WorldWideScience

Sample records for global research environment

  1. Design research and the globalization of healthcare environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Song, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Global healthcare practice has expanded in the past 20 years. At the same time the incorporation of research into the design process has gained prominence as a best practice among architects. The authors of this study investigated the status of design research in a variety of international settings. We intended to answer the question, "how pervasive is healthcare design research outside of the United States?" The authors reviewed the international literature on the design of healthcare facilities. More than 500 international studies and conference proceedings were incorporated in this literature review. A team of five research assistants searched multiple databases comparing approximately 16 keywords to geographic location. Some of those keywords included: evidence-based design, salutogenic design, design research, and healthcare environment. Additional articles were gathered by contacting prominent researchers and asking for their personal assessment of local health design research studies. While there are design researchers in most parts of the world, the majority of studies focus on the needs of populations in developed countries and generate guidelines that have significant cost and cultural implications that prohibit their implementation in developing countries. Additionally, the body of literature discussing the role of culture in healthcare environments is extremely limited. Design researchers must address the cultural implications of their studies. Additionally, we need to expand our research objectives to address healthcare design in countries that have not been previous considered. © 2014 Vendome Group, LLC.

  2. Research on countermeasures to global environment change in the field of urban planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawanaka, Takashi [Building Research Inst., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    There are a lot of research themes in the field of urban planning and related fields as mitigation of global environment change. Main theme is reduction method of CO{sub 2} gas emission as a countermeasure against global warming. Some groups research on estimation of CO{sub 2} emission caused by construction activities both in building engineering and civil engineering and also on evaluation of countermeasures. They investigate reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by fossil fuel combustion and by building materials (cement, steel and so on) production process. But we cannot use data fitted to a spatial scale of urban planning. Many researches are focused on nation wide analysis. We, BRI, make a study of {open_quotes}Research on CO{sub 2} Emission in Urban Development and the Control Technologies{close_quotes} as will be seen later at 2. (2). There are two ways of research to reduce CO{sub 2} emission caused by daily activities to urban planning field. One is research on positive utilizing of natural environment in urban areas without depending to energy consuming artificial facilities. There is a research on mitigation of heat island phenomenon for instance. The other ways are research on improvement of energy consumption effect and on reusing of wasted energy In energy consuming type urban space for instance. There s a research on promoting District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and cogeneration.

  3. Global Environment Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Ringtail lemur mom with two of paradise Nations rally to protect global environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Stockholm, Sweden birds-eye view Events GEF-7 Replenishment Trung Truong Son Landscapes

  4. Development of the virtual research environment for analysis, evaluation and prediction of global climate change impacts on the regional environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okladnikov, Igor; Gordov, Evgeny; Titov, Alexander; Fazliev, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Description and the first results of the Russian Science Foundation project "Virtual computational information environment for analysis, evaluation and prediction of the impacts of global climate change on the environment and climate of a selected region" is presented. The project is aimed at development of an Internet-accessible computation and information environment providing unskilled in numerical modelling and software design specialists, decision-makers and stakeholders with reliable and easy-used tools for in-depth statistical analysis of climatic characteristics, and instruments for detailed analysis, assessment and prediction of impacts of global climate change on the environment and climate of the targeted region. In the framework of the project, approaches of "cloud" processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets will be developed on the technical platform of the Russian leading institution involved in research of climate change and its consequences. Anticipated results will create a pathway for development and deployment of thematic international virtual research laboratory focused on interdisciplinary environmental studies. VRE under development will comprise best features and functionality of earlier developed information and computing system CLIMATE (http://climate.scert.ru/), which is widely used in Northern Eurasia environment studies. The Project includes several major directions of research listed below. 1. Preparation of geo-referenced data sets, describing the dynamics of the current and possible future climate and environmental changes in detail. 2. Improvement of methods of analysis of climate change. 3. Enhancing the functionality of the VRE prototype in order to create a convenient and reliable tool for the study of regional social, economic and political consequences of climate change. 4. Using the output of the first three tasks, compilation of the VRE prototype, its validation, preparation of applicable detailed description of

  5. Research contributions for assessment of the state and evolution of the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    A Global Environment Assessment (GEO) workshop was held in Brussels on September 15 and 16, 1998. During the preparation of policy-oriented reports of GEO, several gaps in data and expertise had been identified. The workshop elaborated on the issues where gaps had been signalled aimed to bring together scientists from different disciplines, representatives of the Directorate General XII and specialists from RIVM in integrated environmental assessment to locate information missing in UNEP's studies and make progress in filling up gaps. Research needs would be identified. The specific issues were categorised as: land-related issues, urban environment and implementation of policies. The workshop participants were able to identify several links between the activities for GEO and ongoing research in the context of the EU Research, Technology Development and the Demonstration programme. About 15 more specific research needs were formulated. For land-related issues, the following knowledge gaps and research implications were identified: (1) e.g. social and economic expertise in land-use analysis, (2) e.g. land-use planning and urban land use in integrated assessment, (3) modelling land degradation, and (4) modelling the driving forces of land degradation. For the urban environment, the major knowledge research areas identified from an integrative perspective were: (1) defining a core set of indicators for sustainable urban development, (2) quantifying the interlinkages between environmental stress and human health, (3) describing the effects of measures, (4) determining the role of institutional structures, and (5) ensuring data provision based on the physical city. Major problems were identified for implementation of policies that the degree of policy implementation is not often measured and that it is difficult to relate policy actions to changes in environmental pressures. In analysis it is first of all necessary to identify which definition of effectiveness will be

  6. Global environment and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    The environment problems on global scale have been highlighted in addition to the local problems due to the rapid increase of population, the increase of energy demand and so on. The global environment summit was held in Brazil. Now, global environment problems are the problems for mankind, and their importance seems to increase toward 21st century. In such circumstances, cogeneration can reduce carbon dioxide emission in addition to energy conservation, therefore, attention has been paid as the countermeasure for global environment. The background of global environment problems is explained. As to the effectiveness of cogeneration for global environment, the suitability of city gas to environment, energy conservation, the reduction of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emission are discussed. As for the state of spread of cogeneration, as of March, 1992, those of 2250 MW in terms of power generation capacity have been installed in Japan. It is forecast that cogeneration will increase hereafter. As the future systems of cogeneration, city and industry energy center conception, industrial repowering, multiple house cogeneration and fuel cells are described. (K.I.)

  7. The global environment: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolba, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Global environmental chemistry today involves a rapidly expanding need both for new research and for the development of an interdiciplinary approach to the multiplicity of interconnected environmental problems. Every ecosystem shows signs of damage: growing quantities of wastes; decreasing water supplies; soil degradation; coastal zone deterioration; deforestation and climatic change; global warming due to ozone depletion. Solutions must involve a cooperative and holistic global effort in three areas: scientific understanding of how the interactive physical, chemical and biological processes regulate the total Earth system; public policy implications including closer liaison between scientists and policymakers;and understanding of the state of the global environment, what is going wrong, why, and whether it is getting worse

  8. GLobal Integrated Design Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Matthew; McGuire, Melissa; Smith, David A.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2011-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a collaborative engineering application built to resolve the design session issues of real-time passing of data between multiple discipline experts in a collaborative environment. Utilizing Web protocols and multiple programming languages, GLIDE allows engineers to use the applications to which they are accustomed in this case, Excel to send and receive datasets via the Internet to a database-driven Web server. Traditionally, a collaborative design session consists of one or more engineers representing each discipline meeting together in a single location. The discipline leads exchange parameters and iterate through their respective processes to converge on an acceptable dataset. In cases in which the engineers are unable to meet, their parameters are passed via e-mail, telephone, facsimile, or even postal mail. The result of this slow process of data exchange would elongate a design session to weeks or even months. While the iterative process remains in place, software can now exchange parameters securely and efficiently, while at the same time allowing for much more information about a design session to be made available. GLIDE is written in a compilation of several programming languages, including REALbasic, PHP, and Microsoft Visual Basic. GLIDE client installers are available to download for both Microsoft Windows and Macintosh systems. The GLIDE client software is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2000 or later on Windows systems, and with Microsoft Excel X or later on Macintosh systems. GLIDE follows the Client-Server paradigm, transferring encrypted and compressed data via standard Web protocols. Currently, the engineers use Excel as a front end to the GLIDE Client, as many of their custom tools run in Excel.

  9. The modern research environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Flemming

    1993-01-01

    Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval......Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval...

  10. Energy and global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyfe, W.S.; Powell, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    At present about 90% of the world's energy consumption is met by the fossil carbon fuel used in the form of coal, oil and natural gas. This results into release of vast amounts of waste gas CO 2 into the atmosphere posing a threat to the global environment. Moreover this energy source is not sustainable (renewable) and its use amounts to spending Earth's capital resources. The options to this energy source are biomass energy, hydro power, solar energy, geothermal energy and nuclear energy. The potentials, limitations, geological impact and environmental dangers, if any, of these sources are discussed in brief. Energy conservation through energy efficient systems is also one more option. Problems and potential for change to sustainable energy systems with respect to India and Canada are examined. Finally it is pointed out that the ultimate solution to the world's energy problem lies in population control and population reduction. This will make possible for the world to have a sustainable energy system primarily based on solar energy. (M.G.B.). 15 refs

  11. Development and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the Third World and the protection of the environment are two major global problems interconnected by energy - the motor of economic growth and the main cause of deterioration of the global environment. They can no longer be separated. The threats of ozone, acid rain, and global warming are global in scope and solutions must involve energy consumption, conservations, and renewable resources. The precept that development should hinge on sound management of natural resources and the environment no longer has merely local or regional significance. It is a global concern and each person should feel a sense of ethical commitment as a world citizen

  12. Global Fall Out of 239,240Pu and 241Am in The Environment of Serpong Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarbaini; Yatim Sofyan

    2000-01-01

    Determination of 239 , 240 Pu and 241 Am in the Cisadane river sediment and surface soil samples collected in 1996 from the environment of Atomic Energy Research Establishment (PPT A) of Serpong has been carried out. The objective of research was to evaluate the existence of 239 , 240 Pu and 241 Am in the environment as impact of nuclear activities in the PPT A Serpong. Surface soils were collected from 3 locations and each of location consists of 4 sampling sites. Cisadane river sediment consists of 3 sampling sites. The results showed that the average concentration were founded to be 17.03 ± 2.49 mBq/kg for 239 , 240 Pu and 9.20 ± 2.93 mBq/kg for 241 Am. The observed 239 , 240 Pu 241 Am concentration are low compared to the reported values for some other areas of the world. The Activity ratios of 241 Am/ 239 , 24O Pu and 239 , 240 PU/ 137 Cs in surface soils were found to be in the narrow range 0.32 to 0.53 with a mean value of 0.43 ± 0.09 and 0.017 to 0.029 with a mean value of 0.024 ± 0.005 respectively. This ratio is in excellent agreement with the value of global fallout

  13. Designing for the global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document contains papers which were presented at the symposium entitled Designing for the Global Environment. Session topics included policy and the implementation of energy efficient technologies. Individual papers were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  14. Networking of research information on global environment protection technologies; Chikyu kankyo taisaku gijutsu no kenkyu joho network jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Networking is being executed with an objective of exchanging information on global environment technologies at an international level. In order to further promote the information exchange, and to make web sites user-friendly, fiscal 1998 has performed structuring a thesis renewal system. As a result of structuring the thesis renewal system, researchers can use the system as using a word processor by inputting data from a terminal in their laboratories. The data can also be made into a data base nearly semi-automatically. In addition to reducing time loss, delay and input errors because of re-entry, the researchers can make the data into a database on nearly a real time basis, and can provide their own theses to any part of the world through Internet. With regard to retaining Internet security, the security software having been introduced last year was renewed. In addition, detailed status such as daily access has become possible of identification as a result of introducing the net intellect. (NEDO)

  15. The California Central Coast Research Partnership: Building Relationships, Partnerships and Paradigms for University-Industry Research Collaboration. Appendix A. Telecommunications Asset Management in A Global Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griggs, Ken

    2003-01-01

    .... The mission of this project is threefold: To develop a blueprint or design concept for a telecommunications asset management environment that identifies, tracks, and codes global communications assets, brings them into services, and makes...

  16. Globalization and protection of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panahandeh, M.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years two trends have come into conflict in the international arena. The first is the globalization of economy and the second is the increased public concern over the environmental impact of economic activities and awareness of the global dimensions of many environmental problems. Nowadays confrontation of the issue of globalization and economic liberalization and protect of the environment is a matter of heated debate and environmentalists see globalization posing a threat to environment standards. The effects of liberalization on environment in the developing world have been analyzed from the perspective of the pollution- have hypothesis. The hypothesis suggests that the liberalization encourages a spatial displacement of the so-called d irty o r pollution- intensive industries from the developed countries with stricter environmental regulations to their preferential location in developing countries which enjoy minimal environmental regulations or capacity for environmental monitoring and enforcement. It also suggests that economic policies which promote foreign investment in the natural resources of developing countries will increase rates of natural-resource extraction in the developing world. according to the theory, the translational firms will employ cheep technologies in developing countries which are not environmental sound and no longer permitted to use in the industrialized world

  17. Global economics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.D.; Hamilton, E.

    1991-01-01

    The rampant destruction of the rural tropics the earth's most fertile source of life will continue unchecked unless a global bargain can be reached between the capital-rich North and the economically destitute South. This report presents the findings of a colloquium sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations and the World Resources Institute, and assesses the prospects for a global policy for sustainable growth in the Third World. It reviews how the North constrains the development of such a policy by its actions in the areas of international trade, public and private investment, and debt and recommends new efforts to foster mutual cooperation. It also outlines a series of creative recommendations from the colloquium's international and multidisciplinary panel of experts. Offering an agenda for the June 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), this report sets the stage for one of the most important global challenges of the coming decade

  18. Promotion project to develop the global environment related industrial technology. Investigation on the possibility of research exchange; Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kenkyu koryu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Through visits to US universities and research institutes, investigation was made on the trend of global environment-related research and possibility of their exchanging the result of research with the RITE (Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth). To investigate the process technology to utilize microbes harmoniously with the environment, the visit was paid to Cornell University, Battelle Memorial Institute and Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, where the investigation was made on the environmental bioremediation with microbial functions and clean process production without by-producing substances to load the environment. To investigate the technical measures against the global warming, the visit was paid to Brookhaven National Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, California University, Hawaii University and Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, where the investigation was made, through discussion and exchange of research information and opinion with researchers and engineers, on the possibility of their exchanging the result of research with the RITE. Judging from the investigation of this time, the research which is mutually complementary between Japan and USA is easy to promote, because their respective advanced fields do not overlap with each other. 88 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Japan and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.S.; Moore, C.

    1993-01-01

    In many areas, the word most often used to describe Japanese policy is open-quotes enigma.close quotes In some ways, Japan's record on environmental policy also has elements of mystery and contradiction. On the one hand, Japan's history and culture often are associated with a reverence for nature. Indeed, Japan does lead the world in certain environmental areas, such as reduction of conventional air pollutants and compensation of air pollution victims. On the other hand, Japan has been widely criticized for its poor record in preserving its domestic environment, contribution to tropical deforestation, and unwillingness to protect endangered species. Today, the international community clamors for Japan to take its share of responsibility, as an economic superpower, for the global environment. To secure its place in world affairs, Japan slowly has begun to respond to this pressure on issues ranging from ivory importation to reduction of CFC emissions. There is some hope that the government's particular willingness to address global warming may be a sign of significant changes to come in Japanese environmental policy. However, international pressure remains on the many environmental issues Japan has yet to resolve, including tropical deforestation and financing of Third World development projects that harm the environment. Japan's environmental policy is most effective when government and industry cooperate to find technical solutions to environmental problems. Although in recent years Japan's energy consumption has risen sharply, the Japanese have developed numerous technologies to reduce pollution and increase economic growth by improving energy efficiency. It is in these technologies that Japan has made the greatest strides and has the most to offer the global environment

  20. Japanese policy on science and technology for the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, M.

    1994-01-01

    The current state of Japanese science and technology policy is discussed within the framework of overall global environmental policy. Principles of Japanese environmental policy include participation in international schemes for conservation of the global environment, promotion of Japanese research on the global environment, development and diffusion of technologies contributing to conservation of the global environment, contribution to conservation of the environment in developing countries, and maintenance of economic and social activities in Japan at an environmentally beneficial level. The Japanese environmental budget includes expenditures for earth observation and monitoring by satellite, energy-related research and development, and control of greenhouse gas emissions. The proportion of overall Japanese research and development (R ampersand D) expenditures which were spent on the global environment was about 2% in 1991. Of governmental research expenditures, ca 22% involve the global environment; however, some part of the expenditures on energy R ampersand D and on earth observation satellite R ampersand D are also environment-related. 5 figs

  1. Global health research needs global networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    To meet the challenges arising from global environmental change on human health, co-developing common approaches and new alliances of science and society are necessary. The first steps towards defining cross-cutting, health-environment issues were developed by the Global Environmental Change and

  2. Research on a Denial of Service (DoS Detection System Based on Global Interdependent Behaviors in a Sensor Network Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoksoo Kim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This research suggests a Denial of Service (DoS detection method based on the collection of interdependent behavior data in a sensor network environment. In order to collect the interdependent behavior data, we use a base station to analyze traffic and behaviors among nodes and introduce methods of detecting changes in the environment with precursor symptoms. The study presents a DoS Detection System based on Global Interdependent Behaviors and shows the result of detecting a sensor carrying out DoS attacks through the test-bed.

  3. The Global Environment: At a Tipping Point?

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xueying; Appelbaum, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Overview of the current global environment. Introduction to climate change, global warming, ocean warming and acidification, impacts on both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lecture used for a Global Studies class.

  4. Global Journal of Engineering Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Global Journal of Engineering Research is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Engineering Research including Mechanical, Civil, Electrical, Chemical, Electronics, Geological etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/ ...

  5. Report on an international joint research project for global environment technology in fiscal 1998; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo gijutsu kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to serve for measures against global problems taken by Japan, joint research was carried out with overseas research organizations. The research project selected ten themes considering urgency, internationality and economic proliferation effect in areas to serve for solution of global environment problems. These themes include removal or emission control of greenhouse effect gases, measures against atmospheric environment problems such as acid rains and ozone layer destruction, prevention of ocean contamination, development and effective utilization of energies and resources. When the feedback of these themes to the NEDO projects is considered, the research achievements in relation with development of the acid rain monitoring system in particular support indirectly development of carbon dioxide fixation technologies. The research achievements in developing an environmentally friendly biomass energy manufacturing process and environmental effect evaluation thereon contribute as an effective process to carbon dioxide reduction using biomass as raw materials. The achievements in research of nonlinear interfacial properties and mixed phase turbulence of low-purity carbon dioxide bubbles contribute to a project related to storage of carbon dioxide in oceans. (NEDO)

  6. Global positioning site environment evaluator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leffler, S.; Reeser, H.G.; Zaker, E.; Hansen, W.; Sikorski, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Development of an innovative, integrated, automated system (Global Positioning Site Environment Evaluator - GPSEETM) for surveying contaminated waste sites is described. This system makes novel use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite constellation for establishing specific locations and current times for surveying radioactive, hazardous, or mixed-waste sites. GPSEE may also be used for waste site contamination surveys after remediation activities to ensure environmental remediation is complete. A base station is established for collecting and recording data and directing field operations for field stations which may be located many miles from the base station. The field operators collect site surveying and contamination data utilizing a variety of chemical and radiological sensors. A major goal for the data collection process is to collect all data utilizing in situ sensors, thereby minimizing the need for collecting soil and water samples. Site contamination data is transmitted electronically to the base station for recording and processing. The GPSEE system is being developed for use at DOE/DOD and a variety of industrial facilities. 3 figs

  7. [Globalization in medical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehni, H-J; Wiesing, U

    2018-03-01

    The globalization of clinical research is gaining momentum. In particular, emerging countries, such as Brazil, India, Russia and South Africa show a significant increase in clinical trials. This trend is generating various ethical problems, which are examined in the present article. Sometimes, generally accepted ethical rules, such as the evaluation of clinical trials by ethics commissions are not respected and sometimes conflicts are generated which are difficult to resolve. For instance, it is controversial which standard of care researchers and sponsors have to provide in an international study. These conflicts are exacerbated by a fundamental dilemma: more research on diseases prevalent in developing and emerging countries is necessary. At the same time, the protection of study participants in those countries creates particular challenges. In recent years, international commissions and guidelines have achieved significant progress in solving these conflicts; however, the further development has to be analyzed very carefully. Incentives for better research on neglected diseases have to be created. Undesirable developments and abuse have to be prevented by appropriate international ethical standards.

  8. THE NEW GLOBAL ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Oksay, Suna; Oksay, M. Serhan

    2015-01-01

    Globalization has emerged as an unavoidable process. Its impact upon different levels create different results. Therefore, the effects- of globalization on the world, on countries, on industries, and on firms must be examined separately. The principal worldwide effect of globalization is the increase in the volume of world trade. Its effects on countries have become apparent through the process of deregulation and the elimination of obstacles to trade, etc. At the industrial level, it creates...

  9. Promotional operation for developing industrial technologies for global environment in fiscal 1998. International research exchange operation; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kokusai kenkyu koryu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective of creating a new scope of study intended of solving global environment problems and structuring a new technical system, exchanges with overseas researchers and research institutions have been carried out subsequent to those in last year. In fiscal 1998, six researchers from different countries were invited to implement joint researches, and two overseas researchers were invited to an international conference on industrial technologies for global environment. In addition, in order to identify trends of research and development in overseas countries, two researchers were sent to universities in Germany and the U.S.A., and three researchers to international conferences and symposiums on the industrial technologies for global environment. It was intended to exchange technological information between overseas researchers and Japanese researchers who are performing the advanced researches on the industrial technologies for global environment, and to proliferate the latest items of technological information. Therefore, seven international seminars have been held, including the '98 Japan-China Global Environment Protection Symposium, 'substance migration and carbon circulation in coral reefs', 'plant bio-technologies in the 21st century', and the Fourth International Forum for Environmental Catalysts. (NEDO)

  10. Promotional operation for developing industrial technologies for global environment in fiscal 1998. International research exchange operation; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kokusai kenkyu koryu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective of creating a new scope of study intended of solving global environment problems and structuring a new technical system, exchanges with overseas researchers and research institutions have been carried out subsequent to those in last year. In fiscal 1998, six researchers from different countries were invited to implement joint researches, and two overseas researchers were invited to an international conference on industrial technologies for global environment. In addition, in order to identify trends of research and development in overseas countries, two researchers were sent to universities in Germany and the U.S.A., and three researchers to international conferences and symposiums on the industrial technologies for global environment. It was intended to exchange technological information between overseas researchers and Japanese researchers who are performing the advanced researches on the industrial technologies for global environment, and to proliferate the latest items of technological information. Therefore, seven international seminars have been held, including the '98 Japan-China Global Environment Protection Symposium, 'substance migration and carbon circulation in coral reefs', 'plant bio-technologies in the 21st century', and the Fourth International Forum for Environmental Catalysts. (NEDO)

  11. Global Journal of Educational Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Education Research is aimed at promoting research in all areas of ... curriculum development, educational technology, foundation, administration etc. ... Innovative practices in science education: a panacea for improving ...

  12. GLOBAL PRACTICES OF STUDENTS’ RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to consider the problem of students’ research both worldwide and in Russia.Methods. The methods involve review and analysis of the foreign and Russian scientific literature on studied subjects; surveys on the management and realisation of student’s scientific activity in different countries; comparative analysis of the data received during surveys.Results and scientific novelty. At the first stage literature concerning the question of doing research in different countries is analyzed. Then the problems existing in the sphere of students’ research worldwide are identified. Among them are students’ motivation, supervisors’ motivation, developing friendly scientific environment at various levels, communication in science. Then, two surveys were held to support the theoretical issues. The first concerned general aspects of students’ research internationally such as when they start doing it, how they are motivated, what are the relations with supervisors etc. The second included questions about general age of getting scientific degrees (bachelor, master, and PhD, and was divided into two parts: for international and Russian staff. Procedures and results of the surveys undertaken for revealing of scientists’ opinion on quality and features of the specified kind of students’ activity in different countries across the world are described. It is shown, that some problems are common for Russia and global scientific society.Practical significance. On the basis of world experience, some solutions on development of scientific activity of the Russian students have been proposed by the author.

  13. Marketing Management: Monitoring the International Environment Factors Using Global Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of the global marketing environment in line with the factors determining its external conditions. The aim is to specify the marketing-environment indicators in the international context and interpret the use of geographical maps illustratively documenting the differences of particular parameters in various parts of the global market. The research-results help update the theoretical framework of global environment factors. These data are also important for practice. Many enterprises consider the question of optimising their sources and directing their goals towards the opportunities available thanks to global markets. The global environment mapping is thereby an important basis for the marketing activities whose implementation across national boundaries is going to be mainly influenced by peculiarities of the environment involving foreign markets and their changes.

  14. Global environment and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazuto

    1991-01-01

    The present status of investigation of acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse effect and their relations to radiation exposure are reported. Soil acidification increases transfer rates of radioactivities to plants which increases the population dose. There are two types of ozone depletion, conventional type and ozone hole type and the latter is much more serious than the former. In the greenhouse effect, although there are large uncertainties both in theoretical and observational sides, present predictions about the global warming will not be very far from reality. Environmental effects are wide-ranging and serious. Radon and thoron exhalation rates are affected by the global warming. The influence of the greenhouse effect on ozone depletion is to suppress depletion for conventional type and enhance depletion for ozone hole type. (author) 65 refs

  15. Global Research Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The proceedings of IRSPBL cover a number of relevant PBL topics such as assessment, learning outcomes, students’ engagement, management of change, curriculum and course design, PBL models, PBL application, ICT, professional development. This book represents some of the newest results from research...

  16. Research Methodology in Global Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro; Mudambi, Ram; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    We review advances in research methodology used in global strategy research and provide suggestions on how researchers can improve their analyses and arguments. Methodological advances in the extraction of information, such as computer-aided text analysis, and in the analysis of datasets......, such as differences-in-differences and propensity score matching, have helped deal with challenges (e.g., endogeneity and causality) that bedeviled earlier studies and resulted in conflicting findings. These methodological advances need to be considered as tools that complement theoretical arguments and well......-explained logics and mechanisms so that researchers can provide better and more relevant recommendations to managers designing the global strategies of their organizations....

  17. Global Banking System Regulatory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Mozhovyi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The international and domestic experience shows that the main factors of financial destabilization during the financial crises are in the banking sector. The article reveals that the vulnerability of the financial system is connected with functions, deposit and credit transactions, risks distribution and ensuring liquidity; banks act as a major factor in stabilisation measures in the current context of globalization processes, since the economic stability of banking activities relates directly to all the entities and only stable banking system can withstand the crisis phenomena. Therefore, as a result of the analysis, it is proved that not only reduction of risks of banks is needed, but also introduction of the effective supervision system over implementation of the requirements and standards to prevent these risks. According to modern international approaches, banks use the so-called prudential supervision, which is based on the risk management assessment policy on the part of the Bank’s management, and regulatory bodies contribute to implementation of such policy. The authors have concluded that not only modern specificity of banks, but also the impact of supervision systems and regulation of modern trends in development of the banking should be analysed. Application of the general regulatory principles and banking risks methodology is required. The task of supervision is distribution of reliable risk management practices in the banking system, taking into account national peculiarities of development.

  18. Research Award: Global Health Research Iniave

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generang new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspecve on crucial development issues. These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and ...

  19. The California Central Coast Research Partnership: Building Relationships, Partnerships and Paradigms for University-Industry Research Collaboration. Appendix A. Telecommunications Asset Management in A Global Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griggs, Ken

    2003-01-01

    ... (CPSU Grant Proposal Number 02-007) entitled "California Central Coast Research Partnership" awarded to the Research and Graduate Programs office at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California...

  20. WHO global and regional strategies for health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisashi Ogawa

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the WHO global and regional strategies for health and environment and discusses research needs on environmental health to support the implementation of the strategies. Particular emphasis on applied researches which generate information, for decision making, on health effects of development and environmental changes in specific locations

  1. WHO global and regional strategies for health and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hisashi [World Health Organization, Manila (Philippines). Regional Office for the Western Pacific

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the WHO global and regional strategies for health and environment and discusses research needs on environmental health to support the implementation of the strategies. Particular emphasis on applied researches which generate information, for decision making, on health effects of development and environmental changes in specific locations.

  2. Engine Environment Research Facility (EERF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This facility supports research and development testing of the behavior of turbine engine lubricants, fuels and sensors in an actual engine environment....

  3. Global status of hydrogen research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakeman, J.B.; Browning, D.J.

    2001-07-01

    This report surveys the global status of hydrogen research and identifies technological barriers to the implementation of a global hydrogen economy. It is concluded that there will be a 30 year transition phase to the full implementation of the hydrogen economy. In this period, hydrogen will be largely produced by the reformation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane. It will be necessary to ensure that any carbonaceous oxides (and other unwanted species) formed as by-products will be trapped and not released into the atmosphere. Following the transition phase, hydrogen should be largely produced from renewable energy sources using some form of water cracking, largely electrolysis. Target performances and costs are identified for key technologies. The status of hydrogen research in the UK is reviews and it is concluded that the UK does not have a strategy for the adoption of the hydrogen economy, nor does it have a coherent and co-ordinated research and development strategy addressing barriers to the hydrogen economy. Despite this fact, because of the long transition phase, it is still possible for the UK to formulate a coherent strategy and make a significant contribution to the global implementation of the hydrogen economy, as there are still unresolved technology issues. The report concludes with a number of recommendations. (Author)

  4. Radiations in space and global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguti, Takasi

    1994-01-01

    It has been well known that the global environment of the earth is basically determined by the radiation equilibrium of the earth atmosphere system embedded in the solar radiation. However, the surface temperature of about 15 degC on average is much higher than that determined by the radiation equilibrium. This is due to the so-called greenhouse gases in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane and others. Also the global environment has evolved by interacting with the living things on the earth, for example, tree oxygen by photosynthesis, and a small amount of ozone protecting living things from the fetal damage due to solar ultraviolet radiation. The solar radiation of short wavelength, that is, ultraviolet to X-ray influences atmospheric constituents, and the thermal structure and dynamics of the atmosphere through chemical reaction. The solar energetic particles produced by solar flares precipitate in the polar regions, and the nitric oxides are produced by auroral X-ray. Auroral activities accelerate particles in the magnetosphere. All these radiations cause significant global changes. Human activities increase greenhouse gases rapidly and cause global warming, and atmospheric chloro-fluoro-carbon (CFC) makes the ozone hole. Now, human activities must be modified to match the natural cycle of materials. (K.I.)

  5. Modelling Global Pattern Formations for Collaborative Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Khaled, Rilla

    2012-01-01

    We present our research towards the design of a computational framework capable of modelling the formation and evolution of global patterns (i.e. group structures) in a population of social individuals. The framework is intended to be used in collaborative environments, e.g. social serious games...

  6. Global environment and activity of RITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Jiro

    1991-01-01

    In the present paper, the author would like to discuss the relation between conventional energy and global warming. Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) was established in Japan, September 1990. The author would like to introduce what RITE is intending to achieve. This is the case when technology leads science. (J.P.N.)

  7. Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) is dedicated to understanding the problems of global climate change and their potential solutions. The Institute...

  8. Global research and development budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, C

    1980-03-01

    The future political and economic relationships between industrial countries and between the industrial and developing countries will be influenced by the investments now being made for research and development (R and D). There is little public understanding of this $150 billion global investment, 25 percent of which is spent on military programs, 15 percent on basic research, and nearly 10 percent on space exploration, while the most-pressing world problems are receiving relatively little attention. A breakdown of geographic distribution of research and a comparison of government expenditures for different areas of R and D reveals a situation that could be corrected. National and corporate priorities need to be revised and political and institutional barriers must give way to new international and cooperative arrangements. 3 tables, 27 references. (DCK)

  9. Man's impact on his global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.

    1976-07-01

    The experience and awareness growing from research activities leads to several important concerns for policy makers: there is a need to move towards a policy of conservation of our global air resources in its totality from earth's surface to stratosphere; the technical data base and level of understanding should be systematically improved for the rational implementation of standards for the whole atmosphere; the U.S. should establish a focal point for regional and global environmental assessments responsive to policy-makers' needs and concerns, and interactive with the UN's Global Environmental Monitoring System; and the environmental consequences of increased U.S. dependence on coal should receive greater attention so that optimal choices between control technology, tall stacks, and synthetic fuels may be achieved with conservation of total air resources

  10. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #37: PUBLICATION OF "OUR CHANGING PLANET: THE FY 2002 U.S. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Global Change Research Program is pleased to inform you of the publication of the new Our Changing Planet: The FY 2002 U.S. Global Change Research Program. This annual report to the Congress was prepared under the auspices of the Committee on Environment and Natural Reso...

  11. ASSESSMENT OF THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL MARKETING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Savelyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns with essence of assessment of the business environment and specific directions of analysis during the working out of global marketing strategy. The classification of the global marketing environment researches and tasks sequence in the context of the decisions made on each stage of global marketing strategy is proposed.

  12. 'Nikkei Global Environment Technology Prize' awarded to the joint research group on regeneration of tropical forest; Nettairin saisei kyodo kenkyu ga 'Nikkei chikyu kankyo gijutsusho' wo jusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    The tropical forest regeneration technology research group of Kansai Electric Power Company and Kansai Environment Center has been performing the research and development of tropical forest regeneration technology jointly with Indonesia since fiscal 1992. The group was awarded with the Global Environment Technology Prize from Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. As a result of stringent examination on 97 applications, being two times as many as in usual years, the group received high evaluation on the originality, reality and possibility of proliferation of its research, and impacts given to the societies. Two other groups were also selected. The achievements were reported by the representative of the group in the award commemoration lecture at the global environment economist summit held by the Nikkei press the same day. Conventionally, afforestation done with considerable efforts has often been lost by forest fires and slash-and-burn farming, whereas the present research aims at establishing a comprehensive afforestation technology considering social and economic aspects, and CO2 fixation. As one of the choices of flexible measures as a result of the effect of forests having been recognized in COP3, frameworks for utilizing the mechanisms of joint implementation and clean resource development were introduced. Ever increasing expectations are placed on the achievements of the present research works. (NEDO)

  13. Globalizing and crowdsourcing biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Ahsanuddin, Sofia; Mason, Christopher E

    2016-12-01

    Crowdfunding and crowdsourcing of medical research has emerged as a novel paradigm for many biomedical disciplines to rapidly collect, process and interpret data from high-throughput and high-dimensional experiments. The novelty and promise of these approaches have led to fundamental discoveries about RNA mechanisms, microbiome dynamics and even patient interpretation of test results. However, these methods require robust training protocols, uniform sampling methods and experimental rigor in order to be useful for subsequent research efforts. Executed correctly, crowdfunding and crowdsourcing can leverage public resources and engagement to generate support for scientific endeavors that would otherwise be impossible due to funding constraints and or the large number of participants needed for data collection. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of scientific studies that utilized crowdsourcing and crowdfunding to generate data. We also discuss our own experiences conducting citizen-science research initiatives (MetaSUB and PathoMap) in ensuring data robustness, educational outreach and public engagement. We demonstrate the efficacy of crowdsourcing mechanisms for revolutionizing microbiome and metagenomic research to better elucidate the microbial and genetic dynamics of cities around the world (as well as non-urban areas). Crowdsourced studies have been able to create an improved and unprecedented ability to monitor, design and measure changes at the microbial and macroscopic scale. Thus, the use of crowdsourcing strategies has dramatically altered certain genomics research to create global citizen-science initiatives that reveal new discoveries about the world's genetic dynamics. The effectiveness of crowdfunding and crowdsourcing is largely dependent on the study design and methodology. One point of contention for the present discussion is the validity and scientific rigor of data that are generated by non-scientists. Selection bias, limited sample

  14. Industrial technology research and development project for global environment in fiscal 1998. Report on achievements in research and development of technologies for environment friendly catalysts; 1998 nendo kankyo chowagata shokubai gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1998 in developing environment friendly catalyst technologies. Development was proceeded in a water decomposing hydrogen production system of double tank system utilizing visible lights. The system connects combination of visible light responding type semiconductor powders with an oxidation and reduction mediator via a membrane (consisting of a hydrogen ion permeating membrane and an electric conductor). Discovery was made on two sets of semiconductor-mediator combinations (to produce hydrogen and oxygen) that meet the requirements. A composite oxide powder catalyst of nano structure was also realized. Verification was made on water decomposing hydrogen production by using multi-layered membranes composed of a hydrogen producing catalytic membrane, a semiconductor membrane, and an oxygen producing catalytic membrane. By using selective oxidation that uses trace amount of nitrogen dioxide as a gaseous phase catalyst, such good results were obtained as conversion rate of 10%, and selection rate of 27% in methanol and 23% in formaldehyde. Selective oxidation mechanisms in iron carried silica and oxidized tin were elucidated theoretically and experimentally. It was elucidated by calculating chemistry that effect of adding nitrogen dioxide lies in draw-out of hydrogen, NO is involved in draw-out of O from CH3OO, and NOx is involved in synthesizing formaldehyde from CH3O. (NEDO)

  15. On global environment problems in electric power business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugi, Masashi

    1992-01-01

    The former environmental problems were atmospheric pollution, water quality contamination, noise and vibration nuisance, waste disposal and so on mainly at interior or district level, but now, the influence that the problems such as the global warming due to carbon dioxide emission, the ozone layer breaking due to freon gas, acid rain going over boundaries and so on exert to environment spreads to wide areas, therefore, various research and investigation have been carried out as the environmental problems on global scale at national and international levels. It has become an important subject to make the preservation of global environment and durable economical development compatible by effectively utilizing limited resources and energy. The electric power companies have advanced positively the prevention of pollution and the preservation of environment, and attained the environment preservation of top level in the world. The consciousness of people on environmental problems has heightened, therefore the construction and operation of power plants harmonized to districts are important. The countermeasures to environmental problems taken by electric power companies are reported. (K.I.)

  16. The Global Environment Radiation Monitoring Network (GERMON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakheim, B.J.; Goellner, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a group of experts from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) met in France to discuss and develop the basic principles of a global environmental radiation monitoring network (GERMON). The basic functions of this network were to provide regular reports on environmental radiation levels and to be in a position to provide reliable and accurate radiation measurements on a quick and accurate radiation measurements on a quick turnaround basis in the event of a major radiation release. By 1992, although 58 countries had indicated an interest in becoming a part of the GERMON system, only 16 were providing data on a regular basis. This paper traces the history of GERMON from its inception in 1987 through its activities during 1993-4. It details the objectives of the network, describes functions, lists its participants, and presents obstacles in the current network. The paper examines the data requirements for radiological emergency preparedness and offers suggestions for the current system. The paper also describes the growing need for such a network. To add a domestic perspective, the authors present a summary of the environmental monitoring information system that was used by the NRC in 1986 in its analyses of the Chernobyl incident. Then we will use this 1986 experience to propose a method for the use of GERMON should a similar occasion arise in the future

  17. Report on achievement for fiscal 1998. Global environment industry technology development promotion project (the advanced technology survey and research project); 1998 nendo seika hokoiusho. Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo (sentan gijutsu chosa kenkyu jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to structure innovative technologies to solve effectively the global environment problems, it is important to incorporate infra-structural technologies that have been achieved by universities and other research institutions. The fiscal 1998 project has commissioned 25 researches found superior from among research plans that have been invited during fiscal 1997. This paper enumerates the main themes including those under continued research. The research themes include: fixation of phosphor by using photo-energy, utilization of nitrogen fixing bacteria in rice plant roots for the purpose of carbon dioxide reduction, new functional solid ultra-strong acids for clean chemical processes, fixation of warming gases by using ultra critical fluid catalytic reactions, photo-catalysts having microporous structure, whose energy structure is controlled, waste water purification by using stimulation sensitive polymers, a practical and small high-speed environment purification system by means of a simple technology to cultivate high concentration bacteria of microorganisms, fundamental analysis of response to specific wavelength light in photosynthesized microorganisms, bio-remediation utilizing symbiotic systems of plants and bacteria, high efficiency catalysts purposed for total decomposition of water, and separation of carbon dioxide in deep sea bottoms by controlling hydrate crystal growth. (NEDO)

  18. Global water cycle: geochemistry and environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berner, Elizabeth Kay; Berner, Robert A

    1987-01-01

    .... The book provides an integrated approach to global geochemistry and environmental problems and introduces the reader to some fundamental concepts of geology, oceanography, meteorology, environmental...

  19. Human dimensions of global change: Toward a research agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, I.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth's environment is being transformed by human activity. Human activity, in turn, is being affected by these transformations. This interaction is being studied under the aegis of global change in the geosphere-biosphere. The purpose here is to explore the basis for and the substance of a proposed research program focused on the human dimensions of global change. Global warming due to the greenhouse effect, CO2 reduction, environment impacts, land use management, and the removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere are among the topics covered

  20. Two Decades of Global Mindset Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujac, Andreea Ioana; Kuada, John Ernest

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of a systematic review of 28 papers that have studied the global mindset orientation in the period 1995-2014. The review traces the development of the global mindset construct in order to provide scholars and practitioners with an analytical assessment of the exi...... of the existing research on this topic. The findings suggest that the existing knowledge of global mindset can be divided under two research themes: global mindset and leadership, and global mindset and internationalization.......This chapter presents the results of a systematic review of 28 papers that have studied the global mindset orientation in the period 1995-2014. The review traces the development of the global mindset construct in order to provide scholars and practitioners with an analytical assessment...

  1. Key Trends Shaping the Global Logistics Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handfield, Robert; Straube, Frank; Pfohl, Hans-Christian

    A summary from the full study “Trends and Strategies in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Embracing Global Logistics Complexity to Drive Market Advantage” (2013).......A summary from the full study “Trends and Strategies in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Embracing Global Logistics Complexity to Drive Market Advantage” (2013)....

  2. Global curriculum in research literacy for the surgical oncologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are, C; Yanala, U; Malhotra, G; Hall, B; Smith, L; Cummings, C; Lecoq, C; Wyld, L; Audisio, R A; Berman, R S

    2018-01-01

    The ability to provide optimal care to cancer patients depends on awareness of current evidence-based practices emanating from research or involvement in research where circumstances permit. The significant global variations in cancer-related research activity and its correlation to cancer-specific outcomes may have an influence on the care provided to cancer patients and their outcomes. The aim of this project is to develop a global curriculum in research literacy for the surgical oncologist. The leadership of the Society of Surgical Oncology and European Society of Surgical Oncology convened a global curriculum committee to develop a global curriculum in research literacy for the Surgical Oncologist. A global curriculum in research literacy is developed to incorporate the required domains considered to be essential to interpret the published research or become involved in research activity where circumstances permit. The purpose of this curriculum is to promote research literacy for the surgical oncologist, wherever they are based. It does not mandate direct research participation which may not be feasible due to restrictions within the local health-care delivery environment, socio-economic priorities and the educational environment of the individual institution where they work. A global curriculum in research literacy is proposed which may promote research literacy or encourage involvement in research activity where circumstances permit. It is hoped that this will enhance cancer-related research activity, promote awareness of optimal evidence-based practices and improve outcomes for cancer patients globally. Copyright © 2017 Society of Surgical Oncology, European Society of Surgical Oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE): A Concurrent Engineering Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Kunkel, Matthew R.; Smith, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a client-server software application purpose-built to mitigate issues associated with real time data sharing in concurrent engineering environments and to facilitate discipline-to-discipline interaction between multiple engineers and researchers. GLIDE is implemented in multiple programming languages utilizing standardized web protocols to enable secure parameter data sharing between engineers and researchers across the Internet in closed and/or widely distributed working environments. A well defined, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based Application Programming Interface (API) to the GLIDE client/server environment enables users to interact with GLIDE, and each other, within common and familiar tools. One such common tool, Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation), paired with its add-in API for GLIDE, is discussed in this paper. The top-level examples given demonstrate how this interface improves the efficiency of the design process of a concurrent engineering study while reducing potential errors associated with manually sharing information between study participants.

  4. Global change research: Science and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change

  5. Radiation and global environment. Consideration for the influence on ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Doi, Masahiro; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2003-09-01

    This book is based on presentations at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) symposium of the same title held by the NIRS Research Center for Radiation Safety in December, 2002, is edited with somehow enlightening intention as well, and is composed from 6 parts of; 1. Reasons for concern for influence on ecosystems, 2. Behavior of substances in ecosystems, 3. Changes of global environments and life, 4. Various environmental stresses and living/eco-systems, 5. New development of evaluation studies on radiation effects, and 6. For the radiation protection of environments. The 1st part involves 3 chapters concerning studies on effects on ecosystems and radiation protection of environments; 2nd part, 4 chapters concerning behavior of radioactive and/or stable cesium and iodine in forest and environmental microorganisms, and behavior and effects of acidic substances; 3rd part, 2 chapters concerning terrestrial history and evolution/adaptation of livings; 4th part, 5 chapters concerning radiation stress, active oxygen, radiodurance/radio-resistant microorganisms, ultraviolet, and environmental hormones; 5th part, 6 chapters concerning effects on cells of environmental toxic substance and radiation, environmental stress evaluation by DNA micro-array, effects on taxis, use of microcosm, simulation of computational model ecosystem, and aquatic ecosystems; 6th part, 5 chapters concerning environmental radioecology, safety measures in high-level radioactive waste disposal under the ground, radiation protection of environments from radiation biology aspect, effects of chemicals, and aspect and strategy for radiation effects on environments. (N.I.)

