WorldWideScience

Sample records for global problem reducing

  1. The global warming problem

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

  2. Problems of globalization

    Telebaković Boško

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world has been going through the process of economical, political and cultural integration for a long time. At the end of the 20th century, the integration received a new meaning. In the world’s policy, sovereign countries were in conflict or collaborated earlier. A stricter hierarchy of economical and political power hubs is being established now. In such processes of globalization, differences in development, wealth and power arise, people are less safe, the sovereignity of national states is being violated. The story of equality remains in the sense of disappearance of cultural differences in floods of non-cultural culture. It is difficult to talk about democracy when the world’s power is getting stronger and stronger. Is it possible to have a globalization which would not affect human rights, and which would not prevent people from taking care of truth, freedom and happiness?

  3. Introduction to global energetic problems

    Gicquel, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book gives a view on global energetic problems and proposes a thorough economic analysis on principle aspects taken into account: energy supply, depending energy sources and available technologic channels, relationships between macro-economy and energy demand, new size of energy problems (environmental effects, overcosts of renewable energy sources, necessity of an high technologic development...). 38 refs

  4. Solving global optimization problems on GPU cluster

    Barkalov, Konstantin; Gergel, Victor; Lebedev, Ilya [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue 23, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    The paper contains the results of investigation of a parallel global optimization algorithm combined with a dimension reduction scheme. This allows solving multidimensional problems by means of reducing to data-independent subproblems with smaller dimension solved in parallel. The new element implemented in the research consists in using several graphic accelerators at different computing nodes. The paper also includes results of solving problems of well-known multiextremal test class GKLS on Lobachevsky supercomputer using tens of thousands of GPU cores.

  5. Iron deficiency - a global problem

    Ali, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Iron deficiency is an important nutritional global problem. This paper contains summery of information gathered from a dietary survey as iron deficiency anaemia is major public health problem in many developing countries including Pakistan. Comparison of anaemia in different age group and sex versus various regions in the world are given. In Pakistan also anaemia is widespread. According to the report of Micro-Nutrient survey of Pakistan 40% of the population are found to have low level of haemoglobin, more than half of pregnant women suffered from marginal or deficient haemoglobin. (A.B.)

  6. Iron deficiency - a global problem

    Ali, S M [Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1994-12-31

    Iron deficiency is an important nutritional global problem. This paper contains summery of information gathered from a dietary survey as iron deficiency anaemia is major public health problem in many developing countries including Pakistan. Comparison of anaemia in different age group and sex versus various regions in the world are given. In Pakistan also anaemia is widespread. According to the report of Micro-Nutrient survey of Pakistan 40% of the population are found to have low level of haemoglobin, more than half of pregnant women suffered from marginal or deficient haemoglobin. (A.B.).

  7. Problem of ''global color'' in gauge theories

    Horvathy, P.A.; Rawnsley, J.H.; UER de Mathematique, Universite de Provence, Marseille, France)

    1986-01-01

    The problem of ''global color'' (which arose recently in monopole theory) is generalized to arbitrary gauge theories: a subgroup K of the ''unbroken'' gauge group G is implementable iff the gauge bundle reduces to the centralizer of K in G. Equivalent implementations correspond to equivalent reductions. Such an action is an internal symmetry for a given configuration iff the Yang-Mills field reduces also. The case of monopoles is worked out in detail

  8. Global Collaborations - Prospects and Problems

    Corbett, Ian

    2005-04-01

    International collaboration has long been a feature of science. Collaborative investments in joint facilities and projects have grown considerably over the past 20-40 years, and many projects have been multinational from the start. This has been particularly true in Europe, where intergovernmental organizations such as CERN, ESA, and ESO have enabled European countries to carry out forefront science with state-of-art facilites which would have been beyond the capabilities of any one country. A brief survey of these organizations, their structure, and the possible reasons behind their success is given. The transition from regional to global creates new problems. Global scale projects face a range of generic issues which must be addressed and overcome if the project is to be a success. Each project has its own specific boundary conditions and each adopts an approach best fitted to its own objectives and constraints. Experience with billion dollar projects such as the SSC, LHC, and ITER shows the key problem areas and demonstrates the importance of preparatory work in the early stages to settle issues such as schedule, funding, location, legal and managerial structure, and oversight. A range of current and proposed intercontinental or global projects - so- called ``Megascience Projects" - is reviewed. Such projects, originally a feature of space and particle physics, are now becoming more common, and very large projects in astronomy, for example ALMA and 50 - 100m telescopes, and other areas of physics now fall into the `global' category. These projects are on such a large scale, from any scientific, managerial, financial or political perspective, and have such global importance, that they have necessarily been conceived as international from the outset. Increasing financial pressures on governments and funding agencies in the developed countries place additional demands on the project planning. The contrasting approaches, problems faced, and progress made in various

  9. Problems in global fire evaluation: Is remote sensing the solution?

    Robinson, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter the author critically examines the prospects for reducing uncertainties over global biomass burning using remote sensing. First he considers the global temporal, spatial, and intensity distributions of fires and the remotely sensible signals they create and discusses the opportunities and problems that exist for matching available sensors to fire signal. Then he considers problems relating to instrumentation and to atmospheric interference

  10. Molecular science solving global problems

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Stults, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    From the late 1940s to the late 1980s, the Department of Energy (DOE) had a critical role in the Cold War. Many sites were built to contribute to the nation's nuclear weapons effort. However, not enough attention was paid to how the waste generated at these facilities should be handled. As a result, a number of sites fouled the soil around them or dumped low-level radioactive waste into nearby rivers. A DOE laboratory is under construction with a charter to help. Called the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), this national user facility will be located at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, WA. This laboratory has been funded by DOE and Congress to play a major role as the nation confronts the enormous challenge of reducing environmental and human risks from hundreds of government and industrial waste sites in an economically viable manner. The original proposal for the EMSL took a number of twists and turns on its way to its present form, but one thing remained constant: the belief that safe, permanent, cost-effective solutions to many of the country's environmental problems could be achieved only by multidisciplinary teams working to understand and control molecular processes. The processes of most concern are those that govern the transport and transformation of contaminants, the treatment and storage of high-level mixed wastes, and the risks those contaminants ultimately pose to workers and the public

  11. Energy supply - a global problem

    Barthelt, K.

    1990-01-01

    The text of a speech celebrating the 10 years operation of the nuclear power plant in Goesgen. The author expresses his opinion on the future of nuclear energy, on the responsibility towards the next generation and on the energy supply for the Third World. He draws attention to the gap between north and south and to the limited amount of resources and mention the CO2-problem and the potential of nuclear energy

  12. Global Warming: A Reduced Threat?.

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Stooksbury, David E.

    1992-10-01

    One popular and apocalyptic vision of the world influenced by increasing concentrations of infrared-absorbing trace gases is that of ecological disaster brought about by rapidly rising temperatures, sea level, and evaporation rates. This vision developed from a suite of climate models that have since considerably changed in both their dynamics and their estimates of prospective warming. Observed temperatures indicate that much more warming should already have taken place than predicted by earlier models in the Northern Hemisphere, and that night, rather than day, readings in that hemisphere show a relative warming. A high-latitude polar-night warming or a general night warming could be either benign or beneficial. A large number of plant species show both increased growth and greater water-use efficiency under enhanced carbon dioxide.An extensive body of evidence now indicates that anthropo-generated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the warming, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, warming. The sulfate emissions, though, are not sufficient to explain all of the night warming. However, the sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted warming, could drastically alter the debate on global warming in favor of less expensive policies.

  13. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems?

    A. Kolk (Ans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single

  14. Stochastic global optimization as a filtering problem

    Stinis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    We present a reformulation of stochastic global optimization as a filtering problem. The motivation behind this reformulation comes from the fact that for many optimization problems we cannot evaluate exactly the objective function to be optimized. Similarly, we may not be able to evaluate exactly the functions involved in iterative optimization algorithms. For example, we may only have access to noisy measurements of the functions or statistical estimates provided through Monte Carlo sampling. This makes iterative optimization algorithms behave like stochastic maps. Naive global optimization amounts to evolving a collection of realizations of this stochastic map and picking the realization with the best properties. This motivates the use of filtering techniques to allow focusing on realizations that are more promising than others. In particular, we present a filtering reformulation of global optimization in terms of a special case of sequential importance sampling methods called particle filters. The increasing popularity of particle filters is based on the simplicity of their implementation and their flexibility. We utilize the flexibility of particle filters to construct a stochastic global optimization algorithm which can converge to the optimal solution appreciably faster than naive global optimization. Several examples of parametric exponential density estimation are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the approach.

  15. Global Optimization of Nonlinear Blend-Scheduling Problems

    Pedro A. Castillo Castillo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The scheduling of gasoline-blending operations is an important problem in the oil refining industry. This problem not only exhibits the combinatorial nature that is intrinsic to scheduling problems, but also non-convex nonlinear behavior, due to the blending of various materials with different quality properties. In this work, a global optimization algorithm is proposed to solve a previously published continuous-time mixed-integer nonlinear scheduling model for gasoline blending. The model includes blend recipe optimization, the distribution problem, and several important operational features and constraints. The algorithm employs piecewise McCormick relaxation (PMCR and normalized multiparametric disaggregation technique (NMDT to compute estimates of the global optimum. These techniques partition the domain of one of the variables in a bilinear term and generate convex relaxations for each partition. By increasing the number of partitions and reducing the domain of the variables, the algorithm is able to refine the estimates of the global solution. The algorithm is compared to two commercial global solvers and two heuristic methods by solving four examples from the literature. Results show that the proposed global optimization algorithm performs on par with commercial solvers but is not as fast as heuristic approaches.

  16. Solving Unconstrained Global Optimization Problems via Hybrid Swarm Intelligence Approaches

    Jui-Yu Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic global optimization (SGO algorithms such as the particle swarm optimization (PSO approach have become popular for solving unconstrained global optimization (UGO problems. The PSO approach, which belongs to the swarm intelligence domain, does not require gradient information, enabling it to overcome this limitation of traditional nonlinear programming methods. Unfortunately, PSO algorithm implementation and performance depend on several parameters, such as cognitive parameter, social parameter, and constriction coefficient. These parameters are tuned by using trial and error. To reduce the parametrization of a PSO method, this work presents two efficient hybrid SGO approaches, namely, a real-coded genetic algorithm-based PSO (RGA-PSO method and an artificial immune algorithm-based PSO (AIA-PSO method. The specific parameters of the internal PSO algorithm are optimized using the external RGA and AIA approaches, and then the internal PSO algorithm is applied to solve UGO problems. The performances of the proposed RGA-PSO and AIA-PSO algorithms are then evaluated using a set of benchmark UGO problems. Numerical results indicate that, besides their ability to converge to a global minimum for each test UGO problem, the proposed RGA-PSO and AIA-PSO algorithms outperform many hybrid SGO algorithms. Thus, the RGA-PSO and AIA-PSO approaches can be considered alternative SGO approaches for solving standard-dimensional UGO problems.

  17. Problems with Global Education: Conceptual Contradictions

    Young, J. Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Global education is concerned with social justice and student empowerment. However, an understanding of the word global as merely international and/or intercultural may fail to challenge existing mechanistic and compartmentalized views of knowledge and curriculum. Such a global education limits students' agency and reproduces the very systems it…

  18. The global existence problem in general relativity

    Andersson, L

    2000-01-01

    We survey some known facts and open questions concerning the global properties of 3+1 dimensional space--times containing a compact Cauchy surface. We consider space--times with an $\\ell$--dimensional Lie algebra of space--like Killing fields. For each $\\ell \\leq 3$, we give some basic results and conjectures on global existence and cosmic censorship. For the case of the 3+1 dimensional Einstein equations without symmetries, a new small data global existence result is announced.

  19. Problem free nuclear power and global change

    Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Nuckolls, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Hyde, R.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth's atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO 2 emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage

  20. Global World: A Problem of Governance

    Chumakov, Alexander Nikolayevich

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to include the following items: to show the absolute necessity of managing the international community, to explore the fundamental possibility of managing the global world, to prove or disprove such a possibility, to determine the real background of global governance in modern conditions and to show the…

  1. East Asian perspective on global environmental problems

    Yonehara, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has been conducting active global warming research programs focusing on development of a method to forecast climate change accompanying global warming both globally and in East Asia. A regional climate change forecasting method is being developed and researches are conducted on impacts of climate change on the natural and social environment in East Asia. Researches are also conducted focusing on the relationship between emissions and deposition of acid substances and assessment of the environmental impacts of acid rain in East Asia. 4 figs

  2. Actual global problems of radiation protection

    Ninkovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Personal views on some actual problems in radiation protection are given in this paper. Among these problems are: evolution methodology used in radiation protection regulations; radiation protection, nuclear energy and safety, and new approaches to the process of the hazardous substances management. An interesting fact relating to the X-ray, radiation protection and Nikola Tesla are given also. (author)

  3. Global optima for the Zhou–Rozvany problem

    Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the minimum compliance topology design problem with a volume constraint and discrete design variables. In particular, our interest is to provide global optimal designs to a challenging benchmark example proposed by Zhou and Rozvany. Global optimality is achieved by an implementation o...... algorithms, we find global optimal designs for several values on the available volume. These designs can be used to validate other methods and heuristics for the considered class of problems....

  4. Problems of reducing the exhaustive search

    Kreinovich, V

    1996-01-01

    This collection contains translations of papers on propositional satisfiability and related logical problems which appeared in Problemy Sokrashcheniya Perebora, published in Russian in 1987 by the Scientific Council "Cybernetics" of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The problems form the nucleus of this intensively developing area. This translation is dedicated to the memory of two remarkable Russian mathematicians, Sergei Maslov and his wife, Nina Maslova. Maslov is known as the originator of the inverse method in automated deduction, which was discovered at the same time as the resolution method

  5. Rising Temperatures Reduce Global Wheat Production

    Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Martre, P.; Rötter, R. P.; Lobell, D. B.; Cammarano, D.; Kimball, B. A.; Ottman, M. J.; Wall, G. W.; White, J. W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Crop models are essential tools for assessing the threat of climate change to local and global food production. Present models used to predict wheat grain yield are highly uncertain when simulating how crops respond to temperature. Here we systematically tested 30 different wheat crop models of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project against field experiments in which growing season mean temperatures ranged from 15 degrees C to 32? degrees C, including experiments with artificial heating. Many models simulated yields well, but were less accurate at higher temperatures. The model ensemble median was consistently more accurate in simulating the crop temperature response than any single model, regardless of the input information used. Extrapolating the model ensemble temperature response indicates that warming is already slowing yield gains at a majority of wheat-growing locations. Global wheat production is estimated to fall by 6% for each degree C of further temperature increase and become more variable over space and time.

  6. Biased lineups: sequential presentation reduces the problem.

    Lindsay, R C; Lea, J A; Nosworthy, G J; Fulford, J A; Hector, J; LeVan, V; Seabrook, C

    1991-12-01

    Biased lineups have been shown to increase significantly false, but not correct, identification rates (Lindsay, Wallbridge, & Drennan, 1987; Lindsay & Wells, 1980; Malpass & Devine, 1981). Lindsay and Wells (1985) found that sequential lineup presentation reduced false identification rates, presumably by reducing reliance on relative judgment processes. Five staged-crime experiments were conducted to examine the effect of lineup biases and sequential presentation on eyewitness recognition accuracy. Sequential lineup presentation significantly reduced false identification rates from fair lineups as well as from lineups biased with regard to foil similarity, instructions, or witness attire, and from lineups biased in all of these ways. The results support recommendations that police present lineups sequentially.

  7. Evidence of Reduced Global Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Booth, Rhonda D. L.; Happé, Francesca G. E.

    2018-01-01

    Frith's original notion of 'weak central coherence' suggested that increased local processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) resulted from reduced global processing. More recent accounts have emphasised superior local perception and suggested intact global integration. However, tasks often place local and global processing in direct trade-off,…

  8. Hydroelectric power and global environmental problems: benefits and environmental impacts

    Chabot, B.

    1992-01-01

    The risk of global warming is one of the most serious global environmental problems. It is due to the increase of greenhouse gases emissions, mainly because of the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector, particularly for electricity generation. At an international level, experts now agree that measures are to be taken to reduce this risk. In the energy sector, an improvement of energy efficiency and an increase of nuclear electricity generation are often presented as the best available solutions. Renewable energy sources are often presented as a solution with a negligible potential impact, and sometimes, hydro power is even forgotten, or its coasts and its potential impacts on local environment are presented as an obstacle to its positive contribution to the reduction of global warming risk. Without denying the positive impacts of other solutions, this paper explains the possibilities and the benefits of an increased use of hydroelectric power, when implemented with a minimum impact on local environment and with a synergistic effect with the rational use of generated energy, in order to have access to a sustainable development. 19 refs., 6 figs

  9. Is globalization reducing poverty and inequality?

    Wade, Robert Hunter

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 20 years or so, India, China, and the rest of East Asia experienced fast economic growth and falls in the poverty rate, Latin America stagnated, and the former Soviet Union, Central and Eastern Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa regressed. But what are the net trends? The neoliberal argument says that world poverty and income inequality fell over the past two decades for the first time in more than a century and a half, thanks to the rising density of economic integration across national borders. The evidence therefore confirms that globalization in the context of the world economic regime in place since the end of Bretton Woods generates more "mutual benefit" than "conflicting interests." This article questions the empirical basis of the neoliberal argument.

  10. Energy problems in a global view

    Dubois, J.-E.

