identified in a prioritized sequence and then results are merged together. For the identification of each class, a robust integration of pixel-and object-based classification was developed. To improve the quality of the classification results, a knowledge-based interactive verification procedure was developed with the support of web service technology. The performance of the POK-based approach was tested using eight selected areas with differing landscapes from five different continents. An overall classification accuracy of over 80% was achieved. This indicates that the developed POK-based approach is effective and feasible

  20. Natural resource assessment: an approach to science based planning in national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, C.G.; Vanderhorst, J.P.; Young, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a natural resource assessment at two national parks, New River Gorge National River and Shenandoah National Park, to help meet the goals of the Natural Resource Challenge-a program to help strengthen natural resource management at national parks. We met this challenge by synthesizing and interpreting natural resource information for planning purposes and we identified information gaps and natural significance of resources. We identified a variety of natural resources at both parks as being globally and/or nationally significant, including large expanses of unfragmented, mixed-mesophytic forests that qualify for wilderness protection, rare plant communities, diverse assemblages of neotropical migratory birds and salamanders, and outstanding aquatic recreational resources. In addition, these parks function, in part, as ecological reserves for plants in and wildlife. With these significant natural resources in mind, we also developed a suite of natural resource management recommendations in light of increasing threats from within and outside park boundaries. We hope that our approach can provide a blueprint for natural resource conservation at publically owned lands.

  1. Wide-Area Publish/Subscribe Mobile Resource Discovery Based on IPv6 GeoNetworking

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi, Satoru; Matsuura, Satoshi; Inomata, Atsuo; Fujikawa, Kazutoshi; Sunahara, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Resource discovery is an essential function for distributed mobile applications integrated in vehicular communication systems. Key requirements of the mobile resource discovery are wide-area geographic-based discovery and scalable resource discovery not only inside a vehicular ad-hoc network but also through the Internet. While a number of resource discovery solutions have been proposed, most of them have focused on specific scale of network. Furthermore, managing a large number of mobile res...

  2. Profit-based conventional resource scheduling with renewable energy penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K. Srikanth; Panwar, Lokesh Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2017-08-01

    Technological breakthroughs in renewable energy technologies (RETs) enabled them to attain grid parity thereby making them potential contenders for existing conventional resources. To examine the market participation of RETs, this paper formulates a scheduling problem accommodating energy market participation of wind- and solar-independent power producers (IPPs) treating both conventional and RETs as identical entities. Furthermore, constraints pertaining to penetration and curtailments of RETs are restructured. Additionally, an appropriate objective function for profit incurred by conventional resource IPPs through reserve market participation as a function of renewable energy curtailment is also proposed. The proposed concept is simulated with a test system comprising 10 conventional generation units in conjunction with solar photovoltaic (SPV) and wind energy generators (WEG). The simulation results indicate that renewable energy integration and its curtailment limits influence the market participation or scheduling strategies of conventional resources in both energy and reserve markets. Furthermore, load and reliability parameters are also affected.

  3. Basic framework of urban design based on natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, Irwar; Nasution, Mahyuddin K. M.; Maulina, Maudy

    2018-03-01

    To establishment of the city always begins because the availability of natural resources that meet the basic needs of its inhabitants, but after that the city relies on the sustainability of those basic need, which is primarily dependent on transportation. Transportation becomes the main needs of the city. Transportation, however, results in the potential for the city’s discomfort with noise and pollution, which mixes with the frenetic city life. Therefore, this paper reveals a basic framework using natural resources to reduce the noise and the pollution.

  4. Resource recovery from bio-based production processes: a future necessity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru; Cignitti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The promise of transforming waste streams with small economic value into valuable products makes resource recovery technologies in bio-based production processes an attractive proposition. However, the use of resource recovery technologies in industrial applications is still minimal, despite its...... technologies to industrial bio-based production processes. The role and importance of economics, technology readiness and socio-environmental impacts of resource recovery in successfully implementing resource recovery technologies in industrial bio-based production processes is also discussed. Finally, based...... wide use in closely related processes such as dairy production. In this paper, a perspective on the role of resource recovery in bio-based production processes is provided through reviewing the past practice and identifying the benefits, opportunities and challenges of introducing resource recovery...

  5. Implications of global climate change on water resources of the south Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, M.

    1994-01-01

    An assessment of future changes in the mean and/or variances of hydrological parameters due to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases is much warranted for south Asia for developing adaptive response strategies. The evolution of changes in surface meteorological as well as hydrological parameters in the transient numerical experiments with the current state-of-art coupled climate models holds much promise for a better understanding of the interannual variability of climate and its change on a regional scale. A plausible future hydrological scenario for the south Asian region based on the numerical results obtained from the reference control and greenhouse warming simulations (using the Business-as-Usual scenario of CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere) with the Hamburg climate model is presented in this paper. For validation of regional-scale model-simulated hydrology and the assessment of future changes, analysis of data has been performed for annual mean conditions as well as for two seasons, namely, winter (December to February) and summer (June to August). Their results suggest a rise in annual mean surface air temperature of about 1.0 to 2.5 C over the ocean and between 2.0 to 4.5 C over the land regions of south Asia during the next hundred years. During the NH-winter, surface warming in the land regions of India and China is considerably higher (3.6 C) than during the NH-summer (2.7 C). The model simulates an increase in total (averaged for land points over the study area) annual precipitation of about 16 cm per year in a warmer atmosphere

  6. Filling the Gap: Simulation-based Crisis Resource Management Training for Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Parsons

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In today’s team-oriented healthcare environment, high-quality patient care requires physicians to possess not only medical knowledge and technical skills but also crisis resource management (CRM skills. In emergency medicine (EM, the high acuity and dynamic environment makes CRM skills of physicians particularly critical to healthcare team success. The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medicine Education Core Competencies that guide residency program curriculums include CRM skills; however, EM residency programs are not given specific instructions as to how to teach these skills to their trainees. This article describes a simulation-based CRM course designed specifically for novice EM residents. Methods The CRM course includes an introductory didactic presentation followed by a series of simulation scenarios and structured debriefs. The course is designed to use observational learning within simulation education to decrease the time and resources required for implementation. To assess the effectiveness in improving team CRM skills, two independent raters use a validated CRM global rating scale to measure the CRM skills displayed by teams of EM interns in a pretest and posttest during the course. Results The CRM course improved leadership, problem solving, communication, situational awareness, teamwork, resource utilization and overall CRM skills displayed by teams of EM interns. While the improvement from pretest to posttest did not reach statistical significance for this pilot study, the large effect sizes suggest that statistical significance may be achieved with a larger sample size. Conclusion This course can feasibly be incorporated into existing EM residency curriculums to provide EM trainees with basic CRM skills required of successful emergency physicians. We believe integrating CRM training early into existing EM education encourages continued deliberate practice, discussion, and improvement of essential CRM skills.

  7. Comparison of Subset-Based Local and Finite Element-Based Global Digital Image Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Bing

    2015-02-12

    Digital image correlation (DIC) techniques require an image matching algorithm to register the same physical points represented in different images. Subset-based local DIC and finite element-based (FE-based) global DIC are the two primary image matching methods that have been extensively investigated and regularly used in the field of experimental mechanics. Due to its straightforward implementation and high efficiency, subset-based local DIC has been used in almost all commercial DIC packages. However, it is argued by some researchers that FE-based global DIC offers better accuracy because of the enforced continuity between element nodes. We propose a detailed performance comparison between these different DIC algorithms both in terms of measurement accuracy and computational efficiency. Then, by measuring displacements of the same calculation points using the same calculation algorithms (e.g., correlation criterion, initial guess estimation, subpixel interpolation, optimization algorithm and convergence conditions) and identical calculation parameters (e.g., subset or element size), the performances of subset-based local DIC and two FE-based global DIC approaches are carefully compared in terms of measurement error and computational efficiency using both numerical tests and real experiments. A detailed examination of the experimental results reveals that, when subset (element) size is not very small and the local deformation within a subset (element) can be well approximated by the shape function used, standard subset-based local DIC approach not only provides better results in measured displacements, but also demonstrates much higher computation efficiency. However, several special merits of FE-based global DIC approaches are indicated.