  6. The Future of the Global Environment: A Model-based Analysis Supporting UNEP's First Global Environment Outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkes JA; Woerden JW van; Alcamo J; Berk MM; Bol P; Born GJ van den; Brink BJE ten; Hettelingh JP; Langeweg F; Niessen LW; Swart RJ; United Nations Environment; MNV

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the scenario analysis in UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook, published at the same time as the scenario analysis. This Outlook provides a pilot assessment of developments in the environment, both global and regional, between now and 2015, with a further projection to

  7. Research on Intelligent Synthesis Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Dryer, David; Major, Debra; Fletcher, Tom

    2002-10-01

    The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a methodology for the assessment and continuous improvement of engineering team effectiveness in distributed collaborative environments. This review provides the theoretical foundation upon which subsequent empirical work will be based. Our review of the team performance literature has identified the following 12 conceptually distinct team interaction processes as characteristic of effective teams. 1) Mission Analysis; 2) Resource Distribution; 3) Leadership; 4) Timing; 5) Intra-team Feedback; 6) Motivational Functions; 7) Team Orientation; 8) Communication; 9) Coordination; 10) Mutual Performance Monitoring; 11) Back-up Behaviors; and 12) Cooperation. In addition, this review summarizes how team task characteristics (i.e., task type, task complexity, motivation, and temporal changes), team characteristics (i.e., team structure and team knowledge), and individual team member characteristics (i.e., dispositions and teamwork knowledge, skills, and abilities) affect team interaction processes, determine the relevance of these processes, and influence team performance. The costs and benefits of distributed team collaboration are also considered. The review concludes with a brief discussion of the nature of collaborative team engineering tasks.

  8. State of the research environment - 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Julia Mae; Simmons, Jerry Alvon; Weaver, Karla

    2014-02-01

    This report describes the condition of the research environment at Sandia National Laboratories and outlines key environment improvement activities undertaken by the Office of the Chief Technology Officer and the Sandia Research Leadership Team during fiscal year 2013. The report also outlines Lab-level objectives related to the research environment for fiscal year 2014.

  9. Advancing Global Cancer Research @ AACR 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Priorities for NCI’s Center for Global Health' and included presentations on our mission, objectives, currently funded programs, and future programs given by Dr. Lisa Stevens and Paul Pearlman, as well as three special presentations by NCI grantees.

  10. Global Journal of Engineering Research: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Global Journal of Engineering Research is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Engineering Research including Mechanical, Civil, Electrical, Chemical, Electronics, Geological etc. Section Policies. Articles. Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed, Checked Peer Reviewed. Publication ...

  11. Exploiting coalbed methane and protecting the global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuheng, Gao

    1996-12-31

    The global climate change caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission has received wide attention from all countries in the world. Global environmental protection as a common problem has confronted the human being. As a main component of coalbed methane, methane is an important factor influencing the production safety of coal mine and threatens the lives of miners. The recent research on environment science shows that methane is a very harmful GHG. Although methane gas has very little proportion in the GHGs emission and its stayed period is also very short, it has very obvious impact on the climate change. From the estimation, methane emission in the coal-mining process is only 10% of the total emission from human`s activities. As a clean energy, Methane has mature recovery technique before, during and after the process of mining. Thus, coalbed methane is the sole GHG generated in the human`s activities and being possible to be reclaimed and utilized. Compared with the global greenhouse effect of other GHGs emission abatement, coalbed methane emission abatement can be done in very low cost with many other benefits: (1) to protect global environment; (2) to improve obviously the safety of coal mine; and (3) to obtain a new kind of clean energy. Coal is the main energy in China, and coalbed contains very rich methane. According to the exploration result in recent years, about 30000{approximately}35000 billion m{sup 2} methane is contained in the coalbed below 2000 m in depth. China has formed a good development base in the field of reclamation and utilization of coalbed methane. The author hopes that wider international technical exchange and cooperation in the field will be carried out.

  12. Doing global science a guide to responsible conduct in the global research enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    InterAcademy Partnership

    2016-01-01

    This concise introductory guide explains the values that should inform the responsible conduct of scientific research in today's global setting. Featuring accessible discussions and ample real-world scenarios, Doing Global Science covers proper conduct, fraud and bias, the researcher's responsibilities to society, communication with the public, and much more. The book places special emphasis on the international and highly networked environment in which modern research is done, presenting science as an enterprise that is being transformed by globalization, interdisciplinary research projects, team science, and information technologies. Accessibly written by an InterAcademy Partnership committee comprised of leading scientists from around the world, Doing Global Science is required reading for students, practitioners, and anyone concerned about the responsible conduct of science today.

  13. Mapping Global Research on International Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhabekova, Aliya; Hendel, Darwin D.; Chapman, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to map global research in international higher education. Specifically, the study uses bibliometric and social network analysis methods to identify key individuals, institutions, countries, and disciplines contributing to research in international higher education and to investigate patterns of connectivity among…

  14. Global Affairs Canada | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For example, Vietnamese and Canadian research teams developed micronutrient-enriched instant flours and baby cereals using local crops and local processing facilities. Global Affairs Canada, IDRC, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research are collaborating to improve health outcomes for African mothers and ...

  15. The global atmospheric environment for the next generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentener, F.; Stevenson, D.; Ellingsen, K.; Noije, van T.; Schultz, M.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C.; Bell, N.; Bergmann, D.; Bey, I.; Bouwman, L.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Collins, B.; Drevet, J.; Doherty, R.; Eickhout, B.; Eskes, H.; Fiore, A.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D.; Horowitz, L.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Josse, B.; Lawrence, M.; Krol, M.C.; Lamarque, J.F.; Montanaro, V.; Müller, J.F.; Peuch, V.H.; Pitari, G.; Pyle, J.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Sanderson, M.; Savage, N.H.; Shindell, D.; Strahan, S.; Szopa, S.; Sudo, K.; Dingenen, van R.; Wild, O.; Zeng, G.

    2006-01-01

    Air quality, ecosystem exposure to nitrogen deposition, and climate change are intimately coupled problems: we assess changes in the global atmospheric environment between 2000 and 2030 using 26 state-of-the-art global atmospheric chemistry models and three different emissions scenarios. The first

  16. The effective strategic leadership in the global competitive environment

    OpenAIRE

    Miceski, Trajko

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on strategic leadership and its importance as a potential source of competitive advantage in today's era of globalization. Strategic leadership can be defined as ability to: influence without coercion, prediction, vision, maintaining flexibility, anticipation of positive change, mobilizing and effectuation of human resources and many other activities that allow the company to the forefront in the global competitive environment.

  17. Does nuclear energy save global environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki

    2006-01-01

    Since the ecological footprint analysis in 1970s suggested changing consumption patterns and overpopulation concerns, energy policy such as energy conservation and use of renewable energy has become of prime importance. Several results of the long-term energy demand and supply analysis in 2050 or 2100 to reduce drastically carbon dioxide emission as a measure against global warming, showed the necessity of nuclear power deployment as well as maximum efforts to save energy, exploitation of the separation and disposal of carbon dioxide, and shifting energy sources to fuels that emit less greenhouse gases or non-fossil fuels. As a promising means to contribute to long-term energy supply, nuclear power generation is expected with improving safety, economic efficiency, environmental adaptability, and nuclear proliferation resistance of the technologies. (T.Tanaka)

  18. Uncertainty and global climate change research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Weiher, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The Workshop on Uncertainty and Global Climate Change Research March 22--23, 1994, in Knoxville, Tennessee. This report summarizes the results and recommendations of the workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to examine in-depth the concept of uncertainty. From an analytical point of view, uncertainty is a central feature of global climate science, economics and decision making. The magnitude and complexity of uncertainty surrounding global climate change has made it quite difficult to answer even the most simple and important of questions-whether potentially costly action is required now to ameliorate adverse consequences of global climate change or whether delay is warranted to gain better information to reduce uncertainties. A major conclusion of the workshop is that multidisciplinary integrated assessments using decision analytic techniques as a foundation is key to addressing global change policy concerns. First, uncertainty must be dealt with explicitly and rigorously since it is and will continue to be a key feature of analysis and recommendations on policy questions for years to come. Second, key policy questions and variables need to be explicitly identified, prioritized, and their uncertainty characterized to guide the entire scientific, modeling, and policy analysis process. Multidisciplinary integrated assessment techniques and value of information methodologies are best suited for this task. In terms of timeliness and relevance of developing and applying decision analytic techniques, the global change research and policy communities are moving rapidly toward integrated approaches to research design and policy analysis.

  19. Executive Perceptions on International Education in a Globalized Environment: The Travel Industry's Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, J. Mark; Katsioloudes, Marios I.

    2004-01-01

    Research on globalization has determined travel executives' perceptions of the psychological implications brought about by an interconnected global environment and the implications on international education. With the concepts of Clyne and Rizvi (1998) and Pittaway, Ferguson, and Breen (1998) on the value of cross-cultural interaction as a…

  20. Global warming and the built environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samuels, Robert; Prasad, Deo K

    1994-01-01

    ... with other professional bodies and academic institutions are undertaken. Publications and research projects have covered Environmental Health, Disaster Management and Prevention, Health and Safety, Transportation Management, European Management Development, Law and Psychology, Personnel Management, Solid Waste Management, European Community Issues, Child and Adolescent T...

  1. The Future of the Global Environment: A Model-based Analysis Supporting UNEP's First Global Environment Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkes JA; Woerden JW van; Alcamo J; Berk MM; Bol P; Born GJ van den; Brink BJE ten; Hettelingh JP; Langeweg F; Niessen LW; Swart RJ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenia; MNV

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the scenario analysis in UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook, published at the same time as the scenario analysis. This Outlook provides a pilot assessment of developments in the environment, both global and regional, between now and 2015, with a further projection to 2050. The study was carried out in support of the Agenda 21 interim evaluation, five years after 'Rio' and ten years after 'Brundtland'. The scenario analysis is based on only one scenario, Conventional...

  2. Artisanal Fisheries Research: A Need for Globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Júnior, José Gilmar C; Silva, Luana P S; Malhado, Ana C M; Batista, Vandick S; Fabré, Nidia N; Ladle, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Given limited funds for research and widespread degradation of ecosystems, environmental scientists should geographically target their studies where they will be most effective. However, in academic areas such as conservation and natural resource management there is often a mismatch between the geographic foci of research effort/funding and research needs. The former frequently being focused in the developed world while the latter is greater in the biodiverse countries of the Global South. Here, we adopt a bibliometric approach to test this hypothesis using research on artisanal fisheries. Such fisheries occur throughout the world, but are especially prominent in developing countries where they are important for supporting local livelihoods, food security and poverty alleviation. Moreover, most artisanal fisheries in the Global South are unregulated and unmonitored and are in urgent need of science-based management to ensure future sustainability. Our results indicate that, as predicted, global research networks and centres of knowledge production are predominantly located in developed countries, indicating a global mismatch between research needs and capacity.

  3. Artisanal Fisheries Research: A Need for Globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Vandick S.; Fabré, Nidia N.

    2016-01-01

    Given limited funds for research and widespread degradation of ecosystems, environmental scientists should geographically target their studies where they will be most effective. However, in academic areas such as conservation and natural resource management there is often a mismatch between the geographic foci of research effort/funding and research needs. The former frequently being focused in the developed world while the latter is greater in the biodiverse countries of the Global South. Here, we adopt a bibliometric approach to test this hypothesis using research on artisanal fisheries. Such fisheries occur throughout the world, but are especially prominent in developing countries where they are important for supporting local livelihoods, food security and poverty alleviation. Moreover, most artisanal fisheries in the Global South are unregulated and unmonitored and are in urgent need of science-based management to ensure future sustainability. Our results indicate that, as predicted, global research networks and centres of knowledge production are predominantly located in developed countries, indicating a global mismatch between research needs and capacity. PMID:26942936

  4. Artisanal Fisheries Research: A Need for Globalization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilmar C Oliveira Júnior

    Full Text Available Given limited funds for research and widespread degradation of ecosystems, environmental scientists should geographically target their studies where they will be most effective. However, in academic areas such as conservation and natural resource management there is often a mismatch between the geographic foci of research effort/funding and research needs. The former frequently being focused in the developed world while the latter is greater in the biodiverse countries of the Global South. Here, we adopt a bibliometric approach to test this hypothesis using research on artisanal fisheries. Such fisheries occur throughout the world, but are especially prominent in developing countries where they are important for supporting local livelihoods, food security and poverty alleviation. Moreover, most artisanal fisheries in the Global South are unregulated and unmonitored and are in urgent need of science-based management to ensure future sustainability. Our results indicate that, as predicted, global research networks and centres of knowledge production are predominantly located in developed countries, indicating a global mismatch between research needs and capacity.

  5. Romanian Market Researches in Global Market Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Market research is a powerful industry, whose value reached 21,5 billion USD in 2004. Market studies expenses are mostly concentrated in Europe (45% and in USA (37%. The market shares of the Top 10 companies were above fifty per cent of the research market’s turnover. As a young, modest market, which is 0,84% of the global expenses value, Romania was the global leader in terms of growth, in 2004. With an asymmetric demand and a relatively concentrated offer, the Romanian research market may have a spectacular development in the future, if the obstacles for the customers and research companies are surpassed. If so, the pressures following the UE’s entry of Romania and the evolution of customers needs and expectations will speed up the growth of the market research.

  6. Romanian Market Researches in Global Market Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Market research is a powerful industry, whose value reached 21,5 billion USD in 2004. Market studies expenses are mostly concentrated in Europe (45% and in USA (37%. The market shares of the Top 10 companies were above fifty per cent of the research market’s turnover. As a young, modest market, which is 0,84% of the global expenses value, Romania was the global leader in terms of growth, in 2004. With an asymmetric demand and a relatively concentrated offer, the Romanian research market may have a spectacular development in the future, if the obstacles for the customers and research companies are surpassed. If so, the pressures following the UE’s entry of Romania and the evolution of customers needs and expectations will speed up the growth of the market research.

  7. The politics of researching global health politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  8. Global environment outlook GEO5. Environment for the future we want

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    The main goal of UNEP's Global Environment Outlook (GEO) is to keep governments and stakeholders informed of the state and trends of the global environment. Over the past 15 years, the GEO reports have examined a wealth of data, information and knowledge about the global environment; identified potential policy responses; and provided an outlook for the future. The assessments, and their consultative and collaborative processes, have worked to bridge the gap between science and policy by turning the best available scientific knowledge into information relevant for decision makers. The GEO-5 report is made up of 17 chapters organized into three distinct but linked parts. Part 1 - State and trends of the global environment; Part 2 - Policy options from the regions; Part 3 - Opportunities for a global response.

  9. Global environment outlook GEO5. Environment for the future we want

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    The main goal of UNEP's Global Environment Outlook (GEO) is to keep governments and stakeholders informed of the state and trends of the global environment. Over the past 15 years, the GEO reports have examined a wealth of data, information and knowledge about the global environment; identified potential policy responses; and provided an outlook for the future. The assessments, and their consultative and collaborative processes, have worked to bridge the gap between science and policy by turning the best available scientific knowledge into information relevant for decision makers. The GEO-5 report is made up of 17 chapters organized into three distinct but linked parts. Part 1 - State and trends of the global environment; Part 2 - Policy options from the regions; Part 3 - Opportunities for a global response.

  10. U.S. Global Change Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcing... Read more The Deepening Story of How Climate Change Threatens Human Health Read more Celebrating the 25th Anniversary of the U.S. Global Change Research... Read more Nomination Period Open for the Sustained National ... more Connecting America’s Communities with Actionable Climate ...

  11. Persistent Factors Facilitating Excellence in Research Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpazidou Schmidt, Evanthia; Graversen, Ebbe Krogh

    2018-01-01

    The study presented here identifies robust and time-invariant features that characterise dynamic and innovative research environments. It takes as its point of departure the results of an empirical study conducted in 2002 which identified the common characteristics of 15 dynamic and innovative public research environments, and focusses on their…

  12. A DBMS architecture for global change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Nabil I.; Gennert, Michael A.; Ward, Matthew O.

    1993-08-01

    The goal of this research is the design and development of an integrated system for the management of very large scientific databases, cartographic/geographic information processing, and exploratory scientific data analysis for global change research. The system will represent both spatial and temporal knowledge about natural and man-made entities on the eath's surface, following an object-oriented paradigm. A user will be able to derive, modify, and apply, procedures to perform operations on the data, including comparison, derivation, prediction, validation, and visualization. This work represents an effort to extend the database technology with an intrinsic class of operators, which is extensible and responds to the growing needs of scientific research. Of significance is the integration of many diverse forms of data into the database, including cartography, geography, hydrography, hypsography, images, and urban planning data. Equally important is the maintenance of metadata, that is, data about the data, such as coordinate transformation parameters, map scales, and audit trails of previous processing operations. This project will impact the fields of geographical information systems and global change research as well as the database community. It will provide an integrated database management testbed for scientific research, and a testbed for the development of analysis tools to understand and predict global change.

  13. E-business Environment in the Global Information Society

    OpenAIRE

    Vymětal, Dominik; Suchánek, Petr

    2009-01-01

    In today´s digital 21st century, almost all businesses face intense competition from competitors all around the globe. There are no borders and business area for the all companies is almost unlimited. As the main supports of mentioned fact are globalization and ICT´s development. Influences such as globalization, increased popularity of outsourcing and offshoring have recently combined to produce an environment where ICT graduates need to have up-to-date and industry-relevant knowledge and sk...

  14. Roundtable on Urban Living Environment Research (RULER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahov, David; Agarwal, Siddharth Raj; Buckley, Robert M; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Corvalan, Carlos F; Ezeh, Alex Chika; Finkelstein, Ruth; Friel, Sharon; Harpham, Trudy; Hossain, Maharufa; de Faria Leao, Beatriz; Mboup, Gora; Montgomery, Mark R; Netherland, Julie C; Ompad, Danielle C; Prasad, Amit; Quinn, Andrew T; Rothman, Alexander; Satterthwaite, David E; Stansfield, Sally; Watson, Vanessa J

    2011-10-01

    For 18 months in 2009-2010, the Rockefeller Foundation provided support to establish the Roundtable on Urban Living Environment Research (RULER). Composed of leading experts in population health measurement from a variety of disciplines, sectors, and continents, RULER met for the purpose of reviewing existing methods of measurement for urban health in the context of recent reports from UN agencies on health inequities in urban settings. The audience for this report was identified as international, national, and local governing bodies; civil society; and donor agencies. The goal of the report was to identify gaps in measurement that must be filled in order to assess and evaluate population health in urban settings, especially in informal settlements (or slums) in low- and middle-income countries. Care must be taken to integrate recommendations with existing platforms (e.g., Health Metrics Network, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation) that could incorporate, mature, and sustain efforts to address these gaps and promote effective data for healthy urban management. RULER noted that these existing platforms focus primarily on health outcomes and systems, mainly at the national level. Although substantial reviews of health outcomes and health service measures had been conducted elsewhere, such reviews covered these in an aggregate and perhaps misleading way. For example, some spatial aspects of health inequities, such as those pointed to in the 2008 report from the WHO's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, received limited attention. If RULER were to focus on health inequities in the urban environment, access to disaggregated data was a priority. RULER observed that some urban health metrics were already available, if not always appreciated and utilized in ongoing efforts (e.g., census data with granular data on households, water, and sanitation but with little attention paid to the spatial dimensions of these data). Other less obvious elements

  15. The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

    2011-12-01

    own research to develop a library of immersive visualization stories and templates that explore ecological relationships across time at cosmic, global, and bioregional scales, with learning goals aligned to climate and earth science literacy principles. These experiential narratives are used to increase participants' awareness of global change issues as well as to engage them in dialogues and design processes focused on steps they can take within their own communities to systemically address these interconnected challenges. More than 600 digital planetariums in the U.S. collectively represent a pioneering opportunity for distributing Earth systems messages over large geographic areas. By placing the viewer-and Earth itself-within the context of the rest of the universe, digital planetariums can uniquely provide essential transcalar perspectives on the complex interdependencies of Earth's interacting physical and biological systems. The Worldviews Network is creating innovative, data-driven approaches for engaging the American public in dialogues about human-induced global changes.

  16. GLOBEC: Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics: A component of the US Global Change Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    GLOBEC (GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics) is a research initiative proposed by the oceanographic and fisheries communities to address the question of how changes in global environment are expected to affect the abundance and production of animals in the sea. The approach to this problem is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that determine both the abundance of key marine animal populations and their variances in space and time. The assumption is that the physical environment is a major contributor to patterns of abundance and production of marine animals, in large part because the planktonic life stages typical of most marine animals are intrinsically at the mercy of the fluid motions of the medium in which they live. Consequently, the authors reason that a logical approach to predicting the potential impact of a globally changing environment is to understand how the physical environment, both directly and indirectly, contributes to animal abundance and its variability in marine ecosystems. The plans for this coordinated study of of the potential impact of global change on ocean ecosystems dynamics are discussed.

  17. Research Progress and Prospect of GNSS Space Environment Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAO Yibin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Troposphere and ionosphere are two important components of the near-earth space environment. They are close to the surface of the earth and have great influence on human life. The developments of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS over the past several decades provide a great opportunity for the GNSS-based space environment science. This review summarizes the research progress and prospect of the GNSS-based research of the Earth's troposphere and ionosphere. On the tropospheric perspective, modeling of the key tropospheric parameters and inversion of precipitable water vapor (PWV are dominant researching fields. On the ionospheric perspective, 2D/3D ionospheric models and regional/global ionospheric monitoring are dominant researching fields.

  18. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available

  19. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H. [eds.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  20. International Management: Creating a More Realistic Global Planning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Darryl G.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need for realistic global planning environments in international business education, introducing a strategic planning model that has teams interacting with teams to strategically analyze a selected multinational company. This dynamic process must result in a single integrated written analysis that specifies an optimal strategy for…

  1. Modeling higher education attractiveness to stand global environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Cezar Rodrigues

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inabilities to deal with the changing environment may lead Higher Education Institutions (HEI to loose institutional attractiveness. Digital transformation requires global insertion as essential feature to institutional attractiveness. Processes for international education seem to lack the links between real environmental trends and the internal capabilities to global education. HEI managers may approach endeavors to internationalize education combining ambidextrous strategy supported by consolidated resilience capabilities. The latest ones refer to building internal value attributes to increase institutional attractiveness assuring solid standing in the global environment. In this article, a theoretical essay, we approach the problem of creating resilience as a way of backing up ambidexterity to generate institutional attractiveness. The set of value attributes, on the other hand, may originate strategic routes to strengthen internal competences and to make the institution more attractive, as a dynamic capability.

  2. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  3. Development of Global Change Research in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Yepes, Adriana P.

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems and Global Change in the Context of the Neotropics; Medellín, Colombia, 19-20 May 2010; Research in most areas of global environmental change is overwhelmingly produced outside developing countries, which are usually consumers rather than producers of the knowledge associated with their natural resources. While there have been important recent advances in understanding the causes of global-¬scale changes and their consequences to the functioning of tropical ecosystems, there is still an important gap in the understanding of these changes at regional and national levels (where important political decisions are usually made). A symposium was held with the aim of surveying the current state of research activities in a small, developing country such as Colombia. It was jointly organized by the Research Center on Ecosystems and Global Change, Carbono and Bosques; the National University of Colombia at Medellín and the Colombian Ministry of the Environment, Housing, and Regional Development. This 2-¬day symposium gathered Colombian and international scientists involved in different areas of global environmental change, tropical ecosystems, and human societies.

  4. Environment and safety research status report: 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The 1993 status report discusses ongoing and planned research activities in the GRI Environment and Safety Program. The objectives and goals, accomplishments, and strategy along with the basis for each project area are presented for the supply, end use, and gas operations subprograms. Within the context of these subprograms, contract status summaries under their conceptual titles are given for the following project areas: Gas Supply Environmental and Safety Research, Air Quality Research, End Use Equipment Safety Research, Gas Operations Safety Research, Liquefied Natural Gas, Safety Research, and Gas Operations Environmental Research

  5. Scientists’ perspectives on global ocean research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Alan Rudd

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverse natural and social science research is needed to support policies to recover and sustain healthy oceans. While a wide variety of expert-led prioritization initiatives have identified research themes and priorities at national and regional scale, over the past several years there has also been a surge in the number of scanning exercises that have identified important environmental research questions and issues ‘from the bottom-up’. From those questions, winnowed from thousands of contributions by scientists and policy-makers around the world who participated in terrestrial, aquatic and domain-specific horizon scanning and big question exercises, I identified 657 research questions potentially important for informing decisions regarding ocean governance and sustainability. These were distilled to a short list of 67 distinctive research questions that, in an internet survey, were ranked by 2179 scientists from 94 countries. Five of the top 10 research priorities were shared by respondents globally. Despite significant differences between physical and ecological scientists’ priorities regarding specific research questions, they shared seven common priorities among their top 10. Social scientists’ priorities were, however, much different, highlighting their research focus on managerial solutions to ocean challenges and questions regarding the role of human behavior and values in attaining ocean sustainability. The results from this survey provide a comprehensive and timely assessment of current ocean research priorities among research-active scientists but highlight potential challenges in stimulating crossdisciplinary research. As ocean and coastal research necessarily becomes more transdisciplinary to address complex ocean challenges, it will be critical for scientists and research funders to understand how scientists from different disciplines and regions might collaborate and strengthen the overall evidence base for ocean

  6. Research highlights in energy and eco-efficient built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, M. (ed.)

    2012-06-15

    This publication presents a compilation of VTT's recent research on energy and eco-efficient built environment. Sustainability as a dominating driver of technology development can also be seen in the R and D portfolio of VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. A clear focus of our research for the building sector is sustainable construction, particularly the energy efficiency of the built environment. Buildings and the whole built environment are in a key role when societies are mitigating climate change and adapting to its consequences. Despite the temporary economic downturn, construction globally remains one of the most significant areas of human activities globally. Due to the urgency of measures related to climate change and the need to provide a proper environment for living and working, a large number of national and international measures have been agreed to guarantee the future development of sustainable built environment for all. Indirectly, this has lead to a need to develop existing and completely new technologies and processes for the built environment with a speed faster than ever and with a more holistic performance metrics than ever.

  7. Recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe paper presents an overview of recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software. We have interpreted "global" in the title of the Journal of Reviews on Global Economics to cover contributions that have a global impact on economics, thereby making it "global economics". In this sense, the paper is concerned with papers on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, as well as global software algorithms that have...

  8. Open and Distance Education in Global Environment: Opportunities for Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. PULIST

    2007-01-01

    development at various levels. i.e. faculty development in educational institutions, human resource development in food processing industry and sustainable community development are some of the critical issues which have been discussed at length by the respective authors. Since the book is a compendium of articles submitted in ICDE International Conference on the theme ‘Open and Distance Education in Global Environment: Opportunities for Collaboration”, the sub-themes dealt with it have a restricted canvas in consonance with the sub-themes of the conference. The book will prove to be a rich resource of information and will be of immense help to the scholars and researchers in the area of open and distance education the world over.

  9. Global assessments of the state of the marine environment: Contemporary initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewers, J.M.; Boelens, R.G.V.

    1999-01-01

    A large number of assessments of regional marine areas have been conducted in recent years for a variety of purposes. Periodic reviews of the state of the marine environment have been undertaken by the United Nations Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP). The most recent of these global assessments was published in 1990. The international adoption of a Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities in 1995 has led to additional demand for regional assessments and a global review. The regional assessments are either completed or in train largely through mechanisms associated with the UNEP Regional Seas Programme. The global assessment has been assigned to GESAMP and incorporated into its plans for the preparation of a new global review to be completed in the year 2002. The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, (IOC) the Scientific Committee for Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) are collaborating in a review of ocean science. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) recently approved funding for a 'Global International Waters Assessment' (GIWA) partly as a means of determining priorities within its International Waters Portfolio. This paper outlines the nature of, and contemporary activities within, these various assessments. (author)

  10. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tduplessis

    opportunities for research into constitutional issues, constitutional development and the relationship ... Legal research is a fundamental skill in the legal profession.9 Although all areas of law do not require ..... 1999 Legal RSQ 78. 56 In the print information environment lawyers use standard citation formats, e.g. X v Z 1999.

  11. Marketing research model of competitive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasilya Dmitriy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To support its competitive advantages in current market conditions, each company needs to choose better ways of guaranteeing its favorable competitive position. In this regard, considerable interest lies in the structuring and algorithmization of marketing research processes that provide the information background of such choice. The article is devoted to modeling the process of marketing research of competitive environment.

  12. Global Change Research: Summaries of research in FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document describes the activities and products of the Global Research Program in FY 1993. This publication describes all of the projects funded by the Environmental Sciences Division of DOE under annual contracts, grants, and interagency agreements in FY 1993. Each description contains the project`s title; its 3-year funding history (in thousands of dollars); the period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date (for most projects older than 1 year). Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: climate modeling, quantitative links, global carbon cycle, vegetation research, ocean research, economics of global climate change, education, information and integration, and NIGEC. Within these categories, the descriptions are grouped alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states its goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers.

  13. Research report for fiscal 1998. Research into the feasibility of exchange of studies for the development and promotion of global environment-related industrial technologies; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kenkyu koryu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The above was conducted by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE). Worldwide collaboration is mandatory for the settlement of environmental problems for the earth, and RITE is positively promoting its interaction with research institutes abroad. In fiscal 1998, it sent research teams to government organizations and research institutes in Europe and America for studies there. A study in Europe involved the preparation of chemicals from CO2 by virtue of novel biotic reactions, and RITE's microbial molecular function laboratory plans to start a leading study in fiscal 1999. In relation with environmental impact reducing technologies using sunlight-aided photocatalysts, visits were paid to three research institutes in America. RITE itself has developed a powdered semiconductor catalyst and is engaged in the study of producing hydrogen by decomposition of water using solar energy. Concerning the production of saccharides out of farm wastes remaining unused, researches were made into the feasibility of joint studies with some advanced research institutes in America. Discussions were made about the performance- and stability-related improvement of enzymes usable for the decomposition of biomass, the analysis of biological environmental circumstances that substance yielding microbes find themselves in under anaerobic conditions, etc. (NEDO)

  14. Physics Research Integrated Development Environment (PRIDE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.; Cormell, L.

    1993-12-01

    Past efforts to implement a Software Engineering approach to High Energy Physics computing have been met with significant resistance and have been, in many cases, only marginally successful. At least a portion of the problem has been the Lick of an integrated development environment, tailored to High Energy Physics and incorporating a suite of Computer Aided Software Engineering tools. The Superconducting Super Collider Physics Research Division Computing Department is implementing pilot projects to develop just such an environment

  15. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    section. Global companies will need to organize cross-functional value capture teams focused on appropriating value from their know-how and reputation by combining different institutional, market, and non-market tools, depending on the institutional and business environment in a particular region.......This paper documents the strong growth in tools used by firms to protect their intellectual property (IP), develop their know-how, and build and maintain their reputation globally. We focus on three tools that have become increasingly important in the last several decades: patents, trademarks...... experiencing the most growth. These trends in applications are less evident when we study which applications are actually granted. For example, the shift in IP activity toward middle-income countries and Asia is less pronounced, and the most developed countries still lead globally. Moreover, there seems...

  16. Preserving the global environment: The challenge of shared leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This book brings together essays commissioned as background reading for an April 1990 conference on the global environment co-sponsored by the American Assembly and the World Resources Institute. Among the topic areas covered are the following: technical aspects of energy policy and climatic change; harnessing the power of the marketplace; international cooperation; international regulatory regimes; world economic climate; deforestation and species loss; human population growth

  17. Virtual environments simulation in research reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Shalina Bt. Sheik; Bahrin, Muhammad Hannan Bin

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality based simulations are interactive and engaging. It has the useful potential in improving safety training. Virtual reality technology can be used to train workers who are unfamiliar with the physical layout of an area. In this study, a simulation program based on the virtual environment at research reactor was developed. The platform used for virtual simulation is 3DVia software for which it's rendering capabilities, physics for movement and collision and interactive navigation features have been taken advantage of. A real research reactor was virtually modelled and simulated with the model of avatars adopted to simulate walking. Collision detection algorithms were developed for various parts of the 3D building and avatars to restrain the avatars to certain regions of the virtual environment. A user can control the avatar to move around inside the virtual environment. Thus, this work can assist in the training of personnel, as in evaluating the radiological safety of the research reactor facility.

  18. Recent Topical Research on Global, Energy, Health & Medical, and Tourism Economics, and Global Software

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe paper presents an overview of recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software. We have interpreted “global” in the title of the Journal of Reviews on Global Economics to cover contributions that have a global impact on economics, thereby making it “global economics”. In this sense, the paper is concerned with papers on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, as well as global software algorithms that have...

  19. Recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe paper presents an overview of recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software. We have interpreted "global" in the title of the Journal of Reviews on Global Economics to cover contributions that have a global impact on

  20. U.S. Global Change Research Program National Climate Assessment Global Change Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The program: a) Coordinates Federal research to better understand and prepare the nation for global change. b) Priori4zes and supports cutting edge scientific work in global change. c) Assesses the state of scientific knowledge and the Nation s readiness to respond to global change. d) Communicates research findings to inform, educate, and engage the global community.

  1. Adaptive Global Innovative Learning Environment for Glioblastoma: GBM AGILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Brian M; Ba, Sujuan; Berger, Mitchel S; Berry, Donald A; Cavenee, Webster K; Chang, Susan M; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Jiang, Tao; Khasraw, Mustafa; Li, Wenbin; Mittman, Robert; Poste, George H; Wen, Patrick Y; Yung, W K Alfred; Barker, Anna D

    2018-02-15

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly disease with few effective therapies. Although much has been learned about the molecular characteristics of the disease, this knowledge has not been translated into clinical improvements for patients. At the same time, many new therapies are being developed. Many of these therapies have potential biomarkers to identify responders. The result is an enormous amount of testable clinical questions that must be answered efficiently. The GBM Adaptive Global Innovative Learning Environment (GBM AGILE) is a novel, multi-arm, platform trial designed to address these challenges. It is the result of the collective work of over 130 oncologists, statisticians, pathologists, neurosurgeons, imagers, and translational and basic scientists from around the world. GBM AGILE is composed of two stages. The first stage is a Bayesian adaptively randomized screening stage to identify effective therapies based on impact on overall survival compared with a common control. This stage also finds the population in which the therapy shows the most promise based on clinical indication and biomarker status. Highly effective therapies transition in an inferentially seamless manner in the identified population to a second confirmatory stage. The second stage uses fixed randomization to confirm the findings from the first stage to support registration. Therapeutic arms with biomarkers may be added to the trial over time, while others complete testing. The design of GBM AGILE enables rapid clinical testing of new therapies and biomarkers to speed highly effective therapies to clinical practice. Clin Cancer Res; 24(4); 737-43. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. CHANGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES RELATED TO THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT COMPLEXITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena DOVAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes in organizations appear as a reaction to the organizational environment changes. In order to manage these changes successfully, the managers need to anticipate and design alternative strategies by preparing different options.  Nevertheless, the complexity of the global environment forces the managers to adopt strategies for their organizations that are facilitating the creation of new strategic competences and competitive advantages to face the environmental rapid changes. In this context, this paper is aiming to illustrate the main directions the change management may consider to change the organization strategies in order to harmonize them to the external environment, such as: integration versus externalization, flexible specialization and flexible organization, standardization versus adaptation, market segmentation, relationship building and maintaining and communication integration.  However, the new strategies are based on a changed attitude of the managers towards the competitive advantage that is dynamic and focused on creation rather then to operations.

  3. Global scientific collaboration in COPD research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su YB

    2017-01-01

    academic domains.Conclusion: Despite the rapid development in COPD research, collaboration in the field of COPD research still has room to grow, especially between different institutions or countries (regions, which would promote the progress of global COPD research. Keywords: research collaboration, social network analysis, COPD, citation frequency

  4. CERR: A computational environment for radiotherapy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Blanco, Angel I.; Clark, Vanessa H.

    2003-01-01

    A software environment is described, called the computational environment for radiotherapy research (CERR, pronounced 'sir'). CERR partially addresses four broad needs in treatment planning research: (a) it provides a convenient and powerful software environment to develop and prototype treatment planning concepts, (b) it serves as a software integration environment to combine treatment planning software written in multiple languages (MATLAB, FORTRAN, C/C++, JAVA, etc.), together with treatment plan information (computed tomography scans, outlined structures, dose distributions, digital films, etc.), (c) it provides the ability to extract treatment plans from disparate planning systems using the widely available AAPM/RTOG archiving mechanism, and (d) it provides a convenient and powerful tool for sharing and reproducing treatment planning research results. The functional components currently being distributed, including source code, include: (1) an import program which converts the widely available AAPM/RTOG treatment planning format into a MATLAB cell-array data object, facilitating manipulation; (2) viewers which display axial, coronal, and sagittal computed tomography images, structure contours, digital films, and isodose lines or dose colorwash, (3) a suite of contouring tools to edit and/or create anatomical structures, (4) dose-volume and dose-surface histogram calculation and display tools, and (5) various predefined commands. CERR allows the user to retrieve any AAPM/RTOG key word information about the treatment plan archive. The code is relatively self-describing, because it relies on MATLAB structure field name definitions based on the AAPM/RTOG standard. New structure field names can be added dynamically or permanently. New components of arbitrary data type can be stored and accessed without disturbing system operation. CERR has been applied to aid research in dose-volume-outcome modeling, Monte Carlo dose calculation, and treatment planning optimization

  5. Critical perspectives on changing media environments in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Erik

    the changes in the media landscape continuously alter the power balance between state, civil society and market. At the meso level, these changes will be discussed in relation to the development of the different media and of a variety of new locally specific media environments, which create new spaces......The main aim of this article is to give a general overview and theoretically discuss how significant changes in the media landscapes in Global South countries alter existing spaces and create new spaces for political and socio-cultural exchange, thus changing the complex interrelationship between...... media and society. Knowing that media is only one of many aspects in current societal changes, the focus will be more on the interrelationship between media and society and less on other aspects like globalization, education and political reforms. At the macro level, the article will discuss how...

  6. Environment, sustainability, and education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, Marcia; Rickinson, Mark; Bengtssen, Stefan

    Introduction: This session is a two part symposium on the topic of environment and sustainability in relation to educational policy development, enactment, and analysis. This format is modeled on similar formats used in other international conferences, such as the Association of American...... and methodological approaches to policy and policy research. Some key questions to be addressed include:- What kinds of understandings of policy and policy research are informing work in environmental and sustainability education?- Are there interdisiplinary approaches to policy research that can be useful...... for furthering critical education policy analysis?- What are the relationships between policy development and its enactment or implementation? - To what extent has the environmental education field researched policy development and/or enactment?- What might environmental education research have to offer...

  7. Tourism, globalization and the environment in the Mexican Caribbean Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Córdoba y Ordóñez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The terms globalization and tourism tend to be regarded as synonyms in the Mexican Caribbean, an area which shifted from a virtually uninhabited borderline territory to a tourism center receiving over six million visitors peryear. Territorial occupation patterns derived from tourism -identified during field work through a physiognomic analysiswere used to investigate some of the implications of the complex relationship between tourism and development, the latter including not only economic but human factors, as well as with the natural and cultural environment characterized by both a great diversity and a great fragility.

  8. Conducting network penetration and espionage in a global environment

    CERN Document Server

    Middleton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    When it's all said and done, penetration testing remains the most effective way to identify security vulnerabilities in computer networks. Conducting Network Penetration and Espionage in a Global Environment provides detailed guidance on how to perform effective penetration testing of computer networks-using free, open source, and commercially available tools, including Backtrack, Metasploit, Wireshark, Nmap, Netcat, and Nessus. It also considers exploits and other programs using Python, PERL, BASH, PHP, Ruby, and Windows PowerShell.The book taps into Bruce Middleton's decades of experience wi

  9. Deterrence and the New Global Security Environment - Lecture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This lecture note makes an analysis of a collective publication entitled 'Deterrence and the New Global Security Environment', edited by Ian Kenyon and John Simpson (Routledge, New York, 2006). This collection of papers rigorously examines the current place of deterrence in international security relations, delivering the best of contemporary thinking. This is a special issue of the leading journal 'Contemporary Security Policy'. The present Lecture note emphasises a particular deterrence situation mentioned in this publication which is the one involving terrorist actors

  10. Recent Topical Research on Global, Energy, Health & Medical, and Tourism Economics, and Global Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe paper presents an overview of recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software. We have interpreted “global” in the title of the Journal of Reviews on Global Economics to cover contributions that have a global impact on

  11. Development of Digital Instruction for Environment for Global Warming Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praneetham, Chuleewan; Thathong, Kongsak

    2016-01-01

    Technological education and instruction are widely used in the present education trend. Using of digital instruction for environmental subject can encourage students in learning and raise their awareness and attitude on environmental issues. The purposes of this research were: 1) to construct and develop the digital instruction for environment for…

  12. Romanian spatial planning research facing the challenges of globalizing sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Ionuţ Petrişor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There shouldn’t be any doubt that globalization not only affects economies, but also other areas of scholarly interest, such as the research environment. Within research, multi-disciplinary approaches are now being utilized on a grand scale. As a result, the joint evolution of scale and multi-disciplinarity seems to direct modern research from the ‘potholing’ towards the ‘sky-diving’ approach. In this context, many countries where the research tradition was affected by isolation are trying to catch up fast and compete within the global research ecosystem. However, some of the research domains have a longer tradition and developed their own rules, which are rapidly adopted by other fields, in order to equal the visibility of their predecessors. The positivist approach, consisting of statistically analyzing data resulting from experiments, which are, in turn, designed to test hypotheses derived from empirical observations or theoretical reasoning based on a literature review, has left an important fingerprint on current research practices. It also appears to be related to the pressure of publishing research, translated into the ‘publish or perish’ adage, and more recently, to the use of scientometric approaches to assess the value of articles, based on their citations. These new trends, along with an emerging competition between the scientometric giants, Thomson-Reuters and Scopus, facilitated the evolution of ‘predatory journals’, but also engendered a propensity towards designing hybrids between science and economy or between science and social networking. At the same time, the pressure resulted into individual unethical behaviors; some authors are no longer interested in delivering their results to the appropriate audience, but are looking instead for those means that could facilitate their academic or research promotion. Consequently, some journals are also attempting to meet these needs. The global race for research

  13. Law in Transition Biblioessay: Globalization, Human Rights, Environment, Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marien

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As globalization continues, many transformations in international and domestic laws areunderway or called for. There are too many laws and too few, too much law that is inadequateor obsolete, and too much law-breaking. This biblioessay covers some 100 recentbooks, nearly all recently published, arranged in four categories. 1 International Lawincludes six overviews/textbooks on comparative law, laws related to warfare and security,pushback against demands of globalization, and gender perspectives; 2 Human Rightsencompasses general overviews and normative visions, several books on how some statesviolate human rights, five items on how good laws can end poverty and promote prosperity,and laws regulating working conditions and health rights; 3 Environment/Resources coversgrowth of international environmental law, visions of law for a better environmental future,laws to govern genetic resources and increasingly stressed water resources, two books onprospects for climate change liability, and items on toxic hazards and problems of compliance;4 Technology, Etc. identifies eight books on global crime and the failed war on drugs,books on the response to terrorism and guarding privacy and mobility in our high-tech age,seven books on how infotech is changing law and legal processes while raising intellectualproperty questions, biomedical technologies and the law, and general views on the need forupdated laws and constitutions. In sum, this essay suggests the need for deeper and timelyanalysis of the many books on changes in law.

  14. Virtual Environments: Issues and Opportunities for Researching Inclusive Educational Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Kieron

    This chapter argues that virtual environments offer new research areas for those concerned with inclusive education. Further, it proposes that they also present opportunities for developing increasingly inclusive research processes. This chapter considers how researchers might approach researching some of these affordances. It discusses the relationship between specific features of inclusive pedagogy, derived from an international systematic literature review, and the affordances of different forms of virtual characters and environments. Examples are drawn from research in Second LifeTM (SL), virtual tutors and augmented reality. In doing this, the chapter challenges a simplistic notion of isolated physical and virtual worlds and, in the context of inclusion, between the practice of research and the research topic itself. There are a growing number of virtual worlds in which identified educational activities are taking place, or whose activities are being noted for their educational merit. These encompasses non-themed worlds such as SL and Active Worlds, game based worlds such as World of Warcraft and Runescape, and even Club Penguin, a themed virtual where younger players interact through a variety of Penguin themed environments and activities. It has been argued that these spaces, outside traditional education, are able to offer pedagogical insights (Twining 2009) i.e. that these global virtual communities have been identified as being useful as creative educational environments (Delwiche 2006; Sheehy 2009). This chapter will explore how researchers might use these spaces to investigative and create inclusive educational experiences for learners. In order to do this the chapter considers three interrelated issues: What is inclusive education?; How might inclusive education influence virtual world research? And, what might inclusive education look like in virtual worlds?