    1976-01-01

    Energy problems in general are examined, considering first the ecosystem of pre-Newtonian societies, then that of industrial societies and their resulting energy consumptions. Primary energy sources are listed and the manner in which they are used is described. New techniques (uranium isotope separation, energy conversion, solar energy, controlled fusion) are discussed as a function of their potential saving in energy expenditure. Solutions are proposed for the future of post-industrial societies [fr

  11. The global existence problem and cosmic censorship in general relativity

    Moncrief, V.; Eardley, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Two global existence conjectures for the Einstein equations are formulated and their relevance to the cosmic censorship conjecture discussed. It is argued that the reformulation of the cosmic censorship conjecture as a global existence problem renders it more amenable to direct analytical attack. To demonstrate the facility of this approach the cosmological version of the global existence conjecture is proved for the Gowdy spacetimes on T 3 X R. (author)

  12. The application of weight windows to 'Global' Monte Carlo problems

    Becker, T. L.; Larsen, E. W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes two basic types of global deep-penetration (shielding) problems-the global flux problem and the global response problem. For each of these, two methods for generating weight windows are presented. The first approach, developed by the authors of this paper and referred to generally as the Global Weight Window, constructs a weight window that distributes Monte Carlo particles according to a user-specified distribution. The second approach, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and referred to as FW-CADIS, constructs a weight window based on intuitively extending the concept of the source-detector problem to global problems. The numerical results confirm that the theory used to describe the Monte Carlo particle distribution for a given weight window is valid and that the figure of merit is strongly correlated to the Monte Carlo particle distribution. Furthermore, they illustrate that, while both methods are capable of obtaining the correct solution, the Global Weight Window distributes particles much more uniformly than FW-CADIS. As a result, the figure of merit is higher for the Global Weight Window. (authors)

  13. Reducing global warming though advanced vehicle design

    Evans, R.L. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This paper examines the complete energy conversion chain in order to make the choice of primary energy source for any particular application easier to understand. Alternatives to the internal combustion engine as the sole power source for vehicular propulsion are discussed. Some form of hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system is suggested as being a likely choice to reduce fossil fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions from the transportation sector. The paper concluded that the use of hydrogen as a carrier does not appear to be particularly attractive. However, when hydrogen is made by electrolysis using electricity from sustainable primary resources, such as renewable energy or nuclear power, there is no production of greenhouse gases. The development of the plug-in or grid-connected hybrid electric vehicle that uses electricity from the grid to charge a battery rather than to generate hydrogen and maintains a small fossil-fuelled engine as a back-up device appears to lead to significant greenhouse gas reductions comparable to those from a conventional fossil-fuelled vehicle. 3 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  14. Africa and global recessions: Options for reducing vulnerability in ...

    Africa and global recessions: Options for reducing vulnerability in future. ... It concludes that traditional or conventional, market-based approaches do not adequately explain the root causes of global recessions and that the dominant counter-cyclical Keynesian-type fiscal and monetary policies that characterised the ...

  15. Global Sufficient Optimality Conditions for a Special Cubic Minimization Problem

    Xiaomei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some sufficient global optimality conditions for a special cubic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints by extending the global subdifferential approach proposed by V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006. The present conditions generalize the results developed in the work of V. Jeyakumar et al. where a quadratic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints was considered. In addition, a special diagonal matrix is constructed, which is used to provide a convenient method for justifying the proposed sufficient conditions. Then, the reformulation of the sufficient conditions follows. It is worth noting that this reformulation is also applicable to the quadratic minimization problem with box or binary constraints considered in the works of V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006 and Y. Wang et al. (2010. Finally some examples demonstrate that our optimality conditions can effectively be used for identifying global minimizers of the certain nonconvex cubic minimization problem.

  16. Electrical and electronic waste: a global environmental problem.

    Ramesh Babu, Balakrishnan; Parande, Anand Kuber; Ahmed Basha, Chiya

    2007-08-01

    The production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing global manufacturing activities. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). Rapid economic growth, coupled with urbanization and growing demand for consumer goods, has increased both the consumption of EEE and the production of WEEE, which can be a source of hazardous wastes that pose a risk to the environment and to sustainable economic growth. To address potential environmental problems that could stem from improper management of WEEE, many countries and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of material recovery from WEEE to reduce the amount and types of materials disposed in landfills. Recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment is important not only to reduce the amount of waste requiring treatment, but also to promote the recovery of valuable materials. EEE is diverse and complex with respect to the materials and components used and waste streams from the manufacturing processes. Characterization of these wastes is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally sound recycling system. This paper offers an overview of electrical and e-waste recycling, including a description of how it is generated and classified, strategies and technologies for recovering materials, and new scientific developments related to these activities. Finally, the e-waste recycling industry in India is also discussed.

  17. Global Search Strategies for Solving Multilinear Least-Squares Problems

    Mats Andersson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The multilinear least-squares (MLLS problem is an extension of the linear least-squares problem. The difference is that a multilinear operator is used in place of a matrix-vector product. The MLLS is typically a large-scale problem characterized by a large number of local minimizers. It originates, for instance, from the design of filter networks. We present a global search strategy that allows for moving from one local minimizer to a better one. The efficiency of this strategy is illustrated by the results of numerical experiments performed for some problems related to the design of filter networks.

  18. Unity in the problem of reducing carbon dioxide emission

    Byurzhe, R.

    1992-01-01

    Political and economical aspects of the problem of reducing discharges into the atmosphere of gases creating hotbed effect are discussed. Canadian government policy on the power production problem is considered as well as the methods of minimization gaseous wastes due to energy consumption regulation and use of safe and more pure energy sources

  19. On global error estimation and control for initial value problems

    J. Lang (Jens); J.G. Verwer (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses global error estimation and control for initial value problems for ordinary differential equations. The focus lies on a comparison between a novel approach based onthe adjoint method combined with a small sample statistical initialization and the classical approach

  20. On global error estimation and control for initial value problems

    Lang, J.; Verwer, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. This paper addresses global error estimation and control for initial value problems for ordinary differential equations. The focus lies on a comparison between a novel approach based on the adjoint method combined with a small sample statistical initialization and the classical approach

  1. A numerical study for global atmospheric transport-chemistry problems

    E.J. Spee (Edwin); J.G. Verwer (Jan); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul); J.G. Blom (Joke); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)

    1998-01-01

    htmlabstractAtmospheric air quality modeling relies in part on numerical simulation. Required numerical simulations are often hampered by lack of computer capacity and computational speed. This problem is most severe in the field of global modeling where transport and exchange of trace constituents

  2. A numerical study for global atmospheric transport-chemistry problems

    E.J. Spee (Edwin); J.G. Verwer (Jan); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul); J.G. Blom (Joke); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAtmospheric air quality modeling relies in part on numerical simulation. Required numerical simulations are often hampered by lack of computer capacity and computational speed. This problem is most severe in the field of global modeling where transport and exchange of trace constituents

  3. The core of the global warming problem: energy

    Hu, E.

    2005-01-01

    From the thermodynamic point of view, the global warming problem is an 'energy balance' problem. The heat (energy) accumulation in the earth and its atmosphere is the cause of global warming. This accumulation is mainly due to the imbalance of (solar) energy reaching and the energy leaving the earth, caused by 'greenhouse effect' in which the CO 2 and other greenhouse gases play a critical role; so that balance of the energy entering and leaving the earth should be the key to solve the problem. Currently in the battle of tackling the global warming, we mainly focus on the development of CO 2 -related measures, i.e., emission reduction, CO 2 sequestration, and CO 2 recycle technologies. It is right in technical aspect, because they are attempting to thin the CO 2 'blanket' around the earth. However, 'Energy' that is the core of the problem has been overlooked, at least in management/policy aspect. This paper is proposing an 'Energy Credit' i.e., the energy measure concept as an alternative to the 'CO 2 credit' that is currently in place in the proposed emission trading scheme. The proposed energy credit concept has the advantages such as covering broad activities related to the global warming and not just direct emissions. Three examples are given in the paper to demonstrate the concept of the energy measure and its advantages over the CO 2 credit concept. (Author)

  4. Global environmental problems, voluntary action and government intervention

    Richter, A.; van Soest, D.P.; Brousseau, E.; Dedeurwaerdere, T.; Jouvet, P.A.; Willonger, M.

    2012-01-01

    The global community faces several very pressing environmental challenges such as climate change, depletion of the high-sea fisheries, and unprecedented rates of biodiversity loss. Governments are in the process of designing environmental policies to address these problems unilaterally, but also

  5. On global environment problems in electric power business

    Sugi, Masashi

    1992-01-01

    The former environmental problems were atmospheric pollution, water quality contamination, noise and vibration nuisance, waste disposal and so on mainly at interior or district level, but now, the influence that the problems such as the global warming due to carbon dioxide emission, the ozone layer breaking due to freon gas, acid rain going over boundaries and so on exert to environment spreads to wide areas, therefore, various research and investigation have been carried out as the environmental problems on global scale at national and international levels. It has become an important subject to make the preservation of global environment and durable economical development compatible by effectively utilizing limited resources and energy. The electric power companies have advanced positively the prevention of pollution and the preservation of environment, and attained the environment preservation of top level in the world. The consciousness of people on environmental problems has heightened, therefore the construction and operation of power plants harmonized to districts are important. The countermeasures to environmental problems taken by electric power companies are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Global Optimization for Bus Line Timetable Setting Problem

    Qun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines bus timetables setting problem during each time period divided in terms of passenger flow intensity; it is supposed that passengers evenly arrive and bus runs are set evenly; the problem is to determine bus runs assignment in each time period to minimize the total waiting time of passengers on platforms if the number of the total runs is known. For such a multistage decision problem, this paper designed a dynamic programming algorithm to solve it. Global optimization procedures using dynamic programming are developed. A numerical example about bus runs assignment optimization of a single line is given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methodology, showing that optimizing buses’ departure time using dynamic programming can save computational time and find the global optimal solution.

  7. RELEVANT PROBLEMS OF UKRAINE’S INTEGRATION INTO GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Yevheniia Duliba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the main problems that prevent Ukraine from integrating into the global economy and to determine correct focuses of the foreign economic policy of Ukraine against the background of strengthening of globalization tendencies throughout the world. The bases of this research are bases of business development of the foreign economic policy of Ukraine and improvement of Ukrainian economy against the background of international integration. At the heart of the research methodology is a dialectical method of scientific knowledge and, besides, special methods of research based on modern scientific bases of economic, management and related to them knowledge: economic and statistic method – for the assessment of the modern state of foreign trade and investment activity of Ukraine; method of analysis and synthesis – for the determination of tendencies of development of integration processed in Ukraine; comparative analysis – for comparison of information concerning development of specific indicators of foreign economic activities in Ukraine. Results. As a result of research, the main blocks of problems, which impede the integration of Ukraine into the global economy, and requirements for their complex solution are determined. Besides, interdependence and interdetermination of problems, which impede the integration of Ukraine into the global economy, and requirements for their complex solution are explained. Political and legal, economic, sociocultural, and infrastructural preconditions that are necessary for effective integration of Ukraine into the global economy are highlighted. Practical implications. Analysis of the existing problems related to the actual economy, investments, innovation processes gives the possibility to determine the vector of development of Ukraine’s economy taking to account recommendations concerning its improvement for the purposes of integration into global economy. Value

  8. A concept for global optimization of topology design problems

    Stolpe, Mathias; Achtziger, Wolfgang; Kawamoto, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    We present a concept for solving topology design problems to proven global optimality. We propose that the problems are modeled using the approach of simultaneous analysis and design with discrete design variables and solved with convergent branch and bound type methods. This concept is illustrated...... on two applications. The first application is the design of stiff truss structures where the bar areas are chosen from a finite set of available areas. The second considered application is simultaneous topology and geometry design of planar articulated mechanisms. For each application we outline...

  9. Arsenic in Drinking Water—A Global Environmental Problem

    Shaofen Wang, Joanna; Wai, Chien M.

    2004-02-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a global environmental problem affecting a large number of populations, especially in developing countries. The "blackfoot disease"that occurred in Taiwan more than half of a century ago was attributed to drinking arsenic-contaminated water from deep wells containing high concentrations of the trivalent arsenite species. Similar arsenic poisoning cases were reported later in Chinese Inner Mongolia, Bangladesh, and India—all related to drinking groundwater contaminated with arsenic. The maximum contaminant level (MCL) of arsenic in drinking water has been changed recently by the U.S. EPA from 50 ppb to 10 ppb; the compliance date is January 2006. This article summarizes documented global arsenic contamination problems, the regulatory controversy regarding MCL of arsenic in drinking water, and available technologies for removing arsenic from contaminated waters. Methods for analyzing total arsenic and arsenic species in water are also described.

  10. History of global environmental problems. Chikyu kankyo mondai no rekishi

    Matsui, S [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-04-15

    This paper takes general view of the history of global environmental problems. A UN human environment conference was held in Stockholm in 1972, at which the human environment declaration and an action plan were adopted. The most important among the results of the Stockholm Conference were the treaty on international transactions of wild animal and plant species feared of extinction in the 1970's, the international treaty on prevention of pollution caused by ocean vessels, and the treaty on prevention of ocean pollution caused by dumping of wastes and other materials. Also adopted in the 1970's include the action plan to prevent desertification, the action plan on the world population, and the world weather plan. The UN Nairobi Conference in 1982 has sounded the alarm on the delay in tackling with the facing problems and the progress of aggravation in the global environment. In 1987, the ozone layer protection protocol was adopted. The earth summit at Rio de Janeiro in 1992 adopted the Agenda 21, with which the participating nations, autonomous bodies, and civil organizations have prepared their own Agenda 21, and are now about to begin challenging the global environmental problems. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?

    Palacios, Cristina; Gonzalez, Lilliana

    2014-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide in all age groups, even in those residing in countries with low latitude, where it was generally assumed that UV radiation was adequate enough to prevent this deficiency, and in industrialized countries, where vitamin D fortification has been implemented now for years. However, most countries are still lacking data, particularly population representative data, with very limited information in infants, children, adolescents and pregnant women. Since the number of recent publications is escalating, with a broadening of the geographic diversity, the objective of the present report was to conduct a more recent systematic review of global vitamin D status, with particular emphasis in at risk groups. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed/Medline in April-June 2013 to identify articles on vitamin D status worldwide published in the last 10 years in apparently healthy individuals. Only studies with vitamin D status prevalence were included. If available, the first source selected was population-based or representative samples studies. Clinical trials, case-control studies, case reports or series, reviews, validation studies, letters, editorials, or qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 103 articles were eligible and included in the present report. Maps were created for each age group, providing an updated overview of global vitamin D status. In areas with available data, the prevalence of low vitamin D status is a global problem in all age groups, in particular in girls and women from the Middle East. These maps also evidenced the regions with missing data for each specific population groups. There is striking lack of data in infants, children and adolescents worldwide, and in most countries of South America and Africa. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem in all age groups, particularly in those from the Middle East. This article is part of a Special Issue

  12. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  13. Insufficiencies in solving global environmental problems by specialized scientific expertise

    Hartwig, S.G.; Kra, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The most paradoxical and urgent problem faces the world today. We find ourselves between the horns of a dilemma. One horn represents the accelerating demand for energy, and the other, the irreversible degradation of our natural environment. There are two directions that we can take to solve our growing global crisis. The first step is to encourage scientific specialists to think in broader terms. The second necessary approach is to make decision makers aware of the complexity of the situation as well as the dangers of tunnel vision that experts often fall into. Therefore, to find a long-term holistic solution, decision makers, be they government officials or academics, must be, themselves, solution oriented and capable of directing scientists along broadened problem-solving pathways. Up till now, scientists have been required to research environmental problems, discover causal associations and determine effects. Contemporary scientists, in the truest sense of the meaning, are no longer generalists but are specialists in their own fields with great depth and accuracy of knowledge. However, experts of high standing may have difficulty visualizing adjacent sciences, which causes them to lose sight of topics peripheral to their main field of interest. The consequence of this can be that solutions to a problem will be sought only within particular and specialized areas, but it is, unfortunately, a fact of life that environmental problems do not come neatly packaged in scientific disciplines: they happen in their entirety, with all their synergistic implications. 5 refs., 5 figs

  14. Proposal of Evolutionary Simplex Method for Global Optimization Problem

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    To make an agile decision in a rational manner, role of optimization engineering has been notified increasingly under diversified customer demand. With this point of view, in this paper, we have proposed a new evolutionary method serving as an optimization technique in the paradigm of optimization engineering. The developed method has prospects to solve globally various complicated problem appearing in real world applications. It is evolved from the conventional method known as Nelder and Mead’s Simplex method by virtue of idea borrowed from recent meta-heuristic method such as PSO. Mentioning an algorithm to handle linear inequality constraints effectively, we have validated effectiveness of the proposed method through comparison with other methods using several benchmark problems.

  15. A DE-Based Scatter Search for Global Optimization Problems

    Kun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid scatter search (SS algorithm for continuous global optimization problems by incorporating the evolution mechanism of differential evolution (DE into the reference set updated procedure of SS to act as the new solution generation method. This hybrid algorithm is called a DE-based SS (SSDE algorithm. Since different kinds of mutation operators of DE have been proposed in the literature and they have shown different search abilities for different kinds of problems, four traditional mutation operators are adopted in the hybrid SSDE algorithm. To adaptively select the mutation operator that is most appropriate to the current problem, an adaptive mechanism for the candidate mutation operators is developed. In addition, to enhance the exploration ability of SSDE, a reinitialization method is adopted to create a new population and subsequently construct a new reference set whenever the search process of SSDE is trapped in local optimum. Computational experiments on benchmark problems show that the proposed SSDE is competitive or superior to some state-of-the-art algorithms in the literature.

  16. Global regularization method for planar restricted three-body problem

    Sharaf M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, global regularization method for planar restricted three-body problem is purposed by using the transformation z = x+iy = ν cos n(u+iv, where i = √−1, 0 < ν ≤ 1 and n is a positive integer. The method is developed analytically and computationally. For the analytical developments, analytical solutions in power series of the pseudotime τ are obtained for positions and velocities (u, v, u', v' and (x, y, x˙, y˙ in both regularized and physical planes respectively, the physical time t is also obtained as power series in τ. Moreover, relations between the coefficients of the power series are obtained for two consequent values of n. Also, we developed analytical solutions in power series form for the inverse problem of finding τ in terms of t. As typical examples, three symbolic expressions for the coefficients of the power series were developed in terms of initial values. As to the computational developments, the global regularized equations of motion are developed together with their initial values in forms suitable for digital computations using any differential equations solver. On the other hand, for numerical evolutions of power series, an efficient method depending on the continued fraction theory is provided.