  8. Comparison of Subset-Based Local and Finite Element-Based Global Digital Image Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Bing; Wang, B.; Lubineau, Gilles; Moussawi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) techniques require an image matching algorithm to register the same physical points represented in different images. Subset-based local DIC and finite element-based (FE-based) global DIC are the two primary image matching methods that have been extensively investigated and regularly used in the field of experimental mechanics. Due to its straightforward implementation and high efficiency, subset-based local DIC has been used in almost all commercial DIC packages. However, it is argued by some researchers that FE-based global DIC offers better accuracy because of the enforced continuity between element nodes. We propose a detailed performance comparison between these different DIC algorithms both in terms of measurement accuracy and computational efficiency. Then, by measuring displacements of the same calculation points using the same calculation algorithms (e.g., correlation criterion, initial guess estimation, subpixel interpolation, optimization algorithm and convergence conditions) and identical calculation parameters (e.g., subset or element size), the performances of subset-based local DIC and two FE-based global DIC approaches are carefully compared in terms of measurement error and computational efficiency using both numerical tests and real experiments. A detailed examination of the experimental results reveals that, when subset (element) size is not very small and the local deformation within a subset (element) can be well approximated by the shape function used, standard subset-based local DIC approach not only provides better results in measured displacements, but also demonstrates much higher computation efficiency. However, several special merits of FE-based global DIC approaches are indicated.

  9. A resource-based view of internationalization in emerging economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein Roelfsema; Martijn A. Boermans

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2 in Impacts of Emerging Economies and Firms on International Business. One of the most remarkable phenomena of recent times is that a large number of firms from emerging economies have come to define and dominate new markets and enter the class of global innovation leaders. Firms that once

  10. Perceived Family Resources Based on Number of Members with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Melinda; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the number of family members with ADHD affects other family members' perceived resources. Method: A total of 40 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and their mothers, fathers, and adolescent siblings living in the household participated. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze family-level data from a total…

  11. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced and updated, this Fourth Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The Fourth Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces…

  12. Utilization of Web-Based Information Resources for Researchers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the postgraduate students and lectures of three universities in the state who are registered library users formed the population of the study. Two research ... The implication of the findings implies that university libraries that provide such resources effectively will help to promote academic scholarship and research.

  13. Cross-covariance based global dynamic sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Lu, Zhenzhou; Li, Zhao; Wu, Mengmeng

    2018-02-01

    For identifying the cross-covariance source of dynamic output at each time instant for structural system involving both input random variables and stochastic processes, a global dynamic sensitivity (GDS) technique is proposed. The GDS considers the effect of time history inputs on the dynamic output. In the GDS, the cross-covariance decomposition is firstly developed to measure the contribution of the inputs to the output at different time instant, and an integration of the cross-covariance change over the specific time interval is employed to measure the whole contribution of the input to the cross-covariance of output. Then, the GDS main effect indices and the GDS total effect indices can be easily defined after the integration, and they are effective in identifying the important inputs and the non-influential inputs on the cross-covariance of output at each time instant, respectively. The established GDS analysis model has the same form with the classical ANOVA when it degenerates to the static case. After degeneration, the first order partial effect can reflect the individual effects of inputs to the output variance, and the second order partial effect can reflect the interaction effects to the output variance, which illustrates the consistency of the proposed GDS indices and the classical variance-based sensitivity indices. The MCS procedure and the Kriging surrogate method are developed to solve the proposed GDS indices. Several examples are introduced to illustrate the significance of the proposed GDS analysis technique and the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  14. A DE-Based Scatter Search for Global Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid scatter search (SS algorithm for continuous global optimization problems by incorporating the evolution mechanism of differential evolution (DE into the reference set updated procedure of SS to act as the new solution generation method. This hybrid algorithm is called a DE-based SS (SSDE algorithm. Since different kinds of mutation operators of DE have been proposed in the literature and they have shown different search abilities for different kinds of problems, four traditional mutation operators are adopted in the hybrid SSDE algorithm. To adaptively select the mutation operator that is most appropriate to the current problem, an adaptive mechanism for the candidate mutation operators is developed. In addition, to enhance the exploration ability of SSDE, a reinitialization method is adopted to create a new population and subsequently construct a new reference set whenever the search process of SSDE is trapped in local optimum. Computational experiments on benchmark problems show that the proposed SSDE is competitive or superior to some state-of-the-art algorithms in the literature.

  15. Simulated Annealing-Based Krill Herd Algorithm for Global Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Ge Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Gandomi and Alavi proposed a novel swarm intelligent method, called krill herd (KH, for global optimization. To enhance the performance of the KH method, in this paper, a new improved meta-heuristic simulated annealing-based krill herd (SKH method is proposed for optimization tasks. A new krill selecting (KS operator is used to refine krill behavior when updating krill’s position so as to enhance its reliability and robustness dealing with optimization problems. The introduced KS operator involves greedy strategy and accepting few not-so-good solutions with a low probability originally used in simulated annealing (SA. In addition, a kind of elitism scheme is used to save the best individuals in the population in the process of the krill updating. The merits of these improvements are verified by fourteen standard benchmarking functions and experimental results show that, in most cases, the performance of this improved meta-heuristic SKH method is superior to, or at least highly competitive with, the standard KH and other optimization methods.

  16. The future of the global environment. A model-based analysis supporting UNEP's first global environment outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkes, J.; Van Woerden, J.; Alcamo, J.; Berk, M.; Bol, P.; Van den Born, G.J.; Ten Brink, B.; Hettelingh, J.P.; Niessen, L.; Langeweg, F.; Swart, R.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated assessments in support of environmental policy have been applied to a number of countries and regions, and to international negotiations. UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook (GEO-1) can be seen as a step towards making the tool of integrated assessment more widely available as a means for focusing action. This technical report documents RIVM's contribution to the GEO-1 report, focusing on the subject 'looking ahead'. It is illustrated that a 'what if' analysis helps to look beyond the delays in environmental and resource processes. This report illustrates that integrated assessment and modelling techniques can be excellent tools for environment and development policy-setting. The methodology, however, will need to be further developed and adapted to the realities and expectations of diverse regions, incorporating alternative policy strategies and development scenarios. This report focuses primarily on the period 1970-2015, because reliable historical data are often only generally available from 1970 onwards and the year 2015 is believed to match the time perspective of decision-makers. The findings of the analysis are reported in terms of six regions, corresponding with the division of the UNEP regional offices. Questions asked are: how will socioeconomic driving forces affect freshwater and land resources, and how will these changes mutually interact, and why are these changes important for society? Chapter 2 deals with the development of the social and economic driving forces. In the Chapters 3 and 4 it is discussed how this pressure influences selected aspects of the environment. Chapter 3 alone addresses the importance of selected elements of the interacting global element cycles for environmental quality, while Chapter 4 addresses land resources, their potential for food production and associated dependence on freshwater resources. The impacts on selected components of natural areas (Chapter 5) and society (Chapter 6) are subsequently addressed

  17. Setting up a hydrological model based on global data for the Ayeyarwady basin in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Velden, Corine; Sloff, Kees; Nauta, Tjitte

    2017-04-01

    The use of global datasets in local hydrological modelling can be of great value. It opens up the possibility to include data for areas where local data is not or only sparsely available. In hydrological modelling the existence of both static physical data such as elevation and land use, and dynamic meteorological data such as precipitation and temperature, is essential for setting up a hydrological model, but often such data is difficult to obtain at the local level. For the Ayeyarwady catchment in Myanmar a distributed hydrological model (Wflow: https://github.com/openstreams/wflow) was set up with only global datasets, as part of a water resources study. Myanmar is an emerging economy, which has only recently become more receptive to foreign influences. It has a very limited hydrometeorological measurement network, with large spatial and temporal gaps, and data that are of uncertain quality and difficult to obtain. The hydrological model was thus set up based on resampled versions of the SRTM digital elevation model, the GlobCover land cover dataset and the HWSD soil dataset. Three global meteorological datasets were assessed and compared for use in the hydrological model: TRMM, WFDEI and MSWEP. The meteorological datasets were assessed based on their conformity with several precipitation station measurements, and the overall model performance was assessed by calculating the NSE and RVE based on discharge measurements of several gauging stations. The model was run for the period 1979-2012 on a daily time step, and the results show an acceptable applicability of the used global datasets in the hydrological model. The WFDEI forcing dataset gave the best results, with a NSE of 0.55 at the outlet of the model and a RVE of 8.5%, calculated over the calibration period 2006-2012. As a general trend the modelled discharge at the upstream stations tends to be underestimated, and at the downstream stations slightly overestimated. The quality of the discharge measurements

  18. Innovative Resources Based on ICTs and Authentic Materials to Improve EFL Students' Communicative Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Otero, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    Our global society and our current communication needs have put a strain on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teaching, since common resources such as textbooks may fail to adapt to the needs and interests of our students. The present action research study aims at identifying EFL students' communicative needs and developing their oral skills…