  15. Subterranean karst environments as a global sink for atmospheric methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Kevin D.; Drobniak, Agnieszka; Etiope, Giuseppe; Mastalerz, Maria; Sauer, Peter E.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2018-03-01

    The air in subterranean karst cavities is often depleted in methane (CH4) relative to the atmosphere. Karst is considered a potential sink for the atmospheric greenhouse gas CH4 because its subsurface drainage networks and solution-enlarged fractures facilitate atmospheric exchange. Karst landscapes cover about 14% of earth's continental surface, but observations of CH4 concentrations in cave air are limited to localized studies in Gibraltar, Spain, Indiana (USA), Vietnam, Australia, and by incomplete isotopic data. To test if karst is acting as a global CH4 sink, we measured the CH4 concentrations, δ13CCH4, and δ2HCH4 values of cave air from 33 caves in the USA and three caves in New Zealand. We also measured CO2 concentrations, δ13CCO2, and radon (Rn) concentrations to support CH4 data interpretation by assessing cave air residence times and mixing processes. Among these caves, 35 exhibited subatmospheric CH4 concentrations in at least one location compared to their local atmospheric backgrounds. CH4 concentrations, δ13CCH4, and δ2HCH4 values suggest that microbial methanotrophy within caves is the primary CH4 consumption mechanism. Only 5 locations from 3 caves showed elevated CH4 concentrations compared to the atmospheric background and could be ascribed to local CH4 sources from sewage and outgassing swamp water. Several associated δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values point to carbonate reduction and acetate fermentation as biochemical pathways of limited methanogenesis in karst environments and suggest that these pathways occur in the environment over large spatial scales. Our data show that karst environments function as a global CH4 sink.

  16. Research Trends of Ecotoxicity of Nanoparticles in Soil Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Mi; Kim, Shin Woong; Kwak, Jin Il; Nam, Sun-Hwa; Shin, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    We are consistently being exposed to nanomaterials in direct and/or indirect route as they are used in almost all the sectors in our life. Nations across the worlds are now trying to put global regulation policy on nanomaterials. Sometimes, they are reported to be more toxic than the corresponding ion and micromaterials. Therefore, safety research of nanoparticles has huge implications on a national economics. In this study, we evaluated and analyzed the research trend of ecotoxicity of nanoparticles in soil environment. Test species include terrestrial plants, earthworms, and soil nematode. Soil enzyme activities were also discussed. We found that the results of nanotoxicity studies were affected by many factors such as physicochemical properties, size, dispersion method and test medium of nanoparticle, which should be considered when conducting toxicity researches. In particular, more researches on the effect of physico chemical properties and fate of nanoparticles on toxicity effect should be conducted consistently. PMID:24278532

  17. The future of the global environment. A model-based analysis supporting UNEP's first global environment outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkes, J.; Van Woerden, J.; Alcamo, J.; Berk, M.; Bol, P.; Van den Born, G.J.; Ten Brink, B.; Hettelingh, J.P.; Niessen, L.; Langeweg, F.; Swart, R.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated assessments in support of environmental policy have been applied to a number of countries and regions, and to international negotiations. UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook (GEO-1) can be seen as a step towards making the tool of integrated assessment more widely available as a means for focusing action. This technical report documents RIVM's contribution to the GEO-1 report, focusing on the subject 'looking ahead'. It is illustrated that a 'what if' analysis helps to look beyond the delays in environmental and resource processes. This report illustrates that integrated assessment and modelling techniques can be excellent tools for environment and development policy-setting. The methodology, however, will need to be further developed and adapted to the realities and expectations of diverse regions, incorporating alternative policy strategies and development scenarios. This report focuses primarily on the period 1970-2015, because reliable historical data are often only generally available from 1970 onwards and the year 2015 is believed to match the time perspective of decision-makers. The findings of the analysis are reported in terms of six regions, corresponding with the division of the UNEP regional offices. Questions asked are: how will socioeconomic driving forces affect freshwater and land resources, and how will these changes mutually interact, and why are these changes important for society? Chapter 2 deals with the development of the social and economic driving forces. In the Chapters 3 and 4 it is discussed how this pressure influences selected aspects of the environment. Chapter 3 alone addresses the importance of selected elements of the interacting global element cycles for environmental quality, while Chapter 4 addresses land resources, their potential for food production and associated dependence on freshwater resources. The impacts on selected components of natural areas (Chapter 5) and society (Chapter 6) are subsequently addressed

  18. DEGAS: Dynamic Exascale Global Address Space Programming Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-02-23

    The Dynamic, Exascale Global Address Space programming environment (DEGAS) project will develop the next generation of programming models and runtime systems to meet the challenges of Exascale computing. The Berkeley part of the project concentrated on communication-optimal code generation to optimize speed and energy efficiency by reducing data movement. Our work developed communication lower bounds, and/or communication avoiding algorithms (that either meet the lower bound, or do much less communication than their conventional counterparts) for a variety of algorithms, including linear algebra, machine learning and genomics. The Berkeley part of the project concentrated on communication-optimal code generation to optimize speed and energy efficiency by reducing data movement. Our work developed communication lower bounds, and/or communication avoiding algorithms (that either meet the lower bound, or do much less communication than their conventional counterparts) for a variety of algorithms, including linear algebra, machine learning and genomics.

  19. A Global Voice for Survival: An Ecosystemic Approach for the Environment and the Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Pilon, André Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In view of the overwhelming pressures on the global environment and the need to disrupt the systems that drive them, an ecosystemic theoretical and practical framework is posited for the evaluation and planning of public policies, research and teaching programmes, encompassing four dimensions of being-in-the-world (intimate, interactive, social and biophysical), as they combine, as donors and recipients, to induce the events (deficits/assets), cope with consequences (desired/undesired) and c...

  20. Importing food damages domestic environment: Evidence from global soybean trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Mooney, Harold; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Tong, Yuxin; Xu, Zhenci; Huang, Baorong; Cheng, Yeqing; Yang, Xinjun; Wei, Dan; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Jianguo

    2018-05-22

    Protecting the environment and enhancing food security are among the world's Sustainable Development Goals and greatest challenges. International food trade is an important mechanism to enhance food security worldwide. Nonetheless, it is widely concluded that in international food trade importing countries gain environmental benefits, while exporting countries suffer environmental problems by using land and other resources to produce food for exports. Our study shows that international food trade can also lead to environmental pollution in importing countries. At the global level, our metaanalysis indicates that there was increased nitrogen (N) pollution after much farmland for domestically cultivated N-fixing soybeans in importing countries was converted to grow high N-demanding crops (wheat, corn, rice, and vegetables). The findings were further verified by an intensive study at the regional level in China, the largest soybean-importing country, where the conversion of soybean lands to corn fields and rice paddies has also led to N pollution. Our study provides a sharp contrast to the conventional wisdom that only exports contribute substantially to environmental woes. Our results suggest the need to evaluate environmental consequences of international trade of all other major goods and products in all importing countries, which have significant implications for fundamental rethinking in global policy-making and debates on environmental responsibilities among consumers, producers, and traders across the world.

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the project for the promotion of industrial technology development for the global environment. Project on the investigational research of high technology; 2000 nendo NEDO seika hokokusho. Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo - Sentan gijutsu chosa kenkyu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    High-tech study was conducted for fields of CO2 fixation/effective utilization, technical development of low environmental load substances and technical development of environmentally friendly type production process, and the FY 2000 results were summarized. Out of the proposals for research projects collected in FY 1999, 25 projects that were recognized to be excellent were consigned to contract research. Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth also selected 4 projects for research. Through research activities, 179 projects were made public, and 2 patents were applied for. The number of research themes was 29 including the following themes: development of food resource resistant to the future global environment, study on new circulation type polymer chemical recycling by bio-process, development of dioxin decomposition technology using artificial enzyme and absorption resin, design of rare metal free cathode substance for large lithium ion secondary battery, and reforming of carbon circulation system in the Australian desert by natural humus supply. (NEDO)

  2. Next generation environment for collaborative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collados, D.; Denis, G.; Galvez, P.; Newman, H.

    2001-01-01

    Collaborative environments supporting point to point and multipoint video-conferencing, document and application sharing across both local and wide area networks, video on demand (broadcast and playback) and interactive text facilities will be a crucial element for the development of the next generation of HEP experiments by geographically dispersed collaborations. The 'Virtual Room Video conferencing System' (VRVS) has been developed since 1995, in order to provide a low cost, bandwidth-efficient, extensible means for video conferencing and remote collaboration over networks within the High Energy and Nuclear Physics communities. The VRVS provides worldwide videoconferencing service and collaborative environment to the research and education communities. VRVS uses the Internet2 and ESnet high-performance networks infrastructure to deploy its Web-based system, which now includes more than 5790 registered hosts running VRVS software in more than 50 different countries. VRVS hosts an average of 100-multipoint videoconference and collaborative sessions worldwide every month. There are around 35 reflectors that manage the traffic flow, at HENP labs and universities in the US and Europe. So far, there are 7 Virtual Rooms for World Wide Conferences (involving more than one continent), and 4 Virtual Rooms each for intra-continental conferences in the US, Europe and Asia. VRVS continues to expand and implement new digital video technologies, including H.323 ITU standard integration, MPEG-2 videoconferencing integration, shared environments, and Quality of Service

  3. Teacher Research: Limits and Possibilities of Global and International Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Pereira, Julio Emilio

    This paper suggests that teacher research, as an international movement, has the potential to become a counter-hegemonic strategy to construct critical teacher education approaches in a globalized world. It begins by describing globalization and discussing the distinction between hegemonic and counter-hegemonic globalization, or between…

  4. Data management and global change research: Technology and infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    There is a consensus among many scientists who would perform global change research that global-scale scientific data management programs and enabling policies need to be developed and implemented concomitantly with, if not in advance of, global change research programs. They are hopeful that US Federal government policies for scientific and technical data and information management will provide timely archival, analysis, and dissemination of global change research data and will enable them to share that data with colleagues, internationally. Federal data managers believe that data management technology and infrastructure requirements for global change research programs can be met through existing or planned enhancements to systems in operation used for scientific data gathering, processing, and dissemination. Scientists are concerned, however, that because of the scope and diversity of global change research programs entirely new systems and approaches to data management may need to be devised

  5. Travelling Methods: Tracing the Globalization of Qualitative Communication Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan C. Taylor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Existing discussion of the relationships between globalization, communication research, and qualitative methods emphasizes two images: the challenges posed by globalization to existing communication theory and research methods, and the impact of post-colonial politics and ethics on qualitative research. We draw in this paper on a third image – qualitative research methods as artifacts of globalization – to explore the globalization of qualitative communication research methods. Following a review of literature which tentatively models this process, we discuss two case studies of qualitative research in the disciplinary subfields of intercultural communication and media audience studies. These cases elaborate the forces which influence the articulation of national, disciplinary, and methodological identities which mediate the globalization of qualitative communication research methods.

  6. Development of a global education environment to study the Equatorial Ionosphere with Cognitive Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    The author has recently been awarded the NSF Career award to develop a radar with cognitive sensing capabilities to study Equatorial plasma instabilities in the Peruvian Andes. Educational research has shown that a rich learning environment contributes tremendously toward improvement in learning achievements and also attitudes toward studies. One of the benefits of this project is that it provides such an environment and a global platform to involve several students at both graduate and undergraduate levels from the US, Puerto Rico, and Peru, and who will benefit from designing, installing, and deploying a radar in multi-instrument science campaigns. In addition to working in the laboratories, students will gain invaluable real world experience building this complex instrument and making it work under challenging conditions at remote sites. The PI will describe how these components are being developed in a Freshman Seminar course and Graduate courses in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Penn State University, and how they are aligned well with the department's and university's strategy for greater global engagement through a network of Global Engagement Nodes in South America (GENSA). The issues of mentoring, recruitment, and retention become particularly important in consideration of the educational objective of this career project to involve underrepresented students with diverse backgrounds and interest them in research projects. The author is working very closely with the Office of Engineering Diversity to leverage existing programs at Penn State designed to increase the participation of women and minority students in science and engineering research: (a) WISER (Women In Science and Engineering Research), and (b) MURE (Minority Undergraduate Research Experience). The Electrical Engineering Department at Penn State is also currently an NSF REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) site. The PI will also present his efforts in connecting his career

  7. Global Education: What the Research Shows. Information Capsule. Volume 0604

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching from a global perspective is important because the lives of people around the world are increasingly interconnected through politics, economics, technology, and the environment. Global education teaches students to understand and appreciate people from different cultural backgrounds; view events from a variety of perspectives; recognize…

  8. Bringing global cancer leaders together at the 4th Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research held in April 2016 was developed with a special focus on innovative and low-cost technologies in global cancer control, and brought inspiring keynote speakers such as John Seffrin, Former CEO of the American Cancer Society, and Tom Bollyky, Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council on Foreign Relations.

  9. Good and Bad Research Collaborations: Researchers' Views on Science and Ethics in Global Health Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Parker

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic rise in the scale and scope of collaborative global health research. A number of structural and scientific factors explain this growth and there has been much discussion of these in the literature. Little, if any, attention has been paid, however, to the factors identified by scientists and other research actors as important to successful research collaboration. This is surprising given that their decisions are likely to play a key role in the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research initiatives. In this paper, we report on qualitative research with leading scientists involved in major international research collaborations about their views on good and bad collaborations and the factors that inform their decision-making about joining and participating actively in research networks. We identify and discuss eight factors that researchers see as essential in judging the merits of active participation in global health research collaborations: opportunities for active involvement in cutting-edge, interesting science; effective leadership; competence of potential partners in and commitment to good scientific practice; capacity building; respect for the needs, interests and agendas of partners; opportunities for discussion and disagreement; trust and confidence; and, justice and fairness in collaboration. Our findings suggest that the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research collaborations has an important ethical or moral dimension for the research actors involved.

  10. Good and Bad Research Collaborations: Researchers' Views on Science and Ethics in Global Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael; Kingori, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the scale and scope of collaborative global health research. A number of structural and scientific factors explain this growth and there has been much discussion of these in the literature. Little, if any, attention has been paid, however, to the factors identified by scientists and other research actors as important to successful research collaboration. This is surprising given that their decisions are likely to play a key role in the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research initiatives. In this paper, we report on qualitative research with leading scientists involved in major international research collaborations about their views on good and bad collaborations and the factors that inform their decision-making about joining and participating actively in research networks. We identify and discuss eight factors that researchers see as essential in judging the merits of active participation in global health research collaborations: opportunities for active involvement in cutting-edge, interesting science; effective leadership; competence of potential partners in and commitment to good scientific practice; capacity building; respect for the needs, interests and agendas of partners; opportunities for discussion and disagreement; trust and confidence; and, justice and fairness in collaboration. Our findings suggest that the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research collaborations has an important ethical or moral dimension for the research actors involved.

  11. The policy relevance of global environmental change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarnal, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Many scientists are striving to identify and promote the policy implications of their global change research. Much basic research on global environmental change cannot advance policy directly, but new projects can determine the relevance of their research to decision makers and build policy-relevant products into the work. Similarly, many ongoing projects can alter or add to the present science design to make the research policy relevant. Thus, this paper shows scientists working on global change how to make their research policy relevant. It demonstrates how research on physical global change relates to human dimensions studies and integrated assessments. It also presents an example of how policy relevance can be fit retroactively into a global change project (in this case, SRBEX-the Susquehanna River Basin Experiment) and how that addition can enhance the project's status and science. The paper concludes that policy relevance is desirable from social and scientific perspectives

  12. U.S. Global Change Research Program Budget Crosscut

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — U.S. Global Change Research Program budget authority for Agency activities in which the primary focus is on:Observations, research, and analysis of climate change...

  13. Status of research on Drosophila ananassae at global level

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extensive research work on D. ananassae has been done by numerous researchers per- taining to .... sae has been most extensively utilized for various kinds of studies at global .... ananassae for quantitative and qualitative analyses of acces-.

  14. Ideas from the global climate change hotspot research | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-09

    May 9, 2017 ... Ideas from the global climate change hotspot research ... The Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA) ... the decisions they need to make about investment choices and development options, ...

  15. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  16. Land Tenure, Gender, and Globalization : Research and Analysis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Tenure, Gender, and Globalization : Research and Analysis from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Couverture du livre Land Tenure, Gender, and Globalization : Research and Analysis from Africa. Directeur(s) : Dzodzi Tsikata et Pamela Golah. Maison(s) d'édition : Zubaan, CRDI. 29 août 2009. ISBN : 9788189884727.

  17. Investigation on construction of the database system for research and development of the global environment industry technology; Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsuyo database system no kochiku ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This paper studies a concrete plan to introduce a new database system of Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) which is necessary to promote the industrial technology development contributing to solution of the global environmental problem. Specifications for system introduction are about maker selection, operation system, detailed schedule for introduction, etc. RITE inhouse database has problems on its operation system and its maintenance cost, and is apt to be high in a construction cost in comparison with a utilization factor. Further study is made on its introduction. Information provided by the inhouse database is only the one owned by the organization, and information outside the organization is provided by the external database. The information is registered and selected by the registerer himself. The access network is set by personal computer network at the beginning and is set to transit to INTERNET in the future. For practical construction of the system, it is necessary to make user`s detailed needs clear for the system design and to adjust functions between hardware systems. 32 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Rethinking global health research: towards integrative expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLachlan Malcolm

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Bamako Call for Action on Research for Health stresses the importance of inter-disciplinary, inter-ministerial and inter-sectoral working. This challenges much of our current research and postgraduate research training in health, which mostly seeks to produce narrowly focused content specialists. We now need to compliment this type of research and research training, by offering alternative pathways that seek to create expertise, not only in specific narrow content areas, but also in the process and context of research, as well as in the interaction of these different facets of knowledge. Such an approach, developing 'integrative expertise', could greatly facilitate better research utilisation, helping policy makers and practitioners work through more evidence-based practice and across traditional research boundaries.

  19. Utilization of research reactors - A global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents 1) a worldwide picture of research reactors, operable, shutdown, under construction and planned, 2) statistics on utilization of research reactors including TRIGA reactors, and 3) some results of a survey conducted during 1988 on the utilization of research reactors in developing Member States in the Asia-Pacific Region

  20. Research issues: the food environment and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard; Foster, Gary D

    2014-12-01

    "Research Issues: The Food Environment and Obesity" is an article series commissioned by the American Society for Nutrition and The Obesity Society in an attempt to consider the state of understanding on this topic and identify key knowledge gaps. Roberts and Karl focus on the role of energy density in the regulation of energy intake and body weight and offer recommendations for prioritizing research. Finkelstein et al examine food and beverage purchases as a function of price changes and conclude that targeted food taxes and subsidies alone are unlikely to substantially affect obesity. Pereira points out the difficulty in establishing the strength of the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain and obesity. Johnson and Wardle review the effects of palatability and variety on eating behavior and weight. Livingstone and Pourshahidi examine the impact of portion size manipulations on energy intake and weight management and find that consumers generally tend to eat proportionally more as portion size increases. Kant focuses on the efficacy and effectiveness of eating frequency manipulation for body weight management and finds that such manipulation has consistently yielded null results. Finally, Gordon-Larsen identifies several limitations of the existing literature regarding neighborhood access to healthy foods. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Geoff

    2011-09-01

    This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health.

  2. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Hancock, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  3. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Lobos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last hundred years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent.

  4. CORPORATE COMMUNICATION BIASES IN THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT UNDER GLOBALIZATION TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Elena, Chiţu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the private sector, employers’ requirements of specific communication skills, the economic field division into numberless branches of activity – finance and banks, management, human resources, accounting, international relations, tourism – the presence of a certain literature in the field by means of translations, all such aspects represent grounded reasons for the existence of a global economic vocabulary in the Romanian language. Finding its origins in the structuralism philosophic principles and associated with the structuralism linguistic trends, economic language’s globalisation becomes obvious nowadays through the occurrence of a large number of linguistic borrowings. Classified into either needless or necessary borrowed lexical units, lexical units borrowed and completely or at all assimilated in the target language, such borrowings lay the foundation of what specialists in the field call corporate language. Considering that the total or partial lack of knowledge on such language can become a real barrier in achieving communication, this study aims at analysing the level to which such words are known by the employees in the business environments involved in economic international partnerships and in multinational organisations.

  5. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #8: OUR CHANGING PLANET: THE FY2000 U.S. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This edition of Global Change Research News focuses on the publication of the new OurChanging Planet: The FY2000 U.S. Global Change Research Program. This annual report to the Congress was prepared under the auspices ofthe President's National Science and Technology Council. It...

  6. Semantic Support for Complex Ecosystem Research Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawonn, M.; McGuinness, D. L.; Pinheiro, P.; Santos, H. O.; Chastain, K.

    2015-12-01

    As ecosystems come under increasing stresses from diverse sources, there is growing interest in research efforts aimed at monitoring, modeling, and improving understanding of ecosystems and protection options. We aimed to provide a semantic infrastructure capable of representing data initially related to one large aquatic ecosystem research effort - the Jefferson project at Lake George. This effort includes significant historical observational data, extensive sensor-based monitoring data, experimental data, as well as model and simulation data covering topics including lake circulation, watershed runoff, lake biome food webs, etc. The initial measurement representation has been centered on monitoring data and related provenance. We developed a human-aware sensor network ontology (HASNetO) that leverages existing ontologies (PROV-O, OBOE, VSTO*) in support of measurement annotations. We explicitly support the human-aware aspects of human sensor deployment and collection activity to help capture key provenance that often is lacking. Our foundational ontology has since been generalized into a family of ontologies and used to create our human-aware data collection infrastructure that now supports the integration of measurement data along with simulation data. Interestingly, we have also utilized the same infrastructure to work with partners who have some more specific needs for specifying the environmental conditions where measurements occur, for example, knowing that an air temperature is not an external air temperature, but of the air temperature when windows are shut and curtains are open. We have also leveraged the same infrastructure to work with partners more interested in modeling smart cities with data feeds more related to people, mobility, environment, and living. We will introduce our human-aware data collection infrastructure, and demonstrate how it uses HASNetO and its supporting SOLR-based search platform to support data integration and semantic browsing

  7. Rethinking ethical issues in global business environment | Mirwoba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the wake of globalization and liberalization policy, business ethics ... a push for diversity that has resulted into corporate business cultures that are ... The impediment of global business ethics is the phenomenon that, unlike established laws ...

  8. Global Indicators Analysis and Consultancy Experience Insights into Correlation between Entrepreneurial Activities and Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Krivokapić

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many researches and practical experiences clearly indicate the existence of a strong relationship between entrepreneurial activities and the business environment in which these activities are initiated. Although this topic has been quite ignored until the late twentieth century, a lot of studies and consulting practice have contributed to the fact that there are now a number of theories concerning mentioned correlation. These theories aim to offer a model that would provide better utilization of the possibilities from the business environment which could be very important for the development from both macroeconomic and microeconomic aspects. An increasing number of articles on this topic says enough about its importance, and numerous researches by many reputable globally recognized institutions go in favor of this claim. There are many indicators that observe the economic situation in a country or a region from different aspects, so the analyses of these indicators make it possible to determine the specific relationships between entrepreneurial activities and the local and the global business environment. Given the complexity of these relations, the impact cannot be observed partially, without taking into consideration other important factors, but more detailed analyses, however, result in some useful conclusions, which in the proper context can have a positive impact on many economic factors. It is very important to emphasize the fact that the correlation between the business environment and entrepreneurial activities is bidirectional, since this influence is mutual, so that changes in one of these factors can and usually cause some modifications in the other. Frequent series of such iterations actually lead to changes in the business environment, while entrepreneurial activity changes its shape and affects the economy of a country or a region, which is of particular importance for its competitiveness in the era of globalization.

  9. Management of nanomaterials safety in research environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groso, Amela; Petri-Fink, Alke; Magrez, Arnaud; Riediker, Michael; Meyer, Thierry

    2010-12-10

    innovation and discoveries by ensuring them a safe environment even in the case of very novel products. The proposed measures are not considered as constraints but as a support to their research. This methodology is being implemented at the Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne in over 100 research labs dealing with nanomaterials. It is our opinion that it would be useful to other research and academia institutions as well.

  10. Management of nanomaterials safety in research environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riediker Michael

    2010-12-01

    management are promoting innovation and discoveries by ensuring them a safe environment even in the case of very novel products. The proposed measures are not considered as constraints but as a support to their research. This methodology is being implemented at the Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne in over 100 research labs dealing with nanomaterials. It is our opinion that it would be useful to other research and academia institutions as well.

  11. Global Forest Rights Action Research | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    How can such rights and benefits be distributed equitably within communities? ... strengthened livelihoods through improved forest management;; partnership ... Enhancing the Action Research Capacity of the International Model Forest Network ... by bringing research findings, mainly from earlier IDRC-supported work, into ...

  12. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Archives: Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 18 of 18 ... Archives: Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment. Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburn, Boyd A; Sacks, Gary; Hall, Kevin D; McPherson, Klim; Finegood, Diane T; Moodie, Marjory L; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2011-08-27

    The simultaneous increases in obesity in almost all countries seem to be driven mainly by changes in the global food system, which is producing more processed, affordable, and effectively marketed food than ever before. This passive overconsumption of energy leading to obesity is a predictable outcome of market economies predicated on consumption-based growth. The global food system drivers interact with local environmental factors to create a wide variation in obesity prevalence between populations. Within populations, the interactions between environmental and individual factors, including genetic makeup, explain variability in body size between individuals. However, even with this individual variation, the epidemic has predictable patterns in subpopulations. In low-income countries, obesity mostly affects middle-aged adults (especially women) from wealthy, urban environments; whereas in high-income countries it affects both sexes and all ages, but is disproportionately greater in disadvantaged groups. Unlike other major causes of preventable death and disability, such as tobacco use, injuries, and infectious diseases, there are no exemplar populations in which the obesity epidemic has been reversed by public health measures. This absence increases the urgency for evidence-creating policy action, with a priority on reduction of the supply-side drivers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. GLOBAL-LOCAL ENVIRONMENT CERTIFICATION AT FIVE STAR HOTELS IN TOURISM AREA OF NUSA DUA, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Gst Nym Suci Murni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to examine the various form of environment certification, ideology behind the practice of green tourism (global award and Tri Hita Karana (local award, and the implication of environment practice at five star hotel in Nusa Dua tourism area. The data of the reserach was assessed by postmodern critical theory (theory of discourse regarding power/knowledge, hegemony theory, practice theory, and theory of deep/shallow ecology. The method used in this cultural studies is the qualitative one, where the data collection were obtained through direct observation, in-depth interviews, and related documentation. The sample used 6 five star hotels which practise green award, of 14 established five star hotels (some hotel is not in full operation.  The results showed that (1 there are some variation of environment practice in five star hotel, (2 ideology working behind these practices can be seen from global ideology in the form of sustainable development deriving green tourism, and the local ideology, in the form of Tri Hita Karana (THK used in THK award, (3 implication of global-local invironment practice in tourism area and surrounding.

  17. Aid alignment for global health research: the role of HIROs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viergever Roderik F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lack of a mechanism that aligns financial flows for global health research towards public health priorities limits the impact of health research on health and health equity. Collaborative groups of health research funders appear to be particularly well situated to ameliorate this situation and to initiate discussion on aid alignment for global health research. One such group is the Heads of International Research Organizations (HIROs, which brings together a large number of major government and philanthropic funders of biomedical research. Surprisingly, there is hardly any information publicly available on HIROs' objectives, or on how it aims to achieve more harmonization in the field of research for health. Greater transparency on HIROs' objectives and on its current efforts towards addressing the gap between global health research needs and investments would be desirable, given the enormous potential benefits of more coordination by this group.

  18. Research Award: Global Health Research Initiative (GHRI) Deadline ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... IDRC's Research Awards are a unique opportunity for master's and doctoral-level students, as well as recent graduates to enhance their research skills and gain a fresh perspective on crucial development issues. This one-year, paid in-house program of training and mentorship in research, research ...

  19. Global Journal of Educational Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  20. Going global: Trust research and international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Jan; Keating, Vincent Charles

    2015-01-01

    In this review article we explore the growing body of literature on the subject of trust in the field of international relations. We argue that the international level represents a unique challenge for trust research. This is so because some of the most pressing problems facing the world today...

  1. African communalism and globalization | Etta | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 3 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  2. Global Journal of Engineering Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  3. Methods for researching intercultural communication in globalized complex societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2014-01-01

    The field of intercultural communication research is challenged theoretically as well as methodologically by global changes such as migration, global mobility, mass media, tourism, etc. According to these changes cultures can no longer be seen as national entities, and cultural identity can...

  4. Comment 2: Nurturing multidisciplinary research on the global commons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeny, D.

    1992-01-01

    Both an improved understanding of the causes and consequences of global warming as well as the exploration of responses to global warming require the integration of knowledge from a wide variety of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. There are a variety of examples of successful multidisciplinary enterprises that have conducted research over an extended period of time

  5. Accounting Research from the Globalization Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Diaconu; Nicoleta Coman

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of globalisation and considers accounting-s role in that process in order to develop new spaces for accounting research. That-s why in this paper we are looking for questions not necessary for answers. Adopting an 'alternative' view of accounting it-s related to the fact that we sees accounting as social and evolutionist process, that pays heed to those voices arguing for greater social and environmental justice, and that draws attention to th...

  6. NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Phill

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Global Hawk, a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that NASA plans to use for Earth Sciences research. The Global Hawk is the world's first fully autonomous high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and is capable of conducting long duration missions. Plans are being made for the use of the aircraft on missions in the Arctic, Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans. There are slides showing the Global Hawk Operations Center (GHOC), Flight Control and Air Traffic Control Communications Architecture, and Payload Integration and Accommodations on the Global Hawk. The first science campaign, planned for a study of the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed.

  7. Mechanobiologic Research in a Microgravity Environment Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, A.; Dubini, G.; Tominetti, F.; Raimondi, M.

    mechanical forces. For example, cartilage constructs have been cultured in spinner flasks under mixed or unmixed conditions, in simulated and in real microgravity. In these mixing studies, however, it is difficult to definitively quantify the effects of mixing-induced mechanical forces from those of convection-enhanced transport of nutrients to and of catabolites away from the cells. At the state of the art, the presence of a more controlled mechanical environment may be the condition required in order to study the biochemical and mechanical response of these biological systems. Such a controlled environment could lead to an advanced fluid dynamic design of the culture chamber that could both enhance the local mass transfer phenomena and match the needs of specific macroscopic mechanical effects in tissue development. The bioreactor is an excellent example of how the skills and resources of two distinctly different fields can complement each other. Microgravity can be used to enhance the formation of tissue like aggregates in specially designed bioreactors. Theoretical and experimental projects are under way to improve cell culture techniques using microgravity conditions experienced during space flights. Bioreactors usable under space flight conditions impose constructional principles which are different from those intended solely for ground applications. The Columbus Laboratory as part of the International Space Station (ISS) will be an evolving facility in low Earth orbit. Its mission is to support scientific, technological, and commercial activities in space. A goal of this research is to design a unique bioreactor for use sequentially from ground research to space research. One of the particularities of the simulated microgravity obtained through time averaging of the weight vector is that by varying the rotational velocity the same results can be obtained with a different value of g. One of the first applications of this technique in space biology was in fact the

  8. Third Pole Environment (TPE): a new frontier for interdisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Yao, T.; Thompson, L. G.; Mosbrugger, V.; Zhang, F.; Ma, Y.; Yang, X.; Wang, W.; Joswiak, D.; Liu, X.; Devkota, L. P.; Tayal, S.; Luo, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain ranges, referred to by scientists as the Third Pole (TP), represent one of the largest ice masses of the Earth. The region is one of the most sensitive areas responding to global climate change due to its high altitude and the presence of permafrost and glaciers. The near 100,000 km2 of glaciers ensure the permanent flow of major rivers in this region and provide water to 1.4 billion people in Asia. Thus, environmental changes taking place on the TP significantly influences social and economic development of countries in this region such as China, India, Nepal, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bhutan. With an average elevation higher than 4,000 metres above sea level, the Third Pole is characterized by complex interactions of atmospheric, cryospheric, hydrological, geological and environmental processes that bear special significance for the Earth's biodiversity, climate and water cycles. For a comprehensive understanding of the environment of the TP and its implications on the development of the region, we need to integrate different disciplines under a them of 'water-ice-air-ecosystem -human' interactions and reveal environmental change processes and mechanisms on the TP and their influences on and regional responses to global changes, and thus to serve for enhancement of human adaptation to the changing environment. Like Antarctica and the Arctic, the Third Pole region is drawing increased attention of the international academic community. A series of observations and monitoring programs in the Third Pole region has been widely implemented. However, data necessary to precisely assess the environmental, societal and economic changes caused by alterations in the Third Pole dynamics are either lacking or insufficient. The Third Pole Environment (TPE) program is thus established as a comprehensive and coordinated international research, monitoring and capacity building initiative, with goals to address the influence

  9. EDUCATION IN GLOBAL INFORMATION-COMMUNICATION AND ANTHROPOGENIC ENVIRONMENT: NEW OPPORTUNITIES AND LIMITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Sergeev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article answers the question of how to use global anthropogenic environments in order to create effective educational environment. We demonstrate both technological and didactic abilities and limits of modern environment-based technologies, and provide a new approach to the educational environment creation. 

  10. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and

  11. Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risser, P.G.

    1990-02-01

    The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

  12. Minority International Research Training Program: Global Collaboration in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElmurry, Beverly J.; Misner, Susan J.; Buseh, Aaron G.

    2003-01-01

    The Minority International Research Training Program pairs minority nursing students with faculty mentors at international sites for short-term research. A total of 26 undergraduate, 22 graduate, and 6 postdoctoral students have participated. Challenges include recruitment, orientation, and preparation of students; identification and preparation…

  13. Southern Research Station Global Change Research Strategy 2011-2019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier Klepzig; Zoe Hoyle; Stevin Westcott; Emrys Treasure

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the goals of the Research and Development agenda of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Southern Research Station (SRS) provides the information and technology needed to develop best management practices for the forest lands of the Southern United States, where science-guided actions are needed to sustain ecosystem health,...

  14. Global oral health inequalities: the view from a research funder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I; Tabak, L A

    2011-05-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be "at the table" with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions.

  15. How Large-Scale Research Facilities Connect to Global Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Policies for large-scale research facilities (LSRFs) often highlight their spillovers to industrial innovation and their contribution to the external connectivity of the regional innovation system hosting them. Arguably, the particular institutional features of LSRFs are conducive for collaborative...... research. However, based on data on publications produced in 2006–2009 at the Neutron Science Directorate of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee (United States), we find that internationalization of its collaborative research is restrained by coordination costs similar to those characterizing other...

  16. European network infrastructures of observatories for terrestrial Global Change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    The earth's climate is significantly changing (e.g. IPCC, 2007) and thus directly affecting the terrestrial systems. The number and intensity hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, are continually increasing, resulting in major economical and social impacts. Furthermore, the land cover in Europe has been modified fundamentally by conversions for agriculture, forest and for other purposes such as industrialisation and urbanisation. Additionally, water resources are more than ever used for human development, especially as a key resource for agricultural and industrial activities. As a special case, the mountains of the world are of significant importance in terms of water resources supply, biodiversity, economy, agriculture, traffic and recreation but particularly vulnerable to environmental change. The Alps are unique because of the pronounced small scale variability they contain, the high population density they support and their central position in Europe. The Alps build a single coherent physical and natural environment, artificially cut by national borders. The scientific community and governmental bodies have responded to these environmental changes by performing dedicated experiments and by establishing environmental research networks to monitor, analyse and predict the impact of Global Change on different terrestrial systems of the Earths' environment. Several European network infrastructures for terrestrial Global Change research are presently immerging or upgrading, such as ICOS, ANAEE, LifeWatch or LTER-Europe. However, the strongest existing networks are still operating on a regional or national level and the historical growth of such networks resulted in a very heterogeneous landscape of observation networks. We propose therefore the establishment of two complementary networks: The NetwOrk of Hydrological observAtories, NOHA. NOHA aims to promote the sustainable management of water resources in Europe, to support the prediction of

  17. Canada's contribution to global research in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai V; de Oliveira, Claire; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Wong, William W L; Woo, Gloria; Grootendorst, Paul; Liu, Peter P; Krahn, Murray D

    2013-06-01

    The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Canada and other developed countries is growing, in part because of the aging of the population and the alarming rise of obesity. Studying Canada's contribution to the global body of CVD research output will shed light on the effectiveness of investments in Canadian CVD research and inform if Canada has been responding to its CVD burden. Search was conducted using the Web-of-Science database for publications during 1981 through 2010 on major areas and specific interventions in CVD. Search was also conducted using Canadian and US online databases for patents issued between 1981 and 2010. Search data were used to estimate the proportions of the world's pool of research publications and of patents conducted by researchers based in Canada. The results indicate that Canada contributed 6% of global research in CVD during 1981 through 2010. Further, Canada's contribution shows a strong upward trend during the period. Based on patent data, Canada's contribution level was similar (5%-7%). Canada's contribution to the global pool of CVD research is on par with France and close to the UK, Japan, and Germany. Canada's contribution in global CVD research is higher than its average contribution in all fields of research (6% vs 3%). As the burden of chronic diseases including CVD rises with Canada's aging population, the increase in Canadian research into CVD is encouraging. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Architectural design and the collaborative research environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Roger N

    2006-10-20

    Given that science is a collaborative endeavor, architects are striving to design new research buildings that not only provide a more pleasant work space but also facilitate interactions among researchers.

  19. Research award: Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... ... skills and gain a fresh perspective on crucial development issues. ... food systems research and interventions in low- and middle-income countries. ... the research award recipient will contribute to the management of the ...

  20. Software process improvement in a research environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der M.J.; Hendriks, P.R.H.; Udink ten Cate, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Research organizations pay much attention to the quality of their work, but not always to the quality of the software they produce within research projects. This is not a healthy situation since research organizations are becoming more and more dependent on software development. This paper describes

  1. The role of NGOs in global health research for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Lori

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global health research is essential for development. A major issue is the inequitable distribution of research efforts and funds directed towards populations suffering the world's greatest health problems. This imbalance is fostering major attempts at redirecting research to the health problems of low and middle income countries. Following the creation of the Coalition for Global Health Research – Canada (CGHRC in 2001, the Canadian Society for International Health (CSIH decided to review the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs in global health research. This paper highlights some of the prevalent thinking and is intended to encourage new thinking on how NGOs can further this role. Approach This paper was prepared by members of the Research Committee of the CSIH, with input from other members of the Society. Persons working in various international NGOs participated in individual interviews or group discussions on their involvement in different types of research activities. Case studies illustrate the roles of NGOs in global health research, their perceived strengths and weaknesses, and the constraints and opportunities to build capacity and develop partnerships for research. Highlights NGOs are contributing at all stages of the research cycle, fostering the relevance and effectiveness of the research, priority setting, and knowledge translation to action. They have a key role in stewardship (promoting and advocating for relevant global health research, resource mobilization for research, the generation, utilization and management of knowledge, and capacity development. Yet, typically, the involvement of NGOs in research is downstream from knowledge production and it usually takes the form of a partnership with universities or dedicated research agencies. Conclusion There is a need to more effectively include NGOs in all aspects of health research in order to maximize the potential benefits of research. NGOs

  2. Global environment protection from the universe. Uchuu yori no chikyu kankyo hogo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, N. (National Space Development Agency of Japan NASDA, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-15

    Two articles of 'Care of coppice in Wood Totoro' and 'Global environment protection from the universe' are included in this report. The former explains the necessity of coppice conservation through an example of Sayama Hill in Tokyo. Until the time 30 years ago, coppices are deeply related to people as the places which supply fuel and fertilizer to villagers, but they have been left or cut down by energy source conversion and development of home lots. Now we must learn the traditional methods of caring coppices again and find a new sense of values regarding the nature. The latter introduces satellite-used remote sensing which allows to continuously scan all the areas of the earth within a short period for global environment protection. This sensor uses a wide range of wavelengths from light to radiowave. In the U.S., it is operated in the name of LANDSAT since 1972, and Japan is also operating various kinds of satellites for environment research concerning, e.g., CO2 concentration and resource exploration. 10 figs.

  3. The causal texture of trade union environments | Iyayi | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  4. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  5. Global Forum for Health Research 2008-2009 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since its foundation in 1998, the Global Forum for Health Research (GFHR) has sought to focus greater attention and resources on research that will improve the health of the poor, marginalized and disadvantaged. The Forum has also become an authoritative and independent source of reliable data, practical tools and ...

  6. Globalization: Its Impact on Scientific Research in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Okon E.; Biao, Esohe Patience

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a study which investigated the impact of globalization on scientific research in Nigeria. The research data were collected using a questionnaire survey which was administered to academics in science-based disciplines in four Nigerian universities: University of Calabar, University of Uyo, University of Lagos and University…

  7. Not so Global: A Bibliometric Look at Engineering Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bill; Wankat, Phillip C.; Neto, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    It has been suggested that Engineering Education Research (EER) is going global. If this were the case we would assume that the research of EER scholars in different parts of the globe would be informed by literature describing prior work within and beyond their home country/region. The authors set out to test this hypothesis by applying citation…

  8. Radiation effects on man health, environment, safety, security. Global Chernobyl mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebeshko, V.; Bazyka, D.; Volovik, S.; Loganovsky, K.; Sushko, V.; Siedow, J.; Cohen, H.; Ginsburg, G.; Chao, N.; Chute, J.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objectives: Ionizing radiation is a primordial terrestrial and extraterrestrial background and archetypal environmental stress-factor for life origin, evolution, and existence. We all live in radiation world inevitably involving nuclear energy production, nuclear weapon, nuclear navy, radioactive waste, pertinent medical diagnostics and treatment, etc with connected certain probability of relevant accidents and terrorist attack, space and jet travels, high natural background radiation, etc - actual and potential sources of radiation exposures and effects. State-of- the art integral fundamental research on radiation effects on man health, environment, safety, and security (REMHESS) is nowadays paramount necessity and challenge. Methods and results: In given generalized conceptual framework unique 20 years Chernobyl multidimensional research and databases for radiation effects on man's all organism systems represent invaluable original basis and resources for mapping Chernobyl data and REMHESS challenge. Granted by DOE brand new Chernobyl Research and Service Project based on 'Sarcophagus-II' (Object 'Shelter') workers only one in radiation history baseline cohort, corresponding biorepository prospective dynamic data, integrated conceptual database system, and 'state of the art' 'omics' (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics) analysis is designed specifically for coherent addressing global REMHESS problems. In this connection 'Sarcophagus-II' is only one unique universal model. Conclusions: The fundamental goals of novel strategic Project and global Chernobyl mapping are to determine specific 'omics' signatures of radiation for man depending of exposure peculiarity to understand ultimate molecular mechanisms of radiation effects, gene environment interactions, etiology of organisms systems disorders and diseases, and to develop new biomarkers and countermeasures to protect man health in the framework of global REMHESS challenge

  9. A review of the global emissions, transport and effects of heavy metals in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, J.R.; Ashton, W.B.; Rapoport, R.D.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the sources and quantities of heavy metal emissions, their transport and fate, their potential health and environmental effects, and strategies to control them. The approach is to review the literature on this topic and to consult with experts in the field. Ongoing research activities and research needs are discussed. Estimates of global anthropogenic and natural emissions indicate that anthropogenic emissions are responsible for most of the heavy metals released into the atmosphere and that industrial activities have had a significant impact on the global cycling of trace metals. The largest anthropogenic sources of trace metals are coal combustion and the nonferrous metal industry. Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway by which trace metals enter the environment. Atmospheric deposition varies according to the solubility of the element and the length of time it resides in the atmosphere. Evidence suggests that deposition is influenced by other chemicals in the atmosphere, such as ozone and sulfur dioxide. Trace metals also enter the environment through leaching. Existing emissions-control technologies such as electrostatic precipitators, baghouses, and scrubbers are designed to remove other particulates from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants and are only partially effective at removing heavy metals. Emerging technologies such as flue gas desulfurization, lignite coke, and fluidized bed combustion could further reduce emissions. 108 refs

  10. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    Executive Summary The authors argue that challenges to capturing value from know-how and reputation through the use of different IP tools will be an increasingly important matter of strategy for global enterprises. This has important implications for management practice. Global enterprises...... will need to combine different institutional, market and non-market mechanisms. The precise combination of tools will depend on the local and regional institutional and market conditions. Abstract: This paper documents the strong growth in tools used by firms to protect their intellectual property (IP......), develop their know-how, and build and maintain their reputation globally during the last decades. We focus on three tools: patents, trademarks, and industrial designs. We find that, although most IP applications come from a few countries (the United States, European Union, Japan, China, and South Korea...