  17. Technical opportunities to reduce global anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide

    Winiwarter, Wilfried; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena; Klimont, Zbigniew; Schöpp, Wolfgang; Amann, Markus

    2018-01-01

    We describe a consistent framework developed to quantify current and future anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide and the available technical abatement options by source sector for 172 regions globally. About 65% of the current emissions derive from agricultural soils, 8% from waste, and 4% from the chemical industry. Low-cost abatement options are available in industry, wastewater, and agriculture, where they are limited to large industrial farms. We estimate that by 2030, emissions can be reduced by about 6% ±2% applying abatement options at a cost lower than 10 €/t CO2-eq. The largest abatement potential at higher marginal costs is available from agricultural soils, employing precision fertilizer application technology as well as chemical treatment of fertilizers to suppress conversion processes in soil (nitrification inhibitors). At marginal costs of up to 100 €/t CO2-eq, about 18% ±6% of baseline emissions can be removed and when considering all available options, the global abatement potential increases to about 26% ±9%. Due to expected future increase in activities driving nitrous oxide emissions, the limited technical abatement potential available means that even at full implementation of reduction measures by 2030, global emissions can be at most stabilized at the pre-2010 level. In order to achieve deeper reductions in emissions, considerable technological development will be required as well as non-technical options like adjusting human diets towards moderate animal protein consumption.

  18. New electric technologies to reduce global warming impacts

    Courtright, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced electric technologies hold significant potential to reduce global warming impact through reduction of primary fuel needed to power end-use applications. These reductions can occur in two forms: (1) reduced kilowatt-hour usage and power plant emissions through efficiency improvements and technological enhancements of existing electrically-driven applications; (2) the development of new electric technologies to replace traditional fossil-fuel driven applications which can result in less overall primary energy consumption and lower overall emissions. Numerous new electric technologies are presently being developed by the Electric Power Research Institute. The technologies reviewed in this paper include: Microwave Fabric Dryer, Advanced Heat Pumps, Heat Pump Water Heater, Infrared Sand Reclaimer, Freeze Concentration, Membrane Water Recovery, Microwave Petrochemical Production, Infrared Drying, and Electric Vehicles. Full commercialization of these technologies can result in significant energy savings and CO 2 reductions, in addition to improving the competitiveness of businesses using these technologies

  19. Reaching the global target to reduce stunting: an investment framework.

    Shekar, Meera; Kakietek, Jakub; D'Alimonte, Mary R; Rogers, Hilary E; Eberwein, Julia Dayton; Akuoku, Jon Kweku; Pereira, Audrey; Soe-Lin, Shan; Hecht, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Childhood stunting, being short for one's age, has life-long consequences for health, human capital and economic growth. Being stunted in early childhood is associated with slower cognitive development, reduced schooling attainment and adult incomes decreased by 5-53%. The World Health Assembly has endorsed global nutrition targets including one to reduce the number of stunted children under five by 40% by 2025. The target has been included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG target 2.2). This paper estimates the cost of achieving this target and develops scenarios for generating the necessary financing. We focus on a key intervention package for stunting (KIPS) with strong evidence of effectiveness. Annual scale-up costs for the period of 2016-25 were estimated for a sample of 37 high burden countries and extrapolated to all low and middle income countries. The Lives Saved Tool was used to model the impact of the scale-up on stunting prevalence. We analysed data on KIPS budget allocations and expenditure by governments, donors and households to derive a global baseline financing estimate. We modelled two financing scenarios, a 'business as usual', which extends the current trends in domestic and international financing for nutrition through 2025, and another that proposes increases in financing from all sources under a set of burden-sharing rules. The 10-year financial need to scale up KIPS is US$49.5 billion. Under 'business as usual', this financial need is not met and the global stunting target is not reached. To reach the target, current financing will have to increase from US$2.6 billion to US$7.4 billion a year on average. Reaching the stunting target is feasible but will require large coordinated investments in KIPS and a supportive enabling environment. The example of HIV scale-up over 2001-11 is instructive in identifying the factors that could drive such a global response to childhood stunting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University

  20. Regional strategies for the accelerating global problem of groundwater depletion

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Gleeson, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater--the world's largest freshwater resource--is critically important for irrigated agriculture and hence for global food security. Yet depletion is widespread in large groundwater systems in both semi-arid and humid regions of the world. Excessive extraction for irrigation where groundwater is slowly renewed is the main cause of the depletion, and climate change has the potential to exacerbate the problem in some regions. Globally aggregated groundwater depletion contributes to sea-level rise, and has accelerated markedly since the mid-twentieth century. But its impacts on water resources are more obvious at the regional scale, for example in agriculturally important parts of India, China and the United States. Food production in such regions can only be made sustainable in the long term if groundwater levels are stabilized. To this end, a transformation is required in how we value, manage and characterize groundwater systems. Technical approaches--such as water diversion, artificial groundwater recharge and efficient irrigation--have failed to balance regional groundwater budgets. They need to be complemented by more comprehensive strategies that are adapted to the specific social, economic, political and environmental settings of each region.

  1. A novel approach for the global localization problem

    Abraham Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe una metodología de planificación, localización y mapeo simultáneos enfocada en el problema de localización global, el robot explora el ambiente eficientemente y también considera los requisitos de un algoritmo de localización y mapeo simultáneos. El método está basado en la generación aleatoria incremental de una estructura de datos llamada árbol aleatorio basado en sensores, la cual representa un mapa de caminos del área explorada con su región segura asociada. Un procedimiento de localización continuo basado encaracterísticas B-splines de la región segura se integró en el esquema.This paper describes a simultaneous planning localization and mapping (SPLAM methodology focussed on the global localization problem, where the robot explores the environment efficiently and also considers the requisites of the simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm. The method is based on the randomized incremental generation of a data structure called Sensor-based Random Tree, which represents a roadmap of the explored area with an associated safe region. A continuous localization procedure based on B-Splines features of the safe region is integrated in the scheme.

  2. Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World

    2010-09-15

    Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW

  3. Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World

    2010-09-01

    Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW

  4. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Expanding Global Health Problem

    Amosy E. M'koma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a summary of the global epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. It is now clear that IBD is increasing worldwide and has become a global emergence disease. IBD, which includes Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, has been considered a problem in industrial-urbanized societies and attributed largely to a Westernized lifestyle and other associated environmental factors. Its incidence and prevalence in developing countries is steadily rising and has been attributed to the rapid modernization and Westernization of the population. There is a need to reconcile the most appropriate treatment for these patient populations from the perspectives of both disease presentation and cost. In the West, biological agents are the fastest-growing segment of the prescription drug market. These agents cost thousands of dollars per patient per year. The healthcare systems, and certainly the patients, in developing countries will struggle to afford such expensive treatments. The need for biological therapy will inevitably increase dramatically, and the pharmaceutical industry, healthcare providers, patient advocate groups, governments and non-governmental organizations should come to a consensus on how to handle this problem. The evidence that IBD is now affecting a much younger population presents an additional concern. Meta-analyses conducted in patients acquiring IBD at a young age also reveals a trend for their increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, since the cumulative incidence rates of CRC in IBD-patients diagnosed in childhood are higher than those observed in adults. In addition, IBD-associated CRC has a worse prognosis than sporadic CRC, even when the stage at diagnosis is taken into account. This is consistent with additional evidence that IBD negatively impacts CRC survival. A continuing increase in IBD incidence worldwide associated with childhood-onset of IBD coupled with the diseases’ longevity

  5. Reduced Numerical Approximation of Reduced Fluid-Structure Interaction Problems With Applications in Hemodynamics

    Claudia M. Colciago

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with fast simulations of the hemodynamics in large arteries by considering a reduced model of the associated fluid-structure interaction problem, which in turn allows an additional reduction in terms of the numerical discretisation. The resulting method is both accurate and computationally cheap. This goal is achieved by means of two levels of reduction: first, we describe the model equations with a reduced mathematical formulation which allows to write the fluid-structure interaction problem as a Navier-Stokes system with non-standard boundary conditions; second, we employ numerical reduction techniques to further and drastically lower the computational costs. The non standard boundary condition is of a generalized Robin type, with a boundary mass and boundary stiffness terms accounting for the arterial wall compliance. The numerical reduction is obtained coupling two well-known techniques: the proper orthogonal decomposition and the reduced basis method, in particular the greedy algorithm. We start by reducing the numerical dimension of the problem at hand with a proper orthogonal decomposition and we measure the system energy with specific norms; this allows to take into account the different orders of magnitude of the state variables, the velocity and the pressure. Then, we introduce a strategy based on a greedy procedure which aims at enriching the reduced discretization space with low offline computational costs. As application, we consider a realistic hemodynamics problem with a perturbation in the boundary conditions and we show the good performances of the reduction techniques presented in the paper. The results obtained with the numerical reduction algorithm are compared with the one obtained by a standard finite element method. The gains obtained in term of CPU time are of three orders of magnitude.

  6. Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming

    Mitchell, D. L.

    2009-12-01

    Since both greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds strongly affect outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) with no affect or less affect on solar radiation, respectively, an attempt to delay global warming to buy time for emission reduction strategies to work might naturally target cirrus clouds. Cirrus having optical depths competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing via GCM simulations are more negative than -2.8 W m-2 and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO2 doubling (3.7 W m-2). This cirrus engineered net forcing is due to (1) reduced cirrus coverage and (2) reduced upper tropospheric water vapor, due to enhanced ice sedimentation. The implementation of this climate engineering could use the airline industry to disperse the seeding material. Commercial airliners typically fly at temperatures between -40 and -60 deg. C (where homogeneous freezing nucleation dominates). Weather modification research has developed ice nucleating substances that are extremely effective at these cold temperatures, are non-toxic and are relatively inexpensive. The seeding material could be released in both clear and cloudy conditions to build up a background concentration of efficient ice nuclei so that non-contrail cirrus will experience these nuclei and grow larger ice crystals. Flight corridors are denser in the high- and mid-latitudes where global warming is more severe. A risk with any geoengineering experiment is that it could affect climate in unforeseen ways, causing more harm than good. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are 1-2 weeks, the climate might return back to its normal state within a few months after stopping the geoengineering. A drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It may not have many of the draw-backs that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has, such as ozone destruction, decreased solar radiation possibly altering the

  7. Vision Problems and Reduced Reading Outcomes in Queensland Schoolchildren.

    Hopkins, Shelley; Sampson, Geoff P; Hendicott, Peter L; Wood, Joanne M

    2017-03-01

    To assess the relationship between vision and reading outcomes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous schoolchildren to determine whether vision problems are associated with lower reading outcomes in these populations. Vision testing and reading assessments were performed on 508 Indigenous and non-Indigenous schoolchildren in Queensland, Australia divided into two age groups: Grades 1 and 2 (6-7 years of age) and Grades 6 and 7 (12-13 years of age). Vision parameters measured included cycloplegic refraction, near point of convergence, heterophoria, fusional vergence range, rapid automatized naming, and visual motor integration. The following vision conditions were then classified based on the vision findings: uncorrected hyperopia, convergence insufficiency, reduced rapid automatized naming, and delayed visual motor integration. Reading accuracy and reading comprehension were measured with the Neale reading test. The effect of uncorrected hyperopia, convergence insufficiency, reduced rapid automatized naming, and delayed visual motor integration on reading accuracy and reading comprehension were investigated with ANCOVAs. The ANCOVAs explained a significant proportion of variance in both reading accuracy and reading comprehension scores in both age groups, with 40% of the variation in reading accuracy and 33% of the variation in reading comprehension explained in the younger age group, and 27% and 10% of the variation in reading accuracy and reading comprehension, respectively, in the older age group. The vision parameters of visual motor integration and rapid automatized naming were significant predictors in all ANCOVAs (P reading results were explained by reduced visual motor integration and rapid automatized naming results. Both reduced rapid automatized naming and visual motor integration were associated with poorer reading outcomes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. This is an important finding given the recent emphasis placed on Indigenous children

  8. Globalization in the field of higher education in focus of macro-analysis: trends and problems

    O. A. Khomeriki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with globalization of higher education. Higher education is grouped around many of the key issues of globalization: the internationalization strategy; transnational education; providing international quality; entrepreneurial approaches for education; regional and interregional cooperation; information and communication technologies and virtual schools; the emergence of new educational mediators – education providers, the problems of equality and access to education and so on. More of globalization produce new relationships of exchange, the internationalization of trade, restructuring of the international labor market, reduce labor conflicts at the level of capital, international division of labor, the development of new forces of production and technology, capital­intensive production, increasing the number of women employed in industrial and economic processes, increasing the size and value of services. It should be noted that the higher education system is able to influence globalization, forming a line of future policy, and region. It is reported that leaders of the globalization process in general and in particular the integration processes and the processes of formation of the education market internationally are leading countries that embarked on the path of transformation of their education systems and consider an active part in shaping the world educational space as a factor in solving the existing problems national and international levels. These countries are the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia.

  9. Green nanotechnologies: pathways for reduced global carbon footprint

    Vaseashta, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    Use of nanomaterials to generate energy in an attempt to reduce environmental pollution is in its preliminary stages and requires urgent and detailed investigation. A perpetual increase in population and thus consumption of fossil fuels has led to increased pollution worldwide. Pollution in large metropolitan cities has reached an alarming level and is a leading contributor to chronic and deadly health disorders and diseases affecting millions of people each year. Although correlation between environmental pollution and global warming is debatable, the effects of pollution and its impact on human health are irrefutable and highly observable. The work presented here describes responsible manufacturing of nanomaterials to drastically reduce and isolate emission by-products with its use as catalysts for enhanced efficiency; materials in underground CO 2 sinks; remediation of toxic metals in water streams; efficient thin film photovoltaic devices; fuel cells; and biodegradable consumable products. An exhaustive overview of the scope of our investigation and some specific applications relating to the use of nanomaterials in environmental friendly investigations are described. Nanotechnologies are expected to make a major contribution to improving the quality of the life of citizens worldwide, in particular in sectors such as material sciences, health care, and information technology. The convergence of nano-bio-info-cogno-physico-chemical technologies offers tremendous opportunities for the improvement of human life, individual productivity, and our overall quality of life, and new directions in research and development. (author)

  10. Tectonique globale. Quelques difficultés Global Tectonics. a Few Problems

    Vitart M. J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On constate que malgré la brillante démonstration apportée par les forages dans le fond des océans, les praticiens de la géologie observent une certaine réserve face aux concepts de la Tectonique globale. C'est que d'une part, certaines hypothèses de base sont difficiles à comprendre et que d'autre part, la théorie aide assez peu à la résolution des problèmes qui se présentent au géologue praticien. Nous prendrons comme exemple - la difficulté de l'interprétation des anomalies magnétiques des océans; - le problème des « structures reliques » en milieu océanique; - le problème du changement de plaque et de l'inversion du mouvement; - les bassins intraplaques transverses aux ouvertures. Despite the brilliant demonstration of drilling into ocean beds, geologists seems ta be maintaining a certain reserve when confronted with concepts of global tectonics. On one hand, some basic assumptions are difficult ta understand, and on the other the theory is of relatively little help in solving the problems faced by practicing geologists. A few examples of such problems are - the difficulty in interpreting magnetic anomalies in oceans; - the problem of « relic structures » in on oceanic environment; - the problem of plate changes and inversion of movements; - intraplate basins bridging openings.

  11. Solar Panels reduce both global warming and Urban Heat Island

    Valéry eMasson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of solar energy in cities is clearly a way to diminish our dependency to fossil fuels, and is a good way to mitigate global warming by lowering the emission of greenhouse gases. However, what are the impacts of solar panels locally ? To evaluate their influence on urban weather, it is necessary to parameterize their effects within the surface schemes that are coupled to atmospheric models. The present paper presents a way to implement solar panels in the Town Energy Balance scheme, taking account of the energy production (for thermal and photovoltaic panels, the impact on the building below and feedback towards the urban micro-climate through radiative and convective fluxes. A scenario of large but realistic deployment of solar panels on the Paris metropolitan area is then simulated. It is shown that solar panels, by shading the roofs, slightly increases the need for domestic heating (3%. In summer however, the solar panels reduce the energy needed for air-conditioning (by 12% and also the Urban Heat Island (UHI: 0.2K by day and up to 0.3K at night. These impacts are larger than those found in previous works, because of the use of thermal panels (that are more efficient than photovoltaic panels and the geographical position of Paris, which is relatively far from the sea. This means that it is not influenced by sea breezes, and hence that its UHI is stronger than for a coastal city of the same size. But this also means that local adaptation strategies aiming to decrease the UHI will have more potent effects. In summary, the deployment of solar panels is good both globally, to produce renewable energy (and hence to limit the warming of the climate and locally, to decrease the UHI, especially in summer, when it can constitute a health threat.

  12. A phenomenological theory of world population growth and global problems

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1996-01-01

    Of all global problems world population growth is the most significant one. To describe this process in its past and project it into the future a mathematical model is worked out. It treats the world population as an entity, seen as an open and evolv The approach is phenomenological and growth over very many generations is assumed to be selfsimilar and described by scaling. In terms of kinetics, the growth rate is proportional to the square of the total number of people and the nonlinear hyperbol of all mechanisms that contribute to our development in a collective interactive process. The model gives an estimate of the beginning of human evolution c.a. 4.4 million years ago and of the total number of people who ever lived c.a. 100 billion. In the scope of the model large scale cycles defined by history and anthropology are shown to be uniformly spaced in time on a logarithmic scale, expressing and inherent periodicity. As we approach the present, this progression of cycles is now termo transition. This is a s...

  13. New energy technology cope with global environmental problems

    Tsuchimoto, Tatsuya

    1991-01-01

    At present, the national and private storage of oil is the quantity for about 140 days in total, and it can cope with the temporary fear of oil supply, but if the Gulf War was prolonged, the large effect should be exerted to the energy supply. The reduction of the degree of oil dependence and the increase of the dependence on nonfossil fuel are taken up as the basic idea of the long term energy demand and supply in Japan. Also in the action plan for preventing global warming, the further promotion of energy conservation and the adoption of clean energy were decided to be carried out for decreasing carbon dioxide. In this report, among clean energies, the technology of electric power generation by sun beam, wind force and geotherm is described. The power generation by sun beam has many features, but the energy density is low, and the area for installation becomes large. The cost of power generation is relatively high. The power generation by wind force is superior in its environmental characteristics, and has been already put in practical use in USA and Europe. The problem is the reliability of the system. The geothermal power generation is available also in Japan, and is important for the energy security. The plants of about 270 MW are installed in Japan. (K.I.)

