WorldWideScience

Sample records for global quark polarization

  1. Globally Polarized Quark-gluon Plasma in Non-central A+ACollisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zuo-tang; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2004-10-01

    Produced partons have large local relative orbital angular momentum along the direction opposite to the reaction plane in the early stage of non-central heavy-ion collisions. Parton scattering is shown to polarize quarks along the same direction due to spin-orbital coupling.Such global quark polarization will lead to many observable consequences,such as left-right asymmetry of hadron spectra, global transverse polarization of thermal photons, dileptons and hadrons. Hadrons from the decay of polarized resonances will have azimuthal asymmetry similar to the elliptic flow. Global hyperon polarization is predicted with indifferent hadronization scenarios and can be easily tested.

  2. Global quark polarization in non-central A+A collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jian-Hua; Chen, Shou-Wan; Deng, Wei-tian; Tang, Zuo-Tang; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2007-10-12

    Partons produced in the early stage of non-central heavy-ioncollisionscan develop a longitudinal fluid shear because of unequal localnumber densities of participant target and projectile nucleons. Undersuch fluid shear, local parton pairs with non-vanishing impact parameterhave finite local relative orbital angular momentum along the directionopposite to the reaction plane. Such finite relative orbitalangularmomentum among locally interacting quark pairs can lead to global quarkpolarization along the same direction due to spin-orbital coupling. Locallongitudinal fluid shear is estimated within both Landau fireball andBjorken scaling model of initial parton production. Quark polarizationthrough quark-quark scatterings with the exchange of a thermal gluon iscalculated beyond small-angle scattering approximation in a quark-gluonplasma. The polarization is shown to have a non-monotonic dependence onthe local relative orbital angular momentum dictated by the interplaybetween electric and magnetic interaction. It peaks at a value ofrelative orbital angular momentum which scales with the magnetic mass ofthe exchanged gluons. With the estimated small longitudinal fluid shearin semi-peripheral Au+Au collisions at the RHIC energy, the final quarkpolarization is found to be small left hbar P_q right hbar<0.04 inthe weak coupling limit. Possible behavior of the quark polarization inthe strong coupling limit and implications on the experimental detectionof such global quark polarization at RHIC and LHC are alsodiscussed.

  3. Quark and pion effective couplings from polarization effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braghin, Fabio L. [Federal University of Goias, Instituto de Fisica, Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    A flavor SU(2) effective model for pions and quarks is derived by considering polarization effects departing from the usual quark-quark effective interaction induced by dressed gluon exchange, i.e. a global color model for QCD. For that, the quark field is decomposed into a component that yields light mesons and the quark-antiquark condensate, being integrated out by means of the auxiliary field method, and another component which yields constituent quarks, which is basically a background quark field. Within a long-wavelength and weak quark field expansion (or large quark effective mass expansion) of a quark determinant, the leading terms are found up to the second order in a zero-order derivative expansion, by neglecting vector mesons that are considerably heavier than the pion. Pions are considered in the structureless limit and, besides the chiral invariant terms that reproduce previously derived expressions, symmetry breaking terms are also presented. The leading chiral quark-quark effective couplings are also found corresponding to a NJL and a vector-NJL couplings. All the resulting effective coupling constants and parameters are expressed in terms of the current and constituent quark masses and of the coupling g. (orig.)

  4. Polarized hyperons probe dynamics of quark spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel S. Carman; T. S. Harry Lee; Mac Mestayer; Reinhard Schumacher

    2007-01-01

    Researchers at Jefferson Laboratory demonstrate how two analyses of the same data provide two plausible models of spin transfer in exclusive hyperon production, yielding quite different pictures of quark spin dynamics and challenging existing theories

  5. Hadron energy spectrum in polarized top-quark decays considering the effects of hadron and bottom quark masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, S.M.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O.Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Balali, Mahboobe [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    We present the analytical expressions for the next-to-leading order corrections to the partial decay width t(↑) → bW{sup +}, followed by b @→ H{sub b}X, for nonzero b-quark mass (m{sub b} ≠ 0) in the fixed-flavor-number scheme (FFNs). To make the predictions for the energy distribution of outgoing hadrons H{sub b}, as a function of the normalized H{sub b}-energy fraction x{sub H}, we apply the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme (GM-VFNs) in a specific helicity coordinate system where the polarization of top quark is evaluated relative to the b-quark momentum. We also study the effects of gluon fragmentation and finite hadron mass on the hadron energy spectrum so that hadron masses are responsible for the low x{sub H} threshold. In order to describe both the b-quark and the gluon hadronizations in top decays we apply realistic and nonperturbative fragmentation functions extracted through a global fit to the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC by relying on their universality and scaling violations. (orig.)

  6. Dihadron fragmentation functions in the quark-jet model: Transversely polarized quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Kotzinian, Aram; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2018-01-01

    Within the most recent extension of the quark-jet hadronization framework, we explore the transverse-polarization-dependent dihadron fragmentation functions (DiFFs) H1∢ and H1⊥ of a quark into π+π- pairs. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are employed to model polarized quark hadronization and calculate the corresponding number densities. These, in turn, are used to extract the Fourier cosine moments of the DiFFs H1∢ and H1⊥. A notable finding is that there are previously unnoticed apparent discrepancies between the definitions of the so-called interference DiFF (IFF) H1∢ , entering the cross sections for two-hadron semi-inclusive electroproduction, and those involved in the production of two pairs of hadrons from back-to-back jets in electron-positron annihilation. This manuscript completes the studies of all four leading-twist DiFFs for unpolarized hadron pairs within the quark-jet framework, following our previous work on the helicity-dependent DiFF G1⊥.

  7. Measurement of W Boson Polarization in Top Quark Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickey, Trevor Neil [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2004-01-01

    A measurement of the polarization of the W boson from top quark decay is an excellent test of the V-A form of the charged-current weak interaction in the standard model. Since the longitudinal W boson is intimately related to the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism, and the standard model gives a specific prediction for the fraction of longitudinal W bosons from top decays, it is of particular interest for study. This thesis presents a measurement of W boson polarization in top quark decays through an analysis of the cosθ* distribution in the lepton-plus-jets channel of t$\\bar{t}$ candidate events from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV. This measurement uses an integrated luminosity of ~ 162 pb-1 of data collected with the CDF Run II detector, resulting in 31 t$\\bar{t}$ candidate events with at least one identified b jet. Using a binned likelihood fit to the cosθ* distribution from the t$\\bar{t}$ candidate events found in this sample, the fraction of W bosons with longitudinal polarization is determined to be F0 = 0.99$+0.29\\atop{-0.35}$stat.) ± 0.19(syst.), F0 > 0.33 @ 95% CL. This result is consistent with the standard model prediction, given a top quark mass of 174.3 GeV/c2, of F0 = 0.701 ± 0.012.

  8. Measuring top-quark polarization in top-pair + missing-energy events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Edmond L; Cao, Qing-Hong; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2012-10-12

    The polarization of a top quark can be sensitive to new physics beyond the standard model. Since the charged lepton from top-quark decay is maximally correlated with the top-quark spin, it is common to measure the polarization from the distribution in the angle between the charged lepton and the top-quark directions. We propose a novel method based on the charged lepton energy fraction and illustrate the method with a detailed simulation of top-quark pairs produced in supersymmetric top squark pair production. We show that the lepton energy ratio distribution that we define is very sensitive to the top-quark polarization but insensitive to the precise measurement of the top-quark energy.

  9. Global Λ hyperon polarization in nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Behera, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Brown, D.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; de La Barca Sánchez, M. Calderón; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chankova-Bunzarova, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; de Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elsey, N.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Ewigleben, J.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Federicova, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Harlenderova, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, P.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Kocmanek, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulathunga, N.; Kumar, L.; Kvapil, J.; Kwasizur, J. H.; Lacey, R.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Lidrych, J.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, H.; Liu, P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Mallick, D.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nie, M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Saur, M.; Schambach, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Schweid, B. R.; Seger, J.; Sergeeva, M.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zyzak, M.

    2017-08-01

    The extreme energy densities generated by ultra-relativistic collisions between heavy atomic nuclei produce a state of matter that behaves surprisingly like a fluid, with exceptionally high temperature and low viscosity. Non-central collisions have angular momenta of the order of 1,000ћ, and the resulting fluid may have a strong vortical structure that must be understood to describe the fluid properly. The vortical structure is also of particular interest because the restoration of fundamental symmetries of quantum chromodynamics is expected to produce novel physical effects in the presence of strong vorticity. However, no experimental indications of fluid vorticity in heavy ion collisions have yet been found. Since vorticity represents a local rotational structure of the fluid, spin-orbit coupling can lead to preferential orientation of particle spins along the direction of rotation. Here we present measurements of an alignment between the global angular momentum of a non-central collision and the spin of emitted particles (in this case the collision occurs between gold nuclei and produces Λ baryons), revealing that the fluid produced in heavy ion collisions is the most vortical system so far observed. (At high energies, this fluid is a quark-gluon plasma.) We find that Λ and hyperons show a positive polarization of the order of a few per cent, consistent with some hydrodynamic predictions. (A hyperon is a particle composed of three quarks, at least one of which is a strange quark; the remainder are up and down quarks, found in protons and neutrons.) A previous measurement that reported a null result, that is, zero polarization, at higher collision energies is seen to be consistent with the trend of our observations, though with larger statistical uncertainties. These data provide experimental access to the vortical structure of the nearly ideal liquid created in a heavy ion collision and should prove valuable in the development of hydrodynamic models that

  10. Global constraints on top quark anomalous couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déliot, Frédéric; Faria, Ricardo; Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Lagarelhos, Pedro; Onofre, António; Pease, Christopher M.; Vasconcelos, Ana

    2018-01-01

    The latest results on top quark physics, namely single top quark production cross sections, W -boson helicity and asymmetry measurements are used to probe the Lorentz structure of the W t b vertex. The increase of sensitivity to new anomalous physics contributions to the top quark sector of the standard model is quantified by combining the relevant results from Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider. The results show that combining an increasing set of available precision measurements in the search for new physics phenomena beyond the standard model leads to significant sensitivity improvements, especially when compared with the current expectation for the High Luminosity run at the LHC.

  11. Self-energy-part resummed quark and gluon propagators in a spin-polarized quark matter and generalized Boltzmann equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niegawa, A.

    2003-01-01

    We construct perturbative frameworks for studying nonequilibrium spin-polarized quark matter. We employ the closed-time-path formalism and use the gradient approximation in derivative expansion. After constructing self-energy-part resummed quark and gluon propagators, we formulate two kinds of mutually equivalent perturbative frameworks: The first one is formulated on the basis of the initial-particle distribution function, and the second one is formulated on the basis of a 'physical' particle distribution function. In the course of the construction of the second framework, the generalized Boltzmann equations and their relatives directly come out, which describe the evolution of the system. The frameworks are relevant to the study of a magnetic character of quark matter, e.g., possible quark stars

  12. Measurement of the polarization of strange quarks in the nucleon and determination of quark fragmentation functions into hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makke, N.

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the nucleon structure is currently one of the main challenges encountered in nuclear physics. The present work represents a contribution to the study of the nucleon structure and deals, in particular, with the study of the role of strange quarks in the nucleon. The latter can be investigated by determining the strange quark distribution in the nucleon as well as the contribution of the spins of strange quarks to the nucleon spin. This work first presents a measurement of the nucleon spin performed via Deeply Inelastic Scattering (DIS) of a muon beam off polarized proton and deuterium targets. The result is found to be strongly dependent on the quark fragmentation functions into hadrons (FFs), which define the probability that a quark of a given flavour fragments into a final state hadron. The FFs are poorly known, in particular, the FF of strange quark into kaons, which play an important role in the determination of the nucleon spin. In deep inelastic scattering process, the access to the FFs is provided by the hadron multiplicities which, in turn, define the average number of hadrons produced per DIS event. Pion and kaon multiplicities have been extracted versus different kinematic variables, using DIS data collected by deeply inelastic scattering of a 160 GeV/c muons off a deuterium target. A first Leading Order (LO) extraction of the fragmentation functions has then been performed using the measured pion and kaon multiplicities. (author)

  13. What Can the Polarization Puzzle in Brightarrow Phi K* Tell Us About the Fourth Quark Generation and Vector Quark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmady, M. R.; Behzadi, F.; Falahati, F.; Zebarjad, S. M.

    2009-10-01

    We investigate the effect of an additional generation of ordinary quarks and vector quarks on longitudinal and transverse amplitudes associated with the exclusive B0to Phi K* decays. We perform \\chi 2 fits to the experimental data with respect to these two model parameters. Even though distinct minima (\\chi 20) are observed but \\chi 20 /d.o.f. values much larger than one indicates that such a constrained extension of the standard model cannot resolve the polarization puzzle in the B0to Phi K* decay mode.

  14. Interplay between spin polarization and color superconductivity in high density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2013-01-01

    Here, it is suggested that a four-point interaction of the tensor type may lead to spin polarization in quark matter at high density. It is found that the two-flavor superconducting phase and the spin polarized phase correspond to distinct local minima of a certain generalized thermodynamical...... potential. It follows that a transition from one to the other phase occurs, passing through true minima with both a spin polarization and a color superconducting gap. It is shown that the quark spin polarized phase is realized at rather high density, while the two-flavor color superconducting phase...

  15. Polarized heavy baryon production in quark-diquark model considering two different scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, S.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Delpasand, M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    At sufficiently large transverse momentum, the dominant production mechanism for heavy baryons is actually the fragmentation. In this work, we first study the direct fragmentation of a heavy quark into the unpolarized triply heavy baryons in the leading order of perturbative QCD. In a completely different approach, we also analyze the two-stage fragmentation of a heavy quark into a scalar diquark followed by the fragmentation of such a scalar diquark into a triply heavy baryon: quark-diquark model of baryons. The results of this model are in acceptable agreement with those obtained through a full perturbative regime. Relying on the quark-diquark model and considering two different scenarios we determine the spin-dependent fragmentation functions of polarized heavy baryons in such a way that a vector or a pseudoscalar heavy diquark is an intermediate particle between the initial heavy quark and the final state baryon. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of top quark polarization in $t \\overline{t}$ lepton+jets final states

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Agnew, James P; Alexeev, Guennadi D; Alkhazov, Georgiy D; Alton, Andrew K; Askew, Andrew Warren; Atkins, Scott; Augsten, Kamil; Aushev, Volodymyr; Aushev, Yegor; Avila, Carlos A; Badaud, Frederique; Bagby, Linda F; Baldin, Boris; Bandurin, Dmitry V; Banerjee, Sunanda; Barberis, Emanuela; Baringer, Philip S; Bartlett, JFrederick; Bassler, Ursula Rita; Bazterra, Victor; Bean, Alice L; Begalli, Marcia; Bellantoni, Leo; Beri, Suman B; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernhard, Ralf Patrick; Bertram, Iain A; Besancon, Marc; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bhatia, Sudeep; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Blazey, Gerald Charles; Blessing, Susan K; Bloom, Kenneth A; Boehnlein, Amber S; Boline, Daniel Dooley; Boos, Edward E; Borissov, Guennadi; Borysova, Maryna; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Oleg; Brochmann, Michelle; Brock, Raymond L; Bross, Alan D; Brown, Duncan Paul; Bu, Xue-Bing; Buehler, Marc; Buescher, Volker; Bunichev, Viacheslav Yevgenyevich; Burdin, Sergey; Buszello, Claus Peter; Camacho-Perez, Enrique; Casey, Brendan Cameron Kieran; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; Caughron, Seth Aaron; Chakrabarti, Subhendu; Chan, Kwok Ming Leo; Chandra, Avdhesh; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Guo; Cho, Sung-Woong; Choi, Suyong; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cihangir, Selcuk; Claes, Daniel R; Clutter, Justace Randall; Cooke, Michael P; Cooper, William Edward; Corcoran, Marjorie D; Couderc, Fabrice; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Cuth, Jakub; Cutts, David; Das, Amitabha; Davies, Gavin John; de Jong, Sijbrand Jan; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Deliot, Frederic; Demina, Regina; Denisov, Dmitri S; Denisov, Sergei P; Desai, Satish Vijay; Deterre, Cecile; DeVaughan, Kayle Otis; Diehl, HThomas; Diesburg, Michael; Ding, Pengfei; Dominguez, DAaron M; Dubey, Abhinav Kumar; Dudko, Lev V; Duperrin, Arnaud; Dutt, Suneel; Eads, Michael T; Edmunds, Daniel L; Ellison, John A; Elvira, VDaniel; Enari, Yuji; Evans, Harold G; Evdokimov, Anatoly V; Evdokimov, Valeri N; Faure, Alexandre; Feng, Lei; Ferbel, Thomas; Fiedler, Frank; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fisk, HEugene; Fortner, Michael R; Fox, Harald; Franc, Jiri; Fuess, Stuart C; Garbincius, Peter H; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Garcia-Gonzalez, Jose Andres; Gavrilov, Vladimir B; Geng, Weigang; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Gershtein, Yuri S; Ginther, George E; Gogota, Olga; Golovanov, Georgy Anatolievich; Grannis, Paul D; Greder, Sebastien; Greenlee, Herbert B; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Gris, Phillipe Luc; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gruenendahl, Stefan; Gruenewald, Martin Werner; Guillemin, Thibault; Gutierrez, Gaston R; Gutierrez, Phillip; Haley, Joseph Glenn Biddle; Han, Liang; Harder, Kristian; Harel, Amnon; Hauptman, John Michael; Hays, Jonathan M; Head, Tim; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hedin, David R; Hegab, Hatim; Heinson, Ann; Heintz, Ulrich; Hensel, Carsten; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Herner, Kenneth Richard; Hesketh, Gavin G; Hildreth, Michael D; Hirosky, Robert James; Hoang, Trang; Hobbs, John D; Hoeneisen, Bruce; Hogan, Julie; Hohlfeld, Mark; Holzbauer, Jenny Lyn; Howley, Ian James; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hynek, Vlastislav; Iashvili, Ia; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Illingworth, Robert A; Ito, Albert S; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jaffre, Michel J; Jayasinghe, Ayesh; Jeong, Min-Soo; Jesik, Richard L; Jiang, Peng; Johns, Kenneth Arthur; Johnson, Emily; Johnson, Marvin E; Jonckheere, Alan M; Jonsson, Per Martin; Joshi, Jyoti; Jung, Andreas Werner; Juste, Aurelio; Kajfasz, Eric; Karmanov, Dmitriy Y; Katsanos, Ioannis; Kaur, Manbir; Kehoe, Robert Leo Patrick; Kermiche, Smain; Khalatyan, Norayr; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchilava, Avto; Kharzheev, Yuri N; Kiselevich, Ivan Lvovich; Kohli, Jatinder M; Kozelov, Alexander V; Kraus, James Alexander; Kumar, Ashish; Kupco, Alexander; Kurca, Tibor; Kuzmin, Valentin Alexandrovich; Lammers, Sabine Wedam; Lebrun, Patrice; Lee, Hyeon-Seung; Lee, Seh-Wook; Lee, William M; Lei, Xiaowen; Lellouch, Jeremie; Li, Dikai; Li, Hengne; Li, Liang; Li, Qi-Zhong; Lim, Jeong Ku; Lincoln, Donald W; Linnemann, James Thomas; Lipaev, Vladimir V; Lipton, Ronald J; Liu, Huanzhao; Liu, Yanwen; Lobodenko, Alexandre; Lokajicek, Milos; Lopes de Sa, Rafael; Luna-Garcia, Rene; Lyon, Adam Leonard; Maciel, Arthur KA; Madar, Romain; Magana-Villalba, Ricardo; Malik, Sudhir; Malyshev, Vladimir L; Mansour, Jason; Martinez-Ortega, Jorge; McCarthy, Robert L; Mcgivern, Carrie Lynne; Meijer, Melvin M; Melnitchouk, Alexander S; Menezes, Diego D; Mercadante, Pedro Galli; Merkin, Mikhail M; Meyer, Arnd; Meyer, Jorg Manfred; Miconi, Florian; Mondal, Naba K; Mulhearn, Michael James; Nagy, Elemer; Narain, Meenakshi; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer A; Negret, Juan Pablo; Neustroev, Petr V; Nguyen, Huong Thi; Nunnemann, Thomas P; Hernandez Orduna, Jose de Jesus; Osman, Nicolas Ahmed; Pal, Arnab; Parashar, Neeti; Parihar, Vivek; Park, Sung Keun; Partridge, Richard A; Parua, Nirmalya; Patwa, Abid; Penning, Bjoern; Perfilov, Maxim Anatolyevich; Peters, Reinhild Yvonne Fatima; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrillo, Gianluca; Petroff, Pierre; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Podstavkov, Vladimir M; Popov, Alexey V; Prewitt, Michelle; Price, Darren; Prokopenko, Nikolay N; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quinn, Gene Breese; Ratoff, Peter N; Razumov, Ivan A; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rominsky, Mandy Kathleen; Ross, Anthony; Royon, Christophe; Rubinov, Paul Michael; Ruchti, Randal C; Sajot, Gerard; Sanchez-Hernandez, Alberto; Sanders, Michiel P; Santos, Angelo Souza; Savage, David G; Savitskyi, Mykola; Sawyer, HLee; Scanlon, Timothy P; Schamberger, RDean; Scheglov, Yury A; Schellman, Heidi M; Schott, Matthias; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwienhorst, Reinhard H; Sekaric, Jadranka; Severini, Horst; Shabalina, Elizaveta K; Shary, Viacheslav V; Shaw, Savanna; Shchukin, Andrey A; Simak, Vladislav J; Skubic, Patrick Louis; Slattery, Paul F; Snow, Gregory R; Snow, Joel Mark; Snyder, Scott Stuart; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Sonnenschein, Lars; Soustruznik, Karel; Stark, Jan; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Stoyanova, Dina A; Strauss, Michael G; Suter, Louise; Svoisky, Peter V; Titov, Maxim; Tokmenin, Valeriy V; Tsai, Yun-Tse; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tuchming, Boris; Tully, Christopher George T; Uvarov, Lev; Uvarov, Sergey L; Uzunyan, Sergey A; Van Kooten, Richard J; van Leeuwen, Willem M; Varelas, Nikos; Varnes, Erich W; Vasilyev, Igor A; Verkheev, Alexander Yurievich; Vertogradov, Leonid S; Verzocchi, Marco; Vesterinen, Mika; Vilanova, Didier; Vokac, Petr; Wahl, Horst D; Wang, Michael HLS; Warchol, Jadwiga; Watts, Gordon Thomas; Wayne, Mitchell R; Weichert, Jonas; Welty-Rieger, Leah Christine; Williams, Mark Richard James; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Wobisch, Markus; Wood, Darien Robert; Wyatt, Terence R; Xie, Yunhe; Yamada, Ryuji; Yang, Siqi; Yasuda, Takahiro; Yatsunenko, Yuriy A; Ye, Wanyu; Ye, Zhenyu; Yin, Hang; Yip, Kin; Youn, Sungwoo; Yu, Jiaming; Zennamo, Joseph; Zhao, Tianqi Gilbert; Zhou, Bing; Zhu, Junjie; Zielinski, Marek; Zieminska, Daria; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2017-01-09

    We present a study of top quark polarization in $t \\overline{t}$ events produced in $p \\overline{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV. Data correspond to 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the D0 detector at the Tevatron. We use final states containing a lepton and at least three jets. The polarization is measured using the distribution of leptons along the beam and helicity axes, and the axis normal to the production plane. This is the first measurement of top quark polarization at the Tevatron in $\\ell$+jets final states, and first measurement of transverse polarization in $t \\overline{t}$ production. The observed distributions are consistent with the standard model.

  17. Spin-polarized versus chiral condensate in quark matter at finite temperature and density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providencia, Joao

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the spin-polarized condensate appears in quark matter at high baryon density and low temperature due to the tensor-type four-point interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasiniotype model as a low-energy effective theory of quantum chromodynamics. It is indicated within this low...

  18. The hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the muon g - 2 in the quark-resonance model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallante, E.

    1994-01-01

    The hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is parametrized by using the quark-resonance model formulated elsewhere. In this context a recent prediction obtained within the ENJL model can be affected by two additional contributions: the next to leading

  19. Measurement of top quark polarization in top-antitop lepton+jets final states at DØ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Kamil [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the top quark polarization in the $t\\overline{t}$ events produced in $p\\overline{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV using data corresponding to 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The final states used in the measurement contain one lepton and at least three jets. The polarization is measured using the angular distribution of leptons along three different axes: the beam axis, the helicity axis, and the transverse axis normal to the $t\\overline{t}$ production plane. This is the first measurement of top quark polarization at the Tevatron Collider in lepton+jets final states, and the first measurement of transverse polarization in $t\\overline{t}$ production. The polarization along the beam axis is combined with the previous result in the dilepton final states by the D0 experiment. The observed distributions are consistent with the Standard Model of nearly no polarization and no indication for beyond Standard Model physics is observed. The measurement offers legacy result from unique Tevatron Collider data and provides more information about the top quark production and decays, about the properties of the heaviest elementary particle.

  20. Measurement of the W boson polarization in top quark decays with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; 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Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; 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Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; 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Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Plotnikova, Elena; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; 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Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schöning, André; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; 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Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; 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Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of the polarization of W bosons in top quark decays, derived from ttbar events with missing transverse momentum, one charged lepton and at least four jets, or two charged leptons and at least two jets. Data from pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV were collected with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1.04 fb^-1. The measured fractions of longitudinally, left- and right-handed polarization are F_0=0.67+/-0.07, F_L=0.32+/-0.04 and F_R=0.01+/-0.05, in agreement with the Standard Model predictions. As the polarization of the W bosons in top quark decays is sensitive to the Wtb vertex Lorentz structure and couplings, the measurements were used to set limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb couplings.

  1. Spin polarization versus color–flavor locking in high-density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that spin polarization with respect to each flavor in three-flavor quark matter occurs instead of color–flavor locking at high baryon density by using the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model with four-point tensor-type interaction. Also, it is indicated that the order of phase transition between...... the color–flavor-locked phase and the spin-polarized phase is the first order by means of second-order perturbation theory.......It is shown that spin polarization with respect to each flavor in three-flavor quark matter occurs instead of color–flavor locking at high baryon density by using the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model with four-point tensor-type interaction. Also, it is indicated that the order of phase transition between...

  2. Measurement of the $t\\bar{t}$ spin correlations and top quark polarization in dileptonic channel

    CERN Document Server

    Khatiwada, Ajeeta

    2017-01-01

    The degree of top polarization and strength of $t\\bar{t}$ correlation are dependent on production dynamics, decay mechanism, and choice of the observables. At the LHC, measurement of the top polarization and spin correlations in $t\\bar{t}$ production is possible through various observables related to the angular distribution of decay leptons. A measurement of differential distribution provides a precision test of the standard model of particle physics and probes for deviations, which could be a sign of new physics. In particular, the phase space for the super-symmetric partner of the top quark can be constrained. Results from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) collaboration for top quark polarization and spin correlation in the dileptonic channel are reviewed briefly in this proceeding. The measurements are obtained using 19.5 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected in pp collisions at the center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV.

  3. Amy Quark: Global Rivalries: Standards Wars and the Transnational Cotton Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: Amy Quark, 2013, Global Rivalries: Standards Wars and the Transnational Cotton Trade, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 282 pages, ISBN 978-0226050676 Paper ($24,50),......Book review of: Amy Quark, 2013, Global Rivalries: Standards Wars and the Transnational Cotton Trade, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 282 pages, ISBN 978-0226050676 Paper ($24,50),...

  4. Measurement of the W boson polarization in top quark decays with the ATLAS detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Gallus, Petr; Gunther, Jaroslav; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Juránek, Vojtěch; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Valenta, J.; Vrba, Václav; Zeman, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 6 (2012), s. 1-45 ISSN 1126-6708 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * LHC * top quark * W boson polarization * anomalous W tb couplings Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.618, year: 2012 http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1205.2484

  5. The polarized structure function of the nucleons with a non-extensive statistical quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, Luis A. [Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84010-790, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Mirez, Carlos [Instituto de Ciencia, Engenharia e Tecnologia - ICET, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri - UFVJM, Campus do Mucuri, Rua do Cruzeiro 01, Jardim Sao Paulo, 39803-371, Teofilo Otoni, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    We studied an application of nonextensive thermodynamics to describe the polarized structure function of nucleon, in a model where the usual Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein energy distribution, often used in the statistical models, were replaced by the equivalent functions of the q-statistical. The parameters of the model are given by an effective temperature T, the q parameter (from Tsallis statistics), and the chemical potentials given by the corresponding up (u) and down (d) quark normalization in the nucleon and by {Delta}u and {Delta}d of the polarized functions.

  6. A first unbiased global determination of polarized PDFs and their uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Nocera, Emanuele R.; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    We present a first global determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions (PDFs) and their uncertainties using the NNPDF methodology: NNPDFpol1.1. Longitudinally polarized deep-inelastic scattering data, already used for the previous NNPDFpol1.0 PDF set, are supplemented with the most recent polarized hadron collider data for inclusive jet and $W$ boson production from the STAR and PHENIX experiments at RHIC, and with open-charm production data from the COMPASS experiment, thereby allowing for a separate determination of the polarized quark and anti-quark PDFs, and an improved determination of the medium- and large-$x$ polarized gluon PDF. We study the phenomenological implications of the NNPDFpol1.1 set, and we provide predictions for the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for semi-inclusive pion production at RHIC.

  7. Quark condensates in nuclear matter in the global color symmetry model of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuxin; Gao Dongfeng; Guo Hua

    2003-01-01

    With the global color symmetry model being extended to finite chemical potential, we study the density dependence of the local and nonlocal scalar quark condensates in nuclear matter. The calculated results indicate that the quark condensates increase smoothly with the increasing of nuclear matter density before the critical value (about 12ρ 0 ) is reached. It also manifests that the chiral symmetry is restored suddenly as the density of nuclear matter reaches its critical value. Meanwhile, the nonlocal quark condensate in nuclear matter changes nonmonotonously against the space-time distance among the quarks

  8. Linearly polarized small-x gluons in forward heavy-quark pair production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, C.; Roiesnel, C.; Taels, P.

    2018-01-01

    We use the color glass condensate (CGC) framework to study the production of forward heavy quark-antiquark pairs in unpolarized proton-nucleus or proton-proton collisions in the small-x regime. In the limit of nearly back-to-back jets, the CGC result simplifies into the transverse-momentum dependent (TMD) factorization approach. For massless quarks, the TMD factorization formula involves three unpolarized gluon TMDs: the Weizsäcker-Williams gluon distribution, the adjoint-dipole gluon distribution, and an additional one. When quark masses are kept nonzero, three new gluon TMDs appear—each partnered to one of the aforementioned distributions—which describe the distribution of linearly polarized gluons in the unpolarized small-x target. We show how these six gluon TMDs emerge from the CGC formulation, and we determine their expressions in terms of Wilson line correlators. We calculate them analytically in the McLerran-Venugopalan model, and further evolve them toward smaller values of x using a numerical implementation of Jalilian-Marian-Iancu-McLerran-Weigert-Leonidov-Kovner (JIMWLK) evolution.

  9. FDI, Polarized Globalization, and the Current Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    David Mayer-Foulkes

    2012-01-01

    Even though the current crisis is clearly global, much of the analysis and many of the policy proposals have a single country viewpoint, particularly in the case of the United States. Explanations concentrate, for example on the financial system and on population-wide indebtment. Here we examine the polarized impact of globalization on economic growth, which arises from the intense interaction between developed and underdeveloped countries, for example between the United States and China. We ...

  10. Measurement of the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of s-quarks at SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Shinya

    1998-03-01

    This thesis presents a direct measurement of the parity-violating parameter A s by analyzing the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of s quarks in e + e - → Z 0 → s anti s. The author has used the data taken at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), from the SLAC Large Detector (SLD), which records the products of e + e - interactions at a center of mass energy √s = 91.2 GeV at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The unique features of the SLC/SLD experimental apparatus provide interesting tests of the electroweak and the QCD physics. The small, stable SLC beam spot, and the precise tracking capability of the SLD allow the isolation of light flavor events. Charged hadrons are identified over wide momentum range with the Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID). High momentum charged kaon, Λ 0 /anti Λ 0 , and K s 0 are used to select Z 0 → s anti s events and to identify the s-quark direction. The averaged polarization was 63.0% in 1993 SLD run and 77.3% in 1994--95 run. The author obtained A s = 0.86 ± 0.17(stat.) ± 0.10(syst.). This value is consistent with the prediction from the Standard Model and with the values of A b measurements from SLD and LEP experiments

  11. Global thermodynamics of a polar ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, C.J. van der; Oerlemans, J.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the global characteristics of a polar ice sheet are investigated. When looking at a drainage system as a whole, conservation of heat yields a very simple functional relation. Coupling this relation to an equation describing the large-scale dynamics of a drainage system makes it

  12. Measurement of Top Quark Polarization in $t\\bar{t}$ Lepton + Jets Final States at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Kamil [Prague, Tech. U.

    2017-02-16

    We present a measurement of top quark polarization in $t\\bar{t}$ pair production in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV using data corresponding to 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity recorded with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We consider final states containing a lepton and at least three jets. The polarization is measured through the distribution of lepton angles along three axes: the beam axis, the helicity axis, and the transverse axis normal to the $t\\bar{t}$ production plane. This is the first measurement of top quark polarization at Tevatron using lepton+jet final states and the first measurement of the transverse polarization in $t\\bar{t}$ production. The observed distributions are consistent with standard model predictions of nearly no polarization.

  13. Experimental study of gluon and sea quark polarizations (The first stage of the POLEX program at UNK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimenko, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    The experiments with various polarized beams and targets for searching spin effects in such processes as χ-, direct photon- and massive lepton-pairs productions are proposed. The goal is to clear up a wide range of problems on the spin-dependent quark and gluon structure functions. 35 refs.; 18 figs.; 5 tabs

  14. Measurement of top quark polarization in top-antitop lepton+jets final states at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Kamil [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the top quark polarization in the $t\\overline{t}$ events produced in $p\\overline{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV using data corresponding to 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The final states used in the measurement contain one lepton and at least three jets. The polarization is measured using the angular distribution of leptons along three different axes: the beam axis, the helicity axis, and the transverse axis normal to the $t\\overline{t}$ production plane. This is the first measurement of top quark polarization at the Tevatron Collider in lepton+jets final states, and the first measurement of transverse polarization in $t\\overline{t}$ production. The polarization along the beam axis is combined with the previous result in the dilepton final states by the D0 experiment. The observed distributions are consistent with the Standard Model of nearly no polarization and no indication for beyond Standard Model physics is observed. The measurement offers legacy result from unique Tevatron Collider data and provides more information about the top quark production and decays, about the properties of the heaviest elementary particle.

  15. Gluons and the Quark Sea at High Energies: Distributions, Polarization, Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Daniel; /Groningen U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Milner, Richard; /MIT; Venugopalan, Raju; /Brookhaven; Vogelsang, Werner; /Tubingen U.; Kaplan, David; /Washington U., Seattle; Montgomery, Hugh; /Jefferson Lab; Vigdor, Steven; /Brookhaven; Accardi, A.; /Jefferson Lab; Aschenauer, E.C.; /Brookhaven; Burkardt, M.; /New Mexico State U.; Ent, R.; /Jefferson Lab; Guzey, V.; /Jefferson Lab; Hasch, D.; /Frascati; Kumar, K.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst; Lamont, M.A.C.; /Brookhaven; Li, Ying-chuan; /Brookhaven; Marciano, W.; /Brookhaven; Marquet, C.; /CERN; Sabatie, F.; /IRFU, SPhN, Saclay; Stratmann, M.; /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley /Buenos Aires U. /Antwerp U. /Pelotas U. /Moncton U. /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /CCTVal, Valparaiso /Hefei, CUST /Shandong U., Weihai /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb /Zagreb U., Phys. Dept. /Jyvaskyla U. /Orsay, LPT /Paris U., VI-VII /Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT /IRFU, SPhN, Saclay /Saclay, SPhT /Ruhr U., Bochum /Giessen U. /DESY /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Heidelberg U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Regensburg U. /Tubingen U. /Wuppertal U. /DESY /Cagliari U. /INFN, Cagliari /Frascati /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; /more authors..

    2012-06-07

    the brightest femtoscope scale lepton-collider ever, exceeding the intensity of the HERA collider a thousand fold. HERA, with its center-of-mass (CM) energy of 320 GeV, was built to search for quark substructure. An EIC, with its scientific focus on studying QCD in the regime where the sea quarks and gluons dominate, would have a lower CM energy. In a staged EIC design, the CM energy will range from 50-70 GeV in stage I to approximately twice that for the full design. In addition to being the first lepton collider exploring the structure of polarized protons, an EIC will also be the first electron-nucleus collider, probing the gluon and sea quark structure of nuclei for the first time. Following the same structure as the scientific discussions at the INT, this report is organized around the following four major themes: (1) The spin and flavor structure of the proton; (2) Three dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei in momentum and configuration space; (3) QCD matter in nuclei; and (4) Electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. In this executive summary, we will briefly outline the outstanding physics questions in these areas and the suite of measurements that are available with an EIC to address these. The status of accelerator and detector designs is addressed at the end of the summary. Tables of golden measurements for each of the key science areas outlined are presented on page 12. In addition, each chapter in the report contains a comprehensive overview of the science topic addressed. Interested readers are encouraged to read these and the individual contributions for more details on the present status of EIC science.

  16. How to measure the linear polarization of gluons in unpolarized proton using the heavy-quark pair leptoproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, A. V.; Ivanov, N. Ya.; Teryaev, O. V.

    2018-02-01

    We study the azimuthal cos ⁡ φ and cos ⁡ 2 φ asymmetries in heavy-quark pair leptoproduction, lN →l‧ Q Q bar X, as probes of linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized proton, where the azimuth φ is the angle between the lepton scattering plane (l ,l‧) and the heavy quark production plane (N , Q). First, we determine the maximal values for the cos ⁡ φ and cos ⁡ 2 φ asymmetries allowed by the photon-gluon fusion with unpolarized gluons; these predictions are large, (√{ 3 } - 1) / 2 and 1/3, respectively. Then we calculate the contribution of the transverse-momentum dependent gluonic counterpart of the Boer-Mulders function, h1⊥g, describing the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized proton. Our analysis shows that the maximum values of the azimuthal distributions depend strongly on the gluon polarization; they vary from 0 to 1 depending on h1⊥g. We conclude that the azimuthal cos ⁡ φ and cos ⁡ 2 φ asymmetries in heavy-quark pair leptoproduction are predicted to be large and very sensitive to the contribution of linearly polarized gluons. For this reason, future measurements of the azimuthal distributions in charm and bottom production at the proposed EIC and LHeC colliders seem to be very promising for determination of the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized proton.

  17. How to measure the linear polarization of gluons in unpolarized proton using the heavy-quark pair leptoproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Efremov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the azimuthal cos⁡φ and cos⁡2φ asymmetries in heavy-quark pair leptoproduction, lN→l′QQ¯X, as probes of linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized proton, where the azimuth φ is the angle between the lepton scattering plane (l,l′ and the heavy quark production plane (N,Q. First, we determine the maximal values for the cos⁡φ and cos⁡2φ asymmetries allowed by the photon–gluon fusion with unpolarized gluons; these predictions are large, (3−1/2 and 1/3, respectively. Then we calculate the contribution of the transverse-momentum dependent gluonic counterpart of the Boer–Mulders function, h1⊥g, describing the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized proton. Our analysis shows that the maximum values of the azimuthal distributions depend strongly on the gluon polarization; they vary from 0 to 1 depending on h1⊥g. We conclude that the azimuthal cos⁡φ and cos⁡2φ asymmetries in heavy-quark pair leptoproduction are predicted to be large and very sensitive to the contribution of linearly polarized gluons. For this reason, future measurements of the azimuthal distributions in charm and bottom production at the proposed EIC and LHeC colliders seem to be very promising for determination of the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized proton.

  18. A first unbiased global determination of polarized PDFs and their uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocera, Emanuele R.; Ball, Richard D.; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    We present a first global determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions (PDFs) and their uncertainties using the NNPDF methodology: NNPDFpol1.1. Longitudinally polarized deep-inelastic scattering data, already used for the previous NNPDFpol1.0 PDF set, are supplemented with the most recent polarized hadron collider data for inclusive jet and W boson production from the STAR and PHENIX experiments at RHIC, and with open-charm production data from the COMPASS experiment, thereby allowing for a separate determination of the polarized quark and antiquark PDFs, and an improved determination of the medium- and large-x polarized gluon PDF. We study the phenomenological implications of the NNPDFpol1.1 set, and we provide predictions for the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for semi-inclusive pion production at RHIC

  19. A first unbiased global determination of polarized PDFs and their uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele R. Nocera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a first global determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions (PDFs and their uncertainties using the NNPDF methodology: NNPDFpol1.1. Longitudinally polarized deep-inelastic scattering data, already used for the previous NNPDFpol1.0 PDF set, are supplemented with the most recent polarized hadron collider data for inclusive jet and W boson production from the STAR and PHENIX experiments at RHIC, and with open-charm production data from the COMPASS experiment, thereby allowing for a separate determination of the polarized quark and antiquark PDFs, and an improved determination of the medium- and large-x polarized gluon PDF. We study the phenomenological implications of the NNPDFpol1.1 set, and we provide predictions for the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for semi-inclusive pion production at RHIC.