  11. Capturing value from Intellectual Property (IP) in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcácer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Globalization should provide firms with an opportunity to leverage their know-how and reputation across countries to create value. However, it remains challenging for them to actually capture that value using traditional Intellectual Property (IP) tools. In this paper, we document the strong growth...... in patents, trademarks, and industrial designs used by firms to protect their IP globally. We then show that IP protection remains fragmented; the quality of IP applications might be questionable; and developing a comprehensive IP footprint worldwide is very costly. Growing numbers of applications...

  12. Research About Attacks Over Cloud Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jie; Fatma Fawzi

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is expected to continue expanding in the next few years and people will start to see some of the following benefits in their real lives. Security of cloud computing environments is the set of control-based technologies and policies absolute to adhere regulatory compliance rules and protect information data applications and infrastructure related with cloud use. In this paper we suggest a model to estimating the cloud computing security and test the services provided to users....

  13. Globalization in a Religiously Pluralistic Environment: The Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Ways of assimilating the positive effects of globalization were considered while the .... appreciation of foreign goods including food items to the scorn of what they have. .... is verily not new among men but the current wind is also verily very fast that .... Like bad doctors, they could be said to treat the symptoms of the disease.

  14. Education and Development in a Globalized Environment: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Again, in the present globalized society in which every nation is connected to the other, education is perhaps the only instrument for people to adequately cope with the new trend. In most contemporary nation-states including Nigeria, the level of educational attainment vary across regions. Such discrepancy also exist within ...

  15. Educating Part-Time MBAs for the Global Business Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, W. Alan

    2008-01-01

    To be successful managers in the business world of the 21st century, MBA students must acquire global skills of business acumen, reflection, cultural sensitivity, and multi-cultural teamwork. Developing these skills requires international experience, but educating part-time MBAs creates a special challenge demanding both rigor and efficiency. This…

  16. Meeting global needs via genetics x environment x management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global food needs are projected to double by 2050 to feed a projected 9 billion people and the challenge presented to agriculture is whether this is feasible. These goals will be faced with an increasing variability in climate and more extremes in temperature and precipitation in all parts of the w...

  17. Globalization in a Religiously Pluralistic Environment: The Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization has become one of the commonplace terms which describe the current world in which we live. The substantive ranks with such other adjectives like cybernetic, technological and democratic. Specifically the term points to the rallying together or homogeneity of world culture in its economic, technological and ...

  18. Think globally, research locally: paradigms and place in agroecological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Heather L; Smith, Alex A; Farmer, James R

    2014-10-01

    Conducting science for practical ends implicates scientists, whether they wish it or not, as agents in social-ecological systems, raising ethical, economic, environmental, and political issues. Considering these issues helps scientists to increase the relevance and sustainability of research outcomes. As we rise to the worthy call to connect basic research with food production, scientists have the opportunity to evaluate alternative food production paradigms and consider how our research funds and efforts are best employed. In this contribution, we review some of the problems produced by science conducted in service of industrial agriculture and its associated economic growth paradigm. We discuss whether the new concept of "ecological intensification" can rescue the industrial agriculture/growth paradigm and present an emerging alternative paradigm of decentralized, localized, biodiversity-promoting agriculture for a steady-state economy. This "custom fit" agriculture engages constructively with complex and highly localized ecosystems, and we draw from examples of published work to demonstrate how ecologists can contribute by using approaches that acknowledge local agricultural practices and draw on community participation. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  19. Tobacco industry globalization and global health governance: towards an interdisciplinary research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Shifting patterns of tobacco production and consumption, and the resultant disease burden worldwide since the late twentieth century, prompted efforts to strengthen global health governance through adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. While the treaty is rightfully considered an important achievement, to address a neglected public health issue through collective action, evidence suggests that tobacco industry globalization continues apace. In this article, we provide a systematic review of the public health literature and reveal definitional and measurement imprecision, ahistorical timeframes, transnational tobacco companies and the state as the primary units and levels of analysis, and a strong emphasis on agency as opposed to structural power. Drawing on the study of globalization in international political economy and business studies, we identify opportunities to expand analysis along each of these dimensions. We conclude that this expanded and interdisciplinary research agenda provides the potential for fuller understanding of the dual and dynamic relationship between the tobacco industry and globalization. Deeper analysis of how the industry has adapted to globalization over time, as well as how the industry has influenced the nature and trajectory of globalization, is essential for building effective global governance responses. This article is published as part of a thematic collection dedicated to global governance. PMID:28458910

  20. Tobacco industry globalization and global health governance: towards an interdisciplinary research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Shifting patterns of tobacco production and consumption, and the resultant disease burden worldwide since the late twentieth century, prompted efforts to strengthen global health governance through adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. While the treaty is rightfully considered an important achievement, to address a neglected public health issue through collective action, evidence suggests that tobacco industry globalization continues apace. In this article, we provide a systematic review of the public health literature and reveal definitional and measurement imprecision, ahistorical timeframes, transnational tobacco companies and the state as the primary units and levels of analysis, and a strong emphasis on agency as opposed to structural power. Drawing on the study of globalization in international political economy and business studies, we identify opportunities to expand analysis along each of these dimensions. We conclude that this expanded and interdisciplinary research agenda provides the potential for fuller understanding of the dual and dynamic relationship between the tobacco industry and globalization. Deeper analysis of how the industry has adapted to globalization over time, as well as how the industry has influenced the nature and trajectory of globalization, is essential for building effective global governance responses. This article is published as part of a thematic collection dedicated to global governance.

  1. The Perceptions of Globalization at a Public Research University Computer Science Graduate Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Selin Yildiz

    Based on a qualitative methodological approach, this study focuses on the understanding of a phenomenon called globalization in a research university computer science department. The study looks into the participants' perspectives about the department, its dynamics, culture and academic environment as related to globalization. The economic, political, academic and social/cultural aspects of the department are taken into consideration in investigating the influences of globalization. Three questions guide this inquiry: 1) How is the notion of globalization interpreted in this department? 2) How does the perception of globalization influence the department in terms of finances, academics, policies and social life And 3) How are these perceptions influence the selection of students? Globalization and neo-institutional view of legitimacy is used as theoretical lenses to conceptualize responses to these questions. The data include interviews, field notes, official and non-official documents. Interpretations of these data are compared to findings from prior research on the impact of globalization in order to clarify and validate findings. Findings show that there is disagreement in how the notion of globalization is interpreted between the doctoral students and the faculty in the department. This disagreement revealed the attitudes and interpretations of globalization in the light of the policies and procedures related to the department. How the faculty experience globalization is not consistent with the literature in this project. The literature states that globalization is a big part of higher education and it is a phenomenon that causes the changes in the goals and missions of higher education institutions (Knight, 2003, De Witt, 2005). The data revealed that globalization is not the cause for change but more of a consequence of actions that take place in achieving the goals and missions of the department.

  2. Research on budget management under IT environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchang Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available IT technology has become a key element of core competitiveness of enterprises, and also the basis for its daily operation. The budget is a management process of forecasting and planning of the future operation and financial activities under the guidance of the strategic objectives, and completion of the strategic objectives to a maximum extent. Whether both of them can be effectively combined with is the key to effective implementation of the budget. Through analysis of the existing problems of the traditional budget of the enterprise and the budget under the information technology environment, analysis of the internal and external influencing factors of the budget management of the large and medium sized enterprises under the current environment with SWOT, factor quantization and weight with AHP, development of the strategic program according to the priority of weight, and finally verification with a case, this paper concludes that, the budget management work can be more strategic and forward-looking through combination with AHP and SWOT analysis.

  3. Uncertainty and learning in a strategic environment. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Erin

    2005-01-01

    Global climate change is rife with uncertainties. Yet, we can expect to resolve much of this uncertainty in the next 100 years or so. Therefore, current actions should reflect the value of flexibility. Nevertheless, most models of climate change, particularly game-theoretic models, abstract from uncertainty. A model of the impacts of uncertainty and learning in a non-cooperative game shows that the level of correlation of damages across countries is crucial for determining optimal policy

  4. COMPETITIVENESS OF PERU IN THE NEW GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Gomero Gonzáles, Nicko Alberto

    2014-01-01

    It is important that a country develop strong competitive to gaing solid macroeconomic result and keep constant growing. In Peru has been achieving these past years, and that have been showing in the principals indicator of economic management. The public policies implemented have created favorable scenarios to bring in investments in all productive sectors, At the same time the national companies have been develop capabilities to achieve with successes of the market globalization. The divers...

  5. Virtual Research Environments: The role of the facilitator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bowers, N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This conference presentation discusses the authors' duties as the facilitators of the POL-SABINA Natural Products Virtual Research Environment. In summary, they facilitated the use and content population of the Natural Products Virtual Research...

  6. Research into fisheries and the marine environment 1989-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This biannual report includes notes on the work of the Aquatic Environment Protection Division of the Directorate of Fisheries Research, Lowestoft in relation to assessment and monitoring of radioactive waste disposal and research into the environmental behaviour of radionuclides. (UK)

  7. Global Assessment of Bisphenol A in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jone Corrales

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Because bisphenol A (BPA is a high production volume chemical, we examined over 500 peer-reviewed studies to understand its global distribution in effluent discharges, surface waters, sewage sludge, biosolids, sediments, soils, air, wildlife, and humans. Bisphenol A was largely reported from urban ecosystems in Asia, Europe, and North America; unfortunately, information was lacking from large geographic areas, megacities, and developing countries. When sufficient data were available, probabilistic hazard assessments were performed to understand global environmental quality concerns. Exceedances of Canadian Predicted No Effect Concentrations for aquatic life were >50% for effluents in Asia, Europe, and North America but as high as 80% for surface water reports from Asia. Similarly, maximum concentrations of BPA in sediments from Asia were higher than Europe. Concentrations of BPA in wildlife, mostly for fish, ranged from 0.2 to 13 000 ng/g. We observed 60% and 40% exceedences of median levels by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Europe and Asia, respectively. These findings highlight the utility of coordinating global sensing of environmental contaminants efforts through integration of environmental monitoring and specimen banking to identify regions for implementation of more robust environmental assessment and management programs.

  8. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Using the Local Environment to Explore Global Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Deborah

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that water pollution is a global problem and presents statistics indicating how much of the world's water is threatened. Presents three elementary school classroom activities on water quality and local water resources. Includes a figure describing the work of the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network. (CFR)

  9. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Breivik, Knut; Dachs, Jordi; Muir, Derek

    2007-01-01

    For legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), surprisingly little is still known in quantitative terms about their global sources and emissions. Atmospheric transport has been identified as the key global dispersal mechanism for most legacy POPs. In contrast, transport by ocean currents may prove to be the main transport route for many polar, emerging POPs. This is linked to the POPs' intrinsic physico-chemical properties, as exemplified by the different fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Arctic. Similarly, our current understanding of POPs' global transport and fate remains sketchy. The importance of organic carbon and global temperature differences have been accepted as key drivers of POPs' global distribution. However, future research will need to understand the various biogeochemical and geophysical cycles under anthropogenic pressures to be able to understand and predict the global fate of POPs accurately. - Future studies into the global fate of POPs will need to pay more attention to the various biogeochemical and anthropogenic cycles to better understand emissions, transport and sinks

  10. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Rainer [Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882-1197 (United States)], E-mail: lohmann@gso.uri.edu; Breivik, Knut [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, PO Box 100, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 1033, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Dachs, Jordi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, Barcelona 08034 (Spain); Muir, Derek [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R4A6 (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    For legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), surprisingly little is still known in quantitative terms about their global sources and emissions. Atmospheric transport has been identified as the key global dispersal mechanism for most legacy POPs. In contrast, transport by ocean currents may prove to be the main transport route for many polar, emerging POPs. This is linked to the POPs' intrinsic physico-chemical properties, as exemplified by the different fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Arctic. Similarly, our current understanding of POPs' global transport and fate remains sketchy. The importance of organic carbon and global temperature differences have been accepted as key drivers of POPs' global distribution. However, future research will need to understand the various biogeochemical and geophysical cycles under anthropogenic pressures to be able to understand and predict the global fate of POPs accurately. - Future studies into the global fate of POPs will need to pay more attention to the various biogeochemical and anthropogenic cycles to better understand emissions, transport and sinks.

  11. Research computing in a distributed cloud environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransham, K; Agarwal, A; Armstrong, P; Bishop, A; Charbonneau, A; Desmarais, R; Hill, N; Gable, I; Gaudet, S; Goliath, S; Impey, R; Leavett-Brown, C; Ouellete, J; Paterson, M; Pritchet, C; Penfold-Brown, D; Podaima, W; Schade, D; Sobie, R J

    2010-01-01

    The recent increase in availability of Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) computing clouds provides a new way for researchers to run complex scientific applications. However, using cloud resources for a large number of research jobs requires significant effort and expertise. Furthermore, running jobs on many different clouds presents even more difficulty. In order to make it easy for researchers to deploy scientific applications across many cloud resources, we have developed a virtual machine resource manager (Cloud Scheduler) for distributed compute clouds. In response to a user's job submission to a batch system, the Cloud Scheduler manages the distribution and deployment of user-customized virtual machines across multiple clouds. We describe the motivation for and implementation of a distributed cloud using the Cloud Scheduler that is spread across both commercial and dedicated private sites, and present some early results of scientific data analysis using the system.

  12. GETTING PERSONAL: ETHICS AND IDENTITY IN GLOBAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Christian; Mosavel, Maghboeba

    2011-01-01

    Researcher identity’ affects global health research in profound and complex ways. Anthropologists in particular have led the way in portraying the multiple, and sometimes tension-generating, identities that researchers ascribe to themselves, or have ascribed to them, in their places of research. However, the central importance of researcher identity in the ethical conduct of global health research has yet to be fully appreciated. The capacity of researchers to respond effectively to the ethical tensions surrounding their identities is hampered by lack of conceptual clarity, as to the nature and scope of the issues involved. This paper strives to provide some clarification of these ethical tensions by considering researcher identity from the perspective of (1) Guillemin and Heggen’s (2009) key distinction between procedural ethics and ethics in practice, and (2) our own distinction between perceptions of identity that are either symmetrical or asymmetrical, with the potential to shift research relationships toward greater or lesser ethical harmony. Discussion of these concepts is supported with ethnographic examples from relevant literature and from our own (United States (US) Government-funded) research in South Africa. A preliminary set of recommendations is provided in an effort to equip researchers with a greater sense of organization and control over the ethics of researcher identity. The paper concludes that the complex construction of researcher identity needs to be central among the ethical concerns of global health researchers, and that the conceptual tools discussed in the paper are a useful starting point for better organizing and acting on these ethical concerns. PMID:21426482

  13. Retail food environments research in Canada: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Shuh, Alanna; Olstad, Dana L; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Black, Jennifer L; Mah, Catherine L

    2016-06-09

    The field of retail food environments research is relatively new in Canada. The objective of this scoping review is to provide an overview of retail food environments research conducted before July 2015 in Canada. Specifically, this review describes research foci and key findings, identifies knowledge gaps and suggests future directions for research. A search of published literature concerning Canadian investigations of retail food environment settings (food stores, restaurants) was conducted in July 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, PsychInfo and ERIC. Studies published in English that reported qualitative or quantitative data on any aspect of the retail food environment were included, as were conceptual papers and commentaries. Eighty-eight studies were included in this review and suggest that the field of retail food environments research is rapidly expanding in Canada. While only 1 paper was published before 2005, 66 papers were published between 2010 and 2015. Canadian food environments research typically assessed either the socio-economic patterning of food environments (n = 28) or associations between retail food environments and diet, anthropometric or health outcomes (n = 33). Other papers profiled methodological research, qualitative studies, intervention research and critical commentaries (n = 27). Key gaps in the current literature include measurement inconsistency among studies and a lack of longitudinal and intervention studies. Retail food environments are a growing topic of research, policy and program development in Canada. Consistent methods (where appropriate), longitudinal and intervention research, and close partnerships between researchers and key stakeholders would greatly advance the field of retail food environments research in Canada.

  14. Personalized Telehealth in the Future: A Global Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesen, Birthe; Nonnecke, Brandie; Lindeman, David; Toft, Egon; Kidholm, Kristian; Jethwani, Kamal; Young, Heather M; Spindler, Helle; Oestergaard, Claus Ugilt; Southard, Jeffrey A; Gutierrez, Mario; Anderson, Nick; Albert, Nancy M; Han, Jay J; Nesbitt, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    As telehealth plays an even greater role in global health care delivery, it will be increasingly important to develop a strong evidence base of successful, innovative telehealth solutions that can lead to scalable and sustainable telehealth programs. This paper has two aims: (1) to describe the challenges of promoting telehealth implementation to advance adoption and (2) to present a global research agenda for personalized telehealth within chronic disease management. Using evidence from the United States and the European Union, this paper provides a global overview of the current state of telehealth services and benefits, presents fundamental principles that must be addressed to advance the status quo, and provides a framework for current and future research initiatives within telehealth for personalized care, treatment, and prevention. A broad, multinational research agenda can provide a uniform framework for identifying and rapidly replicating best practices, while concurrently fostering global collaboration in the development and rigorous testing of new and emerging telehealth technologies. In this paper, the members of the Transatlantic Telehealth Research Network offer a 12-point research agenda for future telehealth applications within chronic disease management.

  15. Mentoring health researchers globally: Diverse experiences, programmes, challenges and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C; Johnson, Nancy; Mejia, Raul; McCullough, Hazel; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Barnoya, Joaquin; Falabella Luco, María Soledad

    2016-10-01

    Mentoring experiences and programmes are becoming increasingly recognised as important by those engaged in capacity strengthening in global health research. Using a primarily qualitative study design, we studied three experiences of mentorship and eight mentorship programmes for early career global health researchers based in high-income and low- and middle-income countries. For the latter, we drew upon programme materials, existing unpublished data and more formal mixed-method evaluations, supplemented by individual email questionnaire responses. Research team members wrote stories, and the team assembled and analysed them for key themes. Across the diverse experiences and programmes, key emergent themes included: great mentors inspire others in an inter-generational cascade, mentorship is transformative in personal and professional development and involves reciprocity, and finding the right balance in mentoring relationships and programmes includes responding creatively to failure. Among the challenges encountered were: struggling for more level playing fields for new health researchers globally, changing mindsets in institutions that do not have a culture of mentorship and building collaboration not competition. Mentoring networks spanning institutions and countries using multiple virtual and face-to-face methods are a potential avenue for fostering organisational cultures supporting quality mentorship in global health research.

  16. Research About Attacks Over Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is expected to continue expanding in the next few years and people will start to see some of the following benefits in their real lives. Security of cloud computing environments is the set of control-based technologies and policies absolute to adhere regulatory compliance rules and protect information data applications and infrastructure related with cloud use. In this paper we suggest a model to estimating the cloud computing security and test the services provided to users. The simulator NG-Cloud Next Generation Secure Cloud Storage is used and modified to administer the proposed model. This implementation achieved security functions potential attacks as defined in the proposed model. Finally we also solve some attacks over cloud computing to provide the security and safety of the cloud.

  17. Investment Climate and Business Environment Research Fund ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The United Nations Commission on the Private Sector and Development, the ... livelihood creation without eroding social, human or ecological capital. ... Project report on Intellectual Property Training Program for Eastern Africa, ... population and public health, and health systems research relevant to the emerging crisis.

  18. Gender Issues in the University Research Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, E.; Hari, A.; Kambouri, M.; Ahearn, A. L.

    2010-01-01

    Recruiting and retaining females within science, engineering and technology continues to challenge many European higher education institutions. This study looks at female self-perceptions relating to effective research work and career progression. Focus groups are used to examine the attitudes and experiences of females and a questionnaire is used…

  19. Research Award: Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... ... skills and gain a fresh perspective on crucial development issues. ... that impact food systems and promote healthy and sustainable diets. ... communication material; participating in project development, ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics · Transparency · Website usage.

  20. Role of nuclear produced hydrogen for global environment and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimo, M.; Kurosawa, A.; Ikeda, K.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability on economical growth, energy supply and environment are major issues for the 21. century. Within this context, one of the promising concepts is the possibility of nuclear-produced hydrogen. In this study, the effect of nuclear-produced hydrogen on the environment is discussed, based on the output of the computer code 'Grape', which simulates the effects of the energy, environment and economy in 21. century. Five cases are assumed in this study. The first case is 'Business as usual by Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)', the second 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by ICE', the third 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Hybrid Car', the fourth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) with Hydrogen produced by conventional Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)' and the fifth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by FCV with Nuclear Produced-Hydrogen'. The energy used for transportation is at present about 25% of the total energy consumption in the world and is expected to be the same in the future, if there is no improvement of energy efficiency for transportation. On this point, the hybrid car shows the much better efficiency, about 2 times better than traditional internal combustion engines. Fuel Cell powered Vehicles are expected to be a key to resolving the combined issue of the environment and energy in this century. The nuclear-produced hydrogen is a better solution than conventional hydrogen production method using steam methane reforming. (author)

  1. Contemporary state of spacecraft/environment interaction research

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, L S

    1999-01-01

    Various space environment effects on spacecraft materials and equipment, and the reverse effects of spacecrafts and rockets on space environment are considered. The necessity of permanent updating and perfection of our knowledge on spacecraft/environment interaction processes is noted. Requirements imposed on models of space environment in theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the spacecraft/environment interaction problem are formulated. In this field, main problems which need to be solved today and in the nearest future are specified. The conclusion is made that the joint analysis of both aspects of spacecraft/environment interaction problem promotes the most effective solution of the problem.

  2. The Representation of Human-Environment Interactions in Land Change Research and Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Manfredo, M.J.; Vaske, J.J.; Rechkemmer, A.; Duke, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Land change is the result of multiple human-environment interactions operating across different scales. Land change research needs to account for processes ranging from global trade of food and energy to the local management of land resources at farm and landscape level. Land change has a pronounced

  3. From global bioethics to ethical governance of biomedical research collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret; Lu, Guangxiu; Döring, Ole; Cong, Yali; Laska-Formejster, Alicja; He, Jing; Chen, Haidan; Gottweis, Herbert; Rose, Nikolas

    2013-12-01

    One of the features of advanced life sciences research in recent years has been its internationalisation, with countries such as China and South Korea considered 'emerging biotech' locations. As a result, cross-continental collaborations are becoming common generating moves towards ethical and legal standardisation under the rubric of 'global bioethics'. Such a 'global', 'Western' or 'universal' bioethics has in turn been critiqued as an imposition upon resource-poor, non-Western or local medical settings. In this article, we propose that a different tack is necessary if we are to come to grips with the ethical challenges that inter-continental biomedical research collaborations generate. In particular we ask how national systems of ethical governance of life science research might cope with increasingly global research collaborations with a focus on Sino-European collaboration. We propose four 'spheres' - deliberation, regulation, oversight and interaction - as a helpful way to conceptualise national systems of ethical governance. Using a workshop-based mapping methodology (workshops held in Beijing, Shanghai, Changsha, Xian, Shenzen and London) we identified three specific ethical challenges arising from cross-continental research collaborations: (1) ambiguity as to which regulations are applicable; (2) lack of ethical review capacity not only among ethical review board members but also collaborating scientists; (3) already complex, researcher-research subject interaction is further complicated when many nationalities are involved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Innovative financing for late-stage global health research and development: the Global Health Investment Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Joseph Robert; Fan Li, Julia; Atun, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Innovative financing strategies for global health are urgently needed to reinvigorate investment and new tools for impact. Bottleneck areas along the research and development (R&D) pipeline require particular attention, such as the transitions from preclinical discovery to clinical study, and product development to implementation and delivery. Successful organizations mobilizing and disbursing resources through innovating financing mechanisms include UNITAID, the Global Fund, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Although precise numbers are poorly documented, estimated investment in low-income settings falls seriously short of local need. This commentary discusses the newly established Global Health Investment Fund as a case study to support late-stage global health R&D. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Governance of Transnational Global Health Research Consortia and Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-10-01

    Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia of institutions from high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries that undertake programs of research. These partnerships differ from collaborations that carry out single projects in the multiplicity of their goals, scope of their activities, and nature of their management. Although such consortia typically aim to reduce health disparities between and within countries, what is required for them to do so has not been clearly defined. This article takes a conceptual approach to explore how the governance of transnational global health research consortia should be structured to advance health equity. To do so, it applies an account called shared health governance to derive procedural and substantive guidance. A checklist based on this guidance is proposed to assist research consortia determine where their governance practices strongly promote equity and where they may fall short.

  6. Herbal medicine research and global health: an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon C; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2008-08-01

    Governments, international agencies and corporations are increasingly investing in traditional herbal medicine research. Yet little literature addresses ethical challenges in this research. In this paper, we apply concepts in a comprehensive ethical framework for clinical research to international traditional herbal medicine research. We examine in detail three key, underappreciated dimensions of the ethical framework in which particularly difficult questions arise for international herbal medicine research: social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio. Significant challenges exist in determining shared concepts of social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio across international research collaborations. However, we argue that collaborative partnership, including democratic deliberation, offers the context and process by which many of the ethical challenges in international herbal medicine research can, and should be, resolved. By "cross-training" investigators, and investing in safety-monitoring infrastructure, the issues identified by this comprehensive framework can promote ethically sound international herbal medicine research that contributes to global health.

  7. The role of research to shape local and global engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen

    2017-01-01

    University research has the potential to help solve the grand challenges of the 21st century through local and global engagement. Universities are quintessentially socially engaged institutions that have been supported by external patrons because their activities are socially useful, and that has

  8. The Global ECT-MRI Research Collaboration (GEMRIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oltedal, Leif; Bartsch, Hauke; Sørhaug, Ole Johan Evjenth

    2017-01-01

    biological factors relating to or predictive of ECT-related therapeutic response. We have thus formed the Global ECT-MRI Research Collaboration (GEMRIC) that aims to combine longitudinal neuroimaging as well as clinical, behavioral and other physiological data across multiple independent sites. Here, we...

  9. A retrospect of anthropogenic radioactivity in the global marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1998-01-01

    . The IAEA's IASAP study has evaluated the radiological consequences of these dumpings. In a recent international study (MARDOS) by the IAEA it was concluded that the doses to man from anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment are generally one to two orders of magnitude less than the doses from......Man-made radionuclides were introduced into the marine environment in the mid forties with the exploitation of nuclear fission for military purposes. Plutonium production reactors at Hanford, USA, released radioactivity to the Pacific Ocean via the Columbia River. In the former Soviet Union (FSU......) the military nuclear establishment at Cheliabinsk (later MAYAK) a few years later began direct discharging of fission products to the nearby Techa River, which is a part of the Ob river system, and the Arctic Ocean received man made radioactivity. In the 1950s, when atmospheric testing of thermonuclear weapons...

  10. Linking international research to global health equity: the limited contribution of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2013-05-01

    Health research has been identified as a vehicle for advancing global justice in health. However, in bioethics, issues of global justice are mainly discussed within an ongoing debate on the conditions under which international clinical research is permissible. As a result, current ethical guidance predominantly links one type of international research (biomedical) to advancing one aspect of health equity (access to new treatments). International guidelines largely fail to connect international research to promoting broader aspects of health equity - namely, healthier social environments and stronger health systems. Bioethical frameworks such as the human development approach do consider how international clinical research is connected to the social determinants of health but, again, do so to address the question of when international clinical research is permissible. It is suggested that the narrow focus of this debate is shaped by high-income countries' economic strategies. The article further argues that the debate's focus obscures a stronger imperative to consider how other types of international research might advance justice in global health. Bioethics should consider the need for non-clinical health research and its contribution to advancing global justice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Communication Policies Reflection on Globalization Process and the Role of Advertisement in Integrated Communication Environment

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKAN, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Globalization process has created important changes and transformations across the world. These political, social, economic and cultural changes have considerably affected communication. The number of mass media instruments have increased, informatics has improved and also reaching information has become easier after the globalization of communication. New communication instruments and environments have been created. Globalised communication has also affected people, reaching the information ...

  12. Global food chains and environment: agro-food production and processing in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriwichailamphan, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study on the global food chain and the environment, the objective is to understand the dynamics of food safety and environmental improvements among the large and medium-sized agro-food processing industries and farmers in Thailand that operate in the global market. This study assesses

  13. Gender issues in the university research environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, E.; Hari, A.; Kambouri, M.; Ahearn, A. L.

    2010-05-01

    Recruiting and retaining females within science, engineering and technology continues to challenge many European higher education institutions. This study looks at female self-perceptions relating to effective research work and career progression. Focus groups are used to examine the attitudes and experiences of females and a questionnaire is used to explore perceptions in four main skills areas: group work; communication; personal awareness; project planning and management. The study indicates consistent female concerns on issues pertaining to effective female role models, negative work-role stereotypes and the work-life balance of an academic career. For all four skills areas, the average confidence scores of the female participants fell below those of males, but these differences were only statistically significant for perceptions on group work and communication skills and prior to an intense skills development course. Based on these findings, a student workshop on gender issues has been developed, an outline of which is presented.

  14. Towards an ethics safe harbor for global biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S.; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Zawati, Ma'n H.

    2014-01-01

    Although increasingly global, data-driven genomics and other ‘omics’-focused research hold great promise for health discoveries, current research ethics review systems around the world challenge potential improvements in human health from such research. To overcome this challenge, we propose a ‘Safe Harbor Framework for International Ethics Equivalency’ that facilitates the harmonization of ethics review of specific types of data-driven international research projects while respecting globally transposable research ethics norms and principles. The Safe Harbor would consist in part of an agency supporting an International Federation for Ethics Review (IFER), formed by a voluntary compact among countries, granting agencies, philanthropies, institutions, and healthcare, patient advocacy, and research organizations. IFER would be both a central ethics review body, and also a forum for review and follow-up of policies concerning ethics norms for international research projects. It would be built on five principle elements: (1) registration, (2) compliance review, (3) recognition, (4) monitoring and enforcement, and (5) public participation. The Safe Harbor would create many benefits for researchers, countries, and the general public, and may eventually have application beyond (gen)omics to other areas of biomedical research that increasingly engage in secondary use of data and present only negligible risks. PMID:27774154

  15. Global Manufacturing Research: Experience Exchange Group (EEG) contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter

    1998-01-01

    of preliminary studies found interesting to set upan EEG composed of representatives from industry and a researcher. Inthe paper some general research methods pertinent to the areaindustrial management is discussed. The EEG concept is introduced andcharacterised in comparison with the other methods. EEG...... activities aredescribed and a tentative coupling to the phases in a research processis proposed. Following this is a discussion of methodological andquality requirements. It is considered how EEG activities couldpossible contribute to an industrial rooted research. The paper endsup looking at future research......The intention of this paper is to clarify if and how an ExperienceExchange Group (EEG) can be involved in a research process in the areaof industrial management. For exemplification of the topic an ongoingresearch in global manufacturing is referred to. In this research itwas after a series...

  16. Gas removal technique to maintain global environment. Chikyu kankyo hozen no tame no bojo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1992-10-12

    This paper describes the removal technique of gases such as CO2, SO2 and NOx which have the deep relation to the maintenance of global environment. This paper describes partially r SO2 and NOx which are the primary cause of acid rain. As for the removal of CO2 generated from fixed sources (thermal power stations and others), the separation technique and isolation-fixation technique have been researched on and developed. Of the separation method, the effect of the chemical absorption method and the adsorption method is proved with the preceding experiments. The isolation method is differently researched on as to store under deep sea or ground but may be urgent and temporary. The fixation of CO2 is a serious global problem which relates to the afforestation and forests. The fixation which uses coral reefs in ocean as the absorption source has a potential. As for the processing of substances causing acid rain, the desulfurization from petroleum and the flue gas desulfurization have the excellent results. The improvement of combustion method or the flue gas denitrification at the fixed sources are used to remove NOx. The removal of NOx from all diesel cars is difficult compared with the exhaust gas cleaning of gasoline cars and is not commercialized. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Turning research on the psychosocial working environment into regulatory practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Nielsen, Klaus Tranetoft; Starheim, Liv

    The psychosocial working environment is an expanding field of research. Within the last decades a lot of knowledge has been developed in the field. The question however remains how this knowledge can be, and is being, utilized in the regulation of the psychosocial working environment. This question...... we understand this process as a translation of knowledge into policies, tools and actors dealing with the psychosocial working environment. Drawing on this understanding we develop a model that illustrates the utility of different types of research on the psychosocial working environment...

  18. Density equalizing mapping of the global tuberculosis research architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groneberg, David A; Weber, Esther; Gerber, Alexander; Fischer, Axel; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Brueggmann, Doerthe

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis belongs to the lung infectious diseases with the highest impact on global burden of disease. Yet there is no concise scientometric study about tuberculosis research. Therefore, the NewQiS project elected this subject as focus of an in depth analysis to perform density equalizing mapping in combination with scientometrics. In this retrospective study all publications related to tuberculosis research listed in the Web of Science database between 1900 and 2012 were identified, analyzed and submitted to density equalizing mapping procedures. In total 58,319 entries on TBC were identified with the USA being the most productive country with 11,788 publications, followed by the United Kingdom (4202), India (3456), France (2541), South Africa (1840), Germany (1747) and China (1427). Concerning the citations rate Denmark leads with 43.7 citations per article, followed by Latvia (39.1), Gambia (38.3), Senegal (34.9), and the Netherlands (31.4). Chart techniques demonstrates a widely ramified international network with a focus the joint work of USA, the UK and South Africa. This is the first density equalizing and scientometric study that addresses tuberculosis research over a period of 112 years. It illustrates global tuberculosis research architecture and stresses the need for strengthening global research efforts and funding program. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. European network for research in global change (ENRICH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, A [European Commission, Bruxelles (Belgium). DG XII/JRC

    1996-12-31

    While approaching the beginning of the twenty first century, the scientific community is faced with the formidable tasks of monitoring and detecting, understanding and predicting changes in the Earth System and its interactions with human beings. A crucial challenge is to make scientific research results accessible and usable for those involved in the decision making process related to the concept of Sustainable Development. Major international scientific programmes under the umbrella of ICSU, such as the IGBP and WCRP, are dealing with these issues. Although there exist many well developed global change research programmes in several European countries and effective collaboration networks between research institutes, there is an urgent need for overall communication with a view to promoting wider international links ensuring complementarity, synergy and coherence. Recognizing the importance of promoting coherence in research and utilising research results for various European Union (EU) policies, the European Commissioner responsible for Science, Research and Development wrote in March 1992 to all the EU Research Ministers to propose an initiative in this domain. In a rapid response, a group of Senior Experts from the EU Member States was set up in April 1992. This Group established a Task Force to develop the concept of the European Network for Research In Global CHange (ENRICH) which was approved in July 1993

  20. European network for research in global change (ENRICH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, A. [European Commission, Bruxelles (Belgium). DG XII/JRC

    1995-12-31

    While approaching the beginning of the twenty first century, the scientific community is faced with the formidable tasks of monitoring and detecting, understanding and predicting changes in the Earth System and its interactions with human beings. A crucial challenge is to make scientific research results accessible and usable for those involved in the decision making process related to the concept of Sustainable Development. Major international scientific programmes under the umbrella of ICSU, such as the IGBP and WCRP, are dealing with these issues. Although there exist many well developed global change research programmes in several European countries and effective collaboration networks between research institutes, there is an urgent need for overall communication with a view to promoting wider international links ensuring complementarity, synergy and coherence. Recognizing the importance of promoting coherence in research and utilising research results for various European Union (EU) policies, the European Commissioner responsible for Science, Research and Development wrote in March 1992 to all the EU Research Ministers to propose an initiative in this domain. In a rapid response, a group of Senior Experts from the EU Member States was set up in April 1992. This Group established a Task Force to develop the concept of the European Network for Research In Global CHange (ENRICH) which was approved in July 1993

  1. The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

    2009-11-11

    The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. To produce maps of the baseline and future bioclimate that allows a direct comparison of the differences in the vulnerability of populations to thermal stress across the world. The required climatological data fields are obtained from climate simulations with the global General Circulation Model ECHAM4 in T106-resolution. For the thermo-physiologically relevant assessment of these climate data a complete heat budget model of the human being, the 'Perceived Temperature' procedure has been applied which already comprises adaptation by clothing to a certain degree. Short-term physiological acclimatisation is considered via Health Related Assessment of the Thermal Environment. The global maps 1971-1980 (control run, assumed as baseline climate) show a pattern of thermal stress intensities as frequencies of heat. The heat load for people living in warm-humid climates is the highest. Climate change will lead to clear differences in health-related thermal stress between baseline climate and the future bioclimate 2041-2050 based on the 'business-as-usual' greenhouse gas scenario IS92a. The majority of the world's population will be faced with more frequent and more intense heat strain in spite of an assumed level of acclimatisation. Further adaptation measures are crucial in order to reduce the vulnerability of the populations. This bioclimatology analysis provides a tool for various questions in climate and climate change impact research. Considerations of regional or local scale require climate

  2. India's growing clinical research sector: opportunity for global companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varawalla, Nermeen

    2007-06-01

    Backed by a compelling foundation of essential requirements necessary for effective clinical trial conduct, and aided by initiatives that address concerns of data quality, regulatory timelines and IP protection, the clinical development sector in India has experienced annual revenue growth rates of 25% in the past two to three years, and is poised to participate substantially in global drug development. As both clinical trial sponsors and CROs increase their research capabilities in India, the clinical development sector is facing challenges with staff resourcing and facilities. Existing initiatives in the clinical sector must continue, and further investment must be made by stakeholders to overcome the current limitations in sector growth. Furthermore, global organizations seeking to derive long-term sustainable revenue growth and competitive advantage in the global marketplace from their business units in India must establish an appropriate organizational culture and an effective intra-organizational and industry interface for their operations.

  3. Energy and the environment. A global view and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.

    1988-01-01

    It should be recognized that the key to the future is in the rational use of energy, that is, a more efficient use of energy rather than a continuous increase in the supply of energy. Every unit of energy saved is a unit of energy which does not have to be produced, and whose environmental impacts do not have to be dealt with. Massive reductions in the growth rates, and, where possible, in the absolute use of energy will help us to gain time to better understand and develop response strategies to problems like climate change on the acidification of the environment. In this sense the rational use of energy, including intensified energy efficiency measures is the most environmentally sound energy option with which we should move into the next century. 25 refs., 4 figs

  4. The dynamics of accounting terms in a globalized environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.; Nielsen, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    European accounting terminology is dynamic as term creation occurs on national, European Union and international levels. English is the lingua franca of accounting, which influences terminologies in other languages, usually through the work of translators, e.g. the translation of existing interna...... into Spanish; and the presence of novel metaphors in Spanish accounting. The data used in the discussion are taken from the accounting dictionaries, a collection of online dictionaries in three languages: Danish, English and Spanish.......European accounting terminology is dynamic as term creation occurs on national, European Union and international levels. English is the lingua franca of accounting, which influences terminologies in other languages, usually through the work of translators, e.g. the translation of existing...... international accounting standards. The combined influence of these forces is discussed in this chapter that explains the existence of a globalized trend towards a kind of cultural uniformity. This manifests itself in many ways, two of which are: the translation of English multiword accounting terms...

  5. The Global Environment Facility (GEF): Right mechanism for improved implementation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Steinar; Rosendal, Kristin G.

    2012-11-01

    The purpose is to feed into the international discussions of environmental financial mechanisms such as for forestry and mercury by examining the performance of the GEF. We discuss performance against effectiveness and legitimacy and focus on institutional set-up and key actors as explanatory factors. Methodologically, we use document and literature analysis and interviews with key actors in organizations, state representatives and NGOs. The dominant position of the USA and the World Bank has probably contributed to the bias towards a northern environmental agenda and emphasis on effectiveness and climate change projects. The GEF has somewhat predictably diverted the flow of international money from the poorest countries to more rapidly developing countries. Still, despite turf battles between the organizations involved, the broad organisational and thematic composition of the GEF has comparative advantages. This enhances the score on legitimacy especially for biodiversity projects, although they receive less overall funding. The GEF may be seen as an indication of how, regardless of choosing established or new institutions, basic power structures and interests of dominating parties will be largely decisive for what can be achieved in global environmental governance.(auth)

  6. Virtual research environments from portals to science gateways

    CERN Document Server

    Allan, Robert N

    2009-01-01

    Virtual Research Environments examines making Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) usable by researchers working to solve "grand challenge” problems in many disciplines from social science to particle physics. It is driven by research the authors have carried out to evaluate researchers' requirements in using information services via web portals and in adapting collaborative learning tools to meet their more diverse needs, particularly in a multidisciplinary study.This is the motivation for what the authors have helped develop into the UK Virtual Research Environments (VRE)

  7. Insights for the third Global Environment Outlook from related global scenario anlayses. Working paper for GEO-3

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkes JA; Goldewijk CGM; Meijer JR; Rothman DS; Vries HJM de; Woerden JW van; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); MNV

    2001-01-01

    This report relates to the ongoing development of scenarios for the third Global Environment Outlook (GEO-3) of UNEP. It illustrates the scale and type of environmental impacts that GEO-3 needs to consider. It does so by quantifying impacts using existing, recent studies whose scenarios come closest to the current tentative global storylines for GEO-3. With a view to GEO-3;s envisaged role as input for the Rio+10 Earth Summit in 2002, this report suggests a focus for the GEO-3 scenario analys...

  8. Developing Global Leaders: Building Effective Global- Intercultural Collaborative Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Karen Lynne-Daniels

    2017-01-01

    This paper shares the findings of a study conducted on a virtual inter-cultural global leadership development learning project. Mixed Methods analysis techniques were used to examine the interviews of U.S. and Uganda youth project participants. The study, based on cultural and social constructivist learning theories, investigated the effects of…

  9. Open Data in Global Environmental Research: Findings from the Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Honk, J.; Calero-Medina, C.; Costas, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents findings from the Belmont Forum’s survey on Open Data which targeted the global environmental research and data infrastructure community (Schmidt, Gemeinholzer & Treloar, 2016). It highlights users’ perceptions of the term “open data”, expectations of infrastructure functionalities, and barriers and enablers for the sharing of data. A wide range of good practice examples was pointed out by the respondents which demonstrates a substantial uptake of data sharing through e-infrastructures and a further need for enhancement and consolidation. Among all policy responses, funder policies seem to be the most important motivator. This supports the conclusion that stronger mandates will strengthen the case for data sharing. The Belmont Forum, a group of high-level representatives from major funding agencies across the globe, coordinates funding for collaborative research to address the challenges and opportunities of global environmental change. In particular, the E-Infrastructure and Data Management Collaborative Research Action has brought together domain scientists, computer and information scientists, legal scholars, social scientists, and other experts from more than 14 countries to establish recommendations on how the Belmont Forum can implement a more coordinated, holistic, and sustainable approach to the funding and support of global environmental change research. (Author)

  10. Developing a framework for successful research partnerships in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkan, Fiona; Uduma, Ogenna; Lawal, Saheed Akinmayọwa; van Bavel, Bianca

    2016-05-06

    The Centre for Global Health, Trinity College Dublin has as one of its goals, strengthening health systems in developing countries. In realising this goal we work across more than 40 countries with third-level, civil society, government, private sector and UN partners. Each of these requires that different relationships be established. Good principles must guide all global health research partnerships. An exploratory research project was undertaken with research partners of, and staff within, the Centre for Global Health. The aim was to build an evidence-based framework. An inductive exploratory research process was undertaken using a grounded theory approach in three consecutive phases: Phase I: An open-ended questionnaire was sent via email to all identified partners. Phase II: A series of consultative meetings were held with the staff of the Centre for Global Health. Phase III: Data sets from Phases I and II were applied to the development of a unifying framework. Data was analysed using grounded theory three stage thematic analysis - open, axial and selective coding. Relational and operational aspects of partnership were highlighted as being relevant across every partnership. Seven equally important core concepts emerged (focus, values, equity, benefit, leadership, communication and resolution), and are described and discussed here. Of these, two (leadership and resolution) are less often considered in existing literature on partnerships. Large complex partnerships can work well if all parties are agreed in advance to a common minimum programme, have been involved from the design stage, and have adequate resources specifically allocated. Based on this research, a framework for partnerships has been developed and is shared.