  14. Professional problems: the burden of producing the "global" Filipino nurse.

    Ortiga, Yasmin Y

    2014-08-01

    This paper investigates the challenges faced by nursing schools within migrant-sending nations, where teachers and school administrators face the task of producing nurse labor, not only for domestic health needs but employers beyond national borders. I situate my research in the Philippines, one of the leading sources of migrant nurse labor in the world. Based on 58 interviews with nursing school instructors and administrators, conducted from 2010 to 2013, I argue that Philippine nursing schools are embedded within a global nursing care chain, where nations lower down the chain must supply nurse labor to wealthier countries higher up the chain. This paper shows how this process forces Filipino nurse educators to negotiate an overloaded curriculum, the influx of aspiring migrants into nursing programs, and erratic labor demand cycles overseas. These issues create problems in defining the professional knowledge needed by Filipino nurses; instilling professional values and standards; and maintaining proper job security. As such, these findings demonstrate how countries like the Philippines bear the burden of ensuring nurses' employability, where educational institutions constantly adjust curriculum and instruction for the benefit of employers within wealthier societies. My interviews reveal how such adjustments undermine the professional values and standards that define the nursing profession within the country. Such inequality is an outcome of nurse migration that current research has not fully explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Green nanotechnologies: pathways for reduced global carbon footprint

    Vaseashta, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Materials at nanoscale exhibit remarkable properties with numerous unique applications such as in chem.-bio sensors, nanophotonics, nanobiotechnology, and in-vivo analysis of cellular processes. Use of nanomaterials to produce energy and to abate environmental pollution is in its preliminary stages and requires urgent and detailed investigation as environmental pollution is a leading contributor to chronic and deadly health disorders and diseases affecting millions of people each year. A perpetual increase in population and thus consumption of fossil fuels has led to increased pollution worldwide. Although correlation between environmental pollution and global warming is debatable, the effects of pollution and its impact on human health are irrefutable and highly observable. Long-term exposure to air pollution provokes inflammation, accelerates atherosclerosis, and alters cardiac function. This presentation describes responsible manufacturing of nanomaterials to drastically reduce and isolate emission by-products with its use as catalysts for enhanced efficiency; materials in underground CO 2 sinks; remediation of toxic metals in water streams; efficient thin film photovoltaic devices; fuel cells; and biodegradable consumable products. The presentation will cover an exhaustive overview of the scope of our investigation and some specific applications relating to the use of nanomaterials in environmental friendly investigations. Nanotechnologies are expected to make a major contribution to improving the quality of the life of citizens worldwide, in particular in sectors such as material sciences, health care, and information technology. The convergence of nano-bio-info-cogno-physico-chemical technologies offers tremendous opportunities for the improvement of human life, individual productivity, and our overall quality of life. Furthermore, it also offers a new direction in research and development. (authors)

  16. Science and technology related global problems: An international survey of science educators

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.

  17. A Global Optimization Algorithm for Sum of Linear Ratios Problem

    Yuelin Gao; Siqiao Jin

    2013-01-01

    We equivalently transform the sum of linear ratios programming problem into bilinear programming problem, then by using the linear characteristics of convex envelope and concave envelope of double variables product function, linear relaxation programming of the bilinear programming problem is given, which can determine the lower bound of the optimal value of original problem. Therefore, a branch and bound algorithm for solving sum of linear ratios programming problem is put forward, and the c...

  18. A local-global problem for linear differential equations

    Put, Marius van der; Reversat, Marc

    2008-01-01

    An inhomogeneous linear differential equation Ly = f over a global differential field can have a formal solution for each place without having a global solution. The vector space lgl(L) measures this phenomenon. This space is interpreted in terms of cohomology of linear algebraic groups and is

  19. A local-global problem for linear differential equations

    Put, Marius van der; Reversat, Marc

    An inhomogeneous linear differential equation Ly = f over a global differential field can have a formal solution for each place without having a global solution. The vector space lgl(L) measures this phenomenon. This space is interpreted in terms of cohomology of linear algebraic groups and is

  20. GLOBALIZATION, CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS AND TENDENCIES OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    Nicolae TAU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization phenomenon have a extremely actuality due to the fact that is a key factor on the increasing interdependence of national states as a result of the expansion and intensification of international relations. The paper aims at presenting and analyzing the main ways of economic development based on the pace of technological progress and expansion of globalization, using different research methods of economic science, especialy comparative analysis and statistical method. As a result, data demonstrate that national economic development depends on the participating of the countries to globalization processes at regional and international levels.

  1. A Global Optimization Algorithm for Sum of Linear Ratios Problem

    Yuelin Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We equivalently transform the sum of linear ratios programming problem into bilinear programming problem, then by using the linear characteristics of convex envelope and concave envelope of double variables product function, linear relaxation programming of the bilinear programming problem is given, which can determine the lower bound of the optimal value of original problem. Therefore, a branch and bound algorithm for solving sum of linear ratios programming problem is put forward, and the convergence of the algorithm is proved. Numerical experiments are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Forum: Problems and Prospects for a Global LaborMovement

    Bradley Nash Jr.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What are the roles for local, national, and international labor and worker organizations in struggles against intensified global integration? How do we achieve these possibilities? Inside this issue are five PEWS members' answers.

  3. Biological Terrorism: US Policies to Reduce Global Biothreats

    2008-09-01

    program for pro- jects that advance BEP objectives. Global Cooperation to develop bio- safety and pathogen security stan- dards that are consistent with...security. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ( OECD ) has recently developed voluntary biosecurity guidelines for implementation...Abbreviations AG Australia Group BEP Biosecurity Engagement Program BSL Biosafety level BWC Biological Weapons Convention BWC-ISU Biological Weapons

  4. Globalization Then and Now: Increasing Scale Reduces Local Sustainability

    Joseph A. Tainter

    2006-01-01

    One consequence of globalization is that parts of the world that were once remote and minimally influenced by broader political and economic developments now find themselves profoundly affected by forces beyond their comprehension. Communities that were once self-sufficient and resilient come to depend on larger systems, no longer control their own destinies, and...

  5. Manipulating parameters of reinforcement to reduce problem behavior without extinction.

    Kunnavatana, S Shanun; Bloom, Sarah E; Samaha, Andrew L; Slocum, Timothy A; Clay, Casey J

    2018-04-01

    Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) most often includes extinction as a treatment component. However, extinction is not always feasible and it can be counter-therapeutic if implemented without optimal treatment integrity. Researchers have successfully implemented DRA without extinction by manipulating various parameters of reinforcement such that alternative behavior is favored. We extended previous research by assessing three participants' sensitivities to quality, magnitude, and immediacy using arbitrary responses and reinforcers that maintain problem behavior. The results were used to implement an intervention for problem behavior using DRA without extinction. Our findings indicate that arbitrary responses can be used to identify individual and relative sensitivity to parameters of reinforcement for reinforcers that maintain problem behavior. Treatment was effective for all participants when we manipulated parameters of reinforcement to which they were most sensitive, and, for two participants, the treatment was less effective when we manipulated parameters to which they were least sensitive. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. Reducing storage of global wind ensembles with stochastic generators

    Jeong, Jaehong

    2018-03-09

    Wind has the potential to make a significant contribution to future energy resources. Locating the sources of this renewable energy on a global scale is however extremely challenging, given the difficulty to store very large data sets generated by modern computer models. We propose a statistical model that aims at reproducing the data-generating mechanism of an ensemble of runs via a Stochastic Generator (SG) of global annual wind data. We introduce an evolutionary spectrum approach with spatially varying parameters based on large-scale geographical descriptors such as altitude to better account for different regimes across the Earth’s orography. We consider a multi-step conditional likelihood approach to estimate the parameters that explicitly accounts for nonstationary features while also balancing memory storage and distributed computation. We apply the proposed model to more than 18 million points of yearly global wind speed. The proposed SG requires orders of magnitude less storage for generating surrogate ensemble members from wind than does creating additional wind fields from the climate model, even if an effective lossy data compression algorithm is applied to the simulation output.

  7. Reducing storage of global wind ensembles with stochastic generators

    Jeong, Jaehong; Castruccio, Stefano; Crippa, Paola; Genton, Marc G.

    2018-01-01

    Wind has the potential to make a significant contribution to future energy resources. Locating the sources of this renewable energy on a global scale is however extremely challenging, given the difficulty to store very large data sets generated by modern computer models. We propose a statistical model that aims at reproducing the data-generating mechanism of an ensemble of runs via a Stochastic Generator (SG) of global annual wind data. We introduce an evolutionary spectrum approach with spatially varying parameters based on large-scale geographical descriptors such as altitude to better account for different regimes across the Earth’s orography. We consider a multi-step conditional likelihood approach to estimate the parameters that explicitly accounts for nonstationary features while also balancing memory storage and distributed computation. We apply the proposed model to more than 18 million points of yearly global wind speed. The proposed SG requires orders of magnitude less storage for generating surrogate ensemble members from wind than does creating additional wind fields from the climate model, even if an effective lossy data compression algorithm is applied to the simulation output.

  8. Pharmacists' Intervention to Reduce Drug Related Problems in HIV ...

    Despite advances in the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the management of HIV/AIDS, drug-related problems (DRPs) still remain an issue, particularly in developing countries. This study evaluated the incidence of DRPs among HIV/AIDS patients in a HIV/AIDS care centre in southern Nigeria and the ...

  9. Global gradient estimates for divergence-type elliptic problems involving general nonlinear operators

    Cho, Yumi

    2018-05-01

    We study nonlinear elliptic problems with nonstandard growth and ellipticity related to an N-function. We establish global Calderón-Zygmund estimates of the weak solutions in the framework of Orlicz spaces over bounded non-smooth domains. Moreover, we prove a global regularity result for asymptotically regular problems which are getting close to the regular problems considered, when the gradient variable goes to infinity.

  10. Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment

    Longstreth, J.

    1993-06-01

    Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches

  11. Fighting Sweatshops: Problems of Enforcing Global Labor Standards

    Appelbaum, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we address the question of how sweatshop production can be opposed, given the globalization of the apparel industry and the dominance of retailers in its commodity chain. After briefly reviewing conditions in the industry, we discuss the role that consumer pressure might play. We discuss three different, but potentially complementary, approaches: agreements between nations, codes of conduct and monitoring, and worker empowerment. We conclude with an analysis of the Workers’ Ri...

  12. Nursery education: problems and the way forward | Ezugwu | Global ...

    No Abstract. Global Journal of Educational Research Vol. 3(1&2) 2004: 13-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjedr.v3i1.29403 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  13. Global stock market linkages reduce potential for diversification

    Karen K. Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Recent European government debt difficulties demonstrate how linked stock markets have become. Problems in countries such as Greece and Italy have depressed stock markets not only on the continent but also in the United States. Such comovement across international financial markets highlights U.S. equity markets’ exposure to foreign markets.

  14. Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem

    Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes...... of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acute occupational health problems. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address the situation....

  15. Global Food Security Problems in the Modern World Economy

    Abdulkadyrova, Madina A.; Dikinov, Andzor H.; Tajmashanov, Hassan È.; Shidaev, Lomali A.; Shidaeva, Eliza A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Food problem at the present stage of development of mankind is that due to improper and overly intensive use of natural resources, increasing demand for livestock products, increasing per capita food consumption and other factors, there has been a steady rise in food prices, represents a threat to food security in the countries with…

  16. Adjoint-based global variance reduction approach for reactor analysis problems

    Zhang, Qiong; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.

    2011-01-01

    A new variant of a hybrid Monte Carlo-Deterministic approach for simulating particle transport problems is presented and compared to the SCALE FW-CADIS approach. The new approach, denoted by the Subspace approach, optimizes the selection of the weight windows for reactor analysis problems where detailed properties of all fuel assemblies are required everywhere in the reactor core. Like the FW-CADIS approach, the Subspace approach utilizes importance maps obtained from deterministic adjoint models to derive automatic weight-window biasing. In contrast to FW-CADIS, the Subspace approach identifies the correlations between weight window maps to minimize the computational time required for global variance reduction, i.e., when the solution is required everywhere in the phase space. The correlations are employed to reduce the number of maps required to achieve the same level of variance reduction that would be obtained with single-response maps. Numerical experiments, serving as proof of principle, are presented to compare the Subspace and FW-CADIS approaches in terms of the global reduction in standard deviation. (author)

  17. Global Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Reduced GFR.

    Thomas, Bernadette; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Ärnlöv, Johan; Asayama, Kei; Atkins, Robert; Badawi, Alaa; Ballew, Shoshana H; Banerjee, Amitava; Barregård, Lars; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Basu, Sanjay; Bello, Aminu K; Bensenor, Isabela; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Bikbov, Boris; Blosser, Christopher; Brenner, Hermann; Carrero, Juan-Jesus; Chadban, Steve; Cirillo, Massimo; Cortinovis, Monica; Courville, Karen; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Estep, Kara; Fernandes, João; Fischer, Florian; Fox, Caroline; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gona, Philimon N; Gutierrez, Orlando M; Hamidi, Samer; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jee, Sun Ha; Jha, Vivekanand; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Jonas, Jost B; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Khader, Yousef; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Yun Jin; Klein, Barbara; Klein, Ronald; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Lee, Kristine; Levey, Andrew S; Li, Yongmei; Lotufo, Paulo; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Mendoza, Walter; Metoki, Hirohito; Mok, Yejin; Muraki, Isao; Muntner, Paul M; Noda, Hiroyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ortiz, Alberto; Perico, Norberto; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Al-Radaddi, Rajaa; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Roth, Gregory; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Satoh, Michihiro; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Sawhney, Monika; Schöttker, Ben; Shankar, Anoop; Shlipak, Michael; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Ukwaja, Kingsley; Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Vollset, Stein Emil; Warnock, David G; Werdecker, Andrea; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Yano, Yuichiro; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Murray, Christopher J L; Coresh, Josef; Vos, Theo

    2017-07-01

    The burden of premature death and health loss from ESRD is well described. Less is known regarding the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to reduced GFR. We estimated the prevalence of reduced GFR categories 3, 4, and 5 (not on RRT) for 188 countries at six time points from 1990 to 2013. Relative risks of cardiovascular outcomes by three categories of reduced GFR were calculated by pooled random effects meta-analysis. Results are presented as deaths for outcomes of cardiovascular disease and ESRD and as disability-adjusted life years for outcomes of cardiovascular disease, GFR categories 3, 4, and 5, and ESRD. In 2013, reduced GFR was associated with 4% of deaths worldwide, or 2.2 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval [95% UI], 2.0 to 2.4 million). More than half of these attributable deaths were cardiovascular deaths (1.2 million; 95% UI, 1.1 to 1.4 million), whereas 0.96 million (95% UI, 0.81 to 1.0 million) were ESRD-related deaths. Compared with metabolic risk factors, reduced GFR ranked below high systolic BP, high body mass index, and high fasting plasma glucose, and similarly with high total cholesterol as a risk factor for disability-adjusted life years in both developed and developing world regions. In conclusion, by 2013, cardiovascular deaths attributed to reduced GFR outnumbered ESRD deaths throughout the world. Studies are needed to evaluate the benefit of early detection of CKD and treatment to decrease these deaths. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. The role of solar energy in resolving global problems

    Kendall, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    Solar energy, and other alternate energy sources, including improved energy efficiency, can play a significant role in the solution of the cluster of ''great problems'' that face the present generation. These problems are related to, first, environmental damage, second, management of critical resources, and lastly, spiraling population growth. Some aspects of these linked difficulties are not yet well comprehended, even within the environmental community, though their neglect could prove to be very serious. It was the principal purpose of the paper to address those hidden risks. Seeking prompt and effective solutions to these problems is now a most urgent matter. On November 18, 1992, the Union of Concerned Scientists released a document called ''World Scientists'' ''Warning to Humanity''. The document outlined the most important challenges and set out the principal elements required to deal with them. It was signed by some 1,600 scientists from around the world, including the leaders of a substantial number of national honorary, scientific societies. In what follows, relevant elements of that statement are reviewed to set the stage for a description of solar energy's role in dealing with the situation that the world faces

  19. Implementation and verification of global optimization benchmark problems

    Posypkin, Mikhail; Usov, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    The paper considers the implementation and verification of a test suite containing 150 benchmarks for global deterministic box-constrained optimization. A C++ library for describing standard mathematical expressions was developed for this purpose. The library automate the process of generating the value of a function and its' gradient at a given point and the interval estimates of a function and its' gradient on a given box using a single description. Based on this functionality, we have developed a collection of tests for an automatic verification of the proposed benchmarks. The verification has shown that literary sources contain mistakes in the benchmarks description. The library and the test suite are available for download and can be used freely.

  20. A global health problem caused by arsenic from natural sources

    Ng, J.C.; Wang, J.P.; Shraim, A. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). National Research Center for Environmental Toxicology

    2003-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogen to both humans and animals. Arsenicals have been associated with cancers of the skin, lung, and bladder. Clinical manifestations of chronic arsenic poisoning include non-cancer end point of hyper- and hypo-pigmentation, keratosis, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Epidemiological evidence indicates that arsenic concentration exceeding 50 {mu}g l{sup -1} in the drinking water is not public health protective. The current WHO recommended guideline value for arsenic in drinking water is 10 {mu}g l{sup -1}, whereas many developing countries are still having a value of 50 {mu}g 1{sup -1}. It has been estimated that tens of millions of people are at risk exposing to excessive levels of arsenic from both contaminated water and arsenic-bearing coal from natural sources. The global health implication and possible intervention strategies were also discussed in this review article.

  1. Implementation and verification of global optimization benchmark problems

    Posypkin Mikhail

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the implementation and verification of a test suite containing 150 benchmarks for global deterministic box-constrained optimization. A C++ library for describing standard mathematical expressions was developed for this purpose. The library automate the process of generating the value of a function and its’ gradient at a given point and the interval estimates of a function and its’ gradient on a given box using a single description. Based on this functionality, we have developed a collection of tests for an automatic verification of the proposed benchmarks. The verification has shown that literary sources contain mistakes in the benchmarks description. The library and the test suite are available for download and can be used freely.