  20. A first unbiased global determination of polarized PDFs and their uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocera, Emanuele R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ball, Richard D. [Higgs Centre, University of Edinburgh, JCMB, KB, Mayfield Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Forte, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Rojo, Juan [PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, 1 Keble Road, University of Oxford, OX1 3NP Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    We present a first global determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions (PDFs) and their uncertainties using the NNPDF methodology: NNPDFpol1.1. Longitudinally polarized deep-inelastic scattering data, already used for the previous NNPDFpol1.0 PDF set, are supplemented with the most recent polarized hadron collider data for inclusive jet and W boson production from the STAR and PHENIX experiments at RHIC, and with open-charm production data from the COMPASS experiment, thereby allowing for a separate determination of the polarized quark and antiquark PDFs, and an improved determination of the medium- and large-x polarized gluon PDF. We study the phenomenological implications of the NNPDFpol1.1 set, and we provide predictions for the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for semi-inclusive pion production at RHIC.

  1. Circular polarization of γ-quanta radiated in the capture of polarized neutrons by protons and the quark compound bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.L.; Shmatkov, M.Zh.

    1983-01-01

    The circular polarization Psub(γ) of γ-quanta radiated in the capture of polarized neutrons by protons is calculated The contribution of the M1 and E2 radiation of nucleons to Psub(γ) is found using the accurate wave functions of the continuous spectrum. The contribution of the six-quark bag to the polarization Psub(γ) is determined. The value of Psub(γ) is related to the admixture of the 6q-bag in the deuteron. Experimental value of Psub(γ) corresponds to small (< or approximately 0.7%) admixture of the bag

  2. Measurement of the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks at SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbo, V.V.

    1997-07-01

    This thesis presents a direct measurement of the parity-violating parameter A b using the Left-Right Forward-Backward asymmetry of b anti b pair production at the Z 0 pole. The measurement was done at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) using data from the SLAC Large Detector (SLD). The authors take advantage of the high polarization of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) electron beam. To identify heavy flavor decays of the Z 0 , they use a b-tag based on the topological reconstruction of the mass of the B vertex. Discrimination between the b and anti b quark directions is provided by a self-calibrating jet-charge technique. This technique allows calibration of the analyzing power from data and gives a much reduced model dependence. Based on the 1994--95 (1993) sample of 100,000 (50,000) Z 0 decays recorded with an electron beam polarization of e > = 77% (63%), they have obtained A b = 0.911 ± 0.045(stat) ± 0.045(syst). This value is in good agreement with the Standard Model

  3. Observation of Global Hyperon Polarization in Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upsal, Isaac; STAR Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Collisions between heavy nuclei at ultra-relativistic energies form a color-deconfined state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma. This state is well described by hydrodynamics, and non-central collisions are expected to produce a fluid characterized by strong vorticity in the presence of strong external magnetic fields. The STAR Collaboration at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has measured collisions between gold nuclei at center of mass energies √{sNN} = 7.7- 200 GeV. We report the first observation of globally polarized Λ and Λ bar hyperons, aligned with the angular momentum of the colliding system. These measurements provide important information on partonic spin-orbit coupling, the vorticity of the quark-gluon plasma, and the magnetic field generated in the collision.

  4. Gluons and the quark sea at high energies: distributions, polarization, tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Boer, D; Milner, Richard; Venugopalan, Raju; Vogelsang, Werner; Kaplan, David; Montgomery, Hugh; Vigdor, Steven; Accardi, A.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Burkardt, M.; Ent, R.; Guzey, V.; Hasch, D.; Kumar, K.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Li, Ying-chuan; Marciano, W.; Marquet, C.; Sabatie, F.; Stratmann, M.; Yuan, F.; Sassot, R.; Zurita, P.; Cherednikov, I.O.; Goncalves, V.P.; Sandapen, R.; Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Gao, J.-H.; Liang, Z.-T.; Passek-Kumericki, K.; Kumericki, K.; Lappi, T.; Wallon, S.; Pire, B.; Geraud, R.; Moutarde, H.; Gelis, F.; Soyez, G.; Meskauskas, M.; Mueller, Dieter; Stefanis, N.G.; Gallmeister, K.; Mosel, U.; Diehl, M.; Bartels, J.; Pirner, H.J.; Hagler, P.; Jager, B.; Spiesberger, H.; Lautenschlager, T.; Schafer, A.; Ringer, F.; Vogelsang, W.; Kroll, P.; Alekhin, S.; Blumlein, J; Moch, S.-O.; Pisano, C.; Rojo, J.; Bacchetta, A.; Pasquini, B.; Radici, M.; Ciofi degli Atti, C.; Mezzetti, C.B.; Kaptari, L.P.; Anselmino, M.; Tanaka, K.; Koike, Y.; Kumano, S.; Motyka, L.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Stasto, A.M.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Szymanowski, L.; Cherednikov, I.O.; Kaptari, L.P.; Radyushkin, A.; Alekhin, S.; Kondratenko, A.; Horowitz, W.A.; Schnell, G.; Chevtsov, P.; Mulders, P.J.; Rogers, T.C.; Boer, D.; Forshaw, J.R.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Chirilli, G.A.; Muller, D.; Wang, X.-N.; Yuan, F.; Qian, X.; Brodsky, S.J.; Schweitzer, P.; Horn, T.; Tuchin, K.; Dupre, R.; Erdelyi, B.; Manikonda, S.; Ostrumov, P.N.; Abeyratne, S.; Erdelyi, B.; Vossen, A.; Riordan, S.; Tsentalovich, E.; Goldstein, G.R.; Pozdeyev, E.; Huang, M.; Aidala, C.; Dumitru, A.; Dominguez, F.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Deshpande, A.; Faroughy, C.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; Johnson, E.C.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Taneja, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Webb, S.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Blaskiewicz, M.M.; Calaga, R.; Chang, X.; Fedotov, A.; Gassner, D.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; He, P.; Jackson, W.; Jain, A.; Johnson, E.C.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luo, Y.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Minty, M.; Parker, B.; Pikin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Tepikian, S.; Than, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Webb, S.; Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; Zelenski, A.; Beuf, G.; Burton, T.; Debbe, R.; Fazio, S.; Marciano, W.J.; Qiu, J.-W.; Toll, T.; Ullrich, T.; Deshpande, A.; Dumitru, A.; Kang, Z.-B.; Stasto, A.M.; Yuan, F.; Kovchegov, Y.V.; Majumder, A; Metz, A.; Zhou, J.; Gamberg, L.; Stasto, A.M.; Strikman, M.; Xiao, B.-W.; Guzzi, M.; Nadolsky, P.; Olness, F.; BC, H.; Liuti, S.; Ahmed, S.; Bogacz, A.; Derbenev, Ya.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Marhauser, F.; Morozov, V.; Pilat, F.; Rimmer, R.; Satogata, T.; Sullivan, M.; Spata, M.; Terzic, B.; Wang, H.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.; Avakian, H.; Musch, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Prokudin, A.; Radyushkin, A.; Weiss, C.; Krafft, G.; Radyushkin, A.; Sayed, H.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Cloet, I.C.; Miller, G.; Gonderinger, M.

    2011-01-01

    This report is based on a ten-week program on "Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies", which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that will be able to collide electrons and positrons with polarized protons and with light to heavy nuclei at high energies, offering unprecedented possibilities for in-depth studies of quantum chromodynamics. This report is organized around four major themes: i) the spin and flavor structure of the proton, ii) three-dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei in momentum and configuration space, iii) QCD matter in nuclei, and iv) Electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Beginning with an executive summary, the report contains tables of key measurements, chapter overviews for each of the major scientific themes, and detailed individual contributions on various aspects of the scientific op...

  5. Gluons and the quark sea at high energies: distributions, polarization, tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, D.; Venugopalan, R.; Diehl, M.; Milner, R.; Vogelsang, W.; et al.

    2011-09-30

    This report is based on a ten-week program on Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies, which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory (INT) in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that will be able to collide electrons and positrons with polarized protons and with light to heavy nuclei at high energies, offering unprecedented possibilities for in-depth studies of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This report is organized around the following four major themes: (i) the spin and flavor structure of the proton, (ii) three dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei in momentum and configuration space, (iii) QCD matter in nuclei, and (iv) Electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Beginning with an executive summary, the report contains tables of key measurements, chapter overviews for each of the major scientific themes, and detailed individual contributions on various aspects of the scientific opportunities presented by an EIC.

  6. Spin polarization in high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; Da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2016-01-01

    In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks, as well as the axial-vector-type four-point interaction. In the tensor-type interact......In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks, as well as the axial-vector-type four-point interaction. In the tensor...... phase appears in the wide range of the quark chemical potential. In both the interactions, the quark mass in zero and small chemical potential regions increases which indicates that the chiral symmetry breaking is enhanced, namely the magnetic catalysis occurs....

  7. PolarHub: A Global Hub for Polar Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a NSF project in developing a large-scale web crawler PolarHub to discover automatically the distributed polar dataset in the format of OGC web services (OWS) in the cyberspace. PolarHub is a machine robot; its goal is to visit as many webpages as possible to find those containing information about polar OWS, extract this information and store it into the backend data repository. This is a very challenging task given huge data volume of webpages on the Web. Three unique features was introduced in PolarHub to make it distinctive from earlier crawler solutions: (1) a multi-task, multi-user, multi-thread support to the crawling tasks; (2) an extensive use of thread pool and Data Access Object (DAO) design patterns to separate persistent data storage and business logic to achieve high extendibility of the crawler tool; (3) a pattern-matching based customizable crawling algorithm to support discovery of multi-type geospatial web services; and (4) a universal and portable client-server communication mechanism combining a server-push and client pull strategies for enhanced asynchronous processing. A series of experiments were conducted to identify the impact of crawling parameters to the overall system performance. The geographical distribution pattern of all PolarHub identified services is also demonstrated. We expect this work to make a major contribution to the field of geospatial information retrieval and geospatial interoperability, to bridge the gap between data provider and data consumer, and to accelerate polar science by enhancing the accessibility and reusability of adequate polar data.

  8. Gluons and the quark sea at high energies : distributions, polarization, tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, D.; Diehl, M.; Milner, R.; Venugopalan, R.; Vogelsang, W.; Accardi, A.; Aschenauer, E.; Burkardt, M.; Ent, R.; Guzey, V.; Hasch, D.; Kumar, K.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Li, Y.; Marciano, W. J.; Marquet, C.; Sabatie, F.; Stratmann, M.; Yuan, F.; Abeyratne, S.; Ahmed, S.; Aidala, C.; Alekhin, S.; Anselmino, M.; Avakian, H.; Bacchetta, A.; Bartels, J.; H., BC; Beebe-Wang, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Beuf, G.; Blumlein, J.; Blaskiewicz, M .; Bogacz, A.; Brodsky, S. J.; Burton, T.; Calaga, R.; Chang, X.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Chevtsov, P.; Chirilli, G. A.; Atti, C. Ciofi degli; Cloet, I. C.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Debbe, R.; Derbenev, Ya; Deshpande, A.; Dominguez, F.; Dumitru, A.; Dupre, R.; Erdelyi, B.; Faroughy, C.; Fazio, S.; Fedotov, A.; Forshaw, J. R.; Geraud, R.; Gallmeister, K.; Gamberg, L.; Gao, J. -H.; Gassner, D.; Gelis, F.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Goldstein, G.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Goncalves, V. P.; Gonderinger, M.; Guzzi, M.; Hagler, P.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; He, P.; Horn, T.; Horowitz, W. A.; Huang, M.; Hutton, A.; Jager, B.; Jackson, W.; Jain, A.; Johnson, E. C.; Kang, Z. -B.; Kaptari, L. P.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Koike, Y.; Kondratenko, A.; Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Kovchegov, Y. V.; Krafft, G.; Kroll, P.; Kumano, S.; Kumericki, K.; Lappi, T.; Lautenschlager, T.; Li, R.; Liang, Z. -T.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Liuti, S.; Luo, Y.; Muller, D.; Mahler, G.; Majumder, A.; Manikonda, S.; Marhauser, F.; McIntyre, G.; Meskauskas, M.; Meng, W.; Metz, A.; Mezzetti, C. B.; Miller, G. A.; Minty, M.; Moch, S. -O.; Morozov, V.; Mosel, U.; Motyka, L.; Moutarde, H.; Mulders, P. J.; Musch, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nadolsky, P.; Olness, F.; Ostrumov, P. N.; Parker, B.; Pasquini, B.; Passek-Kumericki, K.; Pikin, A.; Pilat, F.; Pire, B.; Pirner, H.; Pisano, C.; Pozdeyev, E.; Prokudin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Qian, X.; Qiu, J. -W.; Radici, M.; Radyushkin, A.; Rao, T.; Rimmer, R.; Ringer, F.; Riordan, S.; Rogers, T.; Rojo, J.; Roser, T.; Sandapen, R.; Sassot, R.; Satogata, T.; Sayed, H.; Schafer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schweitzer, P.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Soyez, G.; Spata, M.; Spiesberger, H.; Stasto, A. M.; Stefanis, N. G.; Strikman, M.; Sullivan, M.; Szymanowski, L.; Tanaka, K.; Taneja, S.; Tepikian, S.; Terzic, B.; Than, Y.; Toll, T.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsentalovich, E.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuchin, K.; Tuozzolo, J.; Ullrich, T.; Vossen, A.; Wallon, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, X. -N.; Webb, S.; Weiss, C.; Wu, Q.; Xiao, B. -W.; Xu, W.; Yunn, B.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Zurita, P.

    2011-01-01

    This report is based on a ten-week program on "Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies", which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that

  9. Polarized single top quark production at leptonic colliders from broken R parity interactions incorporating CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Chemtob, M

    2000-01-01

    The contribution from the R parity violating interaction lambda /sub ijk/'L/sub i/Q/sub j/D/sub k//sup c/ in the associated production of a top quark (antiquark) with a charm antiquark (quark) is examined for high energy leptonic colliders. We concentrate on the reaction l /sup -/+l/sup +/ to (tc)+(ct) to (bl nu c)+(bl nu c) associated with the semileptonic top quark decay. A set of characteristic dynamical distributions for the signal events is evaluated and the results contrasted against those from the standard model W-boson pair production background. The sensitivity to parameters (R parity violating coupling constants and down-squark mass) is studied at the energies of the CERN LEP-II collider and the future linear colliders. Next, we turn to a study of a CP-odd observable, associated with the top quark spin, which leads to an asymmetry in the energy distribution of the emitted charged leptons for the pair of CP- conjugate final states bl nu c and bl nu c. A nonvanishing asymmetry arises from a CP-odd pha...

  10. Measurements of $t\\bar{t}$ spin correlations and top-quark polarization using dilepton final states in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Heracleous, Natalie; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Dildick, Sven; Garcia, Guillaume; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Tikvica, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami

    2014-05-05

    Spin correlations in the t-tbar quark system and the polarization of the top quark are measured using dilepton final states produced in pp collisions at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns collected with the CMS detector. The measurements are performed using events with two oppositely charged leptons (electrons or muons), a significant imbalance in transverse momentum, and two or more jets, where at least one of the jets is identified as likely originating from a b quark. The spin correlations and polarization are measured through asymmetries in angular distributions of the two selected leptons, unfolded to the parton level. All measurements are found to be in agreement with predictions of the standard model.

  11. Measurement of top quark polarization in top-antitop events from proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coelli, Simone; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Damiani, Daniel; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliot, Frederic; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Demirkoz, Bilge; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Dwuznik, Michal; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koenig, Sebastian; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madar, Romain; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Michal, Sebastien; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molfetas, Angelos; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-12-04

    This Letter presents measurements of the polarization of the top quark in top–antitop quark pair events, using 4.7 fb$^{¯1}$ of proton–proton collision data recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at √s = 7 TeV. Final states containing one or two isolated leptons (electrons or muons) and jets are considered. Two measurements of $\\alpha_l P$, the product of the leptonic spin-analyzing power and the top quark polarization, are performed assuming that the polarization is introduced by either a CP conserving (CPC) or a CP violating (CPV) production process. The measurements obtained, $\\alpha_l P_{CPC} = −0.035± 0.014(stat) ± 0.037(syst)$ and $\\alpha_l P_{CPV} = 0.020 ± 0.016(stat)^{+0.013} _{-0.017}(syst)$, are in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction of negligible top quark polarization.

  12. Measurement of the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of B quarks using momentum-weighted track charge at SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junk, T.R.

    1995-11-01

    This thesis presents a direct measurement of the parity-violating parameter A b by analyzing the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks in e + e - → Z 0 → b bar b. Data were taken at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), with the Stanford Large Detector (SLD), which records the products of e + e - interactions at a center of mass energy √s = 91.2 GeV/c 2 at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The SLC/SLD experimental apparatus provides a unique and ideal environment for measuring electroweak asymmetries. Heavy flavor decays of the Z 0 were identified inclusively by taking advantage of the long lifetime of B hadrons, the small, stable SLC beam spot, and SLD's precise tracking detectors. Two analysis techniques for measuring A b are presented: a binned fit to the left-right forward-backwards asymmetry of tagged events signed with momentum-weighted track charge, and a self-calibrating maximum-likelihood technique using momentum-weighted charge from the two hemispheres in each tagged event. From our 1994-1995 sample of 3.6 pb -1 , having a luminosity-weighted average e - polarization of 77.3%, and our 1993 sample of 1.8 pb -1 , having a luminosity-weighted polarization of 63.1%, we obtain A b = 0.848 ± 0.046(stat.) ± 0.050(syst.)

  13. Top Quark Properties at Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysák, Roman [Prague, Inst. Phys.

    2017-11-27

    The latest CDF and D0 experiment measurements of the top quark properties except the top quark mass are presented. The final combination of the CDF and D0 forward-backward asymmetry measurements is shown together with the D0 measurements of the inclusive top quark pair cross-section as well as the top quark polarization.

  14. Polarization of physics on global courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinea, Allan L.; Naylor, Wade

    2015-03-01

    Since October 2010, the Chemistry-Biology Combined Major Program, an international course taught in English at Osaka University, has been teaching small classes (no more than 20 in size). We present data from the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) given to first-year classical mechanics students (N = 47 students over three years) pre and post score, for a class that predominantly uses interactive engagement, such as MasteringPhysics. Our findings show a G-factor improved score of about ˜0.18, which is marginally about the average of a traditional-based course. Furthermore, we analyze in detail a set of six questions from the FCI, involving the identification of forces acting on a body. We find that student answers tend to cluster about ‘polarizing choices’—a pair of choices containing the correct choice and a wrong choice, with the latter corresponding to a superset of forces in the former. Our results are suggestive that students have a good idea of the right set of forces acting on a given system, but the inclusion of extra force(s) brings about confusion; something that may be explained by misleading ontological categorization of forces. In an appendix A we also comment on possible correlations between the pre/post score and the level of English ability on entry to the course.

  15. Perihelion precession, polar ice and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Duncan

    2013-03-01

    The increase in mean global temperature over the past 150 years is generally ascribed to human activities, in particular the rises in the atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution began. Whilst it is thought that ice ages and interglacial periods are mainly initiated by multi-millennial variations in Earth's heliocentric orbit and obliquity, shorter-term orbital variations and consequent observable climatic effects over decadal/centurial timescales have not been considered significant causes of contemporary climate change compared to anthropogenic influences. Here it is shown that the precession of perihelion occurring over a century substantially affects the intra-annual variation of solar radiation influx at different locations, especially higher latitudes, with northern and southern hemispheres being subject to contrasting insolation changes. This north/south asymmetry has grown since perihelion was aligned with the winter solstice seven to eight centuries ago, and must cause enhanced year-on-year springtime melting of Arctic (but not Antarctic) ice and therefore feedback warming because increasing amounts of land and open sea are denuded of high-albedo ice and snow across boreal summer and into autumn. The accelerating sequence of insolation change now occurring as perihelion moves further into boreal winter has not occurred previously during the Holocene and so would not have been observed before by past or present civilisations. Reasons are given for the significance of this process having been overlooked until now. This mechanism represents a supplementary - natural - contribution to climate change in the present epoch and may even be the dominant fundamental cause of global warming, although anthropogenic effects surely play a role too.

  16. A global optimization approach to multi-polarity sentiment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinmiao; Li, Jing; Wu, Yukeng

    2015-01-01

    Following the rapid development of social media, sentiment analysis has become an important social media mining technique. The performance of automatic sentiment analysis primarily depends on feature selection and sentiment classification. While information gain (IG) and support vector machines (SVM) are two important techniques, few studies have optimized both approaches in sentiment analysis. The effectiveness of applying a global optimization approach to sentiment analysis remains unclear. We propose a global optimization-based sentiment analysis (PSOGO-Senti) approach to improve sentiment analysis with IG for feature selection and SVM as the learning engine. The PSOGO-Senti approach utilizes a particle swarm optimization algorithm to obtain a global optimal combination of feature dimensions and parameters in the SVM. We evaluate the PSOGO-Senti model on two datasets from different fields. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti model can improve binary and multi-polarity Chinese sentiment analysis. We compared the optimal feature subset selected by PSOGO-Senti with the features in the sentiment dictionary. The results of this comparison indicated that PSOGO-Senti can effectively remove redundant and noisy features and can select a domain-specific feature subset with a higher-explanatory power for a particular sentiment analysis task. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti approach is effective and robust for sentiment analysis tasks in different domains. By comparing the improvements of two-polarity, three-polarity and five-polarity sentiment analysis results, we found that the five-polarity sentiment analysis delivered the largest improvement. The improvement of the two-polarity sentiment analysis was the smallest. We conclude that the PSOGO-Senti achieves higher improvement for a more complicated sentiment analysis task. We also compared the results of PSOGO-Senti with those of the genetic algorithm (GA) and grid search method. From

  17. Measurements of $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} }$ spin correlations and top quark polarization using dilepton final states in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

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Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fang, Wenxing; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; 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Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Awad, Adel; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Peltola, Timo; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Lomidze, David; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Jain, Sandhya; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korneeva, Natalia; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Gecit, Fehime Hayal; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozcan, Merve; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Benelli, Gabriele; Berry, Edmund; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Jesus, Orduna; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lewis, Jonathan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Benvenuti, Alberto; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bartek, Rachel; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Low, Jia Fu; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, Kurt; Kumar, Ajay; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-03-09

    Measurements of the top quark-antiquark ($\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} }$) spin correlations and the top quark polarization are presented for $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} }$ pairs produced in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}= $ 8 TeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurements are performed using events with two oppositely charged leptons (electrons or muons) and two or more jets, where at least one of the jets is identified as originating from a bottom quark. The spin correlations and polarization are measured from the angular distributions of the two selected leptons, both inclusively and differentially, with respect to the invariant mass, rapidity, and transverse momentum of the $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} }$ system. The measurements are unfolded to the parton level and found to be in agreement with predictions of the standard model. A search for new physics in the form of anomalous top quark chromo moments is performed. No evidence of new physics is obser...

  18. A global optimization approach to multi-polarity sentiment analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmiao Li

    Full Text Available Following the rapid development of social media, sentiment analysis has become an important social media mining technique. The performance of automatic sentiment analysis primarily depends on feature selection and sentiment classification. While information gain (IG and support vector machines (SVM are two important techniques, few studies have optimized both approaches in sentiment analysis. The effectiveness of applying a global optimization approach to sentiment analysis remains unclear. We propose a global optimization-based sentiment analysis (PSOGO-Senti approach to improve sentiment analysis with IG for feature selection and SVM as the learning engine. The PSOGO-Senti approach utilizes a particle swarm optimization algorithm to obtain a global optimal combination of feature dimensions and parameters in the SVM. We evaluate the PSOGO-Senti model on two datasets from different fields. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti model can improve binary and multi-polarity Chinese sentiment analysis. We compared the optimal feature subset selected by PSOGO-Senti with the features in the sentiment dictionary. The results of this comparison indicated that PSOGO-Senti can effectively remove redundant and noisy features and can select a domain-specific feature subset with a higher-explanatory power for a particular sentiment analysis task. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti approach is effective and robust for sentiment analysis tasks in different domains. By comparing the improvements of two-polarity, three-polarity and five-polarity sentiment analysis results, we found that the five-polarity sentiment analysis delivered the largest improvement. The improvement of the two-polarity sentiment analysis was the smallest. We conclude that the PSOGO-Senti achieves higher improvement for a more complicated sentiment analysis task. We also compared the results of PSOGO-Senti with those of the genetic algorithm (GA and grid

  19. Charged Higgs production from polarized top-quark decay in the 2HDM considering the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, S.; Mohammad Moosavi Nejad, S.

    2018-05-01

    Charged Higgs bosons are predicted by some non-minimal Higgs scenarios, such as models containing Higgs triplets and two-Higgs-doublet models, so that the experimental observation of these bosons would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model. In the present work, we introduce a channel to indirect search for the charged Higgses through the hadronic decay of polarized top quarks where a top quark decays into a charged Higgs H+ and a bottom-flavored meson B via the hadronization process of the produced bottom quark, t (↑) →H+ + b (→ B + jet). To obtain the energy spectrum of produced B-mesons we present, for the first time, an analytical expression for the O (αs) corrections to the differential decay width of the process t →H+ b in presence of a massive b-quark in the General-Mass Variable-Flavor-Number (GM-VFN) scheme. We find that the most reliable predictions for the B-hadron energy spectrum are made in the GM-VFN scheme, specifically, when the Type-II 2HDM scenario is concerned.

  20. Charm and beauty quark masses in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland-Lang, L. A.; Martin, A. D.; Motylinski, P.; Thorne, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the variation in the MMHT2014 PDFs when we allow the heavy-quark masses m_c and m_b to vary away from their default values. We make PDF sets available in steps of Δ m_c =0.05 GeV and Δ m_b =0.25 GeV, and present the variation in the PDFs and in the predictions. We examine the comparison to the HERA data on charm and beauty structure functions and note that in each case the heavy-quark data, and the inclusive data, have a slight preference for lower masses than our default values. We provide PDF sets with three and four active quark flavours, as well as the standard value of five flavours. We use the pole mass definition of the quark masses, as in the default MMHT2014 analysis, but briefly comment on the overline{MS} definition.

  1. Charm and beauty quark masses in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland-Lang, L A; Martin, A D; Motylinski, P; Thorne, R S

    We investigate the variation in the MMHT2014 PDFs when we allow the heavy-quark masses [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] to vary away from their default values. We make PDF sets available in steps of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and present the variation in the PDFs and in the predictions. We examine the comparison to the HERA data on charm and beauty structure functions and note that in each case the heavy-quark data, and the inclusive data, have a slight preference for lower masses than our default values. We provide PDF sets with three and four active quark flavours, as well as the standard value of five flavours. We use the pole mass definition of the quark masses, as in the default MMHT2014 analysis, but briefly comment on the [Formula: see text] definition.

  2. Next-to-leading order corrections to the spin-dependent energy spectrum of hadrons from polarized top quark decay in the general two Higgs doublet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad Moosavi Nejad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, searches for the light and heavy charged Higgs bosons have been done by the ATLAS and the CMS collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC in proton–proton collision. Nevertheless, a definitive search is a program that still has to be carried out at the LHC. The experimental observation of charged Higgs bosons would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model. In the present work, we study the scaled-energy distribution of bottom-flavored mesons (B inclusively produced in polarized top quark decays into a light charged Higgs boson and a massless bottom quark at next-to-leading order in the two-Higgs-doublet model; t(↑→bH+→BH++X. This spin-dependent energy distribution is studied in a specific helicity coordinate system where the polarization vector of the top quark is measured with respect to the direction of the Higgs momentum. The study of these energy distributions could be considered as a new channel to search for the charged Higgs bosons at the LHC. For our numerical analysis and phenomenological predictions, we restrict ourselves to the unexcluded regions of the MSSM mH+−tan⁡β parameter space determined by the recent results of the CMS [13] and ATLAS [14] collaborations.

  3. Heavy-quark mass dependence in global PDF analyses and 3- and 4-flavour parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A D; Thorne, R S; Watt, G

    2010-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of our recent MSTW 2008 NLO and NNLO PDF analyses to the values of the charm and bottom quark masses, and we provide additional public PDF sets for a wide range of these heavy-quark masses. We quantify the impact of varying m_c and m_b on the cross sections for W, Z and Higgs production at the Tevatron and the LHC. We generate 3- and 4-flavour versions of the (5-flavour) MSTW 2008 PDFs by evolving the input PDFs and alpha_S determined from fits in the 5-flavour scheme, including the eigenvector PDF sets necessary for calculation of PDF uncertainties. As an example of their use, we study the difference in the Z total cross sections at the Tevatron and LHC in the 4- and 5-flavour schemes. Significant differences are found, illustrating the need to resum large logarithms in Q^2/m_b^2 by using the 5-flavour scheme. The 4-flavour scheme is still necessary, however, if cuts are imposed on associated (massive) b-quarks, as is the case for the experimental measurement of Z b bbar production a...

  4. A first determination of the unpolarized quark TMDs from a global analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchetta, Alessandro [INFN, Pavia; Delcarro, Filippo [INFN, Pavia; Pisano, Cristian [INFN Pavia; INFN Cagliari; Radici, Marco [INFN Pavia; Signori, Andrea [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions of unpolarized quarks inside unpolarized protons are extracted, for the first time, through a simultaneous analysis of semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan and Z boson hadroproduction processes. This study is performed at leading order in perturbative QCD, with energy scale evolution at the next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. Moreover, some specific choices are made to deal with low scale evolution around 1 GeV2. Since only data in the low transverse momentum region are considered, no matching to fixed-order calculations at high transverse momentum is needed.

  5. Derivation of global vegetation biophysical parameters from EUMETSAT Polar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Haro, Francisco Javier; Campos-Taberner, Manuel; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Laparra, Valero; Camacho, Fernando; Sánchez-Zapero, Jorge; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the algorithm developed in LSA-SAF (Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis) for the derivation of global vegetation parameters from the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) sensor on board MetOp (Meteorological-Operational) satellites forming the EUMETSAT (European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) Polar System (EPS). The suite of LSA-SAF EPS vegetation products includes the leaf area index (LAI), the fractional vegetation cover (FVC), and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR). LAI, FAPAR, and FVC characterize the structure and the functioning of vegetation and are key parameters for a wide range of land-biosphere applications. The algorithm is based on a hybrid approach that blends the generalization capabilities offered by physical radiative transfer models with the accuracy and computational efficiency of machine learning methods. One major feature is the implementation of multi-output retrieval methods able to jointly and more consistently estimate all the biophysical parameters at the same time. We propose a multi-output Gaussian process regression (GPRmulti), which outperforms other considered methods over PROSAIL (coupling of PROSPECT and SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrary Inclined Leaves) radiative transfer models) EPS simulations. The global EPS products include uncertainty estimates taking into account the uncertainty captured by the retrieval method and input errors propagation. A sensitivity analysis is performed to assess several sources of uncertainties in retrievals and maximize the positive impact of modeling the noise in training simulations. The paper discusses initial validation studies and provides details about the characteristics and overall quality of the products, which can be of interest to assist the successful use of the data by a broad user's community. The consistent generation and distribution of the EPS vegetation products will

  6. Measurement of W-boson polarization in Top-Quark Decay in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96  TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Chwalek, T; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lovas, L; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neubauer, S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramanov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Peiffer, T; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Renz, M; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Rutherford, B; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tsai, S-Y; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Weinelt, J; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2010-07-23

    We report measurements of the polarization of W bosons from top-quark decays using 2.7 fb{-1} of pp collisions collected by the CDF II detector. Assuming a top-quark mass of 175  GeV/c{2}, three measurements are performed. A simultaneous measurement of the fraction of longitudinal (f{0}) and right-handed (f{+}) W bosons yields the model-independent results f{0}=0.88±0.11(stat)±0.06(syst) and f{+}=-0.15±0.07(stat)±0.06(syst) with a correlation coefficient of -0.59. A measurement of f{0} [f{+}] constraining f{+} [f{0}] to its standard model value of 0.0 [0.7] yields f{0}=0.70±0.07(stat)±0.04(syst) [f{+}=-0.01±0.02(stat)±0.05(syst)]. All these results are consistent with standard model expectations. We achieve the single most precise measurements of f{0} for both the model-independent and model-dependent determinations.

  7. Measurement of top quark polarization in top-antitop events from proton-proton collisions at √s=7  TeV using the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G; Abajyan, T; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allison, L J; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angelidakis, S; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Astbury, A; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, D; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Backus Mayes, J; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, S; Balek, P; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, V; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beale, S; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Beloborodova, O L; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Bertella, C; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia, O; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Bierwagen, K; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Bittner, B; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boek, T T; Boelaert, N; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Bolnet, N M; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borri, M; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boutouil, S; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Branchini, P; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brendlinger, K; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brost, E; Brown, G; Brown, J; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchholz, P; Buckingham, R M; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Buehrer, F; Bugge, L; Bulekov, O; Bundock, A C; Bunse, M; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Byszewski, M; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O

    2013-12-06

    This Letter presents measurements of the polarization of the top quark in top-antitop quark pair events, using 4.7  fb(-1) of proton-proton collision data recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at √s=7  TeV. Final states containing one or two isolated leptons (electrons or muons) and jets are considered. Two measurements of α(ℓ)P, the product of the leptonic spin-analyzing power and the top quark polarization, are performed assuming that the polarization is introduced by either a CP conserving or a maximally CP violating production process. The measurements obtained, α(ℓ)P(CPC)=-0.035±0.014(stat)±0.037(syst) and α(ℓ)P(CPV)=0.020±0.016(stat)(-0.017)(+0.013)(syst), are in good agreement with the standard model prediction of negligible top quark polarization.

  8. Quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper invites experimenters to consider the wide variety of tests suggested by the new aspects of quark models since the discovery of charm and beauty, and nonrelativistic models. Colors and flavours are counted and combined into hadrons. The current quark zoo is summarized. Models and theoretical background are studied under: qualitative QCD: strings and bags, potential models, relativistic effects, electromagnetic transitions, gluon emissions, and single quark transition descriptions. Hadrons containing quarks known before 1974 (i.e. that can be made of ''light'' quarks u, d, and s) are treated in Section III, while those containing charmed quarks and beauty (b) quarks are discussed in Section IV. Unfolding the properties of the sixth quark from information on its hadrons is seen as a future application of the methods used in this study

  9. Relativistic polarized deuteron fragmentation into protons as test of six-quark nature of deuteron at small distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobushkin, A.P.; Vizireva, L.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the nature of the short-range few-nucleon correlations in nuclei is proposed in the polarized high-energy deuteron fragmentation experiments. The presence of 6q-state in deuteron with probability of several percents is shown to change essentially the cross-section behaviour of this process in the momentum region where the fraction of the deuteron momentum carried out by proton in the infinite momentum frame is about 0.78. It is shown how the character of the cross-section of the transverse polarized deuteron fragmentation is changed depending on the parameters of 6q-admixure in deuteron [ru

  10. Verification of global numerical weather forecasting systems in polar regions using TIGGE data

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Thomas; Matsueda, Mio

    2016-01-01

    High-latitude climate change is expected to increase the demand for reliable weather and environmental forecasts in polar regions. In this study, a quantitative assessment of the skill of state-of-the-art global weather prediction systems in polar regions is given using data from the THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) for the period 2006/2007 – 2012/2013. Forecast skill in the Arctic is comparable to that found in the North- ern Hemisphere ...

  11. Measurement of top quark properties at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Piedra Gomez, Jonatan

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of top quark properties in top quark decays are presented, using data collected by the CMS experiment during the years 2011 and 2012. The polarization of W bosons in top quark decays is measured. The W boson helicity fractions and angular asymmetries are extracted, and limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex are determined. Furthermore, searches for flavor changing neutral currents in top quark decays are presented. The flavor contents in top quark pair events are measured using the fraction of top quarks decaying into a W boson and a b quark relative to all top quark decays, $R=BR({\\rm t} \\to {\\rm Wb})/BR({\\rm t} \\to {\\rm Wq})$, and the result is used to determine the CKM matrix element $V_{\\rm tb}$ as well as the width of the top quark resonance.

  12. Interpretation of the Global Anisotropy in the Radio Polarizations of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    data. We also find that a generalized statistic shows a very strong signal in the entire data without imposing the RM dependent cut. Finally we argue that an anisotropic background ... high-redshift—cosmology: miscellaneous—elementary particles. 1. .... Statistical analysis of the angular correlation in polarizations. We next ...

  13. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B. [eds.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks; (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosols and trace gases.

  14. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with the polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; and (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks, (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosol and trace gases

  15. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks; (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosols and trace gases

  16. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B. [eds.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with the polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; and (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks, (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosol and trace gases.

  17. South polar permanent CO2 ice cap presentation in the Global Mars Multiscale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel-Rastgar, Farahnaz

    2018-02-01

    The atmospheric influence caused by the Martian permanent south CO2 ice cap is examined to improve the Global Mars Multiscale Model (GM3) to see if it can significantly improve the representation of south polar meteorology. However, the seasonal carbon dioxide ice in the polar regions is presented in the surface ice simulation by the Global Mars Multiscale Model but the model does not produce a permanent south CO2 ice cap, and the physics code must modify to capture the realistic physical such as ice process detail; probably makes a bias in terms of total CO2 ice and meteorological processes in the model aside from ice formation. The permanent south CO2 ice cap in the model can significantly improve the representation of south polar meteorology for example in predicted surface temperatures, surface pressures, horizontal and zonal winds over the south cap and possible initiation of dust storms at south polar region during the southern summer period.

  18. Measurement of the $W$ boson polarization in top quark decays using the di-lepton final state of the top quark pair in $pp$ collisions with $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Satoshi

    The Standard Model (SM) is a framework that has succeeded to describe the behavior of the elementary particle to a great extent. After the discovery of a Higgs-boson-like particle in 2012, its reliability has increased more. At the same time, however, the importance of problems related to the Higgs mechanism such as the fine tuning of the mass of the Higgs particle has grown. In order to find a clue to the problems, the top quark is an interesting subject by focusing on the Higgs mechanism from the following two points. One thing is that the top quark mass of $ 173.2 \\pm 0.9 $ GeV is much larger than that of other fermions such as electron and up-quark although their masses are originated from the same Higgs mechanism. The other is that the top quark mass is at the energy scale of the Higgs mechanism, and it is suspected that the top quark has some relation with it. \\begin{align*} \\end{align*} In the LHC-ATLAS experiment, where protons are collided with 7 TeV center of mass energy, ...

  19. Quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joos, H.

    1976-07-01

    The main topics of these lectures are: phenomenological approach to quark confinement, standard Lagrangian of hadrondynamics, Lagrangian field theory and quark confinement, classical soliton solutions in a simple model, quantization of extended systems, colour charge screening and quantization on a lattice and remarks on applications. A survey of the scientific publications listed according to the topics until 26 March 1976 is supplemented. (BJ) [de

  20. Helicity description of e+e- → qanti qg and e+e- → Qanti Q(1--) → ggg on and off the Z0: quark, gluon and beam polarization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, D.H.; Koerner, J.G.

    1981-07-01

    We develop the helicity description for the processes e + e - → qanti qg and e + e - → Qanti Q(1 -- ) → ggg(γgg) in the purely electromagnetic case, in the γ-Z 0 interference region and on the Z 0 -pole. We present complete differential cross section formulas including beam, quark and gluon polarization effects. We also treat the corresponding processes e + e - → qanti qS and e + e - → Qanti Q(1 -- ) → SSS(γSS) involving scalar gluons. (orig.)

  1. Heavy-quark fragmentation functions in the effective theory of heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A.P.; Saleev, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effective theory of heavy quarks is used to study b-bar-antiquark fragmentation in polarized Bc* mesons and b-quark fragmentation into P-wave (c-barb) states. The functions of heavy-quark fragmentation into longitudinally and transversely polarized S-wave (b-barc) states and into P-wave mesons containing b and c quarks are calculated. First-order corrections in 1/mb are taken into account exactly in these calculations. The results are shown to be consistent with the corresponding QCD calculations

  2. 6-quark contribution to nuclear magnetic moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetic moments of nuclei with LS closed shell +/-1 particle are calculated. Core polarization and meson exchange current are treated realistically in order to single out the 6-quark contribution. Overall agreement with experimental values is quite good. It is shown that the 6-quark system contributes to the respective iso-vector and iso-scalar moments with reasonable magnitudes

  3. Transversity of quarks in a nucleon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The transversity distribution of quarks in a nucleon is one of the three fundamental distributions, that characterize nucleon's properties in hard scattering processes at leading twist (twist 2). It measures the distribution of quark transverse spin in a nucleon polarized transverse to its (infinite) momentum. It is a chiral-odd ...