  11. Fractal Eaarth: Visualizing the Global Environment in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekan, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay offers a postcolonial critique of recent environmentalist literature and exhibitions that frame the Anthropocene using the NASA Apollo mission’s Earthrise (1968 and Blue Marble (1972 photographs from space. Building on the work of Dennis Cosgrove and Donna Haraway, as well as historical evidence from the U.N. Environmental Summit in Stockholm in 1972, the essay explores how the attempt to depict Anthropos as a unitary geophysical agent resurrects the appeal to the Whole Earth environmentalism of the 1970s without attending to the U.S. imperialist and racist connotations of the disembodied “god trick” found in these extraterrestrial photographs. As evidenced already in the 1950s at the landmark Man and Nature conference at Princeton and in the wildlife documentaries of Bernhard and Michael Grzimek, moreover, the first decades of the Great Acceleration witnessed the growing use of aerial images to chart the “disappearance of the outside” and to advocate for wilderness areas in the Global South as a “cultural heritage of mankind.” The confluence of geophysical tipping points, universalist history, and political struggle over decolonization resulted in eco-images that subsumed all parts of the globe—most especially Africa—into a doomsday narrative of human profligacy that lost sight of a kaleidoscopic patchwork of cultural landscapes. Fractal topographies, by contrast, serve as more effective indices of the recursive layering found in digital representations such as Google Earth and help us to stretch our historical imagination and cultural criticism into scale-dependent and multi-agentic realms that lie beyond the Apollonian visions of the late Holocene.

  12. Economics for the Environment: Research Capacity Building in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics for the Environment: Research Capacity Building in South Asia. This project will enhance environmental economics research capacity in South Asia through a program of research grants, training, and networking. It provides funds to the South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics ...

  13. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old from public schools participate in science clubs outside of their regular school schedule. A comparison study was performed between different groups, in order to assess GLOBE's applicability as a learning science atmosphere and the motivation and interest it generates in students toward science. Internationally applied scales were used as tools for measuring such indicators, adapted to the Costa Rican context. The results provide evidence statistically significant that the students perceive the GLOBE atmosphere as an enriched environment for science learning in comparison with the traditional science class. Moreover, students feel more confident, motivated and interested in science than their peers who do not participate in the project. However, the results were not statistically significant in this last respect.

  14. Global Military Operating Environments (GMOE) Phase I: Linking Natural Environments, International Security, and Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    diverse range of natural environments and will require that U.S. forces adapt to a wide range of terrain, climate, and associated hazards within these...Synthetic Environment Core Area), baseline terrain information, and application of remote‐sensing technologies for Warfighter and Chameleon . The

  15. A Review of Research on Facebook as an Educational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a review of Facebook as an educational environment, as research on its use within education is relatively new. The study is categorized into six sections: Facebook users; reasons people use Facebook; harmful effects of Facebook; Facebook as an educational environment; Facebook's effects on culture, language,…

  16. Some aspects of research relevant to environment radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shi; Ma Mingxie

    1997-01-01

    The authors suggest some research aspects relevant to environmental radiochemistry from the view point of environmental protection and radiation protection: the migration behavior of radionuclides, their interaction with environment medium and their speciation in environment. The status and prospect of these aspects and the relationship between them are discussed

  17. Needed: Global Collaboration for Comparative Research on Cities and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Gusmano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over half of the world’s population lives in cities and United Nations (UN demographers project an increase of 2.5 billion more urban dwellers by 2050. Yet there is too little systematic comparative research on the practice of urban health policy and management (HPAM, particularly in the megacities of middle-income and developing nations. We make a case for creating a global database on cities, population health and healthcare systems. The expenses involved in data collection would be difficult to justify without some review of previous work, some agreement on indicators worth measuring, conceptual and methodological considerations to guide the construction of the global database, and a set of research questions and hypotheses to test. We, therefore, address these issues in a manner that we hope will stimulate further discussion and collaboration.

  18. Needed: Global Collaboration for Comparative Research on Cities and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmano, Michael K; Rodwin, Victor G

    2016-04-16

    Over half of the world's population lives in cities and United Nations (UN) demographers project an increase of 2.5 billion more urban dwellers by 2050. Yet there is too little systematic comparative research on the practice of urban health policy and management (HPAM), particularly in the megacities of middle-income and developing nations. We make a case for creating a global database on cities, population health and healthcare systems. The expenses involved in data collection would be difficult to justify without some review of previous work, some agreement on indicators worth measuring, conceptual and methodological considerations to guide the construction of the global database, and a set of research questions and hypotheses to test. We, therefore, address these issues in a manner that we hope will stimulate further discussion and collaboration. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  19. Culture, context and community: ethical considerations for global nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrowing, J N; Mill, J; Spiers, J; Kulig, J; Kipp, W

    2010-03-01

    High-quality research is essential for the generation of scientific nursing knowledge and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. However, the incorporation of Western bioethical principles in the study design may not be suitable, sufficient or relevant to participants in low-income countries and may indeed be harmful and disrespectful. Before engaging in global health studies, nurses must consider carefully the cultural and social context and values of the proposed setting in order to situate the research within the appropriate ethical framework. The purpose of this paper was to examine the ethical principles and considerations that guide health research conducted in international settings using the example of a qualitative study of Ugandan nurses and nurse-midwives by a Canadian researcher. The application of Western bioethical principles with their emphasis on autonomy fails to acknowledge the importance of relevant contextual aspects in the conduct of global research. Because ethics is concerned with how people interact and live together, it is essential that studies conducted across borders be respectful of, and congruent with, the values and needs of the community in which it occurs. The use of a communitarian ethical framework will allow nurse scientists to contribute to the elimination of inequities between those who enjoy prosperity and good health, and those who do not.

  20. CESAR robotics and intelligent systems research for nuclear environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) encompasses expertise and facilities to perform basic and applied research in robotics and intelligent systems in order to address a broad spectrum of problems related to nuclear and other environments. For nuclear environments, research focus is derived from applications in advanced nuclear power stations, and in environmental restoration and waste management. Several programs at CESAR emphasize the cross-cutting technology issues, and are executed in appropriate cooperation with projects that address specific problem areas. Although the main thrust of the CESAR long-term research is on developing highly automated systems that can cooperate and function reliably in complex environments, the development of advanced human-machine interfaces represents a significant part of our research. 11 refs

  1. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I. -I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas. PMID:25982028

  2. Scientometric trends and knowledge maps of global health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiang; Chen, Kai; Yao, Lan; Lyu, Peng-hui; Yang, Tian-an; Luo, Fei; Chen, Shan-quan; He, Lu-yang; Liu, Zhi-yong

    2014-06-05

    In the last few decades, health systems research (HSR) has garnered much attention with a rapid increase in the related literature. This study aims to review and evaluate the global progress in HSR and assess the current quantitative trends. Based on data from the Web of Science database, scientometric methods and knowledge visualization techniques were applied to evaluate global scientific production and develop trends of HSR from 1900 to 2012. HSR has increased rapidly over the past 20 years. Currently, there are 28,787 research articles published in 3,674 journals that are listed in 140 Web of Science subject categories. The research in this field has mainly focused on public, environmental and occupational health (6,178, 21.46%), health care sciences and services (5,840, 20.29%), and general and internal medicine (3,783, 13.14%). The top 10 journals had published 2,969 (10.31%) articles and received 5,229 local citations and 40,271 global citations. The top 20 authors together contributed 628 papers, which accounted for a 2.18% share in the cumulative worldwide publications. The most productive author was McKee, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, with 48 articles. In addition, USA and American institutions ranked the first in health system research productivity, with high citation times, followed by the UK and Canada. HSR is an interdisciplinary area. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries showed they are the leading nations in HSR. Meanwhile, American and Canadian institutions and the World Health Organization play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, and citation of high quality articles. Moreover, health policy and analysis research, health systems and sub-systems research, healthcare and services research, health, epidemiology and economics of communicable and non-communicable diseases, primary care research, health economics and health costs, and pharmacy of hospital have been identified as the

  3. Terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change: A research strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere.

  4. Laboratory and software applications for clinical trials: the global laboratory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Chad

    2011-11-01

    The Applied Pharmaceutical Software Meeting is held annually. It is sponsored by The Boston Society, a not-for-profit organization that coordinates a series of meetings within the global pharmaceutical industry. The meeting generally focuses on laboratory applications, but in recent years has expanded to include some software applications for clinical trials. The 2011 meeting emphasized the global laboratory environment. Global clinical trials generate massive amounts of data in many locations that must be centralized and processed for efficient analysis. Thus, the meeting had a strong focus on establishing networks and systems for dealing with the computer infrastructure to support such environments. In addition to the globally installed laboratory information management system, electronic laboratory notebook and other traditional laboratory applications, cloud computing is quickly becoming the answer to provide efficient, inexpensive options for managing the large volumes of data and computing power, and thus it served as a central theme for the meeting.

  5. Sports, Global Politics, and Social Value Change: A Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rensmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their important role in forging, constructing and self-ascribing social identities and shaping popular culture, sports have long been a marginalized subject of social science inquiry, cultural studies, and research on international politics. Only in recent years this has begun to change. The article seeks to advance the still nascent but emerging cross-disciplinary field of research on sports and global politics in two ways: first, by addressing largely unexplored issues of sports, politics, and social conflicts, putting the spotlight on sociopolitical arenas beyond commercialized sports mega events, which have attracted most scholarly attention in contemporary research; and second, by generating hypotheses on the indirect political effects of sports cultures, in particular on the relationship between local social identities—reinforced through sports—and cosmopolitan value change. These interlinked spatial and substantive claims ground a new critical research framework and agenda: it examines sports as profoundly embedded in socioeconomic, cultural and political forms of rule and domination but also seeks to disclose sports’ emancipatory and subversive potential in advancing globalization from below.

  6. Conceptual framework for research on global change 1992-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    For a better overall understanding of the Earth system scientists have initiated extensive international research programs dealing with the dynamics of the Earth system. These activities are characterized by their interdisciplinary, border crossing, and system orientated approach. For a long time scientists from the Federal Republic of Germany participate significantly in the conception and completion of such programs. The more and more urgent questions from politics and from the public have prompted the Federal Government under the leadership of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology to increase these efforts. In this the Federal Government will also be supported by the Scientific Advisory Committee appointed by it, which annually presents a report on the state of global changes and their consequences. In this brochure the Conceptual Framework for Research on Global Changes is presented, which was passed by the Federal Cabinet in April 1992. It is documenting the advanced state of research, which has already been achieved in this country. At the same time, however, it is made clear that significant further steps have to be taken to contribute to the solution of the most urgent problems of the world. (orig.)

  7. Data on the global environment. The state of Denmark's environment compared with other industrial countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A summary, and a selection of significant information, taken from the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) documents: The State of the Environment (1991) and Environmental Indicators (1991) and the ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) report: The Environment in Europe and North America: Annotated Statistics 1992, and from a few other sources. The document is a translation of the Swedish publication: Miljoevaer(l)den. Statistics and other information relate to air pollution, flora and fauna, the condition of forests and of the North and Baltic Seas, water pollution, wastes, chemicals, oil spills, energy production and consumption, traffic, environmental hazards, public anxiety related to the environment, environmental protection, population densities during 1989 and international conventions on environmental protection. Most of the datas relate to the nineteen eighties. (AB)

  8. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment: Editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access Policy. This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. ... Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria Prof. H. Oluma Department of ...

  9. Global Information Resources on Rice for Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri RAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Various issues concerning the progress of rice research are related to ambiguous germplasm identification, difficulty in tracing pedigree information, and lack of integration between genetic resources, characterization, breeding, evaluation and utilization data. These issues are the constraints in developing knowledge-intensive crop improvement programs. The rapid growth, development and the global spread of modern information and communication technology allow quick adoption in fundamental research. Thus, there is a need to provide an opportunity for the establishment of services which describe the rice information for better accessibility to information resources used by researchers to enhance the competitiveness. This work reviews some of available resources on rice bioinformatics and their roles in elucidating and propagating biological and genomic information in rice research. These reviews will also enable stakeholders to understand and adopt the change in research and development and share knowledge with the global community of agricultural scientists. The establishment like International Rice Information System, Rice Genome Research Project and Integrated Rice Genome Explorer are major initiatives for the improvement of rice. Creation of databases for comparative studies of rice and other cereals are major steps in further improvement of genetic compositions. This paper will also highlight some of the initiatives and organizations working in the field of rice improvement and explore the availability of the various web resources for the purpose of research and development of rice. We are developing a meta web server for integration of online resources such as databases, web servers and journals in the area of bioinformatics. This integrated platform, with acronym iBIRA, is available online at ibiranet.in. The resources reviewed here are the excerpts from the resources integrated in iBIRA.

  10. E-Infrastructure and Data Management for Global Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Gurney, R. J.; Cesar, R.; Cossu, R.; Gemeinholzer, B.; Koike, T.; Mokrane, M.; Peters, D.; Nativi, S.; Samors, R.; Treloar, A.; Vilotte, J. P.; Visbeck, M.; Waldmann, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Belmont Forum, a coalition of science funding agencies from 15 countries, is supporting an 18-month effort to assess the state of international of e-infrastructures and data management so that global change data and information can be more easily and efficiently exchanged internationally and across domains. Ultimately, this project aims to address the Belmont "Challenge" to deliver knowledge needed for action to avoid and adapt to detrimental environmental change, including extreme hazardous events. This effort emerged from conclusions by the Belmont Forum that transformative approaches and innovative technologies are needed for heterogeneous data/information to be integrated and made interoperable for researchers in disparate fields, and for myriad uses across international, institutional, disciplinary, spatial and temporal boundaries. The project will deliver a Community Strategy and Implementation Plan to prioritize international funding opportunities and long-term policy recommendations on how the Belmont Forum can implement a more coordinated, holistic, and sustainable approach to funding and supporting global change research. The Plan is expected to serve as the foundation of future Belmont Forum funding calls for proposals in support of research science goals as well as to establish long term e-infrastructure. More than 120 scientists, technologists, legal experts, social scientists, and other experts are participating in six Work Packages to develop the Plan by spring, 2015, under the broad rubrics of Architecture/Interoperability and Governance: Data Integration for Multidisciplinary Research; Improved Interface between Computation & Data Infrastructures; Harmonization of Global Data Infrastructure; Data Sharing; Open Data; and Capacity Building. Recommendations could lead to a more coordinated approach to policies, procedures and funding mechanisms to support e-infrastructures in a more sustainable way.

  11. FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environments Experiment): Measurements of Nitrogen Containing Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Yokelson, R. J.; Roberts, J. M.; Koss, A.; Coggon, M.; Yuan, B.; Sekimoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    A combination of a warmer, drier climate with fire-control practices over the last century have produced a situation in which we can expect more frequent fires and fires of larger magnitude in the Western U.S. and Canada. There are urgent needs to better understand the impacts of wildfire and biomass burning (BB) on the atmosphere and climate system, and for policy-relevant science to aid in the process of managing fires. The FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environment Experiment) research effort is a multi-year, multi-agency measurement campaign focused on the impact of BB on climate and air quality from western North American wild fires, where research takes place on scales ranging from the flame-front to the global atmosphere. FIREX includes methods development and small- and large-scale laboratory and field experiments. FIREX will include: emission factor measurements from typical North American fuels in the fire science laboratory in Missoula, Montana; mobile laboratory deployments; ground site measurements at sites influenced by BB from several western states. The main FIREX effort will be a large field study with multiple aircraft and mobile labs in the fire season of 2019. One of the main advances of FIREX is the availability of various new measurement techniques that allows for smoke evaluation in unprecedented detail. The first major effort of FIREX was the fire science laboratory measurements in October 2016, where a large number of previously understudied Nitrogen containing volatile organic compounds (NVOCs) were measured using H3O+CIMS and I-CIMS instruments. The contribution of NVOCs to the total reactive Nitrogen budget and the relationship to the Nitrogen content of the fuel are investigated.

  12. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 1 - Overview of Global Status and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    The Global Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) Research Alliance periodically reviews the state of FMD research to assess progress and to identify new priorities. In this supplement we provide an update of global FMD research, comprising (i) this overview paper, which includes background information with key findings, and papers covering (ii) epidemiology, wildlife and economics, (iii) vaccines, (iv) diagnostics, (v) biotherapeutics and disinfectants, (vi) immunology and (vii) pathogenesis and molecular biology. FMD research publications were reviewed (2011-2015) and activity updates were obtained from 33 FMD research institutes from around the world. Although a continual threat, FMD has been effectively controlled in much of the world using existing tools. However, control remains a challenge in most developing countries, where little has been done to understand the ongoing burden of FMD. More research is needed to support control in endemically infected countries, particularly robust field studies. Traditional FMD vaccines have several limitations including short duration and spectrum of protection, cold chain requirements, and the costs and biosecurity risks associated with vaccine production. Significant progress has been made in the development of novel vaccine candidates, particularly in the use of recombinant vaccines and virus-like particles as an alternative to traditional inactivated whole virus vaccines. Continued investment is needed to turn these developments into improved vaccines produced at scale. Increased knowledge of cellular and mucosal immunity would benefit vaccine development, as would further advances in our ability to enhance vaccine capsid stability. Developments in molecular biology and phylogenetics underlie many of the recent advances in FMD research, including improved vaccines and diagnostics, and improved understanding of FMD epidemiology. Tools for genetic analyses continue to become both more powerful and more affordable enabling them to

  13. Climate change damage functions in LCA – (1) from global warming potential to natural environment damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    Energy use often is the most significant contributor to the impact category ‘global warming’ in life cycle impact assessment. However, the potential global warming effects on the climate at regional level and consequential effects on the natural environment are not thoroughly described within LCA...... methodology. The current scientific understanding of the extent of climate change impacts is limited due to the immense complexity of the multi-factorial environmental changes and unknown adaptive capacities at process, species and ecosystem level. In the presentation we argue that the global warming impacts...

  14. Not so global: a bibliometric look at engineering education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bill; Wankat, Phillip C.; Neto, Pedro

    2018-03-01

    It has been suggested that Engineering Education Research (EER) is going global. If this were the case we would assume that the research of EER scholars in different parts of the globe would be informed by literature describing prior work within and beyond their home country/region. The authors set out to test this hypothesis by applying citation analysis to research presented in four publication venues: the annual conferences organised by ASEE (American Society of Engineering Education) and SEFI (European Society of Engineering Education) and two archival journals published by these two societies: Journal of Engineering Education (JEE) and European Journal of Engineering Education (EJEE). Our findings from the analysis of 4321 publications show that citations in ASEE conferences are dominated by sources with US affiliations, whereas the SEFI data show that while US sources are frequently cited, European and other authors are also well represented. With regard to the journals JEE and EJEE, a similar pattern is observed. These results suggest that, in citation terms, European EER is relatively global but US EER is not. The authors conclude by suggesting that if the EER community is to aspire to quality scholarship, there needs to be debate around how such issues can be tackled.

  15. The globalization of health research: harnessing the scientific diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Nalini P; Hofman, Karen J; Glass, Roger I

    2009-04-01

    The scientific diaspora is a unique resource for U.S. universities. By drawing on the expertise, experience, and catalytic potential of diaspora scientists, universities can capitalize more fully on their diverse intellectual resources to make lasting contributions to global health. This article examines the unique contributions of the diaspora in international research collaborations, advantages of harnessing the diaspora and benefits to U.S. universities of fostering these collaborations, challenges faced by scientists who want to work with their home countries, examples of scientists engaging with their home countries, and specific strategies U.S. universities and donors can implement to catalyze these collaborations. The contributions of the diaspora to the United States are immense: International students enrolled in academic year 2007-2008 contributed an estimated $15 billion to the U.S. economy. As scientific research becomes increasingly global, the percentage of scientific publications with authors from foreign countries has grown from 8% in 1988 to 20% in 2005. Diaspora scientists can help build trusting relationships with scientists abroad, and international collaborations may improve the health of underserved populations at home. Although opportunities for diaspora networks are increasing, most home countries often lack enabling policies, infrastructure, and resources to effectively utilize their diaspora communities abroad. This article examines how some governments have successfully mobilized their scientific diaspora to become increasingly engaged in their national research agendas. Recommendations include specific strategies, including those that encourage U.S. universities to promote mini-sabbaticals and provide seed funding and flexible time frames.

  16. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old…

  17. Adaptation and evolution in marine environments. Vol. 2. The impacts of global change on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, Cinzia; Di Prisco, Guido (eds.) [CNR, Napoli (Italy). Inst. of Protein Biochemistry

    2013-02-01

    Offers a regionally focussed approach. Describes research on adaptive evolution. State-of-the-art content. The second volume of ''Adaptation and Evolution in Marine Environments - The Impacts of Global Change on Biodiversity'' from the series ''From Pole to Pole'' integrates the marine biology contribution of the first tome to the IPY 2007-2009, presenting overviews of organisms (from bacteria and ciliates to higher vertebrates) thriving on polar continental shelves, slopes and deep sea. The speed and extent of warming in the Arctic and in regions of Antarctica (the Peninsula, at the present) are greater than elsewhere. Changes impact several parameters, in particular the extent of sea ice; organisms, ecosystems and communities that became finely adapted to increasing cold in the course of millions of years are now becoming vulnerable, and biodiversity is threatened. Investigating evolutionary adaptations helps to foresee the impact of changes in temperate areas, highlighting the invaluable contribution of polar marine research to present and future outcomes of the IPY in the Earth system scenario.

  18. Mycorrhizas and global environmental change: Research at different scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staddon, P.L.; Heinemeyer, A.; Fitter, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    Global environmental change (GEC), in particular rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature, will affect most ecosystems. The varied responses of plants to these aspects of GEC are well documented. As with other key below-ground components of terrestrial ecosystems, the response...... of the ubiquitous mycorrhizal fungal root symbionts has received limited attention. Most of the research on the effects of GEC on mycorrhizal fungi has been pot-based with a few field (especially monoculture) studies. A major question that arises in all these studies is whether the GEC effects on the mycorrhizal...

  19. Meeting report: Global vaccine and immunization research forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andrew Q; Touchette, Nancy; Fenton Hall, B; Hwang, Angela; Hombach, Joachim

    2018-02-08

    Building on the success of the first Global Vaccine and Immunization Research Forum (GVIRF), the World Health Organization, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health in the United States of America, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation convened the second GVIRF in March 2016. Leading scientists, vaccine developers, and public health officials from around the world discussed scientific advances and innovative technologies to design and deliver vaccines as well as novel tools and approaches to increase the uptake of vaccines throughout the world. This report summarizes the discussions and conclusions from the forum participants. Copyright © 2018.

  20. The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale

    OpenAIRE

    Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

    2009-01-01

    Background: The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. ...

  1. Attributes of a research environment that contribute to excellent research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. B. Jordan; L. D. Streit; J. S. Binkley

    1999-04-01

    This paper presents initial work at two U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories to identify attributes of DOE Laboratory research environments that are most important for fostering excellent research.

  2. Natural hazards education in global environment leaders education programme for designing a low-carbon society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Soo; Yamashita, Takao; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2010-05-01

    Global environmental leader (GEL) education programme at graduate school for international development and cooperation (IDEC) in Hiroshima University is an education and training programme for graduate students especially from developing countries in Asian region to build and enhance their ability to become international environmental leaders. Through this programme, they will participate in regular course works and other activities to learn how to cope with the various environment and resource management issues from global to regional scales toward a low-carbon society via multi-disciplinary approaches considering sustainable development and climate change. Under this GEL programme, there are five different research sub-groups as follows assuming a cause-effect relationship among interacting components of social, economic, and environmental systems; 1) urban system design to prevent global warming, 2) wise use of biomass resources, 3) environmental impact assessment, 4) policy and institutional design, and 5) development of environmental education programs. Candidate students of GEL programme belong to one of the five research sub-groups, perform their researches and participate in many activities under the cross-supervisions from faculty members of different sub-groups. Under the third research group for environmental impact assessment, we use numerical models named as regional environment simulator (RES) as a tool for research and education for assessing the environmental impacts due to natural hazards. Developed at IDEC, Hiroshima University, RES is a meso-scale numerical model system that can be used for regional simulation of natural disasters and environmental problems caused by water and heat circulation in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. RES has three components: i) atmosphere-surface waves-ocean part, ii) atmosphere-land surface process-hydrologic part, and iii) coastal and estuarine part. Each part is constructed with state-of-the-art public

  3. Anthropology and Geosciences: Training and Collaboration Advancing Interdisciplinary Research of Human-environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondizio, E.; Moran, E.

    2005-05-01

    Over the past thirteen years the Anthropological Center for Training and Research on Global Environmental Change (ACT) at Indiana University has pioneered the use of anthropological and environmental research approaches to address issues of land use change, and population-environment interaction, particularly in the Amazon. Our research and training objectives focus on how particular local populations manage resources and how those activities may be studied by integrating time-tested ethnographic methods, survey instruments, ecological field studies, and the spatial and temporal perspectives of remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems. The globalization of the environment crisis bears the risk of the research and training at universities being purely global or large scale in nature. This would fail to take into account the highly variable local causes of human activities or to discover sustainable solutions to the use, conservation, and restoration of human ecosystems. Our approach combines institutional and international collaboration, formal and hands-on laboratory and field activities developed within an interdisciplinary environment, but based on the strength of disciplinary programs. Over the past years, we have particularly emphasized collaboration between American and Brazilian scholars and students and intense work with local farmers and communities both during data collection and field research, as well as in returning data and results using different formats. In this paper, we address our experience, the challenges and advantages of theoretical and methodological development for students approaching interdisciplinary problems, innovations in linking levels of analysis, and new opportunities for international and collaborative training and research on human-environment interaction.

  4. Research result information for agriculture and environment. No.12; Nogyo kankyo kenkyu seika joho. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-26

    Essential purposes of productivity improvement, which human being have desires in agriculture for a long time, can not be discussed without considering relations with the environment, nowadays. In these situations, significant investigations have been created among the researches in the agriculture and environment field in response to the requirements of the time. In this report, results of 41 main researches submitted to the agriculture and environment research promotion conference in FY 1995 are compiled. This field covers the environment and resource characterization, the agrioecology, and the environment assessment and control. The environment and resource characterization field includes studies on the micro-meteorological mechanism of desert expansion due to excess pasturage, the salt removal function of clays, and the protection of ground water quality by grassland. The agrioecology field includes studies on the antimicrobial substance contained in Glycyrrhiza glabra against the soil decease of potatoes caused by Streptomyces scabies and the new plant growth obstruction substance contained in Sphenoclea zeylanica. The environment assessment and control field includes studies on the producing district change prediction of main grains accompanied with global environmental change and the carbon balance in the ecosystem of farm lands and rice fields. This report includes a lot of noticeable papers. 103 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Astrobiology Field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments: Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the key astrobiology results are presented in this special issue on Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments relevant to investigate the link between geology, minerals, organics and biota. Preliminary results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Rio Tinto in Spain are presented.

  6. New Challenges Facing Universities in the Internet-Driven Global Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingham, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores some new challenges facing universities in a global multimediated Internet-based environment, as they seek alternative paradigms and options to remain true to their core business. At a time of rapid technological change, and contested, complex concepts associated with globalisation, knowledge is becoming a primary factor of…

  7. The EU's New Global Strategy : Its Implementation in a Troubled International Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, T.; Larik, J.E.; Matta, A.; Vos, de B.

    2016-01-01

    Executive Summary In June 2016, High Representative Mogherini presented the EU’s new Global Strategy on Foreign and Security Policy (EUGS) to the European Council. With the Strategy now finalized, attention needs to turn to its implementation in an environment mired by crises both within Europe and

  8. Research requirements related to radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, F.A.; Hill, M.D.; Wilkins, B.; Cooper, J.R.

    1988-05-01

    A set of papers identifying perceived national research requirements to 1989 had been prepared by various organisations for the Radioactivity, Research and Environmental Monitoring Committee. The Committee had also received a set of papers describing the research to be carried out or commissioned by Government Departments, advisory bodies and the nuclear industry in 1987-9. The purpose of the present report in the general area of radioactivity in the environment is to consider those papers and identify any gaps or overlaps in the national research effort to 1989. Five gaps are identified and their significance is commented upon. (author)

  9. Toward an Assessment of the Global Inventory of Present-Day Mercury Releases to Freshwater Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kocman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems are an essential component of the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg, as inorganic Hg can be converted to toxic methylmercury (MeHg in these environments and reemissions of elemental Hg rival anthropogenic Hg releases on a global scale. Quantification of effluent Hg releases to aquatic systems globally has focused on discharges to the global oceans, rather than contributions to freshwater systems that affect local exposures and risks associated with MeHg. Here we produce a first-estimate of sector-specific, spatially resolved global aquatic Hg discharges to freshwater systems. We compare our release estimates to atmospheric sources that have been quantified elsewhere. By analyzing available quantitative and qualitative information, we estimate that present-day global Hg releases to freshwater environments (rivers and lakes associated with anthropogenic activities have a lower bound of ~1000 Mg· a−1. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM represents the single largest source, followed by disposal of mercury-containing products and domestic waste water, metal production, and releases from industrial installations such as chlor-alkali plants and oil refineries. In addition to these direct anthropogenic inputs, diffuse inputs from land management activities and remobilization of Hg previously accumulated in terrestrial ecosystems are likely comparable in magnitude. Aquatic discharges of Hg are greatly understudied and further constraining associated data gaps is crucial for reducing the uncertainties in the global biogeochemical Hg budget.

  10. Defining features of the practice of global health research: an examination of 14 global health research teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper strives to develop a pragmatic view of the scope of practice and core characteristics of global health research (GHR by examining the activities of 14 Canadian-funded global health teams that were in the process of implementing research programs. Methods: Information was collected by a reflective exploration of team proposals and progress reports, a content analysis of the outputs from an all-team meeting and review of the literature. Results: Teams adopted equity-centered, problem-focused, systems-based approaches intended to find upstream determinants that could make people more resilient to social and ecological factors impacting their health. Long-term visions and time frames were needed to develop and solidify fully functional interdisciplinary, multinational, multicultural partnerships. The implementation of research into practice was a motivating factor for all teams, but to do this, they recognized the need for evidence-based advice on how to best do this. Traditional measures of biomedical research excellence were necessary but not sufficient to encompass views of excellence of team-based interdisciplinary research, which includes features like originality, coherence and cumulative contributions to fields of study, acceptance by peers and success in translating research into gains in health status. An innovative and nuanced approached to GHR ethics was needed to deal with some unique ethical issues because the needs for GHR were not adequately addressed by institutional biomedical research ethics boards. Core competencies for GHR researchers were a blend of those needed for health promotion, population health, international development, sustainable development, and systems science. Discussion: Developing acceptable and meaningful ways to evaluate the short-term contributions for GHR and forecast its long-term impacts is a strategic priority needed to defend decisions being made in GHR development. Planning and

  11. Converging research needs across framework convention on tobacco control articles: making research relevant to global tobacco control practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischow, Scott J; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan; Backinger, Cathy L

    2013-04-01

    Much of the research used to support the ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was conducted in high-income countries or in highly controlled environments. Therefore, for the global tobacco control community to make informed decisions that will continue to effectively inform policy implementation, it is critical that the tobacco control community, policy makers, and funders have updated information on the state of the science as it pertains to provisions of the FCTC. Following the National Cancer Institute's process model used in identifying the research needs of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's relatively new tobacco law, a core team of scientists from the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco identified and commissioned internationally recognized scientific experts on the topics covered within the FCTC. These experts analyzed the relevant sections of the FCTC and identified critical gaps in research that is needed to inform policy and practice requirements of the FCTC. This paper summarizes the process and the common themes from the experts' recommendations about the research and related infrastructural needs. Research priorities in common across Articles include improving surveillance, fostering research communication/collaboration across organizations and across countries, and tracking tobacco industry activities. In addition, expanding research relevant to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), was also identified as a priority, including identification of what existing research findings are transferable, what new country-specific data are needed, and the infrastructure needed to implement and disseminate research so as to inform policy in LMIC.

  12. Success in Global New Product Development: Impact of Strategy and the Behavioral Environment of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Brentani, U.; Kleinschmidt, E.J.; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Product innovation and the trend toward globalization are two important dimensions driving business today, and a firm's global new product development (NPD) strategy is a primary determinant of performance. Succeeding in this competitive and complex market arena calls for corporate resources...... America and Europe, business-to-business, services and goods), a structural model testing for the hypothesized mediation effects was substantially supported. Specifically, having an organizational posture that, at once, values innovation plus globalization, as well as a senior management that is active...... as primary determinants of competitive advantage and, thus, of superior performance through the strategic initiatives that these enable. In the study, global NPD programs are assessed in terms of three dimensions: (1) the organizational resources or behavioral environment of the firm relevant...

  13. Changes in the Global Energy System: Implications for China's International Strategic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly discusses major reasons for the slump of international oil prices and provides a prediction for the future development of international oil prices, before analyzing the three factors leading to significant changes of the global energy system, namely the eastward shift of the world energy consumption centre, the emergence of the United States as a major oil producer and the dramatic waning of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries’ (OPEC influence. These factors and developments are shaping a new order of the global energy strategic landscape and exerting profound influence on China’s international strategic environment. In the foreseeable future, these changes of the global energy system would bring China more uncertainties regarding the country’s oil imports from the Middle East, more strategic pressure from the United States, while promoting China’s leverage on the global energy system and international relations.

  14. Increasing global participation in genetics research through DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Sarah J; Steinke, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    DNA barcoding--the sequencing of short, standardized DNA regions for specimen identification and species discovery--has promised to facilitate rapid access to biodiversity knowledge by diverse users. Here, we advance our opinion that increased global participation in genetics research is beneficial, both to scientists and for science, and explore the premise that DNA barcoding can help to democratize participation in genetics research. We examine publication patterns (2003-2014) in the DNA barcoding literature and compare trends with those in the broader, related domain of genomics. While genomics is the older and much larger field, the number of nations contributing to the published literature is similar between disciplines. Meanwhile, DNA barcoding exhibits a higher pace of growth in the number of publications as well as greater evenness among nations in their proportional contribution to total authorships. This exploration revealed DNA barcoding to be a highly international discipline, with growing participation by researchers in especially biodiverse nations. We briefly consider several of the challenges that may hinder further participation in genetics research, including access to training and molecular facilities as well as policy relating to the movement of genetic resources.

  15. Children Researching Their Urban Environment: Developing a Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Elisabeth Barratt; Barratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    "Listening to children: environmental perspectives and the school curriculum" (L2C) was a UK research council project based in schools in a socially and economically deprived urban area in England. It focused on 10/12 year old children's experience of their local community and environment, and how they made sense of this in relation both…

  16. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment lays emphasis on ... issues in different aspects of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Management, Agriculture, ... Ethnobotanical assessment of plants used for the treatment of endocrine disorder ... esculenta Crantz) cultivated in crude-oil- contaminated soil in Nigeria ...

  17. Procedural Zelda : A PCG Environment for Player Experience Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, Norbert; Bakkes, Sander

    2017-01-01

    To contribute to the domain of player experience research, this paper presents a new PCG environment with a relatively wide expressive range that builds upon the iconic The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past action-RPG game; it contributes by providing the openly-available Procedural Zelda

  18. Educational Technology Research Journals: "Interactive Learning Environments," 2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Steven S.; Andrews, Carolyn; Harris, Scott P.; Lloyd, Adam; Turley, Chad; West, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the journal "Interactive Learning Environments" to discover trends from 2004-2013. The authors looked at trends in article topics, research methods, authorship, citations, keyword frequencies, phrase counts of article abstracts, and article citations according to Google Scholar. Evidence is provided of the journal's…

  19. Knowledge-inducing Global Path Planning for Robots in Environment with Hybrid Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-nan Guo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In complex environment with hybrid terrain, different regions may have different terrain. Path planning for robots in such environment is an open NP-complete problem, which lacks effective methods. The paper develops a novel global path planning method based on common sense and evolution knowledge by adopting dual evolution structure in culture algorithms. Common sense describes terrain information and feasibility of environment, which is used to evaluate and select the paths. Evolution knowledge describes the angle relationship between the path and the obstacles, or the common segments of paths, which is used to judge and repair infeasible individuals. Taken two types of environments with different obstacles and terrain as examples, simulation results indicate that the algorithm can effectively solve path planning problem in complex environment and decrease the computation complexity for judgment and repair of infeasible individuals. It also can improve the convergence speed and have better computation stability.

  20. A global review of cumulative pressure and impact assessments in marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuli Korpinen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ever more extensive use of marine space by human activities and greater demands for marine natural resources has led to increases in both duration and spatial extent of pressures on the marine environment. In parallel, the global crisis of decreasing biodiversity and loss of habitats has revitalized scientific research on human impacts and lead to methodological development of cumulative pressure and impact assessments (CPIA. In Europe alone, almost twenty CPIAs have been published in the past 10 years and some more in other sea regions of the world. In this review, we have analysed 36 recent marine CPIAs and focused on their methodological approaches. We were especially interested in uncovering methodological similarities, identifying best practices and analysing whether the CPIAs have addressed the recent criticism. The review results showed surprisingly similar methodological approaches in >50% of the studies, raising hopes for finding coherence in international assessment efforts. Although the CPIA methods showed relatively few innovative approaches for addressing the major caveats of previous CPIAs, the most recent studies indicate that improved approaches may be soon found.

  1. Expansion of plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism under global environment change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Collins, S. L.; Carr, D.

    2016-12-01

    contrast to the case of the strong competitive effect from B. mollis. Overall, these research improves understanding of mechanisms underlying the expansion of CAM plants with important implications on shifts in dryland vegetation composition, bioenergy production, food security, and adaptation to global environment change.

  2. Developing a common strategy for integrative global change research and outreach: the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, R.; Asrar, G.; Canadell, J.G.; Ingram, J.; Larigauderie, A.; Mooney, H.; Nobre, C.; Patwardhan, A.; Rice, M.; Schmidt, F.; Seitzinger, S.; Virji, H.; Vörösmarthy, C.; Yuoung, O.

    2009-01-01

    The Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) was established in 2001 by four global environmental change (GEC) research programmes: DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP and WCRP. ESSP facilitates the study of the Earth's environment as an integrated system in order to understand how and why it is changing, and to

  3. Quality assurance mechanisms for the unregulated research environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Denise Hanway; Dunn, Michael K

    2013-10-01

    Discussions on research quality and reproducibility are appearing in the pages of scientific journals with heightened significance and gaining media attention. Many institutions have developed guidelines to address the topic of quality in basic research, but questions remain about how best to implement and monitor compliance. Herein we present quality assurance (QA) mechanisms developed specifically for the unregulated discovery research environment to preempt growing concerns arising in both academia and industry for data-driven applications of biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards a mature measurement environment: Creating a software engineering research environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1990-01-01

    Software engineering researchers are building tools, defining methods, and models; however, there are problems with the nature and style of the research. The research is typically bottom-up, done in isolation so the pieces cannot be easily logically or physically integrated. A great deal of the research is essentially the packaging of a particular piece of technology with little indication of how the work would be integrated with other prices of research. The research is not aimed at solving the real problems of software engineering, i.e., the development and maintenance of quality systems in a productive manner. The research results are not evaluated or analyzed via experimentation or refined and tailored to the application environment. Thus, it cannot be easily transferred into practice. Because of these limitations we have not been able to understand the components of the discipline as a coherent whole and the relationships between various models of the process and product. What is needed is a top down experimental, evolutionary framework in which research can be focused, logically and physically integrated to produce quality software productively, and evaluated and tailored to the application environment. This implies the need for experimentation, which in turn implies the need for a laboratory that is associated with the artifact we are studying. This laboratory can only exist in an environment where software is being built, i.e., as part of a real software development and maintenance organization. Thus, we propose that Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) type activities exist in all organizations to support software engineering research. We describe the SEL from a researcher's point of view, and discuss the corporate and government benefits of the SEL. The discussion focuses on the benefits to the research community.

  5. Scientometrics Profile of Global Intellectual Property Rights Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanasekaran, D.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors in this paper aim to identify the growth of literature on Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs. The research publications on IPRs were downloaded from the Scopus online citation database and the authors found that there were 1,513,138 records contributed globally over a period of 10 years from 2005 to 2014. The distribution of publications based on the year, country, and document type were studied. Relative growth rate (RGR of the publications and doubling time (Td were calculated. Most productive organizations, source titles, and the productive authors on IPR research were studied. Most cited articles in the study area were identified. The results show that a number of publications under the subjects Medicine and Engineering were produced. The developed countries are very active in IPR research and producing publications. It is found that one institution which holds the sixth place among the top 10 most productive institutions belongs to Brazil, a developing country. Two developing countries such as China and India hold second and tenth positions respectively in the top 10 countries contributing literature on IPRs.

  6. Global research priorities in rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carapetis, Jonathan R; Zühlke, Liesl J

    2011-01-01

    We now stand at a critical juncture for rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) control. In recent years, we have seen a surge of interest in these diseases in regions of the world where RF/RHD mostly occur. This brings real opportunities to make dramatic progress in the next few years, but also real risks if we miss these opportunities. Most public health and clinical approaches in RF/RHD arose directly from programmes of research. Many unanswered questions remain, including those around how to implement what we know will work, so research will continue to be essential in our efforts to bring a global solution to this disease. Here we outline our proposed research priorities in RF/RHD for the coming decade, grouped under the following four challenges: Translating what we know already into practical RHD control; How to identify people with RHD earlier, so that preventive measures have a higher chance of success; Better understanding of disease pathogenesis, with a view to improved diagnosis and treatment of ARF and RHD; and Finding an effective approach to primary prevention. We propose a mixture of basic, applied, and implementation science. With concerted efforts, strong links to clinical and public health infrastructure, and advocacy and funding support from the international community, there are good prospects for controlling these RF and RHD over the next decade

  7. Inventory of Dutch National Research on Global Climate Change: Inside and outside the National Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smythe, K.D.; Bernabo, C.; Kingma, J.; Vrakking, W.

    1993-04-01

    This summary of Dutch research on global climate change was compiled from a survey of the major research organisations in the Netherlands. The scope and structure of the survey and this report were based on a request for information from the World Meteorological Organisation for an intergovernmental meeting on the World Climate Programme (WCP) held (from 14 to 16 April 1993). The WMO request emphasized activities related to the WCP and its associated programmes. To extend the usefulness of the exercise, an attempt has been made to broaden the focus to give additional attention to the Intergovernmental Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the Human Dimensions Programme (HDP). This was the first attempt to inventory the research projects on global climate change underway in the Netherlands - both inside and outside the National Research Programme. Other surveys on Dutch climate-related research have been conducted. The most extensive effort was a cataloging of publications from climate research in the Netherlands from 1981 to 1991, which was conducted by the Netherlands Royal Academy of Sciences (KNAW). That inventory is being updated to include publications through 1992. The database resulting from this exercise will be a useful tool for organisations sponsoring and conducting global climate change research in their efforts to stimulate cooperation and promote coordination among research groups in the Netherlands and abroad. There are plans to update the inventory in the future and to provide the information to participating Dutch organisations as well as research organisations in other countries. An overview of the current research is provided in Volume 1 with a list of projects

  8. Research priorities for the environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews the connections between environmental change, modern agricultural practices and the occurrence of infectious diseases - especially those of poverty; proposes a multi-criteria decision analysis approach to determining the key research priorities; and explores the benefits and limitations of a more systems-based approach to conceptualizing and investigating the problem. The report is the output of the Thematic Reference Group on Environment, Agriculture and Infectious Diseases of Poverty (TRG 4), part of an independent think tank of international experts, established and funded by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholder consultations. The report concludes that mitigating the outcomes on human health will require far-reaching strategies - spanning the environment, climate, agriculture, social-ecological, microbial and public-health sectors; as well as inter-disciplinary research and intersectoral action. People will also need to modify their way of thinking and engage beyond their own specialities, since the challenges are systemic and are amplified by the increasing inter-connectedness of human populations. This is one of a series of disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at www.who.int/tdr/capacity/global_report.

  9. Information Processing and Firm-Internal Environment Contingencies: Performance Impact on Global New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinschmidt, Elko; de Brentani, Ulrike; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    , functionally, geographically and culturally. To this end, an IT-communication strength is essential, one that is nested in an internal organizational environment that ensures its effective functioning. Using organizational information processing (OIP) theory as a framework, superior global NPD program......Innovation in its essence is an information processing activity. Thus, a major factor impacting the success of new product development (NPD) programs, especially those responding to global markets, is the firm's ability to access, share and apply NPD information, which is often widely dispersed...