  2. Global process industry initiatives to reduce major accident hazards

    Pitblado, Robin [DNV Energy Houston, TX (United States). SHE Risk Management; Pontes, Jose [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Americas Region; Oliveira, Luiz [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Since 2000, disasters at Texas City, Toulouse, Antwerp, Buncefield, P-36 and several near total loss events offshore in Norway have highlighted that major accident process safety is still a serious issue. Hopes that Process Safety Management or Safety Case regulations would solve these issues have not proven true. The Baker Panel recommended to BP several actions mainly around leadership, incentives, metrics, safety culture and more effective implementation of PSM systems. In Europe, an approach built around mechanical integrity and safety barriers, especially relating to technical safety systems, is being widely adopted. DNV has carried out a global survey of process industry initiatives, by interview and by literature review, for both upstream and downstream activities, to identify what the industry itself is planning to implement to enhance process safety in the next 5 - 10 years. This shows that an approach combining Baker Panel and EU barrier approaches and some nuclear industry real-time risk management approaches might be the best means to achieve a factor of 3-4 improvement in process safety. (author)

  3. Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming

    Mitchell, David L; Finnegan, William

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds regulate outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and cirrus cloud coverage is predicted to be sensitive to the ice fall speed which depends on ice crystal size. The higher the cirrus, the greater their impact is on OLR. Thus by changing ice crystal size in the coldest cirrus, OLR and climate might be modified. Fortunately the coldest cirrus have the highest ice supersaturation due to the dominance of homogeneous freezing nucleation. Seeding such cirrus with very efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei should produce larger ice crystals due to vapor competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing are more negative than -2.8 W m -2 and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO 2 doubling (3.7 W m -2 ). A potential delivery mechanism for the seeding material is already in place: the airline industry. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are relatively short, the climate might return to its normal state within months after stopping the geoengineering experiment. The main known drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It does not have many of the drawbacks that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has.

  4. Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming

    Mitchell, David L; Finnegan, William, E-mail: david.mitchell@dri.ed [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV 89512-1095 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds regulate outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and cirrus cloud coverage is predicted to be sensitive to the ice fall speed which depends on ice crystal size. The higher the cirrus, the greater their impact is on OLR. Thus by changing ice crystal size in the coldest cirrus, OLR and climate might be modified. Fortunately the coldest cirrus have the highest ice supersaturation due to the dominance of homogeneous freezing nucleation. Seeding such cirrus with very efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei should produce larger ice crystals due to vapor competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing are more negative than -2.8 W m{sup -2} and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO{sub 2} doubling (3.7 W m{sup -2}). A potential delivery mechanism for the seeding material is already in place: the airline industry. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are relatively short, the climate might return to its normal state within months after stopping the geoengineering experiment. The main known drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It does not have many of the drawbacks that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has.

  5. Reducing marine mammal bycatch in global fisheries: An economics approach

    Lent, Rebecca; Squires, Dale

    2017-06-01

    The broader ecosystem impacts of fishing continue to present a challenge to scientists and resource managers around the world. Bycatch is of greatest concern for marine mammals, for which fishery bycatch and entanglement is the number one cause of direct mortality. Climate change will only add to the challenge, as marine species and fishing practices adapt to a changing environment, creating a dynamic pattern of overlap between fishing and species (both target and bycatch). Economists suggest policy instruments for reducing bycatch that move away from top-down, command-and-control measures (e.g. effort reduction, time/area closures, gear restrictions, bycatch quotas) towards an approach that creates incentives to reduce bycatch (e.g. transferable bycatch allowances, taxes, and other measures). The advantages of this flexible, incentive-oriented approach are even greater in a changing and increasingly variable environment, as regulatory measures would have to be adapted constantly to keep up with climate change. Unlike the regulatory process, individual operators in the fishery sector can make adjustments to their harvesting practices as soon as the incentives for such changes are apparent and inputs or operations can be modified. This paper explores policy measures that create economic incentives not only to reduce marine mammal bycatch, but also to increase compliance and induce technological advances by fishery operators. Economists also suggest exploration of direct economic incentives as have been used in other conservation programs, such as payments for economic services, in an approach that addresses marine mammal bycatch as part of a larger conservation strategy. Expanding the portfolio of mandatory and potentially, voluntary, measures to include novel approaches will provide a broader array of opportunities for successful stewardship of the marine environment.

  6. One watt initiative: A global effort to reduce leaking electricity

    Meier, Alan K.; LeBot, Benoit

    1999-01-01

    Many domestic appliances and commercial equipment consume some electric power when they are switched off or not performing their primary purpose. The typical loss per appliance is low (from 1 to 25 W) but, when multiplied by the billions of appliances in houses and in commercial buildings, standby losses represent a significant fraction of total electricity use. Several initiatives to reduce standby losses have appeared in different parts of the world. One proposal, the 1-watt plan, seeks to harmonize these initiatives by establishing a single target for all appliances. This paper explains the background to the 1-watt plan, identifies some unresolved aspects, and gives some estimates of energy savings

  7. Reduced order modeling in topology optimization of vibroacoustic problems

    Creixell Mediante, Ester; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Brunskog, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    complex 3D parts. The optimization process can therefore become highly time consuming due to the need to solve a large system of equations at each iteration. Projection-based parametric Model Order Reduction (pMOR) methods have successfully been applied for reducing the computational cost of material......There is an interest in introducing topology optimization techniques in the design process of structural-acoustic systems. In topology optimization, the design space must be finely meshed in order to obtain an accurate design, which results in large numbers of degrees of freedom when designing...... or size optimization in large vibroacoustic models; however, new challenges are encountered when dealing with topology optimization. Since a design parameter per element is considered, the total number of design variables becomes very large; this poses a challenge to most existing pMOR techniques, which...

  8. Reducing number entry errors: solving a widespread, serious problem.

    Thimbleby, Harold; Cairns, Paul

    2010-10-06

    Number entry is ubiquitous: it is required in many fields including science, healthcare, education, government, mathematics and finance. People entering numbers are to be expected to make errors, but shockingly few systems make any effort to detect, block or otherwise manage errors. Worse, errors may be ignored but processed in arbitrary ways, with unintended results. A standard class of error (defined in the paper) is an 'out by 10 error', which is easily made by miskeying a decimal point or a zero. In safety-critical domains, such as drug delivery, out by 10 errors generally have adverse consequences. Here, we expose the extent of the problem of numeric errors in a very wide range of systems. An analysis of better error management is presented: under reasonable assumptions, we show that the probability of out by 10 errors can be halved by better user interface design. We provide a demonstration user interface to show that the approach is practical.To kill an error is as good a service as, and sometimes even better than, the establishing of a new truth or fact. (Charles Darwin 1879 [2008], p. 229).

  9. Priorities in the field of international cooperation with the aim of solving global environmental problems

    Kondrat' ev, K.YA.

    1993-08-01

    Considerations on priorities are presented in connection with the broad development of bilateral and multilateral international cooperation to solve global environmental problems. Emphasis is placed on the problem of global climate change, on optimizing the global climate observation system, and on substantiating the (1) inadequacy of the 'greenhouse' stereotype of global climate warming which has long predominated in Russian cooperation programs, and (2) the need to realize real climatic prorities (the role of biosphere dynamics, the interaction of atmosphere and ocean, cloud cover and radiation, the colloidal nature of the atmosphere, etc.). The thermal balance of the earth and the dynamics of the biosphere are considered as the key problems of global ecodynamics. Particular attention is given to socio-economic aspects of ecology. 62 refs.

  10. Agency problems in hospitals participating in self-management project under global budget system in Taiwan.

    Yan, Yu-Hua; Hsu, Shuofen; Yang, Chen-Wei; Fang, Shih-Chieh

    2010-02-01

    The main purposes of this study are to clarify the agency problems in the hospitals participating in self-management project within the context of Global Budgeting Payment System regulated by Taiwan government, and also to provide some suggestions for hospital administrator and health policy maker in reducing the waste of healthcare resources resulting from agency problems. For the purposes above, this study examines the relationships between two agency problems (ex ante moral hazard and ex post moral hazard) aroused among the hospitals and Bureau of National Health Insurance in Taiwan's health care sector. This study empirically tested the theoretical model at organization level. The findings suggest that the hospital's ex ante moral hazards before participating the self-management project do have some influence on its ex post moral hazards after participating the self-management project. This study concludes that the goal conflict between the agents and the principal certainly exist. The principal tries hard to control the expenditure escalation and keep the financial balance, but the agents have to subsist within limited healthcare resources. Therefore, the agency cost would definitely occur due to the conflicts between both parties. According to the results of the research, some suggestions and related management concepts were proposed at the end of the paper.

  11. Emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance: A global problem

    R Choudhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in clinical health settings. Interestingly the origin of many of antibiotic resistance mechanisms can be traced back to non-pathogenic environmental organisms. Important factors leading to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance include absence of regulation in the use of antibiotics, improper waste disposal and associated transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in the community through commensals. In this review, we discussed the impact of globalisation on the transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria through immigration and export/import of foodstuff. The significance of surveillance to define appropriate use of antibiotics in the clinic has been included as an important preventive measure.

  12. Integrated assessment of the global warming problem. A decision-analytical approach

    Van Lenthe, J.; Hendrickx, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The project on the title subject aims at developing a policy-oriented methodology for the integrated assessment of the global warming problem. Decision analysis in general and influence diagrams in particular appear to constitute an appropriate integrated assessment methodology. The influence-diagram approach is illustrated at a preliminary integrated modeling of the global warming problem. In next stages of the research, attention will be shifted from the methodology of integrated assessment to the contents of integrated models. 4 figs., 5 refs

  13. The Globalization of Higher Education as a Societal and Cultural Security Problem

    Samier, Eugenie A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I propose a theory of the globalization of higher education as societal and cultural security problems for many regions of the world. The first section examines the field of security studies for theoretical frameworks appropriate to critiquing globalized higher education, including critical human, societal and cultural security…

  14. THE INTEGRATION OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE AS A GLOBAL PROBLEM

    Anatoliy I. Rakitov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: mankind is on the edge of a new techno-technological and socio-economical revolution generated by robotization and automation in all spheres of individual and socio-economical activity. Among numerous conceptions of global development only the conception of the knowledge-based society is the most adequate to contemporary terms. As the higher education and science are the main source of knowledge adequate to contemporary terms then their integration should be investigated. Materials and Methods: the material for this investigation was gathered as from individual experience in science and pedagogical activity of the author which were earlier published in hundreds of articles and fifteen monograph translated in eleven languages, as the materials of Moscow city seminar, the results of which were published in annual “Science of science investigations”. This annual has been editing since 2004 and the author is the editor-in-chief of this edition. Also has been used other sources from different editions. The method of comparative analysis was used. Results: the author put forward the conception of inevitable integration of higher school and research institutions and forming a new structure – science-education consortium. Only such united structure can significantly rise both scientific researchers and higher education. And as a result, it will rise publishing activity and application of scientific researchers in real econ omy, social sphere, technological leadership. Discussion and Conclusions: conception put forward in this article fragmentary has been published by author earlier and initiated discussion in scientific press, which was reflected in home RISC and abroad citation indexes. The author proclaims the inevitability of realization of the suggested by him conception of the utmost integration of science and higher education.

  15. Humanity and Justice in Global Health: Problems with Venkatapuram's Justification of the Global Health Duty.

    Kollar, Eszter; Laukötter, Sebastian; Buyx, Alena

    2016-01-01

    One of the most ambitious and sophisticated recent approaches to provide a theory of global health justice is Sridhar Venkatapuram's recent work. In this commentary, we first outline the core idea of Venkatapuram's approach to global health justice. We then argue that one of the most important elements of the account, Venkatapuram's basis of global health duties, is either too weak or assumed implicitly without a robust justification. The more explicit grounding of the duty to protect and promote health capabilities is based on Martha Nussbaum's version of the capability approach. We argue that this foundation gives rise to humanitarian duties rather than duties of justice proper. Venkatapuram's second argument from the social determinants of health thesis is instead a stronger candidate for grounding duties of justice. However, as a justificatory argument, it is only alluded to and has not yet been spelled out sufficiently. We offer plausible justificatory steps to fill this gap and draw some implications for global health action. We believe this both strengthens Venkatapuram's approach and serves to broaden the basis for future action in the area of global health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Global action to reduce HIV stigma and discrimination

    Grossman, Cynthia I; Stangl, Anne L

    2013-01-01

    There is no question that the stigma and discrimination associated with HIV and AIDS can be reduced through intervention. The inclusion of stigma and discrimination reduction as a critical component of achieving an AIDS-free generation in recent UNAIDS, UN and PEPFAR political initiatives is promising. Yet national governments need evidence on effective interventions at the individual, community and societal levels in order to strategically incorporate stigma and discrimination reduction into national AIDS plans. Currently, the heterogeneity of stigma and discrimination reduction approaches and measurement makes it challenging to compare and contrast evaluated interventions. Moving forward, it is critical for the research community to: (1) clearly link intervention activities to the domains of stigma to be shifted; (2) assess the stigma domains in a consistent manner; and (3) link stigma and discrimination reduction with HIV prevention, care and treatment outcomes (e.g., uptake, adherence and retention of ART). These steps would further advance the scientific evidence base of stigma and discrimination reduction and allow for the identification of effective interventions that could be scaled up by national governments. PMID:24242269

  17. Editorial: Global action to reduce HIV stigma and discrimination.

    Grossman, Cynthia I; Stangl, Anne L

    2013-11-13

    There is no question that the stigma and discrimination associated with HIV and AIDS can be reduced through intervention. The inclusion of stigma and discrimination reduction as a critical component of achieving an AIDS-free generation in recent UNAIDS, UN and PEPFAR political initiatives is promising. Yet national governments need evidence on effective interventions at the individual, community and societal levels in order to strategically incorporate stigma and discrimination reduction into national AIDS plans. Currently, the heterogeneity of stigma and discrimination reduction approaches and measurement makes it challenging to compare and contrast evaluated interventions. Moving forward, it is critical for the research community to: (1) clearly link intervention activities to the domains of stigma to be shifted; (2) assess the stigma domains in a consistent manner; and (3) link stigma and discrimination reduction with HIV prevention, care and treatment outcomes (e.g., uptake, adherence and retention of ART). These steps would further advance the scientific evidence base of stigma and discrimination reduction and allow for the identification of effective interventions that could be scaled up by national governments.

  18. Could reducing fossil-fuel emissions cause global warming

    Wigley, T M.L. [University of East Anglia, Norwich (UK). Climatic Research Unit

    1991-02-07

    When fossil fuel is burned, both carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide are added to the atmosphere. The former should cause warming of the lower atmosphere by enhancing the greenhouse effect, whereas the latter, by producing sulphate aerosols, may cause a cooling effect. The possibility that these two processes could offset each other was suggested many years ago but during most of the intervening period, attention has focused on the greenhouse effect. Interest in tropospheric aerosols has, however, recently been rekindled by the realization that they may influence climate, not only through clear-sky radiative effects, but also by modifying cloud albedo. The author examines the sensitivity of the climate system to simultaneous changes in SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions, as might occur if controls were imposed on fossil-fuel use. Over the next 10-30 years, it is conceivable that the increased radiative forcing due to SO{sub 2} concentration changes could more than offset reductions in radiative forcing due to reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Global public goods and the global health agenda: problems, priorities and potential

    MacKellar Landis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 'global public good' (GPG concept has gained increasing attention, in health as well as development circles. However, it has suffered in finding currency as a general tool for global resource mobilisation, and is at risk of being attached to almost anything promoting development. This overstretches and devalues the validity and usefulness of the concept. This paper first defines GPGs and describes the policy challenge that they pose. Second, it identifies two key areas, health R&D and communicable disease control, in which the GPG concept is clearly relevant and considers the extent to which it has been applied. We point out that that, while there have been many new initiatives, it is not clear that additional resources from non-traditional sources have been forthcoming. Yet achieving this is, in effect, the entire purpose of applying the GPG concept in global health. Moreover, the proliferation of disease-specific programs associated with GPG reasoning has tended to promote vertical interventions at the expense of more general health sector strengthening. Third, we examine two major global health policy initiatives, the Global Fund against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM and the bundling of long-standing international health goals in the form of Millennium Development Goals (MDG, asking how the GPG perspective has contributed to defining objectives and strategies. We conclude that both initiatives are best interpreted in the context of traditional development assistance and, one-world rhetoric aside, have little to do with the challenge posed by GPGs for health. The paper concludes by considering how the GPG concept can be more effectively used to promote global health.

  20. Accounting for Government in the Global South: do Global Solutions Match Local Problems?

    Stewart Lawrence

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of globalised accounting and economic reforms on the public sectors of lessdeveloped countries. Our interest is in the international institutions that have been instrumental inintroducing common, global remedies which appear to be based on theoretical understandings as opposed toexperience of the effects of their interventions. A growing concern is being expressed about suchinterventions, but there is a sparcity of reports from the field. We argue that a re-think is required of type ofthe public sector financial management reforms which the international financial institutions and the nationalaid agencies have been promoting across the Global South for the last decade or so.

  1. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems? On rationale, context, actors, impact and limitations

    Kolk, A.; Seitanidi, M.M; Crane, A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION OF HYDROGEN IN COMMERCIAL TURBOFANS FOR REDUCING GLOBAL WARMING EFFECTS

    T. Hikmet Karakoc; Onder Turan [School of Civil Aviation, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2008-09-30

    The main objective of the present study is to perform minimizing specific fuel consumption of a non afterburning high bypass turbofan engine with separate exhaust streams and unmixed flow for reducing global effect. The values of engine design parameters are optimized for maintaining minimum specific fuel consumption of high bypass turbofan engine under different flight conditions, different fuel types and design criteria. The backbones of optimization approach consisted of elitism-based genetic algorithm coupled with real parametric cycle analysis of a turbofan engine. For solving optimization problem a new software program is developed in MATLAB programming language, while objective function is determined for minimizing the specific fuel consumption. The input variables included the compressor pressure ratio ({pi}{sub c}), bypass ratio ({alpha}) and the fuel heating value [h{sub PR}-(kJ/kg)]. Hydrogen was selected as fuel type in real parametric cycle analysis of commercial turbofans. It may be concluded that the software program developed can successfully solve optimization problems at 10{le}{pi}{sub c}{le}20, 2{le}{alpha}{le}10 and h{sub PR} 120,000 with aircraft flight Mach number {le}0.8.