  4. Measurement of the correlations between the polar angles of leptons from top quark decays in the helicity basis at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; 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Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; 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Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; 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Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; 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Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; 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Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-01-13

    A measurement of the correlations between the polar angles of leptons from the decay of pair-produced $t$ and $\\bar{t}$ quarks in the helicity basis is reported, using proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb$^{-1}$ at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV collected during 2011. Candidate events are selected in the dilepton topology with large missing transverse momentum and at least two jets. The angles $\\theta_1$ and $\\theta_2$ between the charged leptons and the direction of motion of the parent quarks in the $t\\bar{t}$ rest frame are sensitive to the spin information, and the distribution of $\\cos\\theta_1\\cdot\\cos\\theta_2$ is sensitive to the spin correlation between the $t$ and $\\bar{t}$ quarks. The distribution is unfolded to parton level and compared to the next-to-leading order prediction. A good agreement is observed.

  5. Spontaneous magnetization in high-density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constanca

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that spontaneous magnetization occurs due to the anomalous magnetic moments of quarks in high-density quark matter under the tensor-type four-point interaction. The spin polarized condensate for each flavor of quark appears at high baryon density, which leads to the spontaneous...

  6. Confining quark condensate model of the nucleon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Michael; Tandy, Peter

    1992-07-01

    We obtain a mean-field solution for the nucleon as a quark-meson soliton obtained from the action of the global color-symmetry model of QCD. All dynamics is generated from an effective interaction of quark currents. At the quark-meson level there are two novel features: (1) absolute confinement is produced from the space-time structure of the dynamical self-energy in the vacuum quark propagator; and (2) the related scalar meson field is an extended q-barq composite that couples nonlocally to quarks. The influence of these features upon the nucleon mass contributions and other nucleon properties is presented.

  7. Uncertainties in forecasting the response of polar bears to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Butterworth, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Several sources of uncertainty affect how precisely the future status of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be forecasted. Foremost are unknowns about the future levels of global greenhouse gas emissions, which could range from an unabated increase to an aggressively mitigated reduction. Uncertainties also arise because different climate models project different amounts and rates of future warming (and sea ice loss)—even for the same emission scenario. There are also uncertainties about how global warming could affect the Arctic Ocean’s food web, so even if climate models project the presence of sea ice in the future, the availability of polar bear prey is not guaranteed. Under a worst-case emission scenario in which rates of greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise unabated to century’s end, the uncertainties about polar bear status center on a potential for extinction. If the species were to persist, it would likely be restricted to a high-latitude refugium in northern Canada and Greenland—assuming a food web also existed with enough accessible prey to fuel weight gains for surviving onshore during the most extreme years of summer ice melt. On the other hand, if emissions were to be aggressively mitigated at the levels proposed in the Paris Climate Agreement, healthy polar bear populations would probably continue to occupy all but the most southern areas of their contemporary summer range. While polar bears have survived previous warming phases—which indicate some resiliency to the loss of sea ice habitat—what is certain is that the present pace of warming is unprecedented and will increasingly expose polar bears to historically novel stressors.

  8. Single top quark production and properties at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Skovpen, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    The results of cross section measurements for electroweak production of top quarks in t channel, s channel, and in association with W-boson are presented from LHC and Tevatron experiments. These measurements are used to place constraints on the CKM matrix element $V_{tb}$. Top quark polarization is studied in the measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry in single top events. Anomalous structure of top quark coupling is probed.

  9. Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1989-12-01

    These lectures discuss the particle-nuclear interface -- a general introduction to the ideas and application of colored quarks in nuclear physics, color, the Pauli principle, and spin flavor correlations -- this lecture shows how the magnetic moments of hadrons relate to the underlying color degree of freedom, and the proton's spin -- a quark model perspective. This lecture reviews recent excitement which has led some to claim that in deep inelastic polarized lepton scattering very little of the spin of a polarized proton is due to its quarks. This lecture discusses the distribution functions of quarks and gluons in nucleons and nuclei, and how knowledge of these is necessary before some quark-gluon plasma searches can be analyzed. 56 refs., 2 figs

  10. Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, F.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1989-12-01

    These lectures discuss the particle-nuclear interface -- a general introduction to the ideas and application of colored quarks in nuclear physics, color, the Pauli principle, and spin flavor correlations -- this lecture shows how the magnetic moments of hadrons relate to the underlying color degree of freedom, and the proton's spin -- a quark model perspective. This lecture reviews recent excitement which has led some to claim that in deep inelastic polarized lepton scattering very little of the spin of a polarized proton is due to its quarks. This lecture discusses the distribution functions of quarks and gluons in nucleons and nuclei, and how knowledge of these is necessary before some quark-gluon plasma searches can be analyzed. 56 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    These lectures discuss the particle-nuclear interface -- a general introduction to the ideas and application of colored quarks in nuclear physics, color, the Pauli principle, and spin flavor correlations -- this lecture shows how the magnetic moments of hadrons relate to the underlying color degree of freedom, and the proton's spin -- a quark model perspective. This lecture reviews recent excitement which has led some to claim that in deep inelastic polarized lepton scattering very little of the spin of a polarized proton is due to its quarks. 38 refs

  12. Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, F.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    These lectures discuss the particle-nuclear interface -- a general introduction to the ideas and application of colored quarks in nuclear physics, color, the Pauli principle, and spin flavor correlations -- this lecture shows how the magnetic moments of hadrons relate to the underlying color degree of freedom, and the proton's spin -- a quark model perspective. This lecture reviews recent excitement which has led some to claim that in deep inelastic polarized lepton scattering very little of the spin of a polarized proton is due to its quarks. 38 refs.

  13. Constraining foreground spectrum with the projection-induced polarization for the cosmological global 21-cm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, Bang D.; Bradley, Richard F.; Burns, Professor O.

    2018-01-01

    Detecting the cosmological global (sky-averaged) 21-cm spectrum as a function of observed frequency will provide a powerful tool to study the thermal history of intergalactic medium (IGM) in the high-redshift Universe (~ 400 million years after the Big Bang). The biggest challenge in conventional ground-based total-power global 21-cm experiments is the removal of the Galactic and extragalactic synchrotron foreground (~ 1e4-1e5 K) to uncover the weak cosmological signal (~ 10-100 mK). The foreground is further corrupted by the frequency-dependent instrumental systematics. We have developed a new polarimetry-based observational approach that aims to measure the foreground emission by modulating it as a function of time through its circumpolar motion. Due to geometry, the projection of the anisotropic foreground sources onto the dual-polarized antenna induces a net foreground polarization, which is distinct from the much weaker intrinsic polarization of synchrotron sources. Instead of pointing the radio antenna at the zenith as in the conventional experiments, we point the antenna at the North Celestial Pole (NCP) and measure the projection-induced polarization modulated by the foreground's circumpolar diurnal periodicity. This temporal signature allows us to separate the dynamic foreground spectrum from the static cosmological background. In this presentation, we describe the design, construction, and initial results from the "Cosmic Twilight Polarimeter'' (CTP) as a proof-of-concept implementation of this technique. The instrument consists of a dual-polarized broadband antenna (60-120 MHz) with a two-stage thermally stabilized front-end electronics, tilted toward the NCP. The instrument is currently being evaluated at a site near Charlottesville, VA. Ultimately, the instrument will be relocated to an RFI-quiet site closer to the Geographic North Pole (GNP) to mitigate sky obstruction due to the horizon at a lower latitude.

  14. ATLAS top quark results

    CERN Document Server

    Menke, Sven; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronises, analyses of events containing top quarks allow to probe the properties of bare quarks and to test perturbative QCD. This talk will focus on recent precision top-quark measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration: Single top-quark and top-quark pair production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented, as well as measurements of top-quark pair production in association with a W or Z boson and measurements of top quark properties such as the spin correlation and W boson helicity in top quark pair events.

  15. The proton's spin: A quark model perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, F.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic moments and g{sub A}/g{sub V} provide information on the correlations among quark spins and flavors in the proton. I compare this information with the deep inelastic polarized data from EMC which has been claimed to show that very little of the proton's spin is due to the quarks. The possibility that there is significant polarization of strange quarks within protons is discussed. 38 refs.

  16. Global Pattern of The Evolutions of the Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, F.; Zhang, X.; Wang, W.; Wan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the spatial and temporal limitations of the in-situ measurements from the low altitude polar orbiting satellites or the ionospheric scan by incoherent scatter radars, the global configuration and evolution of SAPS are still not very clear. Here, we present multi-satellite observations of the evolution of subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) during the main phase of a server geomagnetic storm occurred on 31 March 2001. DMSP F12 to F15 observations indicate that the SAPS were first generated in the dusk sector at the beginning of the main phase. Then the SAPS channel expanded towards the midnight and moved to lower latitudes as the main phase went on. The peak velocity, latitudinal width, latitudinal alignment, and longitudinal span of the SAPS channels were highly dynamic during the storm main phase. The global evolution of the SAPS corresponds well with that of the region-2 field-aligned currents, which are mainly determined by the azimuthal pressure gradient of the ring current. Further studies on 37 storms and 30 isolated substorms indicate that the lifetime of the SAPS channel was proportional to the period of time for southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The SAPS channel disappeared after northward turning of the IMF. During the recovery phase, if the IMF kept northward, no SAPS channel was generated, if the IMF turned to southward again, however, SAPS channel will be generated again with lifetime proportional to the duration of the southward IMF. During isolated substorms, the SAPS channel was also controlled by IMF. The SAPS channel was generated after substorm onset and the peak drift velocity of the SAPS channel achieved its maximum during the recovery phase of the substorm. It is suggested that, SAPS channel were mainly controlled by IMF, more works should be done with observations or simulations of investigate the global patterns of the SAPS and the magnetosphere-ionosphere couplings.

  17. Quark Model Contributions to Parton Flavor Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, C. J.; Olivares, V.; Londergan, J. T.

    2003-04-01

    Simple Quark model calculations of the nucleon sea yield an excess of baru over bard anti-quarks, exactly opposite to what is observed. By calculating the effects of flavor-dependent corrections to the energies of the lowest lying four 4Q-barQ states in the sea, we investigate the extent to which the sign of the flavor asymmetry can be reversed in these models without the explicit introduction of mesonic degrees of freedom. Sea quark polarizations and charge asymmetries are also calculated.

  18. Polarization, motion, and fragmentation. Exploring the role of quarks in the nucleon through semi-inclusive longitudinal spin asymmetries at HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, Joshua George

    2009-11-01

    The motivation for this work was to improve upon prior analyses that extracted the quark helicity distributions, Δ(x), of the proton. Chapter 4 contains several new double-spin asymmetries which are results in their own right. The ph? dependence is plotted for the first time with HERMES data which is uniquely hadron separated. The hadron charge difference asymmetry is presented which, in combination with the quark helicity densities can put limits on fragmentation symmetry breaking in semi-inclusive DIS. Additionally, a novel method of unfolding yields (reducing smearing effects from detector resolution limitations and QED radiation) was developed and presented here for the first time which potentially allows new kinds of asymmetries to be constructed which were unavailable before. Also, this chapter describes the method by which the first ever three dimensionally binned SIDIS double-spin asymmetries were produced. These asymmetries, which will be used as the data inputs for the Δ(x) extraction, are valuable inputs to world fits being performed by theorists. Chapter 5 further explores this idea of fragmentation symmetry breaking with Monte Carlo studies of fragmentation functions. These studies test assumptions which are frequently made in the interpretation of asymmetries like the hadron charge difference of the prior chapter and suggest that these assumptions should be approached with some caution. Also, a technique for tuning and more importantly propagating systematic uncertainty through non-analytic Monte Carlo models, like the Lund-String model which provides an essential input to the Δ(x) extraction, is developed (orig.)

  19. Polarization, motion, and fragmentation. Exploring the role of quarks in the nucleon through semi-inclusive longitudinal spin asymmetries at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Joshua George

    2009-11-15

    The motivation for this work was to improve upon prior analyses that extracted the quark helicity distributions, {delta}(x), of the proton. Chapter 4 contains several new double-spin asymmetries which are results in their own right. The ph? dependence is plotted for the first time with HERMES data which is uniquely hadron separated. The hadron charge difference asymmetry is presented which, in combination with the quark helicity densities can put limits on fragmentation symmetry breaking in semi-inclusive DIS. Additionally, a novel method of unfolding yields (reducing smearing effects from detector resolution limitations and QED radiation) was developed and presented here for the first time which potentially allows new kinds of asymmetries to be constructed which were unavailable before. Also, this chapter describes the method by which the first ever three dimensionally binned SIDIS double-spin asymmetries were produced. These asymmetries, which will be used as the data inputs for the {delta}(x) extraction, are valuable inputs to world fits being performed by theorists. Chapter 5 further explores this idea of fragmentation symmetry breaking with Monte Carlo studies of fragmentation functions. These studies test assumptions which are frequently made in the interpretation of asymmetries like the hadron charge difference of the prior chapter and suggest that these assumptions should be approached with some caution. Also, a technique for tuning and more importantly propagating systematic uncertainty through non-analytic Monte Carlo models, like the Lund-String model which provides an essential input to the {delta}(x) extraction, is developed (orig.)

  20. Global polar geospatial information service retrieval based on search engine and ontology reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nengcheng; E, Dongcheng; Di, Liping; Gong, Jianya; Chen, Zeqiang

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the access precision of polar geospatial information service on web, a new methodology for retrieving global spatial information services based on geospatial service search and ontology reasoning is proposed, the geospatial service search is implemented to find the coarse service from web, the ontology reasoning is designed to find the refined service from the coarse service. The proposed framework includes standardized distributed geospatial web services, a geospatial service search engine, an extended UDDI registry, and a multi-protocol geospatial information service client. Some key technologies addressed include service discovery based on search engine and service ontology modeling and reasoning in the Antarctic geospatial context. Finally, an Antarctica multi protocol OWS portal prototype based on the proposed methodology is introduced.

  1. Measurements of the top-quark properties with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The top-quark discovered in 1995 is the third-generation up-type quark of the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Precise measurements of the top-quark properties at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies are of great interest, providing an opportunity to test the SM and to search for new physics in the top-quark sector. This review covers recent results from the ATLAS experiment on measurements of top-quark mass, polarization, spin correlations between top-quark and antitop-quark, $t\\bar{t}\\gamma$ cross section, $W$-boson polarization in top-quark decays and searches for new physics in events with top-quarks in the final state. Measurements have been performed on data collected by the ATLAS detector corresponding up to 5 $fb^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity at centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV.

  2. PollyNET: a global network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, H.; Kanitz, T.; Engelmann, R.; Althausen, D.; Heese, B.; Komppula, M.; Preißler, J.; Tesche, M.; Ansmann, A.; Wandinger, U.; Lim, J.-H.; Ahn, J. Y.; Stachlewska, I. S.; Amiridis, V.; Marinou, E.; Seifert, P.; Hofer, J.; Skupin, A.; Schneider, F.; Bohlmann, S.; Foth, A.; Bley, S.; Pfüller, A.; Giannakaki, E.; Lihavainen, H.; Viisanen, Y.; Hooda, R. K.; Pereira, S.; Bortoli, D.; Wagner, F.; Mattis, I.; Janicka, L.; Markowicz, K. M.; Achtert, P.; Artaxo, P.; Pauliquevis, T.; Souza, R. A. F.; Sharma, V. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Beukes, J. P.; Sun, J. Y.; Rohwer, E. G.; Deng, R.; Mamouri, R. E.; Zamorano, F.

    2015-10-01

    A global vertically resolved aerosol data set covering more than 10 years of observations at more than 20 measurement sites distributed from 63° N to 52° S and 72° W to 124° E has been achieved within the Raman and polarization lidar network PollyNET. This network consists of portable, remote-controlled multiwavelength-polarization-Raman lidars (Polly) for automated and continuous 24/7 observations of clouds and aerosols. PollyNET is an independent, voluntary, and scientific network. All Polly lidars feature a standardized instrument design and apply unified calibration, quality control, and data analysis. The observations are processed in near-real time without manual intervention, and are presented online at de"target="_blank">http://polly.tropos.de. The paper gives an overview of the observations on four continents and two research vessels obtained with eight Polly systems. The specific aerosol types at these locations (mineral dust, smoke, dust-smoke and other dusty mixtures, urban haze, and volcanic ash) are identified by their Ångström exponent, lidar ratio, and depolarization ratio. The vertical aerosol distribution at the PollyNET locations is discussed on the basis of more than 55 000 automatically retrieved 30 min particle backscatter coefficient profiles at 532 nm. A seasonal analysis of measurements at selected sites revealed typical and extraordinary aerosol conditions as well as seasonal differences. These studies show the potential of PollyNET to support the establishment of a global aerosol climatology that covers the entire troposphere.

  3. ATLAS Top Quark Results

    CERN Document Server

    Black, Kevin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. This talk will present highlights of a few recent precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside top quark properties measurements. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  4. Measurement of top quark polarization in top-antitop events from proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Vrba, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 23 (2013), "232002-1"-"232002-6" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : top * polarization * scattering * conservation law * CP * violation * pair production * ATLAS * CERN LHC Coll * dilepton * final state Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013

  5. Quark confinement in a constituent quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langfeld, K.; Rho, M.

    1995-01-01

    On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model's phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density

  6. Quark confinement in a constituent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langfeld, K.; Rho, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique

    1995-07-01

    On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model`s phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density.

  7. Measurement of top quark polarization in tt¯ lepton+jets final states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brochmann, M.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Cuth, J.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franc, J.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Gogota, O.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M. -A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Savitskyi, M.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schott, M.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shkola, O.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y. -T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J. M.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.

    2017-01-09

    We present a measurement of top quark polarization in t ¯ t pair production in p ¯ p collisions at √ s = 1.96 TeV using data corresponding to 9.7 fb -1 of integrated luminosity recorded with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We consider final states containing a lepton and at least three jets. The polarization is measured through the distribution of lepton angles along three axes: the beam axis, the helicity axis, and the transverse axis normal to the t ¯ t production plane. This is the first measurement of top quark polarization at the Tevatron using lepton + jet final states and the first measurement of the transverse polarization in t ¯ t production. The observed distributions are consistent with standard model predictions of nearly no polarization.

  8. Measurements and searches with top quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    to search for charged or neutral Higgs bosons. Depending on its mass, the charged Higgs boson is expected to decay either into top quarks or be the decay product of a top quark. For masses below the top quark mass, the top decay into a charged Higgs boson and a b quark can occur at a certain rate, additionally to the decays into W bosons and a b quark. The different decays of W and charged Higgs bosons can lead to deviations of the observed final number of events in certain final states with respect to the Standard Model expectation. A global search for charged Higgs bosons in top quark pair events is presented in this thesis, resulting in the most stringent limits to-date. Besides the decay of top quarks into charged Higgs or W bosons, new physics can also show up in the quark part of the decay. While in the Standard Model the top quark decays with a rate of about 100% into a W boson and a b quark, there are models where the top quark can decay into a W boson and a non-b quark. The ratio of branching fractions in which the top quark decays into a b quark over the branching fractions in which the top quark decays into all quarks is measured as part of this thesis, yielding the most precise measurement today. Furthermore, the Standard Model top quark pair production cross section is essential to be known precisely since the top quark pair production is the main background for t(bar t)H production and many other Higgs and beyond the Standard Model searches. However, not only the search or the test of the Standard Model itself make the precise measurement of the top quark pair production cross section interesting. As the cross section is calculated with high accuracy in perturbative QCD, a comparison of the measurement to the theory expectation yields the possibility to extract the top quark mass from the cross section measurement. Although many dedicated techniques exist to measure the top quark mass, the extraction from the cross section represents an important

  9. Measurements and searches with top quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne [Univ. of Wuppertal (Germany)

    2008-08-01

    channels to search for charged or neutral Higgs bosons. Depending on its mass, the charged Higgs boson is expected to decay either into top quarks or be the decay product of a top quark. For masses below the top quark mass, the top decay into a charged Higgs boson and a b quark can occur at a certain rate, additionally to the decays into W bosons and a b quark. The different decays of W and charged Higgs bosons can lead to deviations of the observed final number of events in certain final states with respect to the Standard Model expectation. A global search for charged Higgs bosons in top quark pair events is presented in this thesis, resulting in the most stringent limits to-date. Besides the decay of top quarks into charged Higgs or W bosons, new physics can also show up in the quark part of the decay. While in the Standard Model the top quark decays with a rate of about 100% into a W boson and a b quark, there are models where the top quark can decay into a W boson and a non-b quark. The ratio of branching fractions in which the top quark decays into a b quark over the branching fractions in which the top quark decays into all quarks is measured as part of this thesis, yielding the most precise measurement today. Furthermore, the Standard Model top quark pair production cross section is essential to be known precisely since the top quark pair production is the main background for t$\\bar{t}$H production and many other Higgs and beyond the Standard Model searches. However, not only the search or the test of the Standard Model itself make the precise measurement of the top quark pair production cross section interesting. As the cross section is calculated with high accuracy in perturbative QCD, a comparison of the measurement to the theory expectation yields the possibility to extract the top quark mass from the cross section measurement. Although many dedicated techniques exist to measure the top quark mass, the extraction from the cross section represents an important

  10. Quark helicity distributions in the nucleon for up, down, and strange quarks from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Ammosov, V. V.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Bailey, P.; Baturin, V.; Baumgarten, C.; Beckmann, M.; Belostotski, S.; Bernreuther, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Blümlein, J.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Borysenko, A.; Bouwhuis, M.; Brack, J.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Capitani, G. P.; Chiang, H. C.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; de Leo, R.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Devitsin, E.; di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Ely, J.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Felawka, L.; Fox, B.; Franz, J.; Frullani, S.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Garrow, K.; Garutti, E.; Gaskell, D.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Graw, G.; Grebeniouk, O.; Greeniaus, L. G.; Gregor, I. M.; Hafidi, K.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Heesbeen, D.; Henoch, M.; Hertenberger, R.; Hesselink, W. H.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Iarygin, G.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Kaiser, R.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Königsmann, K.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Laziev, A.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Lindemann, T.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lipka, K.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, J.; Maiheu, B.; Makins, N. C.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Masoli, F.; Mexner, V.; Meyners, N.; Mikloukho, O.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Oganessyan, K.; Ohsuga, H.; Pickert, N.; Potashov, S.; Potterveld, D. H.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Savin, I.; Scarlett, C.; Schäfer, A.; Schill, C.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Schwind, A.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Seitz, B.; Shanidze, R.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Simani, M. C.; Sinram, K.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stösslein, U.; Tait, P.; Tanaka, H.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Tkabladze, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P.; van der Steenhoven, G.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vikhrov, V.; Vincter, M. G.; Vogel, C.; Vogt, M.; Volmer, J.; Weiskopf, C.; Wendland, J.; Wilbert, J.; Smit, G. Ybeles; Yen, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zohrabian, H.; Zupranski, P.

    2005-01-01

    Polarized deep-inelastic scattering data on longitudinally polarized hydrogen and deuterium targets have been used to determine double-spin asymmetries of cross sections. Inclusive and semi-inclusive asymmetries for the production of positive and negative pions from hydrogen were obtained in a reanalysis of previously published data. Inclusive and semi-inclusive asymmetries for the production of negative and positive pions and kaons were measured on a polarized deuterium target. The separate helicity densities for the up and down quarks and the anti-up, anti-down, and strange sea quarks were computed from these asymmetries in a “leading order” QCD analysis. The polarization of the up-quark is positive and that of the down-quark is negative. All extracted sea quark polarizations are consistent with zero, and the light quark sea helicity densities are flavor symmetric within the experimental uncertainties. First and second moments of the extracted quark helicity densities in the measured range are consistent with fits of inclusive data.

  11. One-loop lattice artifacts of a dynamical charm quark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athenodorou, Andreas; Sommer, Rainer

    2011-10-01

    For a few observables in O(a) improved lattice QCD, we compute discretization effects arising from the vacuum polarization of a heavy quark at one-loop order. In particular, the force between static quarks, the running coupling in the Schroedinger functional and a related quantity, anti υ, are considered. Results show that the cutoff effects of a dynamical charm quark are typically smaller than those present in the pure gauge theory. This perturbative result is a good indication that dynamical charm quarks are feasible already now. (orig.)

  12. One-loop lattice artifacts of a dynamical charm quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athenodorou, Andreas; Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2011-10-15

    For a few observables in O(a) improved lattice QCD, we compute discretization effects arising from the vacuum polarization of a heavy quark at one-loop order. In particular, the force between static quarks, the running coupling in the Schroedinger functional and a related quantity, anti {upsilon}, are considered. Results show that the cutoff effects of a dynamical charm quark are typically smaller than those present in the pure gauge theory. This perturbative result is a good indication that dynamical charm quarks are feasible already now. (orig.)

  13. Global drivers of the stratospheric polar vortex via nonlinear causal discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, M.; Runge, J.; Coumou, D.

    2016-12-01

    The stratospheric polar vortex plays a major role in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes, especially in driving extreme weather conditions. Many different global drivers, from Arctic sea ice to tropical climate patterns, are hypothesized to influence its stability, including linear and nonlinear mechanisms. Here a novel causal discovery approach, extending previous work [1], that is adapted to the particular challenges posed by such a high-dimensional dataset comprised of multiple, possibly nonlinearly coupled time series is demonstrated. While links in the reconstructed network can be called causal only with respect to the set of analyzed variables, the absence of causal links allows to assess where physical mechanisms are unlikely.The present work confirms recent results obtained with a similar, but linear, approach [2], regarding the impact of Barents and Kara sea ice concentrations, and extends the analysis also to tropical drivers to cover more proposed mechanisms. [1] Jakob Runge, Vladimir Petoukhov, and Jürgen Kurths, 2014: Quantifying the Strength and Delay of Climatic Interactions: The Ambiguities of Cross Correlation and a Novel Measure Based on Graphical Models. J. Climate 27, 720-739, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00159.1.[2] Marlene Kretschmer, Dim Coumou, Jonathan F. Donges, and Jakob Runge, 2016: Using Causal Effect Networks to Analyze Different Arctic Drivers of Midlatitude Winter Circulation. J. Climate 29, 4069-4081, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0654.1.

  14. Observation of Global Hyperon Polarization in Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Upsal, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Federič, Pavol; Rusňák, Jan; Rusňáková, O.; Šimko, Miroslav; Šumbera, Michal; Vértési, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 967, č. 11 (2017), s. 760-763 ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15001; GA MŠk LM2015054 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR collaboration * heavy ion collision s * quark-gluon plasma Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.916, year: 2016

  15. The parton distributions in nuclei and in polarized nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    The emerging information was reviewed on the way quark and anti-quark, and gluon distributions are modified in nuclei relative to free nucleons. Some implications of the recent data on polarized leptoproduction are discussed. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  16. CONFERENCE: Quark matter 88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Maurice

    1988-01-01

    The 'Quark Matter' Conference caters for physicists studying nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The hope is that relativistic (high energy) heavy ion collisions allow formation of the long-awaited quark-gluon plasma, where the inter-quark 'colour' force is no longer confined inside nucleon-like dimensions

  17. Top quark measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of top quarks from Run-I and Run-II of the LHC are presented. Results on dif- ferential and inclusive top quark production cross sections, measured by the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments, and measurements of top quark properties and mass are reported.

  18. Top quark properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since the top quark was discovered at Tevatron in 1995, many top quark properties have been measured. However, the top quark is still interesting due to unique features which originate from the extremely heavy mass, and providing various test grounds on the Standard Model as well as searches for a new physics.

  19. Top quark property measurements at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkings, Richard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of top quark properties performed at the Large Hadron Collider are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on top-pair charge asymmetries, spin correlations and polarization measurements performed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. The measurements are generally in good agreement with predictions from next-to-leading-order QCD calculations, and no deviations from Standard Model expectations have been seen.

  20. Measurements of spin alignment of vector mesons and global polarization of hyperons with ALICE at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2018-02-01

    We present the measurements related to global polarization of Λ hyperons and spin alignment of K*0 vector mesons at mid-rapidity for Pb-Pb collisions at = 2.76 TeV using the ALICE detector at the LHC. The global polarization measurements are carried out with respect to the first order event plane while the spin alignment measurements are carried out with respect to the production plane. No global polarization signal for Λ is observed for 5-15% and 15-50% central Pb-Pb collisions. The spin density matrix element ρ00 is found to have values slightly below ⅓ at low transverse momentum (pT) for K*0 mesons, while it is consistent with ⅓ (no spin alignment) at higher pT. No spin alignment is observed for K*0 in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV and for the spin zero hadron K0S in 20-40% Pb-Pb collisions at = 2.76 TeV.

  1. Predicting 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, G.M.; Douglas, D.C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, T.L.; Stirling, I.; Mauritzen, Mette; Born, E.W.; Wiig, O.; Deweaver, E.; Serreze, Mark C.; Belikov, Stanislav; Holland, M.M.; Maslanik, J.; Aars, Jon; Bailey, D.A.; Derocher, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Projections of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) sea ice habitat distribution in the polar basin during the 21st century were developed to understand the consequences of anticipated sea ice reductions on polar bear populations. We used location data from satellitecollared polar bears and environmental data (e.g., bathymetry, distance to coastlines, and sea ice) collected from 1985 to 1995 to build resource selection functions (RSFs). RSFs described habitats that polar bears preferred in summer, autumn, winter, and spring. When applied to independent data from 1996 to 2006, the RSFs consistently identified habitats most frequently used by polar bears. We applied the RSFs to monthly maps of 21st-century sea ice concentration projected by 10 general circulation models (GCMs) used in the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, under the A1B greenhouse gas forcing scenario. Despite variation in their projections, all GCMs indicated habitat losses in the polar basin during the 21st century. Losses in the highest-valued RSF habitat (optimal habitat) were greatest in the southern seas of the polar basin, especially the Chukchi and Barents seas, and least along the Arctic Ocean shores of Banks Island to northern Greenland. Mean loss of optimal polar bear habitat was greatest during summer; from an observed 1.0 million km2 in 1985-1995 (baseline) to a projected multi-model mean of 0.32 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-68% change). Projected winter losses of polar bear habitat were less: from 1.7 million km2 in 1985-1995 to 1.4 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-17% change). Habitat losses based on GCM multi-model means may be conservative; simulated rates of habitat loss during 1985-2006 from many GCMs were less than the actual observed rates of loss. Although a reduction in the total amount of optimal habitat will likely reduce polar bear populations, exact relationships between habitat losses and population demographics remain unknown. Density and energetic

  2. Penile density and globally used chemicals in Canadian and Greenland polar bears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dyck, Markus; Rigét, Frank F

    2015-01-01

    -range dispersed and to biomagnify to very high concentrations in the tissues of Arctic apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). A major concern relating to EDCs is their effects on vital organ-tissues such as bone and it is possible that EDCs represent a more serious challenge to the species......' survival than the more conventionally proposed prey reductions linked to climate change. We therefore analyzed penile bone mineral density (BMD) as a key phenotype for reproductive success in 279 polar bear samples born 1990-2000 representing eight polar bear subpopulations. Since EDC concentrations were...... not available from the same specimens, we compared BMD with published literature information on EDC concentrations. Latitudinal and longitudinal BMD and EDC gradients were clearly observed, with Western Hudson bears having the highest BMD and lowest EDCs, and North East Greenland polar bears carrying the lowest...

  3. Scattering amplitudes with off-shell quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hameren, A.; Kutak, K.; Salwa, T.

    2013-11-01

    We present a prescription to calculate manifestly gauge invariant tree-level scattering amplitudes for arbitrary scattering processes with off-shell initial-state quarks within the kinematics of high-energy scattering. Consider the embedding of the process, in which the off-shell u-quark is replaced by an auxiliary quark qA, and an auxiliary photon γA is added in final state. The momentum flow is as if qA carries momentum k1 and the momentum of γA is identical to 0. γA only interacts via Eq. (3), and qA further only interacts with gluons via normal quark-gluon vertices. qA-line propagators are interpreted as iℓ̸1/(2ℓ1ṡp), and are diagonal in color space. Sum the squared amplitude over helicities of the auxiliary photon. For one helicity, simultaneously assign to the external qA-quark and to γA the spinor and polarization vector |ℓ1], {, {}. Multiply the amplitude with √{-x1k12/2}. For the rest, normal Feynman rules apply.Some remarks are at order. Regarding the momentum flow, we stress, as in [20], that momentum components proportional to k1 do not contribute in the eikonal propagators, and there is a freedom in the choice of the momenta flowing through qA-lines.Regarding the sum over helicities, one might argue that only one of them leads to a non-zero result for given helicity of the final-state quark, but there may, for example, be several identical such quarks in the final state with different helicities.In case of more than one quark in the final state with the same flavor as the off-shell quark, the rules as such admit graphs with γA-propagators. These must be omitted. They do not survive the limit Λ→∞ in the derivation, since the γA-propagators are suppressed by 1/Λ.The rules regarding the qA-line could be elaborated further like in [20], leading to simplified vertices for gluons attached to this line and reducing the numerator of the eikonal propagators to 1. Formulated as above, however, the prescription is more straightforward and

  4. Spatial and temporal distributions of Martian north polar cold spots before, during, and after the global dust storm of 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, C.; Titus, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    In the 1970s, Mariner and Viking observed features in the Mars northern polar region that were a few hundred kilometers in diameter with 20 fj,m brightness temperatures as low as 130 K (considerably below C02 ice sublimation temperatures). Over the past decade, studies have shown that these areas (commonly called "cold spots") are usually due to emissivity effects of frost deposits and occasionally to active C02 snowstorms. Three Mars years of Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer data were used to observe autumn and wintertime cold spot activity within the polar regions. Many cold spots formed on or near scarps of the perennial cap, probably induced by adiabatic cooling due to orographic lifting. These topographically associated cold spots were often smaller than those that were not associated with topography. We determined that initial grain sizes within the cold spots were on the order of a few millimeters, assuming the snow was uncontaminated by dust or water ice. On average, the half-life of the cold spots was 5 Julian days. The Mars global dust storm in 2001 significantly affected cold spot activity in the north polar region. Though overall perennial cap cold spot activity seemed unaffected, the distribution of cold spots did change by a decrease in the number of topographically associated cold spots and an increase in those not associated with topography. We propose that the global dust storm affected the processes that form cold spots and discuss how the global dust storm may have affected these processes. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  6. Chiral quark dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkofer, R.; Reinhardt, H.

    1995-01-01

    This book is an introduction to chiral quark dynamics. In the first chapter the reduction of low-energy QCD to QFD with the derivation of effective low-energy quark interactions and invariance properties is described. Then the effective meson theory is introduced. In this connection the functional integral bosonization of the quark-antiquark interaction, the small amplitude expansion of the action, the dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry, the Bethe-Salpeter equation for pseudoscalar mesons, the gauged linear σ model, the Skyrme model, and the chiral anomaly are considered. Then baryons are described as chiral solitons. Finally baryons are considered as bound states of diquarks and quarks. (HSI)

  7. Quark diquark symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.M. de

    1980-01-01

    Assuming the baryons are made of quark-diquark pairs, the wave functions for the 126 allowed ground states are written. The quark creation and annihilations operators are generalized to describe the quark-diquark structure in terms of a parameter σ. Assuming that all quark-quark interactions are mediated by gluons transforming like an octet of vector mesons, the effective Hamiltonian and the baryon masses as constraint equations for the elements of the mass matrix is written. The symmetry is the SU(6) sub(quark)x SU(21) sub(diquark) broken by quark-quark interactions respectively invariant under U(6), U(2) sub(spin), U(3) and also interactions transforming like the eighth and the third components of SU(3). In the limit of no quark-diquark structure (σ = 0), the ground state masses is titted to within 1% of the experimental data, except for the Δ(1232), where the error is almost 2%. Expanding the decuplet mass equations in terms of σ and keeping terms only up to the second order, this error is reduced to 67%. (Author) [pt

  8. The Quark - A Decade Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James T.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews theoretical principles underlying the quark model. Indicates that the agreement with experimental results and the understanding of the quark-quark force are two hurdles for the model to survive in the future. (CC)

  9. Segregation of quarks within the neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziembowski, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the nucleon form factor and structure function seem to indicate an inhomogeneous distribution of flavor, charge and spin within the nucleon. It is argued that the ordinary three-quark model with a spin-spin force of the type suggested by QCD can explain the inhomogeneity as seen at different resolutions. This agreement suggests a specific bound quark picture of the nucleon structure with a positive core of u and d quarks in a spin-O state of ms radius 0.17 ± 0.01 fm 2 and an outer layer of a linear size ∼ 1 fm where the polarized u (in the proton) or d (in the neutron) is orbiting. 21 refs., 3 figs

  10. Nucleon described by the chiral soliton in the chiral quark soliton model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, T.; Goeke, K.

    1998-02-01

    We give a survey of recent development and applications of the chiral quark soliton model (also called the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio soliton model) with N f=2 and N f=3 quark flavors for the structure of baryons. The model is an effective chiral quark model obtained from the instanton liquid model of the quantum chromodynamics. Mesons appear as quark-antiquark excitations and baryons arise as non-topological solitons with three valence quarks and a polarized Dirac sea. In this model, a wide variety of observables of baryons is considered.

  11. Nucleon described by the chiral soliton in the chiral quark soliton model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, T.; Goeke, K. [Ruhr-Univ., Bochum (Germany). Inst. fur Theor. Phys. II

    1998-02-02

    We give a survey of recent development and applications of the chiral quark soliton model (also called the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio soliton model) with N{sub f} = 2 and N{sub f} = 3 quark flavors for the structure of baryons. The model is an effective chiral quark model obtained from the instanton liquid model of the quantum chromodynamics. Mesons appear as quark-antiquark excitations and baryons arise as non-topological solitons with three valence quarks and a polarized Dirac sea. In this model, a wide variety of observables of baryons is considered. (orig.). 12 refs.

  12. Subsidence of the South Polar Terrain and global tectonic of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Enceladus is the smallest celestial body in the Solar System where volcanic and tectonic activities are observed. Every second, the mass of ˜200 kg is ejected into space from the South Polar Terrain (SPT) - [1]. The loss of matter from the body's interior should lead to global compression of the crust (like on Mercury). Typical effects of compression are: thrust faults, folding and subduction. However, such forms are not dominant on Enceladus. We propose here special dynamical process that could explain this paradox. Our hypothesis states that the mass loss from SPT is the main driving mechanism of the following tectonic processes: subsidence of SPT, flow in the mantle and motion of adjacent tectonic plates. The hypothesis is presented in [2] and [3]. We suggest that the loss of the volatiles results in a void, an instability, and motion of solid matter to fill the void. The motion includes: Subsidence of the 'lithosphere' of SPT. Flow of the matter in the mantle. Motion of plates adjacent to SPT towards the active region. Methods and results: The numerical model of the subsidence process is developed. It is based on the model of thermal convection in the mantle. Special boundary conditions are applied, that could simulate subsidence of SPT. If emerging void is being filled by the subsidence of SPT only, then the velocity of subsidence is ˜0.05 mmṡyr-1. However, numerical calculations indicate that all three types of motion are usually important. The role of a given motion depends on the viscosity distribution. Generally, for most of the models the subsidence is ˜0.02 mmṡyr-1, but mantle flow and plates' motion also play a role in filling the void. The preliminary results of the numerical model indicate also that the velocity of adjacent plates could be ˜0.02 mmṡyr-1 for the Newtonian rheology. Note that in our model the reduction of the crust area is not a result of compression but it is a result of the plate sinking. Therefore the

  13. Heavy-Quark Production

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    We review the present theoretical and experimental status of heavy quark production in high-energy collisions. In particular, we cover hadro- and photoproduction at fixed target experiments, at HERA and at the hadron colliders, as well as aspects of heavy quark production in e+e- collisions at the Z0 peak.

  14. Quark radiation from LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Like any other electrically charged particles, quarks should give out electromagnetic radiation (photons) when they vibrate. One of the physics results from CERN's LEP collider is the first clear observation of this quark radiation from electron-positron collisions. At lower energies this radiation could only be inferred

  15. Top quark theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laenen, E.

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of a number of top quark properties such as its mass and its couplings are reviewed. Essential aspects in the theoretical description of top quark production, singly, in pairs and in association, as well as its decay related to spin and angular correlations are discussed.

  16. Chiral quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this talk I review studies of hadron properties in bosonized chiral quark models for the quark flavor dynamics. Mesons are constructed from Bethe–Salpeter equations and baryons emerge as chiral solitons. Such models require regularization and I show that the two-fold Pauli–Villars regularization scheme not only fully ...

  17. Penile density and globally used chemicals in Canadian and Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Dyck, Markus; Rigét, Frank F; Beck Jensen, Jens-Erik; Hyldstrup, Lars; Letcher, Robert J; Gustavson, Kim; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Dietz, Rune

    2015-02-01

    Industrially produced chemicals have been a major environmental concern across our entire Globe since the onset of rapid industrial development around the early 1900. Many of the substances being used are known to be endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and are also known to be long-range dispersed and to biomagnify to very high concentrations in the tissues of Arctic apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). A major concern relating to EDCs is their effects on vital organ-tissues such as bone and it is possible that EDCs represent a more serious challenge to the species' survival than the more conventionally proposed prey reductions linked to climate change. We therefore analyzed penile bone mineral density (BMD) as a key phenotype for reproductive success in 279 polar bear samples born 1990-2000 representing eight polar bear subpopulations. Since EDC concentrations were not available from the same specimens, we compared BMD with published literature information on EDC concentrations. Latitudinal and longitudinal BMD and EDC gradients were clearly observed, with Western Hudson bears having the highest BMD and lowest EDCs, and North East Greenland polar bears carrying the lowest BMD and highest EDCs. A BMD vs. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) regression analysis showed that BMD decreased as a function of the eight subpopulations' PCB concentrations and this relationship was close to being significant (p=0.10, R(2)=0.39). Risk quotient (RQ) estimation demonstrated that PCBs could be in a range that may lead to disruption of normal reproduction and development. It is therefore likely that EDCs directly affect development and bone density in polar bears. Canadian bears had in general the best health and the North East Greenland subpopulation being at the highest risk of having negative health effects. While reductions in BMD is in general unhealthy, reductions in penile BMD could lead to increased risk of species extinction because of mating and subsequent

  18. Heavy quark theory and b-polarisation at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.; Korner, J.; Phillips, R.J.N.; Summers, D.J.