  10. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  11. Cooperation of international Research Infrastructures to address environmental global challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet García, Francisco J.; Suárez-Muñoz, María; Conchubhair, Diarmuid O.; Dohna, Tina; Lo Bue, Nadia

    2017-04-01

    Human impact on the planet is causing a set of global environmental problems that threaten the wellbeing of current and future generations. Examples of these environmental problems include climate change, decline of biodiversity, alteration of biogeochemical cycles, ocean acidification, etc. These environmental Global Challenges (GCs) are transnational and complex, combining elements of both natural and social factors. Providing solutions for these challenges can be significantly enhanced through the collaboration of various related institutions, governments and stakeholders. A deeper understanding of the causes and consequences of GCs, as well as the processes which control them is required. Environmental Research Infrastructures (DANUBIUS-RI) are key players in this learning process. Covering many fields of research, it is through RIs collaboration that GCs can be more fully addressed. However, the collaboration among environmental RIs is still limited nationally as well as internationally. Although contact is encouraged and interactions are common practice, there are few cases where RI managers initiate and foster transnational collaborations in order to address specific problems. The COOP+ project aims to explore and strengthen cooperation among global RIs by bringing various RIs together and working on the identification of requirements, strengths, knowledge gaps and other relevant items in regard to the selected GCs. For this purpose, 13 GCs have been selected: coral bleaching, marine debris, noise impact on marine fauna, Arctic sea ice melting, pollinators decline, threatened species, agriculture pollutants, nitrogen cycle, carbon and GHG, geohazards and extreme events, estuaries, global urbanization process, and ozone depletion. These GCs are being analysed and described by multidisciplinary teams of experts composed of scientists, RIs operators and other stakeholders. This assessment will derive a list of tasks and requirements to be fulfilled by the

  12. Advancing cancer control research in an emerging news media environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine C; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Blake, Kelly D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is both highly feared and highly newsworthy, and there is a robust body of research documenting the content and effects of cancer news coverage on health behaviors and policy. Recent years have witnessed ongoing, transformative shifts in American journalism alongside rapid advances in communication technology and the public information environment. These changes create a pressing need to consider a new set of research questions, sampling strategies, measurement techniques, and theories of media effects to ensure continued relevance and adaptation of communication research to address critical cancer control concerns. This paper begins by briefly reviewing what we know about the role of cancer news in shaping cancer-related beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and policies. We then outline challenges and opportunities, both theoretical and methodological, posed by the rapidly changing news media environment and the nature of audience engagement. We organize our discussion around three major shifts associated with the emerging news media environment as it relates to health communication: 1) speed and dynamism of news diffusion, 2) increased narrowcasting of media content for specialized audiences, and 3) broadened participation in shaping media content. In so doing, we articulate a set of questions for future theory and research, in an effort to catalyze innovative communication scholarship to improve cancer prevention and control.

  13. Bringing the Global Home: Students Research Local Areas through Postcolonial Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Ricarda

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a class that draws on postcolonial insights to create a global sociological imagination. Postcolonial approaches can make visible how global connections have shaped our local environments even if these relations are not always immediately visible. Specifically, students in this class highlight how global relations, such as…

  14. Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

  15. Forest Service Global Change Research Strategy, 2009-2019 Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Solomon; Richard A. Birdsey; Linda A. Joyce

    2010-01-01

    In keeping with the research goals of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the climate change strategy of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the climate change framework of the Forest Service, this Forest Service Global Change Research Strategy, 2009-2019 Implementation Plan (hereafter called the Research Plan), was written by Forest Service Research...

  16. Terrestrial Ecosystem Responses to Global Change: A Research Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecosystems Working Group,

    1998-09-23

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Models and experiments are equally important for developing process-level understanding into a predictive capability. To support both the development and testing of mechanistic ecosystem models, a two-tiered design of ecosystem experiments should be used. This design should include both (1) large-scale manipulative experiments for comprehensive testing of integrated ecosystem models and (2) multifactor, multilevel experiments for parameterization of process models across the critical range of interacting environmental factors (CO{sub 2}, temperature, water

  17. Building partnerships for healthy environments: research, leadership and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Susan; Kent, Jennifer; Lyons, Claudine

    2014-12-01

    As populations across the globe face an increasing health burden from rising rates of obesity, diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases, health professionals are collaborating with urban planners to influence city design that supports healthy ways of living. This paper details the establishment and operation of an innovative, interdisciplinary collaboration that brings together urban planning and health. Situated in a built environment faculty at one of Australia's most prestigious universities, the Healthy Built Environments Program (HBEP) partners planning academics, a health non-government organisation, local councils and private planning consultants in a state government health department funded consortium. The HBEP focuses on three strategic areas: research, workforce development and education, and leadership and advocacy. Interdisciplinary research includes a comprehensive literature review that establishes Australian-based evidence to support the development, prioritisation and implementation of healthy built environment policies and practices. Another ongoing study examines the design features, social interventions and locational qualities that positively benefit human health. Formal courses, workshops, public lectures and e-learning develop professional capacity, as well as skills in interdisciplinary practice to support productive collaborations between health professionals and planners. The third area involves working with government and non-government agencies, and the private sector and the community, to advocate closer links between health and the built environment. Our paper presents an overview of the HBEP's major achievements. We conclude with a critical review of the challenges, revealing lessons in bringing health and planning closer together to create health-supportive cities for the 21st century.

  18. Inventory of Dutch National Research on Global Climate Change: Inside and outside the National Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smythe, K.D.; Bernabo, C.; Kingma, J.; Vrakking, W.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains brief descriptions of research projects in the field of global climate change, performed both within and outside the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP). The descriptions result from a survey of the major research institutions in The Netherlands, conducted by two consultancies (Science and Policy Associates, SPA and Holland Consulting Group, HCG) at the request of the NRP. The inventory had to be completed within a relatively brief period; it is thus unavoidable that one or more projects may sometimes contain inaccuracies. Taken as a whole, this report presents a good picture of the Dutch research activities in this area. The scope and structure of this survey and the contents of this report are based on a request for information from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for an intergovernmental meeting on the World Climate Programme (WCP), held on 14-16 April 1993. The WMO request emphasised activities related to the WCP and its associated programmes. The database resulting from this exercise will be a useful tool for organisations which sponsor and conduct research into global climate change in their efforts to stimulate cooperation and to promote coordination between the research groups in The Netherlands and abroad. There are plans to update the inventory in the future and to provide the information to participating organisations in The Netherlands, as well as to research organisations in other countries. An overview of the current research is provided in Volume 1, a list of projects being provided in Annex 3. The projects are presented according to the themes and subthemes which are used in the NRP

  19. Terrestrial Feedbacks Incorporated in Global Vegetation Models through Observed Trait-Environment Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodegom, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    Most global vegetation models used to evaluate climate change impacts rely on plant functional types to describe vegetation responses to environmental stresses. In a traditional set-up in which vegetation characteristics are considered constant within a vegetation type, the possibility to implement and infer feedback mechanisms are limited as feedback mechanisms will likely involve a changing expression of community trait values. Based on community assembly concepts, we implemented functional trait-environment relationships into a global dynamic vegetation model to quantitatively assess this feature. For the current climate, a different global vegetation distribution was calculated with and without the inclusion of trait variation, emphasizing the importance of feedbacks -in interaction with competitive processes- for the prevailing global patterns. These trait-environmental responses do, however, not necessarily imply adaptive responses of vegetation to changing conditions and may locally lead to a faster turnover in vegetation upon climate change. Indeed, when running climate projections, simulations with trait variation did not yield a more stable or resilient vegetation than those without. Through the different feedback expressions, global and regional carbon and water fluxes were -however- strongly altered. At a global scale, model projections suggest an increased productivity and hence an increased carbon sink in the next decades to come, when including trait variation. However, by the end of the century, a reduced carbon sink is projected. This effect is due to a downregulation of photosynthesis rates, particularly in the tropical regions, even when accounting for CO2-fertilization effects. Altogether, the various global model simulations suggest the critical importance of including vegetation functional responses to changing environmental conditions to grasp terrestrial feedback mechanisms at global scales in the light of climate change.

  20. Scanning the Global Environment. A framework and methodology for UNEP's reporting functions

    OpenAIRE

    Swart RJ; Bakkes JA; Niessen LW; Rotmans J; Vries HJM de; Weterings R; Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM; United Nations Environment Programme UNEP; MTV; ISC; VTV; CWM; SB4; TNO Centre for Technology and Policy Studies

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual framework for UNEP's reporting functions is proposed, aimed at supporting strategic environmental policy development. To this end information should be provided about the past, current and future state of the environment as a function of demographic and socio-economic developments. The policy relevance of the existing global environmental reporting functions may be improved considerably by introducing three new elements: (1) the application of integrated conceptual frameworks and...

  1. Business Efficiency - Ranking the Republic of Croatia as a Destination in Regional, European and Global Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Verdris; Ruzica Simic

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of this decade, which corresponds to the processes of an accelerated political, social and economic opening to the European and global environment, the Republic of Croatia has become aware of the need for deep reforms to enable the creation of permanently sustained success of its national economy. In this context, the creation of conditions for efficiency in existing business entities, and the shaping of new and effective institutions, is becoming the central question for ...

  2. Development and verification of remote research environment based on 'Fusion research grid'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iba, Katsuyuki; Ozeki, Takahisa; Totsuka, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Yoshio; Oshima, Takayuki; Sakata, Shinya; Sato, Minoru; Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Kiyono, Kimihiro

    2008-01-01

    'Fusion research grid' is a concept that unites scientists and let them collaborate effectively against their difference in time zone and location in a nuclear fusion research. Fundamental technologies of 'Fusion research grid' have been developed at JAEA in the VizGrid project under the e-Japan project at the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). We are conscious of needs to create new systems that assist researchers with their research activities because remote collaborations have been increasing in international projects. Therefore we have developed prototype remote research environments for experiments, diagnostics, analyses and communications based on 'Fusion research grid'. All users can access these environments from anywhere because 'Fusion research grid' does not require a closed network like Super SINET to maintain security. The prototype systems were verified in experiments at JT-60U and their availability was confirmed

  3. Researching gender: the challenge of global diversity today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia Longman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The text of this paper is based on a lecture given at the symposium of the Ghent African Platform “Researching Gender in/on Africa” at Ghent University in December 2009. It addresses some general challenges faced by ‘gender studies’ as an autonomous field versus ‘gender research’ as an integrated topic within mainstream disciplines in academia. Gender studies have sometimes superseded ‘women’s studies’ and expanded to cover the terrain of study of various forms of diversity including men’s and transgender studies. We will show that the ‘mainstreaming’ of gender in public policy at local, national and transnational levels is a development which may potentially lead to the loss of a – feminist – political edge. Secondly, while gender studies with their emphasis on socially constructed gender as opposed to biological essentialist understandings of ‘sex’ appear to face the challenge of a popular ‘new biological determinism’, it is shown that the binary model of sex/gender in fact has been criticised for some time now from within feminist theory and gender research. This is (selectively illustrated with research from four disciplines, including the work of African gender studies scholars, i.e. feminist philosophy, social sciences (in particular socio-cultural anthropology, history and biology itself. This then shows how the accusation that gender studies would be ‘socially deterministic’ without attending to bodily matters or materiality is unfounded. Finally, it is argued that there is still a need for gender studies to become more culturally diverse, more global and transnational in its outlook, by becoming more deeply attuned to the way gender intersects with other forms of difference and taking into account postcolonial critiques of western feminist paternalism, without falling into the trap of cultural relativism. Key words: gender studies, feminism, sex/gender debate, gender mainstreaming, postcolonial

  4. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhamid, Shafi’i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques. PMID:27384239

  5. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhamid, Shafi'i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques.

  6. Mapping global health research investments, time for new thinking--a Babel Fish for research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Robert F; Allen, Liz; Gardner, Charles A; Guzman, Javier; Moran, Mary; Viergever, Roderik F

    2012-09-01

    Today we have an incomplete picture of how much the world is spending on health and disease-related research and development (R&D). As such it is difficult to align, or even begin to coordinate, health R&D investments with international public health priorities. Current efforts to track and map global health research investments are complex, resource-intensive, and caveat-laden. An ideal situation would be for all research funding to be classified using a set of common standards and definitions. However, the adoption of such a standard by everyone is not a realistic, pragmatic or even necessary goal. It is time for new thinking informed by the innovations in automated online translation - e.g. Yahoo's Babel Fish. We propose a feasibility study to develop a system that can translate and map the diverse research classification systems into a common standard, allowing the targeting of scarce research investments to where they are needed most.

  7. Mapping global health research investments, time for new thinking - A Babel Fish for research data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Today we have an incomplete picture of how much the world is spending on health and disease-related research and development (R&D). As such it is difficult to align, or even begin to coordinate, health R&D investments with international public health priorities. Current efforts to track and map global health research investments are complex, resource-intensive, and caveat-laden. An ideal situation would be for all research funding to be classified using a set of common standards and definitions. However, the adoption of such a standard by everyone is not a realistic, pragmatic or even necessary goal. It is time for new thinking informed by the innovations in automated online translation - e.g. Yahoo's Babel Fish. We propose a feasibility study to develop a system that can translate and map the diverse research classification systems into a common standard, allowing the targeting of scarce research investments to where they are needed most. PMID:22938160

  8. What are the major global threats and impacts in marine environments? Investigating the contours of a shared perception among marine scientists from the bottom-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonstra, W.J.; Maj Ottosen, Katharina; Ferreira, Ana Sofia

    2015-01-01

    academics in marine science this article explores if a shared research agenda in relation to global change in marine environments exists. The analysis demonstrates that marine scientists across disciplines are largely in agreement on some common features of global marine change. Nevertheless, the analysis...... also highlights where natural and social scientists diverge in their assessment. The article ends discussing what these findings imply for further improvement of interdisciplinary marine science......Marine scientists broadly agree on which major processes influence the sustainability of marine environments worldwide. Recent studies argue that such shared perceptions crucially shape scientific agendas and are subject to a confirmation bias. Based on these findings a more explicit engagement...

  9. Translating Globalization Theories into Educational Research: Thoughts on Recent Shifts in Holocaust Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgilchrist, Felicitas; Christophe, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Much educational research on globalization aims to prepare students to be successful citizens in a global society. We propose a set of three concepts, drawing on systems theory (Nassehi, Stichweh) and theories of the subject (Butler, Foucault), to think the global which enables educational research to step back from hegemonic discourses and…

  10. Integrating Global Hydrology Into Graduate Engineering Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffis, V. W.

    2007-12-01

    Worldwide, polluted water affects the health of 1.2 billion people and contributes to the death of 15 million children under five every year. In addition poor environmental quality contributes to 25 per cent of all preventable ill health in the world. To address some of these problems, at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, the world community set the goal of halving, by the year 2015, the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Solving sanitation and water resource management problems in any part of the world presents an interdisciplinary, complex challenge. However, when we attempt to solve these problems in an international context, our technical approaches must be tempered with cultural sensitivity and extraordinary management strategies. To meet this challenge, Michigan Tech has developed a unique global partnership with the U.S. Peace Corps to address our acknowledgement of the importance of placing engineering solutions in a global context. The program has graduated 30 students. Program enrollment is now over 30 and over 20 countries have hosted our students. The objective of this presentation is to demonstrate how this unique partnership can be integrated with graduate engineering education and research and also show how such a program may attract a more diverse student population into engineering. All graduate students enrolled in our Master's International Program in Civil and Environmental Engineering must complete specific coursework requirements before departing for their international experience. In CE5993 (Field Engineering in the Developing World) students learn to apply concepts of sustainable development and appropriate technology in the developing world. In FW5770 (Rural Community Development Planning and Analysis) students learn how one involves a community in the decision making process. A common theme in both courses is the role of woman in successful development projects. Technical

  11. Research progress on distribution, migration, transformation of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Sicheng; Hu, Yongyou; Cheng, Jianhua; Chen, Yuancai

    2018-05-28

    Antimicrobial and antibiotics resistance caused by misuse or overuse of antibiotics exposure is a growing and significant threat to global public health. The spread and horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) by the selective pressure of antibiotics in an aquatic environment is a major public health issue. To develop a better understanding of potential ecological risks die to antibiotics and ARGs, this study mainly summarizes research progress about: (i) the occurrence, concentration, fate, and potential ecological effects of antibiotics and ARGs in various aquatic environments, (ii) the threat, spread, and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of ARGs, and (iii) the relationship between antibiotics, ARGs, and ARB. Finally, this review also proposes future research direction on antibiotics and ARGs.

  12. Child prostitution: global health burden, research needs, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Brian M; Levy, Barry S

    2002-04-20

    Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other forms of child sexual abuse, is not only a cause of death and high morbidity in millions of children, but also a gross violation of their rights and dignity. In this article we estimate morbidity and mortality among prostituted children, and propose research strategies and interventions to mitigate such health consequences. Our estimates underscore the need for health professionals to collaborate with individuals and organisations that provide direct services to prostituted children. Health professionals can help efforts to prevent child prostitution through identifying contributing factors, recording the magnitude and health effects of the problem, and assisting children who have escaped prostitution. They can also help governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to implement policies, laws, and programmes to prevent child prostitution and mitigate its effects on children's health.

  13. A global survey of hydrogen energy research, development and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Banerjee, Abhijit

    2006-01-01

    Several factors have led to growing interest in a hydrogen energy economy, especially for transportation. A successful transition to a major role for hydrogen will require much greater cost-effectiveness, fueling infrastructure, consumer acceptance, and a strategy for its basis in renewable energy feedstocks. Despite modest attention to the need for a sustainable hydrogen energy system in several countries, in most cases in the short to mid term hydrogen will be produced from fossil fuels. This paper surveys the global status of hydrogen energy research and development (R and D) and public policy, along with the likely energy mix for making it. The current state of hydrogen energy R and D among auto, energy and fuel-cell companies is also briefly reviewed. Just two major auto companies and two nations have specific targets and timetables for hydrogen fuel cells or vehicle production, although the EU also has an aggressive, less specific strategy. Iceland and Brazil are the only nations where renewable energy feedstocks are envisioned as the major or sole future source of hydrogen. None of these plans, however, are very certain. Thus, serious questions about the sustainability of a hydrogen economy can be raised

  14. Crystal Growth and Other Materials Physical Researches in Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mingxiang

    Material science researches in space environment are based on reducing the effects of buoyancy driven transport, the effects of atomic oxygen, radiation, extremes of heat and cold and the ultrahigh vacuum, so as to unveil the underlying fundamental phenomena, lead maybe to new potential materials or new industrial processes and develop space techniques. Currently, research program on materials sciences in Chinese Manned Space Engineering (CMSE) is going on. More than ten projects related to crystal growth and materials processes are selected as candidates to be executed in Shenzhou spacecraft, Tiangong Space Laboratory and Chinese Space Station. In this talk, we will present some examples of the projects, which are being prepared and executed in the near future flight tasks. They are both basic and applied research, from discovery to technology.

  15. Research progress on expansive soil cracks under changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bei-xiao; Zheng, Cheng-feng; Wu, Jin-kun

    2014-01-01

    Engineering problems shunned previously rise to the surface gradually with the activities of reforming the natural world in depth, the problem of expansive soil crack under the changing environment becoming a control factor of expansive soil slope stability. The problem of expansive soil crack has gradually become a research hotspot, elaborates the occurrence and development of cracks from the basic properties of expansive soil, and points out the role of controlling the crack of expansive soil strength. We summarize the existing research methods and results of expansive soil crack characteristics. Improving crack measurement and calculation method and researching the crack depth measurement, statistical analysis method, crack depth and surface feature relationship will be the future direction.

  16. Characteristics of a productive research environment: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, C J; Ruffin, M T

    1992-06-01

    What environmental factors stimulate and maintain research productivity? To answer this question, the authors conducted an extensive review of articles and books on research productivity published from the mid-1960s through 1990. This review revealed that a consistent set of 12 characteristics was found in research-conducive environments: (1) clear goals that serve a coordinating function, (2) research emphasis, (3) distinctive culture, (4) positive group climate, (5) assertive participative governance, (6) decentralized organization, (7) frequent communication, (8) accessible resources, particularly human, (9) sufficient size, age, and diversity of the research group, (10) appropriate rewards, (11) concentration on recruitment and selection, and (12) leadership with research expertise and skill in both initiating appropriate organizational structure and using participatory management practices. Some of these characteristics are not surprising, although some findings were unexpected, such as that participative governance correlated consistently with research productivity. The differential impact of each of these 12 characteristics is unclear. It is clear, however, that the leader has a disproportionate impact through his or her influence on all of the other characteristics. Yet, an overarching feature of these characteristics is their interdependency. These factors do not operate in research groups as isolated characteristics. Rather, they are like fine threads of a whole fabric: individual, yet when interwoven, providing a strong, supportive, and stimulating backdrop for the researcher. The authors conclude that while at a distance the productive research enterprise looks like a highly robust entity, upon closer inspection it is revealed to be a delicate structure highly dependent on the existence and effective working of numerous individual, organizational, and leadership characteristics.

  17. Metagenomes Reveal Global Distribution of Bacterial Steroid Catabolism in Natural, Engineered, and Host Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Holert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are abundant growth substrates for bacteria in natural, engineered, and host-associated environments. This study analyzed the distribution of the aerobic 9,10-seco steroid degradation pathway in 346 publically available metagenomes from diverse environments. Our results show that steroid-degrading bacteria are globally distributed and prevalent in particular environments, such as wastewater treatment plants, soil, plant rhizospheres, and the marine environment, including marine sponges. Genomic signature-based sequence binning recovered 45 metagenome-assembled genomes containing a majority of 9,10-seco pathway genes. Only Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were identified as steroid degraders, but we identified several alpha- and gammaproteobacterial lineages not previously known to degrade steroids. Actino- and proteobacterial steroid degraders coexisted in wastewater, while soil and rhizosphere samples contained mostly actinobacterial ones. Actinobacterial steroid degraders were found in deep ocean samples, while mostly alpha- and gammaproteobacterial ones were found in other marine samples, including sponges. Isolation of steroid-degrading bacteria from sponges confirmed their presence. Phylogenetic analysis of key steroid degradation proteins suggested their biochemical novelty in genomes from sponges and other environments. This study shows that the ecological significance as well as taxonomic and biochemical diversity of bacterial steroid degradation has so far been largely underestimated, especially in the marine environment.

  18. How to Quantify Human-environment Interactions in the Past: A Global Historical Land Use Data Set for the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein Goldewijk, K.

    2015-12-01

    Land use plays an important role in the climate system. Many ecosystem processes are directly or indirectly climate driven, and together with human driven land use changes, they determine how the land surface will evolve through time. To assess the effects of land cover changes on the climate system, models are required which are capable of simulating interactions between the involved components of the Earth system. Since driving forces for global environmental change differ among regions, a geographically (spatially) explicit modeling approach is called for, so that it can be incorporated in global and regional (climate and/or biophysical) change models in order to enhance our understanding of the underlying processes and thus improving future projections.Some researchers suggest that mankind has shifted from living in the Holocene (~emergence of agriculture) into the Anthropocene (~humans capable of changing the Earth' atmosphere) since the start of the Industrial Revolution. But in the light of the sheer size and magnitude of some historical land use changes (e.g. the Black Plague in the 14th century and the aftermath of the Colombian Exchange in the 16th century), some believe that this point might have occurred earlier in time. There are still many uncertainties and gaps in our knowledge about the importance of land use (change) in the global biogeochemical cycle, and it is crucial that researchers from other disciplines are involved in decreasing the uncertainties.Thus, integrated records of the co-evolving human-environment system over millennia are needed to provide a basis for a deeper understanding of the present and for forecasting the future. This requires the major task of assembling and integrating regional and global historical, archaeological, and paleo-environmental records. Humans cannot predict the future. Here I present a tool for such long term global change studies; it is the latest update (v 3.2) of the History Database of the Global

  19. Global ocean monitoring for the World Climate Research Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelle, R; Bretherton, F

    1986-07-01

    Oceanic research and modelling for the World Climate Research Program will utilize several recently-developed instruments and measuring techniques as well as well-tested, long-used instruments. Ocean-scanning satellites will map the component of the ocean-surface topography related to ocean currents and mesoscale eddies and to fluctuating water volumes caused by ocean warming and cooling. Other satellite instruments will measure the direction and magnitude of wind stress on the sea surface, surface water temperatures, the distribution of chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigments, the characteristics of internal waves, and possible precipitation over the ocean. Networks of acoustic transponders will obtain a three-dimensional picture of the distribution of temperature from the surface down to mid-depth and of long-term changes in temperature at depth. Ocean research vessels will determine the distribution and fate of geochemical tracers and will also make high-precision, deep hydrographic casts. Ships of opportunity, using expendable instruments, will measure temperature, salinity and currents in the upper water layers. Drifting and anchored buoys will also measure these properties as well as those of the air above the sea surface. Tide gauges installed on islands and exposed coastal locations will measure variations in monthly and shorter-period mean sea level. These tide gauges will provide 'ground truth' for the satellite maps of sea-surface topography, and will also determine variations in ocean currents and temperature.All these instruments will be used in several major programs, the most ambitious of which is the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) designed to obtain global measurements of major currents throughout the world ocean, greater understanding of the transformation of water masses, and the role of advective, convective, and turbulent processes in exchange of properties between surface and deep-ocean layers.A five- to ten-year experiment

  20. Global Mobility and the Challenges of Educational Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the author focuses upon the global mobility of people and considers what some of its drivers are. The author explores the consequences it has in transforming not only the demographic composition of communities, but also the ways in which global interconnectivities now define the terrain in which social, economic, political and…

  1. Some topics on radioecological research in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, systematic researches on marine environmental radioactivity started in 1954 when 'Bikini incidence' occurred. After several years of handling emergency situations, basic studies were carried out to understand processes and mechanisms of contamination of aquatic organisms by radionuclides. At this period 'Hiyama Group' had a large contribution to the development of this new field of research. Important concepts and items have already been dealt with in this Grant Group. Toward the end of 'Hiyama Group', a new project started in Nuclear Safety Research Association. This project, so-called 'Kaihohtoku', aimed at gathering necessary information for safety assessment on the release of low-level radioactive liquid wastes from a newly planned spent-fuel reprocessing plant at Tokai. NIRS-Nakaminato Branch was established first as Marine Radioecological Station in this project. The term 'radioecology' got popularity also in this period. Many important results were obtained and scientific basis of the safety assessment was established in this project. Today we have not any urgent matter to be handled concerning radioecology in our coastal environment. Nuclides found are exclusively of fallout and of a quite low level. We have also established methodology of radiological assessment. So, what is the problem? The problem is 'from conservative to realistic', which is the trend in the world. Here, from this viewpoint, some topics such as models and parameters including concentration factors and their validation and verification in the natural environment were discussed. (author)

  2. Peer review, basic research, and engineering: Defining a role for QA professionals in basic research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1989-02-01

    Within the context of doing basic research, this paper seeks to answer four major questions: (1) What is the authority structure of science. (2) What is peer review. (3) Where is the interface between basic physics research and standard engineering. and (4) Given the conclusions to the first three questions, what is the role of the QA professional in a basic research environment like Fermilab. 23 refs.

  3. Research Investments in Global Health: A Systematic Analysis of UK Infectious Disease Research Funding and Global Health Metrics, 1997–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Head

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation: Most infections have received increases in research investment, alongside decreases in global burden of disease in 2013. The UK demonstrates research strengths in some neglected tropical diseases such as African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis, but syphilis, cholera, shigellosis and pneumonia remain poorly funded relative to their global burden. Acute hepatitis C appears well funded but the figures do not adequately take into account projected future chronic burdens for this condition. These findings can help to inform global policymakers on resource allocation for research investment.

  4. Network-based collaborative research environment LDRD final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, B.R.; McDonald, M.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Virtual Collaborative Environment (VCE) and Distributed Collaborative Workbench (DCW) are new technologies that make it possible for diverse users to synthesize and share mechatronic, sensor, and information resources. Using these technologies, university researchers, manufacturers, design firms, and others can directly access and reconfigure systems located throughout the world. The architecture for implementing VCE and DCW has been developed based on the proposed National Information Infrastructure or Information Highway and a tool kit of Sandia-developed software. Further enhancements to the VCE and DCW technologies will facilitate access to other mechatronic resources. This report describes characteristics of VCE and DCW and also includes background information about the evolution of these technologies.

  5. China, India, South Africa, Brazil (BASIC): Crucial for the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The rising importance of the BASIC countries in a changing world Over the last decade the emerging economies have become increasingly important for the development of the global economy. This trend was reinforced by the global financial crisis which hit the developed economies the hardest, and after which the emerging economies emerged as crucial growth centres in the global economy. We are entering into a new era in global politics, and a broad process is currently taking place of restructuring global institutions and political processes to increasingly take into account the interests of the emerging economies. A global environmental crisis constitutes the backdrop for this change in global politics, as the current volume of production and consumption of the planets renewable resources (including the capacity to absorb greenhouse gas emissions) is beyond the planets regenerative capacity. The breakdown of the Doha Development Round in World Trade, the creation of the BRIC group and the G20, the emergence of the BASIC group of key emerging economies and the following developments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, all testify to the fact that China, India, South Africa and Brazil (BASIC) today have a decisive and increasing influence in world politics. With regards to the environment, this means that BASIC countries increasingly will set environmental standards in global markets as their economies to a greater extent come to represent global buying power, increasingly will influence to what extent environmental concerns are mainstreamed into international agreements (such as WTO) in general, and also will decide the scope and level of ambition and scope of international environmental agreements (as we see in UNFCCC). Among the emerging economies China, India, South Africa, and Brazil stand out as particularly important. China and India alone represent more than 35 per cent of the global population and are the most rapidly growing economies in the

  6. China, India, South Africa, Brazil (BASIC): Crucial for the global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The rising importance of the BASIC countries in a changing world Over the last decade the emerging economies have become increasingly important for the development of the global economy. This trend was reinforced by the global financial crisis which hit the developed economies the hardest, and after which the emerging economies emerged as crucial growth centres in the global economy. We are entering into a new era in global politics, and a broad process is currently taking place of restructuring global institutions and political processes to increasingly take into account the interests of the emerging economies. A global environmental crisis constitutes the backdrop for this change in global politics, as the current volume of production and consumption of the planets renewable resources (including the capacity to absorb greenhouse gas emissions) is beyond the planets regenerative capacity. The breakdown of the Doha Development Round in World Trade, the creation of the BRIC group and the G20, the emergence of the BASIC group of key emerging economies and the following developments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, all testify to the fact that China, India, South Africa and Brazil (BASIC) today have a decisive and increasing influence in world politics. With regards to the environment, this means that BASIC countries increasingly will set environmental standards in global markets as their economies to a greater extent come to represent global buying power, increasingly will influence to what extent environmental concerns are mainstreamed into international agreements (such as WTO) in general, and also will decide the scope and level of ambition and scope of international environmental agreements (as we see in UNFCCC). Among the emerging economies China, India, South Africa, and Brazil stand out as particularly important. China and India alone represent more than 35 per cent of the global population and are the most rapidly growing economies in the

  7. EVEREST: Creating a Virtual Research Environment for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, H.

    2017-12-01

    There is an increasing trend towards researchers working together using common resources whilst being geographically dispersed. The EVER-EST project is developing a range of both generic and domain specific technologies, tailored to the needs of Earth Science (ES) communities, to create a virtual research environment (VRE) that supports this type of dynamic collaborative research. The EVER-EST VRE provides a suite of services to overcome the existing barriers to sharing of Earth Science data and information allowing researchers to discover, access, share and process heterogeneous data, algorithms, results and experiences within and across their communities, and with other domains beyond the Earth Sciences. Researchers will be able to seamlessly manage both the data and the scientific methods applied in their observations and modelling that lead to results that need to be attributable, validated and shared both within their communities and more widely in the form of scholarly communications.To ensure that the EVER-EST VRE meets the specific needs of the Earth Science domain, it is being developed and validated in consultation with four pre-selected virtual research communities (VRC) that include ocean observing, natural hazards, land monitoring and volcanic risk management. The requirements of these individual VRCs for data, software, best practice and community interaction are used to customise the VRE platform This user-centric approach allows the EVER-EST infrastructure to be assessed in terms of its capability to satisfy the heterogeneous needs of Earth Science communities for more effective collaboration, greater efficiency and increasingly innovative research. EVER-EST is a three year project funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no 674907.

  8. The physics of global climate change: challenges for research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaxo, Paulo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada

    2009-07-01

    Full text: There are major issues in our scientific understanding of the functioning of our planet Earth. The growing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, changing in surface albedo, changes in distribution and lifetime of clouds, alteration in aerosol properties and distribution, are all key issues in the radiation balance that controls the climate of our planet. Earth is a non linear highly complex system. Since the industrial revolution, concentration of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide and methane have increase by 30 to 100%. The fraction of infrared radiation trapped in the atmosphere has increased by about 1.6 watts/m{sup 2}. This additional energy has increased the average temperature by 0.79 degrees centigrade, with certain regions. But, we know very little of the physics, chemistry and biology that controls emissions, sinks and effects in Earth climate. Every week new important scientific findings are published in this area, and models that could predict the future of Earth climate are quite primitive and lack key issues. The hard science of global change is closely associated with socio-economic issues. Humanity have taken the main control role on Earth climate, and the potential for an average increase in temperature of 3 to 5 degrees is large, although there are tentative to limit the average temperature growth to 2 degrees. But even with this ambitious target, Amazonia and the Arctic will probably be much hotter than 3-4 degrees, with important feedbacks in the climate system. The talk will deal with these issues and new research that is needed to increase our knowledge on how the climate of our planet works and which climate we could have in the next decades. (author)

  9. Challenges for Multilevel Health Disparities Research in a Transdisciplinary Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, John H.; Lehman, Amy; Hade, Erinn; Ferketich, Amy K.; Sarah, Gehlert; Rauscher, Garth H.; Abrams, Judith; Bird, Chloe E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous factors play a part in health disparities. Although health disparities are manifested at the level of the individual, other contexts should be considered when investigating the associations of disparities with clinical outcomes. These contexts include families, neighborhoods, social organizations, and healthcare facilities. This paper reports on health disparities research as a multilevel research domain from the perspective of a large national initiative. The Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) program was established by the NIH to examine the highly dimensional, complex nature of disparities and their effects on health. Because of its inherently transdisciplinary nature, the CPHHD program provides a unique environment in which to perform multilevel health disparities research. During the course of the program, the CPHHD centers have experienced challenges specific to this type of research. The challenges were categorized along three axes: sources of subjects and data, data characteristics, and multilevel analysis and interpretation. The CPHHDs collectively offer a unique example of how these challenges are met; just as importantly, they reveal a broad range of issues that health disparities researchers should consider as they pursue transdisciplinary investigations in this domain, particularly in the context of a large team science initiative. PMID:18619398

  10. [The virtual environment of a research group: the tutors' perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Cláudia; Casteli, Christiane Pereira Martins; Lopes, Tania Oliveira; Kobayashi, Rika M; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário

    2012-02-01

    The Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas de Tecnologia da Informação nos Processos de Trabalho em Enfermagem (Study and Research Group for Information Technology in the Nursing Working Processes, GEPETE) has the purpose of producing and socializing knowledge in information technology and health and nursing communication, making associations with research groups in this field and promoting student participation. This study was performed by the group tutors with the objective to report on the development of the virtual learning environment (VLE) and the tutors' experience as mediators of a research group using the Moodle platform. To do this, a VLE was developed and pedagogical mediation was performed following the theme of mentoring. An initial diagnosis was made of the difficulties in using this technology in interaction and communication, which permitted the proposal of continuing to use the platform as a resource to support research activities, offer lead researchers the mechanisms to socialize projects and offer the possibility of giving advice at a distance.

  11. Towards a well-connected, global, interdisciplinary research community for rational decision making in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauser, Florian

    2016-04-01

    The Young Earth System Scientists community YESS (yess-community.org) is a global network of Earth System Science early career researchers focussing on interdisciplinarity. One of the central goals of our early career network is to communicate to the world that Earth System Science has accepted the central challenge of creating tangible products for the benefit of society. A coordinated and truly global approach to Earth System Science is our best attempt to focus our understanding of the complex interplay of Earth's processes into tools for future societies, i.e., for humanity to move away from being a sorcerer's apprentice and to become a rational actor. We believe that starting with the next generation of Earth system scientists to work on that unified approach and creating an environment that allows ambitious, forward-thinking, interdisciplinary science to blossom will be our best way forward into a mature Anthropocene. In 2015 YESS started a process to come up with a definition of the Frontiers of Earth System Science research from an early career perspective, together with the research arms of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO). During this process it became apparent that there are a few major aspects that cannot be put into the forefront often enough: one, the reality of capacity building; societies can only have robust decision-making if their decision makers can be advised not only by global assessment processes like the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) but also by local experts. The reality of a globalised science community is often only true for a few scientists at the very top from a selected number of countries. Two, the integration and balance of both user-driven and fundamental research is key to make science one pillar of a global, mature Anthropocene. This includes a better way to communicate science to end users and a more comprehensive homogenisation of weather and climate research agendas. Three, a complete overview of

  12. Analysis and Research on Several Global Subdivision Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Shuhua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that lacking of an unified organization frame about global remote sensing satellite image data, this paper introduces serval global subdivision grids as the unified organization frame for remote sensing image. Based on the characteristics of remote sensing image data, this paper analyzes and summarizes the design principles and difficulties of the organization frame. Based on analysis and comparison with these grids, GeoSOT is more suitable as the unified organization frame for remote sensing image. To provide a reference for the global remote sensing image organization.

  13. Multi-modal virtual environment research at Armstrong Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Robert G.

    1995-01-01

    One mission of the Paul M. Fitts Human Engineering Division of Armstrong Laboratory is to improve the user interface for complex systems through user-centered exploratory development and research activities. In support of this goal, many current projects attempt to advance and exploit user-interface concepts made possible by virtual reality (VR) technologies. Virtual environments may be used as a general purpose interface medium, an alternative display/control method, a data visualization and analysis tool, or a graphically based performance assessment tool. An overview is given of research projects within the division on prototype interface hardware/software development, integrated interface concept development, interface design and evaluation tool development, and user and mission performance evaluation tool development.

  14. Securing classification and regulatory approval for deepwater projects: management challenges in a global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijo, Luiz P.; Burton, Gareth C. [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the offshore industry continues to develop and move into increasingly deeper waters, technological boundaries are being pushed to new limits. Along with these advances, the design, fabrication and installation of deepwater oil and gas projects has become an increasingly global endeavor. After providing an overview of the history and role of Classification Societies, this paper reviews the challenges of securing classification and regulatory approval in a global environment. Operational, procedural and technological changes which one Classification Society; the American Bureau of Shipping, known as ABS, has implemented to address these challenges are presented. The result of the changes has been a more customized service aiming at faster and more streamlined classification approval process. (author)

  15. 'Y' a distributed resource sharing system in nuclear research environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu-Zeletin, R.

    1986-01-01

    The paper outlines the rationales for the transition from HMINET-2 to a distributed resource sharing system in Hahn-Meitner-Institute for Nuclear Research. The architecture and rationales for the planned new distributed resource system (Y) in HMI are outlined. The introduction of a distributed operating system is a prerequisite for a resource-sharing system. Y will provide not only the integration of networks of different qualities (high speed back-bone, LANs of different technologies, ports to national X.25 network and satellite) at hardware level, but also an integrated global user view of the whole system. This will be designed and implemented by decoupling the user-view from the hardware topology by introducing a netwide distributed operating system. (Auth.)

  16. Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    ... as 7.1 degrees C over the next 100 years. It appears likely that global mean temperature increases will continue, and projections into the future predict a variety of possible related impacts, such as more volatile weather patterns...

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on the preceding research related to global environment industry technologies. Survey and research on reduction of nitrogen monoxide; 1998 nendo chikyu sangyo gijutsu ni kakawaru sendo kenkyu asanka chisso no haishutsu teigen ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Nitrogen monoxide is a strong greenhouse effect gas having warming up index per molecule 300 times greater than that of CO2, and is designated as the object of reduction in the Kyoto Conference. The present preceding research discusses necessity of performing research and development works related to reducing the emission of nitrogen monoxide, and if it is necessary, places the final objective on proposition of what researches should be planned. Fiscal 1997 being the first fiscal year of the preceding research has surveyed emission amount from different emission sources, and enumerated the research and development assignments. Fiscal 1998 falling under the final fiscal year summarizes the emission amount including the future trends, surveys the feasibility of the promising technological measures through experiments, and proposed finally a research and development plan desired of implementation in the future. The proposal contains a research plan placing development of nitrogen monoxide decomposing catalysts and automobile catalysts as the main objectives. Among the domestic nitrogen monoxide generating sources, about 2/3 is the man-made generation sources, hence catalysts, if developed, may be applied to such facilities as combustion furnaces. (NEDO)

  18. World Resources: A guide to the Global Environment, 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book, produced in collaboration with the U.N., is a basic information source on the impact humans have had on the earth's environment, with a theme of sustainable development. Part I is an essay on sustainable development, examined in the contest of industrial, industrializing, and non-industrial countries. Part II is a description of the environmental devastation in central Europe. Part III examines global environmental conditions and trends, and part IV consists of tables, each with an interductory text and citations, including such topics as population, development, land cover, food, forests, wildlife, habitats, energy, water, atmosphere, and climate

  19. Genes, Environments, and Sex Differences in Alcohol Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Cho, Seung Bin; Dick, Danielle M

    2017-07-01

    The study of sex differences has been identified as one way to enhance scientific reproducibility, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have implemented a new policy to encourage the explicit examination of sex differences. Our goal here is to address sex differences in behavioral genetic research on alcohol outcomes. We review sex differences for alcohol outcomes and whether the source and magnitude of genetic influences on alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are the same across sexes; describe common research designs for studying sex-specific gene-by-environment interaction (G × E) effects; and discuss the role of statistical power and theory when testing sex-specific genetic effects. There are robust sex differences for many alcohol outcomes. The weight of evidence suggests that the source and magnitude of genetic influences on alcohol consumption and AUD are the same across sexes. Whether there are sex-specific G × E effects has received less attention to date. The new NIH policy necessitates a systematic approach for studying sex-specific genetic effects in alcohol research. Researchers are encouraged to report power for tests of these effects and to use theory to develop testable hypotheses, especially for studies of G × E.

  20. Development of an Extreme Environment Materials Research Facility at Princeton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.B.; Gentile, C.A.; Tully, C.G.; Austin, R.; Calaprice, F.; McDonald, K.; Ascione, G.; Baker, G.; Davidson, R.; Dudek, L.; Grisham, L.; Kugel, H.; Pagdon, K.; Stevenson, T.; Woolley, R.; Zwicker, A.

    2010-01-01

    The need for a fundamental understanding of material response to a neutron and/or high heat flux environment can yield development of improved materials and operations with existing materials. Such understanding has numerous applications in fields such as nuclear power (for the current fleet and future fission and fusion reactors), aerospace, and other research fields (e.g., high-intensity proton accelerator facilities for high energy physics research). A proposal has been advanced to develop a facility for testing various materials under extreme heat and neutron exposure conditions at Princeton. The Extreme Environment Materials Research Facility comprises an environmentally controlled chamber (48 m 3 ) capable of high vacuum conditions, with extreme flux beams and probe beams accessing a central, large volume target. The facility will have the capability to expose large surface areas (1 m 2 ) to 14 MeV neutrons at a fluence in excess of 10 13 n/s. Depending on the operating mode. Additionally beam line power on the order of 15-75 MW/m 2 for durations of 1-15 seconds are planned. The multi-second duration of exposure can be repeated every 2-10 minutes for periods of 10-12 hours. The facility will be housed in the test cell that held the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), which has the desired radiation and safety controls as well as the necessary loading and assembly infrastructure. The facility will allow testing of various materials to their physical limit of thermal endurance and allow for exploring the interplay between radiation-induced embrittlement, swelling and deformation of materials, and the fatigue and fracturing that occur in response to thermal shocks. The combination of high neutron energies and intense fluences will enable accelerated time scale studies. The results will make contributions for refining predictive failure modes (modeling) in extreme environments, as well as providing a technical platform for the development of new alloys, new

  1. From the Collaborative Environment of the Remote Laboratory NetLab to the Global Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Machotka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The remote laboratory (RL can be considered as a modern collaborative learning environment, where students acquire skills required for efficient collaboration and communication on a local and global scale, both today and in the near future. The majority of current existing RLs are not constructed to allow the involved participants to collaborate in real time. This paper describes the collaborative RL NetLab, developed at the University of South Australia (UniSA, which allows up to three onshore and/or offshore students to conduct remote experiments at the same time as a team. This allows the online RL environment to become very similar, if not nearly identical to its real laboratory counterpart. The collaboration in the real laboratory is replaced by the “global” on-line collaboration.