  3. Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption

    Midilli, Adnan; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +∞) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases

  4. International Sport Movement in the Context of the Global Problems of Mankind

    Stafeev Dmitriy Valeryevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of globalization process the world becomes more and more integrated, the role of “hard” power becomes lower, while the role of “soft” power, vice versa, increases. Sport as one of the most important spheres of human activities, faces both positive and negative effects of globalization. Sport has an important function in the concept of “soft” security, and this importance is evidenced by serious attention, paid by the United Nations and other international organizations. The UN established the International Day of port, and it organizes regular meetings and conferences devoted to sport. Plenty of the UN Organizations officially use sport to achieve their aims. Sports diplomacy is believed to have reconciling, uniting role; sport must contribute to resolution of the most part of contemporary global problems. Abilities of the Information age allow using positive effect caused by sport events with maximal benefits. There is understanding in the UN, that sport alone cannot solve all global problems, but it can relieve their consequences. Therefore sport is used to struggle over such problems, as poverty; peace and security problems; disarmament necessity; human rights and democracy problems; demography, ecology and energy problems, difficulties with medical care and provision. On the other hand, sport suffers from globalization; it loses its initial function of competition due to politicization and commercialization. Even new issues of confrontation appear because of sports. Only global governance over sport, establishment of general rules and clear goals and their joint accomplishment can allow the international sports movement become a real force in fight against global problems.

  5. Global optimization for overall HVAC systems - Part I problem formulation and analysis

    Lu Lu; Cai Wenjian; Chai, Y.S.; Xie Lihua

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the global optimization technologies for overall heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The objective function of global optimization and constraints are formulated based on mathematical models of the major components. All these models are associated with power consumption components and heat exchangers for transferring cooling load. The characteristics of all the major components are briefly introduced by models, and the interactions between them are analyzed and discussed to show the complications of the problem. According to the characteristics of the operating components, the complicated original optimization problem for overall HVAC systems is transformed and simplified into a compact form ready for optimization

  6. Global existence and decay of solutions of the Cauchy problem in thermoelasticity with second sound

    Kasimov, Aslan R.

    2013-06-04

    We consider the one-dimensional Cauchy problem in non-linear thermoelasticity with second sound, where the heat conduction is modelled by Cattaneo\\'s law. After presenting decay estimates for solutions to the linearized problem, including refined estimates for data in weighted Lebesgue-spaces, we prove a global existence theorem for small data together with improved decay estimates, in particular for derivatives of the solutions. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  7. Global existence and decay of solutions of the Cauchy problem in thermoelasticity with second sound

    Kasimov, Aslan R.; Racke, Reinhard; Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2013-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional Cauchy problem in non-linear thermoelasticity with second sound, where the heat conduction is modelled by Cattaneo's law. After presenting decay estimates for solutions to the linearized problem, including refined estimates for data in weighted Lebesgue-spaces, we prove a global existence theorem for small data together with improved decay estimates, in particular for derivatives of the solutions. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  8. Integrated assessment of the global warming problem: A decision-analytical approach

    Van Lenthe, J.; Hendrickx, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    1994-12-01

    The multi-disciplinary character of the global warming problem asks for an integrated assessment approach for ordering and combining the various physical, ecological, economical, and sociological results. The Netherlands initiated their own National Research Program (NRP) on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP). The first phase (NRP-1) identified the integration theme as one of five central research themes. The second phase (NRP-2) shows a growing concern for integrated assessment issues. The current two-year research project 'Characterizing the risks: a comparative analysis of the risks of global warming and of relevant policy options, which started in September 1993, comes under the integrated assessment part of the Dutch NRP. The first part of the interim report describes the search for an integrated assessment methodology. It starts with emphasizing the need for integrated assessment at a relatively high level of aggregation and from a policy point of view. The conclusion will be that a decision-analytical approach might fit the purpose of a policy-oriented integrated modeling of the global warming problem. The discussion proceeds with an account on decision analysis and its explicit incorporation and analysis of uncertainty. Then influence diagrams, a relatively recent development in decision analysis, are introduced as a useful decision-analytical approach for integrated assessment. Finally, a software environment for creating and analyzing complex influence diagram models is discussed. The second part of the interim report provides a first, provisional integrated modeling of the global warming problem, emphasizing on the illustration of the decision-analytical approach. Major problem elements are identified and an initial problem structure is developed. The problem structure is described in terms of hierarchical influence diagrams. At some places the qualitative structure is filled with quantitative data

  9. Combining observations and models to reduce uncertainty in the cloud response to global warming

    Norris, J. R.; Myers, T.; Chellappan, S.

    2017-12-01

    Currently there is large uncertainty on how subtropical low-level clouds will respond to global warming and whether they will act as a positive feedback or negative feedback. Global climate models substantially agree on what changes in atmospheric structure and circulation will occur with global warming but greatly disagree over how clouds will respond to these changes in structure and circulation. An examination of models with the most realistic simulations of low-level cloudiness indicates that the model cloud response to atmospheric changes associated with global warming is quantitatively similar to the model cloud response to atmospheric changes at interannual time scales. For these models, the cloud response to global warming predicted by multilinear regression using coefficients derived from interannual time scales is quantitatively similar to the cloud response to global warming directly simulated by the model. Since there is a large spread among cloud response coefficients even among models with the most realistic cloud simulations, substitution of coefficients derived from satellite observations reduces the uncertainty range of the low-level cloud feedback. Increased sea surface temperature associated with global warming acts to reduce low-level cloudiness, which is partially offset by increased lower tropospheric stratification that acts to enhance low-level cloudiness. Changes in free-tropospheric relative humidity, subsidence, and horizontal advection have only a small impact on low-level cloud. The net reduction in subtropical low-level cloudiness increases absorption of solar radiation by the climate system, thus resulting in a weak positive feedback.

  10. A reduced-cost iterated local search heuristic for the fixed-charge transportation problem

    Buson, Erika; Roberti, Roberto; Toth, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The fixed-charge transportation problem (FCTP) is a generalization of the transportation problem where an additional fixed cost is paid for sending a flow from an origin to a destination. We propose an iterated local search heuristic based on the utilization of reduced costs for guiding the restart

  11. Vectorization and parallelization of a numerical scheme for 3D global atmospheric transport-chemistry problems

    E.J. Spee (Edwin); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul); J.G. Verwer (Jan); J.G. Blom (Joke); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractAtmospheric air quality modeling relies in part on numerical simulation. Required numerical simulations are often hampered by lack of computer capacity and computational speed. This problem is most severe in the field of global modeling where transport and exchange of trace constituents

  12. A Collection of Studies Conducted in Education about "Global Warming" Problem

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2011-01-01

    The studies global warming problem conducted in education discipline in the world and in Turkey were analysed for this study. The literature was reviewed extensively especially through the articles in the indexed journals of Ebsco Host, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis and Web of Science databases and this study was conducted according to the…

  13. On Global Solutions for the Cauchy Problem of a Boussinesq-Type Equation

    Taskesen, Hatice; Polat, Necat; Ertaş, Abdulkadir

    2012-01-01

    We will give conditions which will guarantee the existence of global weak solutions of the Boussinesq-type equation with power-type nonlinearity $\\gamma {|u|}^{p}$ and supercritical initial energy. By defining new functionals and using potential well method, we readdressed the initial value problem of the Boussinesq-type equation for the supercritical initial energy case.

  14. Existence of global solutions to free boundary value problems for bipolar Navier-Stokes-Possion systems

    Jian Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the free boundary value problem for one-dimensional compressible bipolar Navier-Stokes-Possion (BNSP equations with density-dependent viscosities. For general initial data with finite energy and the density connecting with vacuum continuously, we prove the global existence of the weak solution. This extends the previous results for compressible NS [27] to NSP.

  15. Prevent, Counter, and Respond - A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2016-FY2020)

    None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s second core mission is reducing global nuclear dangers by preventing the acquisition of nuclear weapons or weapons-usable materials, countering efforts to acquire such weapons or materials, and responding to nuclear or radiological incidents. In 2015, NNSA reorganized its nonproliferation activities based on core competencies and realigned its counterterrorism and counterproliferation functions to more efficiently address both current and emerging threats and challenges. The reorganization accompanied the March 2015 release of the first ever Prevent, Counter, and Respond – A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats. This report, which NNSA will update annually, highlights key nuclear threat trends and describes NNSA’s integrated threat reduction strategy.

  16. Global optimization of discrete truss topology design problems using a parallel cut-and-branch method

    Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Højlund; Stolpe, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    the physics, and the cuts (Combinatorial Benders’ and projected Chvátal–Gomory) come from an understanding of the particular mathematical structure of the reformulation. The impact of a stronger representation is investigated on several truss topology optimization problems in two and three dimensions.......The subject of this article is solving discrete truss topology optimization problems with local stress and displacement constraints to global optimum. We consider a formulation based on the Simultaneous ANalysis and Design (SAND) approach. This intrinsically non-convex problem is reformulated...

  17. The problem of epistemic jurisdiction in global governance: The case of sustainability standards for biofuels.

    Winickoff, David E; Mondou, Matthieu

    2017-02-01

    While there is ample scholarly work on regulatory science within the state, or single-sited global institutions, there is less on its operation within complex modes of global governance that are decentered, overlapping, multi-sectorial and multi-leveled. Using a co-productionist framework, this study identifies 'epistemic jurisdiction' - the power to produce or warrant technical knowledge for a given political community, topical arena or geographical territory - as a central problem for regulatory science in complex governance. We explore these dynamics in the arena of global sustainability standards for biofuels. We select three institutional fora as sites of inquiry: the European Union's Renewable Energy Directive, the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials, and the International Organization for Standardization. These cases allow us to analyze how the co-production of sustainability science responds to problems of epistemic jurisdiction in the global regulatory order. First, different problems of epistemic jurisdiction beset different standard-setting bodies, and these problems shape both the content of regulatory science and the procedures designed to make it authoritative. Second, in order to produce global regulatory science, technical bodies must manage an array of conflicting imperatives - including scientific virtue, due process and the need to recruit adoptees to perpetuate the standard. At different levels of governance, standard drafters struggle to balance loyalties to country, to company or constituency and to the larger project of internationalization. Confronted with these sometimes conflicting pressures, actors across the standards system quite self-consciously maneuver to build or retain authority for their forum through a combination of scientific adjustment and political negotiation. Third, the evidentiary demands of regulatory science in global administrative spaces are deeply affected by 1) a market for standards, in which firms and states can

  18. The Global Optimal Algorithm of Reliable Path Finding Problem Based on Backtracking Method

    Liang Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in finding a global optimal path in transportation networks particularly when the network suffers from unexpected disturbance. This paper studies the problem of finding a global optimal path to guarantee a given probability of arriving on time in a network with uncertainty, in which the travel time is stochastic instead of deterministic. Traditional path finding methods based on least expected travel time cannot capture the network user’s risk-taking behaviors in path finding. To overcome such limitation, the reliable path finding algorithms have been proposed but the convergence of global optimum is seldom addressed in the literature. This paper integrates the K-shortest path algorithm into Backtracking method to propose a new path finding algorithm under uncertainty. The global optimum of the proposed method can be guaranteed. Numerical examples are conducted to demonstrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  19. On the global "two-sided" characteristic Cauchy problem for linear wave equations on manifolds

    Lupo, Umberto

    2018-04-01

    The global characteristic Cauchy problem for linear wave equations on globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifolds is examined, for a class of smooth initial value hypersurfaces satisfying favourable global properties. First it is shown that, if geometrically well-motivated restrictions are placed on the supports of the (smooth) initial datum and of the (smooth) inhomogeneous term, then there exists a continuous global solution which is smooth "on each side" of the initial value hypersurface. A uniqueness result in Sobolev regularity H^{1/2+ɛ }_{loc} is proved among solutions supported in the union of the causal past and future of the initial value hypersurface, and whose product with the indicator function of the causal future (resp. past) of the hypersurface is past compact (resp. future compact). An explicit representation formula for solutions is obtained, which prominently features an invariantly defined, densitised version of the null expansion of the hypersurface. Finally, applications to quantum field theory on curved spacetimes are briefly discussed.

  20. Climate is the real challenge, not shortage. New problems arising for global energy supply

    Pestel, E.

    1988-11-01

    The author of the article is Professor E. Pestel who, as an executive member of the Club of Rome, belongs to the group of experts who first gave impetus to start thinking about the global problems of mankind. In his publications on the problems linked with CO/sub 2/ emission he explains the unavoidable dilemma created by the growing world population and the growing demand for energy on the one hand, and the resulting hazards to the global climate on the other. His analyses take away the soft cushion of hopeful make-believe still widespread in the Western World, and in his capacity as an expert and realist he decidedly calls for decisions and measures to tackle the problem.

  1. Memetic Algorithms to Solve a Global Nonlinear Optimization Problem. A Review

    M. K. Sakharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, evolutionary algorithms have proven themselves as the powerful optimization techniques of search engine. Their popularity is due to the fact that they are easy to implement and can be used in all areas, since they are based on the idea of universal evolution. For example, in the problems of a large number of local optima, the traditional optimization methods, usually, fail in finding the global optimum. To solve such problems using a variety of stochastic methods, in particular, the so-called population-based algorithms, which are a kind of evolutionary methods. The main disadvantage of this class of methods is their slow convergence to the exact solution in the neighborhood of the global optimum, as these methods incapable to use the local information about the landscape of the function. This often limits their use in largescale real-world problems where the computation time is a critical factor.One of the promising directions in the field of modern evolutionary computation are memetic algorithms, which can be regarded as a combination of population search of the global optimum and local procedures for verifying solutions, which gives a synergistic effect. In the context of memetic algorithms, the meme is an implementation of the local optimization method to refine solution in the search.The concept of memetic algorithms provides ample opportunities for the development of various modifications of these algorithms, which can vary the frequency of the local search, the conditions of its end, and so on. The practically significant memetic algorithm modifications involve the simultaneous use of different memes. Such algorithms are called multi-memetic.The paper gives statement of the global problem of nonlinear unconstrained optimization, describes the most promising areas of AI modifications, including hybridization and metaoptimization. The main content of the work is the classification and review of existing varieties of

  2. Reduced interdecadal variability of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation under global warming.

    Cheng, Jun; Liu, Zhengyu; Zhang, Shaoqing; Liu, Wei; Dong, Lina; Liu, Peng; Li, Hongli

    2016-03-22

    Interdecadal variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC-IV) plays an important role in climate variation and has significant societal impacts. Past climate reconstruction indicates that AMOC-IV has likely undergone significant changes. Despite some previous studies, responses of AMOC-IV to global warming remain unclear, in particular regarding its amplitude and time scale. In this study, we analyze the responses of AMOC-IV under various scenarios of future global warming in multiple models and find that AMOC-IV becomes weaker and shorter with enhanced global warming. From the present climate condition to the strongest future warming scenario, on average, the major period of AMOC-IV is shortened from ∼50 y to ∼20 y, and the amplitude is reduced by ∼60%. These reductions in period and amplitude of AMOC-IV are suggested to be associated with increased oceanic stratification under global warming and, in turn, the speedup of oceanic baroclinic Rossby waves.

  3. Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. corn belt?

    Johnson, Jane M-F; Archer, David W; Weyers, Sharon L; Barbour, Nancy W

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural management practices that enhance C sequestration, reduce greenhouse gas emission (nitrous oxide [N₂O], methane [CH₄], and carbon dioxide [CO₂]), and promote productivity are needed to mitigate global warming without sacrificing food production. The objectives of the study were to compare productivity, greenhouse gas emission, and change in soil C over time and to assess whether global warming potential and global warming potential per unit biomass produced were reduced through combined mitigation strategies when implemented in the northern U.S. Corn Belt. The systems compared were (i) business as usual (BAU); (ii) maximum C sequestration (MAXC); and (iii) optimum greenhouse gas benefit (OGGB). Biomass production, greenhouse gas flux change in total and organic soil C, and global warming potential were compared among the three systems. Soil organic C accumulated only in the surface 0 to 5 cm. Three-year average emission of N₂O and CH was similar among all management systems. When integrated from planting to planting, N₂O emission was similar for MAXC and OGGB systems, although only MAXC was fertilized. Overall, the three systems had similar global warming potential based on 4-yr changes in soil organic C, but average rotation biomass was less in the OGGB systems. Global warming potential per dry crop yield was the least for the MAXC system and the most for OGGB system. This suggests management practices designed to reduce global warming potential can be achieved without a loss of productivity. For example, MAXC systems over time may provide sufficient soil C sequestration to offset associated greenhouse gas emission. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism and the Problem of Local Inaction in a Globalized World

    Fausto Corvino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.

  5. Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases

    Blasing, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co 2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO 2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co 2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

  6. [Private foundations Global Health Philanthropy: the problem of conflicts of interest].

    2011-01-01

    Private foundations Global Health Philanthropy: the problem of conflicts of interest. Private foundations are in a position where they are granted several privileges and are very powerful and able to influence global health. A recent article published on Plos Medicine, analyzing five of the largest health foundations highlights the network of interests and conflicts. Many private health foundations have associations with private food and pharmaceutical corporations. In some instances, these corporations directly benefit from foundations grants, and foundations in turn are invested in the corporations to which they award these grants.

  7. Environmental market failures. Are there any local market-based corrective mechanisms for global problems?

    Ayres, R.U.