    1992-03-01

    According to the standard model, b quarks from the Z resonance e + e - → Z → b-barb have almost complete longitudinal polarization. A small transverse polarization of order 0.02 is predicted in the scattering plane; there is no polarization normal to the plane if we neglect γ - Z interference and loop corrections. The question we address here is whether this big polarization can be exploited. Does it lead to new measurable effects and if so what can be learned from them? We must first determine whether b-quark polarization can survive hadronization to give b-hadron polarization, and if so how to measure the latter through b-hadron decays. Finally we must estimate the size of the effects from models. (author)

  19. Spin polarization in high density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providênci, Constanca

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the occurrence of a ferromagnetic phase transition in high density hadronic matter (e.g., in the interior of a neutron star). This could be induced by a four-fermion interaction analogous to the one which is responsible for chiral symmetry breaking in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model...... the so-called 2 flavor super-conducting phase to the ferromagnetic phase arises. The color-flavor-locked phase may be completely hidden by the FP....

  20. Hard quark-quark scattering with exclusive reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, D.S.; Bunce, G.M.; Carroll, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    We have begun a program designed to study hard quark-quark scattering with exclusive reactions, focusing on quasi-elastic two-body reactions with all possible quark flavor exchanges. Examples are π - p → π - p, rho - p, π + Δ - , K + Σ - , or KΛ. Of the two-body exclusives, only elastic scattering had been measured at such large t previous to our experiment. By comparing the relative importance of different final states, the energy dependence of the production ratios of these states, the prominence of resonances such as rho - over background in this region, and measuring polarizations where accessible, we have collected a large body of data on hard scattering in a completely new domain. Previously, essential all short distance QCD tests have been for inclusive processes. We have taken data with both negative and positive incident beam at 10 GeV/c on a hydrogen target and will present the first results, for π - p → π - p and rho - p at THETA/sub cm/ = 90 0 , -t = 9 GeV 2 /c 2 . The apparatus consists of a magnetic spectrometer, with Cerenkov particle identification, which selects stable charged particles (protons in this case) at high momentum near 90 0 in the center-of-mass. A large aperture array of PWCs observes the recoil particle or charged decay products. Cross sections are extremely low, approximately a 1 nb/(GeV/c) 2 for elastic scattering. We will report on a sample of more than 1000 π - p elastic events, and on rho - p, where the rho - decay distribution was observed. We find a surprisingly large rho - p cross section in this large momentum transfer region, with rho - p about half the elastic cross section, and a striking spin alignment of the rho -

  1. Quark confinement and the quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuti, J.

    1977-01-01

    The CERN-JINR School of Physics is meant to give young experimental physicists and introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. The purpose of the lectures contained in this paper is to discuss recent work on the quark model and its applications to hadron spectroscopy and some high-energy phenomena. (Auth.)

  2. Quark i mattoni del mondo

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1983-01-01

    Quark rossi, verdi e blu ; quark dotati di stranezza e di incanto ; quark 'su' e 'giù' : sembra che i fisici delle particelle giochino a confondere la curiosità del profano, con queste denominazioni fantasiose. Che cosa significano ? e, soprattutto, i quark sono i costituenti davvero elementari della materia ?

  3. Top Quark Measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Yazgan, Efe

    2015-01-01

    Measurements involving top quarks provide important tests of QCD. A selected set of top quark measurements in CMS including the strong coupling constant, top quark pole mass, constraints on parton distribution functions, top quark pair differential cross sections, ttbar+0 and >0 jet events, top quark mass studied using various kinematic variables in different phase-space regions, and alternative top quark mass measurements is presented. The evolution of expected uncertainties in future LHC runs for the standard and alternative top quark mass measurements is also presented.

  4. Top quark measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00041686; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, it allows us to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. Highlights of a few recent precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data will be presented: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside measurements of top-quark properties, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top-quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top-quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  5. Top quark measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Grancagnolo, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. This talk will present highlights of a few recent precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside top quark properties measurements. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  6. Quark model and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisovich, V.V.

    1989-06-01

    Using the language of the quarks and gluons for description of the soft hadron physics it is necessary to take into account two characteristic phenomena which prevent one from usage of QCD Lagrangian in the straightforward way, chiral symmetry breaking, and confinement of colour particles. The topics discussed in this context are: QCD in the domain of soft processes, phenomenological Lagrangian for soft processes and exotic mesons, spectroscopy of low-lying hadrons (mesons, baryons and mesons with heavy quarks - c,b -), confinement forces, spectral integration over quark masses. (author) 3 refs.; 19 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Precipitation and total power consumption in the ionosphere: Global MHD simulation results compared with Polar and SNOE observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palmroth

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We compare the ionospheric electron precipitation morphology and power from a global MHD simulation (GUMICS-4 with direct measurements of auroral energy flux during a pair of substorms on 28-29 March 1998. The electron precipitation power is computed directly from global images of auroral light observed by the Polar satellite ultraviolet imager (UVI. Independent of the Polar UVI measurements, the electron precipitation energy is determined from SNOE satellite observations on the thermospheric nitric oxide (NO density. We find that the GUMICS-4 simulation reproduces the spatial variation of the global aurora rather reliably in the sense that the onset of the substorm is shown in GUMICS-4 simulation as enhanced precipitation in the right location at the right time. The total integrated precipitation power in the GUMICS-4 simulation is in quantitative agreement with the observations during quiet times, i.e., before the two substorm intensifications. We find that during active times the GUMICS-4 integrated precipitation is a factor of 5 lower than the observations indicate. However, we also find factor of 2-3 differences in the precipitation power among the three different UVI processing methods tested here. The findings of this paper are used to complete an earlier objective, in which the total ionospheric power deposition in the simulation is forecasted from a mathematical expression, which is a function of solar wind density, velocity and magnetic field. We find that during this event, the correlation coefficient between the outcome of the forecasting expression and the simulation results is 0.83. During the event, the simulation result on the total ionospheric power deposition agrees with observations (correlation coefficient 0.8 and the AE index (0.85.

  8. POLAR-PALOOZA Polar Researchers and Arctic Residents Engage, Inform and Inspire Diverse Public Audiences by sharing Polar Science and Global Connections during the International Polar Year, using a New Model of Informal Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

    2006-12-01

    (Please note that the POLAR-PALOOZA initiative described in this Abstract is-as of 9/7/2006-"pending" for possible support from NSF and NASA as part of this year's IPY solicitation. Subject to decisions expected by 9/30, this presentation would either be withdrawn, or amplified with specific participants, locations and dates.) Despite the success of well-regarded movies like "March of the Penguins", the polar regions remain a great unknown for most people. Public knowledge about the Arctic and Antarctic, and the critical role of the Poles in the entire Earth system, is nonexistent, incomplete or burdened with misperceptions. The International Polar Years of 2007-2009-and associated "I*Y" science years such as IHY, IYPE and eGY-present a unique opportunity to change this. The people who can best effect this change are those who know the Poles best, through living or working there. Based on innovative but proven models, POLAR-PALOOZA will use three complementary strategies to engage, inform and inspire large public audiences. (1) A national tour, under the working title "Stories from a Changing Planet", will include in-person presentations at science centers, museums, libraries and schools across North America, including Canada and Mexico. The presentations will be augmented by High Definition Video taped on location at the Poles, audio and video podcasts, and special education and outreach activities for targeted audiences. "Stories from a Changing Planet" will provide diverse audiences with an exciting opportunity to meet and interact directly with polar experts, and to appreciate why the Poles and the research done there are directly relevant to their lives. (2) The "HiDef Video Science Story Capture Corps" is a team of professional videographers, using the latest generation of low-cost, high-quality cameras, deployed to both Poles. They will document the work of multiple researchers and projects, rather than focusing on one topic for a single broadcast program

  9. Strong interactions - quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, M.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1979-01-01

    The variational method is used for the PSI and upsilon family spectra reproduction from the quark model, through several phenomenological potentials, viz.: linear, linear plus coulomb term and logarithmic. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Color quarks and octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guersey, F.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical framework based on octonions is developed for the description of the color quark scheme in which quarks are unobservable, the color SU(3) is exact, and only color singlets correspond to observable hadrons. The fictitious Hilbert space in which quarks operate is taken to be a space of vectors with octonion components. This space admits as a gauge group an exact SU(3) identified with the color SU/sub C/(3). Because of the nonassociativity of the underlying algebra, nonsinglet representations of SU/sub C/(3) are unobservable, while the subspace of color singlets satisfies associativity along with conditions for observability. Octonion quark fields satisfy the commutation relations of parafermions of order 3, leading to the correct SU(6) multiplets for hadrons. (U.S.)

  11. The quark bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, P.; Kuti, J.

    1978-01-01

    The quark bag model is reviewed here with particular emphasis on spectroscopic applications and the discussion of exotic objects as baryonium, gluonium, and the quark phase of matter. The physical vacuum is pictured in the model as a two-phase medium. In normal phase of the vacuum, outside hadrons, the propagation of quark and gluon fields is forbidden. When small bubbles in a second phase are created in the medium of the normal phase with a characteristic size of one fermi, the hadron constituent fields may propagate inside the bubbles in normal manner. The bubble (bag) is stabilized against the pressure of the confined hadron constituent fields by vacuum pressure and surface tension. Inside the bag the colored quarks and gluons are governed by the equations of quantum chromodynamics. (Auth.)

  12. Heavy quark physics from SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messner, R.

    1997-01-01

    This report covers preliminary measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z 0 , using 150,000 hadronic Z 0 decays accumulated during the 1993-1995 runs. A measurement of R b with a lifetime double tag is presented. The high electron beam polarization of the SLC is employed in the direct measurement of the parity-violating parameters A b and A c by use of the left-right forward-backward asymmetry. The lifetimes of B + and B 0 mesons have been measured by two analyses. The first identifies semileptonic decays of B mesons with high (p,p t ) leptons; the second analysis isolates a sample of B meson decays with a two-dimensional impact parameter tag and reconstructs the decay length and charge using a topological vertex reconstruction method

  13. Heavy quark physics from SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messner, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report covers preliminary measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z{sup 0}, using 150,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays accumulated during the 1993-1995 runs. A measurement of R{sub b} with a lifetime double tag is presented. The high electron beam polarization of the SLC is employed in the direct measurement of the parity-violating parameters A{sub b} and A{sub c} by use of the left-right forward-backward asymmetry. The lifetimes of B{sup +} and B{sup 0} mesons have been measured by two analyses. The first identifies semileptonic decays of B mesons with high (p,p{sub t}) leptons; the second analysis isolates a sample of B meson decays with a two-dimensional impact parameter tag and reconstructs the decay length and charge using a topological vertex reconstruction method.

  14. Do Quarks Propagate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Taylor, John C.

    1984-01-01

    Processes with coloured particles in the initial state are generally infrared divergent. We investigate the effect of this on processes with colourless particles in the initial state, when the amplitude is near an intermediate quark pole. The result is a characteristic logarithmic depedence...... on the 'binding energy'(even though spectator interactions are taken into account), and the result is gauge-invariant. Summed to all orders the logarithms could perhaps suppress the quark pole....

  15. Coherent ρ production from polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankfurt, L.; Sargsian, M.; Sargsian, M.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the coherent leptoproduction of vector mesons from polarized deuterium as a tool to investigate the evolution of small size quark-gluon configurations. Kinematic regions are determined where the final state interaction of the initially produced quark-gluon wave packet contributes dominantly to the production cross section. Two methods for an investigation of color coherence effects are suggested. (author)

  16. Hadronization of quark theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, H.

    1978-01-01

    Local quark gluon theories are converted into bilocal field theories via functional techniques. The new field quanta consist of all quark-antiquark bound states in the ladder approximation. they are called bare hadrons. Hadronic Feynman graphs are developed which strongly resemble dual diagrams. QED is a special case with the bare hadrons being positronium atoms. Photons couple to hadrons via intermediate vector mesons in a current-field identity. The new theory accommodates naturally bilocal currents measured in deep-inelastic ep scattering. Also, these couple via intermediate mesons. In the limit of heavy gluon masses, the hadron fields become local and describe π, rho, A 1 , sigma mesons in a chirally invariant Lagrangian (the sigma model). Many interesting new relations are found between meson and quark properties such as m/sub rho/ 2 approx. = 6M 2 , where M is the true nonstrange quark mass after spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry. There is a simple formula linking these quark masses with the small bare masses of the Lagrangian. The quark masses also determine the vacuum expectations of scalar densities. These show an SU(3) breaking in the vacuum of approx. = -16%. 14 figures

  17. Up quark masses from down quark masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masina, I. [Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Via Panisperna 89/A, Roma (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Roma (Italy)]. E-mail: isabella.masina@cern.ch; Savoy, C.A. [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-11-23

    The quark and charged lepton masses and the angles and phase of the CKM mixing matrix are nicely reproduced in a model which assumes SU(3)-bar SU(3) flavor symmetry broken by the v.e.v.'s of fields in its bi-fundamental representation. The relations among the quark mass eigenvalues, m{sub u}/m{sub c}{approx}m{sub c}/m{sub t}{approx}m{sub d}{sup 2}/m{sub s}{sup 2}{approx}m{sub s}{sup 2}/m{sub b}{sup 2}{approx}{lambda}{sub G}{sub UT}{sup 2}/M{sub Pl}{sup 2}, follow from the broken flavor symmetry. Large tan{beta} is required which also provides the best fits to data for the obtained textures. Lepton-quark grandunification with a field that breaks both SU(5) and the flavor group correctly extends the predictions to the charged lepton masses. The seesaw extension of the model to the neutrino sector predicts a Majorana mass matrix quadratically hierarchical as compared to the neutrino Dirac mass matrix, naturally yielding large mixings and low mass hierarchy for neutrinos.

  18. The Global Implications and Grand Challenge of Neutral-Ion Interactions in the Polar Regions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    That the smallest of interactions occurring between neutrals and ions in the polar thermosphere can impact the largest of scales in thermosphere response is a testament to the primary importance of the Joule heating rate as an energy source for the thermosphere. Yet, our understanding/quantification of this primary energy source is woefully represented by numerical models and poorly sampled by measurement. For numerical models, the Joule heating rate requires parameterizations to account for the presumed “missing” energy in the simulations, while, for measurements, numerous approximations abound. In addition to being a primary thermosphere energy source, the Joule heating rate also represents a collective of neutral and ion interactions that result from solar wind and solar processes and exchange processes among the thermosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere. Thus, to properly simulate the Joule heating rate requires a system perspective. Furthermore, to properly observe the Joule heating rate requires measurements of the ionosphere-thermosphere system at high temporal and spatial scales. This remains a very difficult task. The estimation and modeling of the Joule heating rate represents a grand challenge that involves the entire sun-earth system. This talk will put into perspective the current state in addressing the challenge of capturing this illusive source of energy.

  19. Anomalous couplings in single top and searches for rare top quark couplings with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera Urban, Susana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle and probing its couplings with the other fundamental particle may open a window to physics beyond the Standard Model. Single top-quark production provides a unique window to study the coupling between the top quark, the W boson and the b quark, since it involves the $Wtb$ vertex in both production and decay. Measurements of angular correlations in single top quark events in the t-channel exchange of a W boson are presented based on the 8 TeV ATLAS dataset. Differential cross-sections are measured as a function of angular variables that are sensitive to anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex and the top quark polarization. Searches for flavour-changing neutral current top-quark interactions are also discussed based on the 8 TeV and 13 TeV ATLAS dataset. Searches for rare top quark decays to Higgs and Z bosons are presented in top quark production, and searches for rare top quark interactions with gluons and Z bosons are presented in single top quark p...

  20. A relativized quark model for radiative baryon transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warns, M.; Schroeder, H.; Pfeil, W.; Rollnik, H.

    1989-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the electromagnetic form factors of baryons and their resonances using the framework of a relativized constituent quark model. Beyond the usual single-quark transition ansatz, we incorporate relativistic corrections which are well-determined by the intrinsic strong interaction and confinement forces between the quarks. Furthermore we separate off for the compound three-quark system the relativistic center-of-mass motion by an approximately Lorentz-invariant approach. In this way for the first time recoil effects could be explicitly studied. Using the harmonic oscillator wavefunctions with the configuration mixing as derived in the Isgur-Karl model, after restoring gauge invariance our relativized interaction hamiltonian can be used to calculate the transversely and longitudinally polarized photon transition form factors of the baryons. (orig.)

  1. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiss, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs.

  2. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiss, J.

    1997-01-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs

  3. Unlocking color and flavor in superconducting strange quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Berges, Juergen; Rajagopal, Krishna

    1999-01-01

    We explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter with massless u and d quarks as a function of the strange quark mass m s and the chemical potential μ for baryon number. Neglecting electromagnetism, we describe the different baryonic and quark matter phases at zero temperature. For quark matter, we support our model-independent arguments with a quantitative analysis of a model which uses a four-fermion interaction abstracted from single-gluon exchange. For any finite m s , at sufficiently large μ we find quark matter in a color-flavor-locked state which leaves a global vector-like SU(2) color+L+R symmetry unbroken. As a consequence, chiral symmetry is always broken in sufficiently dense quark matter. As the density is reduced, for sufficiently large m s we observe a first-order transition from the color-flavor-locked phase to color superconducting phase analogous to that in two-flavor QCD. At this unlocking transition chiral symmetry is restored. For realistic values of m s our analysis indicates that chiral symmetry breaking may be present for all densities down to those characteristic of baryonic matter. This supports the idea that quark matter and baryonic matter may be continuously connected in nature. We map the gaps at the quark Fermi surfaces in the high density color-flavor-locked phase onto gaps at the baryon Fermi surfaces at low densities

  4. Bootstrapping quarks and gluons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, G.F.

    1979-04-01

    Dual topological unitarization (DTU) - the approach to S-matrix causality and unitarity through combinatorial topology - is reviewed. Amplitudes associated with triangulated spheres are shown to constitute the core of particle physics. Each sphere is covered by triangulated disc faces corresponding to hadrons. The leading current candidate for the hadron-face triangulation pattern employs 3-triangle basic subdiscs whose orientations correspond to baryon number and topological color. Additional peripheral triangles lie along the hadron-face perimeter. Certain combinations of peripheral triangles with a basic-disc triangle can be identified as quarks, the flavor of a quark corresponding to the orientation of its edges that lie on the hadron-face perimeter. Both baryon number and flavor are additively conserved. Quark helicity, which can be associated with triangle-interior orientation, is not uniformly conserved and interacts with particle momentum, whereas flavor does not. Three different colors attach to the 3 quarks associated with a single basic subdisc, but there is no additive physical conservation law associated with color. There is interplay between color and quark helicity. In hadron faces with more than one basic subdisc, there may occur pairs of adjacent flavorless but colored triangles with net helicity +-1 that are identifiable as gluons. Broken symmetry is an automatic feature of the bootstrap. T, C and P symmetries, as well as up-down flavor symmetry, persist on all orientable surfaces.

  5. The quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Mannque.

    1980-04-01

    The present status of our understanding of the physics of hadronic (nuclear or neutron) matter under extreme conditions, in particular at high densities is discussed. This is a problem which challenges three disciplines of physics: nuclear physics, astrophysics and particle physics. It is generally believed that we now have a correct and perhaps ultimate theory of the strong interactions, namely quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The constituents of this theory are quarks and gluons, so highly dense matters should be describable in terms of these constituents alone. This is a question that addresses directly to the phenomenon of quark confinement, one of the least understood aspects in particle physics. For nuclear physics, the possibility of a phase change between nuclear matter and quark matter introduces entirely new degrees of freedom in the description of nuclei and will bring perhaps a deeper understanding of nuclear dynamics. In astrophysics, the properties of neutron stars will be properly understood only when the equation of state of 'neutron' matter at densities exceeding that of nuclear matter can be realiably calculated. Most fascinating is the possibility of quark stars existing in nature, not entirely an absurd idea. Finally the quark matter - nuclear matter phase transition must have occured in the early stage of universe when matter expanded from high temperature and density; this could be an essential ingredient in the big-bang cosmology

  6. Bootstrapping quarks and gluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, G.F.

    1979-04-01

    Dual topological unitarization (DTU) - the approach to S-matrix causality and unitarity through combinatorial topology - is reviewed. Amplitudes associated with triangulated spheres are shown to constitute the core of particle physics. Each sphere is covered by triangulated disc faces corresponding to hadrons. The leading current candidate for the hadron-face triangulation pattern employs 3-triangle basic subdiscs whose orientations correspond to baryon number and topological color. Additional peripheral triangles lie along the hadron-face perimeter. Certain combinations of peripheral triangles with a basic-disc triangle can be identified as quarks, the flavor of a quark corresponding to the orientation of its edges that lie on the hadron-face perimeter. Both baryon number and flavor are additively conserved. Quark helicity, which can be associated with triangle-interior orientation, is not uniformly conserved and interacts with particle momentum, whereas flavor does not. Three different colors attach to the 3 quarks associated with a single basic subdisc, but there is no additive physical conservation law associated with color. There is interplay between color and quark helicity. In hadron faces with more than one basic subdisc, there may occur pairs of adjacent flavorless but colored triangles with net helicity +-1 that are identifiable as gluons. Broken symmetry is an automatic feature of the bootstrap. T, C and P symmetries, as well as up-down flavor symmetry, persist on all orientable surfaces

  7. Global tectonic of Enceladus driven by subsidence of South Polar Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2016-07-01

    Enceladus is the smallest celestial body in the Solar System where volcanic and tectonic activities are observed. Every second, the mass of ~200 kg is ejected into space from the South Polar Terrain (SPT) - [1]. Our hypothesis states that this mass loss is the main driving mechanism of the tectonic processes. The hypothesis is presented in [2] and [3]. We find that the loss of the volatiles results in a void, an instability, and motion of solid matter to fill the void. The motion includes: (i) Subsidence of the 'lithosphere' of SPT. (ii) Flow of the matter in the mantle. (iii) Motion of plates adjacent to SPT towards the active region. The numerical model of the subsidence process is developed. It is based on the model of thermal convection in the mantle. Special boundary conditions are applied that could simulate subsidence of SPT. If emerging void is being filled by the subsidence of SPT only, then the velocity of subsidence is ~0.05 mm per yr. However, numerical calculations indicate that all three types of motion are usually important. The role of a given motion depends on the viscosity distribution. Generally, for most of the models the subsidence is ~0.02 mm per yr, but mantle flow and plates' motion also play a role in filling the void. The preliminary results of the numerical model indicate also that the velocity of adjacent plates could be ~0.02 mm per yr for the Newtonian rheology. The SPT is not compressed, so "tiger stripes" could exist for long time. Only after significant subsidence the regime of stresses changes to compression. It means the end of activity in a given region. The future region of activity is suggested. Acknowledgments This work was partially supported by the National Science Centre (grant 2011/01/B/ST10/06653). Computer resources of Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modeling of University of Warsaw were also used in the research References [1] Spencer, J. R., et al. (2009) Enceladus: An Active Cryovolcanic

  8. Quark structure of chiral solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitri Diakonov

    2004-05-01

    There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ''chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ''soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.

  9. The Quark's Model and Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Yuri V.

    1977-01-01

    Quarks are elementary particles considered to be components of the proton, the neutron, and others. This article presents the quark model as a mathematical concept. Also discussed are gluons and bag models. A bibliography is included. (MA)

  10. Quark search at the CBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.C.; Leipuner, L.B.; Morse, W.M.; Adair, R.K.; Kasha, H.; Schmidt, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment to search for quarks at the CBA is described. The cross sections for the production of massive quark-antiquark pairs in nucleon-nucleon interactions is estimated, and the experimental design and procedures are described

  11. Measurement of hadron multiplicities in deep inelastic scattering and extraction of quark fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curiel-Garcia, Quiela-Marina

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of the COMPASS experience is the study of the nucleon spin structure. Data were taken from a polarized muon beam (160 GeV/c) scattering off a polarized target ( 6 LiD or NH 3 ). In this context, the need of a precise knowledge of quark Fragmentation Functions (final-state hadronization of quarks q into hadrons h, FFs) was raised. The FFs can be extracted from hadron multiplicities produced in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS). This thesis presents the measurement of charged hadrons (pions and kaons) multiplicities from SIDIS data collected in 2006. The data cover a large kinematical range: Q 2 ≥1 (GeV/c)2, y belongs to [0.1,0.9], x belongs to [0.004,0.7] and W belongs to [5,17] GeV. These multiplicities provide an important input for global QCD analyses of world data at NLO, aiming at the FFs determination. (author) [fr

  12. CP violation and the top quark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, D.

    1994-02-01

    We consider signals of CP violation in semi-leptonic decay of the top quark. We show that the transverse polarization asymmetries of the τ-lepton in the decay t → brv is extremely sensitive CP violation. As an illustration we consider CP phases arising from the charged Higgs exchange in the Weinberg three Higgs doublet model. Qualitatively, the polarization asymmetries are enhanced over rate or energy asymmetries by a factor of O(m t /m r ) ∼ 100 with a corresponding increase in sensitivity to CP violating parameters. We also examine τ polarization in b decays via b → cvr and find that may also be very effective in constraining CP violating effects such as those that arise from an extended Higgs sector

  13. Quark search conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In spite of (or perhaps because of) the present doctrine of total quark confinement held by the majority of particle theorists, experimental searches for free fractional charge and other anomalous stable particles in ordinary matter have been increasing in number during recent years, using a range of techniques of increasing sophistication and sensitivity. As a result, researchers in this area had a conference to themselves in June. About 40 participants and 150 observers gathered at San Francisco State University to report progress and discuss future plans, with representatives present from almost every group involved in quark searches

  14. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  15. Top quark physics: Future measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, R. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Vejcik, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Berger, E.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-04

    The authors discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top`s large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. They emphasize measurements of the top quark`s mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  16. Probing the six - quark bag in the low - energy np→Dγ capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.; Shmatikov, M.

    1985-01-01

    The circular polarization P γ of γ-quanta radiated in the capture of polarized thermal neutrons by protons is discussed. The contributions to P γ coming form radiation of nucleons, meson-exchange currents and quarks in a six-quark bag are calculated. The value of P γ proves to be rapidly varying function of the radius r 0 of the six-quark bag. Comparison to the experimental value of P γ yields r 0 ≅ 1.0+1.3 F

  17. Quark gluon plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quark gluon plasma; heavy ion collisions; equation of state; hadron gas; early universe. PACS Nos 25.75-q; .... is, therefore, necessary to perform calculation with different number of lattice points (or different lattice .... dynamical model assumes that the initial condition in heavy-ion collision corresponds to a state in local ...

  18. Top quark properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MW(mt, mHiggs) tests the consistency of the Standard Model. Many techniques were developed to determine the top quark mass so far. The tra- ditional and simplest method is the so-called template method which consists of the construction of the reconstructed mt templates as a function of an assumed mt. There were two ...

  19. Heavy quarks photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, M.

    1996-08-01

    The state of the art of the theoretical calculations for heavy quarks photoproduction is reviewed. The full next-to-leading order calculation and two possible resummations, the high energy one for total cross sections and the large p T one for differential cross sections, are described. (orig.)

  20. Heavy quark spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.

    1985-10-01

    New experimental and theoretical developments in heavy quark spectroscopy are reviewed. From studies of J/psi decays, the eta' is found to have some ''glue'' or other inert component, while the iota (a glueball candidate) probably contains some quarks as well. The xi(2.2) persists in new Mark III data, but is not seen by the DM2 collaboration. The production of charmonium states by anti pp reactions is reviewed. First evidence for a P- wave charmed meson, D(2420), has been presented by the ARGUS group. Radiative UPSILON decay studies fail to confirm the zeta(8.3) and begin to place useful limits on Higgs bosons. First results from an experiment at Fermilab on low-background hadronic production of UPSILON states are shown. Accurate measurements of chi/sub b/(1P) masses by the ARGUS collaboration are noted, and interpreted as favoring scalar quark confinement. Studies of t and other heavy quarks will probe the q anti q interaction below 0.05 fm, are likely to be strongly affected by t anti t-Z interference, and can provide varied information on Higgs bosons. 144 refs., 21 figs

  1. Top quark mass measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Tuula [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-03-18

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parametrized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parametrized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector.

  2. Hermitian quark matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Assuming a relation between the quark mass matrices of the two sectors a unique solution can be obtained for the CKM flavor mixing matrix. A numerical example is worked out which is in excellent agreement with experimental data.

  3. Do Quarks Propagate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Taylor, John C.

    1984-01-01

    Processes with coloured particles in the initial state are generally infrared divergent. We investigate the effect of this on processes with colourless particles in the initial state, when the amplitude is near an intermediate quark pole. The result is a characteristic logarithmic depedence on th...

  4. Chiral quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to those articles for a more expatiated presentation of numerical results. In addition, I re- fer to the .... The soliton profile F(r) is then obtained from extremizing E self-consistently [3]. States possessing good .... 95% or more by their valence quark (18) contributions once the self-consistent soliton is substituted. This provides ...

  5. Quark effects in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    A phenomenological approach which enables the size of quark effects in various nuclear processes is discussed. The principle of conservation of probability provides significant constraints on six quark wave functions. Using this approach, it is found that the low-energy proton-proton weak interaction can be explained in terms of W and Z boson exchanges between quarks. That the value of the asymptotic ratio of D to S state wave functions is influenced (at the 5% level) by quark effects, is another result of our approach. We have not discovered a nuclear effect that can be uniquely explained by quark-quark interactions. However it does seem that quark physics is very relevant for nuclear physics. 52 references

  6. Spin polarization in top pair production in association with two photons at NLO+PS

    CERN Document Server

    Luisoni, Gionata

    2017-01-01

    This talk focuses on the impact of top-quark spin polarization effects in Higgs boson production in association with a top-quark pair, where the Higgs boson decays to two photons. Predictions for the signal are compared with direct top-quark pair production in association with two photons at NLO+PS.

  7. Strange quark matter and quark stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Wei, J.B. [China University of Geosciences, School of Mathematics and Physics, Wuhan (China); Schulze, H.J. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica, Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    We calculate the equation of state of strange quark matter and the interior structure of strange quark stars in a Dyson-Schwinger quark model within rainbow or Ball-Chiu vertex approximation. We emphasize constraints on the parameter space of the model due to stability conditions of ordinary nuclear matter. Respecting these constraints, we find that the maximum mass of strange quark stars is about 1.9 solar masses, and typical radii are 9-11 km. We obtain an energy release as large as 3.6 x 10{sup 53} erg from conversion of neutron stars into strange quark stars. (orig.)

  8. A New EM CKM Matrix: Implications of the Nucleon Strange Quark Content, Anomalous Magnetic Moments of Nucleons and Electric and Magnetic Nucleon Form Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    A new electromagnetic neutral-current quark mixing matrix, analog to the well-known Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) weak charge-current matrix, is proposed to account for the strange quark content of the neutron and proton and part of the anomalous axial vector magnetic moments. The EM-CKM matrix is shown to be equivalent to the weak-CKM matrix following an EM to weak gauge symmetry transformation, demonstrating the universality of the Standard Model (SM) CKM quark mixing matrix. The electric and magnetic form factors are reformulated using a new QCD three quark nucleon gyromagnetic factor, Dirac and Pauli form factors and anomalous kappa factors. The old 1943 Jauch form factors which have been systematically used and developed for many years is shown to be in stark disagreement with the new global set of experimental polarized electron-proton scattering data whereas the reformulated SM parameter set of this study is shown to agree very well, lending strong support for this new EM SM approach.

  9. Polarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering on transversely and longitudinally polarized nucleons at HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hommes, B.

    2005-01-01

    The HERMES experiment has measured double spin asymmetries in the cross section for deep-inelastic scattering of longitudinal polarized positrons off longitudinal polarized hydrogen and deuterium targets. From these asymmetries, based on inclusive and semi-inclusive measurements, polarized quark distributions were extracted as a function of x. Single-spin azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive pion production were measured by the HERMES experiment for the first time, with a transversely polarized hydrogen target. Two different sine-dependencies were extracted which can be related to the quark transversity distribution h q 1 (x) and the Sivers function (Author)

  10. Heavy quark production in semihard interactions of nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, E.M.; Ryskin, M.G.; Shabel'skij, Yu.M.; Shuvaev, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Cross section of semihard process (heavy quark production) in the interactions of high-energy nucleons is calculated. The normalization of gluon structure function at small x and the role of absorption corrections are discussed in detail. The virtuality of interacting gluons as well as their transverse motion and possible various polarizations are accounted for in calculations. Comparatively large cross section of the high-energy inclusive b-quark production (σ(b-barb) is predicted, in particular, σ(p-barp→b-barb)=150-300 μb at √s=1.8 TeV

  11. Light Higgs and vector-like quarks without prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfer, Svjetlana; Greljo, Admir; Kamenik, Jernej F.; Mustać, Ivana

    2013-07-01

    Light vector-like quarks with non-renormalizable couplings to the Higgs are a common feature of models trying to address the electroweak (EW) hierarchy problem by treating the Higgs as a pseudo-goldstone boson of a global (approximate) symmetry. We systematically investigate the implications of the leading dimension five operators on Higgs phenomenology in presence of dynamical up- and down-type weak singlet as well as weak doublet vector-like quarks. After taking into account constraints from precision EW and flavour observables we show that contrary to the renormalizable models, significant modifications of Higgs properties are still possible and could shed light on the role of vector-like quarks in solutions to the EW hierarchy problem. We also briefly discuss implications of higher dimensional operators for direct vector-like quark searches at the LHC.

  12. Light quark spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toernqvist, N.A.

    1984-05-15

    We review recent work done for the light 1S and 1P qq-bar mesons, especially within the unitarized quark model (UQM). In particular we discuss the 0/sup + +/ mesons and compare qq-bar v. s. qqq-barq-bar models. A comment on the A/sub 1/ shape due to the energy dependent mass shift (running mass shift) is made.

  13. Quarks, culture, combogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Barry

    2018-01-01

    The value of Tyler Volk’s Quarks to Culture is evident when the book is placed against popular histories of the universe, dozens of which have provided evidence for an immense cosmic past. But such histories are often anecdotal, like early British histories of the kings of England. Unlike these works, Volk artfully presents the case for structural continuity and systematic cre­ativity across 13.8 billion years of cosmic history.

  14. Quarks and partons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1976-08-01

    The quark parton model describes the inclusive electro- and neutrino production data if a clear distinction is made between reactions which take place at high and at low energies. For the low energy region the classical view of six structure functions of the proton is still adequate. For the high energy region models can be constructed which are consistent with the experimental data. (BJ) [de

  15. Quark core stars, quark stars and strange stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, F.

    1988-01-01

    A recent one flavor quark matter equation of state is generalized to several flavors. It is shown that quarks undergo a first order phase transition. In addition, this equation of state depends on just one parameter in the two flavor case, two parameters in the three flavor case, and these parameters are constrained by phenomenology. This equation of state is then applied to the hadron-quark transition in neutron stars and the determination of quark star stability, the investigation of strange matter stability and possible strange star existence. 43 refs., 6 figs

  16. Top quark pair production and top quark properties at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chang-Seong [INFN, Pisa

    2016-06-02

    We present the most recent measurements of top quark pairs production and top quark properties in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV using CDF II detector at the Tevatron. The combination of top pair production cross section measurements and the direct measurement of top quark width are reported. The test of Standard Model predictions for top quark decaying into $b$-quarks, performed by measuring the ratio $R$ between the top quark branching fraction to $b$-quark and the branching fraction to any type of down quark is shown. The extraction of the CKM matrix element $|V_{tb}|$ from the ratio $R$ is discussed. We also present the latest measurements on the forward-backward asymmetry ($A_{FB}$) in top anti-top quark production. With the full CDF Run II data set, the measurements are performed in top anti-top decaying to final states that contain one or two charged leptons (electrons or muons). In addition, we combine the results of the leptonic forward-backward asymmetry in $t\\bar t$ system between the two final states. All the results show deviations from the next-to-leading order (NLO) standard model (SM) calculation.

  17. Quark gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Tapan; Sarkar, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    At extremely high temperatures and densities, protons and neutrons may dissolve into a "soup" of quarks and gluons, called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). For a few microseconds, shortly after the Big Bang, the Universe was filled with the QGP matter. The search and study of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is one of the most fundamental research topics of our times. The QGP matter has been probed by colliding heavy ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva. By colliding heavy-ions at a speed close to that of light, scientists aim to obtain - albeit over a tiny volume of the size of a nucleus and for an infinitesimally short instant - a QGP state. This QGP state can be observed by dedicated experiments, as it reverts to hadronic matter through expansion and cooling. This volume presents some of the current theoretical and experimental understandings in the field of QGP.

  18. Iso-spin asymmetry of quark distributions and implications for single top-quark production at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Bluemlein, J.; Moch, S.

    2015-08-01

    We present an improved determination of the up- and down-quark distributions in the proton using recent data on charged lepton asymmetries from W ± gauge-boson production at the LHC and Tevatron. The analysis is performed in the framework of a global fit of parton distribution functions. The fit results are consistent with a non-zero iso-spin asymmetry of the sea, x(anti d- anti u), at small values of Bjorken x∝10 -4 indicating a delayed onset of the Regge asymptotics of a vanishing (anti d- anti u)-asymmetry at small-x. We compare with up- and down-quark distributions available in the literature and provide accurate predictions for the production of single top-quarks at the LHC, a process which can serve as a standard candle for the light quark flavor content of the proton.

  19. Quarks for hadrons and leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The simplest, naive, model for a unified description of leptons and hadrons consists in postulating, besides the usual quarks p, n, lambda a fourth quark, with very heavy mass and very high binding to pairs like anti p n and anti p lambda. In a SU(4) scheme the fourth quark has a quantum number charm which may be taken as proportional to the lepton number. Muons would be distinguished from electrons by the occurence of a lambda-quark instead of a n-quark in their structure. The forces among these quarks would have to be such as to give leptons an almost point-like structure at the experimentally known energies as well as absence of strong interactions at these energies. However, one would expect the display of strong interactions by leptons at extremely high energies [pt

  20. Multiple photon emission and b quark asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadach, S.; Ward, B.F.L.

    1989-08-01

    We discuss the effects of multiple photon final states in high precision tests of the SU 2L x U 1 model wherein one measures the b quark asymmetries at a very high luminosity Z 0 factory, such as the possible high luminosity upgrade of the CERN LEP collider. The specific asymmetries analyzed are the forward-backward asymmetry A FB , the left-right polarized asymmetry A LR and the polarized forward-backward asymmetry A FB,pol. . The radiative effects are found to be significant for A FB as expected, but they are not as large, on a percentage basis, as the corresponding result for muons. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab

  1. Infrared slavery and quark confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Alabiso, C

    1976-01-01

    The question is considered of whether the so-called infrared slavery mechanism as, e.g., being manifest in non-Abelian gauge theories, necessarily confines quarks. Making a specific ansatz for the long- range forces, the Schwinger-Dyson equation is solved for the quark Green function. Besides having a confining solution, it appears that quarks may by-pass the long-range forces and be produced. (20 refs).

  2. Phenomenology of heavy quark systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1987-03-01

    The spectroscopy of heavy quark systems is examined with regards to spin independent and spin dependent potentials. It is shown that a qualitative picture exists of the spin-independent forces, and that a semi-quantitative understanding exists for the spin-dependent effects. A brief review is then given of the subject of the decays of hadrons containing heavy quarks, including weak decays at the quark level, and describing corrections to the spectator model

  3. Quark matter or new particles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, F. Curtis

    1988-01-01

    It has been argued that compression of nuclear matter to somewhat higher densities may lead to the formation of stable quark matter. A plausible alternative, which leads to radically new astrophysical scenarios, is that the stability of quark matter simply represents the stability of new particles compounded of quarks. A specific example is the SU(3)-symmetric version of the alpha particle, composed of spin-zero pairs of each of the baryon octet (an 'octet' particle).