  19. Economic transition policies in Chinese resource-based cities: An overview of government efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huijuan; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Resource-based cities in China have made momentous contributions to the development of the national economy for decades. However, with the depletion of natural resources, their sustainable development is challenging and transition is important. The Chinese government has made great efforts to help resource-based cities. The purpose of this study is to investigate transition policies and their implementation. Firstly, we reviewed previous studies and summarized the essential elements of some successful resource-based cities, which are useful experiences for Chinese resource-based cities. Secondly, we studied the development of resource-based cities over the past 10 years with a focus on economic development, industrial structure, government revenue and environmental conditions. We found that resource-based cities were less developed compared to other cities. The main reasons are the after-effects of a planned economy, an unreasonable tax system, planning mistakes and misguided resources exploitation policies. Thirdly, we analyzed several aspects of the policy responses after the introduction of transition policies, including designating 69 resource-exhausted cities, supporting cities with funds and projects, formulating transition plans and evaluating transition performance. However, there are some deficiencies in the process of policy implementation. Finally, some recommendations were provided to improve transition performance and sustainable development for resource-based cities. - Highlights: ► Analyze the development of Chinese resource-based cities from four aspects. ► Analyze the causes of less development in resource-based cities. ► Investigate policies and their responses to transformation. ► Provide recommendations to improve transformation performance and sustainable development

  20. A resource-based view of partnership strategies in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Amy K; Powers, Thomas L

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of management structures in health care has been shifting from independent ownership to interorganizational relationships with other firms. A shortage of resources has been cited as one cause for such collaboration among health care entities. The resource- based view of the firm suggests that organizations differentiate between strategic alliances and acquisition strategies based on a firm's internal resources and the types of resources a potential partner organization possesses. This paper provides a review of the literature using the resource-based theory of the firm to understand what conditions foster different types of health care partnerships. A model of partnership alliances using the resource-based view is presented, strategic linkages are presented, managerial implications are outlined, and directions for future research are given.

  1. SEP modeling based on global heliospheric models at the CCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, M. L.; Luhmann, J. G.; Odstrcil, D.; Bain, H. M.; Schwadron, N.; Gorby, M.; Li, Y.; Lee, K.; Zeitlin, C.; Jian, L. K.; Lee, C. O.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Galvin, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    Heliospheric models provide contextual information of conditions in the heliosphere, including the background solar wind conditions and shock structures, and are used as input to SEP models, providing an essential tool for understanding SEP properties. The global 3D MHD WSA-ENLIL+Cone model provides a time-dependent background heliospheric description, into which a spherical shaped hydrodynamic CME can be inserted. ENLIL simulates solar wind parameters and additionally one can extract the magnetic topologies of observer-connected magnetic field lines and all plasma and shock properties along those field lines. An accurate representation of the background solar wind is necessary for simulating transients. ENLIL simulations also drive SEP models such as the Solar Energetic Particle Model (SEPMOD) (Luhmann et al. 2007, 2010) and the Energetic Particle Radiation Environment Module (EPREM) (Schwadron et al. 2010). The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is in the process of making these SEP models available to the community and offering a system to run SEP models driven by a variety of heliospheric models available at CCMC. SEPMOD injects protons onto a sequence of observer field lines at intensities dependent on the connected shock source strength which are then integrated at the observer to approximate the proton flux. EPREM couples with MHD models such as ENLIL and computes energetic particle distributions based on the focused transport equation along a Lagrangian grid of nodes that propagate out with the solar wind. The coupled SEP models allow us to derive the longitudinal distribution of SEP profiles of different types of events throughout the heliosphere. The coupled ENLIL and SEP models allow us to derive the longitudinal distribution of SEP profiles of different types of events throughout the heliosphere. In this presentation we demonstrate several case studies of SEP event modeling at different observers based on WSA-ENLIL+Cone simulations.

  2. A multi-group and preemptable scheduling of cloud resource based on HTCondor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaowei; Zou, Jiaheng; Cheng, Yaodong; Shi, Jingyan

    2017-10-01

    Due to the features of virtual machine-flexibility, easy controlling and various system environments, more and more fields utilize the virtualization technology to construct the distributed system with the virtual resources, also including high energy physics. This paper introduce a method used in high energy physics that supports multiple resource group and preemptable cloud resource scheduling, combining virtual machine with HTCondor (a batch system). It makes resource controlling more flexible and more efficient and makes resource scheduling independent of job scheduling. Firstly, the resources belong to different experiment-groups, and the type of user-groups mapping to resource-groups(same as experiment-group) is one-to-one or many-to-one. In order to make the confused group simply to be managed, we designed the permission controlling component to ensure that the different resource-groups can get the suitable jobs. Secondly, for the purpose of elastically allocating resources for suitable resource-group, it is necessary to schedule resources like scheduling jobs. So this paper designs the cloud resource scheduling to maintain a resource queue and allocate an appropriate amount of virtual resources to the request resource-group. Thirdly, in some kind of situations, because of the resource occupied for a long time, resources need to be preempted. This paper adds the preemption function for the resource scheduling that implement resource preemption based on the group priority. Additionally, the way to preempting is soft that when virtual resources are preempted, jobs will not be killed but also be held and rematched later. It is implemented with the help of HTCondor, storing the held job information in scheduler, releasing the job to idle status and doing second matcher. In IHEP (institute of high energy physics), we have built a batch system based on HTCondor with a virtual resources pool based on Openstack. And this paper will show some cases of experiment JUNO

  3. A Dynamic Resource Scheduling Method Based on Fuzzy Control Theory in Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijia Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The resources in cloud environment have features such as large-scale, diversity, and heterogeneity. Moreover, the user requirements for cloud computing resources are commonly characterized by uncertainty and imprecision. Hereby, to improve the quality of cloud computing service, not merely should the traditional standards such as cost and bandwidth be satisfied, but also particular emphasis should be laid on some extended standards such as system friendliness. This paper proposes a dynamic resource scheduling method based on fuzzy control theory. Firstly, the resource requirements prediction model is established. Then the relationships between resource availability and the resource requirements are concluded. Afterwards fuzzy control theory is adopted to realize a friendly match between user needs and resources availability. Results show that this approach improves the resources scheduling efficiency and the quality of service (QoS of cloud computing.

  4. A Dynamic Pricing Reverse Auction-Based Resource Allocation Mechanism in Cloud Workflow Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Market-oriented reverse auction is an efficient and cost-effective method for resource allocation in cloud workflow systems since it can dynamically allocate resources depending on the supply-demand relationship of the cloud market. However, during the auction the price of cloud resource is usually fixed, and the current resource allocation mechanisms cannot adapt to the changeable market properly which results in the low efficiency of resource utilization. To address such a problem, a dynamic pricing reverse auction-based resource allocation mechanism is proposed. During the auction, resource providers can change prices according to the trading situation so that our novel mechanism can increase the chances of making a deal and improve efficiency of resource utilization. In addition, resource providers can improve their competitiveness in the market by lowering prices, and thus users can obtain cheaper resources in shorter time which would decrease monetary cost and completion time for workflow execution. Experiments with different situations and problem sizes are conducted for dynamic pricing-based allocation mechanism (DPAM on resource utilization and the measurement of Time⁎Cost (TC. The results show that our DPAM can outperform its representative in resource utilization, monetary cost, and completion time and also obtain the optimal price reduction rates.

  5. Zimbabwe's Human Resources for health Information System (ZHRIS)-an assessment in the context of establishing a global standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Keith P; Zuber, Alexandra; Simbini, Tungamirirai; Bangani, Zwashe; Krishnamurthy, Ramesh S

    2017-04-01

    There have been numerous global calls to action to utilize human resources information systems (HRIS) to improve the availability and quality of data for strengthening the regulation and deployment of health workers. However, with no normative guidance in existence, the development of HRIS has been inconsistent and lacking in standardization, hindering the availability and use of data for health workforce planning and decision making (Riley et al., 2012). CDC and WHO partnered with the Ministry of Health in several countries to conduct HRIS functional requirements analyses and establish a Minimum Data Set (MDS) of elements essential for a global standard HRIS. As a next step, CDC advanced a study to examine the alignment of one of the HRIS it supports (in Zimbabwe) against this MDS. For this study, we created a new data collection and analysis tool to assess the extent to which Zimbabwe's CDC-supported HRIS was aligned with the WHO MDS. We performed systematic "gap analyses" in order to make prioritized recommendations for addressing the gaps, with the aim of improving the availability and quality of data on Zimbabwe's health workforce. The majority of the data elements outlined in the WHO MDS were present in the ZHRIS databases, though they were found to be missing various applicable elements. The lack of certain elements could impede functions such as health worker credential verification or equitable in-service training allocation. While the HRIS MDS treats all elements equally, our assessment revealed that not all the elements have equal significance when it comes to data utilization. Further, some of the HRIS MDS elements exceeded the current needs of regulatory bodies and the Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC) in Zimbabwe. The preliminary findings of this study helped inspire the development of a more recent HRH Registry MDS subset, which is a shorter list of priority data elements recommended as a global standard for HRIS. The field-tested assessment