    1997-01-01

    The paper reviews various policy tools that have been discussed in the literature, including legal, administrative and fiscal (tax) schemes, as well as tradeable emission permits and concludes that none of them are really suitable for dealing with global problems. An alternative is suggested, namely the use of tradeable individual consumption quotas for traded commodities at the national level, to be extended later to the global level by trading quotas among nations (assuming agreement can be reached on the basis for determining quotas). 28 refs

  8. Internet and free press are associated with reduced lags in global outbreak reporting.

    McAlarnen, Lindsey; Smith, Katherine; Brownstein, John S; Jerde, Christopher

    2014-10-30

    Global outbreak detection and reporting have generally improved for a variety of infectious diseases and geographic regions in recent decades. Nevertheless, lags in outbreak reporting remain a threat to the global human health and economy. In the time between first occurrence of a novel disease incident and public notification of an outbreak, infected individuals have a greater possibility of traveling and spreading the pathogen to other nations. Shortening outbreak reporting lags has the potential to improve global health by preventing local outbreaks from escalating into global epidemics. Reporting lags between the first record and the first public report of an event were calculated for 318 outbreaks occurring 1996-2009. The influence of freedom of the press, Internet usage, per capita health expenditure, and cell phone subscriptions, on the timeliness of outbreak reporting was evaluated. Freer presses and increasing Internet usage correlate with reduced time between the first record of an outbreak and the public report. Increasing Internet usage reduced the expected reporting lag from more than one month in nations without Internet users to one day in those where 75 of 100 people use the Internet. Advances in technology and the emergence of more open and free governments are associated with to improved global infectious disease surveillance.

  9. Assessing Progress in Reducing the At-Risk Population after 13 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis

    Hooper, Pamela J.; Chu, Brian K.; Mikhailov, Alexei; Ottesen, Eric A.; Bradley, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background In 1997, the World Health Assembly adopted Resolution 50.29, committing to the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem, subsequently targeted for 2020. The initial estimates were that 1.2 billion people were at-risk for LF infection globally. Now, 13 years after the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) began implementing mass drug administration (MDA) against LF in 2000—during which over 4.4 billion treatments have been distributed in 56 endemic countries—it is most appropriate to estimate the impact that the MDA has had on reducing the population at risk of LF. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess GPELF progress in reducing the population at-risk for LF, we developed a model based on defining reductions in risk of infection among cohorts of treated populations following each round of MDA. The model estimates that the number of people currently at risk of infection decreased by 46% to 789 million through 2012. Conclusions/Significance Important progress has been made in the global efforts to eliminate LF, but significant scale-up is required over the next 8 years to reach the 2020 elimination goal. PMID:25411843

  10. An audit of the global carbon budget: identifying and reducing sources of uncertainty

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Tans, P. P.; Marland, G.; Stocker, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainties in our carbon accounting practices may limit our ability to objectively verify emission reductions on regional scales. Furthermore uncertainties in the global C budget must be reduced to benchmark Earth System Models that incorporate carbon-climate interactions. Here we present an audit of the global C budget where we try to identify sources of uncertainty for major terms in the global C budget. The atmospheric growth rate of CO2 has increased significantly over the last 50 years, while the uncertainty in calculating the global atmospheric growth rate has been reduced from 0.4 ppm/yr to 0.2 ppm/yr (95% confidence). Although we have greatly reduced global CO2 growth rate uncertainties, there remain regions, such as the Southern Hemisphere, Tropics and Arctic, where changes in regional sources/sinks will remain difficult to detect without additional observations. Increases in fossil fuel (FF) emissions are the primary factor driving the increase in global CO2 growth rate; however, our confidence in FF emission estimates has actually gone down. Based on a comparison of multiple estimates, FF emissions have increased from 2.45 ± 0.12 PgC/yr in 1959 to 9.40 ± 0.66 PgC/yr in 2010. Major sources of increasing FF emission uncertainty are increased emissions from emerging economies, such as China and India, as well as subtle differences in accounting practices. Lastly, we evaluate emission estimates from Land Use Change (LUC). Although relative errors in emission estimates from LUC are quite high (2 sigma ~ 50%), LUC emissions have remained fairly constant in recent decades. We evaluate the three commonly used approaches to estimating LUC emissions- Bookkeeping, Satellite Imagery, and Model Simulations- to identify their main sources of error and their ability to detect net emissions from LUC.; Uncertainties in Fossil Fuel Emissions over the last 50 years.

  11. The Association between Sleep Problems and Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Global Perspective.

    Koyanagi, Ai; Stickley, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Community-based cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. 261,547 individuals aged ≥ 18 years from 56 countries. N/A. The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40-1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Realizing all reduced syzygy sequences in the planar three-body problem

    Moeckel, Richard; Montgomery, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The configuration space of the planar three-body problem, reduced by rotations and with collisions excluded, has a rich topology which supports a large set of free homotopy classes. These classes have a simple description in terms of syzygy (or eclipse) sequences. Each homotopy class corresponds to a unique ‘reduced’ syzygy sequence. We prove that each reduced syzygy sequence is realized by a periodic solution of the rotation-reduced Newtonian planar three-body problem. The realizing solutions have small, nonzero angular momentum, repeatedly come very close to triple collision, and have lots of ‘stutters’—repeated syzygies of the same type, which cancel out up to homotopy. The heart of the proof stems from the work by one of us on symbolic dynamics arising out of the central configurations after the triple collision is blown up using McGehee's method. We end with a list of open problems. (paper)

  13. Nuclear energy as a contribution to the solution of energetic and environmental global problems

    Huttl, A.

    1993-01-01

    The sharp population growth has turned energy and environment problems into global problems. The yearly consumption of primary energy in the world is currently 11 billion TCE (Tons of Coal Equivalent). At the present time 88.1% of energy supply is produced by fossil fuels and nuclear only 5.2%. Fossil fuels are responsible for air pollutants like SO 2 , NO, NO 2 , CO 2 , and VOC. Most of them are responsible of the Greenhouse effect and global warming. Only two solutions may avoid this situation: Renewable energies (sun, water and wind) and Nuclear Energy. At the end of 1990 there were 424 nuclear power plants in the world with 1800 million Tu/year of CO 2 avoided (8% of the total emitted). New future scenarios of CO 2 avoided may only be reached with nuclear power contribution

  14. A Guiding Evolutionary Algorithm with Greedy Strategy for Global Optimization Problems

    Leilei Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Guiding Evolutionary Algorithm (GEA with greedy strategy for global optimization problems is proposed. Inspired by Particle Swarm Optimization, the Genetic Algorithm, and the Bat Algorithm, the GEA was designed to retain some advantages of each method while avoiding some disadvantages. In contrast to the usual Genetic Algorithm, each individual in GEA is crossed with the current global best one instead of a randomly selected individual. The current best individual served as a guide to attract offspring to its region of genotype space. Mutation was added to offspring according to a dynamic mutation probability. To increase the capability of exploitation, a local search mechanism was applied to new individuals according to a dynamic probability of local search. Experimental results show that GEA outperformed the other three typical global optimization algorithms with which it was compared.

  15. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem for time-dependent Hartree equations

    Chadam, J.M.; Glassey, R.T.

    1975-01-01

    The existence of global solutions to the Cauchy problem for time-dependent Hartree equations for N electrons is established. The solution is shown to have a uniformly bounded H 1 (R 3 ) norm and to satisfy an estimate of the form two parallel PSI (t) two parallel/sub H 2 ; less than or equal to c exp(kt). It is shown that ''negative energy'' solutions do not converge uniformly to zero as t → infinity. (U.S.)

  16. Globalization and sovereignty decline: Regionalization problem in Serbia within the actual geopolitical context

    Brdar Milan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article author is about to maintain that discussion on regionalization asks for contextualisation within the currents of actual geopolitics, on the one hand, and wider process of globalisation and unification, on the other. In keeping with this, author in the first part deals with globalizing integrative processes with special attention played to the problem of nation-state survival. Point of analysis is given in the ambivalence of sovereignty: the very concept becomes outdated on the local level, but by the same token it is fully affirmed on the global level. On the global level we are encountered with revival of the classical concept of sovereignty. Problem of regionalization, in the second part of the article, is reconsidered as a phenomenon that is taking place between those two currents. Author maintains two related theses. First, designs of the regionalization less dependent of the authority of given state for they fall under the jurisdiction of global superpower and becomes dependant of its geostrategic planes and political demands. Second, that main reasons for Democratic Opposition of Serbia to work in favor of regionalization as a synonym for democracy is in lack of solid democratic reform and need to entrench itself in the precomposed structure of social and economic power. In this context one could forsake that we in Serbia are confronted with bright prospects of democracy at the cost of the 'hollowing out' of the state as main guarantee of it.

  17. Solution of large nonlinear time-dependent problems using reduced coordinates

    Mish, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    This research is concerned with the idea of reducing a large time-dependent problem, such as one obtained from a finite-element discretization, down to a more manageable size while preserving the most-important physical behavior of the solution. This reduction process is motivated by the concept of a projection operator on a Hilbert Space, and leads to the Lanczos Algorithm for generation of approximate eigenvectors of a large symmetric matrix. The Lanczos Algorithm is then used to develop a reduced form of the spatial component of a time-dependent problem. The solution of the remaining temporal part of the problem is considered from the standpoint of numerical-integration schemes in the time domain. All of these theoretical results are combined to motivate the proposed reduced coordinate algorithm. This algorithm is then developed, discussed, and compared to related methods from the mechanics literature. The proposed reduced coordinate method is then applied to the solution of some representative problems in mechanics. The results of these problems are discussed, conclusions are drawn, and suggestions are made for related future research

  18. Genomic Microbial Epidemiology Is Needed to Comprehend the Global Problem of Antibiotic Resistance and to Improve Pathogen Diagnosis

    Wyrsch, Ethan R.; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Chapman, Toni A.; Charles, Ian G.; Hammond, Jeffrey M.; Djordjevic, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of waste effluent from hospitals and intensive food animal production with antimicrobial residues is an immense global problem. Antimicrobial residues exert selection pressures that influence the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in diverse microbial populations. Despite these concerns there is only a limited understanding of how antimicrobial residues contribute to the global problem of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, rapid detection of emerging...

  19. Performance Comparison of OpenMP, MPI, and MapReduce in Practical Problems

    Sol Ji Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With problem size and complexity increasing, several parallel and distributed programming models and frameworks have been developed to efficiently handle such problems. This paper briefly reviews the parallel computing models and describes three widely recognized parallel programming frameworks: OpenMP, MPI, and MapReduce. OpenMP is the de facto standard for parallel programming on shared memory systems. MPI is the de facto industry standard for distributed memory systems. MapReduce framework has become the de facto standard for large scale data-intensive applications. Qualitative pros and cons of each framework are known, but quantitative performance indexes help get a good picture of which framework to use for the applications. As benchmark problems to compare those frameworks, two problems are chosen: all-pairs-shortest-path problem and data join problem. This paper presents the parallel programs for the problems implemented on the three frameworks, respectively. It shows the experiment results on a cluster of computers. It also discusses which is the right tool for the jobs by analyzing the characteristics and performance of the paradigms.

  20. Ethnic differences in problem perception: Immigrant mothers in a parenting intervention to reduce disruptive child behavior.

    Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A J; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care-a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problematic. There is concern that this difference in problem perception might limit intervention effectiveness. We tested the extent to which ethnic differences in problem perception exist when ethnic minority families engage in mental health service and whether lower levels of problem perception diminish parenting intervention effects to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our sample included 136 mothers of 3- to 8-year-olds (35% female) from the 3 largest ethnic groups in the Netherlands (43% Dutch; 35% Moroccan; 22% Turkish). Mothers reported on their child's externalizing and internalizing behavior and their perception of this behavior as problematic. They were then randomly assigned to the Incredible Years parenting intervention or a wait list control condition. We contrasted maternal reports of problem perception to teacher reports of the same children. Moroccan and Turkish mothers, compared with Dutch mothers, perceived similar levels of child behavior problems as less problematic, and as causing less impairment and burden. Teacher problem perception did not vary across children from different ethnic groups. Importantly, maternal problem perception did not affect parenting intervention effectiveness to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our findings suggest that ethnic differences in problem perception exist once families engage in treatment, but that lower levels of problem perception do not diminish treatment effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Reducing attentional capture of emotion by broadening attention: increased global attention reduces early electrophysiological responses to negative stimuli.

    Gable, Philip A; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2012-05-01

    Decades of research has shown the influence of emotion on attentional capture, and more recently, the influence of emotion on neurophysiological processes related to attentional capture. The current research tested whether some of the earliest neurophysiological underpinnings of emotive attentional processes can be influenced by attentional manipulations of broadening versus narrowing. Previous research has shown that negative affects high in motivational intensity (e.g., disgust, fear) cause a relative narrowing of attentional scope (Gable and Harmon-Jones, 2010a; Easterbrook, 1959). Because of the strong link between motivation and attention, attentional scope should also influence the attentional capture of negative stimuli. The current study manipulated a local attentional scope or global attentional scope, then measured attentional capture towards disgust and neutral pictures using the N1 event-related potential component. Results revealed that a manipulated global attentional scope reduced N1 amplitude towards disgust pictures compared to a manipulated local attentional scope. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Global measure for energy + environmental problems by thorium molten-salt nuclear energy synergetics

    Furukawa, K.; Lecocq, A.; Mitachi, K.; Kato, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The new global fission industry as a measure for energy and environmental problems of the next century should keep a strong public acceptance, which means to ensure an enough rational safety feature not only in the engineering issue but also in the all issues of integral fuel-cycle system. In these sense, the rational characteristics of the Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System (THORIMS-NES) is widely explained relating with a) resources and environmental problems, b) safety, c) nuclear-proliferation and -terrorism, d) breeding fuel-cycle, chemical processing and radio-wastes, and e) social acceptability and economy, including 'North-South' problems. The basic technology of Molten-Salt Reactor system has been established, and the practical and economical development program of THORIMS-NES is also proposed. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs

  3. Evaluation of a Brief Homework Assignment Designed to Reduce Citation Problems

    Schuetze, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    I evaluated a brief homework assignment designed to reduce citation problems in research-based term papers. Students in 2 developmental psychology classes received a brief presentation and handout defining plagiarism with tips on how to cite sources to avoid plagiarizing. In addition, students in 1 class completed 2 brief homework assignments in…

  4. One Improvement Method of Reducing Duration Directly to Solve Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem

    Jian-xun, Qi; Dedong, Sun

    Time and cost are two of the most important factors for project plan and schedule management, and specially, time-cost tradeoff problem is one classical problem in project scheduling, which is also a difficult problem. Methods of solving the problem mainly contain method of network flow and method of mending the minimal cost. Thereinto, for the method of mending the minimal cost is intuitionistic, convenient and lesser computation, these advantages make the method being used widely in practice. But disadvantage of the method is that the result of each step is optimal but the terminal result maybe not optimal. In this paper, firstly, method of confirming the maximal effective quantity of reducing duration is designed; secondly, on the basis of above method and the method of mending the minimal cost, the main method of reducing duration directly is designed to solve time-cost tradeoff problem, and by analyzing validity of the method, the method could obtain more optimal result for the problem.

  5. Global strategies to reduce the price of antiretroviral medicines: evidence from transactional databases.

    Waning, Brenda; Kaplan, Warren; King, Alexis C; Lawrence, Danielle A; Leufkens, Hubert G; Fox, Matthew P

    2009-07-01

    To estimate the impact of global strategies, such as pooled procurement arrangements, third-party price negotiation and differential pricing, on reducing the price of antiretrovirals (ARVs), which currently hinders universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment. We estimated the impact of global strategies to reduce ARV prices using data on 7253 procurement transactions (July 2002-October 2007) from databases hosted by WHO and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. For 19 of 24 ARV dosage forms, we detected no association between price and volume purchased. For the other five ARVs, high-volume purchases were 4-21% less expensive than medium- or low-volume purchases. Nine of 13 generic ARVs were priced 6-36% lower when purchased under the Clinton Foundation HIV/AIDS Initiative (CHAI). Fifteen of 18 branded ARVs were priced 23-498% higher for differentially priced purchases compared with non-CHAI generic purchases. However, two branded, differentially priced ARVs were priced 63% and 73% lower, respectively, than generic non-CHAI equivalents. Large purchase volumes did not necessarily result in lower ARV prices. Although current plans for pooled procurement will further increase purchase volumes, savings are uncertain and should be balanced against programmatic costs. Third-party negotiation by CHAI resulted in lower generic ARV prices. Generics were less expensive than differentially priced branded ARVs, except where little generic competition exists. Alternative strategies for reducing ARV prices, such as streamlining financial management systems, improving demand forecasting and removing barriers to generics, should be explored.

  6. Statistical surrogate model based sampling criterion for stochastic global optimization of problems with constraints

    Cho, Su Gil; Jang, Jun Yong; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Tae Hee [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min Uk [Romax Technology Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Su; Hong, Sup [Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Sequential surrogate model-based global optimization algorithms, such as super-EGO, have been developed to increase the efficiency of commonly used global optimization technique as well as to ensure the accuracy of optimization. However, earlier studies have drawbacks because there are three phases in the optimization loop and empirical parameters. We propose a united sampling criterion to simplify the algorithm and to achieve the global optimum of problems with constraints without any empirical parameters. It is able to select the points located in a feasible region with high model uncertainty as well as the points along the boundary of constraint at the lowest objective value. The mean squared error determines which criterion is more dominant among the infill sampling criterion and boundary sampling criterion. Also, the method guarantees the accuracy of the surrogate model because the sample points are not located within extremely small regions like super-EGO. The performance of the proposed method, such as the solvability of a problem, convergence properties, and efficiency, are validated through nonlinear numerical examples with disconnected feasible regions.

  7. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality: Two global challenges.

    Erickson, Larry E

    2017-07-01

    There are many good reasons to promote sustainable development and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other combustion emissions. The air quality in many urban environments is causing many premature deaths because of asthma, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and dementia associated with combustion emissions. The global social cost of air pollution is at least $3 trillion/year; particulates, nitrogen oxides and ozone associated with combustion emissions are very costly pollutants. Better air quality in urban environments is one of the reasons for countries to work together to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. There are many potential benefits associated with limiting climate change. In the recent past, the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing and the number of weather and climate disasters with costs over $1 billion has been increasing. The average global temperature set new record highs in 2014, 2015, and 2016. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the transition to electric vehicles and electricity generation using renewable energy must take place in accord with the goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. This work reviews progress and identifies some of the health benefits associated with reducing combustion emissions. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 36: 982-988, 2017.