  4. Exotic Signals of Vectorlike Quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A. [Fermilab; Yu, Felix [U. Mainz, PRISMA

    2016-12-06

    Vectorlike fermions are an important target for hadron collider searches. We show that the vectorlike quarks may predominantly decay via higher-dimensional operators into a quark plus a couple of other Standard Model fermions. Pair production of vectorlike quarks of charge 2/3 at the LHC would then lead to a variety of possible final states, including $t\\bar t + 4\\tau$, $t\\bar b\

  5. Quarks in hadrons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns some of the ideas underlying quarks and their interactions, the way that quarks build up hadrons, and the extent to which the QCD theory can be applied to phenomena involving nuclei. The article is part of the Proceedings of the International School of Nuclear Physics, Erice, 1987. A description is given of quarks and multiplets. Colour is discussed with respect to: evidence for colour, a non abelian Su(3) theory, the pauli principle at work in hadrons, and spin flavour correlations and magnetic moments. Colour, gluons and the inter quark potential are also examined. (UK)

  6. Quark matter in compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, H., E-mail: harg@cefet-rj.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Maracana 249, 20271-110, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, S.B., E-mail: sbd@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, J.C.T., E-mail: jcto@cbpf.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Roraima, Campus do Paricarana s/n, 69310-270, Boa Vista, RR (Brazil)

    2010-02-15

    Recently reported massive compact stars (Mapprox2M{sub o}) have provided strong constraints on the properties of the ultradense matter beyond the saturation nuclear density. Therefore, realistic quark or hybrid star models must be compatible with these observational data. Some used equations of state (EoS) describing quark matter are in general too soft and hence are not suitable to explain the stability of high compact star masses. In this work, we present the calculations of static spherically symmetric quark star structure by using an equation of state which takes into account the superconducting colour-flavour locked phase of the strange quark matter. In addition, some fundamental aspects of QCD (asymptotic freedom and confinement) are considered by means of a phenomenological description of the deconfined quark phase, the density-dependent quark mass model. We discuss the influence of the obtained quark matter equation of state on the mass-radius relationship of quark stars. Massive quark stars are found due to the stiffness of the equation of state, when reasonable values of the superconducting gap, taken as a free parameter, are used.

  7. Anti-Lambda Polarization in High Energy pp Collisions withPolarized Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qing-hua; Liang, Zuo-tang; Sichtermann, Ernst

    2005-11-06

    We study the polarization of the anti-Lambda particle in polarized high energy pp collisions at large transverse momenta. The anti-Lambda polarization is found to be sensitive to the polarization of the anti-strange sea of the nucleon. We make predictions using different parameterizations of the polarized quark distribution functions. The results show that the measurement of longitudinal anti-Lambda polarization can distinguish different parameterizations, and that similar measurements in the transversely polarized case can give some insights into the transversity distribution of the anti-strange sea of nucleon.

  8. Cold quark matter in compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzon, B.; Fogaca, D. A.; Navarra, F. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Horvath, J. E. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, 1226, 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    We used an equation of state for the cold quark matter to the study of properties of quark stars. We also discuss the absolute stability of quark matter and compute the mass-radius relation for self-bound stars.

  9. Hadron production at RHIC: recombination of quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    We discuss quark recombination applied to the hadronization of a quark gluon plasma. It has been shown that the quark recombination model can explain essential features of hadron production measured in high energy heavy ion collisions.

  10. Measurements of the top quark properties at production with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Savitskyi, Mykola

    2017-01-01

    Several measurements of top quark properties are presented using data collected by the CMS experiment at the centre-of-mass-energy of 8 TeV. The properties are mostly probed in production of the top quarks. The charge asymmetry is measured inclusively and differentially probing anomalous couplings to the gluons at production mode. These measurements are extended searching for asymmetries in CP-odd operators in production and decay. The measurement of the spin density matrix in different final states (lepton+jets and dileptons) is discussed as well as the measurement of the top quark polarization in ttbar events. The results are compared to the state-of-the-art predictions, when available, and re-interpreted as searches for new physics inducing deviations from the standard model predictions.

  11. Hyperasymptotics and quark-hadron duality violations in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boito, Diogo; Caprini, Irinel; Golterman, Maarten; Maltman, Kim; Peris, Santiago

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the origin of the quark-hadron duality-violating terms in the expansion of the QCD two-point vector correlation function at large energies in the complex q2 plane. Starting from the dispersive representation for the associated polarization, the analytic continuation of the operator product expansion from the Euclidean to the Minkowski region is performed by means of a generalized Borel-Laplace transform, borrowing techniques from hyperasymptotics. We establish a connection between singularities in the Borel plane and quark-hadron duality-violating contributions. Starting with the assumption that for QCD at Nc=∞ the spectrum approaches a Regge trajectory at large energy, we obtain an expression for quark-hadron duality violations at large, but finite Nc.

  12. The Discovery of the Top Quark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1995-12-01

    The top quark and the Higgs boson are the heaviest elementary particles predicted by the standard model. The four lightest quark flavours, the up, down, strange and charm quarks, were well-established by the mid-1970's. The discovery in 1977 of the {Tau} resonances, a new family of massive hadrons, required the introduction of the fifth quark flavour. Experimental and theoretical studies have indicated that this quark also has a heavier partner, the top quark.

  13. Differences between heavy and light quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quark Dyson-Schwinger equation shows that there are distinct differences between light and heavy quarks. The dynamical mass function of the light quarks is characterized by a sharp increase below 1 GeV, whereas the mass function of the heavy quarks is approximately constant in this infrared region. As a consequence, the heavy meson masses increase linearly with the current quark masses, whereas the light pseudoscalar meson masses are proportional to the square root of the current quark masses

  14. Bulk viscosity of strange quark matter in density dependent quark ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have studied the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter in the density dependent quark mass model (DDQM) and compared results with calculations done earlier in the MIT bag model where u, d masses were neglected and first order interactions were taken into account. We find that at low temperatures and ...

  15. Quark and Gluon Relaxation in Quark-Gluon Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    The quasiparticle decay rates for quarks and gluons in quark-gluon plasmas are calculated by solving the kinetic equation. Introducing an infrared cutoff to allow for nonperturbative effects, we evaluate the quasiparticle lifetime at momenta greater than the inverse Debye screening length to leading order in the coupling constant.

  16. Quark matter 93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, Ingvar; Ruuskanen, Vesa

    1993-01-01

    In his welcome address to the 10th International Conference on Ultra- Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Quark Matter '93), held in Borlange, Sweden, from 20-24 June, Hans-Ake Gustafsson was puzzled why this year's conference was billed as the tenth in the series. He had tried to count but could only find eight forerunners - Bielefeld (1982), Brookhaven (1983), Helsinki (1984), Asilomar (1986), Nordkirchen (1987), Lenox (1988), Menton (1990), Gatlinburg (1991), making this year's meeting at Borlange the ninth. The answer was given by Helmut Satz in his introductory talk, pointing out that at the time of the Bielefeld meeting, a few conferences dealing with similar topics had already been held. The Bielefeld organizers thus did not consider their conference the first. Whatever its pedigree, the Borlange meeting covered particle production in highly excited and compressed nuclear matter, fluctuations and correlations, quark phenomena (quantum chromodynamics - QCD) in nuclear collisions, probes and signatures of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), future collider experiments and instrumentation. The theoretical talks were split between the fundamental properties of the hot and dense matter at or near equilibrium, and the interface between theory and experiment. The phenomenological modelling of heavy ion collisions seems to reproduce at least all the main features of the data with hadrons, resonances and strings as the degrees of freedom. However secondary interactions among the produced hadrons or strings need to be added. Hydrodynamic calculations lead to results which reproduce the main features of the collisions. With increasing collision energy, the parton degrees of freedom become more important. Klaus Geiger described an ambitious scheme treating the whole nucleus-nucleus collision in terms of a kinetic parton (quark/gluon) cascade. The initial parton distribution at the beginning of the collision is determined from the quark-gluon nuclear structure

  17. Single Top quark production cross section using ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada Pastor, Oscar; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of single top-quark production in proton-proton collisions are presented based on the 8 TeV and 13 TeV ATLAS datasets. In the leading order process, a W boson is exchanged in the t-channel. The cross-section for the production of single top-quarks and single anti-top-quarks, their ratio, as well as differential cross-section measurements are also reported. These analyses include limits on anomalous contributions to the Wtb vertex and measurement of the top quark polarization. Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for the production of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, are also presented. Finally, evidence for s-channel single-top production in the 8 TeV ATLAS dataset is presented. All measurements are compared to state-of-the-art theoretical calculations.

  18. Measurement of Λ polarization from Z decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Palla, F.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bonvicini, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajlatouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Abt, I.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Denis, R. St.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Rankin, C.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Büscher, V.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Aleppo, M.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Ragusa, F.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Bellantoni, L.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I. J.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    The polarization of Λ baryons from Z decays is studied with the ALEPH apparatus. Evidence of longitudinal polarization of s quarks from Z decay is observed for the first time. The measured longitudinal Λ polarization is PLΛ = -0.32 ± 0.07 for z = {p}/{p beam} > 0.3 . This agrees with the prediction of -0.39 ± 0.08 from the standard model and the constituent quark model, where the error is due to uncertainties in the mechanism for Λ production. The observed Λ polarization is diluted with respect to the primary s quark polarization by Λ baryons without a primary s quark. Measurements of the Λ forward-backward asymmetry and of the correlation between back-to-back Λ overlineΛ pairs are used to check this dilution. In addition the transverse Λ polarization is measured. An indication of transverse polarization, more than two standard deviations away from zero, is found along the normal to the plane defined by the thrust axis and the Λ direction.

  19. Measurement of $\\Lambda$ polarization from Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Büscher, V; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Aleppo, M; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    The polarization of \\Lambda baryons from Z decays is studied with the {\\sc Aleph} apparatus. Evidence of longitudinal polarization of s quarks from Z decay is observed for the first time. The measured longitudinal \\Lambda polarization is P^{\\Lambda}_{L} = -0.32 \\pm 0.07 for z = p/p_{\\mathrm{beam}} > 0.3. This agrees with the prediction of -0.39 \\pm 0.08 from the standard model and the constituent quark model, where the error is due to uncertainties in the mechanism for \\Lambda production. The observed \\Lambda polarization is diluted with respect to the primary s quark polarization by \\Lambda baryons without a primary s quark. Measurements of the \\Lambda forward-backward asymmetry and of the correlation between back-to-back \\Lambda \\bar{\\Lambda} pairs are used to check this dilution. In addition the transverse \\Lambda polarization is measured. An indication of transverse polarization, more than two standard deviations away from zero, is found along the normal to the plane defined by the thrust axis and the \\La...

  20. Cool quark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi

    2016-07-20

    We generalize the state-of-the-art perturbative Equation of State of cold quark matter to nonzero temperatures, needed in the description of neutron star mergers and core collapse processes. The new result is accurate to order g^5 in the gauge coupling, and is based on a novel framework for dealing with the infrared sensitive soft field modes of the theory. The zero Matsubara mode sector is treated using a dimensionally reduced effective theory, while the soft non-zero modes are resummed using the Hard Thermal Loop approximation. This combination of known effective descriptions offers unprecedented access to small but nonzero temperatures, both in and out of beta equilibrium.

  1. χc charmonium - a tool to investigate gluon polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batunin, A.V.; Slabospitskij, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    Production of particles with a hidden charm Χ C in polarized parton beams (quarks or gluons) is studied. Parton polarization is shown to cause the changes of angular distributions of Χ C meson decay products, which allows one to investigate possible gluon polarization in hadrons

  2. Study of quark structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, F.T.; Flaminio, E.; Lai, K.; Metcalf, M.; Wang, L.

    1977-01-01

    The quark structure functions of the proton are determined through a combined analysis of the reactions pN → ll-barX and eN → eX. The valence-quark structure function of the pion is also given by analyzing the πN → μμ-barX data measured by the Branson et al

  3. Taste changing in staggered quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quentin Mason

    2004-01-01

    The authors present results from a systematic perturbative investigation of taste-changing in improved staggered quarks. They show one-loop taste-changing interactions can be removed perturbatively by an effective four-quark term and calculate the necessary coefficients

  4. The quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Various aspects of the physics of the quark-gluon plasma are presented. Known properties of the transition from hadronic matter to the quark-gluon plasma are recalled. Progress in the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions is discussed on two examples. Some recent theoretical developments are mentioned. (author) 24 refs.; 5 figs

  5. Quark mass density- and temperature- dependent model for bulk strange quark matter

    OpenAIRE

    al, Yun Zhang et.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the quark mass density-dependent model can not be used to explain the process of the quark deconfinement phase transition because the quark confinement is permanent in this model. A quark mass density- and temperature-dependent model in which the quark confinement is impermanent has been suggested. We argue that the vacuum energy density B is a function of temperature. The dynamical and thermodynamical properties of bulk strange quark matter for quark mass density- and temper...

  6. Geologic history of the polar regions of Mars based on Mars Global survey data. I. Noachian and Hesperian Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Kolb, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    During the Noachian Period, the south polar region of Mars underwent intense cratering, construction of three groups of volcanoes, widespread contractional deformation, resurfacing of low areas, and local dissection of valley networks; no evidence for polar deposits, ice sheets, or glaciation is recognized. South polar Hesperian geology is broadly characterized by waning impacts, volcanism, and tectonism. Emplacement of the polar Dorsa Argentea Formation (DAF) occurred during the Hesperian Period. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topographic data and Mars Orbiter Camera images elucidate stratigraphic, morphologic, and topographic relations, permitting the dividing of the DAF into eight members, which surround and underlie about half of the Amazonian south polar layered deposits. The lobate fronts and lack of typical volcanic-flow morphology of the six plains units indicate that they may be made up of debris flows. We think that these flows, tens of meters to 200 m thick, may have originated by the discharge of huge volumes of slurry fluidized by ground water or liquid CO2, perhaps triggered by local impacts, igneous activity, or basal melting beneath polar deposits. The cavi and rugged members include irregular depressions that penetrate the subsurface; some of the pits have raised rims. The depressions may have formed by collapse due to expulsion of subsurface material in which local explosive activity built up the raised rims. Further, smaller eruptions of volatile-rich material may have resulted in narrow, sinuous channel deposits within aggrading fine-grained unconsolidated material perhaps produced by gaseous discharge of subsurface volatiles; preferential erosion of the latter material could have produced the Dorsa Argentea-type ginuous ridges associated mainly with the DAF. Alternatively, the ridges may be eskers, but the lack of associated glacial and fluvial morphologies casts doubt on this interpretation. The knobby, degraded materials forming Scandia Colles

  7. Domain wall QCD with physical quark masses

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, T.; Christ, N.H.; Frison, J.; Garron, N.; Hudspith, R.J.; Izubuchi, T.; Janowski, T.; Jung, C.; Jüttner, A.; Kelly, C.; Kenway, R.D.; Lehner, C.; Marinkovic, M.; Mawhinney, R.D.; McGlynn, G.; Murphy, D.J.; Ohta, S.; Portelli, A.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Soni, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present results for several light hadronic quantities ($f_\\pi$, $f_K$, $B_K$, $m_{ud}$, $m_s$, $t_0^{1/2}$, $w_0$) obtained from simulations of 2+1 flavor domain wall lattice QCD with large physical volumes and nearly-physical pion masses at two lattice spacings. We perform a short, O(3)%, extrapolation in pion mass to the physical values by combining our new data in a simultaneous chiral/continuum `global fit' with a number of other ensembles with heavier pion masses. We use the physical values of $m_\\pi$, $m_K$ and $m_\\Omega$ to determine the two quark masses and the scale - all other quantities are outputs from our simulations. We obtain results with sub-percent statistical errors and negligible chiral and finite-volume systematics for these light hadronic quantities, including: $f_\\pi$ = 130.2(9) MeV; $f_K$ = 155.5(8) MeV; the average up/down quark mass and strange quark mass in the $\\bar {\\rm MS}$ scheme at 3 GeV, 2.997(49) and 81.64(1.17) MeV respectively; and the neutral kaon mixing parameter, $B_K$...

  8. Quark Confinement and Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hooft, Gerardus

    QCD was proposed as a theory for the strong interactions long before we had any idea as to how it could be that its fundamental constituents, the quarks, are never seen as physical particles. Massless gluons also do not exist as free particles. How can this be explained? The first indication that this question had to be considered in connection with the topological structure of a gauge theory came when Nielsen and Olesen observed the occurrence of stable magnetic vortex structures [1] in the Abelian Higgs model. Expanding on such ideas, the magnetic monopole solution was found [2]. Other roundabout attempts to understand confinement involve instantons. Today, we have better interpretations of these topological structures, including a general picture of the way they do lead to unbound potentials confining quarks. It is clear that these unbound potentials can be ascribed to a string-like structure of the vortices formed by the QCD field lines. Can string theory be used to analyze QCD? Many researchers think so. The leading expert on this is Sacha Polyakov. In his instructive account he adds how he experienced the course of events in Gauge Theory, emphasizing the fact that quite a few discoveries often ascribed to researchers from the West, actually were made independently by scientists from the Soviet Union…

  9. Quark matter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.; Fields, B.; Thomas, D.

    1992-01-01

    The possible implications of the quark-hadron transition for cosmology are explored. Possible surviving signatures are discussed. In particular, the possibility of generating a dark matter candidate such as strange nuggets or planetary mass black holes is noted. Much discussion is devoted to the possible role of the transition for cosmological nucleosynthesis. It is emphasized that even an optimized first order phase transition will not significantly alter the nucleosynthesis constraints on the cosmological baryon density nor on neutrino counting. However, it is noted that Be and B observations in old stars may eventually be able to be a signature of a cosmologically significant quark-hadron transition. It is pointed out that the critical point in this regard is whether the observed B/Be ratio can be produced by spallation processes or requires cosmological input. Spallation cannot produce a B/Be ratio below 7.6. A supporting signature would be Be and B ratios to oxygen that greatly exceed galactic values. At present, all data is still consistent with a spallagenic origin

  10. Bottom quark mass from Υ sum rules to O(α{sub s}{sup 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penin, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta,Edmonton AB T6G 2J1 (Canada); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences,119899 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zerf, Nikolai [Department of Physics, University of Alberta,Edmonton AB T6G 2J1 (Canada)

    2014-04-22

    We use the O(α{sub s}{sup 3}) approximation of the heavy-quark vacuum polarization function in the threshold region to determine the bottom quark mass from nonrelativistic Υ sum rules. We find very good stability and convergence of the perturbative series for the bottom quark mass in (MS)-bar renormalization scheme. Our final result is m-macron{sub b}(m-macron{sub b})=4.169±0.008{sub th}±0.002{sub α{sub s}}±0.002{sub exp}.

  11. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan-e~Alam; Subhasis~Chattopadhyay; Tapan~Nayak

    2008-10-01

    Quark Matter 2008—the 20th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions was held in Jaipur, the Pink City of India, from 4-10 February, 2008. Organizing Quark Matter 2008 in India itself indicates the international recognition of the Indian contribution to the field of heavy-ion physics, which was initiated and nurtured by Bikash Sinha, Chair of the conference. The conference was inaugurated by the Honourable Chief Minister of Rajasthan, Smt. Vasundhara Raje followed by the key note address by Professor Carlo Rubbia. The scientific programme started with the theoretical overview, `SPS to RHIC and onwards to LHC' by Larry McLerran followed by several theoretical and experimental overview talks on the ongoing experiments at SPS and RHIC. The future experiments at the LHC, FAIR and J-PARC, along with the theoretical predictions, were discussed in great depth. Lattice QCD predictions on the nature of the phase transition and critical point were vigorously debated during several plenary and parallel session presentations. The conference was enriched by the presence of an unprecedented number of participants; about 600 participants representing 31 countries across the globe. This issue contains papers based on plenary talks and oral presentations presented at the conference. Besides invited and contributed talks, there were also a large number of poster presentations. Members of the International Advisory Committee played a pivotal role in the selection of speakers, both for plenary and parallel session talks. The contributions of the Organizing Committee in all aspects, from helping to prepare the academic programme down to arranging local hospitality, were much appreciated. We thank the members of both the committees for making Quark Matter 2008 a very effective and interesting platform for scientific deliberations. Quark Matter 2008 was financially supported by: Air Liquide (New Delhi) Board of Research Nuclear Sciences (Mumbai) Bose

  12. Polarized proton collider at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Lehrach, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S.Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W.W. E-mail: mackay@bnl.govhttp://www.rhichome.bnl.gov/People/waldowaldo@bnl.gov; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.N

    2003-03-01

    In addition to heavy ion collisions (RHIC Design Manual, Brookhaven National Laboratory), RHIC will also collide intense beams of polarized protons (I. Alekseev, et al., Design Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1998, reaching transverse energies where the protons scatter as beams of polarized quarks and gluons. The study of high energy polarized protons beams has been a long term part of the program at BNL with the development of polarized beams in the Booster and AGS rings for fixed target experiments. We have extended this capability to the RHIC machine. In this paper we describe the design and methods for achieving collisions of both longitudinal and transverse polarized protons in RHIC at energies up to {radical}s=500 GeV.

  13. Light-quark, heavy-quark systems: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinstein, B.

    1993-06-01

    We review many of the recently developed applications of Heavy Quark Effective Theory techniques. After a brief update on Luke`s theorem, we describe striking relations between heavy baryon form factors, and how to use them to estimate the accuracy of the extraction of {vert_bar}V{sub cb}{vert_bar}. We discuss factorization and compare with experiment. An elementary presentation, with sample applications, of reparametrization invariance comes next. The final and most extensive chapter in this review deals with phenomenological lagrangians that incorporate heavy-quark spin-flavor as well as light quark chiral symmetries. We compile many interesting results and discuss the validity of the calculations.

  14. Baryons in the unquenched quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijker, R.; Díaz-Gómez, S. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, AP 70-543, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Lopez-Ruiz, M. A. [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Santopinto, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Italy (Italy)

    2016-07-07

    In this contribution, we present the unquenched quark model as an extension of the constituent quark model that includes the effects of sea quarks via a {sup 3}P{sub 0} quark-antiquark pair-creation mechanism. Particular attention is paid to the spin and flavor content of the proton, magnetic moments and β decays of octet baryons.

  15. Quark virtuality and QCD vacuum condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lijuan; Ma Weixing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) in the 'rainbow' approximation, the authors investigate the quark virtuality in the vacuum state and quantum-chromodynamics (QCD) vacuum condensates. In particular, authors calculate the local quark vacuum condensate and quark-gluon mixed condensates, and then the virtuality of quark. The calculated quark virtualities are λ u,d 2 =0.7 GeV 2 for u, d quarks, and λ s 2 =1.6 GeV 2 for s quark. The theoretical predictions are consistent with empirical values used in QCD sum rules, and also fit to lattice QCD predictions

  16. Top quark studies at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinervo, P.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag b quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and DO Collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions, and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.

  17. Physics of light quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    1994-12-31

    Light quark spectroscopy is an exciting field with a lot of new information in the past decade from running experiments addressing the structure of the QCD mass spectrum. The main topics are the search for non-q-barq-states like glueballs, hybrids or multiquarks as well as the test of chiral theories and the low energy QCD. The first item, the search for exotic matter is discussed which is still going on. Many of them exhibit exotic features, like unusual quantum numbers or peculiar production and/or decay patterns. New high statistics experiments are able to disentangle complex structures which may lead us to a better understanding of the QCD mass spectrum. (author). 40 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Johann

    2015-09-22

    In the context of the Hagedorn temperature half-centenary I describe our understanding of the hot phases of hadronic matter both below and above the Hagedorn temperature. The first part of the review addresses many frequently posed questions about properties of hadronic matter in different phases, phase transition and the exploration of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The historical context of the discovery of QGP is shown and the role of strangeness and strange antibaryon signature of QGP illustrated. In the second part I discuss the corresponding theoretical ideas and show how experimental results can be used to describe the properties of QGP at hadronization. Finally in two appendices I present previously unpublished reports describing the early prediction of the different forms of hadron matter and of the formation of QGP in relativistic heavy ion collisions, including the initial prediction of strangeness and in particular strange antibaryon signature of QGP.

  19. Quarks and partons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    The studies of inelastic electron scattering at SLAC and of neutrino scattering at CERN have been widely interpreted as giving support to the idea that the nucleon is built from elementary constituents, called partons, and that these partons have the same quantum numbers as the quarks that are familiar in spectroscopy. In particular, a very simple regularity in the data, known as scale invariance or just 'scaling' was seen at least at moderate energies (2 2 > approximately 1 GeV) which is natural in the parton model. The data on e + e - annihilation also appear to be consistent with scaling when Esub(cm) approximately 5 GeV. These lectures are concerned with the scaling phenomena. One may expect the new hadronic degree of freedom to generate scaling violations in inelastic electron and neutrino scattering. These are mentioned briefly in these lectures. (Auth.)

  20. Weak decays of heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1978-08-01

    The properties that may help to identify the two additional quark flavors that are expected to be discovered. These properties are lifetime, branching ratios, selection rules, and lepton decay spectra. It is also noted that CP violation may manifest itself more strongly in heavy particle decays than elsewhere providing a new probe of its origin. The theoretical progress in the understanding of nonleptonic transitions among lighter quarks, nonleptonic K and hyperon decay amplitudes, omega minus and charmed particle decay predictions, and lastly the Kobayashi--Maskawa model for the weak coupling of heavy quarks together with the details of its implications for topology and bottomology are treated. 48 references

  1. How many quarks are there

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, H.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental information which was accumulated in the last 18 months in e + e - collisions and upsilonN scattering indicates that more than four kinds of quarks are already present. Six different pieces of evidence for the existence of six quarks: the triangle anomalies, the value of R, psi-spectroscopy, neutrino processes, CP-violation and the possible existence of V+A currents are discussed. It is concluded that there is strong (but not yet conclusive) evidence for the existence of six quarks and six leptons. (author)

  2. Quark chiral condensate from the overlap quark propagator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Bi, Yujiang; Cai, Hao; Chen, Ying; Gong, Ming; Liu, Zhaofeng

    2017-05-01

    From the overlap lattice quark propagator calculated in the Landau gauge, we determine the quark chiral condensate by fitting operator product expansion formulas to the lattice data. The quark propagators are computed on domain wall fermion configurations generated by the RBC-UKQCD Collaborations with N f = 2+1 flavors. Three ensembles with different light sea quark masses are used at one lattice spacing 1/a = 1.75(4) GeV. We obtain in the SU(2) chiral limit. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11575197, 11575196, 11335001, 11405178), joint funds of NSFC (U1632104, U1232109), YC and ZL acknowledge the support of NSFC and DFG (CRC110)

  3. Quark-anti-quark potential in N=4 SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, Nikolay [Mathematics Department, King’s College London,The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); St. Petersburg INP,Gatchina, 188 300, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Levkovich-Maslyuk, Fedor [Mathematics Department, King’s College London,The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-12-22

    We construct a closed system of equations describing the quark-anti-quark potential at any coupling in planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. It is based on the Quantum Spectral Curve method supplemented with a novel type of asymptotics. We present a high precision numerical solution reproducing the classical and one-loop string predictions very accurately. We also analytically compute the first 7 nontrivial orders of the weak coupling expansion. Moreover, we study analytically the generalized quark-anti-quark potential in the limit of large imaginary twist to all orders in perturbation theory. We demonstrate how the QSC reduces in this case to a one-dimensional Schrodinger equation. In the process we establish a link between the Q-functions and the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation.

  4. Properties of the Top Quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of particle physics is the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The current theory of elementary particle physics, the Standard Model, contains twelve different types of fermions which (neglecting gravity) interact through the gauge bosons of three forces. In addition a scalar particle, the Higgs boson, is needed for theoretical consistency. These few building blocks explain all experimental results found in the context of particle physics, so far. Nevertheless, it is believed that the Standard Model is only an approximation to a more complete theory. First of all the fourth known force, gravity, has withstood all attempts to be included until now. Furthermore, the Standard Model describes several features of the elementary particles like the existence of three families of fermions or the quantisation of charges, but does not explain these properties from underlying principles. Finally, the lightness of the Higgs boson needed to explain the symmetry breaking is difficult to maintain in the presence of expected corrections from gravity at high scales. This is the so called hierarchy problem. In addition astrophysical results indicate that the universe consists only to a very small fraction of matter described by the Standard Model. Large fractions of dark energy and dark matter are needed to describe the observations. Both do not have any correspondence in the Standard Model. Also the very small asymmetry between matter and anti-matter that results in the observed universe built of matter (and not of anti-matter) cannot be explained until now. It is thus an important task of experimental particle physics to test the predictions of the Standard Model to the best possible accuracy and to search for deviations pointing to necessary extensions or modifications of our current theoretical understanding. The top quark was predicted to exist by the Standard Model as the partner of the bottom quark. It was first observed in 1995 by the

  5. Dissipative force on an external quark in heavy quark cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabortty, Shankhadeep

    2011-11-01

    Within the finite temperature N = 4 strongly coupled super-Yang-Mills, we compute the dissipative force on an external quark in the presence of evenly distributed heavy quark cloud. This is computed holographically by constructing the corresponding gravity dual. We study the behaviour of this force as a function of the cloud density. Along the way we also analyze the stability of the gravity dual for vector and tensor perturbations.

  6. Holographic quark-gluon plasmas at finite quark density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigazzi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Cotrone, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino (Italy); Mas, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Tarrio, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Universiteit Utrecht, 3584 CE, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mayerson, D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Gravity solutions holographically dual to strongly coupled quark-gluon plasmas with non-zero quark density are reviewed. They are motivated by the urgency of finding novel tools to explore the phase diagram of QCD-like theories at finite chemical potential. After presenting the solutions and their regime of validity, some of their physical properties are discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Heavy quarks and CP: Moriond 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1985-03-01

    The presentations at the Fifth Moriond Workshop on Heavy Quarks, Flavor Mixing, and CP Violation (La Plagne, France, January 13-19, 1985) are summarized. The following topics are reviewed. What's New (beyond the top, top quarks, bottom quarks, charm quarks, strange quarks, and others); why is all this being done (strong interactions and hadron structure, and electroweak properties); and what next (facilities and can one see CP violation in the B-anti B system). 64 refs., 10 figs

  8. Quarkonium states in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Yun

    2009-09-10

    In this work we study the properties of quarkonium states in a quark-gluon plasma which, due to expansion and non-zero viscosity, exhibits a local anisotropy in momentum space. We determine the hard-loop resummed gluon propagator in an anisotropic QCD plasma in general linear gauges and define a potential between heavy quarks from the Fourier transform of its static limit. This potential which arises due to one-gluon exchange describes the force between a quark and anti-quark at short distances. It is closer to the vacuum potential as compared to the isotropic Debye screened potential which indicates the reduced screening in an anisotropic QCD plasma. In addition, angular dependence appears in the potential; we find that there is stronger attraction on distance scales on the order of the inverse Debye mass for quark pairs aligned along the direction of anisotropy than for transverse alignment. The potential at long distances, however, is non-perturbative and modeled as a QCD string which is screened at the same scale as the Coulomb field. At asymptotic separation the potential energy is non-zero and inversely proportional to the temperature. With a phenomenological potential model which incorporates the different behaviors at short and long distances, we solve the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation. Our numerical results show that quarkonium binding is stronger at non-vanishing viscosity and expansion rate, and that the anisotropy leads to polarization of the P-wave states. Furthermore, we determine viscosity corrections to the imaginary part of the heavy-quark potential in the weak-coupling hard-loop approximation. The imaginary part is found to be smaller (in magnitude) than at vanishing viscosity. This implies a smaller decay width of quarkonium bound states in an anisotropic plasma. (orig.)

  9. Quarkonium states in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yun

    2009-01-01

    In this work we study the properties of quarkonium states in a quark-gluon plasma which, due to expansion and non-zero viscosity, exhibits a local anisotropy in momentum space. We determine the hard-loop resummed gluon propagator in an anisotropic QCD plasma in general linear gauges and define a potential between heavy quarks from the Fourier transform of its static limit. This potential which arises due to one-gluon exchange describes the force between a quark and anti-quark at short distances. It is closer to the vacuum potential as compared to the isotropic Debye screened potential which indicates the reduced screening in an anisotropic QCD plasma. In addition, angular dependence appears in the potential; we find that there is stronger attraction on distance scales on the order of the inverse Debye mass for quark pairs aligned along the direction of anisotropy than for transverse alignment. The potential at long distances, however, is non-perturbative and modeled as a QCD string which is screened at the same scale as the Coulomb field. At asymptotic separation the potential energy is non-zero and inversely proportional to the temperature. With a phenomenological potential model which incorporates the different behaviors at short and long distances, we solve the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation. Our numerical results show that quarkonium binding is stronger at non-vanishing viscosity and expansion rate, and that the anisotropy leads to polarization of the P-wave states. Furthermore, we determine viscosity corrections to the imaginary part of the heavy-quark potential in the weak-coupling hard-loop approximation. The imaginary part is found to be smaller (in magnitude) than at vanishing viscosity. This implies a smaller decay width of quarkonium bound states in an anisotropic plasma. (orig.)

  10. Lab cooks up quark soup

    CERN Multimedia

    Dumé, Belle

    2003-01-01

    "Physicists working at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in the US say that they have come closer than ever before to creating a quark-gluon plasma" (0.5 page)

  11. Top Quark Physics with CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Higgs mechanism. There are various hints at deviations from the Standard Model expectation which have been observed recently by Tevatron experiments in top final states. Several signatures of new physics accessible at the LHC either suffer from top-quark production as a significant background or contain top quarks themselves. In this talk, we present results on top quark physics obtained from the first LHC data collected by the CMS experiment.They include measurements of the top pair production cross section in various channels and their combination, measurements of the top quark mass, the single top cross section, a search for new particles decaying into top pairs, and a first look at the charge asymmetry.

  12. Colour screening and quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1978-03-01

    It is proposed that in Quantum Chromodynamics the colour charge of gluons and of anything with zero triality is screened by a dynamical Higgs mechanism with Higgs scalars made out of gluons. The center Z 3 of the gauge group SU(3) is left unbroken in this way, and single quarks, which have nonzero triality, cannot be screened. Long range forces between them persist therefore. Given that the Higgs mechanism produces a mass gap, the most favorable configuration of field lines between e.g. quark and antiquark will be in strings analogous to magnetic field lines in a superconductor. The strings confine the quarks. The screening mechanism, on the other hand, produces not only the mass gap (which leads to string formation) but is also responsible for saturation of forces, i.e. absence of bound states of six quarks etc. (orig.) [de

  13. Top quark properties at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Dilip, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS potential for the study of the top quark properties and physics beyond the Standard Model in the top quark sector, is described. The measurements of the top quark charge, the spin and spin correlations, the Standard Model decay (t-> bW), rare top quark decays associated to flavour changing neutral currents (t-> qX with X = gluon, Z, photon) and ttbar resonances are discussed. The sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment is estimated for an expected luminosity of 1fb-1 at the LHC. The full simulation of the ATLAS detector is used. For the Standard Model measurements the expected precision is presented. For the tests of physics beyond the Standard Model, the 5 sigma discovery potential (in the presence of a signal) and the 95% Confidence Level (CL) limit (in the absence of a signal) are given.

  14. Quark nuclear physics at JHF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, H.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the research fields to be studied by the Japan Hadron Facility being planned in the site of JAERI as a joint project with Neutron Science Project. We would expect to reveal the most microscopic structure of matter using the intensity frontier proton machine. In particular, we would like to develop Quark Nuclear Physics to describe hadrons and nuclei in terms of quarks and gluons. (author)

  15. Top Quark Physics: Future Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaros, John A

    2003-05-09

    We discuss the study of the top quark at future experiments and machines. Top's large mass makes it a unique probe of physics at the natural electroweak scale. We emphasize measurements of the top quark's mass, width, and couplings, as well as searches for rare or nonstandard decays, and discuss the complementary roles played by hadron and lepton colliders.

  16. Heavy quark physics at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.

    1992-06-01

    A brief overview of the anticipated heavy quark physics at HERA is given. The topics discussed include heavy quark photo- and leptoproduction cross sections at HERA calculated in the context of perturbative QCD, various mechanisms of J/ψ-leptoproduction and their rates, determination of the gluon density of the proton using open and bound charmed hadrons, and rare D 0 -meson decays. Some selected aspects of B-Physics at HERA are also discussed. (orig.)

  17. Pourquoi les quarks restent invisibles

    CERN Multimedia

    Gross, David J

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of the seventies, physicists discovered a new scale in the matter structure. Protons and neutrons, components of the atomic nucleus, seemed to be constituted by even more elementar particles: the quarks. But while they seemed to move freely inside the protons, it was impossible to isolate one of these quarks. The Nobel Prize for physics rewarded the explanation of this phenomenon (3 pages)

  18. Heavy quark production and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1993-11-01

    This review covers many new experimental results on heavy flavor production and spectroscopy. It also shows some of the increasingly improved theoretical understanding of results in light of basic perturbative QCD and heavy quark symmetry. At the same time, there are some remaining discrepancies among experiments as well as significant missing information on some of the anticipated lowest lying heavy quark states. Most interesting, perhaps, are some clearly measured production effects awaiting full explanation

  19. Quark-diquark approximation of the three-quark structure of baryons in the quark confinement model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.; Ivanov, M.A.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.

    1990-01-01

    Octet (1 + /2) and decuplet (3 + /2) of baryons as relativistic three-quark states are investigated in the quark confinement model (QCM), the relativistic quark model, based on some assumptions about hadronization and quark confinement. The quark-diquark approximation of the three-quark structure of baryons is proposed. In the framework of this approach the description of the main low-energy characteristics of baryons as magnetic moments, electromagnetic radii and form factors, ratio of axial and vector constants in semileptonic baryon octet decays, strong form factors and decay widths is given. The obtained results are in agreement with experimental data. 31 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  20. Top quark production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gilles, Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, it gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. This talk will present highlights of a few recent precision measurements of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections, including differential distributions and production in association with bosons, will be presented alongside top quark properties measurements. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top quark mass are also presented.

  1. Quarks and leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, H.

    1977-01-01

    The physics of quarks and leptons within the framework of gauge theories for the weak and electromagnetic interactions is reviewed. The Weinberg-Salam SU(2)xU(1) theory is used as a ''reference point'' but models based on larger gauge groups, especially SU(2)sub(L)xSU(2)sub(R)xU(1), are discussed. We distinguish among three ''Generations'' of fundamental fermions: The first generation (e - , νsub(e), u, d), the second generation (μ - , νsub(μ), c, s) and the third generation (tau - , νsub(tau), t, b). For each generation are discussed the classification of all fermions, the charged and neutral weak currents, possible right-handed currents, parity and CP-violation, fermion masses and Cabibbo-like angles and related problems. Theoretical ideas as well as experimental evidence, emphasizing open theoretical problems and possible experimental tests are reviewed, as well as the possibility of unifying the weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions in a grand unification scheme. The problems and their possible solutions are presented, generation by generation, but a brief subject-index (following the table of contents) enbales the interested reader to follow any specific topic throughout the three generations. (author)

  2. Heavy quarks in proton

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)655637

    The measurement of prompt photon associated with a b jet in proton-proton interactions can provide us insight into the inner structure of proton. This is because precision of determination of parton distribution functions of b quark and gluon can be increased by such a measurement. The measurement of cross-section of prompt photon associated with a b jet (process $pp\\longrightarrow \\gamma + b + X$) at $\\sqrt{s}$= 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector is presented. Full 8 TeV dataset collected by ATLAS during the year 2012 was used in this analysis. Corresponding integrated luminosity is 20.3 $fb^{-1}$. Fiducial differential cross-section as a function of photon transverse momentum at particle level was extracted from data and compared with the prediction of leading order event generator Pythia 8. Cross-section extracted from data is normalised independently on the Monte Carlo prediction. Values of data distribution lie above Monte Carlo values. The difference can be explained by presence of higher order effects not ...

  3. Tests of QCD with polarized electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel, T.J.; SLD Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    We present three measurements that exploit the highly-polarized incident electrons of the SLC facility to probe QCD and the hadronization process. We observe preliminary evidence for leading particle production in hadronic decays of the Zo to light-quark pairs. In a high-purity sample of quark jets, the momentum spectra of p, A0, and K(-) are harder than those of p(bar), A(bar)0, and K(+), supporting the hypothesis that faster particles in jets are more likely to carry the primary quark or antiquark of the jet. Second, we present an improved limit on jet handedness, which seeks to measure the transport of quark spin through the hadronization process. Finally, we search for a correlation of the three jet event orientation with the Zo spin direction, which would indicate new physics beyond the Standard model.

  4. Giving top quark effective operators a boost

    CERN Document Server

    Englert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the prospects to systematically improve generic effective field theory-based searches for new physics in the top sector during LHC run 2 as well as the high luminosity phase. In particular, we assess the benefits of high momentum transfer final states on top EFT-fit as a function of systematic uncertainties in comparison with sensitivity expected from fully-resolved analyses focusing on $t\\bar t$ production. We find that constraints are typically driven by fully-resolved selections, while boosted top quarks can serve to break degeneracies in the global fit. This demystifies and clarifies the importance of high momentum transfer final states for global fits to new interactions in the top sector from direct measurements.

  5. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  6. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  7. Recent top quark results from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mcgoldrick, Garrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks. This talk will focus on a few recent precision top quark measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration: fiducial top pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside selected measurements of top quark properties. The results include the first top quark measurements at 13 TeV using data from the 2015 LHC run.

  8. Strange Quark Matter Status and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandweiss, J.

    2004-01-01

    The existence of quark states with more than three quarks is allowed in QCD. The stability of such quark matter states has been studied with lattice QCD and phenomenological bag models, but is not well constrained by theory. The addition of strange quarks to the system allows the quarks to be in lower energy states despite the additional mass penalty. There is additional stability from reduced Coulomb repulsion. SQM is expected to have a low Z/A. Stable or metastable massive multiquark states contain u, d, and s quarks.