  6. Improving Water Resources Management on Global and Region Scales - Evaluating Strategies for Water Futures with the IIASA's Community Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, P.; Kahil, T.; Satoh, Y.; Greve, P.; Byers, E.; Langan, S.; Wada, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Half of the planet's population is severely impacted by severe water issues including absent or unreliable water supply, sanitation, poor water quality, unmitigated floods and droughts, and degraded water environments. In recent years, global water security has been highlighted not only by the science community but also by business leaders as one of the greatest threats to sustainable human development for different generations. How can we ensure the well-being of people and ecosystems with limited water, technology and financial resources? To evaluate this, IIASA's Water Futures and Solutions Initiative (WFaS) is identifying a portfolios of robust and cost-effective options across different economic sectors including agriculture, energy, manufacturing, households, and environment and ecosystems. Options to increase water supply and accessibility are evaluated together with water demand management and water governance options. To test these solution-portfolios in order to obtain a clear picture of the opportunities but also of the risks and the trade-offs we have developed the Community Water Model (CWATM) which joins IIASA's integrated assessment modeling framework, coupling hydrology with hydro-economics (ECHO model), energy (MESSAGE model) and land use (GLOBIOM model). CWATM has been developed to work flexibly with varying spatial resolutions from global to regional levels. The model is open source and community-driven to promote our work amongst the wider water and other science community worldwide, with flexibility to link to other models and integrate newly developed modules such as water quality. In order to identify the solution portfolios, we present a global hotspots assessment of water-related risks with the ability to zoom in at regional scale using the example of the Lake Victoria basin in E. Africa. We show how socio-economic and climate change will alter spatial patterns of the hydrological cycle and have regional impacts on water availability. At

  7. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  8. Global estimates of evapotranspiration and gross primary production based on MODIS and global meteorology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Chen, J.; Davis, K.; Desai, A.R.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Gianelle, D.; Rossi, F.; Suyker, A.E.; Verma, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales remains a major challenge for quantifying the global carbon cycle. We developed a light use efficiency model, called EC-LUE, driven by only four variables: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature, and the Bowen ratio of sensible to latent heat flux. The EC-LUE model may have the most potential to adequately address the spatial and temporal dynamics of GPP because its parameters (i.e., the potential light use efficiency and optimal plant growth temperature) are invariant across the various land cover types. However, the application of the previous EC-LUE model was hampered by poor prediction of Bowen ratio at the large spatial scale. In this study, we substituted the Bowen ratio with the ratio of evapotranspiration (ET) to net radiation, and revised the RS-PM (Remote Sensing-Penman Monteith) model for quantifying ET. Fifty-four eddy covariance towers, including various ecosystem types, were selected to calibrate and validate the revised RS-PM and EC-LUE models. The revised RS-PM model explained 82% and 68% of the observed variations of ET for all the calibration and validation sites, respectively. Using estimated ET as input, the EC-LUE model performed well in calibration and validation sites, explaining 75% and 61% of the observed GPP variation for calibration and validation sites respectively.Global patterns of ET and GPP at a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 0.6° longitude during the years 2000–2003 were determined using the global MERRA dataset (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global estimates of ET and GPP agreed well with the other global models from the literature, with the highest ET and GPP over tropical forests and the lowest values in dry and high latitude areas. However, comparisons with observed

  9. Hegemonic transitions and global shifts in social metabolism: Implications for resource-rich countries. Introduction to the special section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muradian Sarache, R.P.; Walter, M.; Martinez-Alier, J.

    2012-01-01

    This introductory paper to the special section of Global Environmental Change entitled "Global transformations, social metabolism and the dynamics of socio-environmental conflicts" argues that the emergence of new global economic centers is inducing a major expansion in the global social metabolism

  10. Commercial and Industrial Base Intermittent Resource Management Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Sporborg, Pamela; Sheik, Imran; Huffaker, Erich; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-11-30

    This scoping study summarizes the challenges with integrating wind and solar generation into the California's electricity grid. These challenges include: Smoothing intra-hour variability; - Absorbing excess renewable energy during over-generation periods; - Addressing morning and evening ramping periods. In addition, there are technical challenges to integrating retail demand response (DR) triggered by the wholesale conditions into the CAISO markets. The study describes the DR programs available to the consumers through the utilities in California and CAISO's ancillary services market because an integration of the wholesale and retail DR requires an understanding of these different offerings and the costs associated with acquiring them. Demand-side active and passive storage systems are proposed as technologies that may be used to mitigate the effects of intermittence due to renewable generation. Commercial building technologies as well as industrial facilities with storage capability are identified as targets for the field tests. Two systems used for ancillary services communications are identified as providing the triggers for DR enablement. Through the field tests, issues related to communication, automation and flexibility of demand-side resources will be explored and the performance of technologies that participate in the field tests will be evaluated. The major outcome of this research is identifying and defining flexibility of DR resources and optimized use of these resources to respond to grid conditions.

  11. Global Land One-kilometer Base Elevation (GLOBE) v.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBE is a project to develop the best available 30-arc-second (nominally 1 kilometer) global digital elevation data set. This version of GLOBE contains data from 11...

  12. Global Mercury Observatory System Land-based Monitoring Data Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Global Mercury Observation System On-line Data Portal. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Carbone, F., A. Bruno, A. Naccarato, F. De Simone,...

  13. To Globalise or Not to Globalise? "Inward-Looking Youth" as Scapegoats for Japan's Failure to Secure and Cultivate "Global Human Resources"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In Japan in recent years, there has been much discussion of the need for global human resources alongside criticism of Japanese youth as having an "inward-looking" ("uchimuki") orientation. Drawing out the contradictions apparent in a youth apparently reluctant to leave Japan and companies, universities and government seemingly…

  14. Research notes and commentaries managing knowledge in foreign entry strategies: A resource-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Meyer (Klaus); D.M. Wright (Mike); S. Pruthi (Sarika)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractInternational strategies vary in their potential to exploit and augment a firm's resources, especially its knowledge base. Resource-based analysis suggests clustering the diverse entry modes in terms of their exploitation and augmentation characteristics. We thus introduce a new

  15. More explicit communication after classroom-based crew resource management training: results of a pragmatic trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek-van Noord, I.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Twisk, J.W.R.; Dyck, C. van; Wagner, C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives: Aviation-based crew resource management trainings to optimize non-technical skills among professionals are often suggested for health care as a way to increase patient safety. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of a 2-day classroom-based crew resource management (CRM)

  16. More explicit communication after classroom-based crew resource management training: results of a pragmatic trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noord, I.; de Bruijne, M.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Dyck, C.; Wagner, C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Aviation-based crew resource management trainings to optimize non-technical skills among professionals are often suggested for health care as a way to increase patient safety. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of a 2-day classroom-based crew resource management (CRM)

  17. Global stocks of selected mineral-based commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Karl, Nick A.

    2016-12-05

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey, National Minerals Information Center, analyzes mineral and metal supply chains by identifying and describing major components of mineral and material flows from ore extraction, through intermediate forms, to a final product. This report focuses on an important component of the world’s supply chain: the amounts and global distribution of major consumer, producer, and exchange stocks of selected mineral commodities. In this report, the term “stock” is used instead of “inventory” and refers to accumulations of mined ore, intermediate products, and refined mineral-based commodities that are in a form that meets the agreed-upon specifications of a buyer or processor of intermediate products. These may include certain ores such as bauxite, concentrates, smelter products, and refined metals. Materials sometimes referred to as inventory for accounting purposes, such as ore contained in a deposit or in a leach pile, or materials that need to be further processed before they can be shipped to a consumer, are not considered. Stocks may be held (owned) by consumers, governments, investors, producers, and traders. They may serve as (1) a means to achieve economic, social, and strategic goals through government policies; (2) a secure source of supply to meet demand and to mitigate potential shortages in the supply chain; (3) a hedge to mitigate price volatility; and (4) vehicles for speculative investment.The paucity and uneven reliability of data for stocks of ores and concentrates and for material held by producers, consumers, and merchants hinder the accurate estimating of the size and distribution of this portion of the supply chain for certain commodities. This paper reviews the more visible stocks held in commodity exchange warehouses distributed throughout the world.

  18. Staffing Levels and Inpatient Outcomes at Military Health Care Facilities: A Resource-Based View

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yap, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Using a Resource-Based Theory/View of the firm, this study examined if increased inpatient staffing levels at military hospitals can generate a competitive advantage based on better patient quality outcomes...