  2. Rotavirus - Global research density equalizing mapping and gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Corinna; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A; Schwarzer, Mario

    2016-01-02

    Rotaviruses are the leading reason for dehydration and severe diarrheal disease and in infants and young children worldwide. An increasing number of related publications cause a crucial challenge to determine the relevant scientific output. Therefore, scientometric analyses are helpful to evaluate quantity as well as quality of the worldwide research activities on Rotavirus. Up to now, no in-depth global scientometric analysis relating to Rotavirus publications has been carried out. This study used scientometric tools and the method of density equalizing mapping to visualize the differences of the worldwide research effort referring to Rotavirus. The aim of the study was to compare scientific output geographically and over time by using an in-depth data analysis and New quality and quantity indices in science (NewQIS) tools. Furthermore, a gender analysis was part of the data interpretation. We retrieved all Rotavirus-related articles, which were published on "Rotavirus" during the time period from 1900 to 2013, from the Web of Science by a defined search term. These items were analyzed regarding quantitative and qualitative aspects, and visualized with the help of bibliometric methods and the technique of density equalizing mapping to show the differences of the worldwide research efforts. This work aimed to extend the current NewQIS platform. The 5906 Rotavirus associated articles were published in 138 countries from 1900 to 2013. The USA authored 2037 articles that equaled 34.5% of all published items followed by Japan with 576 articles and the United Kingdom - as the most productive representative of the European countries - with 495 articles. Furthermore, the USA established the most cooperations with other countries and was found to be in the center of an international collaborative network. We performed a gender analysis of authors per country (threshold was set at a publishing output of more than 100 articles by more than 50 authors whose names could be

  3. Global hierarchical classification of deepwater and wetland environments from remote sensing products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluet-Chouinard, E.; Lehner, B.; Aires, F.; Prigent, C.; McIntyre, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    Global surface water maps have improved in spatial and temporal resolutions through various remote sensing methods: open water extents with compiled Landsat archives and inundation with topographically downscaled multi-sensor retrievals. These time-series capture variations through time of open water and inundation without discriminating between hydrographic features (e.g. lakes, reservoirs, river channels and wetland types) as other databases have done as static representation. Available data sources present the opportunity to generate a comprehensive map and typology of aquatic environments (deepwater and wetlands) that improves on earlier digitized inventories and maps. The challenge of classifying surface waters globally is to distinguishing wetland types with meaningful characteristics or proxies (hydrology, water chemistry, soils, vegetation) while accommodating limitations of remote sensing data. We present a new wetland classification scheme designed for global application and produce a map of aquatic ecosystem types globally using state-of-the-art remote sensing products. Our classification scheme combines open water extent and expands it with downscaled multi-sensor inundation data to capture the maximal vegetated wetland extent. The hierarchical structure of the classification is modified from the Cowardin Systems (1979) developed for the USA. The first level classification is based on a combination of landscape positions and water source (e.g. lacustrine, riverine, palustrine, coastal and artificial) while the second level represents the hydrologic regime (e.g. perennial, seasonal, intermittent and waterlogged). Class-specific descriptors can further detail the wetland types with soils and vegetation cover. Our globally consistent nomenclature and top-down mapping allows for direct comparison across biogeographic regions, to upscale biogeochemical fluxes as well as other landscape level functions.

  4. Observations of urban and suburban environments with global satellite scatterometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Balk, D.; Rodriguez, E.; Neumann, G.; Sorichetta, A.; Small, C.; Elvidge, C. D.

    A global and consistent characterization of land use and land change in urban and suburban environments is crucial for many fundamental social and natural science studies and applications. Presented here is a dense sampling method (DSM) that uses satellite scatterometer data to delineate urban and intraurban areas at a posting scale of about 1 km. DSM results are analyzed together with information on population and housing censuses, with Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery, and with Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) night-light data. The analyses include Dallas-Fort Worth and Phoenix in the United States, Bogotá in Colombia, Dhaka in Bangladesh, Guangzhou in China, and Quito in Ecuador. Results show that scatterometer signatures correspond to buildings and infrastructures in urban and suburban environments. City extents detected by scatterometer data are significantly smaller than city light extents, but not all urban areas are detectable by the current SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite. Core commercial and industrial areas with high buildings and large factories are identified as high-backscatter centers. Data from DSM backscatter and DMSP nighttime lights have a good correlation with population density. However, the correlation relations from the two satellite datasets are different for different cities indicating that they contain complementary information. Together with night-light and census data, DSM and satellite scatterometer data provide new observations to study global urban and suburban environments and their changes. Furthermore, the capability of DSM to identify hydrological channels on the Greenland ice sheet and ecological biomes in central Africa demonstrates that DSM can be used to observe persistent structures in natural environments at a km scale, providing contemporaneous data to study human impacts beyond urban and suburban areas.

  5. Global unbalance in seaweed production, research effort and biotechnology markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarrasa, Inés; Olsen, Ylva S; Mayol, Eva; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    Exploitation of the world's oceans is rapidly growing as evidenced by a booming patent market of marine products including seaweed, a resource that is easily accessible without sophisticated bioprospecting technology and that has a high level of domestication globally. The investment in research effort on seaweed aquaculture has recently been identified to be the main force for the development of a biotechnology market of seaweed-derived products and is a more important driver than the capacity of seaweed production. Here, we examined seaweed patent registrations between 1980 and 2009 to assess the growth rate of seaweed biotechnology, its geographic distribution and the types of applications patented. We compare this growth with scientific investment in seaweed aquaculture and with the market of seaweed production. We found that both the seaweed patenting market and the rate of scientific publications are rapidly growing (11% and 16.8% per year respectively) since 1990. The patent market is highly geographically skewed (95% of all registrations belonging to ten countries and the top two holding 65% of the total) compared to the distribution of scientific output among countries (60% of all scientific publications belonging to ten countries and the top two countries holding a 21%), but more homogeneously distributed than the production market (with a 99.8% belonging to the top ten countries, and a 71% to the top two). Food industry was the dominant application for both the patent registrations (37.7%) and the scientific publications (21%) followed in both cases by agriculture and aquaculture applications. This result is consistent with the seaweed taxa most represented. Kelp, which was the target taxa for 47% of the patent registrations, is a traditional ingredient in Asian food and Gracilaria and Ulva, which were the focus of 15% and 13% of the scientific publications respectively, that are also used in more sophisticated applications such as cosmetics, chemical

  6. Fiscal 1997 Project related to research and development of global environment industrial technologies. Report on the results of works commissioned for research and development of technology for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; 1997 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu kanren jigyo. Nisanka tanso nado haishutsu teigen gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu itaku gyomu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    With an objective of achieving reduction in emission of carbon dioxide and fluorocarbons, the `research and development on technologies to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and other substances` consisting of eight projects were conducted. In research and development of waste water treatment technologies using submerged combustion, studies were performed on removal by combustion of such pollutants as organic compounds, nitrogen compounds, and sulfur compounds. The development targets were achieved on each item. In research and development related with thermal electric power generation elements, semiconductor single crystals were fabricated in order to acquire technical knowledge on thermal power generation elements intended of utilizing industrial waste heat, whereas a simulation technology for designing was developed. In other projects, research and development works were carried out on high-performance heat insulating materials, and a movable methanol reformer for fuel cells. Developments were conducted on a large pressure reducing valve, and a cooling and heating turbo heat pump for regional air conditioning facilities. Research and development were made on Peltier elements, all efforts having achieved results respectively. 134 figs., 65 tabs.

  7. Public road infrastructure inventory in degraded global navigation satellite system signal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, N.; Morrison, A.; Haakonsen, T. A.

    2015-04-01

    Recent advancement of land-based mobile mapping enables rapid and cost-effective collection of highquality road related spatial information. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) can provide spatial information with subdecimeter accuracy in nominal operation environments. However, performance in challenging environments such as tunnels is not well characterized. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) manages the country's public road network and its infrastructure, a large segment of which is represented by road tunnels (there are about 1 000 road tunnels in Norway with a combined length of 800 km). In order to adopt mobile mapping technology for streamlining road network and infrastructure management and maintenance tasks, it is important to ensure that the technology is mature enough to meet existing requirements for object positioning accuracy in all types of environments, and provide homogeneous accuracy over the mapping perimeter. This paper presents results of a testing campaign performed within a project funded by the NPRA as a part of SMarter road traffic with Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) (SMITS) program. The testing campaign objective was performance evaluation of high end commercial MMSs for inventory of public areas, focusing on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal degraded environments.

  8. Building Sustainable Local Capacity for Global Health Research in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Paintsil, Elijah; Aliyu, Muktar H; Kwara, Awewura; Ogunsola, Folasade; Afrane, Yaw A; Onoka, Chima; Awandare, Gordon A; Amponsah, Gladys; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Mendy, Gabou; Sturke, Rachel; Ghansah, Anita; Siberry, George K; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    Global health research in resource-limited countries has been largely sponsored and led by foreign institutions. Thus, these countries' training capacity and productivity in global health research is limited. Local participation at all levels of global health knowledge generation promotes equitable access to evidence-based solutions. Additionally, leadership inclusive of competent local professionals promotes best outcomes for local contextualization and implementation of successful global health solutions. Among the sub-Saharan African regions, West Africa in particular lags in research infrastructure, productivity, and impact in global health research. In this paper, experts discuss strategies for scaling up West Africa's participation in global health evidence generation using examples from Ghana and Nigeria. We conducted an online and professional network search to identify grants awarded for global health research and research education in Ghana and Nigeria. Principal investigators, global health educators, and representatives of funding institutions were invited to add their knowledge and expertise with regard to strengthening research capacity in West Africa. While there has been some progress in obtaining foreign funding, foreign institutions still dominate local research. Local research funding opportunities in the 2 countries were found to be insufficient, disjointed, poorly sustained, and inadequately publicized, indicating weak infrastructure. As a result, research training programs produce graduates who ultimately fail to launch independent investigator careers because of lack of mentoring and poor infrastructural support. Research funding and training opportunities in Ghana and Nigeria remain inadequate. We recommend systems-level changes in mentoring, collaboration, and funding to drive the global health research agenda in these countries. Additionally, research training programs should be evaluated not only by numbers of individuals graduated but

  9. Energy and environment annual report 1974. [Environmental Research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumstein, C. (ed.)

    1974-01-01

    Research in the Division's environmental science program includes air pollution, water pollution, and the effects of pollutants on man and natural ecosystems. Work has focused on the chemistry and physics of particle surfaces. Using the technique of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), surface reactions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds have been studied, and results include the identification of new chemical forms of nitrogen on particle surfaces and evidence for the importance of particle surfaces in the catalysis of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid. The Division's work in water pollution has been devoted to the study of trace metals in the estuarine environment, especially in San Francisco Bay. Studies on the effect of dredging operations on trace metals in the Mare Island ship channel and on the distribution of cadmium in Bay sediments have been performed. Research has also been conducted on the distribution of trace elements between bound states on suspended particles and in solution in Bay waters. Research is being conducted on a variety of problems relating to effects of pollutants. Biological studies seeking to discover effects of specific environmental insults such as oxidants at the cellular level have been done, and epidemiological studies have been initiated on the impacts of trace metals on human health. Theoretical studies in an attempt to develop a basis for assessing the stability of ecological systems are also being undertaken.

  10. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): using regional data systems for global ocean research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, D.; Thijsse, P.; Glaves, H.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean acidification, loss of coral reefs, sustainable exploitation of the marine environment are just a few of the challenges researchers around the world are currently attempting to understand and address. However, studies of these ecosystem level challenges are impossible unless researchers can discover and re-use the large volumes of interoperable multidisciplinary data that are currently only accessible through regional and global data systems that serve discreet, and often discipline specific, user communities. The plethora of marine data systems currently in existence are also using different standards, technologies and best practices making re-use of the data problematic for those engaged in interdisciplinary marine research. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) is responding to this growing demand for discoverable, accessible and reusable data by establishing the foundations for a common global framework for marine data management. But creation of such an infrastructure is a major undertaking, and one that needs to be achieved in part by establishing different levels of interoperability across existing regional and global marine e-infrastructures. Workshops organised by ODIP II facilitate dialogue between selected regional and global marine data systems in an effort to identify potential solutions that integrate these marine e-infrastructures. The outcomes of these discussions have formed the basis for a number of prototype development tasks that aim to demonstrate effective sharing of data across multiple data systems, and allow users to access data from more than one system through a single access point. The ODIP II project is currently developing four prototype solutions that are establishing interoperability between selected regional marine data management infrastructures in Europe, the USA, Canada and Australia, and with the global POGO, IODE Ocean Data Portal (ODP) and GEOSS systems. The potential impact of implementing these solutions for

  11. The global resource balance table, an integrated table of energy, materials and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Haruki

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the Global Resource Balance Table (GRBT), which is an extension of the energy balance tables that expresses the relationships between energy, materials and the environment. The material division of the GRBT includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. In contrast, the environmental division of the GRBT includes oxygen, CO 2 and methane. The transaction division rows in the GRBT include production, conversion, end use and stock. Each cell of the GRBT contains the quantities of the respective resources that were generated or consumed. The relationships between the cells were constructed from the laws of conservation of the materials and energy. We constructed a GRBT for 2007 and discussed the increasing air temperature due to waste heat and the CO 2 equivalent from human breathing. The GRBT is a comprehensive integrated table that represents the resources that are consumed by human activities and is useful for energy and environmental studies. - Highlights: • We extended energy balance table and introduced Global Resource Balance Table. • It shows relationships between energy, materials and the environment. • The material division includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. • The environmental division includes oxygen, CO 2 and methane. • We discussed on waste heat and CO 2 emission by human breathing

  12. The Centres for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    High expectations for Norway's Centres for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME).The FME centres address a broad range of areas, allcentral to developing the energy sector of the future. The activities of the eight centres established in 2009 focus on renewable energy, raising energy efficiency, energy planning, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). In 2011 three new FME centres were established which focus on social science-related energy research. The FME scheme is a direct follow-up of the broad-based political agreement on climate policy achieved in the Storting in January 2008, and of the national RandD Energi21 strategy submitted in February 2008 to the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. In April 2008 the Research Council of Norway's Executive Board decided to launch a process to establish centres for environment-friendly energy research, and a funding announcement was issued that same year. In 2010 it was decided that additional FME centres would be established in the field of social science-related energy research. After a thorough assessment of each project (based on feasibility, scientific merit, potential to generate value creation and innovation, and composition of the consortium) eight applicants were selected to become FME centres in February 2009. A new call for proposals was issued in 2010, and three more centres were awarded FME status in February 2011. The objective of the FME scheme is to establish time-limited research centres which conduct concentrated, focused and long-term research of high international calibre in order to solve specific challenges in the energy sphere. The selected centres must exhibit higher goals, a longer-term perspective and a more concentrated focus than is required under other funding instruments for the same scientific area. The make-up of the centres is critical to achieving this objective. The centres bring together Norway's leading research institutions and key players in private enterprise, the

  13. Radioecological research on the behavior of actinides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.; Pimpl, M.

    1983-01-01

    The results of the research program on ''Investigation of the physical and chemical environmental behavior of radionuclides characterized by a particular biological effectivenes - Pu, Am, Cm'' are presented. Analytical procedures for Pu, Am, and Cm were developed. The behavior of Pu in the environment has been studied. Releases, dispersion, deposition, transport in soil, transfer to animals, dilution in a river and sedimentation were measured using Pu from nuclear weapon fallout and Pu release of Karlsruhe Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant. The distribution coefficients and the availability of Pu, Am, and Cm in soil were determined. A greenhouse strated its operation during the last months. The transfer factors for Pu, Am, and Cm will be determined for 15 to 20 food plants, and different types of soil. (orig./DG)

  14. Stimulating innovation for global monitoring of agriculture and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydekerke, Lieven; Gilliams, Sven; Gobin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    There is an urgent need to ensure food supply for a growing global population. To enable a sustainable growth of agricultural production, effective and timely information is required to support decision making and to improve management of agricultural resources. This requires innovative ways and monitoring methods that will not only improve short-term crop production forecasts, but also allow to assess changes in cultivation practices, agricultural areas, agriculture in general and, its impact on the environment. The G20 launched in June 2011 the "GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM), requesting the GEO (Group on Earth Observations) Agricultural Community of Practice to implement GEOGLAM with the main objective to improve crop yield forecasts as an input to the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS), in order to foster stabilisation of markets and increase transparency on agricultural production. In response to this need, the European Commission decided in 2013 to fund an international partnership to contribute to GEOGLAM and its research agenda. The resulting SIGMA project (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture), a partnership of 23 globally distributed expert organisations, focusses on developing datasets and innovative techniques in support of agricultural monitoring and its impact on the environment in support of GEOGLAM. SIGMA has 3 generic objectives which are: (i) develop and test methods to characterise cropland and assess its changes at various scales; (ii) develop and test methods to assess changes in agricultural production levels; and; (iii) study environmental impacts of agriculture. Firstly, multi-scale remote sensing data sets, in combination with field and other ancillary data, will be used to generate an improved (global) agro-ecological zoning map and crop mask. Secondly, a combination of agro-meteorological models, satellite-based information and long-term time series will be explored to assess crop

  15. Consuming Anomie: Children and Global Commercial Culture. Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    This article locates George Herbert Meads account of self-formation in the context of global consumer capitalism, in which the "generalized other" is constructed as a desiring consumer. It argues for a sociology of consumer childhood that, via Mead, takes children's agency as a given and explores the implications of their interaction with the…

  16. One-pager on Globalization, Growth and Poverty research Do ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    msandilands

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, and are based on findings from the GGP-supported projects referenced in the footnotes. Readers are encouraged to consult the Project output cited. The authors of the work cited are not responsible for the contents of GGP ...

  17. From global bioethics to ethical governance of biomedical research collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    standardisation under the rubric of ‘global bioethics’. Such a ‘global’, ‘Western’ or ‘universal’ bioethics has in turn been critiqued as an imposition upon resource-poor, non-Western or local medical settings. In this article, we propose that a different tack is necessary if we are to come to grips...

  18. Effects of globalization on Lagos cityscape | Oduwaye | Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization and associated economic concepts are new directions of development all around the world. The concept touches all aspects of life including the economic, social, cultural and physical realms of different regions of the world. Its impact is however more pronounced in large settlements such as cities. Physically ...

  19. Socio-economic data for global environmental change research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ilona; Biewald, Anne; Coumou, Dim

    2015-01-01

    Subnational socio-economic datasets are required if we are to assess the impacts of global environmental changes and to improve adaptation responses. Institutional and community efforts should concentrate on standardization of data collection methodologies, free public access, and geo-referencing....

  20. Herbal medicine research and global health: an ethical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tilburt, Jon C; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2008-01-01

    Governments, international agencies and corporations are increasingly investing in traditional herbal medicine research. Yet little literature addresses ethical challenges in this research. In this paper, we apply concepts in a comprehensive ethical framework for clinical research to international traditional herbal medicine research. We examine in detail three key, underappreciated dimensions of the ethical framework in which particularly difficult questions arise for international herbal me...

  1. A bibliometric analysis of global research on genome sequencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that disease and protein related researches were the leading research focuses, and comparative genomics and evolution related research had strong potential in the near future. Key words: Genome sequencing, research trend, scientometrics, science citation index expanded (SCI-Expanded), word cluster ...

  2. Experience of the Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussaume, Sylvie; Pacteau, Chantal; Vanderlinden, Jean Paul

    2016-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that the complexity of climate change issues translates itself into a need for interdisciplinary approaches to science. This allows to first achieve a more comprehensive vision of climate change and, second, to better inform the decision-making processes. However, it seems that willingness alone is rarely enough to implement interdisciplinarity. The purpose of this presentation is to mobilize reflexivity to revisit and analyze the experience of the Paris Consortium for Climate-Environment-Society. The French Consortium Climate-Environment-Society aims to develop, fund and coordinate interdisciplinary research into climate change and its impacts on society and environment. Launched in 2007, the consortium relies on the research expertise of 17 laboratories and federation in the Paris area working mainly in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology, health sciences, and the humanities and social sciences. As examples, economists and climatologists have studied greenhouse gas emission scenarios compatible with climate stabilization goals. Historical records have provided both knowledge about past climate change and vulnerability of societies. Some regions, as the Mediterranean and the Sahel, are particularly vulnerable and already have to cope with water availability, agricultural production and even health issues. A project showed that millet production in West Africa is expected to decline due to warming in a higher proportion than observed in recent decades. Climate change also raises many questions concerning health: combined effects of warming and air quality, impacts on the production of pollens and allergies, impacts on infectious diseases. All these issues lead to a need for approaches integrating different disciplines. Furthermore, climate change impacts many ecosystems which, in turn, affect its evolution. Our experience shows that interdisciplinarity supposes, in order to take shape, the conjunction between programming

  3. National inventory of Global Change relevant research in Norway; Nasjonal kartlegging av global change-relevant forskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The Norwegian Global Change Committee has made an inventory of global change research (GCR) projects funded by the Research Council of Norway (RCN) in 2001. In lack of a rigid definition, GCR was defined as research that can be considered relevant to the science agenda of the four major international global change programmes DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP and WCRP. Relevance was judged based on the objectives stated for each of the international programmes and their core projects. It was not attempted to check whether the projects had any kind of link to the programmes they were considered relevant for. The grants provided by the RCN in 2001 to GCR as defined above amounts to about 77 mill. NOK. Based on a recent survey on climate change research it is reasonable to estimate that the RCN finances between 30 and 40 % of all GCR in Norway. Accordingly, the total value of Norwegian research relevant to the four international global change programmes in 2001 can be estimated to 192 - 254 mill. NOK.

  4. Modeling global mangrove soil carbon stocks: filling the gaps in coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, A.; Twilley, R.

    2017-12-01

    We provide an overview of contemporaneous global mangrove soil organic carbon (SOC) estimates, focusing on a framework to explain disproportionate differences among observed data as a way to improve global estimates. This framework is based on a former conceptual model, the coastal environmental setting, in contrast to the more popular latitude-based hypotheses largely believed to explain hemispheric variation in mangrove ecosystem properties. To demonstrate how local and regional estimates of SOC linked to coastal environmental settings can render more realistic global mangrove SOC extrapolations we combined published and unpublished data, yielding a total of 106 studies, reporting on 552 sites from 43 countries. These sites were classified into distinct coastal environmental setting types according to two concurrent worldwide typology of nearshore coastal systems classifications. Mangrove SOC density varied substantially across coastal environmental settings, ranging from 14.9 ± 0.8 in river dominated (deltaic) soils to 53.9 ± 1.6 mg cm-3 (mean ± SE) in karstic coastlines. Our findings reveal striking differences between published values and contemporary global mangrove SOC extrapolation based on country-level mean reference values, particularly for karstic-dominated coastlines where mangrove SOC stocks have been underestimated by up to 50%. Correspondingly, climate-based global estimates predicted lower mangrove SOC density values (32-41 mg C cm-3) for mangroves in karstic environments, differing from published (21-126 mg C cm-3) and unpublished (47-58 mg C cm-3) values. Moreover, climate-based projections yielded higher SOC density values (27-70 mg C cm-3) for river-dominated mangroves compared to lower ranges reported in the literature (11-24 mg C cm-3). We argue that this inconsistent reporting of SOC stock estimates between river-dominated and karstic coastal environmental settings is likely due to the omission of geomorphological and geophysical

  5. Ebola and Its Global Research Architecture—Need for an Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Quarcoo, David; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The current Ebola outbreak poses a threat to individual and global public health. Although the disease has been of interest to the scientific community since 1976, an effective vaccination approach is still lacking. This fact questions past global public health strategies, which have not foreseen the possible impact of this infectious disease. To quantify the global research activity in this field, a scientometric investigation was conducted. We analyzed the research output of count...

  6. NASA/MSFC FY90 Global Scale Atmospheric Processes Research Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Fred W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Research supported by the Global Atmospheric Research Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center on atmospheric remote sensing, meteorology, numerical weather forecasting, satellite data analysis, cloud precipitation, atmospheric circulation, atmospheric models and related topics is discussed.

  7. Islandora A Flexible Drupal-Based Virtual Research Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggott, M.; Pan, J.

    2011-12-01

    Research today exists in a landscape where data flood in, literature grows exponentially, and disciplinary boundaries are increasingly porous. Many of the greatest challenges facing researchers are related to managing the information produced during the research life cycle - from the discussion of new projects to the creation of funding proposals, the production and analysis of data, and the presentation of findings via conferences and scholarly publications. The Islandora framework provides a system that stewards digital data in any form (textual, numeric, scientific, multimedia) along the entire course of this research continuum, it facilitates collaboration not just among physically distant members of research groups but also among research groups and their associated support groups. Because Islandora accommodates both the project-specific, experiment-based context and the cross-project, interdisciplinary exploration context of data, the approach to the creation and discovery of data can be called 'discipline-agnostic.' UPEI's Virtual Research Environment (or VRE) has demonstrated the immense benefits of such an approach. In one example scientists collects samples, create detailed metadata for each sample, potentially generating thousands of data files of various kinds, which can all be loaded in one step. Software (some of it developed specifically for this project) then combines, recombines, and transforms these data into alternate formats for analysis -- thereby saving scientists hundreds of hours of manual labor. Wherever possible data are translated, converting them from proprietary file formats to standard XML, and stored -- thereby exposing the data to a larger audience that may bring them together with quite different samples or experiments in novel ways. The same computer processes and software work-flows brought to bear in the context of one research program can be re-used in other areas and across completely different disciplines, since the data are

  8. Research Investments in Global Health: A Systematic Analysis of UK Infectious Disease Research Funding and Global Health Metrics, 1997–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G.; Fitchett, Joseph R.; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Kumari, Nina; Hayward, Andrew; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases account for a significant global burden of disease and substantial investment in research and development. This paper presents a systematic assessment of research investments awarded to UK institutions and global health metrics assessing disease burden. Methods We systematically sourced research funding data awarded from public and philanthropic organisations between 1997 and 2013. We screened awards for relevance to infection and categorised data by type of science, disease area and specific pathogen. Investments were compared with mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLD) across three time points. Findings Between 1997–2013, there were 7398 awards with a total investment of £3.7 billion. An increase in research funding across 2011–2013 was observed for most disease areas, with notable exceptions being sexually transmitted infections and sepsis research where funding decreased. Most funding remains for pre-clinical research (£2.2 billion, 59.4%). Relative to global mortality, DALYs and YLDs, acute hepatitis C, leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis received comparatively high levels of funding. Pneumonia, shigellosis, pertussis, cholera and syphilis were poorly funded across all health metrics. Tuberculosis (TB) consistently attracts relatively less funding than HIV and malaria. Interpretation Most infections have received increases in research investment, alongside decreases in global burden of disease in 2013. The UK demonstrates research strengths in some neglected tropical diseases such as African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis, but syphilis, cholera, shigellosis and pneumonia remain poorly funded relative to their global burden. Acute hepatitis C appears well funded but the figures do not adequately take into account projected future chronic burdens for this condition. These findings can help to inform global policymakers on resource allocation for research investment

  9. Research Investments in Global Health: A Systematic Analysis of UK Infectious Disease Research Funding and Global Health Metrics, 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Kumari, Nina; Hayward, Andrew; Atun, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases account for a significant global burden of disease and substantial investment in research and development. This paper presents a systematic assessment of research investments awarded to UK institutions and global health metrics assessing disease burden. We systematically sourced research funding data awarded from public and philanthropic organisations between 1997 and 2013. We screened awards for relevance to infection and categorised data by type of science, disease area and specific pathogen. Investments were compared with mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLD) across three time points. Between 1997-2013, there were 7398 awards with a total investment of £3.7 billion. An increase in research funding across 2011-2013 was observed for most disease areas, with notable exceptions being sexually transmitted infections and sepsis research where funding decreased. Most funding remains for pre-clinical research (£2.2 billion, 59.4%). Relative to global mortality, DALYs and YLDs, acute hepatitis C, leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis received comparatively high levels of funding. Pneumonia, shigellosis, pertussis, cholera and syphilis were poorly funded across all health metrics. Tuberculosis (TB) consistently attracts relatively less funding than HIV and malaria. Most infections have received increases in research investment, alongside decreases in global burden of disease in 2013. The UK demonstrates research strengths in some neglected tropical diseases such as African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis, but syphilis, cholera, shigellosis and pneumonia remain poorly funded relative to their global burden. Acute hepatitis C appears well funded but the figures do not adequately take into account projected future chronic burdens for this condition. These findings can help to inform global policymakers on resource allocation for research investment.

  10. Teaching Global Change in Local Places: The HERO Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnal, Brent; Neff, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The Human-Environment Research Observatory (HERO) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program aimed to develop the next generation of researchers working on place-based human-environment problems. The program followed a cooperative learning model to foster an integrated approach to geographic research and to build collaborative research…

  11. Essential competencies in global health research for medical trainees: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary T; Satterfield, Caley A; Blackard, Jason T

    2017-09-01

    Participation in short-term educational experiences in global health (STEGHs) among medical trainees is increasingly accompanied by interest in conducting research while abroad. Because formal training in both global health and research methods is currently under-represented in most medical curricula, trainees are often unfamiliar with the knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary to design and conduct research successfully. This narrative review identifies essential global health research competencies for medical trainees engaged in STEGHs. The authors searched the literature using the terms global health, competency, research, research methods/process/training, scholarly project, medical student, and medical education/education. Because articles directly addressing global health research competencies for medical trainees were limited, the authors additionally drew on the broader literature addressing general research competencies and global health competencies. Articles yielded by the literature search, combined with established guidelines in research ethics and global health ethics, were used to identify six core domains and twenty discrete competencies fundamental to global health research at a level appropriate for medical trainees enrolled in STEGHs. Consideration was given to diverse research modalities, varying levels of training, and the availability of mentoring and on-site support. Research may provide important benefits to medical trainees and host partners. These competencies provide a starting point; however, circumstances at any host site may necessitate additional competencies specific to that setting. These competencies are also limited by the methodology employed in their development and the need for additional perspectives from host partners. The competencies identified outline basic knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary for medical trainees to conduct limited global health research while participating in STEGHS. They may also be used as a

  12. Roundtable discussion on the Third Global Symposium on Health Systems Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Balabanova, Dina; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Health systems experts from around the world discuss why they were meeting at the Third Global Symposium on Health Systems Research while people were dying of Ebola in West Africa.......Health systems experts from around the world discuss why they were meeting at the Third Global Symposium on Health Systems Research while people were dying of Ebola in West Africa....

  13. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #24: PUBLICATION OF FY2001 EDITION OF "OUR CHANGING PLANET"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Global Change Research Program is pleased to inform you of the publication of the new Our Changing Planet: The FY2001 U.S. Global Change Research Program. This annual report to the Congress was prepared under the auspices of the President's National Science and Technolog...

  14. The Global Interaction Research Initiative at the IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bjørn, Pernille; Glenstrup, Arne John

    2011-01-01

    This showcase paper describes the Global Interaction Research Initiative – GIRI – recently inaugurated at the IT University of Copenhagen. It presents the motivation for this initiative, namely that the use of information technology is the core enabling factor for global collaboration and business...... initiative, and we invite other researchers to join....

  15. Promoting equitable global health research: a policy analysis of the Canadian funding landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Katrina; Walters, Dylan; Campbell, Sandy; Hatfield, Jennifer

    2017-08-29

    Recognising radical shifts in the global health research (GHR) environment, participants in a 2013 deliberative dialogue called for careful consideration of equity-centred principles that should inform Canadian funding polices. This study examined the existing funding structures and policies of Canadian and international funders to inform the future design of a responsive GHR funding landscape. We used a three-pronged analytical framework to review the ideas, interests and institutions implicated in publically accessible documents relevant to GHR funding. These data included published literature and organisational documents (e.g. strategic plans, progress reports, granting policies) from Canadian and other comparator funders. We then used a deliberative approach to develop recommendations with the research team, advisors, industry informants and low- and middle-income country (LMIC) partners. In Canada, major GHR funders invest an estimated CA$90 M per annum; however, the post-2008 re-organization of funding structures and policies resulted in an uncoordinated and inefficient Canadian strategy. Australia, Denmark, the European Union, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America invest proportionately more in GHR than Canada. Each of these countries has a national strategic plan for global health, some of which have dedicated benchmarks for GHR funding and policy to allow funds to be held by partners outside of Canada. Key constraints to equitable GHR funding included (1) funding policies that restrict financial and cost burden aspects of partnering for GHR in LMICs; and (2) challenges associated with the development of effective governance mechanisms. There were, however, some Canadian innovations in funding research that demonstrated both unconventional and equitable approaches to supporting GHR in Canada and abroad. Among the most promising were found in the International Development Research Centre and the (no longer active) Global Health

  16. Building Canadian Support for Global Health Research - Phase III ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    supported researcher is receiving international attention for his work to address maternal and child death rates in East Africa. View moreMaternal and child health research featured in Canadian Geographic ...

  17. Land Tenure, Gender, and Globalization: Research and Analysis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-08-29

    Aug 29, 2009 ... Download PDF ... In 2009, she joined the Research and Evaluation Branch at Citizenship and Immigration Canada as a Policy and Research Analyst. ... Sharing opportunities for innovation in climate change adaptation.

  18. [Strategies and mechanisms of soil springtails in adapting lower temperature environment: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Yun-Biao; Wu, Dong-Hui

    2012-12-01

    Low temperature and drought are the main environmental factors threatening the animals living in arctic area and cold temperate regions. To adapt the severe environment, the animals should adopt appropriate strategies. As a group of arthopods with freeze-avoiding strategy, soil springtails have the similar ecological mechanisms and modes of cold resistance/tolerance as insects, manifesting in the cold acclimation and drought tolerance to decrease the damage of ice crystal formation. During cold acclimation, there are a rapid increase of glycerol, a rapid decrease of fucose and glucose, and the production of anti-freeze proteins (AFP) , and exists the inter-transformation of different kinds of lipids to improve the flow of cell membrane to protect the cell from low temperature injury. In addition, soil springtails have their own specific modes and mechanisms to tolerate low temperature stress, mainly the vertical migration under the protection of snow cover and the excretion of ice nucleator from haemolymph, illustrating that it's of significance to research the cryobiology of soil springtails. This paper summarized the modes and mechanisms of soil springtails in tolerating low temperature environment, reviewed the research progress on the eco-physiology of the springtails, discussed the existing problems of the researches on the low temperature tolerance of the springtails, and prospected the research directions of the springtails low temperature ecology under the background of global change.

  19. Child Prostitution: Global Health Burden, Research Needs, and Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Brian M.; Levy, Barry S.

    2002-01-01

    Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other form...

  20. Small Satellites and RPAs in Global-Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    room for fruitful compromise here, either with dual-use FPAs (see point 1.4 above), or with multi-pixel arrays that do not contain many thousands of...of most of this sulphate appears to be microbiota in the upper ocean layers which produce dimethyl sulfide, (CH 3 )2S. These molecules must, however...opportunity. If a flexible and relatively inexpensive small satellite platform were avail- able for global change applications, a fruitful use would be to

  1. Global research collaboration: Networks and partners in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Woolley, Richard; Robinson-Garcia, Nicolas; Costas, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    This is an empirical paper that addresses the role of bilateral and multilateral international co-authorships in the six leading science systems among the ASEAN group of countries (ASEAN6). The paper highlights the different ways that bilateral and multilateral co-authorships structure global networks and the collaborations of the ASEAN6. The paper looks at the influence of the collaboration styles of major collaborating countries of the ASEAN6, particularly the USA and Japan. It also highlig...

  2. Japan Environment and Children's Study: backgrounds, activities, and future directions in global perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Kazue; Nakayama, Shoji F; Kishi, Reiko; Mori, Chisato; Yamagata, Zentaro; Ohya, Yukihiro; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2017-07-14

    There is worldwide concern about the effects of environmental factors on children's health and development. The Miami Declaration was signed at the G8 Environment Ministers Meeting in 1997 to promote children's environmental health research. The following ministerial meetings continued to emphasize the need to foster children's research. In response to such a worldwide movement, the Ministry of the Environment, Japan (MOE), launched a nationwide birth cohort study with 100,000 pairs of mothers and children, namely, the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), in 2010. Other countries have also started or planned large-scale studies focusing on children's environmental health issues. The MOE initiated dialogue among those countries and groups to discuss and share the various processes, protocols, knowledge, and techniques for future harmonization and data pooling among such studies. The MOE formed the JECS International Liaison Committee in 2011, which plays a primary role in promoting the international collaboration between JECS and the other children's environmental health research projects and partnership with other countries. This review article aims to present activities that JECS has developed. As one of the committee's activities, a workshop and four international symposia were held between 2011 and 2015 in Japan. In these conferences, international researchers and government officials, including those from the World Health Organization, have made presentations on their own birth cohort studies and health policies. In 2015, the MOE hosted the International Advisory Board meeting and received constructive comments and recommendations from the board. JECS is a founding member of the Environment and Child Health International Birth Cohort Group, and has discussed harmonization of exposure and outcome measurements with member parties, which will make it possible to compare and further combine data from different studies, considering the diversity in the

  3. DFID-IDRC Global Adaptation Research Program | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Its geographic focus consists of "hot spots" in Africa and Asia: semi-arid zones, mega-deltas and densely populated river basins (including glacier-fed systems). These hot spots combine two factors: significant impacts in the biophysical environment from climate change, and high risks to the livelihood of a large number of ...

  4. DFID-IDRC Global Adaptation Research Program | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Its geographic focus consists of "hot spots" in Africa and Asia: semi-arid zones, mega-deltas and densely populated river basins (including glacier-fed systems). These hot spots combine two factors: significant impacts in the biophysical environment from climate change, and high risks to the livelihood of a large number of ...

  5. Initiative research in fiscal 2000 in relation with global environment industrial technologies. Achievement report on investigations and researches of emission-free manufacturing (EFM); 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu ni kakawaru sendo kenkyu seika hokokusho. Emission free manufacturing (EFM) no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Three working groups were established, each having assignments of developing a technology to evaluate environmental load imposed by processing processes, developing a new manufacturing process intended of reducing environmental load, and remarkably improving the existing manufacturing technologies. Investigations and researches were performed on the current technological trends and technological problems in relation with emission-free manufacturing. In the environmental load evaluation technology, it was indicated that the amount of charged energy per one million yen of products made by metal machine tools is 10040 Gcal/M yen, and that, with regard to CO2 emission amount and resource depleting load at the small machining center, the amounts attributable to the raw materials are 80% and 90% respectively, wherein either item can be reduced by recycling iron. For the comprehensive low-emission processing technology, investigations were carried out on a casting process not using sandmolds, substitute lubricants, dry forging, semi-solid processing, and deep drawing process using ultra-high pressure water. For the functional low-emission production technology, investigations were performed on performance improvement in processing machines, energy saving, and reduction in emission. (NEDO)

  6. Challenges associated with performing environmental research on titanium dioxide nanoparticles in aquatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are challenges associated with performing research on titanium dioxide NPs in aquatic environments particularly marine systems. A critical focus for current titanium dioxide NP research in aquatic environments needs to be on optimizing methods for differentiating naturally...

  7. EGO: Towards a global glider infrastructure for the benefit of marine research and operational oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testor, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    In the 1990 s, while gliders were being developed and successfully passing first tests, their potential use for ocean research started to be discussed in international conferences because they could help us improve the cost-effectiveness, sampling, and distribution of the ocean observations (see OceanObs'99 Conference Statement - UNESCO). After the prototype phase, in the 2000 s, one could only witness the growing glider activity throughout the world. The first glider experiments in Europe brought together several teams that were interested in the technology and a consortium formed naturally from these informal collaborations. Since 2006, Everyone's Gliding Observatories (EGO - http://www.ego-network.org) Workshops and Glider Schools have been organized, whilst becoming the international forum for glider activities. Some key challenges have emerged from the expansion of the glider system and require now setting up a sustainable European as well as a global system to operate glider and to ensure a smooth and sustained link to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Glider technology faces many scientific, technological and logistical issues. In particular, it approaches the challenge of controlling many steerable probes in a variable environment for better sampling. It also needs the development of new formats and procedures in order to build glider observatories at a global level. Several geographically distributed teams of oceanographers now operate gliders, and there is a risk of fragmentation. We will here present results from our consortium who intends to solve most of these issues through scientific and technological coordination and networking. This approach is supported by the ESF through Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST). The COST Action ES0904 "EGO" started in July 2010 aiming to build international cooperation and capacities at the scientific, technological, and organizational levels, for sustained observations of the

  8. Training and development through the IAEA's global research network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, T.

    1988-01-01

    The Agency's research contract programme stimulates and co-ordinates the undertaking of research, in selected nuclear fields of interest, by scientists in IAEA Member States. Benefits of the research contract programme can be direct or indirect. Direct benefits include increased scientific knowledge in a specific field and case-by-case application of this knowledge. Indirect benefits include the training effects - what participants in the programme learn via work carried out under the contract or at regularly held RCMs. The educational effect of CRPs is substantial as many institutes, guided by Agency scientific staff, learn how to conduct research without assistance. Unanticipated spin-off benefits can also result from a CRP through information exchanges at RCMs that stimulate ideas for other research programmes or methods of research

  9. Globalization and changing trends of biomedical research output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Marisa L.; Liu, Jing; Omary, M. Bishr

    2017-01-01

    The US continues to lead the world in research and development (R&D) expenditures, but there is concern that stagnation in federal support for biomedical research in the US could undermine the leading role the US has played in biomedical and clinical research discoveries. As a readout of research output in the US compared with other countries, assessment of original research articles published by US-based authors in ten clinical and basic science journals during 2000 to 2015 showed a steady decline of articles in high-ranking journals or no significant change in mid-ranking journals. In contrast, publication output originating from China-based investigators, in both high- and mid-ranking journals, has steadily increased commensurate with significant growth in R&D expenditures. These observations support the current concerns of stagnant and year-to-year uncertainty in US federal funding of biomedical research. PMID:28614799

  10. Globalization and changing trends of biomedical research output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Marisa L; Liu, Jing; Schnell, Santiago; Omary, M Bishr

    2017-06-15

    The US continues to lead the world in research and development (R&D) expenditures, but there is concern that stagnation in federal support for biomedical research in the US could undermine the leading role the US has played in biomedical and clinical research discoveries. As a readout of research output in the US compared with other countries, assessment of original research articles published by US-based authors in ten clinical and basic science journals during 2000 to 2015 showed a steady decline of articles in high-ranking journals or no significant change in mid-ranking journals. In contrast, publication output originating from China-based investigators, in both high- and mid-ranking journals, has steadily increased commensurate with significant growth in R&D expenditures. These observations support the current concerns of stagnant and year-to-year uncertainty in US federal funding of biomedical research.

  11. Globalization and work and social being research professor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João dos Reis Silva Junior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to analyze the movement of the time dimension in contemporary capitalist society. The existence of humanity in the present and its prerogatives, dreams and desires show the challenge of understanding the perception of a concept of time as a cultural construction of base materialism. These are assumptions for a radical critique of working conditions in the Brazilian Public Higher Education Institution. The globalization of the economy expressed by finance capital redefines the concept of time, accelerating it to the interests of uncontrolled reproduction of capital, imposing evil in everyday educational processes responsible for estrangement growing in the work of teachers.

  12. Green energy facilitated? The uncertain function of the global environment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Z.; Boehmer-Christiansen, S.

    1998-01-01

    The GEF remains the interim operating entity of the financial mechanism, the aid provider, for the Climate Change Convention (FCCC); It had 1.6 billion dollars to spend between 1994 and 1997 on the 'incremental costs' of implementing UN environmental conventions in eligible countries. The paper describes how this multilateral fund has functioned so far in the energy-environment arena, analyzing its governance and policies, decision-making criteria, project cycle and strategies for monitoring and evaluation. Through the patterns of GEF assistance to climate change related science, technologies and institutions, we explore the origins and wider purposes of the entity and in the process illuminate some assumptions and principles underlying the work of the GEF Secretariat and associated bureaucracies. What can realistically be expected should GEF become a more permanent fund for 'global environmental benefits' after current negotiations for its second replenishment? (author)

  13. Authorship ethics in global health research partnerships between researchers from low or middle income countries and high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elise; Hunt, Matthew; Master, Zubin

    2014-05-28

    Over the past two decades, the promotion of collaborative partnerships involving researchers from low and middle income countries with those from high income countries has been a major development in global health research. Ideally, these partnerships would lead to more equitable collaboration including the sharing of research responsibilities and rewards. While collaborative partnership initiatives have shown promise and attracted growing interest, there has been little scholarly debate regarding the fair distribution of authorship credit within these partnerships. In this paper, we identify four key authorship issues relevant to global health research and discuss their ethical and practical implications. First, we argue that authorship guidance may not adequately apply to global health research because it requires authors to write or substantially revise the manuscript. Since most journals of international reputation in global health are written in English, this would systematically and unjustly exclude non-English speaking researchers even if they have substantially contributed to the research project. Second, current guidance on authorship order does not address or mitigate unfair practices which can occur in global health research due to power differences between researchers from high and low-middle income countries. It also provides insufficient recognition of "technical tasks" such as local participant recruitment. Third, we consider the potential for real or perceived editorial bias in medical science journals in favour of prominent western researchers, and the risk of promoting misplaced credit and/or prestige authorship. Finally, we explore how diverse cultural practices and expectations regarding authorship may create conflict between researchers from low-middle and high income countries and contribute to unethical authorship practices. To effectively deal with these issues, we suggest: 1) undertaking further empirical and conceptual research regarding

  14. Sensing the environment: regulation of local and global homeostasis by the skin's neuroendocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zbytek, Blazej; Slominski, Radomir M; Steketee, Jeffery D

    2012-01-01

    Skin, the body's largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates, and responds to a diverse range of stressors including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuro-endocrine-immune organ that is tightly networked to central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and hormones. Such production is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and noninfectious), and other physical and chemical agents. Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, beta-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid hormones, steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-delta steroids), secosteroids, opioids, and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid, and endocannbinoid systems. Dysregulation of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/ or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks are also addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve

  15. The Methodical Approaches to the Research of Informatization of the Global Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakova Nadezhda A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching the identification of global economic development informatization. The complex of issues connected with research of development of informatization of the world countries in the conditions of globalization is considered. The development of informatization in the global economic space, which facilitates opening of new markets for international trade enterprises, international transnational corporations and other organizations, which not only provide exports, but also create production capacities for local producers. The methodical approach which includes three stages together with formation of the input information on the status of informatization of the global economic development of the world countries has been proposed.