  9. Flavor Decomposition of the Sea-Quark Helicity Distributions in the Nucleon from Semiinclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Ammosov, V. V.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Bailey, P.; Baturin, V.; Baumgarten, C.; Beckmann, M.; Belostotski, S.; Bernreuther, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Bouwhuis, M.; Brack, J.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Capitani, G. P.; Chiang, H. C.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; de Leo, R.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Devitsin, E.; di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Ely, J.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Felawka, L.; Fox, B.; Franz, J.; Frullani, S.; Gärber, Y.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Garrow, K.; Garutti, E.; Gaskell, D.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Graw, G.; Grebeniouk, O.; Greeniaus, L. G.; Hafidi, K.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Heesbeen, D.; Henoch, M.; Hertenberger, R.; Hesselink, W. H.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Iarygin, G.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Kaiser, R.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Königsmann, K.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Laziev, A.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Lindemann, T.; Lipka, K.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, J.; Maiheu, B.; Makins, N. C.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Masoli, F.; Mexner, V.; Meyners, N.; Mikloukho, O.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Oganessyan, K.; Ohsuga, H.; Orlandi, G.; Pickert, N.; Potashov, S.; Potterveld, D. H.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Savin, I.; Scarlett, C.; Schäfer, A.; Schill, C.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Schwind, A.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Seitz, B.; Shanidze, R.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Simani, M. C.; Sinram, K.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J.; Stewart, J.; Stösslein, U.; Tait, P.; Tanaka, H.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Tkabladze, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P.; van der Steenhoven, G.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vikhrov, V.; Vincter, M. G.; Visser, J.; Vogel, C.; Vogt, M.; Volmer, J.; Weiskopf, C.; Wendland, J.; Wilbert, J.; Ybeles Smit, G.; Yen, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zohrabian, H.; Zupranski, P.

    2004-01-01

    Double-spin asymmetries of semiinclusive cross sections for the production of identified pions and kaons have been measured in deep inelastic scattering of polarized positrons on a polarized deuterium target. Five helicity distributions including those for three sea quark flavors were extracted from these data together with reanalyzed previous data for identified pions from a hydrogen target. These distributions are consistent with zero for all three sea flavors. A recently predicted flavor asymmetry in the polarization of the light quark sea appears to be disfavored by the data.

  10. Physics results from polarized DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, G. P.

    1998-01-01

    We have extracted polarized nucleon distributions from recent data at CERN, SLAC and DESY. The flavor-dependent valence and sea quark spin distributions are determined for each experiment. We take into account possible differences in the up and down sea distributions, and assume that the strange sea contribution is suppressed by mass effects. Physics results determined from different experiments are compared, including higher order corrections

  11. Physics results from polarized DIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, G. P.

    1998-03-23

    We have extracted polarized nucleon distributions from recent data at CERN, SLAC and DESY. The flavor-dependent valence and sea quark spin distributions are determined for each experiment. We take into account possible differences in the up and down sea distributions, and assume that the strange sea contribution is suppressed by mass effects. Physics results determined from different experiments are compared, including higher order corrections.

  12. Polarization Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Fressengeas, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The physics of polarization optics *Polarized light propagation *Partially polarized light; DEA; After a brief introduction to polarization optics, this lecture reviews the basic formalisms for dealing with it: Jones Calculus for totally polarized light and Stokes parameters associated to Mueller Calculus for partially polarized light.

  13. Hadron production in light and heavy, quark and antiquark jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, K.G.

    1996-08-01

    The authors review four hadronization studies performed by the SLD experiment at SLAC, involving separation of light (Z 0 → u anti u, d anti d, s anti s), c, and b flavors using precision vertexing, and separation of q- and anti q-jets using the highly polarized SLC electron beam. They measured the differences between the average charged multiplicities in Z 0 → light, → c anti c, and →b anti b events, and found that the results were consistent with predictions of perturbative QCD. Next, they measured π/Κ/p/Κ 0 /Λ 0 production in light events for the first time, and compared with production in c- and b-flavor events. They then examined particle production differences in light quark and antiquark hemispheres, and observed more high momentum baryons and K - 's than antibaryons and K + 's in quark hemispheres, consistent with the leading particle hypothesis. Lastly, they performed a search for jet handedness in light q- and anti q-jets. Assuming Standard Model values of quark polarization in Z 0 decays, they have set an improved upper limit on the analyzing power of the handedness method

  14. Global change effects on the long-term feeding ecology and contaminant exposures of East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A; Iverson, Sara J; Fisk, Aaron T; Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Letcher, Robert J; Arts, Michael T; Born, Erik W; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Dietz, Rune

    2013-08-01

    Rapid climate changes are occurring in the Arctic, with substantial repercussions for arctic ecosystems. It is challenging to assess ecosystem changes in remote polar environments, but one successful approach has entailed monitoring the diets of upper trophic level consumers. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) and fatty acid carbon isotope (δ(13) C-FA) patterns were used to assess diets of East Greenland (EG) polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 310) over the past three decades. QFASA-generated diet estimates indicated that, on average, EG bears mainly consumed arctic ringed seals (47.5 ± 2.1%), migratory subarctic harp (30.6 ± 1.5%) and hooded (16.7 ± 1.3%) seals and rarely, if ever, consumed bearded seals, narwhals or walruses. Ringed seal consumption declined by 14%/decade over 28 years (90.1 ± 2.5% in 1984 to 33.9 ± 11.1% in 2011). Hooded seal consumption increased by 9.5%/decade (0.0 ± 0.0% in 1984 to 25.9 ± 9.1% in 2011). This increase may include harp seal, since hooded and harp seal FA signatures were not as well differentiated relative to other prey species. Declining δ(13) C-FA ratios supported shifts from more nearshore/benthic/ice-associated prey to more offshore/pelagic/open-water-associated prey, consistent with diet estimates. Increased hooded seal and decreased ringed seal consumption occurred during years when the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was lower. Thus, periods with warmer temperatures and less sea ice were associated with more subarctic and less arctic seal species consumption. These changes in the relative abundance, accessibility, or distribution of arctic and subarctic marine mammals may have health consequences for EG polar bears. For example, the diet change resulted in consistently slower temporal declines in adipose levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants, as the subarctic seals have higher contaminant burdens than arctic seals. Overall, considerable changes are occurring in the EG

  15. Nuclear Matter from Effective Quark-Quark Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, M.; Fukukawa, K.

    2014-12-01

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.

  16. Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K

    2014-12-12

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.

  17. Opportunities for Polarized He-3 in RHIC and EIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenauer E.; Deshpande, A.; Fischer, W.; Derbenev, S.; Milner, R.; Roser, T.; Zelenski, A.

    2011-10-01

    The workshop on opportunities for polarized He-3 in RHIC and EIC was targeted at finding practical ways of implementing and using polarized He-3 beams. Polarized He-3 beams will provide the unique opportunity for first measurements, i.e, to a full quark flavor separation measuring single spin asymmetries for p{sup +}, p{sup -} and p{sup 0} in hadron-hadron collisions. In electron ion collisions the combination of data recorded with polarized electron proton/He-3 beams allows to determine the quark flavor separated helicity and transverse momentum distributions. The workshop had sessions on polarized He-3 sources, the physics of colliding polarized He-3 beams, polarimetry, and beam acceleration in the AGS Booster, AGS, RHIC, and ELIC. The material presented at the workshop will allow making plans for the implementation of polarized He-3 beams in RHIC.

  18. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  19. Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor baryons and single heavy hyperon polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, G R

    2001-01-01

    Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor quarks to fragment into heavy baryons are calculated in a quark-diquark model. The production of intermediate spin 1/2 and 3/2 excited states is explicity included. $\\Lambda_b$ , $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Xi_c$ production rate and polarization at LEP energies are calculated and, where possible, compared with experiment. A different approach, also relying on a heavy quark-diquark model, is proposed for the small momentum transfer inclusive production of polarized heavy flavor hyperons. The predicted $\\Lambda_c$ polarization is roughly in agreement with experiment.

  20. Quark matter brings heavy ions to Oakland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer; Nystrand, Joakim

    2004-01-01

    The Quark Matter 2004 conference, held in Oakland, California, in January, provided participants with evidence for the elusive quark-gluon plasma. Spencer Klein and Joakim Nystrand describe the highlights of the meeting

  1. Planetary Impacts by Clustered Quark Matter Strangelets

    OpenAIRE

    Labun, Lance; Rafelski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a model of clustered u-d-s quark matter that leads to stable bulk strange quark matter. We discuss qualitatively consequences of impacts by sub-planetary mass strangelets on rocky solar system bodies.

  2. On the Coulomb gauge quark propagator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloker, M.; Alkofer, R.; Krassnigg, A.; Krenn, R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A solution of the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation including transverse gluons is presented. The corresponding retardation effects in the quark propagator are discussed. Especially, their effects on confinement properties and dynamical mass generation are described. (author)

  3. Chiral quark soliton model with Pauli-Villars regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, T.; Wakamatsu, M.; Watabe, T.

    1999-07-01

    The Pauli-Villars regularization scheme is often used for evaluating parton distributions within the framework of the chiral quark soliton model with the inclusion of the vacuum polarization effects. Its simplest version with a single subtraction term should, however, be taken with some caution, since it does not fully get rid of divergences contained in scalar and psuedoscalar quark densities appearing in the soliton equation of motion. To remedy this shortcoming, we propose here its natural extension, i.e., the Pauli-Villars regularization scheme with multisubtraction terms. We also carry out a comparative analysis of the Pauli-Villars regularization scheme and more popular proper-time one. It turns out that some isovector observables such as the isovector magnetic moment of the nucleon are rather sensitive to the choice of the regularization schemes. In the process of tracing the origin of this sensitivity, a noticeable difference of the two regularization schemes is revealed.

  4. Nucleation rate of the quark-gluon plasma droplet at finite quark ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nucleation rate of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) droplet is computed at finite quark chemical potential. In the course of computing the nucleation rate, the finite size effects of the QGP droplet are taken into account. We consider the phenomenological flow parameter of quarks and gluons, which is dependent on quark ...

  5. Heavy quark spectroscopy and decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The understanding of q anti q systems containing heavy, charmed, and bottom quarks has progressed rapidly in recent years, through steady improvements in experimental techniques for production and detection of their decays. These lectures are meant to be an experimentalist's review of the subject. In the first of two lectures, the existing data on the spectroscopy of the bound c anti c and b anti b systems will be discussed. Emphasis is placed on comparisons with the theoretical models. The second lecture covers the rapidly changing subject of the decays of heavy mesons (c anti q and b anti q), and their excited states. In combination, the spectroscopy and decays of heavy quarks are shown to provide interesting insights into both the strong and electroweak interactions of the heavy quarks. 103 refs., 39 figs.

  6. Direct Probes of Linearly Polarized Gluons inside Unpolarized Hadrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, D.; Brodsky, S. J.; Mulders, P.J.G.; Pisano, C.

    2011-01-01

    We show that linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized hadrons can be directly probed in jet or heavy quark pair production in electron-hadron collisions. We discuss the simplest cos2 asymmetries and estimate their maximal value, concluding that measurements of the unknown linearly polarized

  7. An alternative approach to heavy quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baacke, J.; Kasperidus, G.

    1980-01-01

    We discuss a formulation of quark bags where the quark wave function depends only on the relative coordinate and the bag boundary is fixed with respect to the center of mass of the quark system. For technical reasons we have to restrict ourselves to a heavy quark-antiquark system in an s-wave with spherical boundary. A phenomenological application to quarkonium states encourages further investigation of the approach. (orig.)

  8. Spin effects from quark and lepton substructure at future machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckl, R.

    1985-01-01

    If quarks and leptons are composite on a distance scale Λ -1 the physics at energies larger than Λ will provide plenty of evidence for the new level of substructure. However, already at energies below Λ compositeness should become manifest in deviations from the standard model due to form factors, residual interactions and, possibly, new ''light'' states. I discuss the virtue of polarized lepton and hadron beams in searching for new interactions and exemplify the production of excited fermions and bosons focussing on spin properties. The detailed of the contact interactions and the spin of the excited fermions and bosons can give important clues on the basic preon structure and dynamics. Phenomenological studies show that polarization asymmetries and angular distributions of decay products probe most sensitively the chiral properties of contact interactions and the spin of new states. Thus, polarized beams and good angular coverage are of great advantage

  9. The Top Quark as a Window to Beyond the Standard Model Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chiu-Tien [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The top quark was the last of the Standard Model quarks to be discovered, and is of considerable interest. The closeness of the top quark mass to the electroweak scale is suggestive that the top quark could be closely related to the mechanisms for electroweak symmetry breaking. Any new physics in electroweak symmetry breaking models could then preferentially couple to the top quark, making the top quark a promising probe for new physics. In this thesis, we will explore two aspects of the top quark as a harbinger to new physics: the top forward-backward asymmetry as seen at the Tevatron and the search for stops. In this thesis, we will discuss the Asymmetric Left-Right Model (ALRM), a model that is based on the gauge group $U'(1)\\times SU(2)\\times SU'(2)$ with couplings $g_1^\\prime, g_2^\\prime,$ and $g'$ associated with the fields $B',W,W'$, respectively, and show how this model can explain the top forward-backward asymmetry. We will then explore the scalar sector of the ALRM, and provide a specific Higgs mechanism that provides the masses for the $W'$ and $Z'$ bosons. The top forward-backward asymmetry is a test of invariance of charge-conjugation. Thus, we look at the $X$-gluon model, a model that was motivated by the top forward-backward asymmetry, and show that one can look at the longitudinal polarization of the top-quark to test parity conservation. Finally, we investigate searches for stop squarks, the supersymmetric partner of the top quark, at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using shape-based analyses.

  10. The unconfined quarks and gluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdus Salam

    1977-01-01

    The consequences of the lepton-hadron gauge unification hypothesis with unconfined quarks and gluons being the hall-mark are discussed. Quark and gluon decays into leptons are shown to provide a new source of multileptonic production in NN, νN and μN collisions. A theorem is stated and proved which highlights the differences between the dynamics of gauge versus non-gauge 1 - particles. Empirical manifestations of gauge coloured mesons are discussed. The question of exact confinement or not is concluded to be in the end an empirical one and must be settled in the laboratory

  11. Quarks, baryons and chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hosaka, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    This book describes baryon models constructed from quarks, mesons and chiral symmetry. The role of chiral symmetry and of quark model structure with SU(6) spin-flavor symmetry are discussed in detail, starting from a pedagogic introduction. Emphasis is placed on symmetry aspects of the theories. As an application, the chiral bag model is studied for nucleon structure, where important methods of theoretical physics, mostly related to the semiclassical approach for a system of strong interactions, are demonstrated. The text is more practical than formal; tools and ideas are explained in detail w

  12. SPONTANEOUS CP VIOLATION AND QUARK MASS AMBIGUITIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2004-09-21

    I explore the regions of quark masses where CP will be spontaneously broken in the strong interactions. The boundaries of these regions are controlled by the chiral anomaly, which manifests itself in ambiguities in the definition of non-degenerate quark masses. In particular, the concept of a single massless quark is ill defined.

  13. New theoretical results in heavy quark hadroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nason, P.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the status of the heavy quark hadroproduction theory. In particular, we discuss recent developments on production of heavy quarks in the high energy limit, and the results of a new calculation to next-to-leading accuracy of the fully exclusive parton cross section for heavy quark production. (orig.)

  14. Quark fragmentation in e+e- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddone, P.

    1984-12-01

    This brief review of new results in quark and gluon fragmentation observed in e + e - collisions concentrates mostly on PEP results and, within PEP, mostly on TPC results. The new PETRA results have been reported at this conference by M. Davier. It is restricted to results on light quark fragmentation since the results on heavy quark fragmentation have been reported by J. Chapman

  15. Top quarks in searches for supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Top quarks enjoy special relationship with supersymmetry, as their scalar partners influence the mass of the Higgs boson and could be next-to-lightest supersymmetric particles. Top quarks appear thus naturally in SUSY events. Standard Model top production emerges as important background. Latest results of ATLAS and CMS experiments on supersymmetric searches involving top quarks are discussed.

  16. Planar quark diagrams and binary spin processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, A.A.; Ivanov, N.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Contributions of planar diagrams to the binary scattering processes are analyzed. The analysis is based on the predictions of quark-gluon picture of strong interactions for the coupling of reggeons with quarks as well as on the SU(6)-classification of hadrons. The dependence of contributions of nonplanar corrections on spins and quark composition of interacting particles is discussed

  17. and density-dependent quark mass model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report on the study of the mass–radius (–) relation and the radial oscillations of magnetized proto strange stars. For the quark matter we have employed the very recent modification, the temperature- and density-dependent quark mass model of the well-known density-dependent quark mass model. We find that the ...

  18. ''Follow that quark!'' (and other exclusive stories)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Quarks are considered to be the basic constituents of matter. In a series of recent experiments, Carroll studied exclusive reactions as a means of determining the interactions between quarks. Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD) is the modern theory of the interaction of quarks. This theory explains how quarks are held together via the strong interaction in particles known as hadrons. Hadrons consisting of three quarks are called baryons. Hadrons made up of a quark and an antiquark are called mesons. In his lecture, Carroll describes what happens when two hadrons collide and scatter to large angles. The violence of the collision causes the gluons that bind the quarks in a particular hadron to temporarily lose their grip on particular quarks. Quarks scramble toward renewed unity with other quarks, and they undergo rearrangement, which generally results in additional new particles. A two-body exclusive reaction has occurred when the same number of particles exist before and after the collisions. At large angles these exclusive reactions are very rare. The labels on the quarks known as flavor enable the experimenter to follow the history of individual quarks in detail during these exclusive reactions. Carroll describes the equipment used in the experiment to measure short distance, hard collisions at large angles. The collisions he discusses occur when a known beam of mesons or protons collide with a stationary proton target. Finally, Carroll summarizes what the experiments have shown from the study of exclusive reactions and what light some of their results shed on the theory of QCD

  19. Electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Successive equilibration of quark degrees of freedom and its effects on electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma are discussed. ... It has been shown that the present photon spectra measured by WA80 and WA98 Collaborations can not distinguish between the formation of quark matter and hadronic matter in the ...

  20. Pole masses of quarks in dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, L.V.; Kalmykov, M.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    Pole masses of quarks in quantum chromodynamics are calculated to the two-loop order in the framework of the regularization by dimensional reduction. For the diagram with a light quark loop, the non-Euclidean asymptotic expansion is constructed with the external momentum on the mass shell of a heavy quark

  1. Bulk viscosity of strange quark matter in density dependent quark ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results and discussion. In Ь3 we have derived analytic expression for the bulk viscosity of quark matter in the linear case: Ж М. 1 (eq. (27) for non-leptonic process and the corresponding equation with replaced by ' for the leptonic process.) For a given baryon density and temperature, the chemical potentials are evaluated ...

  2. Differential single-top-quark cross sections in t channel at 8 and 13 TeV with the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Komm, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The production of single top quarks in high energy collision events is a unique process to investigate the strength and structure of electroweak interactions. This thesis encompasses first measurements of differential single-top-quark cross sections in t channel which have been performed using data collected at center-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV with the CMS detector at CERN, Switzerland. The electroweak coupling structure of the standard model of particle physics predicts only left-handed top quarks or right-handed top antiquarks to participate in electroweak interactions, resulting in the production of highly polarized top quarks via t channel. The degree of polarization is studied by measuring the cross section as a function of the polarization angle, defined as the angle between the charged lepton from the top quark decay and a spectator quark which is produced in association with the top quark. The differential cross section as a function of the polarization angle is measured in 8 TeV d...

  3. Top quark mass and kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barberis, Emanuela; /Northeastern U.

    2006-05-01

    A summary of the results on the measurement of the Top Quark mass and the study of the kinematics of the t{bar t} system at the Tevatron collider is presented here. Results from both the CDF and D0 collaborations are reported.

  4. NA60 frees the quarks

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Fitted with new state-of-the-art silicon detectors, NA60 is prepared to study the phase transition from confined hadronic matter to a deconfined (free) quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter which probably existed an instant after the Big Bang.

  5. Observation of the Top Quark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. B.

    1995-08-01

    Top quark production is observed in{bar p}p collisions at{radical}s= 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and D{O} observe signals consistent with t{bar t} to WWb{bar b}, but inconsistent with the background prediction by 4.8{sigma} (CDF), 4.6a (D{O}). Additional evidence for the top quark Is provided by a peak in the reconstructed mass distribution. The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with the top quark decay. They measure the top quark mass to be 176{plus_minus}8(stat.){plus_minus}10(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (CDF), 199{sub -21}{sup+19}(stat.){plus_minus}22(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (D{O}), and the t{bar t} production cross section to be 6.8{sub -2.4}{sup+3.6}pb (CDF), 6.4{plus_minus}2.2 pb (D{O}).

  6. Physics of the Quark Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the charge independence, wavefunctions, magnetic moments, and high-energy scattering of hadrons on the basis of group theory and nonrelativistic quark model with mass spectrum calculated by first-order perturbation theory. The presentation is explainable to advanced undergraduate students. (CC)

  7. Hydrodynamics of a quark droplet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, Johan J.; Mishustin, Igor N.; Døssing, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple model of a multi-quark droplet evolution based on the hydrodynamical description. This model includes collective expansion of the droplet, effects of the vacuum pressure and surface tension. The hadron emission from the droplet is described following Weisskopf's statistical...

  8. Phase space quark counting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-gin, C.; Lo, S.

    1980-01-01

    A simple quark counting rule based on phase space consideration suggested before is used to fit all 39 recent experimental data points on inclusive reactions. Parameter free relations are found to agree with experiments. Excellent detail fits are obtained for 11 inclusive reactions

  9. Quark-hadron duality in electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The duality between partonic and hadronic descriptions of physical phenomena is one of the most remarkable features of strong interaction physics. A classic example of this is in electron-nucleon scattering, in which low-energy cross sections, when averaged over appropriate energy intervals, are found to exhibit the scaling behavior expected from perturbative QCD. We present a comprehensive review of data on structure functions in the resonance region, from which the global and local aspects of duality are quantified, including its flavor, spin and nuclear medium dependence. To interpret the experimental findings, we discuss various theoretical approaches which have been developed to understand the microscopic origins of quark-hadron duality in QCD. Examples from other reactions are used to place duality in a broader context, and future experimental and theoretical challenges are identified

  10. Quark-Hadron Duality in Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wally Melnitchouk; Rolf Ent; Cynthia Keppel

    2004-08-01

    The duality between partonic and hadronic descriptions of physical phenomena is one of the most remarkable features of strong interaction physics. A classic example of this is in electron-nucleon scattering, in which low-energy cross sections, when averaged over appropriate energy intervals, are found to exhibit the scaling behavior expected from perturbative QCD. We present a comprehensive review of data on structure functions in the resonance region, from which the global and local aspects of duality are quantified, including its flavor, spin and nuclear medium dependence. To interpret the experimental findings, we discuss various theoretical approaches which have been developed to understand the microscopic origins of quark-hadron duality in QCD. Examples from other reactions are used to place duality in a broader context, and future experimental and theoretical challenges are identified.

  11. Pions to Quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laurie Mark; Dresden, Max; Hoddeson, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    Part I. Introduction; 1. Pions to quarks: particle physics in the 1950s Laurie M Brown, Max Dresden and Lillian Hoddeson; 2. Particle physics in the early 1950s Chen Ning Yang; 3. An historian's interest in particle physics J. L. Heilbron; Part II. Particle discoveries in cosmic rays; 4. Cosmic-ray cloud-chamber contributions to the discovery of the strange particles in the decade 1947-1957 George D. Rochester; 5. Cosmic-ray work with emulsions in the 1940s and 1950s Donald H. Perkins; Part III. High-energy nuclear physics; Learning about nucleon resonances with pion photoproduction Robert L. Walker; 7. A personal view of nucleon structure as revealed by electron scattering Robert Hofstadter; 8. Comments on electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon Robert G. Sachs and Kameshwar C. Wali; Part IV. The new laboratory; 9. The making of an accelerator physicist Matthew Sands; 10. Accelerator design and construction in the 1950s John P. Blewett; 11. Early history of the Cosmotron and AGS Ernest D. Courant; 12. Panel on accelerators and detectors in the 1950s Lawrence W. Jones, Luis W. Alvarez, Ugo Amaldi, Robert Hofstadter, Donald W. Kerst, Robert R. Wilson; 13. Accelerators and the Midwestern Universities Research Association in the 1950s Donald W. Kerst; 14. Bubbles, sparks and the postwar laboratory Peter Galison; 15. Development of the discharge (spark) chamber in Japan in the 1950s Shuji Fukui; 16. Early work at the Bevatron: a personal account Gerson Goldhaber; 17. The discovery of the antiproton Owen Chamberlain; 18. On the antiproton discovery Oreste Piccioni; Part V. The Strange Particles; 19. The hydrogen bubble chamber and the strange resonances Luis W. Alvarez; 20. A particular view of particle physics in the fifties Jack Steinberger; 21. Strange particles William Chinowsky; 22. Strange particles: production by Cosmotron beams as observed in diffusion cloud chambers William B. Fowler; 23. From the 1940s into the 1950s Abraham Pais; Part VI. Detection of the

  12. Synthesis of baryons from unconfined quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, D.; Pati, J.; Teplitz, V.

    1979-09-01

    The cosmic temperature at which primordial quarks condense into baryons is calculated for a number of cases within a field theory of partially confined quarks that enjoys temporary asymptotic freedom. It is assumed that the mass of a quark in a dense quark anti-quark medium is a monotonic function of the medium, that is, that the so-called Archimedes effect is valid. It is shown that, within such models, unbound quark lifetimes are larger than the age of the universe at the time of the transition and that the Archimedes effect implies that the change of the medium from free to bound quarks is a phase transition. 1 figure, 1 table

  13. Small- and large-x nucleon spin structure from a global QCD analysis of polarized parton distribution functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Nocera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available I investigate the behavior of spin-dependent parton distribution functions in the regions of small and large momentum fractions x. I present a systematic comparison between predictions for relevant observables obtained with various models of nucleon spin structure and a recent global analysis of spin-dependent distributions, NNPDFpol1.1. Together with its unpolarized counterpart, NNPDF2.3, they form a mutually consistent set of parton distributions. Because they include most of the available experimental information, and are determined with a minimally biased methodology, these are especially suited for such a study. I show how NNPDFpol1.1 can discriminate between different theoretical models, even though NNPDF uncertainties remain large near the endpoints x→0 and x→1, due to the lack of experimental information. I discuss how our knowledge of nucleon spin structure may be improved at small x by future measurements at an Electron–Ion Collider, and at large x by recent measurements at Jefferson Lab, also in view of its 12 GeV upgrade.

  14. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  15. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  16. Polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The author discusses a number of interrelated hadronic spin effects which test fundamental features of perturbative and nonperturbative QCD. For example, the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton and the axial coupling g{sub A} on the nucleon are shown to be related to each other for fixed proton radius, independent of the form of the underlying three-quark relativistic quark wavefunction. The renormalization scale and scheme ambiguities for the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule for the polarized structure functions can be eliminated by using commensurate scale relations with other observables. Other examples include (a) new constraints on the shape and normalization of the polarized quark and gluon structure functions of the proton at large and small x{sub bj}; (b) consequences of the principle of hadron retention in high x{sub F} inclusive reactions; (c) applications of hadron helicity conservation to high momentum transfer exclusive reactions; and (d) the dependence of nuclear structure functions and shadowing on virtual photon polarization. The author also discusses the implications of a number of measurements which are in striking conflict with leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions, such as the extraordinarily large spin correlation A{sub NN} observed in large angle proton-proton scattering, the anomalously large {rho}{pi} branching ratio of the J/{psi}, and the rapidly changing polarization dependence of both J/{psi} and continuum lepton pair hadroproduction observed at large x{sub F}. The azimuthal angular dependence of the Drell-Yan process is shown to be highly sensitive to the projectile distribution amplitude, the fundamental valence light-cone wavefunction of the hadron.

  17. QCD phase transition with chiral quarks and physical quark masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Buchoff, Michael I; Christ, Norman H; Ding, H-T; Gupta, Rajan; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Lin, Zhongjie; Mawhinney, R D; McGlynn, Greg; Mukherjee, Swagato; Murphy, David; Petreczky, P; Renfrew, Dwight; Schroeder, Chris; Soltz, R A; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao

    2014-08-22

    We report on the first lattice calculation of the QCD phase transition using chiral fermions with physical quark masses. This calculation uses 2+1 quark flavors, spatial volumes between (4 fm)(3) and (11 fm)(3) and temperatures between 139 and 196 MeV. Each temperature is calculated at a single lattice spacing corresponding to a temporal Euclidean extent of N(t) = 8. The disconnected chiral susceptibility, χ(disc) shows a pronounced peak whose position and height depend sensitively on the quark mass. We find no metastability near the peak and a peak height which does not change when a 5 fm spatial extent is increased to 10 fm. Each result is strong evidence that the QCD "phase transition" is not first order but a continuous crossover for m(π) = 135 MeV. The peak location determines a pseudocritical temperature T(c) = 155(1)(8) MeV, in agreement with earlier staggered fermion results. However, the peak height is 50% greater than that suggested by previous staggered results. Chiral SU(2)(L) × SU(2)(R) symmetry is fully restored above 164 MeV, but anomalous U(1)(A) symmetry breaking is nonzero above T(c) and vanishes as T is increased to 196 MeV.

  18. Physics with polarization at the SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, P.N.

    1990-05-01

    The SLD detector is nearing completion and will start physics-quality data-taking at the SLC in 1991 with a longitudinally polarized electron beam and unpolarized positron beam. The current status of the detector is reviewed and the rich program of physics measurements possible with polarization and the SLD detector is briefly presented. In particular, the left-right polarization asymmetry, A LR , will be a unique measurement for the next few years and will allow tight bounds to be set upon the mass of the top quark. 14 refs., 1 fig

  19. Excited State Contributions to the Heavy Baryon Fragmentation Functions in a Quark-Diquark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Adamov, A D; Goldstein, Gary R.

    2001-01-01

    Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor quarks to fragment into heavy baryons are calculated in a quark-diquark model. The production of intermediate spin 1/2 and 3/2 excited states is explicity included. The resulting $\\Lambda_b$ production rate and polarization at LEP energies are in agreement with experiment. The $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Xi_c$ functions are also obtained. The spin independent $f_1(z)$ is compared to data. The integrated values for production rates agree with the data.

  20. Spin physics experiments at NICA-SPD with polarized proton and deuteron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savin, I.; Efremov, A.; Pshekhonov, D.; Kovalenko, A.; Teryaev, O.; Shevchenko, O.; Nagajcev, A.; Guskov, A.; Kukhtin, V.; Toplilin, N. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    This is a brief description of suggested measurements of asymmetries of the Drell-Yan (DY) pair production in collisions of non-polarized, longitudinally and transversally polarized protons and deuterons which provide an access to all leading-twist collinear and TMD PDFs of quarks and anti-quarks in nucleons. Other spin effects in hadronic and heavy-ion collisions may be also studied constituting the spin physics program at NICA. (orig.)

  1. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA....... It thus explores the systems of reason that educational comparative practices carry through time; focusing on the way configurations are reproduced and transformed, forming the pre-school child as a central curricular variable....

  2. Do bound color octet states of liberated quarks exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    In models where quarks are liberated and color can be excited, the three-quark color-octet state is shown to be unbound and unstable against breakup into free quarks and diquarks. The signature for color excitation in deep inelastic processes will not be a bound three-quark state which decays electromagnetically but a final state containing free quarks. (author)

  3. The Effect of Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) on Ionosphere and Thermosphere during 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm: Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J.; Deng, Y.; Zhang, D.; Lu, Y.; Sheng, C.

    2017-12-01

    Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) are incorporated into the non-hydrostatic Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM), revealing the complex effects on neutral dynamics and ion-neutral coupling processes. The intense westward ion stream could enhance the neutral zonal wind within the SAPS channel. Through neutral dynamics the neutrals then divide into two streams, one turns poleward and the other turns equatorward, forming a two-cell pattern in the SAPS-changed wind. The significant Joule heating induced by SAPS also leads to traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD) accompanied by traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID), increasing the total electron content (TEC) by 2-8 TECu in the mid-latitude ionosphere. We investigate the potential causes of the reported poleward wind surge during the St. Patrick's Day storm in 2015. It is confirmed that Coriolis force on the westward zonal wind can contribute the poleward wind during post-SAPS interval. In addition, the simulations imply that the sudden decrease of heating rate within auroral oval could result in a TAD propagating equatorward, which could also be responsible for the sudden poleward wind surge. This study highlights the complicated effects of SAPS on ion-neutral coupling and neutral dynamics.

  4. Cooking Up Hot Quark Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Karen McNulty

    2011-03-28

    Near-light-speed collisions of gold ions provide a recipe for in-depth explorations of matter and fundamental forces. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has produced the most massive antimatter nucleus ever discovered—and the first containing an anti-strange quark. The presence of strange antimatter makes this antinucleus the first to be entered below the plane of the classic Periodic Table of Elements, marking a new frontier in physics.

  5. Lifetimes and heavy quark expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Kolya Uraltsev was one of the inventors of the Heavy Quark Expansion (HQE), that describes inclusive weak decays of hadrons containing heavy quarks and in particular lifetimes. Besides giving a pedagogic introduction to the subject, we review the development and the current status of the HQE, which just recently passed several non-trivial experimental tests with an unprecedented precision. In view of many new experimental results for lifetimes of heavy hadrons, we also update several theory predictions: τ (B+)/τ (Bd) = 1.04+0.05-0.01 ± 0.02 ± 0.01, τ(Bs)/τ(Bd) = 1.001 ±0.002, τ(Λb)/τ(Bd) = 0.935 ±0.054 and \\bar {τ } (Ξ b0)/\\bar {τ } (Ξ b+) = 0.95 ± 0.06. The theoretical precision is currently strongly limited by the unknown size of the non-perturbative matrix elements of four-quark operators, which could be determined with lattice simulations.

  6. On the polarization of fermion in an intermediate state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloshin, A. E.; Lomov, V. P.

    2017-06-01

    We show that calculation of a final fermion polarization (for a pure initial state) is equivalent to the problem of looking for complete polarization axis of bispinor. This gives the method for calculation of polarization applicable both for final and intermediate state fermions. We suggest to use fermion propagator (bare or dressed) in form of spectral representation, which gives the orthogonal off-shell energy projectors. This representation leads to covariant separation of particle and antiparticle contributions and gives a natural definition for polarization of intermediate state fermion. The most evident application is related with consistent description of t-quark polarization.

  7. Universal seesaw mechanism for quarks and leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogami, I.S.; Shinohara, Tadatomi

    1991-01-01

    Universal seesaw mechanism (USM) is implemented in a left-right symmetric unified theory of extended color and electroweak interactions to solve the problems of fermion mass hierarchies and generation mixings. The gauge group has the structure SU(4) cL x SU(4) cR x SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) X in which the lepton number is treated as the fourth color and the U(1) X group is generated by a new charge X. Colored and non-colored Higgs fields induce USM between ordinary fermion multiplets and exotic electroweak singlets. USM is singly applied to the charged fermion sectors to suppress their average mass below the electroweak mass scale. On the other hand, USM applied doubly to the neutral fermion sector works to make neutrinos superlight. Prodigious gap between vanishingly small neutrino masses and the 10 2 GeV scale of the yet-undiscovered top quark is explained without presuming unnaturally huge mass scales. A global horizontal U(1) A symmetry is introduced so as to circumvent the strong CP violation and to restrict the Yukawa coupling constants. Colored Higgs quartets break the extended color symmetry SU(4) cL x SU(4) cR down to SU(3) cL x SU(3) cR by making the color interaction of lepton to be superweak. It is three kinds of colored Higgs bi-quartets which degrade the left-right symmetric color interaction into the conventional color interaction of vector type and play at the same time the roles to cause the USM and the generation mixing leading to a realistic variety in each sector of the fermion mass spectrum. Characteristics of mass spectra of charged fermions and the quark mixing matrix are described by adjusting the Yukawa coupling constants over a reasonable range of values. (author)

  8. Quarks at the ends of the string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, I.; Hanson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    We develop a technique for attaching quark quantum numbers to world lines joined by relativistic strings. We are able to describe spin-0 and spin-1/2 U(n)-symmetric quarks attached to world lines. One spin-1/2 theory based on the Dirac equation yields a classical particle with helical motion, interpretable as Zitterbewegung. Another spin-1/2 model has no helical motion, but yields an algebra resembling that of supersymmetry. Motivated by duality diagrams and some general properties of quark--gluon models, we then construct quark--string models of mesons and baryons. The analysis of the meson model with unequal quark masses implies a stringlike spectrum with broken trajectory intercepts. A simple baryon model suggests a dynamical reason for diquark configurations in the lowest states. Physical weak and electromagnetic currents for the quark--string system follow from a minimal-coupling scheme as in gauge field theories

  9. Precise charm-quark mass from deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Bluemlein, J.; Daum, K.; Lipka, K.; Moch, S.; Hamburg Univ.

    2012-12-01

    We present a determination of the charm-quark mass in the MS scheme using the data combination of charm production cross section measurements in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA. The framework of global analyses of the proton structure accounts for all correlations of the charm-quark mass with the other non-perturbative parameters, most importantly the gluon distribution function in the proton and the strong coupling constant α s (M Z ). We obtain at next-to-leading order in QCD the value m c (m c ) = 1.15 ± 0.04 (exp) +0.04 -0.00 (scale) GeV and at approximate next-to-next-to-leading order m c (m c ) = 1.24 ± 0.03 (exp) +0.03 -0.02 (scale) +0.00 -0.07 (theory) GeV with an accuracy competitive with other methods.

  10. Heavy quarks and their experimental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.

    1975-09-01

    Recent theoretical work on heavy quark dynamics is reviewed. In the context of a color gauge theory of strong interactions, the structure of heavy quark-antiquark bound states and their decay properties is discussed. The emphasis is on the dynamical differences between heavy and light quark bound states. It is suggested that the former will more directly reflect the structure of the underlying field theory

  11. Heavy quarks and their experimental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applequist, T.

    1975-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on heavy quark dynamics is reviewed. In the context of a color gauge theory of strong interactions, the structure of heavy quark-antiquark bound states and their decay properties is discussed. The emphasis is on the dynamical differences between heavy and light quark bound states. It is suggested that the former will more directly reflect the structure of the underlying field theory

  12. Phenomenology of heavy leptons and heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1978-11-01

    The review of the quark and lepton family includes properties of the tau, SU(2) x U(1) classification of the tau and its decays, heavier leptons, the spectroscopy of heavy hadrons composed of quarks, their strong and electromagnetic decays, the weak interaction properties of the c, b, and t quarks, and the decays of hadrons containing them expected within the context of the standard SU(2) x U(1) model. 76 references

  13. The Skyrmions and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1984-08-01

    It is proposed that the quark-bag description and the Skyrmion description of baryons are related to each other by quantized parameters. Topology (through a chiral anomaly) plays an important role in bridging the fundamental theory of the strong interactions (QCD) to effective theories. Some consequences on the efforts to see quark degrees of freedom in nuclear matter are discussed. It is suggested that at low energies there will be no ''smoking gun'' evidences for quark presence in nuclei

  14. Recent Top Quark Mass Measurements from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    A variety of top quark mass measurements has been made in the recent years by the CMS Collaboration. The most recent measurements performed at 8 TeV are reported here, along with a new measurement based on data collected in 2016 at 13 TeV. The current combination of these measurements has a relative uncertainty smaller than 0.3 percent, making the top quark the most accurately measured quark.

  15. Top Quark Production at Hadron Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaf, Lukas Kaj [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-03-01

    This thesis describes both theoretical and experimental research into top quark production. The theoretical part contains a calculation of the single-top quark production cross section at hadron colliders, at Next to Leading Order (NLO) accuracy. The experimental part describes a measurement of the top quark pair production cross section in proton-antiproton collisions, at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV.

  16. CP Violation in Single Top Quark Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Weigang [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We present a search for CP violation in single top quark production with the DØ experiment at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. CP violation in the top electroweak interaction results in different single top quark production cross sections for top and antitop quarks. We perform the search in the single top quark final state using 5.4 fb-1 of data, in the s-channel, t-channel, and for both combined. At this time, we do not see an observable CP asymmetry.

  17. Single top quark production with CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccolo Davide

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of single top quark production performed using the CMS experiment [1] data collected in 2011 at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and in 2012 at 8 TeV, are presented. The cross sections for the electroweak production of single top quarks in the t-channel and in association with W-bosons is measured and the results are used to place constraints on the CKM matrix element Vtb. Measurements of top quark properties in single top quark production are also presented. The results include the measurement of the charge ratio in the single top t-channel.