  19. Resource-Based Thinking as a Means of Implementation of Personality’s Creative Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergalyas M. Kashapov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the authors consider the resource-based thinking as a means of implementing the creative potential of personality. The relevance of the study is caused by the absence of theoretical and empirical research works about the resource-based thinking as a cognitive process of revealing the best ways to solve problems in a variety of areas of activities. The purpose of article is to conduct the empirical research and theoretical substantiation of a subject’s resource-based thinking capable to show initiative in search for the new and to be able to take the responsibility for process and result of cogni tive-transformative activity. Materials and Methods: the Life Line technique by A. A. Kronik and E. I. Golovakha was used in the research; a qualitative analysis of the empirical data was carried out; a synthesis of previously obtained results of the resource-based thinking study was achieved. Results: the resource-based thinking has a variable effect on the implementation of the personal creativity. The subsequent development of a person depends on the level of maturity of resource-based thinking in different stages of his/her life. The resource-based thinking can be a means of realising the personality’s creative potential or a means of their extinction depending on the congruence of potentials with the most important life events. Discussion and Conclusions: the resource-based thinking of a professional is associated with cognitive selfsupport and promotes a positive interpretation of the situation and a constructive change in self-perception. An analysis of certain life events influenced the future of a man, his personal development and formation in society is made. The conceptual basis of resource-based thinking with a description of functions, structural components, resource conditions, as well as the specifics of their formation and stages of implementation is presented. Understanding the resource-based essence of a man as a

  20. E-resource knowledge bases and link resolvers: an assessment of the current products and emerging trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Breeding

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the findings of a study on e-resource knowledge bases and OpenURL-based link resolvers sponsored by the National Library of Sweden. The project involved soliciting detailed information from each of the providers of the major products in this genre, reviewing product information available on the web and in published articles, and conducting a survey addressed to libraries using these products. The report identified and presented comparative information on a top tier of products that includes KnowledgeWorks and 360 Link from Serials Solutions; SFX Global KnowledgeBase and the SFX link resolver from Ex Libris; LinkSource and the EBSCO Integrated Knowledge Base from EBSCO and the WorldCat knowledge base from OCLC. A second tier included TOUResolver from TDNet, Gold Rush from the Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries and GODOT from Simon Fraser University. Innovative Interfaces, Inc offers the WebBridge link resolver but does not produce a knowledge base. The library survey revealed relatively narrow differences in the statistical results. Serial Solutions emerged as more favorable in most categories except for end-user functionality where Ex Libris received higher ratings. The Global Open Knowledgebase project (GOKb is noteworthy as a nascent community-based effort to produce a knowledge base. Key trends noted include less emphasis on knowledge bases and link resolvers as stand-alone products as they become integral components of comprehensive discovery and automation products.

  1. Global Change Data Base Pilot (Diskette) Project for Africa. Dase base documentation version 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The data base for Africa contains vegetation data, climate data, and other thematic data for a recent three and a half year period. The documentation contains separate chapters of material edited about separate data sets of the overall Global Change Data Base, Pilot (diskette) Project for Africa. Descriptions of data formats, authors, and contributors are accompanied by documentation of the development/use of the data. These materials have been suggested and contributed directly by the authors of the individual data sets. To avoid confusion, some information contained in the documentation that is not directly relevant to the data base has been either omitted, crossed out, or blanked out.

  2. Comparison of subset-based local and FE-based global digital image correlation: Theoretical error analysis and validation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, B.; Wang, Bo; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Subset-based local and finite-element-based (FE-based) global digital image correlation (DIC) approaches are the two primary image matching algorithms widely used for full-field displacement mapping. Very recently, the performances

  3. Multilevel selection in a resource-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernando Fagundes; Campos, Paulo R. A.

    2013-07-01

    In the present work we investigate the emergence of cooperation in a multilevel selection model that assumes limiting resources. Following the work by R. J. Requejo and J. Camacho [Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.108.038701 108, 038701 (2012)], the interaction among individuals is initially ruled by a prisoner's dilemma (PD) game. The payoff matrix may change, influenced by the resource availability, and hence may also evolve to a non-PD game. Furthermore, one assumes that the population is divided into groups, whose local dynamics is driven by the payoff matrix, whereas an intergroup competition results from the nonuniformity of the growth rate of groups. We study the probability that a single cooperator can invade and establish in a population initially dominated by defectors. Cooperation is strongly favored when group sizes are small. We observe the existence of a critical group size beyond which cooperation becomes counterselected. Although the critical size depends on the parameters of the model, it is seen that a saturation value for the critical group size is achieved. The results conform to the thought that the evolutionary history of life repeatedly involved transitions from smaller selective units to larger selective units.

  4. Comprehensive benefit analysis of regional water resources based on multi-objective evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yixia; Xue, Lianqing; Zhang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the water resources comprehensive benefits analysis is to maximize the comprehensive benefits on the aspects of social, economic and ecological environment. Aiming at the defects of the traditional analytic hierarchy process in the evaluation of water resources, it proposed a comprehensive benefit evaluation of social, economic and environmental benefits index from the perspective of water resources comprehensive benefit in the social system, economic system and environmental system; determined the index weight by the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP), calculated the relative index of water resources comprehensive benefit and analyzed the comprehensive benefit of water resources in Xiangshui County by the multi-objective evaluation model. Based on the water resources data in Xiangshui County, 20 main comprehensive benefit assessment factors of 5 districts belonged to Xiangshui County were evaluated. The results showed that the comprehensive benefit of Xiangshui County was 0.7317, meanwhile the social economy has a further development space in the current situation of water resources.

  5. Resource-Based View (RBV of Unincorporated Social Economy Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunle Akingbola

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines three related questions about unincorporated social economy organizations (USEOs: What are the characteristics of these social economy organizations? What is the unique bundle of resources that gives rise to and sustains their operations? Is there evidence of bricolage in these organizations? The findings suggest that USEOs are driven foremost by a social mission. USEOs provide diverse services and products including economic and specialized social activities, which are integral to the social fabric of society. The results also show that they combine and leverage two core resources – social capital and human capital – to support the operations of their organizations. Moreover they appear to draw on whatever resources are at their disposal to support the activities of the organization. This suggests that USEOs are involved in bricolage activities, which could explain the longevity of many of the organizations.RÉSUMÉCet article répond à trois questions étroitement liées sur les organismes d’économie sociale non constitués en société : Quelles sont les caractéristiques de ces organismes? Quelles sont les ressources particulières qui leur permettent de fonctionner? Ces organismes ont-ils recours au bricolage (dans le sens que Claude Lévi-Strauss prête à ce mot? Les résultats indiquent qu’une mission sociale est ce qui motive les organismes d’économie sociale non enregistrés. Ces derniers fournissent une diversité de produits et services, y compris des activités économiques et sociales spécialisées qui sont essentielles pour la solidarité sociale. Les résultats montrent aussi que ces organismes combinent deux ressources clés – le capital social et le capital humain – afin d’appuyer le bon fonctionnement de leurs organisations. En outre, pour ce faire, ils ont apparemment recours à toute ressource qui soit à leur portée. Cette dernière pratique indique que les organismes d

  6. A web-based system for supporting global land cover data production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; Chen, Jun; He, Chaoying; Li, Songnian; Wu, Hao; Liao, Anping; Peng, Shu

    2015-05-01

    Global land cover (GLC) data production and verification process is very complicated, time consuming and labor intensive, requiring huge amount of imagery data and ancillary data and involving many people, often from different geographic locations. The efficient integration of various kinds of ancillary data and effective collaborative classification in large area land cover mapping requires advanced supporting tools. This paper presents the design and development of a web-based system for supporting 30-m resolution GLC data production by combining geo-spatial web-service and Computer Support Collaborative Work (CSCW) technology. Based on the analysis of the functional and non-functional requirements from GLC mapping, a three tiers system model is proposed with four major parts, i.e., multisource data resources, data and function services, interactive mapping and production management. The prototyping and implementation of the system have been realised by a combination of Open Source Software (OSS) and commercially available off-the-shelf system. This web-based system not only facilitates the integration of heterogeneous data and services required by GLC data production, but also provides online access, visualization and analysis of the images, ancillary data and interim 30 m global land-cover maps. The system further supports online collaborative quality check and verification workflows. It has been successfully applied to China's 30-m resolution GLC mapping project, and has improved significantly the efficiency of GLC data production and verification. The concepts developed through this study should also benefit other GLC or regional land-cover data production efforts.

  7. A Snapshot of the World of Global Multinationals – An Industry Based Analysis of Fortune Global 500 Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogrean Claudia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For better or for worse, the “corporations rule the world” assertion is nowadays more actual and accurate than ever before, as multinational companies represent the undisputable engine of the globalization process, and the latter continuously (recreates the background against which global multinationals are flourishing, while reinforcing their “domination”. Since 1995, the Fortune Global 500 ranking (FG 500 annually provides a comprehensive and eloquent image of the world of global multinationals; the merits of the FG 500 ranking go beyond the synchronic approach of the characteristics of global multinationals (in terms of revenues, profits, assets and employees - by sector, industry and country, as it also favors diachronic analysis and comparisons - which are essential for strategists in identifying evolving trends and substantiating corporate strategies able to lead to sustainable competitiveness. The paper aims to determine the contribution of sectors to FG 500 ranking in 2016, on one hand, and to emphasize on some industry-based dynamics in FG 500 - by comparatively analyzing the 2016 and 1996 rankings, on the other hand.