  16. Current Practice in Research Ethics: Global Trends and New Opportunities for African Universities. Research and Innovation Policy Series. Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Liam

    2007-01-01

    Research Ethics has emerged as one of the most well-developed policy areas within the sphere of Research and Innovation Management. As such, for African institutions looking to strengthen their policy frameworks, develop increased collaborations, and increase research outputs, a thorough understanding of global trends in Ethics will be vital.…

  17. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  18. Global-Change research in Norway. National inventory of Global Change research in Norway i 2011; Global Change-forskning i Norge. En kartlegging av norsk Global change-forskning i 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    From the preface: The Norwegian Global Change (GC) Committee is appointed by the Research Council and works to strengthen the association of Norwegian researchers and research to the international GC programs and IIASA (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis). As part of this effort, the Committee wanted a survey of Norwegian research activities linked to these programs. CICERO was engaged to carry out survey work in dialogue with the Research and GC Committee. The results of the survey are presented in this report. The GC programs are: World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), International geosphere-biosphere program (IGBP), International program of biodiversity science (DIVERSITAS), International Human Dimension Programme Wed Global Environmental Change (IHDP). In addition to IIASA. The results of the survey will be, and is, used as a basis for further activities of the Committee in terms of incentives that can increase the internationalization of Norwegian research. Furthermore, it help to ensure good coupling to these programs in their transition to a common platform in the international Future Earth Initiative (http://www.icsu.org/future-earth).(eb)

  19. Using animation quality metric to improve efficiency of global illumination computation for dynamic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszkowski, Karol; Tawara, Takehiro; Seidel, Hans-Peter

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, we consider applications of perception-based video quality metrics to improve the performance of global lighting computations for dynamic environments. For this purpose we extend the Visible Difference Predictor (VDP) developed by Daly to handle computer animations. We incorporate into the VDP the spatio-velocity CSF model developed by Kelly. The CSF model requires data on the velocity of moving patterns across the image plane. We use the 3D image warping technique to compensate for the camera motion, and we conservatively assume that the motion of animated objects (usually strong attractors of the visual attention) is fully compensated by the smooth pursuit eye motion. Our global illumination solution is based on stochastic photon tracing and takes advantage of temporal coherence of lighting distribution, by processing photons both in the spatial and temporal domains. The VDP is used to keep noise inherent in stochastic methods below the sensitivity level of the human observer. As a result a perceptually-consistent quality across all animation frames is obtained.

  20. Overview of IMAGE 2.0. An integrated model of climate change and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcamo, J.; Battjes, C.; Van den Born, G.J.; Bouwman, A.F.; De Haan, B.J.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Klepper, O.; Kreileman, G.J.J.; Krol, M.; Leemans, R.; Van Minnen, J.G.; Olivier, J.G.J.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Toet, A.M.C.; Van den Wijngaart, R.A.; Van der Woerd, H.J.; Zuidema, G.

    1995-01-01

    The IMAGE 2.0 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model, designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system. In this paper the focus is on the scientific aspects of the model, while another paper in this volume emphasizes its political aspects. The objectives of IMAGE 2.0 are to investigate linkages and feedbacks in the global system, and to evaluate consequences of climate policies. Dynamic calculations are performed to the year 2100, with a spatial scale ranging from grid (0.5x0.5 latitude-longitude) to world political regions, depending on the sub-model. A total of 13 sub-models make up IMAGE 2.0, and they are organized into three fully linked sub-systems: Energy-Industry, Terrestrial Environment, and Atmosphere-Ocean. The fully linked model has been tested against data from 1970 to 1990, and after calibration it can reproduce the following observed trends: regional energy consumption and energy-related emissions, terrestrial flux of carbon dioxide and emissions of greenhouse gases, concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and transformation of land cover. The model can also simulate current zonal average surface and vertical temperatures. 1 fig., 10 refs

  1. Transport and the global environment: Accounting for GHG reductions in policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Markanday, A.; Boyd, R.; Hunt, A.; Taylor, T. [Univ. of Bath, (United Kingdom); Sathaye, J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (USS)

    2001-07-01

    That the transport sector is among the fastest growing economic sectors in both developed and developing countries is no surprise. The movement of people and goods is an essential part of modern society, and unlike some other economic goods the demand for transport largely coupled to income, so that as people become wealthier they demand ever more transport. Despite their many advantages of personal choice, convenience, and flexibility, modern transportation systems are not without problems, notably those that affect the environment and quality of life. The poor, even hazardous, air quality in many cities is often largely attributed to motor vehicle use, while the transport sector globally contributes one quarter of the greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere each year. Unfortunately, the environmental consequences of thransportation choices - both local and global - are often overlooked when transport planning decisions are made. This book attempts to remedy that deficiency by providing a guide to technical experts and policy makers concerned with environmental polices for the transport sector. It offers a consistent analytical structure for examining the environmental aspects of transport choices; defines the key economic and environmental concepts used in good policy analysis; and gives information on technologies, environmental impacts, and cost effectiveness of various policy options. The book also describes international financial mechanisms that can be used to support sustainable transportation policies and programmes. (au)

  2. Sustainable development goals for global health: facilitating good governance in a complex environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffeld, Just

    2013-11-01

    Increasing complexity is following in the wake of rampant globalization. Thus, the discussion about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires new thinking that departs from a critique of current policy tools in exploration of a complexity-friendly approach. This article argues that potential SDGs should: treat stakeholders, like states, business and civil society actors, as agents on different aggregate levels of networks; incorporate good governance processes that facilitate early involvement of relevant resources, as well as equitable participation, consultative processes, and regular policy and programme implementation reviews; anchor adoption and enforcement of such rules to democratic processes in accountable organizations; and include comprehensive systems evaluations, including procedural indicators. A global framework convention for health could be a suitable instrument for handling some of the challenges related to the governance of a complex environment. It could structure and legitimize government involvement, engage stakeholders, arrange deliberation and decision-making processes with due participation and regular policy review, and define minimum standards for health services. A monitoring scheme could ensure that agents in networks comply according to whole-systems targets, locally defined outcome indicators, and process indicators, thus resolving the paradox of government control vs. local policy space. A convention could thus exploit the energy created in the encounter between civil society, international organizations and national authorities. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Global environmental policy strategies. ''Environment and development'' in north-south relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmeier, K.

    1994-01-01

    Global environmental policy has hardly made headway after the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992, despite there being no shortage of programmes, institutions, and actors. Obviously, formal structures for political action based on the system of institutions of the United Nations do not suffice. Global environmental policy strategies must reach further, overcoming system-immanent obstacles to sustainable development. This necessitates analyzing the causes of environmental destruction and making a critical evaluation of the relations between the societies of the North and South that received their imprint from development policies. Only after such a preliminary elucidation by interdisciplinary approaches in the light of political and ecological economy and human ecology does an empirical analysis of politically controlled processes in environmental and development policy make sense. The analysis points to strategies for this international political field that rely on non-governmental actors and social movements, and question the traditional European model of an environmental policy determined by government institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  5. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  6. Forest Service Global Change Research Strategy, 2009-2019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Solomon; Richard Birdsey; Linda A. Joyce; Jennifer Hayes

    2009-01-01

    In keeping with the research goals of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, the Research and Development agenda of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), helps define climate change policy and develop best management practices for forests (both rural and urban) and grasslands. These actions are taken to sustain ecosystem health, adjust management...

  7. Networks of Practice in Science Education Research: A Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we employ cultural sociology and Braj Kachru's model of World Englishes as theoretical and analytical tools for considering English as a form of capital necessary for widely disseminating research findings from local networks of practice to the greater science education research community. We present a brief analysis of recent…

  8. Ebola and Its Global Research Architecture--Need for an Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarcoo, David; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2015-09-01

    The current Ebola outbreak poses a threat to individual and global public health. Although the disease has been of interest to the scientific community since 1976, an effective vaccination approach is still lacking. This fact questions past global public health strategies, which have not foreseen the possible impact of this infectious disease. To quantify the global research activity in this field, a scientometric investigation was conducted. We analyzed the research output of countries, individual institutions and their collaborative networks. The resulting research architecture indicated that American and European countries played a leading role regarding output activity, citations and multi- and bilateral cooperations. When related to population numbers, African countries, which usually do not dominate the global research in other medical fields, were among the most prolific nations. We conclude that the field of Ebola research is constantly progressing, and the research landscape is influenced by economical and infrastructural factors as well as historical relations between countries and outbreak events.

  9. Ebola and Its Global Research Architecture--Need for an Improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Quarcoo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current Ebola outbreak poses a threat to individual and global public health. Although the disease has been of interest to the scientific community since 1976, an effective vaccination approach is still lacking. This fact questions past global public health strategies, which have not foreseen the possible impact of this infectious disease. To quantify the global research activity in this field, a scientometric investigation was conducted. We analyzed the research output of countries, individual institutions and their collaborative networks. The resulting research architecture indicated that American and European countries played a leading role regarding output activity, citations and multi- and bilateral cooperations. When related to population numbers, African countries, which usually do not dominate the global research in other medical fields, were among the most prolific nations. We conclude that the field of Ebola research is constantly progressing, and the research landscape is influenced by economical and infrastructural factors as well as historical relations between countries and outbreak events.

  10. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 6 - immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. This has been updated with findings reported in a series of papers. Here we present findings for FMD immunology research. The paper consists of the following four sections: 1. Research prior...

  11. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 3 - vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. In this paper, we report updated findings in the field of FMD vaccine research. This paper consists of the following four sections: 1) Research priorities identified in the 2010 GFRA gap ana...

  12. Peranan Riset untuk Entreprenuership dalam Menghadapi Persaingan Global ( Research For Role In Dealing Entreprenuership Global Competition )

    OpenAIRE

    Sujarwo

    2012-01-01

    Research is said to give a role if used in the production process to improve the quality of human life. To be used, the research should be developed to identify potential users in advance. In the context of efforts to achieve this there are the primary users and secondary users. Primary users are users who directly memamfaatkan research developed a technology to produce products, is the secondary user is a supporter of the user's primary users. Factors causing the utilization of research is d...

  13. US Global Change Research Program Distributed Cost Budget Interagency Funds Transfer from DOE to NSF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhle, Maria [National Science Foundation (NSF), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-22

    These funds were transferred from DOE to NSF as DOE's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program in support of 4 internationalnactivities/programs as approved by the U.S. Global Change Research Program on 14 March 2014. The programs are the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, the DIVERSITAS programme, and the World Climate Research Program. All program awards ended as of 09-23-2015.

  14. DataCite - A Global Registration Agency for Research Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Since 2005, the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) has offered a successful Digital Object Identifier (DOI) registration service for persistent identification of research data. In 2009, TIB, the British Library, the Library of the ETH Zurich, the French Institute for Scientif....... The goal of this cooperation is to establish a not-for-profit agency called DataCite that enables organisations to register research datasets and assign persistent identifiers to them, so that research datasets can be handled as independent, citable, unique scientific objects....

  15. Automatic, Global and Dynamic Student Modeling in a Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Graf

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous learning allows students to learn at any time and any place. Adaptivity plays an important role in ubiquitous learning, aiming at providing students with adaptive and personalized learning material, activities, and information at the right place and the right time. However, for providing rich adaptivity, the student model needs to be able to gather a variety of information about the students. In this paper, an automatic, global, and dynamic student modeling approach is introduced, which aims at identifying and frequently updating information about students’ progress, learning styles, interests and knowledge level, problem solving abilities, preferences for using the system, social connectivity, and current location. This information is gathered in an automatic way, using students’ behavior and actions in different learning situations provided by different components/services of the ubiquitous learning environment. By providing a comprehensive student model, students can be supported by rich adaptivity in every component/service of the learning environment. Furthermore, the information in the student model can help in giving teachers a better understanding about the students’ learning process.

  16. Explaining international co-authorship in global environmental change research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jappe, A.

    2006-04-15

    This paper maps the domain of earth and environmental sciences (EES) and investigates the relationship between cognitive problem structures and internationalisation patterns, drawing on the concepts of systemic versus cumulative global environmental change (GEC) and mutual task dependence in scientific fields. We find that scientific output concentration and internationalisation are significantly higher in the systemic GEC fields of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography than in the cumulative GEC fields Ecology and Water Resources. The relationship is explained by stronger mutual task dependence in systemic GEC fields. In contrast, the portion of co-authorships with developing, emerging and transition countries among all international publications is larger for Water Resources than for the three other fields, consistent with the most pressing needs for STI capacity development in these countries. (orig.)

  17. A Bibliometric Analysis of Global Research on Genome Sequencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YSHo

    2Trend Research Centre, Asia University, No. 500, Lioufeng .... The data were based on the online version of the SCI-Expanded database. ... have been produced to reduce time and cost (Margulies ... accounting for one third of all articles.

  18. Global Impact | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through its direct support of clinical research, Frederick National Laboratory activities are not limited to national programs. The labis actively involved in more than 400 domestic and international studies related to cancer; influenza, HIV, E

  19. Approach for a joint global registration agency for research data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, Jan; Farquhar, Adam; Gastl, Angela

    2009-01-01

    The scientific and information communities have largely mastered the presentation of, and linkages between, text-based electronic information by assigning persistent identifiers to give scientific literature unique identities and accessibility. Knowledge, as published through scientific literature......, is often the last step in a process originating from scientific research data. Today scientists are using simulation, observational, and experimentation techniques that yield massive quantities of research data. These data are analyzed, synthesized, interpreted, and the outcome of this process is generally...

  20. A Global Synthesis Reveals Gaps in Coastal Habitat Restoration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Stacy Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems have drastically declined in coverage and condition across the globe. To combat these losses, marine conservation has recently employed habitat restoration as a strategy to enhance depleted coastal ecosystems. For restoration to be a successful enterprise, however, it is necessary to identify and address potential knowledge gaps and review whether the field has tracked scientific advances regarding best practices. This enables managers, researchers, and practitioners alike to more readily establish restoration priorities and goals. We synthesized the peer-reviewed, published literature on habitat restoration research in salt marshes, oyster reefs, and seagrasses to address three questions related to restoration efforts: (i How frequent is cross-sector authorship in coastal restoration research? (ii What is the geographic distribution of coastal restoration research? and (iii Are abiotic and biotic factors equally emphasized in the literature, and how does this vary with time? Our vote-count survey indicated that one-third of the journal-published studies listed authors from at least two sectors, and 6% listed authors from all three sectors. Across all habitat types, there was a dearth of studies from Africa, Asia, and South America. Finally, despite many experimental studies demonstrating that species interactions can greatly affect the recovery and persistence of coastal foundation species, only one-fourth of the studies we examined discussed their effects on restoration. Combined, our results reveal gaps and discrepancies in restoration research that should be addressed in order to further propel coastal restoration science.

  1. Recommendations of the Global Multiple System Atrophy Research Roadmap Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan R; Krismer, Florian; Galpern, Wendy R; Wenning, Gregor K; Low, Phillip A; Halliday, Glenda; Koroshetz, Walter J; Holton, Janice; Quinn, Niall P; Rascol, Olivier; Shaw, Leslie M; Eidelberg, David; Bower, Pam; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Abler, Victor; Biedenharn, Judy; Bitan, Gal; Brooks, David J; Brundin, Patrik; Fernandez, Hubert; Fortier, Philip; Freeman, Roy; Gasser, Thomas; Hewitt, Art; Höglinger, Günter U; Huentelman, Matt J; Jensen, Poul H; Jeromin, Andreas; Kang, Un Jung; Kaufmann, Horacio; Kellerman, Lawrence; Khurana, Vikram; Klockgether, Thomas; Kim, Woojin Scott; Langer, Carol; LeWitt, Peter; Masliah, Eliezer; Meissner, Wassilios; Melki, Ronald; Ostrowitzki, Susanne; Piantadosi, Steven; Poewe, Werner; Robertson, David; Roemer, Cyndi; Schenk, Dale; Schlossmacher, Michael; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Seppi, Klaus; Shih, Lily; Siderowf, Andrew; Stebbins, Glenn T; Stefanova, Nadia; Tsuji, Shoji; Sutton, Sharon; Zhang, Jing

    2018-01-09

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with substantial knowledge gaps despite recent gains in basic and clinical research. In order to make further advances, concerted international collaboration is vital. In 2014, an international meeting involving leaders in the field and MSA advocacy groups was convened in Las Vegas, Nevada, to identify critical research areas where consensus and progress was needed to improve understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. Eight topic areas were defined: pathogenesis, preclinical modeling, target identification, endophenotyping, clinical measures, imaging biomarkers, nonimaging biomarkers, treatments/trial designs, and patient advocacy. For each topic area, an expert served as a working group chair and each working group developed priority-ranked research recommendations with associated timelines and pathways to reach the intended goals. In this report, each groups' recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Global network on engineering education research and expertise in PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Kolmos, Anette; Moesby, Egon

    2006-01-01

    in order to facilitate better access to and co-operation within the PBL area. One of the absolute important tasks for UCPBL is to provide evidence for the effectiveness of PBL worldwide. Thus, there is a special attempt to establish links between engineering education researchers in this field....... This involves considerations concerning what is engineering education research – and how do we promote research based staff and educational development.......The UCPBL Centre for Problem Based Learning is based at Aalborg University, Denmark, known world-wide for its successful educational approach based on problem oriented project work. Due to more than 30 years of experience in utilizing PBL-learning principles in Engineering Education, an increasing...

  3. Feasibility of integrating other federal information systems into the Global Network of Environment and Technology, GNET{reg_sign}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Global Environment and Technology Enterprise (GETE) of the Global Environment and Technology Foundation (GETF) has been tasked by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to assist in reducing DOE`s cost for the Global Network of Environment and Technology (GNET{reg_sign}). As part of this task, GETE is seeking federal partners to invest in GNET{reg_sign}. The authors are also seeking FETC`s commitment to serve as GNET`s federal agency champion promoting the system to potential agency partners. This report assesses the benefits of partnering with GNET{reg_sign} and provides recommendations for identifying and integrating other federally funded (non-DOE) environmental information management systems into GNET{reg_sign}.

  4. Research Suggestions in the Design of a Global Graduate Business Program Delivered by Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puderbaugh, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the unique areas of concern when establishing an eLearning program in the field of global business. A survey of eLearning and a global management subject matter appears. This paper identifies potential challenges in program design and raises practical concerns for future research. [For the full proceedings,…

  5. Global Consultation Processes: Lessons Learned from Refugee Teacher Consultation Research in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Colleen R.; Gosnell, Nicole M.; Ng, Wai Sheng; Clement, Jennifer; Ong, Edward

    2018-01-01

    The process of global consultation has received little attention despite its potential for promoting international mutual understanding with marginalized communities. This article details theory, entry, implementation, and evaluation processes for global consultation research, including lessons learned from our refugee teacher intervention. The…

  6. Charting a Democratic Course for Global Citizenship Education: Research Directions and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John P.

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines research directions for global citizenship education, by emphasizing the centrality of democratic goals for schools in the 21st century. Despite a significant shift in educational policies and practices towards addressing education that respond to the conditions of globalization, there is not a clear vision regarding its role…

  7. Quantifying Globalization in Social Work Research: A 10-Year Review of American Social Work Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbényiga, DeBrenna L.; Huang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Measured by the prevalence of journal article contributions, geographic coverage, and international collaboration, this literature review found an increasing level of globalization with respect to American social work research and contribution to the social work profession from 2000-2009. Findings suggest changes are needed in global awareness and…

  8. 'Earth system governance' as a crosscutting theme of global change research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermann, F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the four global change research programmes 'urgently' called for 'an ethical framework for global stewardship and strategies for Earth System management'. Yet this notion of 'earth system management' remains vaguely defined: It is too elusive for natural scientists, and too ambitious or too

  9. ‘Earth system governance’ as a crosscutting theme of global change research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermann, F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the four global change research programmes 'urgently' called for 'an ethical framework for global stewardship and strategies for Earth System management'. Yet this notion of 'earth system management' remains vaguely defined: It is too elusive for natural scientists, and too ambitious or too

  10. Childhood socioeconomic status and risk in early family environments: predictors of global sleep quality in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Cory J; Grubin, Fiona C; John-Henderson, Neha A

    2018-06-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood associates with poor sleep quality in adulthood. Separately, childhood family environments shape health into adulthood. Here, we investigated whether these early life factors independently or interactively inform global sleep quality in college students. Cross-sectional. College students at a state university (N = 391). As a measure of childhood SES, we asked participants to consider their families' socioeconomic standing relative to the rest of the society during their childhood. We used the Risky Family questionnaire to measure adversity and the presence of warmth and affection in the family environment during childhood, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index as a measure of current global sleep quality. We used linear regressions adjusting for age and sex to examine relationships between childhood SES, risk in childhood family environments, and global sleep quality. Lower childhood SES and greater risk in childhood family environments independently predicted poor sleep quality. Importantly, in low-risk family environments, there was no significant difference in sleep quality as a function of childhood SES. However, students who were from low childhood SES backgrounds who also reported high levels of risk in their early family environments had the worst sleep quality. Findings highlight the importance of considering socioeconomic and family environments in childhood as informants of sleep quality across the lifespan. Compromised sleep quality in college students could affect academic performance and health over time. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pursuing Qualitative Research From the Global South: "Investigative Research" During China's "Great Leap Forward" (1958-62

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chun Hsiung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, qualitative researchers have begun to challenge the domination and universalistic claims of the Global North. Nevertheless, it is still unclear what pursuing qualitative research (QR from the Global South might entail. I advance this effort by situating it in the larger context of the decentering endeavor in social science and decolonizing methodologies in aboriginal scholarship. Informed by their locally-grounded approach in the quest for constructing alternative social science accounts and articulating decolonized knowledge, I argue that writing locally-grounded histories is an essential first step to explore methodologies and epistemologies of QR from the Global South. Noting that no national history of QR has been derived from the Global South, I present an example of writing the history of QR by examining MAO Zedong's legacy of "investigative research" (IR. Specifically, I analyze the practices of IR during China's "Great Leap Forward" (1958-62. In conclusion, I discuss the implications of IR to the development of social science research in contemporary China. I lay out key issues in pursuing QR from the Global South and present how such a pursuit is relevant to social science inquiry in the Global North. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150325

  12. Global Research Patterns on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, Fabrizio Terenzio; Leucci, Giovanni

    2018-05-01

    The article deals with the analysis of worldwide research patterns concerning ground penetrating radar (GPR) during 1995-2014. To do this, the Thomson Reuters' Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) and the Social Sciences Citation Index accessed via the Web of Science Core Collection were the two bibliographic databases taken as a reference. We pay attention to the document typology and language, the publication trend and citations, the subject categories and journals, the collaborations between authors, the productivity of the authors, the most cited articles, the countries and the institutions involved, and other hot issues. Concerning the main research subfields involving GPR use, there were five, physical-mathematical, sedimentological-stratigraphical, civil engineering/engineering geology/cultural heritage, hydrological (HD), and glaciological (GL), subfields.

  13. RESEARCH OF GLOBAL NEW INVESTMENT IN RENEWABLE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Chernyak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contains results of studying experiences of the leading countries in renewable energy technologies’ development. The classification of renewable energy was presented. In this article we investigated modern trends and prospects of wind power, solar energy, hydropower, bioenergy and geothermal energy. Authors analyzed different national strategies for attracting investments in “green” energy. Rating of the 10 countries with the largest investments in alternative energy was presented. Authors researched investments in developed countries and developing countries, depending on the type of renewable energy. A model for research and forecasting of investment in renewable energy based on annual data for the period 1990-2012 years was built. In addition, authors used methods such as moving average, exponential smoothing, Holt- Winters method and different types of trends based on quarterly data for 2004-2014 years.

  14. Four Scenarios for Europe. Based on UNEP's third Global Environment Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkes, J.; Gaponenko, N.; Mnatsakanian, R.

    2003-01-01

    The third Global Environment Outlook (GEO-3) was published on the eve of the Johannesburg summit (autumn 2002). GEO-3 looked back thirty years and forward thirty years. A set of what-if scenarios was used to explore the ways our society can advance, including implications for environmental and social goals. Characteristically, GEO-3 examines in a relatively deep fashion how its global scenarios can be interpreted in the context of each of the world's regions. This brochure presents the pan-European elaboration of the four GEO-3 scenarios. It focusses on the scenarios proper and their impacts in environmental terms. The scenarios are: The Markets First scenario envisages a world in which market-driven developments converge on the currently prevailing values and expectations in industrialized countries; In a Policy First world, strong actions are undertaken by governments in an attempt to achieve specific social and environmental goals; The Security First scenario assumes a world full of large disparities, where inequality and conflict, brought about by socio-economic and environmental stresses, prevail: and Sustainability First pictures a world in which a new development paradigm emerges in response to the challenge of sustainability supported by new, more equitable values and institutions. The second section describes 'the pan-European tale of the four futures' in a predominantly qualitative manner. Section 3 presents a regionally differentiated examination of the environmental implications of the scenarios. Details on input material, assumptions and methodologies applied, and actual results, can be found in Chapter 4 of GEO-3 'Outlook 2002-32' and in the Technical Background Report on GEO-3 Scenario Work

  15. Immigration: analysis, trends and outlook on the global research activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Matthias; Wanke, Eileen M; Ohlendorf, Daniela; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Braun, Markus; Bauer, Jan; Groneberg, David A; Quarcoo, David; Brüggmann, Dörthe

    2018-06-01

    Immigration has a strong impact on the development of health systems, medicine and science worldwide. Therefore, this article provides a descriptive study on the overall research output. Utilizing the scientific database Web of Science, data research was performed. The gathered bibliometric data was analyzed using the established platform NewQIS, a benchmarking system to visualize research quantity and quality indices. Between 1900 and 2016 a total of 6763 articles on immigration were retrieved and analyzed. 86 different countries participated in the publications. Quantitatively the United States followed by Canada and Spain were prominent regarding the article numbers. On comparing by additionally taking the population size into account, Israel followed by Sweden and Norway showed the highest performance. The main releasing journals are the Public Health Reports, the Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health and Social Science & Medicine. Over the decades, an increasing number of Public, Environmental & Occupational Health articles can be recognized which finally forms the mainly used subject area. Considerably increasing scientific work on immigration cannot only be explained by the general increase of scientific work but is also owed to the latest development with increased mobility, worldwide crises and the need of flight and migration. Especially countries with a good economic situation are highly affected by immigrants and prominent in their publication output on immigration, since the countries' publication effort is connected with the appointed expenditures for research and development. Remarkable numbers of immigrants throughout Europe compel medical professionals to consider neglected diseases, requires the public health system to restructure itself and finally promotes science.

  16. Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Institute for Global Change Research and Education (IGCRE) is a joint initiative of the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) for coordinating and facilitating research and education relevant to global environmental change. Created in 1992 with primary support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), IGCRE fosters participation by university, private sector and government scientists who seek to develop long-term collaborative research in global change science, focusing on the role of water and energy in the Earth's atmosphere and physical climate system. IGCRE is also chartered to address educational needs of Earth system and global change science, including the preparation of future scientists and training of primary and secondary education teachers.

  17. Global climate change and human health: Information needs, research priorities, and strategic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, M.P.; Kanciruk, P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); O' Hara, F.M. Jr. (O' Hara (Fred M., Jr.), Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The US Global Research Plan and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme were created to assess the effects of global climate change but have not been able to devote much attention to the consequences climate change will have on human health and welfare. Although researchers and policy makers recognize that climate change will have complex effects on resources, in general, the social and medical sciences have not received appropriate international attention under the banner of global change. To address this imbalance, the public health research community needs to launch a international coordinated effort so that the social and medical sciences are as fully represented as other scientific disciplines. This document discusses the information needs, research priorities and strategic considerations of the global change and its impact on human health.

  18. Enhancing atmospheric mercury research in China to improve the current understanding of the global mercury cycle: the need for urgent and closely coordinated efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei

    2012-06-05

    The current understanding of the global mercury (Hg) cycle remains uncertain because Hg behavior in the environment is very complicated. The special property of Hg causes the atmosphere to be the most important medium for worldwide dispersion and transformation. The source and fate of atmospheric Hg and its interaction with the surface environment are the essential topics in the global Hg cycle. Recent declining measurement trends of Hg in the atmosphere are in apparent conflict with the increasing trends in global anthropogenic Hg emissions. As the single largest country contributor of anthropogenic Hg emission, China's role in the global Hg cycle will become more and more important in the context of the decreasing man-made Hg emission from developed regions. However, much less Hg information in China is available. As a global pollutant which undergoes long-range transport and is persistence in the environment, increasing Hg knowledge in China could not only promote the Hg regulation in this country but also improve the understanding of the fundamental of the global Hg cycle and further push the abatement of this toxin on a global scale. Then the atmospheric Hg research in China may be a breakthrough for improving the current understanding of the global Hg cycle. However, due to the complex behavior of Hg in the atmosphere, a deeper understanding of the atmospheric Hg cycle in China needs greater cooperation across fields.

  19. Engineering and Implementing an Executive-Level Communication Plan in a Global Professional Environment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgette Lipman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication within organisations in a global environment requires effective internal and strategic planning at the executive level. Previous studies indicate that measurement is a key factor in assessing the needs and success of global communication within an organisation. Survey questions were used to measure satisfaction responses from 650 local and 110 global employees in a technology division of a large manufacturing company. In this case study, employees expressed the need to connect team members through face-to-face meetings, employee webcast meetings, web chat forums, and an updated employee networking site. The findings formed the foundations for recommendations for strategy, objectives, and tactics within the organisation.

  20. Global alignment, coordination and collaboration in perinatal research: the Global Obstetrics Network (GONet) Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Ben Willem; Ruifrok, Anneloes Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Large clinical studies provide information and insight that are used to develop clinical guidelines. In view of the large sample sizes needed, many researchers have initiated multicenter studies. In some situations, the activities of these groups have led to networks, through which multiple trials

  1. Researching the obesogenic urban food environment, its drivers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The result is an obesogenic (causing obesity) environment leading to a prevalence of ... The aim of this project is to draw on methods from nutritional epidemiology, data ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ...

  2. Remote Online Visualization Environment for Researchers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many scientists have the common need of visualizing data in a collaborative and interactive manner. In a modern environment, these data are often stored across a...

  3. The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Global Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucuras, Viorel; Gopalakrishnam, Ganesh; Wolf, J Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The study compared characteristics and outcomes in patients with solitary and bilateral kidneys who were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PCNL Global Study.......The study compared characteristics and outcomes in patients with solitary and bilateral kidneys who were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PCNL Global Study....

  4. Key Trends in the Development of Foreign Trade of France in the Global Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvirgzde Kateryna I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the nature and contemporary trends of foreign trade activity of France. In the process of evolutionary development of the economy of France in content, structure and directions of its foreign trade strategies occurred permanent modifications and transformations, resulting from the need to maintain optimal proportions between material, financial and human resources, production and consumption, commodity supply and purchasing power, as well as receipts and payments in the settlements with other countries. The article is concerned with an integrated analysis of progressive structural reforms in the economic system of France in the last decade, which led to fundamental changes in its foreign trade operations both in terms of monetary magnitude of export-import transactions and their product-species, geographical, institutional and regulatory structures. The nature, key indicators, trends and issues in the foreign trade strategy of France in the face of global volatility as well as ways for its improvement have been researched.

  5. Inequalities in global health inequalities research: A 50-year bibliometric analysis (1966-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericàs, Juan M.; Benach, Joan

    2018-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence shows that health inequalities exist between and within countries, and emphasis has been placed on strengthening the production and use of the global health inequalities research, so as to improve capacities to act. Yet, a comprehensive overview of this evidence base is still needed, to determine what is known about the global and historical scientific production on health inequalities to date, how is it distributed in terms of country income groups and world regions, how has it changed over time, and what international collaboration dynamics exist. Methods A comprehensive bibliometric analysis of the global scientific production on health inequalities, from 1966 to 2015, was conducted using Scopus database. The historical and global evolution of the study of health inequalities was considered, and through joinpoint regression analysis and visualisation network maps, the preceding questions were examined. Findings 159 countries (via authorship affiliation) contributed to this scientific production, three times as many countries than previously found. Scientific output on health inequalities has exponentially grown over the last five decades, with several marked shift points, and a visible country-income group affiliation gradient in the initiation and consistent publication frequency. Higher income countries, especially Anglo-Saxon and European countries, disproportionately dominate first and co-authorship, and are at the core of the global collaborative research networks, with the Global South on the periphery. However, several country anomalies exist that suggest that the causes of these research inequalities, and potential underlying dependencies, run deeper than simply differences in country income and language. Conclusions Whilst the global evidence base has expanded, Global North-South research gaps exist, persist and, in some cases, are widening. Greater understanding of the structural determinants of these research

  6. Being global in public health practice and research: complementary competencies are needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C; Davison, Colleen; Hanson, Lori; Jackson, Suzanne F; Page, Ashley; Lencuch, Raphael; Kakuma, Ritz

    2011-01-01

    Different sets of competencies in public health, global health and research have recently emerged, including the Core Competencies for Public Health in Canada (CCPHC). Within this context, we believe it is important to articulate competencies for globalhealth practitioners-educators and researchers that are in addition to those outlined in the CCPHC. In global health, we require knowledge and skills regarding: north-south power dynamics, linkages between local and global health problems, and the roles of international organizations. We must be able to work responsibly in low-resource settings, foster self-determination in a world rife with power differentials, and engage in dialogue with stakeholders globally. Skills in cross-cultural communication and the ability to critically self-reflect on one's own social location within the global context are essential. Those in global health must be committed to improving health equity through global systems changes and be willing to be mentored and to mentor others across borders. We call for dialogue on these competencies and for development of ways to assess both their demonstration in academic settings and their performance in global health practice and research.

  7. Yours, Mine and Ours: Theorizing the Global Articulation of Qualitative Research Methods and Academic Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan C. Taylor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two current forms of globalization are inherently interesting to academic qualitative researchers. The first is the globalization of qualitative research methods themselves. The second is the globalization of academic disciplines in which those methods are institutionalized as a valuable resource for professional practices of teaching and scholarly research. This essay argues that patterns in existing discussion of these two trends create an opportunity for innovative scholarship. That opportunity involves reflexively leveraging qualitative research methods to study the simultaneous negotiation by academic communities of both qualitative methods and their professional discipline. Five theories that serve to develop this opportunity are reviewed, focusing on their related benefits and limitations, and the specific research questions they yield. The essay concludes by synthesizing distinctive commitments of this proposed research program.

  8. Actualization of the PhD Students' Intercultural Research Competencies in Global Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Dailidiene

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available globalization is changing the qualitative characteristics of society, affecting both the life and mentality of people. In relevance to globalization, higher education is gaining new dimensions as well. Bologna and Lisbon documents guide and obligate each country to create integrated and harmonious international space of higher education in Europe. phd studies are considered as integral in the higher education structure; therefore, internationalization is a significant imperative for phd studies development. In the process of internationalization, the need for students’ intercultural competencies is widely recognized. Firstly, we suppose that the impact of globalization on internationalization still remains underestimated. Globalization makes internationalization not only more intense, but also qualitatively different. Secondly, there is a lack of systemic analysis on the development of intercultural research competencies in phd studies. We relate the need for intercultural research competencies to the following critical and rhetorical question: ‘Are today’s phd students ready to solve tomorrow’s global problems?’

  9. Exploring new ways of working using virtual research environments in library and information science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Lassi, Monica; Olson, Nasrine

    2009-01-01

    research environment (VRE) to facilitate the sharing of data collection instruments among students, researchers and professionals; new ways professionals and researchers can collaborate; collaborative decision making in the context of purchasing a library management system; and collaboration among LIS...

  10. Global Energy-Economy-Environment (E3) Scenarios to 2050 and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrattenholzer, L.

    2005-01-01

    The Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS) Program at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) develops policy-relevant global and world-regional energy perspectives. The basic premise of the ECS's research program is a global trend of d ecarbonization . Firstly, decarbonization includes a trend toward ever-greater efficiency, or ever less waste, in society's use of energy resources. Secondly, it includes a trend towards less carbon-intensive fossil fuels (e.g., from coal toward natural gas) and, further, to non-fossil fuels, especially renewable energy carriers. Technological change is generally regarded as one of the key drivers of sustained economic growth. Long-term energy scenarios developed at IIASA and elsewhere show that, depending on key assumptions on drivers such as population, economic growth and technological development, global energy development can be environmentally unsustainable. First, energy development might not lead to stabilizing greenhouse concentrations and might thus have significant negative impacts on the global climate. In addition, some, especially coal-intensive, scenarios might lead to levels of acid deposition at which significant damage to sensitive ecosystems is expected to occur in Europe and, even more so, in Asia. A continuation of the observed historical long-term trends of decarbonization, dematerialization, and energy efficiency improvements might therefore not be sufficient to achieve sustainable growth. Targeted technological development aiming at accelerating decarbonization, dematerialization, and/or efficiency improvement may be one of the most effective means for reconciling economic growth with global environmental objectives. This might require a step-up in investments in R and D and in the demonstration of technologies so as to stimulate both learning-by-searching and learning-by-doing. In this presentation, global E3 scenarios will be summarized in the following three groups: Non

  11. Impact of Domestic, Foreign, and Global Environments on International Business Decisions of Multinational Firms: A Systematic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal

    2017-01-01

    International business decisions to be taken by executive managers of multinational firms are becoming more challenging due to uncertainties in business environment which is due to fast changing and unpredictable domestic, foreign, and global environment for long term sustainability. Even though firms are cautious and take precautions while taking decisions on international investment for production and marketing, their sustainability for a long time in a given business is shaking due to cont...

  12. The Role of the JET Project in Global Fusion Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1983-01-01

    The aim of nuclear fusion research is to make fusion energy available as a new energy source. Fusion processes occur naturally in the sun, where hydrogen nuclei release energy by combining to form helium. A fusion reactor on earth will require even higher temperatures than in the interior...... of the sun, and it will be based on deuterium and tritium reactions. JET (Joint European Torus) is a major fusion experiment now under construction near Abingdon in the UK It is aimed at producing conditions approximating those necessary in a fusion reactor. The results expected from JET should permit...... a realistic evaluation of the prospects for fusion power and serve as a basis for the design of the next major fusion experiment....

  13. Trend of laser research developments in global level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnabi, H.; Mahdieh, M. H.

    2006-03-01

    An up-to-date progress of the international laser research and development is given in this article. The number of scientific publications and filed patents are considered as a figure of merit and based on these numbers the growth pace and important aspects are investigated. We have used the Science Finder Scholar search engine, which indexes more than 4000 journals, in different languages, and represents most significant published materials in laser science and engineering. The growth of the laser and related fields are described in terms of resulting scientific publications for the period of 1990-2003. The share of top nations in scientific publications, and in particular laser publications in terms of their gross domestic product (GDP) is presented. It is noted that the four countries including the USA, Japan, Germany and China have a laser publication contribution of 58.9% while the rest of the world including 189 countries contribute 41.1%. However, for the case of patent, which is a more important factor, these four countries hold a share of 90.1% while the remaining nations have a small share of 9.9%. The USA heads all the nations in the number of scientific publications, citations, and laser publications, however, in terms of accepted laser patents Japan shows a big lead. Scientific scopes of the laser systems are presented and some requirements to be met in each field are described. The key points in this field of research, which might be helpful in the future development of the laser technology are discussed.

  14. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark ADAMS

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS. The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains on-board satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC Weather Office for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE. The goal of the GEMSTONE project was to build and field-test a small system of prototype probes in the Earth’s atmosphere. This paper summarizes the 9-month GEMSTONE project (Sep 2006 – May 2007 including probe and system engineering as well as experiment design and data analysis from laboratory and field tests. These tests revealed issues with reliability, sensor accuracy, electronics miniaturization, and sub-system optimization. Nevertheless, the success of the third and final free flight test provides a solid foundation to move forward in follow on projects addressing these issues as highlighted in the technology roadmap for future GEMS development.

  15. Teaching about the Global Environment at a Jesuit Liberal Arts University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching about global environmental issues is often reserved to courses in environmental and/or geoscience departments. Universities that do not have departments that fall into these categories may be missing out on educating both science and non-science students about these important and timely issues. Loyola University Maryland is a private Jesuit liberal arts University with no environmental or geoscience department and prior to 2008 had no courses that focused on the science of global environmental issues. Global Environment in a course offered by the Chemistry Department that fills this niche. The course is designed for a general non-science audience, though the course content is also appropriate for science students. The primary goal of the course is for students to learn the basics about how the Earth system works and how our changing climate is related to biodiversity, pollution, water availability and society. The course is designated a diversity course which is a course that fulfills the University's call "to prepare students … to pursue justice by making an action-oriented response to the needs of the world." All students at Loyola University Maryland are required to take one diversity course. For this class, the diversity focus is environmental justice which is brought into the course through lectures, discussions and student projects. By bringing societal impacts into a science course the students can better understand why the environment is important and our actions affect both ourselves and others. The course has also evolved over four iterations into a course that maximizes student involvement while minimizing student angst. One way that this is accomplished is by eliminating tests and substituting daily quizzes using a student response system (clickers). Clickers are also used to poll students and to review what information the students are retaining. Students are able to self-guide their own learning in the course by creating a portfolio

  16. Environment exploration and SLAM experiment research based on ROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhize; Zheng, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Robots need to get the information of surrounding environment by means of map learning. SLAM or navigation based on mobile robots is developing rapidly. ROS (Robot Operating System) is widely used in the field of robots because of the convenient code reuse and open source. Numerous excellent algorithms of SLAM or navigation are ported to ROS package. hector_slam is one of them that can set up occupancy grid maps on-line fast with low computation resources requiring. Its characters above make the embedded handheld mapping system possible. Similarly, hector_navigation also does well in the navigation field. It can finish path planning and environment exploration by itself using only an environmental sensor. Combining hector_navigation with hector_slam can realize low cost environment exploration, path planning and slam at the same time

  17. Data publication activities in the Natural Environment Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, A.; Callaghan, S.; Lowry, R.; Moncoiffé, G.; Donnegan, S.; Pepler, S.; Cunningham, N.; Kirsch, P.; Ault, L.; Bell, P.; Bowie, R.; Harrison, K.; Smith-Haddon, B.; Wetherby, A.; Wright, D.; Thorley, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) is implementing its Science Information Strategy in order to provide a world class service to deliver integrated data for earth system science. One project within this strategy is Data Citation and Publication, which aims to put the promotion and recognition stages of the data lifecycle into place alongside the traditional data management activities of NERC's Environmental Data Centres (EDCs). The NERC EDCs have made a distinction between the serving of data and its publication. Data serving is defined in this case as the day-to-day data management tasks of: • acquiring data and metadata from the originating scientists; • metadata and format harmonisation prior to database ingestion; • ensuring the metadata is adequate and accurate and that the data are available in appropriate file formats; • and making the data available for interested parties. Whereas publication: • requires the assignment of a digital object identifier to a dataset which guarantees that an EDC has assessed the quality of the metadata and the file format and will maintain an unchanged version of the data for the foreseeable future • requires the peer-review of the scientific quality of the data by a scientist with knowledge of the scientific domain in which the data were collected, using a framework for peer-review of datasets such as that developed by the CLADDIER project. • requires collaboration with journal publishers who have access to a well established peer-review system The first of these requirements can be managed in-house by the EDCs, while the remainder require collaboration with the wider scientific and publishing communities. It is anticipated that a scientist may achieve a lower level of academic credit for a dataset which is assigned a DOI but does not follow through to the scientific peer-review stage, similar to publication in a report or other non-peer reviewed publication normally described as grey literature, or

  18. FZR annual report 2003: Research for men and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: A multi-purpose experimental facility for the model development of two-phase flows, the first nuclear-physics experiments with bremsstrahlung at the ELBE accelerator, the molecular mechanisms of vision and general principles of the cellular signal processing, colloids in environment, protein oxidation and sickness, nondestructive study on glass pretiosa using proton beams. (HSI)

  19. Influences of Creative Personality and Working Environment on the Research Productivity of Business School Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihwan; Choi, Suk Bong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on creative working environments has focused on business organizations. This study examined the influence of creative personality and creative working environment on the research productivity of business faculty. It was hypothesized that creative personality, family support, colleague support, research resources, and workload…

  20. Research to protect, restore, and manage the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Environmental Research, National Research Council

    This book assesses the strengths and weaknesses of current environmental research programs, describes the desirable characteristics of an effective program, and recommends cultural and organizational...