  18. Thermal recombination: Beyond the valence quark approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Fries, R.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)]. E-mail: fries@physics.umn.edu; Bass, S.A. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2005-07-07

    Quark counting rules derived from recombination models agree well with data on hadron production at intermediate transverse momenta in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. They convey a simple picture of hadrons consisting only of valence quarks. We discuss the inclusion of higher Fock states that add sea quarks and gluons to the hadron structure. We show that, when recombination occurs from a thermal medium, hadron spectra remain unaffected by the inclusion of higher Fock states. However, the quark number scaling for elliptic flow is somewhat affected. We discuss the implications for our understanding of data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  19. Quark Physics without Quarks: A Review of Recent Developments in S-Matrix Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Fritjof

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the developments in S-matrix theory over the past five years which have made it possible to derive results characteristic of quark models without any need to postulate the existence of physical quarks. In the new approach, the quark patterns emerge as a consequence of combining the general S-matrix principles with the concept of order.…

  20. The quark revolution and the ZGS - new quarks physics since the ZGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Overwhelming experimental evidence for quarks as real physical constituents of hadrons along with the QCD analogs of the Balmer Formula, Bohr Atom and Schroedinger Equation already existed in 1966 but was dismissed as heresy. ZGS experiments played an important role in the quark revolution. This role is briefly reviewed and subsequent progress in quark physics is described

  1. Non-diagonal processes of singlet and ordinary quark production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejlin, V.A.; Vereshkov, G.M.; Kuksa, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Non-diagonal processes of singlet and ordinary quark production are analyzed in the model where the down singlet quark mixes with the ordinary ones. The possibility of experimental selection of h-quark effects is demonstrated

  2. The left-right forward-backward asymmetry for B quarks at the SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, David C. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The left-right asymmetry for b quarks, A{sub b}, is precisely predicted by the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow model of particle interactions, now the standard model for high-energy particle physics. As a test of this model, Ab is directly measured at the SLC Large Detector (SLD) by taking advantage of the unique polarized electron beam at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and measuring the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks. To measure the asymmetry, b quarks are identified using muons of high total and transverse momenta. The result for the 1993 data sample of 37,843 hadronic Z`s is Ab = 0.91 ± 0.19 ± 0.06, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. This result is in agreement with the standard model prediction of Ab = 0.935.

  3. The left-right forward-backward asymmetry for B quarks at the SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.

    1994-05-01

    The left-right asymmetry for b quarks, A b , is precisely predicted by the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow model of particle interactions, now the standard model for high-energy particle physics. As a test of this model, A b is directly measured at the SLC Large Detector (SLD) by taking advantage of the unique polarized electron beam at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and measuring the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks. To measure the asymmetry, b quarks are identified using muons of high total and transverse momenta. The result for the 1993 data sample of 37,843 hadronic Z's is A b = 0.91 ± 0.19 ± 0.06, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. This result is in agreement with the standard model prediction of A b = 0.935

  4. Flavor structure of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors and transverse charge densities in the chiral quark-soliton model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, António; Urbano, Diana; Kim, Hyun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the flavor decomposition of the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, based on the chiral quark-soliton model (χQSM) with symmetry-conserving quantization. We consider the rotational 1/N_c and linear strange-quark mass (ms) corrections. We discuss the results of the flavor-decomposed electromagnetic form factors in comparison with the recent experimental data. In order to see the effects of the strange quark, we compare the SU(3) results with those of SU(2). Finally, we discuss the transverse charge densities for both unpolarized and polarized nucleons. The transverse charge density inside a neutron turns out to be negative in the vicinity of the center within the SU(3) χQSM, which can be explained by the contribution of the strange quark.

  5. Measurements and searches with top quarks. Measurement of the top quark pair production cress section, the ratio of brnaching fractions and searches for new physics in the top quark sector with the D0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Yvonne

    2008-08-15

    In this thesis measurements and searches in the top quark sector have been presented. With about 0.9 fb{sup -1} of data collected by the D0 detector, the precise measurement of the top quark pair production cross section and the ratio of branching fractions R has been performed in the lepton plus jets final state. Simultaneously with R the top quark pair production cross section {sigma}(p anti p {yields} t anti t) . B{sup 2}(t {yields} W{sub q}) has been extracted. Furthermore, the top quark pair production cross section in the lepton plus jets, dilepton and tau plus lepton final states have been combined for a dataset of about 1 fb{sup -1}, resulting in {sigma}{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t} = 7.83{sup +093}{sub -0.82} (total) pb for a top quark mass of 175 GeV. Based on the cross section combination a global search for the charged Higgs boson in top quark decays in various t anti t final states has been performed. Last but not least, the simultaneous measurement of R and {sigma}{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t} was changed into a simultaneous measurement of {sigma}{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t} and the associated production of a Higgs boson and a top quark pair {sigma}{sub t} {sub anti} {sub tH} . B(H {yields} b anti b). The latter yields the first measurement of {sigma}{sub t} {sub anti} {sub tH} . B(H {yields} b anti b) at D0 and the currently best limits on {sigma}{sub t} {sub anti} {sub tH} . B(H {yields} b anti b) from the Tevatron. (orig.)

  6. Highlights of top quark properties measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Alejandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks. This talk will focus on a few recent precision measurements of top quark properties in production and decay by the ATLAS Collaboration. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  7. Highlights of top quark properties measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco Navarro, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks. This talk focuses on a few recent precision measurements of top quark properties in production and decay by the ATLAS Collaboration. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  8. Highlights of top quark properties measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco Navarro, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks. This talk will focus on a few recent precision measurements of top quark properties in production and decay by the ATLAS Collaboration. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  9. Hadronic physics of q anti q light quark mesons, quark molecules and glueballs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1980-10-01

    A brief introduction reviews the development of QCD and defines quark molecules and glueballs. This review is concerned primarily with u, d, and s quarks, which provide practically all of the cross section connected with hadronic interactions. The following topics form the bulk of the paper: status of quark model classification for conventional u, d, s quark meson states; status of multiquark or quark molecule state predictions and experiments; glueballs and how to find them; and the OZI rule in decay and production and how glueballs might affect it. 17 figures, 1 table

  10. Quarks and leptons; what next

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltman, M.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of strong interactions is supposedly quantum chromodynamics, an unbroken gauge theory based on the group SU(3). The theory of weak and e.m. interactions is believed to be described by the Weinberg-GIM model, based on the spontaneously broken symmetry SU(2) x U(1). There are many uncertainties around these theories. Quantum chromodynamics has met with many successes, but the most important feature, quark confinement, has not been proven. Also other things, such as PCAC, have not yet been understood. And we have no reasonable calculation of particle masses (pion, proton, etc.). Nevertheless we consider quantum chromodynamics a reasonably respectable theory, and in this talk we will take that theory for granted. The situation with respect to the SU(2) x U(1) theory is much more difficult. No vector bosons have yet been observed, and the Higgs system is more obscure than ever. Glashow's model has been turned into a renormalizable model by Weinberg through the use of the Higgs system, but up to now no radiative corrections of the appropriate type have been measured. The only thing we know is that at low energies this Glashow model reduces to a four-fermion theory involving certain currents, and this has been checked reasonably well. Also, the discovery of charm (and hopefully the discovery of a top quark) fits beautifully into the picture along the lines of the GIM mechanism. CP violation could be due to complex quark masses according to the Kobayashi-Maskawa scheme. The point of view is taken that the existence of vector bosons is not evident, and the Higgs mechanism is a possibility at best. It is the purpose of this talk to outline and clarify this view

  11. Globalization and inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda

    Globalization is increasingly linked to inequality, but with often divergent and polarized findings. Some researchers show that globalization accentuates inequality both within and between countries. Others maintain that these claims are patently incorrect, arguing that globalization has

  12. Quark mass effects in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper recent studies of invariant QCD coupling anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) in the 2-loop approximation with account of fermionic mass effects are summarized. The main results are: An explicit expression for anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) in the 2-loop approximation with accurate account of heavy quark masses. A quantitative analysis on the basis of the above-mentioned expression for anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) of the energy dependence of the scale QCD parameter ν and the conclusion about its inadequacy in the modern energy range

  13. Diffractive dissociation and new quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1983-04-01

    We argue that the chiral limit of QCD can be identified with the strong (diffractive dissociation) coupling limit of reggeon field theory. Critical Pomeron scaling at high energy must then be directly related to an infra-red fixed-point of massless QCD and so requires a large number of flavors. This gives a direct argument that the emergence of diffraction-peak scaling, KNO scaling etc. at anti p-p colliders are evidence of a substantial quark structure still to be discovered

  14. Chiral quarks and proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, S.; Daniel, M.; Gounaris, G.J.; Murphy, A.J.

    1984-04-01

    The authors calculate the hadronic matrix elements of baryon decay operators using a chiral effective Lagrangian with quarks, gluons and Goldstone boson fields. The cases where the ΔB=1 operators arise from supersymmetric SU(5) GUT as well as the minimal SU(5) GUT model are studied. In each model the results depend on two parameters. In particular there is a range of values for the two parameters, where the dominant decay modes in the minimal SU(5) GUT are: p→etae + and n→π - e + . (author)

  15. Quark-gluon plasma 3

    CERN Document Server

    Hwa, Rudolph C

    2004-01-01

    This is a review monograph on quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Different theoretical and experimental aspects of the program to produce QGP in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are covered by experts in the field. This is the third volume in a series on the subject, and the first such monograph to focus on the implications of the experimental results from RHIC, the relativistic heavy-ion collider at the National Brookhaven Laboratory. The review articles will be useful to experienced researchers as well as to graduate students entering the field. Contents: Thermodynamics and In-Medium Hadron Properti

  16. Quark matter and quark stars at finite temperature in Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Bin; Dong, Yu-Min; Jia, Yu-Yue; Wang, Shu-Mei; Ma, Hong-Yang [Qingdao Technological University, School of Science, Qingdao (China); Li, Xiao-Hua [University of South China, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Hengyang (China); University of South China, Cooperative Innovation Center for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology and Equipment, Hengyang (China)

    2017-08-15

    We extend the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model to include two types of vector interaction. Using these two types of vector interaction in NJL model, we study the quark symmetry free energy in asymmetric quark matter, the constituent quark mass, the quark fraction, the equation of state (EOS) for β-equilibrium quark matter, the maximum mass of QSs at finite temperature, the maximum mass of proto-quark stars (PQSs) along the star evolution, and the effects of the vector interaction on the QCD phase diagram. We find that comparing zero temperature case, the values of quark matter symmetry free energy get larger with temperature increasing, which will reduce the difference between the fraction of u, d and s quarks and stiffen the EoS for β-equilibrium quark matter. In particular, our results indicate that the maximum masses of the quark stars increase with temperature because of the effects of the quark matter symmetry free energy, and we find that the heating(cooling) process for PQSs will increase (decrease) the maximum mass within NJL model. (orig.)

  17. Single top-quark production cross-section using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00395821; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of single top-quark production in proton–proton collisions are presented based on the 8 TeV and 13 TeV ATLAS datasets. In the leading-order process, a $W$ boson is exchanged in the $t$-channel. The fiducial cross-sections measurements for the production of single top-quarks and single anti-top-quarks, as well as the total cross-sections and their ratios are presented. At 8 TeV, differential cross-section measurements of the $t$-channel process are also reported, these analyses include limits on anomalous contributions to the $Wtb$ vertex and measurement of the top quark polarization. A measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a $W$ boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, evidence for $s$-channel single-top production in the 8 TeV ATLAS dataset is presented. All measurements are compared to state-of-the-art theoretical calculations.

  18. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, A.F. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1997-06-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Charmonium states in quark-gluon plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    undergo abrupt changes across the phase transition as does the energy density. 2. The gluon matter. The order parameters for QCD phase transition are the thermal Wilson line for pure gauge theory, and the quark condensates for QCD with massless quarks. For realistic QCD none of them are order parameters in the strict ...

  20. Generalization of the quark rearrangement model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, T.; Chen, C.K.

    1976-01-01

    An extension and generalization of the quark rearrangement model of baryon annihilation is described which can be applied to all annihilation reactions and which incorporates some of the features of the highly successful quark parton model. Some p anti-p interactions are discussed

  1. Bag formation in three-quark chromostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By constructing explicit projection operators for the irreducible SU(n) representations, we demonstrate in the static quark limit, with the renormalization group improved effective Lagrangian, that bag formation occurs in the color singlet channel of the three-quark system. Non-linear but Abelian field equations are derived which, when solved, will allow the determination of an effective potential in this case

  2. Heavy quark correlations in hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangano, M.L.; Ridolfi, G.

    1992-01-01

    The study of heavy quark production at hadron colliders will provide important tests and measurements within and possibly beyond the Standard Model. The results of a recent calculation of heavy quark hadronic production correlation properties at the full next-to-leading order (NLO) in perturbative QCD are presented. These properties are important for several applications. (R.P.) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  3. Top quark distributions in hadronic collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G; Frixione, S; Mangano, M L; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G

    1995-01-01

    We present kinematical distributions for top quark pairs produced at the Tevatron \\ppbar\\ Collider, as predicted within Next-to-Leading-Order QCD. We consider single and double-inclusive distributions, and compare our results to those obtained with the shower Monte Carlo HERWIG. We discuss the implications of our findings for experimental issues such as the measurement of the top quark mass.

  4. Diagrammatic group theory in quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canning, G.P.

    1977-05-01

    A simple and systematic diagrammatic method is presented for calculating the numerical factors arising from group theory in quark models: dimensions, casimir invariants, vector coupling coefficients and especially recoupling coefficients. Some coefficients for the coupling of 3 quark objects are listed for SU(n) and SU(2n). (orig.) [de

  5. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers

  6. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  7. Quark degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, I.

    1986-03-01

    Experimental facts which can not be interpreted in terms of nucleonic degrees of freedom are reviewed. Attempts to explain these observations by the help of the notions of quark physics are indicated. Some predicted exotic states are enumerated. The most promising models of the nucleon-nucleon interactions in terms of quarks are briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Successive equilibration of quark degrees of freedom and its effects on electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma are discussed. The effects of the variation of vector meson masses and decay widths on photon production from hot strongly interacting matter formed after Pb + Pb and S + Au collisions at CERN SPS ...

  9. Review of Top Quark Physics Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehoe, R.; Narain, M.; Kumar, A.

    2007-12-01

    As the heaviest known fundamental particle, the top quark has taken a central role in the study of fundamental interactions. Production of top quarks in pairs provides an important probe of strong interactions. The top quark mass is a key fundamental parameter which places a valuable constraint on the Higgs boson mass and electroweak symmetry breaking. Observations of the relative rates and kinematics of top quark final states constrain potential new physics. In many cases, the tests available with study of the top quark are both critical and unique. Large increases in data samples from the Fermilab Tevatron have been coupled with major improvements in experimental techniques to produce many new precision measurements of the top quark. The first direct evidence for electroweak production of top quarks has been obtained, with a resulting direct determination of V{sub tb}. Several of the properties of the top quark have been measured. Progress has also been made in obtaining improved limits on potential anomalous production and decay mechanisms. This review presents an overview of recent theoretical and experimental developments in this field. We also provide a brief discussion of the implications for further efforts.

  10. Top quark physics expectations at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gaponenko, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    The top quark will be produced copiously at the LHC. This will make possible detailed physics studies, and also the use of top quark decays for detector calibration. This talk reviews plans and prospects for top physics activities in ATLAS and CMS experiments.

  11. Top quark physics expectations at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gaponenko, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    The top quark will be produced copiously at the LHC. This will make both detailed physics studies and the use of top quark decays for detector calibration possible. This talk reviews plans and prospects for top physics activities in the ATLAS and CMS experiments.

  12. Quark Model in the Quantum Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, P. E.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses in detail the totally symmetric three-quark karyonic wave functions. The two-body mesonic states are also discussed. A brief review of the experimental efforts to identify the quark model multiplets is given. (Author/SK)

  13. The Top Quark, QCD, And New Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S.

    2002-06-01

    The role of the top quark in completing the Standard Model quark sector is reviewed, along with a discussion of production, decay, and theoretical restrictions on the top quark properties. Particular attention is paid to the top quark as a laboratory for perturbative QCD. As examples of the relevance of QCD corrections in the top quark sector, the calculation of e{sup+}e{sup -}+ t{bar t} at next-to-leading-order QCD using the phase space slicing algorithm and the implications of a precision measurement of the top quark mass are discussed in detail. The associated production of a t{bar t} pair and a Higgs boson in either e{sup+}e{sup -} or hadronic collisions is presented at next-to-leading-order QCD and its importance for a measurement of the top quark Yulrawa coupling emphasized. Implications of the heavy top quark mass for model builders are briefly examined, with the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model and topcolor discussed as specific examples.

  14. Goldstone-Boson Dynamics for Constituent Quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessas, W.

    2003-07-01

    We address some essential features of the Goldstone-boson-exchange constituent quark model. Starting from its background we discuss the motivation for its construction and show its performance in light and strange baryon spectroscopy. Then we quote results from first applications of this type of constituent quark model in covariant calculations of electroweak nucleon form factors.

  15. Recent advances in heavy quark theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Some recent developments in heavy quark theory are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to inclusive weak decays of hadrons containing a b quark. The isospin violating hadronic decay D{sub s}* {yields} D{sub s}{sup pi}{sup 0} is also discussed.

  16. Top quark property measurements in single top

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00386283; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A review of the recent results on measurements of top quark properties in single top quark processes, performed at the LHC by ATLAS and CMS is presented. The measurements are in good agreement with predictions and no deviations from Standard Model expectations have been observed.

  17. Searching for the quarks and gluons plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerschel, C.; Kluberg, L.

    1989-01-01

    Some investigations involving quark matter, at CERN, are discussed. The CERN available oxygen and sulfur beams, with energy about 200 GeV/nuclei, allow the obtention of high energy densities, never reached before. The possibilities of investigating (at CERN) the quarks and gluons plasma are considered. The first and unexpected results obtained from the NA38 experiment are overviewed [fr

  18. Additivity of quark masses in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that, in spite of the confinement of quarks in (color-singlet) hadrons, effective quark masses of all types (dynamically generated, constituent and current masses), naturally form hadron masses in an additivity fashion. For the purposes of brevity, the discussion is limited primarily to the nonstrange flavor sector

  19. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs

  20. Massless quark wavefunction in the deformed bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, D.P.; Park, B.Y.; Koh, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    The quark wavefunctions inside the deformed bag are obtained using a modified linear boundary condition stemming from the MIT bag Lagrangian with an additional term. We propose an exact method to obtain the quark wavefunction even for a spheroidally deformed bag. (Author)

  1. Probing Sea Quarks and Gluons: The Electron-Ion Collider Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn Tanja

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century holds great promise for reaching a new era for unlocking the mysteries of the structure of the atomic nucleus and the nucleons inside it governed by the theory of strong interactions (QCD. In particular, much remains to be learned about the dynamical basis of the structure of hadrons and nuclei in terms of the fundamental quarks and gluons. One of the main goals of existing and nearly completed facilities is to map out the spin flavor structure of the nucleons in the valence region. A future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC would be the world’s first polarized electron-proton collider, and the world’s first e-A collider, and would seek the QCD foundation of nucleons and nuclei in terms of the sea quarks and gluons, matching to these valence quark studies. The EIC will provide a versatile range of kinematics and beam polarization, as well as beam species, to allow for mapping the spin and spatial structure of the quark sea and gluons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in atomic nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadronic matter from color charge.

  2. Probing Sea Quarks and Gluons: The Electron-Ion Collider Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Tanja

    2014-03-01

    The 21st century holds great promise for reaching a new era for unlocking the mysteries of the structure of the atomic nucleus and the nucleons inside it governed by the theory of strong interactions (QCD). In particular, much remains to be learned about the dynamical basis of the structure of hadrons and nuclei in terms of the fundamental quarks and gluons. One of the main goals of existing and nearly completed facilities is to map out the spin flavor structure of the nucleons in the valence region. A future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would be the world's first polarized electron-proton collider, and the world's first e-A collider, and would seek the QCD foundation of nucleons and nuclei in terms of the sea quarks and gluons, matching to these valence quark studies. The EIC will provide a versatile range of kinematics and beam polarization, as well as beam species, to allow for mapping the spin and spatial structure of the quark sea and gluons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in atomic nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadronic matter from color charge.

  3. Search for new resonances with top quark

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Min Suk

    2015-01-01

    Many models of physics beyond the Standard Model predict new gauge bosons that decay to a top quark pair or a top quark and a bottom quark. The most recent results from new resonance searches for $\\rm{Z'} \\rightarrow \\rm{t\\bar{t}} \\rightarrow \\rm{W^{+}bW^{-}\\bar{b}}$ and $\\rm{W'} \\rightarrow \\rm{tb} \\rightarrow \\rm{Wbb}$ are presented using the proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The searches are performed with the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC using an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ and 19.7 fb$^{-1}$, respectively. The analyses are done in the leptonic and hadronic decay modes of the top quark. No evidence for new resonances with top quark is observed and 95\\% confidence level (CL) limits on the production rate are determined for massive states in theories beyond the Standard Model.

  4. Phenomenology of quark-lepton symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.; Lew, H.; Volkas

    1991-01-01

    Quark-lepton symmetric models are a new class of gauge theories which unify the quarks and leptons. In these models the gauge group of the standard model is extended to include a color group for the leptons, and consequently the quarks and leptons can then be related by a Z 2 discrete quark-lepton symmetry. Phenomenological implications of these theories are explored. Two varieties are analysed: one being the simplest quark-lepton symmetric model, and the other containing conventional left-right symmetry. Each theory has a Z' boson, whose masses are constrained at 90% C.L. to be greater than 700 GeV and 650 GeV respectively. Phenomenological constraints from rare decays and the implications of the extended fermion spectrum are also examined. 37 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Gapless Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Mark; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    In neutral cold quark matter that is sufficiently dense that the strange quark mass M_s is unimportant, all nine quarks (three colors; three flavors) pair in a color-flavor locked (CFL) pattern, and all fermionic quasiparticles have a gap. We argue that as a function of decreasing quark chemical...... a linear combination Qtilde of electric and color charges, but it is a Qtilde-conductor with a nonzero electron density. These electrons and the gapless quark quasiparticles make the low energy effective theory of the gapless CFL phase and, consequently, its astrophysical properties are qualitatively...... different from those of the CFL phase, even though its U(1) symmetries are the same. Both gapless quasiparticles have quadratic dispersion relations at the quantum critical point. For values of M_s^2/mu above the quantum critical point, one branch has conventional linear dispersion relations while the other...

  6. Analysis of data on polarized lepton-nucleon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard

    1993-01-01

    We re-analyze data on deep inelastic polarized lepton-nucleon scattering, with particular attention to testing the Bjorken sum rule and estimating the quark contributions to the nucleon spin. Since only structure function data at fixed $Q^2$ can be used to test sum rules, we use E142 asymmetry measurements and unpolarized structure function data to extract $g_1^n$ at fixed $Q^2$ = 2 GeV$^2$. When higher-twist effects, which are important at low $Q^2$, are included, both the E142 and SMC data are compatible with the Bjorken sum rule within one standard deviation. Assuming validity of the Bjorken sum rule, we estimate the quark contributions to the nucleon spin, finding that their total net contribution is small, with the strange quark contribution non-zero and negative. The quark spin content of the nucleon spin is in agreement with Skyrme model.

  7. The final inclusive and semi-inclusive longitudinal double-spin asymmetries at HERMES. Extraction of quark helicity distributions of the nucleon from deep-inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchenko, Polina

    2010-10-15

    The thesis focuses on two aspects of the HERMES data analysis: the measurement of the semi-inclusive double spin asymmetries and the extraction of quark helicity distributions and quark polarizations of the nucleon from deep-inelastic scattering, as a possible interpretation of the HERMES data. The asymmetries are presented using all possible and accessible information about the HERMES data, including the latest systematic studies provided during the last years by HERMES collaboration. (orig.)

  8. On t-quark decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chizhov, M.V.

    1995-07-01

    An extended electroweak model with second rank antisymmetric tensor field is proposed. The effective interactions resulting from the exchange of these fields have specific dependence on the transfer momentum. This leads to the introduction of new model-independent muon decay parameters (Mod. Phys. Lett. A9 (1994) 2979), which can be measured experimentally in SLAC and TRIUMF. The new tensor interactions can effect the three-particles semileptonic meson decays (Mod. Phys. Lett. A8 (1993) 2753). In this connection it will be interesting to propose new experiments on K + → l + νγ, K + → π 0 l + ν decays in DAΦNE. The K L -K s mass difference sets constraints on the tensor particles masses. The mass of the lightest tensor particle could be less than the t-quark mass. Therefore the lightest tensor particle may give an additional to the W-boson contribution into the t- quark decay with the same signature. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs

  9. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14 20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China Normal University, Wuhan). Over 600 scientists from 32 countries in five continents attended the conference. This is the first time that China has hosted such a premier conference in the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, an important event for the Chinese high energy nuclear physics community. About one half of the conference participants are junior scientists—a clear indication of the vigor and momentum for this field, in search of the fundamental nature of the nuclear matter at extreme conditions. Professor T D Lee, honorary chair of the conference and one of the founders of the quark matter research, delivered an opening address with his profound and philosophical remarks on the recent discovery of the nature of strongly-interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP). Professor Hongjie Xu, director of SINAP, gave a welcome address to all participants on behalf of the two hosting institutions. Dr Peiwen Ji, deputy director of the Mathematics and Physics Division of the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), also addressed the conference participants and congratulated them on the opening of the conference. Professor Mianheng Jiang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), gave a concise introduction about the CAS as the premier research institution in China. He highlighted continued efforts at CAS to foster international collaborations between China and other nations. The Quark Matter 2006 conference is an example of such a successful collaboration between high energy nuclear physicists in China and other nations all over the world. The

  10. Measurement of the top quark mass in the lepton+jets final state with the matrix element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro,

    2006-09-01

    We present a measurement of the top quark mass with the Matrix Element method in the lepton+jets final state. As the energy scale for calorimeter jets represents the dominant source of systematic uncertainty, the Matrix Element likelihood is extended by an additional parameter, which is defined as a global multiplicative factor applied to the standard energy scale. The top quark mass is obtained from a fit that yields the combined statistical and systematic jet energy scale uncertainty.

  11. Evidence for Quark-Hadron Duality in the Proton Spin Asymmetry A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Ammosov, V. V.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Avakian, H.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Bailey, P.; Baturin, V.; Baumgarten, C.; Beckmann, M.; Belostotski, S.; Bernreuther, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Bouhali, O.; Bouwhuis, M.; Brack, J.; Brauksiepe, S.; Brüll, A.; Brunn, I.; Bulten, H. J.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Court, G. R.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; de Leo, R.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Devitsin, E.; de Witt Huberts, P. K.; di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Ely, J.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Felawka, L.; Filippone, B. W.; Fischer, H.; Fox, B.; Franz, J.; Frullani, S.; Gärber, Y.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Garutti, E.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Graw, G.; Grebeniouk, O.; Green, P. W.; Greeniaus, L. G.; Gute, A.; Haeberli, W.; Hafidi, K.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Heesbeen, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Henoch, M.; Hertenberger, R.; Hesselink, W. H.; Hofman, G.; Holler, Y.; Holt, R. J.; Hommez, B.; Iarygin, G.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Jung, P.; Kaiser, R.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kitching, P.; Königsmann, K.; Kolster, H.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kotik, E.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Kyle, G.; Lagamba, L.; Laziev, A.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Lindemann, T.; Lorenzon, W.; Maas, A.; Makins, N. C.; Marukyan, H.; Masoli, F.; Menden, F.; Mexner, V.; Meyners, N.; Mikloukho, O.; Miller, C. A.; Muccifora, V.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaeva, K.; Nowak, W.-D.; Oganessyan, K.; Orlandi, G.; Podiatchev, S.; Potashov, S.; Potterveld, D. H.; Raithel, M.; Rappoport, V.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Rith, K.; Rostomyan, A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sakemi, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Sato, F.; Savin, I.; Scarlett, C.; Schäfer, A.; Schill, C.; Schmidt, F.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Schwind, A.; Seibert, J.; Seitz, B.; Shanidze, R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Simani, M. C.; Sinram, K.; Stancari, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J.; Stewart, J.; Stösslein, U.; Suetsugu, K.; Taroian, S.; Terkulov, A.; Tessarin, S.; Thomas, E.; Tipton, B.; Tytgat, M.; Urciuoli, G. M.; van den Brand, J. F.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van de Vyver, R.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vikhrov, V.; Vincter, M. G.; Visser, J.; Volmer, J.; Weiskopf, C.; Wendland, J.; Wilbert, J.; Wise, T.; Yen, S.; Yoneyama, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zohrabian, H.

    2003-03-01

    Spin-dependent lepton-nucleon scattering data have been used to investigate the validity of the concept of quark-hadron duality for the spin asymmetry A1. Longitudinally polarized positrons were scattered off a longitudinally polarized hydrogen target for values of Q2 between 1.2 and 12 GeV2 and values of W2 between 1 and 4 GeV2. The average double-spin asymmetry in the nucleon resonance region is found to agree with that measured in deep-inelastic scattering at the same values of the Bjorken scaling variable x. This finding implies that the description of A1 in terms of quark degrees of freedom is valid also in the nucleon resonance region for values of Q2 above 1.6 GeV2.

  12. Evidence for quark-hadron duality in the proton spin asymmetry A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Elbakian, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Marukyan, H.; Rostomyan, A.; Taroian, S.; Zohrabian, H.; Amarian, M.; Ammosov, V.V.; Gapienko, V.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Boettcher, H.; Ehrenfried, M.; Ellinghaus, F.; Jung, P.

    2003-01-01

    Spin-dependent lepton-nucleon scattering data have been used to investigate the validity of the concept of quark-hadron duality for the spin asymmetry A 1 . Longitudinally polarized positrons were scattered off a longitudinally polarized hydrogen target for values of Q 2 between 1.2 and 12 GeV 2 and values of W 2 between 1 and 4 GeV 2 . The average double-spin asymmetry in the nucleon resonance region is found to agree with that measured in deep-inelastic scattering at the same values of the Bjorken scaling variable x. This finding implies that the description of A 1 in terms of quark degrees of freedom is valid also in the nucleon resonance region for values of Q 2 above 1.6 GeV 2

  13. Proceedings of International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change Held in Fairbanks, Alaska on 11-15 June 1990. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    such as decapod crustaceans, echinoids, bivalves, gastropods and brachiopods. It is even possible, at least within the marine realm, that the polar...buccinacean gastropods , certain echinoderms and notothenioid fish) seem to be the product of extensive Cenozoic adaptive radiations. The polar regions may yet...Soc. Geol. Ital., 33, 171-193, 1989. Dayton, P. K., G. A. Robilliard, and R. T. Paine , Benthic Baroni, C., B. Stenni, and A. Longinelli, Isotopic

  14. Towards a realistic composite model of quarks and leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyuan; Marshak, R.E.

    1985-06-01

    Within the context of the 't Hooft anomaly matching scheme, some guiding principles for the model building are discussed with an eye to low energy phenomenology. It is argued that Λsub(ch) (chiral symmetry breaking scale of the global color-flavor group Gsub(CF)) proportional Λsub(MC) (metacolor scale) and Λ sub(gsub(CF)) (unification scale of the gauge subgroup of Gsub(CF)) < or approx. Λsub(ch). As illustrations of the method, two composite models are suggested that can give rise to three or four generations of ordinary quarks and leptons without exotic fermions. (orig.)

  15. Study of deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons off polarized deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriki, M.

    1996-03-01

    This thesis describes a 29GeV electron - nucleon scattering experiment carried out at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Highly polarized electrons are scattered off a polarized ND 3 target. Scattered electrons are detected by two spectrometers located in End Station A (ESA) at angles of 4.5 degrees and 7 degrees with respect to the beam axis. We have measured the spin structure function g 1 of deuteron over the range of 0.029 2 2 . This integral indicates a discrepancy of more than three standard deviations from the prediction of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule, 0.068±0.005 at Q 2 = 3.0(GeV/c) 2 while our result of g 1 d in good agreement with SMC results. Combined with g 1 of the proton, the measurement of ∫ 0 1 (g 1 d -g 1 n ) is 0.169±0.008. We also obtained the strong coupling constant at Q 2 = 3.0(GeV/c) 2 to be 0.417 -0.110 +0.086 , using the power correction for the sum rule up to third order of α s . This result is in agreement with the strong coupling constant α s (Q 2 ) = 3.0(GeV/c 2 ) obtained from various experiments. Using our deuteron results and the axial vector couplings of hyperon decays, the total quark polarization along the nucleon spin is found to be 0.286±.055, implying that quarks carry only 30% of the nucleon spin. The strange sea quark polarization is also determined to be -0.101 ± .023. These measurements are in agreement with other experiments and provide the world's most precise measurement of these quark polarizations. 80 refs., 151 figs., 23 tabs

  16. HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.

    2005-04-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction project was completed at BNL in 1999, with the first data-taking runs in the summer of 2000. Since then the early measurements at RHIC have yielded a wealth of data, from four independent detectors, each with its international collaboration of scientists: BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR [1]. For the first time, collisions of heavy nuclei have been carried out at colliding-beam energies that have previously been accessible only for high-energy physics experiments with collisions of ''elementary'' particles such as protons and electrons. It is at these high energies that the predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory that describes the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear matter, come into play, and new phenomena are sought that may illuminate our view of the basic structure of matter on the sub-atomic scale, with important implications for the origins of matter on the cosmic scale. The RHIC experiments have recorded data from collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energies ever achieved in man-made particle accelerators. These collisions, of which hundreds of millions have now been examined, result in final states of unprecedented complexity, with thousands of produced particles radiating from the nuclear collision. All four of the RHIC experiments have moved quickly to analyze these data, and have begun to understand the phenomena that unfold from the moment of collision as these particles are produced. In order to provide benchmarks of simpler interactions against which to compare the gold-gold collisions, the experiments have gathered comparable samples of data from collisions of a very light nucleus (deuterium) with gold nuclei, as well as proton-proton collisions, all with identical beam energies and experimental apparatus. The early measurements have revealed compelling evidence for the existence of a new form of nuclear

  17. HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction project was completed at BNL in 1999, with the first data-taking runs in the summer of 2000. Since then the early measurements at RHIC have yielded a wealth of data, from four independent detectors, each with its international collaboration of scientists: BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR [1]. For the first time, collisions of heavy nuclei have been carried out at colliding-beam energies that have previously been accessible only for high-energy physics experiments with collisions of ''elementary'' particles such as protons and electrons. It is at these high energies that the predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory that describes the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear matter, come into play, and new phenomena are sought that may illuminate our view of the basic structure of matter on the sub-atomic scale, with important implications for the origins of matter on the cosmic scale. The RHIC experiments have recorded data from collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energies ever achieved in man-made particle accelerators. These collisions, of which hundreds of millions have now been examined, result in final states of unprecedented complexity, with thousands of produced particles radiating from the nuclear collision. All four of the RHIC experiments have moved quickly to analyze these data, and have begun to understand the phenomena that unfold from the moment of collision as these particles are produced. In order to provide benchmarks of simpler interactions against which to compare the gold-gold collisions, the experiments have gathered comparable samples of data from collisions of a very light nucleus (deuterium) with gold nuclei, as well as proton-proton collisions, all with identical beam energies and experimental apparatus. The early measurements have revealed compelling evidence for the existence of a new form of nuclear matter at extremely high

  18. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  19. Modified Fragmentation Function from Quark Recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumder, A.; Wang, Enke; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-07-26

    Within the framework of the constituent quark model, it isshown that the single hadron fragmentation function of a parton can beexpressed as a convolution of shower diquark or triquark distributionfunction and quark recombination probability, if the interference betweenamplitudes of quark recombination with different momenta is neglected.Therecombination probability is determined by the hadron's wavefunction inthe constituent quark model. The shower diquark or triquark distributionfunctions of a fragmenting jet are defined in terms of overlappingmatrices of constituent quarks and parton field operators. They aresimilar in form to dihadron or trihadron fragmentation functions in termsof parton operator and hadron states. Extending the formalism to thefield theory at finite temperature, we automatically derive contributionsto the effective single hadron fragmentation function from therecombination of shower and thermal constituent quarks. Suchcontributions involve single or diquark distribution functions which inturn can be related to diquark or triquark distribution functions via sumrules. We also derive QCD evolution equations for quark distributionfunctions that in turn determine the evolution of the effective jetfragmentation functions in a thermal medium.

  20. Vector-like quarks: t’ and partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PANIZZI, L.

    2014-01-01

    Vector-like quarks are predicted in various scenarios of new physics, and their peculiar signatures from both pair and single production have been already investigated in detail. However no signals of vector-like quarks have been detected so far, pushing limits on their masses above 600–700GeV, depending on assumptions on their couplings. Experimental searches consider specific final states to pose bounds on the mass of a vector-like quark, usually assuming it is the only particle that contributes to the signal of new physics in that specific final state. However, realistic scenarios predict the existence of multiple vector-like quarks, possibly with similar masses. The reinterpretation of mass bounds from experimental searches is therefore not always straightforward. In this analysis I briefly summarise the constraints on vector-like quarks and their possible signatures at the LHC, focusing in particular on a model-independent description of single production processes for vector-like quark that mix with all generations and on the development of a framework to study scenarios with multiple vector-like quarks.

  1. Latest ATLAS measurements on top quark properties

    CERN Document Server

    Derue, Frederic; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is unique among the known quarks in that it decays before it has an opportunity to form hadronic bound states. This makes measurements of its properties particularly interesting as one can access directly the properties of a bare quark. The latest measurements of these properties with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented using 8 TeV and 13 TeV data, excluding results from single top production. Measurements of top quark spin observables in top-antitop events, each sensitive to a different coefficient of the spin density matrix, are presented and compared to the Standard Model predictions. The helicity of the W boson from the top decays and the production angles of the top quark are further discussed. New results on the measurment of color flow effects in $t{\\bar t}$ events are presented. Limits on the rate of flavour changing neutral currents in the production or decay of the top quark are reported. The cross-section measurement of photons produced in association with top-quark pairs is a...

  2. Algebraic approach to bare nucleon matrix elements of quark operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschocke, Sven; Kaempfer, Burkhard; Plunien, Guenter

    2005-01-01

    An algebraic method for evaluating bare nucleon matrix elements of quark operators is proposed. Thereby, bare nucleon matrix elements are traced back to vacuum matrix elements. The method is similar to the soft pion theorem. Matrix elements of two-quark, four-quark and six-quark operators inside the bare nucleon are considered

  3. New limits on quark and lepton weak couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1978-06-01

    The unique determination of the weak neutral-current couplings of u and d quarks is discussed. Knowledge of these quark couplings has important implications for the determination of the electron's couplings. Recent data provide new restrictions on the charged-current couplings of quarks. The implications of these analyses for weak and electromagnetic gauge theories of quarks and leptons are examined

  4. Heavy-quark physics in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1991-04-01

    Heavy quarks can expose new symmetries and novel phenomena in QCD not apparent in ordinary hadronic systems. In these lectures I discuss the use of effective-Lagrangian and light-cone Fock methods to analyze exclusive heavy hadron decays such as Υ → p bar p and B → ππ, and also to derive effective Schroedinger and Dirac equations for heavy quark systems. Two contributions to the heavy quark structure functions of the proton and other light hadrons are identified: an ''extrinsic'' contribution associated with leading twist QCD evolution of the gluon distribution, and a higher twist ''intrinsic'' contribution due to the hardness of high-mass fluctuations of multi-gluon correlations in hadronic wavefunctions. A non-perturbative calculation of the heavy quark distribution of a meson in QCD in one space and one time is presented. The intrinsic higher twist contributions to the pion and proton structure functions can dominate the hadronic production of heavy quark systems at large longitudinal momentum fraction x F and give anomalous contributions to the quark structure functions of ordinary hadrons at large x bj . I also discuss a number of ways in which heavy quark production in nuclear targets can test fundamental QCD phenomena and provide constraints on hadronic wavefunctions. The topics include color transparency, finite formation time, and predictions for charm production at threshold, including nuclear-bound quarkonium. I also discuss a number of QCD mechanisms for the suppression of J/ψ and Υ production in nuclear collisions, including gluon shadowing, the peripheral excitation of intrinsic heavy quark components at large x F , and the coalescence of heavy quarks with co-moving spectators at low x F

  5. Linear polarization of gluons and photons in unpolarized collider experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisano, C.; Boer, D.; Brodsky, S. J.; Buffing, M.G.A.; Mulders, P.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    We study azimuthal asymmetries in heavy quark pair production in unpolarized electron-proton and proton-proton collisions, where the asymmetries originate from the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized hadrons. We provide cross section expressions and study the maximal asymmetries allowed

  6. Signatures for quark clustering in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, C.E. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Lassila, K.E. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    As a signature for the presence of quark clusters in nuclei, the authors suggest studying backward protons produced by electron scattering off deuterons and suggest a ratio that cancels out much of the detailed properties of deuterons or 6-quark clusters. The test may be viewed as a test that the short range part of the deuteron is still a 2-nucleon system. They make estimates to show how it fails in characteristic and significant ways if the two nucleons at short range coalesce into a kneaded 6-quark cluster.