  8. Crisis Resources for Emergency Workers (CREW II): results of a pilot study and simulation-based crisis resource management course for emergency medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Christopher M; Kiss, Alex; Bandiera, Glen W; Denny, Christopher J

    2012-11-01

    Emergency department resuscitation requires the coordinated efforts of an interdisciplinary team. Aviation-based crisis resource management (CRM) training can improve safety and performance during complex events. We describe the development, piloting, and multilevel evaluation of "Crisis Resources for Emergency Workers" (CREW), a simulation-based CRM curriculum for emergency medicine (EM) residents. Curriculum development was informed by an a priori needs assessment survey. We constructed a 1-day course using simulated resuscitation scenarios paired with focused debriefing sessions. Attitudinal shifts regarding team behaviours were assessed using the Human Factors Attitude Survey (HFAS). A subset of 10 residents participated in standardized pre- and postcourse simulated resuscitation scenarios to quantify the effect of CREW training on our primary outcome of CRM performance. Pre/post scenarios were videotaped and scored by two blinded reviewers using a validated behavioural rating scale, the Ottawa CRM Global Rating Scale (GRS). Postcourse survey responses were highly favourable, with the majority of participants reporting that CREW training can reduce errors and improve patient safety. There was a nonsignificant trend toward improved team-based attitudes as assessed by the HFAS (p  =  0.210). Postcourse performance demonstrated a similar trend toward improved scores in all categories on the Ottawa GRS (p  =  0.16). EM residents find simulation-based CRM instruction to be useful, effective, and highly relevant to their practice. Trends toward improved performance and attitudes may have arisen because our study was underpowered to detect a difference. Future efforts should focus on interdisciplinary training and recruiting a larger sample size.

  9. A review of global potentially available cropland estimates and their consequences for model-based assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eitelberg, D.A.; van Vliet, J.; Verburg, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    The world's population is growing and demand for food, feed, fiber, and fuel is increasing, placing greater demand on land and its resources for crop production. We review previously published estimates of global scale cropland availability, discuss the underlying assumptions that lead to

  10. A Future-Oriented, Globally Based Curriculum Model for Industrial Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Presents a future-oriented curriculum approach for industrial technology programs. Major global issues provide the basic structure for curriculum development. These issues include energy management, resource management, technological advancement, and international relations. Rationales for industrial technology are discussed and a curriculum…

  11. Resource management and scheduling policy based on grid for AIoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yiqin; Quan, Li

    2017-07-01

    This paper has a research on resource management and scheduling policy based on grid technology for Agricultural Internet of Things (AIoT). Facing the situation of a variety of complex and heterogeneous agricultural resources in AIoT, it is difficult to represent them in a unified way. But from an abstract perspective, there are some common models which can express their characteristics and features. Based on this, we proposed a high-level model called Agricultural Resource Hierarchy Model (ARHM), which can be used for modeling various resources. It introduces the agricultural resource modeling method based on this model. Compared with traditional application-oriented three-layer model, ARHM can hide the differences of different applications and make all applications have a unified interface layer and be implemented without distinction. Furthermore, it proposes a Web Service Resource Framework (WSRF)-based resource management method and the encapsulation structure for it. Finally, it focuses on the discussion of multi-agent-based AG resource scheduler, which is a collaborative service provider pattern in multiple agricultural production domains.

  12. Understanding and mitigating HIV-related resource-based stigma in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kathleen; Winskell, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The perception in low-resource settings that investment of resources in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is wasted because AIDS is both an incurable and deadly disease is known as resource-based stigma. In this paper, we draw on in-depth interviews (IDI), focus group discussions (FGD), and key informant interviews (KII) with 77 HIV-positive microfinance participants and nongovernmental organization leaders to examine resource-based stigma in the context of increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at an individual, household, and community level in Côte d'Ivoire. The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine: (1) resource-based stigmatization in the era of ART and (2) the relationship among microfinance, a poverty-reduction intervention, and HIV stigmatization. The frequency with which resource-based stigma was discussed by respondents suggests that it is an important component of HIV-related stigma in this setting. It affected PLHIV's access to material as well as social resources, leading to economic discrimination and social devaluation. Participation in village savings and loans groups, however, mitigated resource-based HIV stigma, suggesting that in the era of increased access to antiretroviral therapy, economic programs should be considered as one possible HIV stigma-reduction intervention.

  13. Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources integration based on network function virtualization in software defined elastic data center optical interconnect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Tian, Rui; Han, Jianrui; Lee, Young

    2015-11-30

    Data center interconnect with elastic optical network is a promising scenario to meet the high burstiness and high-bandwidth requirements of data center services. In our previous work, we implemented multi-stratum resilience between IP and elastic optical networks that allows to accommodate data center services. In view of this, this study extends to consider the resource integration by breaking the limit of network device, which can enhance the resource utilization. We propose a novel multi-stratum resources integration (MSRI) architecture based on network function virtualization in software defined elastic data center optical interconnect. A resource integrated mapping (RIM) scheme for MSRI is introduced in the proposed architecture. The MSRI can accommodate the data center services with resources integration when the single function or resource is relatively scarce to provision the services, and enhance globally integrated optimization of optical network and application resources. The overall feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture are experimentally verified on the control plane of OpenFlow-based enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) testbed. The performance of RIM scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on MSRI architecture in terms of path blocking probability, provisioning latency and resource utilization, compared with other provisioning schemes.

  14. Tree-Based Global Model Tests for Polytomous Rasch Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komboz, Basil; Strobl, Carolin; Zeileis, Achim

    2018-01-01

    Psychometric measurement models are only valid if measurement invariance holds between test takers of different groups. Global model tests, such as the well-established likelihood ratio (LR) test, are sensitive to violations of measurement invariance, such as differential item functioning and differential step functioning. However, these…

  15. Global stereo matching algorithm based on disparity range estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Hong; Gu, Feifei

    2017-09-01

    The global stereo matching algorithms are of high accuracy for the estimation of disparity map, but the time-consuming in the optimization process still faces a curse, especially for the image pairs with high resolution and large baseline setting. To improve the computational efficiency of the global algorithms, a disparity range estimation scheme for the global stereo matching is proposed to estimate the disparity map of rectified stereo images in this paper. The projective geometry in a parallel binocular stereo vision is investigated to reveal a relationship between two disparities at each pixel in the rectified stereo images with different baselines, which can be used to quickly obtain a predicted disparity map in a long baseline setting estimated by that in the small one. Then, the drastically reduced disparity ranges at each pixel under a long baseline setting can be determined by the predicted disparity map. Furthermore, the disparity range estimation scheme is introduced into the graph cuts with expansion moves to estimate the precise disparity map, which can greatly save the cost of computing without loss of accuracy in the stereo matching, especially for the dense global stereo matching, compared to the traditional algorithm. Experimental results with the Middlebury stereo datasets are presented to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Research on Sustainable Development Level Evaluation of Resource-based Cities Based on Shapely Entropy and Chouqet Integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Qu, Weilu; Qiu, Weiting

    2018-03-01

    In order to evaluate sustainable development level of resource-based cities, an evaluation method with Shapely entropy and Choquet integral is proposed. First of all, a systematic index system is constructed, the importance of each attribute is calculated based on the maximum Shapely entropy principle, and then the Choquet integral is introduced to calculate the comprehensive evaluation value of each city from the bottom up, finally apply this method to 10 typical resource-based cities in China. The empirical results show that the evaluation method is scientific and reasonable, which provides theoretical support for the sustainable development path and reform direction of resource-based cities.

  17. Visualising Earth's Mantle based on Global Adjoint Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdag, E.; Pugmire, D.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Hill, J.; Komatitsch, D.; Peter, D. B.; Podhorszki, N.; Tromp, J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in 3D wave propagation solvers and high-performance computing have enabled regional and global full-waveform inversions. Interpretation of tomographic models is often done on visually. Robust and efficient visualization tools are necessary to thoroughly investigate large model files, particularly at the global scale. In collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have developed effective visualization tools and used for visualization of our first-generation global model, GLAD-M15 (Bozdag et al. 2016). VisIt (https://wci.llnl.gov/simulation/computer-codes/visit/) is used for initial exploration of the models and for extraction of seismological features. The broad capability of VisIt, and its demonstrated scalability proved valuable for experimenting with different visualization techniques, and in the creation of timely results. Utilizing VisIt's plugin-architecture, a data reader plugin was developed, which reads the ADIOS (https://www.olcf.ornl.gov/center-projects/adios/) format of our model files. Blender (https://www.blender.org) is used for the setup of lighting, materials, camera paths and rendering of geometry. Python scripting was used to control the orchestration of different geometries, as well as camera animation for 3D movies. While we continue producing 3D contour plots and movies for various seismic parameters to better visualize plume- and slab-like features as well as anisotropy throughout the mantle, our aim is to make visualization an integral part of our global adjoint tomography workflow to routinely produce various 2D cross-sections to facilitate examination of our models after each iteration. This will ultimately form the basis for use of pattern recognition techniques in our investigations. Simulations for global adjoint tomography are performed on ORNL's Titan system and visualization is done in parallel on ORNL's post-processing cluster Rhea.

  18. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLONASS Broadcast Ephemeris Data (hourly files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) Broadcast Ephemeris Data (hourly files)...

  19. Planetary atmosphere models: A research and instructional web-based resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Samuel Augustine

    The effects of altitude change on the temperature, pressure, density, and speed of sound were investigated. These effects have been documented in Global Reference Atmospheric Models (GRAMs) to be used in calculating the conditions in various parts of the atmosphere for several planets. Besides GRAMs, there are several websites that provide online calculators for the 1976 US Standard Atmosphere. This thesis presents the creation of an online calculator of the atmospheres of Earth, Mars, Venus, Titan, and Neptune. The websites consist of input forms for altitude and temperature adjustment followed by a results table for the calculated data. The first phase involved creating a spreadsheet reference based on the 1976 US Standard Atmosphere and other planetary GRAMs available. Microsoft Excel was used to input the equations and make a graphical representation of the temperature, pressure, density, and speed of sound change as altitude changed using equations obtained from the GRAMs. These spreadsheets were used later as a reference for the JavaScript code in both the design and comparison of the data output of the calculators. The websites were created using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript coding languages. The calculators could accurately display the temperature, pressure, density, and speed of sound of these planets from surface values to various stages within the atmosphere. These websites provide a resource for students involved in projects and classes that require knowledge of these changes in these atmospheres. This project also created a chance for new project topics to arise for future students involved in aeronautics and astronautics.

  20. On System Engineering a Barter-Based Re-allocation of Space System Key Development Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmann, William J.

    NASA has had a decades-long problem with cost growth during the development of space science missions. Numerous agency-sponsored studies have produced average mission level development cost growths ranging from 23 to 77%. A new study of 26 historical NASA science instrument set developments using expert judgment to re-allocate key development resources has an average cost growth of 73.77%. Twice in history, during the Cassini and EOS-Terra science instrument developments, a barter-based mechanism has been used to re-allocate key development resources. The mean instrument set development cost growth was -1.55%. Performing a bivariate inference on the means of these two distributions, there is statistical evidence to support the claim that using a barter-based mechanism to re-allocate key instrument development resources will result in a lower expected cost growth than using the expert judgment approach. Agent-based discrete event simulation is the natural way to model a trade environment. A NetLogo agent-based barter-based simulation of science instrument development was created. The agent-based model was validated against the Cassini historical example, as the starting and ending instrument development conditions are available. The resulting validated agent-based barter-based science instrument resource re-allocation simulation was used to perform 300 instrument development simulations, using barter to re-allocate development resources. The mean cost growth was -3.365%. A bivariate inference on the means was performed to determine that additional significant statistical evidence exists to support a claim that using barter-based resource re-allocation will result in lower expected cost growth, with respect to the historical expert judgment approach. Barter-based key development resource re-allocation should work on science spacecraft development as well as it has worked on science instrument development. A new study of 28 historical NASA science spacecraft

  1. Modeling and optimal resources allocation of a novel tri-distributed generation system based on sustainable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soheyli, Saman; Mehrjoo, Mehri; Shafiei Mayam, Mohamad Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Considering renewable resources as the main prime movers in tri-generation systems. • Using EDM and TDM strategies simultaneously by defining probability functions. • Using an area function to evaluate the practical implementation of the system. • Reducing fuel consumption and pollution up to 154 and 207 times more than SP system. • Reducing the need to power grid and other auxiliary systems to less than 1%. - Abstract: Tri-generation systems with the aim of recycling heat dissipation of equipment and importing the heat into the energy production cycle have been considered by researchers recently because of increasing energy efficiency and decreasing environmental pollution. Many studies have been done in the field of tri-generation systems, but the studies have been more focused on centralized energy sources, such as, steam and gas turbines. Thus, required researches to move the sources of tri-generation systems toward renewable energy resources are not perfect enough. Moreover, the type of operation strategy, which is one of the important issues in investigating tri-generation system, is usually depended on assistant resources, such as, local power grid. In this paper, a novel tri-generation system based on wind and solar renewable energy resources and natural gas as the system prime movers is evaluated. Furthermore, a different operation strategy is considered to minimize the need to auxiliary sources and so the ability to use the system in remote regions, independently. Hence, wind turbines, photovoltaic (PV) modules, and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are considered as prime movers of the system. Moreover, a battery bank and heat storage tanks (HSTs) are deployed to balance the fluctuations in produced energy by wind and solar renewable resources. Hence, thermal demand management (TDM) and electrical demand management (EDM) operation strategies are considered simultaneously and defined as two possible functions to achieve a system with

  2. Research on Upgrade Path to Technology Innovation of Resource-based SMEs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Xu

    2017-08-01

    Complexity, diversity and coordination are features of technology innovation of resource-based SMEs in China. This paper studies on the key factors of macro-environment, cooperation among enterprises and enterprise interior, which influence the upgrading of technology innovation of resource-based SMEs in China. This paper constructs integrated system of technology innovation to analyse the upgrade path to technology innovation of resource-based SMEs in China, so that enterprises would improve their technology innovation and get a new way to accomplish sustainable innovated development.

  3. Securing renewable resource supplies for changing market demands in a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Struik, P.C.; Rabbinge, R.

    2005-01-01

    Establishment of a bio-based economy has been recognised as one of the key issues for sustainable development For future developments renewable resources will play a key role as CO2 neutral raw material for sustainable industrial production to curb depletion of fossil resources. Options to fully

  4. Standardisation of resource-based parameters to assess the welfare status of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper identified resources for pigs, i.e. environment-based factors affecting pig welfare. Lists of resources have been described for both on-farm rearing conditions and for 'transport and slaughter conditions'. On-farm parameters include general information, density, flooring/bedding,

  5. Co-innovation by KIBS in environmental services : a resource-based view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldi, C.; Faber, Jan; Kishna, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the ability of knowledge intensive business firms (KIBS) to engage in co-innovation with client firms. Co-innovation relates to KIBS competitive advantage as knowledge creators and sources of innovation. We propose a resource-based model where knowledge-related resources and

  6. Firm Culture and Leadership as Firm Performance Predictors : a Resource-Based Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilderom, C.P.M.; van den Berg, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we tested part of the resource-based view of the firm by examining two 'soft' resources, firm culture and top leadership, as predictors of 'hard' or bottom-line firm performance.Transformational top leadership was found to predict firm performance directly while the link between firm

  7. Application of ICT-based Learning Resources for University Inorganic Chemistry Course Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana M. Derkach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies expediency and efficiency of various ICT-based learning resources use in university inorganic chemistry course training, detects difference of attitudes toward electronic resources between students and faculty members, which create the background for their efficiency loss

  8. Facing uncertainty in ecosystem services-based resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne; Brunner, Sibyl H; Altwegg, Jürg; Bebi, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The concept of ecosystem services is increasingly used as a support for natural resource management decisions. While the science for assessing ecosystem services is improving, appropriate methods to address uncertainties in a quantitative manner are missing. Ignoring parameter uncertainties, modeling uncertainties and uncertainties related to human-environment interactions can modify decisions and lead to overlooking important management possibilities. In this contribution, we present a new approach for mapping the uncertainties in the assessment of multiple ecosystem services. The spatially explicit risk approach links Bayesian networks to a Geographic Information System for forecasting the value of a bundle of ecosystem services and quantifies the uncertainties related to the outcomes in a spatially explicit manner. We demonstrate that mapping uncertainties in ecosystem services assessments provides key information for decision-makers seeking critical areas in the delivery of ecosystem services in a case study in the Swiss Alps. The results suggest that not only the total value of the bundle of ecosystem services is highly dependent on uncertainties, but the spatial pattern of the ecosystem services values changes substantially when considering uncertainties. This is particularly important for the long-term management of mountain forest ecosystems, which have long rotation stands and are highly sensitive to pressing climate and socio-economic changes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources optimization with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; He, Yongqi; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Bai, Wei; Lee, Young

    2016-04-18

    Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) has become a promising scenario to accommodate high-performance services with ubiquitous user coverage and real-time cloud computing using cloud BBUs. In our previous work, we implemented cross stratum optimization of optical network and application stratums resources that allows to accommodate the services in optical networks. In view of this, this study extends to consider the multiple dimensional resources optimization of radio, optical and BBU processing in 5G age. We propose a novel multi-stratum resources optimization (MSRO) architecture with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks (C-RoFN) using software defined control. A global evaluation scheme (GES) for MSRO in C-RoFN is introduced based on the proposed architecture. The MSRO can enhance the responsiveness to dynamic end-to-end user demands and globally optimize radio frequency, optical and BBU resources effectively to maximize radio coverage. The efficiency and feasibility of the proposed architecture are experimentally demonstrated on OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of GES under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on MSRO architecture in terms of resource occupation rate and path provisioning latency, compared with other provisioning scheme.