  7. Signatures for quark clustering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.E.; Lassila, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    As a signature for the presence of quark clusters in nuclei, the authors suggest studying backward protons produced by electron scattering off deuterons and suggest a ratio that cancels out much of the detailed properties of deuterons or 6-quark clusters. The test may be viewed as a test that the short range part of the deuteron is still a 2-nucleon system. They make estimates to show how it fails in characteristic and significant ways if the two nucleons at short range coalesce into a kneaded 6-quark cluster

  8. Color oscillations and measuring the quark charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    Color oscillations analogous to neutrino oscillations but with very high frequency are shown to be present in hadron states below color threshold. Experiments to distinguish between fractionally charged and integrally charged quark models both below and above color threshold are discussed. The instantaneous quark charge is shown to be measurable only in very fast processes determined by the high energy behavior of transition amplitudes well above color threshold. Results from the naive parton model for deep inelastic processes which indicate that real charges of quarks and gluons can be measured are shown to be in error because of neglect of color oscillations and interference terms. (author)

  9. Discovery of single top quark production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillberg, Dag [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    The top quark is by far the heaviest known fundamental particle with a mass nearing that of a gold atom. Because of this strikingly high mass, the top quark has several unique properties and might play an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking - the mechanism that gives all elementary particles mass. Creating top quarks requires access to very high energy collisions, and at present only the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is capable of reaching these energies. Until now, top quarks have only been observed produced in pairs via the strong interaction. At hadron colliders, it should also be possible to produce single top quarks via the electroweak interaction. Studies of single top quark production provide opportunities to measure the top quark spin, how top quarks mix with other quarks, and to look for new physics beyond the standard model. Because of these interesting properties, scientists have been looking for single top quarks for more than 15 years. This thesis presents the first discovery of single top quark production. An analysis is performed using 2.3 fb-1 of data recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at centre-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. Boosted decision trees are used to isolate the single top signal from background, and the single top cross section is measured to be σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74-0.74+0.95 pb. Using the same analysis, a measurement of the amplitude of the CKM matrix element Vtb, governing how top and b quarks mix, is also performed. The measurement yields: |V{sub tb}|f1L| = 1.05 -0.12+0.13, where f1L is the left-handed Wtb coupling. The separation of signal from background is improved by combining the boosted decision trees with two other multivariate techniques. A new cross section measurement is performed, and the significance for the excess over the predicted background exceeds 5

  10. Quark masses: An environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, Robert L.; Jenkins, Alejandro; Kimchi, Itamar

    2009-01-01

    We investigate worlds that lie on a slice through the parameter space of the standard model over which quark masses vary. We allow as many as three quarks to participate in nuclei, while fixing the mass of the electron and the average mass of the lightest baryon flavor multiplet. We classify as congenial worlds that satisfy the environmental constraint that the quark masses allow for stable nuclei with charge one, six, and eight, making organic chemistry possible. Whether a congenial world actually produces observers capable of measuring those quark masses depends on a multitude of historical contingencies, beginning with primordial nucleosynthesis and including other astrophysical processes, which we do not explore. Such constraints may be independently superimposed on our results. Environmental constraints such as the ones we study may be combined with information about the a priori distribution of quark masses over the landscape of possible universes to determine whether the measured values of the quark masses are determined environmentally, but our analysis is independent of such an anthropic approach. We estimate baryon masses as functions of quark masses via first-order perturbation theory in flavor SU(3) breaking. We estimate nuclear masses as functions of the baryon masses using two separate tools: for a nucleus made of two baryon species, when possible we consider its analog in our world, a nucleus with a similar binding energy, up to Coulomb contributions. For heavy nuclei or nuclei made of more than two baryons, we develop a generalized Weizsaecker semiempirical mass formula, in which strong kinematic flavor symmetry violation is modeled by a degenerate Fermi gas . We check for the stability of nuclei against fission, strong particle emission (analogous to α decay), and weak nucleon emission. For two light quarks with charges 2/3 and -1/3 , we find a band of congeniality roughly 29 MeV wide in their mass difference, with our own world lying comfortably

  11. Top-Quark Properties at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Beernaert, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    A review of recent measurements of top-quark properties is presented. Inclusive and differential top-quark pair charge asymmetry measurements using the full Run I dataset are found to be in agreement with the standard model (SM) predictions. Results of spin correlation in top-quark pairs are presented and interpreted in terms of the SM predicted values and new physics models. Limits are set on flavour-changing neutral currents (FCNC), in particular with a Higgs boson in the final state.

  12. Multi-quark correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, J.P.; Harindranath, A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the consequences of multi-quark correlations in nuclei which arise through the particular cluster decomposition of the nuclear ground state specified by the quark cluster model (QCM). The critical radius of a three quark cluster, R c , controls the formation probability of larger clusters. The value of R c = 0.50 fm is fixed by fits to deep inelastic lepton nucleus scattering data. The QCM prediction for the ratio of nuclear structure functions in the x > 1 domain is discussed as a critical test of the model. We also present an extended discussion of the application of the QCM to the nuclear Drell-Yan process. (orig.)

  13. Flavour symmetry breaking and tuning the strange quark mass for 2+1 quark flavours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Bornyakov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protovino (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    QCD lattice simulations with 2+1 flavours typically start at rather large up-down and strange quark masses and extrapolate first the strange quark mass to its physical value and then the updown quark mass. An alternative method of tuning the quark masses is discussed here in which the singlet quark mass is kept fixed, which ensures that the kaon always has mass less than the physical kaon mass. Using group theory the possible quark mass polynomials for a Taylor expansion about the flavour symmetric line are found, which enables highly constrained fits to be used in the extrapolation of hadrons to the physical pion mass. Numerical results confirm the usefulness of this expansion and an extrapolation to the physical pion mass gives hadron mass values to within a few percent of their experimental values. (orig.)

  14. Measurement of top quark polarisation in $t$-channel single top quark production

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Awad, Adel; El Sawy, Mai; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty

    2016-04-13

    A first measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry, sensitive to the top quark polarisation, in $t$-channel single top quark production is presented. It is based on a sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. A high-purity sample of $t$-channel single top quark events with an isolated muon is selected. Signal and background components are estimated using a fit to data. A differential cross section measurement, corrected for detector effects, of an angular observable sensitive to the top quark polarisation is performed. The differential distribution is used to extract a top quark spin asymmetry of 0.26 $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\pm$ 0.10 (syst), which is compatible with a $p$-value of 4.6% with the standard model prediction of 0.44.

  15. Net charge of quark jets in (anti)neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, M.

    1981-01-01

    We analyse recent measurements of the net charges of quark jets in neutrino and antineutrino interactions. The data indicates that (i) the two quarks in the nucleon fragmentation region prefer to behave as a diquark rather than as a pair of independent quarks, and (ii) the struck quark does not appear to suffer any soft charge exchange of the kind that occurs when a valence quark inside a nucleon is slowed to x approx. O. (orig.)

  16. Successes and failures of the constituent quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references

  17. Heavy-quark deep-inelastic scattering with a running mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    We study the production of heavy quarks in deep-inelastic scattering within perturbative QCD. As a novelty, we employ for the first time the running mass definition in the MS scheme for deep-inelastic charm and bottom production. We observe an improved stability of the perturbative expansion and a reduced theoretical uncertainty due to variations of the renormalization and factorization scales. As our best estimate we extract from a global fit to fixed-target and HERA collider data for the charm-quark an MS mass of m{sub c}(m{sub c})=1.01{+-}0.09(exp){+-} 0.03(th) GeV. (orig.)

  18. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass

  19. Heavy quark production form jet conversions in a quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu , W.; Fries, R.

    2008-05-22

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that the chemical composition of jets in heavy ion collisions is significantly altered compared to the jets in the vacuum. This signal can be used to probe the medium formed in nuclear collisions. In this study we investigate the possibility that fast light quarks and gluons can convert to heavy quarks when passing through a quark-gluon plasma. We study the rate of light to heavy jet conversions in a consistent Fokker-Planck framework and investigate their impact on the production of high-p{sub T} charm and bottom quarks at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider.

  20. Signatures for fourth-generation quarks and a heavy top quark at the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.; Barger, V.; Goldberg, H.; Ohnemus, J.

    1988-01-01

    We examine methods for detection of new heavy quarks at the Superconducting Super Collider where the heavy quark could be either one of a fourth generation of quarks (a,v), or a very massive (/similar to/50 GeV) top quark. The signals can be classified according to number of leptons in the final state. Requiring the presence of a single fast isolated lepton along with ≥ jets and pX/sub T/ allows one to separate the a,v, or t signal from backgrounds. Heavy-quark pairs are produced with sufficient hemispheric separation to allow the direction of one of the quarks to be tagged by the transverse momentum of the isolated high-p/sub T/ lepton. A distinct enhancement is then observed at the heavy-quark mass in the cluster mass spectrum of all jets moving opposite to the lepton. A fourth-generation quark should also be visible in the two isolated lepton channel, and its mass resolvable. Additional signals from multilepton events would then also be present, though these channels may not yield a heavy-quark mass determination

  1. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  2. Dark Polar Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    20 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired during northern summer in December 2004, shows dark, windblown sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars. A vast sea of sand dunes nearly surrounds the north polar cap. These landforms are located near 80.3oN, 144.1oW. Light-toned features in the image are exposures of the substrate that underlies the dune field. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  3. Top quark mass measurements with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, Nataliia

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the top quark mass are presented, obtained from CMS data collected in proton-proton collisions at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV. The mass of the top quark is measured using several methods and channels, including the reconstructed invariant mass distribution of the top quark, an analysis of endpoint spectra as well as measurements from shapes of top quark decay distributions. The dependence of the mass measurement on the kinematic phase space is investigated. The results of the various channels are combined and compared to the world average. The top mass and also $\\alpha_{\\textnormal S}$ are extracted from the top pair cross section measured at CMS.

  4. Heavy quark production by neutrinos and antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.M.; Tanaka, K.

    1979-01-01

    The rate for producing t- and b-quarks in, respectively, neutrino and antineutrino interactions with nucleons are estimated. Experimental quark parton distribution functions, SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1) gauge group mixing angles, and threshold suppression through rescaling are used in the calculation. The ratios to total cross sections of b-quark production by anti nu, R/sub b//sup anti nu/, and t-quark production by ν, R/sub t//sup nu/, are, respectively, R/sub b//sup anti nu/ approximately equal to 10 -4 and R/sub t//sup nu/ approximately equal to 10 -5 for an incident energy of 200 GeV. 13 references

  5. HEAVY QUARK POTENTIALS AND QUARKONIA BINDING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETRECZKY,P.

    2004-11-04

    The author reviews recent progress in studying in-medium modification of inter-quark forces at finite temperature in lattice QCD. Some applications to the problem of quarkonium binding in potential models is also discussed.

  6. Forward-backward asymmetries with quark jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davier, M.; Richard, F.

    1979-01-01

    One of the most challenging experimental problems at LEP is the measurement of the weak couplings of the quarks. As is well known for lepton pair production, forward-backward asymmetries are very sensitive to these couplings. The problem of determining the jet flavour in order to measure such asymmetries is considered. Two methods are discussed: (i) measuring the charge of the jet which should reflect the quark charge with unfortunately large fluctuations. This could be a way to isolate Q=2/3 quarks (top) and measure the asymmetry for these tanti t pairs; and (ii) using leading particles to assign the jet flavour. It is known that, when E/Esub(beam) =x→1, the probability that the leading meson carries the initial quark with approach unity. The second method is discussed in detail. (Auth.)

  7. Theoretical physics: Quarks fuse to release energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gerald A.

    2017-11-01

    In nuclear fusion, energy is produced by the rearrangement of protons and neutrons. The discovery of an analogue of this process involving particles called quarks has implications for both nuclear and particle physics. See Letter p.89

  8. Heavy quark threshold dynamics in higher order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piclum, J.H.

    2007-05-15

    In this work we discuss an important building block for the next-to-next-to-next-to leading order corrections to the pair production of top quarks at threshold. Specifically, we explain the calculation of the third order strong corrections to the matching coefficient of the vector current in non-relativistic Quantum Chromodynamics and provide the result for the fermionic part, containing at least one loop of massless quarks. As a byproduct, we obtain the matching coefficients of the axial-vector, pseudo-scalar and scalar current at the same order. Furthermore, we calculate the three-loop corrections to the quark renormalisation constants in the on-shell scheme in the framework of dimensional regularisation and dimensional reduction. Finally, we compute the third order strong corrections to the chromomagnetic interaction in Heavy Quark Effective Theory. The calculational methods are discussed in detail and results for the master integrals are given. (orig.)

  9. Constraints from jet calculus on quark recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Lassila, K.E.; Willen, D.

    1979-01-01

    Within the QCD jet calculus formalism, we deduce an equation describing recombination of quarks and antiquarks into mesons within a quark or gluon jet. This equation relates the recombination function R(x 1 ,x 2 ,x) used in current literature to the fragmentation function for producing that same meson out of the parton initiating the jet. We submit currently used recombination functions to our consistency test, taking as input mainly the u-quark fragmentation data into π + mesons, but also s-quark fragmentation into K - mesons. The constraint is well satisfied at large Q 2 for large moments. Our results depend on one parameter, Q 0 2 , the constraint equation being satisfied for small values of this parameter

  10. Quarks as conformal semi-spinors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budini, P.

    1979-07-01

    The hypothesis is formulated that quarks may be represented by Cartan conformal semi-spinors. Some of the properties usually assigned to standard Dirac spinor quarks may also be assigned to semi-spinor quarks and some of them result quite simply from the geometry of semi-spinors. A charge matrix is obtained which is fractional for Cartan semi-spinors (quarks) and integer for Dirac spinors (leptons) through an orthogonal rotation in the flavour-colour plane. The angle of rotation depends on the ratio of flavour and colour coupling constants. When restricted to the νe lepton doublet, the Salam-Weinberg Lagrangian is easily obtained from the postulated hypothesis. (author)

  11. Quark bag coupling to finite size pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kam, J.; Pirner, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    A standard approximation in theories of quark bags coupled to a pion field is to treat the pion as an elementary field ignoring its substructure and finite size. A difficulty associated with these treatments in the lack of stability of the quark bag due to the rapid increase of the pion pressure on the bad as the bag size diminishes. We investigate the effects of the finite size of the qanti q pion on the pion quark bag coupling by means of a simple nonlocal pion quark interaction. With this amendment the pion pressure on the bag vanishes if the bag size goes to zero. No stability problems are encountered in this description. Furthermore, for extended pions, no longer a maximum is set to the bag parameter B. Therefore 'little bag' solutions may be found provided that B is large enough. We also discuss the possibility of a second minimum in the bag energy function. (orig.)

  12. Chiral bag model with constituent quarks: topological and nontopological decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakhov, I.Yu.; Sveshnikov, K.A.; Fedorov, S.M.; Khalili, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    The three-phase modification of the hybrid chiral bag containing along with asymptotic freedom and hadronization phases and also intermediate phase of the constituent quarks is considered. The self-consistent solutions of the equations of the model in the (1 + 1)-dimensional case are determined with an account of the fermion vacuum polarization effects. The bag renormalized complete energy is studied as a function of the parameters characterizing the bag geometry and its topological (baryon) charge. It is shown that for nonzero topological charge there exists the whole series of configurations representing the local minima of the bag complete energy and containing all three phases, whereas the bag energy minimum in the nontopological case corresponds to zero dimensions of the area corresponding to asymptotic freedom phase [ru

  13. Evidence for production of single top quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Simon Fraser U.; Ahn, S.H.; /Korea U., KODEL; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP /Michigan U.

    2008-03-01

    We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top quark partner that is always produced from strong coupling processes. Top quarks were first observed in pair production in 1995, and since then, single top quark production has been searched for in ever larger datasets. In this analysis, we select events from a 0.9 fb{sup -1} dataset that have an electron or muon and missing transverse energy from the decay of a W boson from the top quark decay, and two, three, or four jets, with one or two of the jets identified as originating from a b hadron decay. The selected events are mostly backgrounds such as W+jets and t{bar t} events, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques: boosted decision trees, Bayesian neural networks, and matrix element calculations. A binned likelihood fit of the signal cross section plus background to the data from the combination of the results from the three analysis methods gives a cross section for single top quark production of {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 4.7 {+-} 1.3 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 0.014%, corresponding to a 3.6 standard deviation significance. The measured cross section value is compatible at the 10% level with the standard model prediction for electroweak top quark production. We use the cross section measurement to directly determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element that describes the Wtb coupling and find |V{sub tb}f{sub 1}{sup L}| = 1.31{sub -0.21}{sup +0.25}, where f{sub 1}{sup L} is a generic vector coupling. This model-independent measurement translates into 0.68 < |V{sub tb}| {le} 1 at the 95% C.L. in the standard model.

  14. Quark spin content of vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, M.

    1991-01-01

    η' dominance of form factors of the topological QCD current leads to an expression for the portion of the spin of the light vector mesons that is due to quarks. Vector dominance of the radiative decays of the η' is used to estimate the couplings of this meson to the vector ones. This results in the conclusion that only around 30% of the spin of these particles is due to quarks. Possible interpretations of this result are presented

  15. Free Quarks and Antiquarks versus Hadronic Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Peng, Ru

    2007-01-01

    Meson-meson reactions A(q_1 \\bar{q}_1) + B(q_2 \\bar{q}_2) to q_1 + \\bar{q}_1 + q_2 + \\bar{q}_2 in high-temperature hadronic matter are found to produce an appreciable amount of quarks and antiquarks freely moving in hadronic matter and to establish a new mechanism for deconfinement of quarks and antiquarks in hadronic matter.

  16. The Model of Complex Structure of Quark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongwu

    2017-09-01

    In Quantum Chromodynamics, quark is known as a kind of point-like fundamental particle which carries mass, charge, color, and flavor, strong interaction takes place between quarks by means of exchanging intermediate particles-gluons. An important consequence of this theory is that, strong interaction is a kind of short-range force, and it has the features of ``asymptotic freedom'' and ``quark confinement''. In order to reveal the nature of strong interaction, the ``bag'' model of vacuum and the ``string'' model of string theory were proposed in the context of quantum mechanics, but neither of them can provide a clear interaction mechanism. This article formulates a new mechanism by proposing a model of complex structure of quark, it can be outlined as follows: (1) Quark (as well as electron, etc) is a kind of complex structure, it is composed of fundamental particle (fundamental matter mass and electricity) and fundamental volume field (fundamental matter flavor and color) which exists in the form of limited volume; fundamental particle lies in the center of fundamental volume field, forms the ``nucleus'' of quark. (2) As static electric force, the color field force between quarks has classical form, it is proportional to the square of the color quantity carried by each color field, and inversely proportional to the area of cross section of overlapping color fields which is along force direction, it has the properties of overlap, saturation, non-central, and constant. (3) Any volume field undergoes deformation when interacting with other volume field, the deformation force follows Hooke's law. (4) The phenomena of ``asymptotic freedom'' and ``quark confinement'' are the result of color field force and deformation force.

  17. Shear viscosity of the quark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasaki, Masaharu; Ohnishi, Hiromasa; Fukutome, Takahiko

    2007-01-01

    We discuss shear viscosity of the quark matter by using Kubo formula. The shear viscosity is calculated in the framework of the quasi-particle RPA for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We obtain a formula that the shear viscosity is expressed by the quadratic form of the quark spectral function in the chiral symmetric phase. The magnitude of the shear viscosity is discussed assuming the Breit-Wigner type for the spectral function.

  18. Quasinuclear colored quark model for hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1978-09-01

    Lectures are presented in which a quasinuclear constituent quark model in which constituent quarks are assumed to be made of constituent interacting with a two-body color-exchange logarithmic potential is considered. The color degree of freedom is discussed in detail. Some properties of the logarithmic potential and the definition of the quasinuclear model and its validity, and a comparison of some of its predictions with experiment are described. 31 references

  19. Predictions of a theory of quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1980-03-01

    We propose a theory of quark confinement which uses only the simplest of approximations. It explains persistence of quark confinement in Yang Mills theories with gauge group SU(2) or SU(3) as a consequence of asymptotic freedom in perturbation theory and of the known phase structure of Z(2) resp. Z(3) lattice gauge theory. Predictions are derived which can in principle be tested by computer simulation. Some are already tested by results of Creutz. They are in good agreement. (orig.)

  20. Identified particles in quark and gluon jets

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djama, F; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katargin, A; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Novák, M; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Pain, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Rybin, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sahr, O; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Siegrist, P; Silvestre, R; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1997-01-01

    A sample of about 1.4 million hadronic \\z decays, selected among the data recorded by the DELPHI detector at LEP during 1994, was used to measure for the first time the momentum spectra of \\kp, \\ko, \\p, \\l and their antiparticles in gluon and quark jets. As observed for inclusive charged particles, the production spectra of identified particles were found to be softer in gluon jets than in quark jets, with a higher total multiplicity.

  1. Quark fragmentation into 3PJ quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The functions of parton fragmentation into 3 P J quarkonium at order α 2 s are calculated, where the parton can be a heavy or a light quark. The obtained functions explicitly satisfy the Altarelli-Parisi equation and they are divergent, behaving as z -1 near z = O. However, if one choses the renormalization scale as twice of the heavy quark mass, the fragmentation functions are regular over the whole range of z. 15 refs., 2 figs

  2. Quark-hadron duality in meson physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisovich, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Quark hadron dualism is discussed, based on observing the changes in the quark model characteristics after the inclusion into hadron degrees of freedom. A standard version of the potential model is presented. The potential which is responsible for the formation of mesons may be divided into two pieces: a short-range part for distances about 0.3 - 0.5 fm and a long-range part at distances more than 1 fm. (R.P.). 5 refs., 2 figs

  3. Quark-hadron duality in meson physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisovich, V.V. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Quark hadron dualism is discussed, based on observing the changes in the quark model characteristics after the inclusion into hadron degrees of freedom. A standard version of the potential model is presented. The potential which is responsible for the formation of mesons may be divided into two pieces: a short-range part for distances about 0.3 - 0.5 fm and a long-range part at distances more than 1 fm. (R.P.). 5 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Ellipsoidal bag model for heavy quark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Pinzhen; Fudan Univ., Shanghai

    1991-01-01

    The ellipsoidal bag model is used to describe heavy quark systems such as Qanti Q, Qanti Qg and Q 2 anti Q 2 . Instead of two step model, these states are described by an uniform picture. The potential derived from the ellipsoidal bag for Qanti Q is almost equivalent to the Cornell potential. For a Q 2 anti Q 2 system with large quark pair separation, an improvement of 70 MeV is obtained comparing with the spherical bag. (orig.)

  5. Impact of the heavy-quark matching scales in PDF fits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, V. [VU University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nikhef Theory Group Science Park 105, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Britzger, D.; Geiser, A.; Glazov, A.; Zenaiev, O. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Camarda, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Giuli, F. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Godat, E.; Lyonnet, F.; Olness, F. [SMU Physics, Dallas, TX (United States); Kusina, A. [Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Luszczak, A. [T. Kosciuszko Cracow University of Technology, Krakow (Poland); Placakyte, R. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg (Germany); Radescu, V. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Schienbein, I. [Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Collaboration: The xFitter Developers' Team

    2017-12-15

    We investigate the impact of displaced heavy-quark matching scales in a global fit. The heavy-quark matching scale μ{sub m} determines at which energy scale μ the QCD theory transitions from N{sub F} to N{sub F} + 1 in the variable flavor number scheme (VFNS) for the evolution of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) and strong coupling α{sub S}(μ). We study the variation of the matching scales, and their impact on a global PDF fit of the combined HERA data. As the choice of the matching scale μ{sub m} effectively is a choice of scheme, this represents a theoretical uncertainty; ideally, we would like to see minimal dependence on this parameter. For the transition across the charm quark (from N{sub F} = 3 to 4), we find a large μ{sub m} = μ{sub c} dependence of the global fit χ{sup 2} at NLO, but this is significantly reduced at NNLO. For the transition across the bottom quark (from N{sub F} = 4 to 5), we have a reduced μ{sub m} = μ{sub b} dependence of the χ{sup 2} at both NLO and NNLO as compared to the charm. This feature is now implemented in xFitter 2.0.0, an open source QCD fit framework. (orig.)

  6. Top Quark Mass Measurement in Dilepton Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysak, Roman [Inst. of Experimental Physics, Kosice (Slovak Republic)

    2007-06-01

    We present a measurement of the top quark mass from events produced in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, using the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We identify t$\\bar{t}$ candidates where both W bosons from the top quarks decay into leptons (eν, µν, τν) from a data sample of 340 pb-1. The top quark mass is reconstructed in each event separately by the method which draw upon simulated distribution of t$\\bar{t}$ longitudinal momentum in order to extract probability distribution for the top quark mass. Representative distributions, or templates, are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parametrized to form continuous probability density functions. A likelihood fit incorporating these parametrized templates is then performed on the data sample masses in order to derive a final top quark mass. Measured top quark mass is Mtop = 169.5$+7.7\\atop{-7.2}$(stat.) ± 4.0(syst.) GeV/c2.

  7. Experimental constraint on quark electric dipole moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbo; Zhao, Zhiwen; Gao, Haiyan

    2018-04-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons are sensitive probes of additional C P violation sources beyond the standard model to account for the baryon number asymmetry of the universe. As a fundamental quantity of the nucleon structure, tensor charge is also a bridge that relates nucleon EDMs to quark EDMs. With a combination of nucleon EDM measurements and tensor charge extractions, we investigate the experimental constraint on quark EDMs, and its sensitivity to C P violation sources from new physics beyond the electroweak scale. We obtain the current limits on quark EDMs as 1.27 ×10-24 e .cm for the up quark and 1.17 ×10-24 e .cm for the down quark at the scale of 4 GeV2 . We also study the impact of future nucleon EDM and tensor charge measurements, and show that upcoming new experiments will improve the constraint on quark EDMs by about 3 orders of magnitude leading to a much more sensitive probe of new physics models.

  8. Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  9. Quark-Nova Explosion inside a Collapsar: Application to Gamma Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Ouyed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available If a quark-nova occurs inside a collapsar, the interaction between the quark-nova ejecta (relativistic iron-rich chunks and the collapsar envelope leads to features indicative of those observed in Gamma Ray Bursts. The quark-nova ejecta collides with the stellar envelope creating an outward moving cap (Γ∼ 1–10 above the polar funnel. Prompt gamma-ray burst emission from internal shocks in relativistic jets (following accretion onto the quark star becomes visible after the cap becomes optically thin. Model features include (i precursor activity (optical, X-ray, γ-ray, (ii prompt γ-ray emission, and (iii afterglow emission. We discuss SN-less long duration GRBs, short hard GRBs (including association and nonassociation with star forming regions, dark GRBs, the energetic X-ray flares detected in Swift GRBs, and the near-simultaneous optical and γ-ray prompt emission observed in GRBs in the context of our model.

  10. A Polarized Drell-Yan Experiment to Probe the Dynamics of the Nucleon Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinjan, David William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-26

    After presenting the nucleon spin puzzle as motivation for the experiment, the authors turn to a theoretical overview: sea quark flavor asymmetry and meson cloud model, and accessing quark angular momentum via the Sivers function. Then they describe the experimental equipment and conditions needed to carry out a fixed, polarized target Drell-Yan experiment, E1039. Data taking is expected to start in the middle of 2016.

  11. The Quark Puzzle: A Novel Approach to Visualizing the Color Symmetries of Quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettrust, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a simple hands-on and visual-method designed to introduce physics students of many age groups to the topic of quarks and their role in forming composite particles (baryons and mesons). A set of puzzle pieces representing individual quarks that fit together in ways consistent with known restrictions of flavor, color, and charge…

  12. Possible pentaquarks with heavy quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hongxia [Nanjing Normal University, Department of Physics and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Numerical Simulation of Large Scale Complex Systems, Nanjing (China); Duke Univeristy, Department of Physics, North Carolina (United States); Deng, Chengrong [Chongqing Jiaotong University, School of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing (China); Ping, Jialun [Nanjing Normal University, Department of Physics and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Numerical Simulation of Large Scale Complex Systems, Nanjing (China); Wang, Fan [Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China)

    2016-11-15

    Inspired by the discovery of two pentaquarks P{sub c}(4380) and P{sub c}(4450) at the LHCb detector, we study possible hidden-charm molecular pentaquarks in the framework of quark delocalization color screening model. Our results suggest that both Nη{sub c} with IJ{sup P} = (1)/(2)(1)/(2){sup -} and NJ/ψ with IJ{sup P} = (1)/(2)(3)/(2){sup -} are bounded by channels coupling. However, NJ/ψ with IJ{sup P} = (1)/(2)(3)/(2){sup -} may be a resonance state in the D-wave Nη{sub c} scattering process. Moreover, P{sub c}(4380) can be explained as the molecular pentaquark of Σ{sup *}{sub c}D with quantum numbers IJ{sup P} = (1)/(2)(3)/(2){sup -}. The state Σ{sup *}{sub c}D{sup *} with IJ{sup P} = (1)/(2)(5)/(2){sup -} is a resonance, it may not be a good candidate of the observed P{sub c}(4450) because of the opposite parity of the state to P{sub c}(4380), although the mass of the state is not far from the experimental value. In addition, the calculation is extended to the hidden-bottom pentaquarks, and similar properties to that of hidden-charm pentaquarks system are obtained. (orig.)

  13. QCD Analysis of Polarized Scattering Data and New Polarized Parton Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Boettcher, H.

    2002-01-01

    In this talk results from a new QCD analysis in Leading (LO) and Next-to-Leading (NLO) Order are presented. New parametrizations of the polarized quark and gluon densities are derived together with parametrizations of their fully correlated 1σ error bands. Furthermore the value of α s (M 2 Z ) is determined. Finally a number of low moments of the polarized parton densities are compared with results from lattice simulations. All details of the analysis are given in J. Bluemlein, H. Boettcher, Nucl. Phys. B636, 225 (2002). (author)

  14. Doubly Heavy Baryons, Heavy Quark-DiQuark Symmetry and NRQCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sean Fleming; Thomas Mehen

    2005-09-27

    In the heavy quark limit, properties of heavy mesons and doubly heavy baryons are related by heavy quark-diquark symmetry. This problem is reanalyzed in the framework of Non-Relativistic QCD (NRQCD). We introduce a novel method for deriving Potential NRQCD (pNRQCD) Lagrangians for composite fields from vNRQCD, which contains quarks and antiquarks as explicit degrees of freedom and maintains manifest power counting in the velocity via a label formalism. A Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation is used to eliminate four quark interactions in vNRQCD and then quarks and antiquarks are integrated out to get effective Lagrangians for composite fields. This method is used to rederive Lagrangians for the Q\\bar Q and QQ sectors of pNRQCD and give a correct derivation of the O(1/m_Q) prediction for the hyperfine splitting of doubly heavy baryons.

  15. Top Quark Properties Measurements with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219183; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is unique among the known quarks in that it decays before it has an opportunity to form hadronic bound states. This makes measurements of its properties particularly interesting as one can access directly the properties of a bare quark. The latest measurements of these properties are presented. Measurements of the charge asymmetry in top quark pair production, which probe models of physics beyond the Standard Model, are presented; these include measurements at high invariant masses of the $t\\bar{t}$ system using boosted top quarks. Limits on the rate of flavour-changing neutral currents in the production or decay of the top quark are discussed

  16. Measurement of the dijet angular distributions and search for quark compositeness with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzmann, Andreas Dominik

    2011-10-07

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN) allows to study the interactions of quarks and gluons in a yet unexplored energy regime. In 2010, the LHC delivered an integrated luminosity of more than 36 pb{sup -1} of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=7 TeV. In these proton-proton collisions, the interactions of the constituent quarks and gluons produced a considerable amount of jets of particles with transverse momenta above 1 TeV. Well suited for the study of these jet processes is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment situated at the LHC point 5 as it can measure jets with the necessary energy and angular resolutions over a large range of transverse momentum ({proportional_to}30 GeVpolar angle relative to the proton beam). In this analysis, the data collected by the CMS experiment is used to test the theory of Quantum Chromodynamics which predicts the cross section of jet processes and at the same time to identify deviations as signals of new physics. A natural idea of new physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary particle physics is the existence of a substructure of quarks (quark compositeness). Models describing quarks as bound states of constituent particles may be able to explain the number of quark generations, quark masses and charges. A common signature of these models are additional contact interactions between quarks in high-momentum-transfer interactions, observable in the cross section of jet processes. Inspired by the Rutherford experiment, the scattering angle of two-jet processes (dijets) is measured to study the point-like quark and gluon scattering processes predicted by QCD. The dijet scattering angle is expressed in terms of {chi}{sub dijet} = e {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup y{sub 1}-y

  17. Scale dependence and small x behaviour of polarized parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R D; Ridolfi, G; Forte, S; Ridolfi, G

    1995-01-01

    We discuss perturbative evolution of the polarized structure function g_1 in the (x,Q^2) plane, with special regard to the small-x region. We determine g_1 in terms of polarized quark and gluon distributions using coefficient functions to order alpha_s. At small x g_1 then displays substantial scale dependence, which necessarily implies a corresponding scale dependence in the large-x region. This scale dependence has significant consequences for the extraction of the first moment from the experimental data, reducing its value while increasing the error. Conversely, the scale dependence may be used to constrain the size of the polarized gluon distribution.

  18. X(3872): an exotic combination of quarks?

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    According to the Standard Model of particles, quarks are the smallest building blocks of matter. So far, only quark-antiquark pairs (mesons) and quark triplets (baryons) have been observed. However, over the last few decades, some not-yet-understood states have started to appear in the particle zoo. Their nature is still unclear but the LHCb experiment has now made a big step towards understanding one of them: the X(3872).   A proton-lead ion collision, as observed by the LHCb detector during the 2013 data-taking period. The X(3872) has not yet made headlines, but its existence is an intriguing mystery that scientists have been trying to elucidate over the past ten years since the particle was first observed by the Belle experiment. So far, its inner nature has remained unknown because of theoretical difficulties in cataloguing it as a quark-antiquark state in the so-called "charmonium" spectrum (as charm quarks are involved) and because of the experimental difficulties inv...

  19. Quark and gluon condensate in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajnshtejn, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.; Shifman, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of quark confinement has been reviewed. The fact that coloured particles in a free state cannot be observed is connected with specific properties of vacuum in quantum chromodynamics. The basic hypothesis consists in the existence of vacuum fields, quark and gluon condensates, which affect the coloured objects. The vacuum transparent relative to noncharged ''white'' states serves as a source of the force acting upon the coloured particles. It has been a sucess to examine strictly the action of the vacuum fields on quarks when the distance between them is relatively small and the force of the vacuum fields on quarks is relatively small too. It is shown that the interaction with the vacuum fields manifests itself earlier than the forces connected with the gluon exchange do. It is assumed that the vacuum condensate of quarks and gluons and its relation to properties of resonances and to the bag model exist in reality. The dispersion sum rules are used for calculating masses and lepton widths of resonances

  20. Critical parameters of Quark-Hadron phase transition with interacting and massive quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, C.P.; Patra, B.K.

    1994-06-01

    Current techniques to simulate the dynamical behaviour of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) reveal that the order of the phase transition as well as the values of the critical parameters depend on the number of quark flavours as well as on the quark-masses included in the simulation. We attempt to show here the effects of the number of quark flavours and quark-masses on critical parameters by using the perturbative, finite temperature field theory to g 3 s order in the strong coupling g s . We treat the hadrons as particles with finite size and its implications on the equation of state for hadron gas are studied. We find that the critical temperature T c is lowered by 9 MeV as we move from two to three quark flavours. The nature of the phase transition always remains as first order. However, the inclusion of quark-masses in our calculation does not affect the result much. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs

  1. A study of differences between quark and gluon jets using vertex tagging of quark jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acton, P.D.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Allport, P.P.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Astbury, A.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bahn, G.A.; Baines, J.T.M.; Ball, A.H.; Banks, J.; Barlow, R.J.; Barnett, S.; Batley, J.R.; Beaudoin, G.; Beck, A.; Beck, G.A.; Becker, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K.W.; Bella, G.; Bentkowski, P.; Berlich, P.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Binder, U.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Boden, B.; Bosch, H.H.; Breuker, H.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, R.M.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Chu, S.L.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Clayton, J.C.; Collins, W.J.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooper, M.; Coupland, M.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.M.; De Jong, S.; Del Pozo, L.A.; Deng, H.; Dieckmann, A.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M.S.; Do Couto e Silva, E.; Duboscq, J.E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Dumas, D.J.P.; Elcombe, P.A.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fierro, M.; Fincke; OPAL Collaboration

    1993-06-01

    Quark and gluon jets with equal energies are identified in three-jet hadronic Z[sup 0] events, using reconstructed secondary vertices from heavy quark decay in conjunction with energy ordering of the jets to anti-tag the gluon jets. Selection of jets from a symmetric event topology allows their properties to be compared in a simple and direct manner. The jets under study have an energy of about 24 GeV. It is observed that gluon jets have a larger angular width than quark jets and yield a softer particle energy spectrum. Correspondingly, the mean particle multiplicity is found to be larger for gluon than for quark jets. Correcting the distributions for residual misidentification of the quark and gluon jets, the ratio of mean particle multiplicity of gluon relative to quark jets is measured to be [sub gluon]/[sub quark]=1.27[+-]0.04(stat.)[+-]0.06(syst.), where the jets are defined using the k[sub perpendicular] [sub to] jet finder. The numerical value of this ratio is found to be sensitive to the choice of the jet algorithm. The experimental results are compared to Monte Carlo calculations which incorporate perturbative QCD along with different assumptions about the hadronization process. (orig.).

  2. Asymptotic behavior of quark masses induced by instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, C.E.I.; Frenkel, J.

    1984-02-01

    A simple argument which shows that the dynamical mass induced by interactions of massless quarks with pseudo-particle configurations, behaves like p -6 for asymptotically large quark momenta is presented. (Author) [pt

  3. Identified Hadron Production and Light Quark Fragmentation in Z{sup 0} Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalelkar, Mohan S

    1998-10-16

    We have measured the differential cross sections for the production of {pi}{sup +}, K{sup +}, K{sup 0}, K*{sup 0}, {phi}, p, {Lambda} and their corresponding antiparticles in separate samples of flavor-tagged Z{sup 0} {yields} light-flavor (u{bar u}, d{bar d}, or s{bar s}), Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b} events. Clear flavor dependences are observed, and the results are compared with the predictions of three fragmentation models. We have also performed a direct measurement of A{sub s}, the parity-violating coupling of the Z{sup 0} to strange quarks, by measuring the left-right-forward-backward production asymmetry in polar angle of the tagged s quark. Our preliminary result is A{sub s} = 0.82 {+-} 0.10(stat.) {+-} 0.07(syst.).

  4. Quark Matter 2017: Young Scientist Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evdokimov, Olga [University of Illinois at Chicago

    2017-07-31

    Quark Matter conference series are amongst the major scientific events for the Relativistic Heavy Ion community. With over 30 year long history, the meetings are held about every 1½ years to showcase the progress made in theoretical and experimental studies of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The 26th International Conference on Ultra-relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Quark Matter 2017) was held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in downtown Chicago from Sunday, February 5th through Saturday, February 11th, 2017. The conference featured about 180 plenary and parallel presentations of the most significant recent results in the field, a poster session for additional presentations, and an evening public lecture. Following the tradition of previous Quark Matter meetings, the first day of the conference was dedicated entirely to a special program for young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral researchers). This grant will provided financial support for 235 young physicists facilitating their attendance of the conference.

  5. Top quark pair production at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baernreuther, Peter

    2012-06-28

    One of the most interesting and manifold processes in the Standard Model of elementary particle physics is the top quark pair production. It enabled the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron in 1995 and the determination of many of its properties. By means of a precise measurement and calculation of the cross section of top quark pair production it is possible to extract the top quark mass. Improvements in the gluon parton distribution functions (important for the Higgs boson production) or improvements in the prediction of the Higgs mass are also closely linked with the top quark pair production. Furthermore, the production process plays an important role in the discovery of new physics. On the one hand the top quark pair decays form the largest part of the background in many BSM models, on the other hand BSM physics can be detected directly in the decay process by investigating the charge symmetry or the invariant mass spectrum. At the LHC it will be possible for the first time to produce a large amount of top quarks; thereby the statistical errors of the observables will be strongly reduced. The enormous increase in the production rate has two reasons. On the one hand, the acceleration energy of the LHC (14 TeV and 7 TeV) is significantly greater than that of the Tevatron (1.96 Tev). This leads to an increase of the cross section by a factor of 100 ({proportional_to}7.3 pb at the Tevatron to {proportional_to}800 pb at 14 TeV LHC). On the other hand, the luminosity of the LHC outperforms the Tevatron by a factor of 10-100. The reduced experimental errors for the observables demand an improvement of the theoretical error. The experimental accuracy of the LHC and the great relevance of the process led to an intensive activity of different research groups in order to improve the calculation of the cross section of top quark pair production. This work presents for the first time a complete numerical result for the full NNLO correction for the top quark pair

  6. Chromostatics of two-quark systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.A.; Palmer, W.F.; Pinsky, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    An estimate for the mean-field potential between two heavy quarks (qq) is studied using Adler's chromostatics. To do so, the pseudocolor charge algebra is worked out for the qq system in SU(n) of color, which had not been correctly presented previously. Using the leading-logarithm, renormalization group improved Euclidean action for the gluon fields, it is found the mean-field potential depends crucially on the algebraic properties of the sources, and that while the quark-anti-quark (q anti q) system possesses an at-least-linear potential, as Adler showed, the qq system has infinite energy, and hence is decoupled from the physical spectrum. The physical states exhibit color screening

  7. Mass scaling of leptons and quarks