  10. Globalization and the Military Industrial Base: Where Should U.S. Policy Go?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sundell, Dennis R

    2007-01-01

    .... military industrial base. While the prospects of globalization have provided the defense industrial base with rewards including reduced costs as a result of competition and greater access to foreign technologies it has also created some threats...

  11. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  12. Analysis of Resource and Emission Impacts: An Emergy-Based Multiple Spatial Scale Framework for Urban Ecological and Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the complex and multi-dimensional urban socio-economic system creates impacts on natural capital and human capital, which range from a local to a global scale. An emergy-based multiple spatial scale analysis framework and a rigorous accounting method that can quantify the values of human-made and natural capital losses were proposed in this study. With the intent of comparing the trajectory of Beijing over time, the characteristics of the interface between different scales are considered to explain the resource trade and the impacts of emissions. In addition, our improved determination of emergy analysis and acceptable management options that are in agreement with Beijing’s overall sustainability strategy were examined. The results showed that Beijing’s economy was closely correlated with the consumption of nonrenewable resources and exerted rising pressure on the environment. Of the total emergy use by the economic system, the imported nonrenewable resources from other provinces contribute the most, and the multi‑scale environmental impacts of waterborne and airborne pollution continued to increase from 1999 to 2006. Given the inputs structure, Beijing was chiefly making greater profits by shifting resources from other provinces in China and transferring the emissions outside. The results of our study should enable urban policy planners to better understand the multi-scale policy planning and development design of an urban ecological economic system.

  13. Impacts of community-based natural resource management on wealth, food security and child health in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pailler, Sharon; Naidoo, Robin; Burgess, Neil David

    2015-01-01

    Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a major global strategy for enhancing conservation outcomes while also seeking to improve rural livelihoods; however, little evidence of socioeconomic outcomes exists. We present a national-level analysis that empirically estimates socioecono......Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a major global strategy for enhancing conservation outcomes while also seeking to improve rural livelihoods; however, little evidence of socioeconomic outcomes exists. We present a national-level analysis that empirically estimates...... socioeconomic impacts of CBNRM across Tanzania, while systematically controlling for potential sources of bias. Specifically, we apply a difference-indifferences model to national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the impact of three different CBNRM governance regimes on wealth, food security and child...... health, considering differential impacts of CBNRM on wealthy and poor populations. We also explore whether or not longer-standing CBNRM efforts provide more benefits than recently-established CBNRM areas. Our results show significant improvements in household food security in CBNRM areas compared...

  14. Local and Global Gestalt Laws: A Neurally Based Spectral Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Marta; Citti, Giovanna; Sarti, Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    This letter presents a mathematical model of figure-ground articulation that takes into account both local and global gestalt laws and is compatible with the functional architecture of the primary visual cortex (V1). The local gestalt law of good continuation is described by means of suitable connectivity kernels that are derived from Lie group theory and quantitatively compared with long-range connectivity in V1. Global gestalt constraints are then introduced in terms of spectral analysis of a connectivity matrix derived from these kernels. This analysis performs grouping of local features and individuates perceptual units with the highest salience. Numerical simulations are performed, and results are obtained by applying the technique to a number of stimuli.

  15. Special course for global nuclear human resource development in cooperation with Hitachi-GE nuclear energy in Tokyo institute of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Futami, T.; Saito, M.; Murata, F.; Shimizu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Many Asian countries are willing to learn Japanese nuclear power plants experiences, and are interested in introducing nuclear power generation to meet their future energy demand. Special course for Global Nuclear Human Resource Development was established in April, 2011 in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at Graduate School of Tokyo Institute of Technology in cooperation with Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy. Purpose of the special course is to develop global nuclear engineers and researchers not only in the Tokyo Institute of Technology but also in the educational institutes of Southeast Asian countries

  16. Research on evaluating water resource resilience based on projection pursuit classification model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhao, Dan; Liang, Xu; Wu, Qiuchen

    2016-03-01

    Water is a fundamental natural resource while agriculture water guarantees the grain output, which shows that the utilization and management of water resource have a significant practical meaning. Regional agricultural water resource system features with unpredictable, self-organization, and non-linear which lays a certain difficulty on the evaluation of regional agriculture water resource resilience. The current research on water resource resilience remains to focus on qualitative analysis and the quantitative analysis is still in the primary stage, thus, according to the above issues, projection pursuit classification model is brought forward. With the help of artificial fish-swarm algorithm (AFSA), it optimizes the projection index function, seeks for the optimal projection direction, and improves AFSA with the application of self-adaptive artificial fish step and crowding factor. Taking Hongxinglong Administration of Heilongjiang as the research base and on the basis of improving AFSA, it established the evaluation of projection pursuit classification model to agriculture water resource system resilience besides the proceeding analysis of projection pursuit classification model on accelerating genetic algorithm. The research shows that the water resource resilience of Hongxinglong is the best than Raohe Farm, and the last 597 Farm. And the further analysis shows that the key driving factors influencing agricultural water resource resilience are precipitation and agriculture water consumption. The research result reveals the restoring situation of the local water resource system, providing foundation for agriculture water resource management.

  17. Environmental Assessment for the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-13

    uses (e.g., sports arenas, golf courses, amusement parks, etc.) are generally considered compatible with yearly DNL ranges between 70 and 75 dB, if...natural resources and the environment. Global warming is projected to have detrimental effects on industries, including agriculture and tourism ...course, riding stables, Rod and Gun Program (CAR), Oasis Aquatic Center, Tickets and Tours, Family Camp, Sports and Fitness Center, Aerobics Center

  18. Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan: Chapter P in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Demarr, Michael W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Ludington, Stephen; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of East and Southeast Asia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The assessment covers the Philippines in Southeast Asia, and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), and Japan in East Asia. The Philippines host world class porphyry copper deposits, such as the Tampakan and Atlas deposits. No porphyry copper deposits have been discovered in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), or Japan.

  19. Platinum-group elements in southern Africa: mineral inventory and an assessment of undiscovered mineral resources: Chapter Q in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Causey, J. Douglas; Parks, Heather L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The platinum-group elements, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium, possess unique physical and chemical characteristics that make them indispensable to modern technology and industry. However, mineral deposits that are the main sources of these elements occur only in three countries in the world, raising concerns about potential disruption in mineral supply. Using information in the public domain, mineral resource and reserve information has been compiled for mafic and ultramafic rocks in South Africa and Zimbabwe that host most of the world’s platinum-group element resources.

  20. A global water resources ensemble of hydrological models: the eartH2Observe Tier-1 dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schellekens

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dataset presented here consists of an ensemble of 10 global hydrological and land surface models for the period 1979–2012 using a reanalysis-based meteorological forcing dataset (0.5° resolution. The current dataset serves as a state of the art in current global hydrological modelling and as a benchmark for further improvements in the coming years. A signal-to-noise ratio analysis revealed low inter-model agreement over (i snow-dominated regions and (ii tropical rainforest and monsoon areas. The large uncertainty of precipitation in the tropics is not reflected in the ensemble runoff. Verification of the results against benchmark datasets for evapotranspiration, snow cover, snow water equivalent, soil moisture anomaly and total water storage anomaly using the tools from The International Land Model Benchmarking Project (ILAMB showed overall useful model performance, while the ensemble mean generally outperformed the single model estimates. The results also show that there is currently no single best model for all variables and that model performance is spatially variable. In our unconstrained model runs the ensemble mean of total runoff into the ocean was 46 268 km3 yr−1 (334 kg m−2 yr−1, while the ensemble mean of total evaporation was 537 kg m−2 yr−1. All data are made available openly through a Water Cycle Integrator portal (WCI, wci.earth2observe.eu, and via a direct http and ftp download. The portal follows the protocols of the open geospatial consortium such as OPeNDAP, WCS and WMS. The DOI for the data is https://doi.org/10.1016/10.5281/zenodo.167070.