  8. Agency problems of global budget system in Taiwan's National Health Insurance.

    Yan, Yu-Hua; Yang, Chen-Wei; Fang, Shih-Chieh

    2014-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the agency problem presented by the global budget system followed by hospitals in Taiwan. In this study, we examine empirically the interaction between the principal: Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI) and agency: medical service providers (hospitals); we also describe actual medical service provider and hospital governance conditions from a agency theory perspective. This study identified a positive correlation between aversion to agency hazard (self-interest behavior, asymmetric information, and risk hedging) and agency problem risks (disregard of medical ethics, pursuit of extra-contract profit, disregard of professionalism, and cost orientation). Agency costs refer to BNHI auditing and monitoring expenditures used to prevent hospitals from deviating from NHI policy goals. This study also found agency costs negatively moderate the relationship between agency hazards and agency problems The main contribution of this study is its use of agency theory to clarify agency problems and several potential factors caused by the NHI system. This study also contributes to the field of health policy study by clarifying the nature and importance of agency problems in the health care sector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduced interdecadal variability of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation under global warming

    Cheng, Jun; Liu, Zhengyu; Zhang, Shaoqing; Liu, Wei; Dong, Lina; Liu, Peng; Li, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    Interdecadal variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC-IV) plays an important role in climate variation and has significant societal impacts. Past climate reconstruction indicates that AMOC-IV has likely undergone significant changes. Despite some previous studies, responses of AMOC-IV to global warming remain unclear, in particular regarding its amplitude and time scale. In this study, we analyze the responses of AMOC-IV under various scenarios of future global warming in multiple models and find that AMOC-IV becomes weaker and shorter with enhanced global warming. From the present climate condition to the strongest future warming scenario, on average, the major period of AMOC-IV is shortened from ∼50 y to ∼20 y, and the amplitude is reduced by ∼60%. These reductions in period and amplitude of AMOC-IV are suggested to be associated with increased oceanic stratification under global warming and, in turn, the speedup of oceanic baroclinic Rossby waves. PMID:26951654

  10. Estimating the marginal cost of reducing global fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    Edmonds, J.; Barns, D.W.; McDonald, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper estimates the marginal, total, and average cost and effectiveness of carbon taxes applied either by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) members alone, or as part of a global cooperative strategy, to reduce potential future emissions and their direct implications for employment in the US coal industry. Two sets of cases are examined, one set in which OECD members acts alone, and another set in which the world acts in concert. In each case set taxes are examined which achieve four alternative levels of emissions reduction: halve the rate of emissions growth, no emissions growth, 20% reduction from 1988 levels, and 50% reduction from 1988 levels. For the global cooperation case, carbon tax rates of $32, $113, $161, and $517 per metric ton of carbon (mtC) were needed in the year 2025 to achieve the objectives. Total costs were respectively $40, $178, $253, and $848 billions of 1990 US dollars per year in the year 2025. Average costs were $32, $55, $59, and $135 per mtC. Costs were significantly higher in the cases in which the OECD members states acted alone. OECD member states, acting alone, could not reduce global emissions by 50% or 20% relative to 1988, given reference case assumptions regarding developing and recently planned nations economic growth

  11. Cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by sparing land from deforestation.

    Cohn, Avery S; Mosnier, Aline; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Schmid, Erwin; O'Hare, Michael; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-20

    This study examines whether policies to encourage cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can abate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sparing land from deforestation. We use an economic model of global land use to investigate, from 2010 to 2030, the global agricultural outcomes, land use changes, and GHG abatement resulting from two potential Brazilian policies: a tax on cattle from conventional pasture and a subsidy for cattle from semi-intensive pasture. We find that under either policy, Brazil could achieve considerable sparing of forests and abatement of GHGs, in line with its national policy targets. The land spared, particularly under the tax, is far less than proportional to the productivity increased. However, the tax, despite prompting less adoption of semi-intensive ranching, delivers slightly more forest sparing and GHG abatement than the subsidy. This difference is explained by increased deforestation associated with increased beef consumption under the subsidy and reduced deforestation associated with reduced beef consumption under the tax. Complementary policies to directly limit deforestation could help limit these effects. GHG abatement from either the tax or subsidy appears inexpensive but, over time, the tax would become cheaper than the subsidy. A revenue-neutral combination of the policies could be an element of a sustainable development strategy for Brazil and other emerging economies seeking to balance agricultural development and forest protection.

  12. Reduced order models inertial manifold and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of an analytic or numerical model of a BWR power plant, this could imply first to find an suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behaviour of this nonlinear system, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant, by distributing the different solution types in relation with the exclusion region of the power-flow map. Then the goal is to obtain the best attainable qualitative and quantitative global picture of plant dynamics. To do this, the construction and the analysis of the so called reduced order models (Rom) seems a necessary step. A reduced order model results after the full system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations of the plant is reduced to a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations

  13. DESIGN – AS A RESPONSE TO THE GLOBAL PROBLEMS OF CONTEMPORARY

    FLOREA ELEONORA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Now when mankind has stepped into the third Millennium, the evolution of design is marked by the most pressing problems of contemporaneity: the danger of an ecological crisis; the psychological impact of the technological civilization on the human individual; the globalization of culture with no trace of colour and ethnic national differentiation. The solution of the created problems is due, in a primordial and decisive mode, to design. Eco-design is oriented towards the protection of the environment. Ethnic design promotes the traditional culture of peoples and ethnic minorities. Psycho-design claims the elaboration of individual unique tailored psychological projects. The mission of design in contemporary civilization is the protection, „humanization” and environment „awareness” of human vitality. Thus, the main characteristic of design is the so-called „technological humanism”.

  14. Reduce of adherence problems in galvanised processes through data mining techniques

    Martinez de Pison, F. J.; Ordieres, J.; Pernia, A.; Alba, F.; Torre, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an example of the application of data mining techniques to obtain hidden knowledge from the historical data of a hot dip galvanizing process and to establish rules to improve quality in the final product and to reduce errors in the process. For this purpose, the tuning records of a hot dip galvanizing line where coils with adherence problems in the zinc coating had been identified were used as starting point. From the database of the process, the classical data mining approach was applied to obtain and analyze a number of decision trees hat classified two types of coils, i.e. those with the right adherence and those with irregular adherence. The variables and values that might have influenced the quality of the coating were extracted from these tress. Several rules that may be applied to reduce the number of faulty coils with adherence problems were also established. (Author) 24 refs

  15. Reduced-Contrast Approximations for High-Contrast Multiscale Flow Problems

    Chung, Eric T.; Efendiev, Yalchin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study multiscale methods for high-contrast elliptic problems where the media properties change dramatically. The disparity in the media properties (also referred to as high contrast in the paper) introduces an additional scale that needs to be resolved in multiscale simulations. First, we present a construction that uses an integral equation to represent the highcontrast component of the solution. This representation involves solving an integral equation along the interface where the coefficients are discontinuous. The integral representation suggests some multiscale approaches that are discussed in the paper. One of these approaches entails the use of interface functions in addition to multiscale basis functions representing the heterogeneities without high contrast. In this paper, we propose an approximation for the solution of the integral equation using the interface problems in reduced-contrast media. Reduced-contrast media are obtained by lowering the variance of the coefficients. We also propose a similar approach for the solution of the elliptic equation without using an integral representation. This approach is simpler to use in the computations because it does not involve setting up integral equations. The main idea of this approach is to approximate the solution of the high-contrast problem by the solutions of the problems formulated in reduced-contrast media. In this approach, a rapidly converging sequence is proposed where only problems with lower contrast are solved. It was shown that this sequence possesses the convergence rate that is inversely proportional to the reduced contrast. This approximation allows choosing the reduced-contrast problem based on the coarse-mesh size as discussed in this paper. We present a simple application of this approach to homogenization of elliptic equations with high-contrast coefficients. The presented approaches are limited to the cases where there are sharp changes in the contrast (i.e., the high

  16. The ChlorOut concept. A method to reduce alkali-related problems during combustion

    Kassman, Haakan [ChlorOut AB c/o Vattenfall AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Wollner, Lothar [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH und Co. KG, Ingelheim am Rhein (Germany); Berg, Magnus [ChlorOut AB c/o Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-06-01

    Combustion of biomass with a high content of alkali and chlorine (Cl) can result in operational problems including deposit formation and superheater corrosion. The strategies applied to reduce such problems include co-combustion and the use of additives. Ammonium sulphate is a part of the ChlorOut concept which is applied in a range of commercial boilers. This concept is based on dosing of sulphate-containing additives to the flue gases and a unique measurement device for on-line measurement of gaseous alkali chlorides called IACM (in-situ alkali chloride monitor). The focus of the present paper is on evaluation of long-term experiences from two full-scale boilers. The operational problems with deposit formation and superheater corrosion decreased in these boilers after installing the ChlorOut concept. (orig.)

  17. Fast solution of neutron diffusion problem by reduced basis finite element method

    Chunyu, Zhang; Gong, Chen

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •An extremely efficient method is proposed to solve the neutron diffusion equation with varying the cross sections. •Three orders of speedup is achieved for IAEA benchmark problems. •The method may open a new possibility of efficient high-fidelity modeling of large scale problems in nuclear engineering. -- Abstract: For the important applications which need carry out many times of neutron diffusion calculations such as the fuel depletion analysis and the neutronics-thermohydraulics coupling analysis, fast and accurate solutions of the neutron diffusion equation are demanding but necessary. In the present work, the certified reduced basis finite element method is proposed and implemented to solve the generalized eigenvalue problems of neutron diffusion with variable cross sections. The order reduced model is built upon high-fidelity finite element approximations during the offline stage. During the online stage, both the k eff and the spatical distribution of neutron flux can be obtained very efficiently for any given set of cross sections. Numerical tests show that a speedup of around 1100 is achieved for the IAEA two-dimensional PWR benchmark problem and a speedup of around 3400 is achieved for the three-dimensional counterpart with the fission cross-sections, the absorption cross-sections and the scattering cross-sections treated as parameters.

  18. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Training on Reducing Autistic Children's Behavioral Problems

    Mohammad Tahan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of social skills training on reducing the behavioral problems of children with autism and pseudo-experimental. The statistical population of all autistic children is Mashhad. In this research, a goal-based sampling method is used. 30 children were selected from among children with autism and randomly assigned to two experimental groups (15 people and control (n = 15. The Shelli & Sorkab Communication Skills Questionnaire (2004 and Rutter's Behavioral Disorder (1964 Then, independent variable, ie social skills training (ten sessions 60 minutes, was performed on the experimental group, while no intervention was performed on the control group. After collecting data, the data were analyzed using covariance analysis. The results showed that social skills training has a positive and significant effect on reducing the behavioral problems of communication skills improvement in autistic children. Conclusion: Social skills training is a suitable method for reducing behavioral problems and improving communication skills in autistic children. These results can be used by psychologists and counselors.

  19. Using Hadoop MapReduce for Parallel Genetic Algorithms: A Comparison of the Global, Grid and Island Models.

    Ferrucci, Filomena; Salza, Pasquale; Sarro, Federica

    2017-06-29

    The need to improve the scalability of Genetic Algorithms (GAs) has motivated the research on Parallel Genetic Algorithms (PGAs), and different technologies and approaches have been used. Hadoop MapReduce represents one of the most mature technologies to develop parallel algorithms. Based on the fact that parallel algorithms introduce communication overhead, the aim of the present work is to understand if, and possibly when, the parallel GAs solutions using Hadoop MapReduce show better performance than sequential versions in terms of execution time. Moreover, we are interested in understanding which PGA model can be most effective among the global, grid, and island models. We empirically assessed the performance of these three parallel models with respect to a sequential GA on a software engineering problem, evaluating the execution time and the achieved speedup. We also analysed the behaviour of the parallel models in relation to the overhead produced by the use of Hadoop MapReduce and the GAs' computational effort, which gives a more machine-independent measure of these algorithms. We exploited three problem instances to differentiate the computation load and three cluster configurations based on 2, 4, and 8 parallel nodes. Moreover, we estimated the costs of the execution of the experimentation on a potential cloud infrastructure, based on the pricing of the major commercial cloud providers. The empirical study revealed that the use of PGA based on the island model outperforms the other parallel models and the sequential GA for all the considered instances and clusters. Using 2, 4, and 8 nodes, the island model achieves an average speedup over the three datasets of 1.8, 3.4, and 7.0 times, respectively. Hadoop MapReduce has a set of different constraints that need to be considered during the design and the implementation of parallel algorithms. The overhead of data store (i.e., HDFS) accesses, communication, and latency requires solutions that reduce data store

  20. Alcohol Marketing, Drunkenness, and Problem Drinking among Zambian Youth: Findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey

    Monica H. Swahn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS conducted in Zambia (2004 of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (=2257. Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09–2.02 and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06–1.87 among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  1. Alcohol marketing, drunkenness, and problem drinking among Zambian youth: findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey.

    Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  2. Understanding students visions about environmental global problems. Experience and lessons learned of teaching in Lithuania.

    Pereira, Paulo; Siarova, Hanna; Misiūnė, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, environment is accepted to be an important element of our welfare. Our activities and societal status are strongly related with the quality of the environment where we live. On the other hand historical and cultural backgrounds shape importantly our views about the environment and how we act towards it in our daily life. In a context of globalization and increase of competition at international level, knowledge appears to be one of the key components for the advance of the word. Most of the knowledge produced comes from high level education institutions and research centres, which have responsibility to create and encourage critical thinking. Individuals aware of the problems can be more active and can push things forward. We think that environmental knowledge and awareness are fundamental for the future of the society. In order to develop better methodologies are developed if we have a better perception of students understanding of environmental problems. The objective of this work is to study the Lithuanian university level student's perception about some environmental challenges of our society. We selected several questions for the students rate according the relevance of the question, as "Air Pollution", "Waste Management", "Resources overexplotation", "Biodiversity reduction", "Human Overpopulation" "Poverty", "Global Warming/Climate change", Natural disasters", "Terrorism", "Economical crisis", "War and armed conflicts" and the "Spread of infectious diseases". We ask to the respondents to rate the importance using a likert scale (1=Not Important, 2= not so important, 3=important, 4=very important, 5=the most important). Among all the questions, the most rated where the Water pollution, the Spread of infectious diseases and Air Pollution and the less important where Biodiversity Reduction, Human overpopulation and climate change. These results helped us to identify where some efforts should be taken to raise student's awareness about global

  3. Extinction of fish-shaped marine reptiles associated with reduced evolutionary rates and global environmental volatility.

    Fischer, Valentin; Bardet, Nathalie; Benson, Roger B J; Arkhangelsky, Maxim S; Friedman, Matt

    2016-03-08

    Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Current hypotheses for this early demise involve relatively minor biotic events, but are at odds with recent understanding of the ichthyosaur fossil record. Here, we show that ichthyosaurs maintained high but diminishing richness and disparity throughout the Early Cretaceous. The last ichthyosaurs are characterized by reduced rates of origination and phenotypic evolution and their elevated extinction rates correlate with increased environmental volatility. In addition, we find that ichthyosaurs suffered from a profound Early Cenomanian extinction that reduced their ecological diversity, likely contributing to their final extinction at the end of the Cenomanian. Our results support a growing body of evidence revealing that global environmental change resulted in a major, temporally staggered turnover event that profoundly reorganized marine ecosystems during the Cenomanian.

  4. Potential for reducing global carbon emissions from electricity production-A bench marking analysis

    Ang, B.W.; Zhou, P.; Tay, L.P. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering

    2011-05-15

    We present five performance indicators for electricity generation for 129 countries using the 2005 data. These indicators, measured at the national level, are the aggregate CO{sub 2} intensity of electricity production, the efficiencies of coal, oil and gas generation and the share of electricity produced from non-fossil fuels. We conduct a study on the potential for reducing global energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity production through simple bench marking. This is performed based on the last four performance indicators and the construction of a cumulative curve for each of these indicators. It is found that global CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity production would be reduced by 19% if all these indicators are benchmarked at the 50th percentile. Not surprisingly, the emission reduction potential measured in absolute terms is the highest for large countries such as China, India, Russia and the United States. When the potential is expressed as a percentage of a country's own emissions, few of these countries appear in the top-five list. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Potential for reducing global carbon emissions from electricity production-A benchmarking analysis

    Ang, B.W.; Zhou, P.; Tay, L.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present five performance indicators for electricity generation for 129 countries using the 2005 data. These indicators, measured at the national level, are the aggregate CO 2 intensity of electricity production, the efficiencies of coal, oil and gas generation and the share of electricity produced from non-fossil fuels. We conduct a study on the potential for reducing global energy-related CO 2 emissions from electricity production through simple benchmarking. This is performed based on the last four performance indicators and the construction of a cumulative curve for each of these indicators. It is found that global CO 2 emissions from electricity production would be reduced by 19% if all these indicators are benchmarked at the 50th percentile. Not surprisingly, the emission reduction potential measured in absolute terms is the highest for large countries such as China, India, Russia and the United States. When the potential is expressed as a percentage of a country's own emissions, few of these countries appear in the top-five list. - Research highlights: → We study variations in emissions per kWh of electricity generated among countries. → We analyze emissions from electricity production through benchmarking. → Estimates of reduction in emissions are made based on different assumptions.

  6. Global solutions to the electrodynamic two-body problem on a straight line

    Bauer, G.; Deckert, D.-A.; Dürr, D.; Hinrichs, G.

    2017-06-01

    The classical electrodynamic two-body problem has been a long standing open problem in mathematics. For motion constrained to the straight line, the interaction is similar to that of the two-body problem of classical gravitation. The additional complication is the presence of unbounded state-dependent delays in the Coulomb forces due to the finiteness of the speed of light. This circumstance renders the notion of local solutions meaningless, and therefore, straightforward ODE techniques cannot be applied. Here, we study the time-symmetric case, i.e., the Fokker-Schwarzschild-Tetrode (FST) equations, comprising both advanced and retarded delays. We extend the technique developed in Deckert and Hinrichs (J Differ Equ 260:6900-6929, 2016), where existence of FST solutions was proven on the half line, to ensure global existence—a result that had been obtained by Bauer (Ein Existenzsatz für die Wheeler-Feynman-Elektrodynamik, Herbert Utz Verlag, München, 1997). Due to the novel technique, the presented proof is shorter and more transparent but also relies on the idea to employ asymptotic data to characterize solutions.

  7. The spectral problem of global microinstabilities in tokamak-like plasmas using a gyrokinetic model

    Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.; Fivaz, M.; Appert, K.

    1996-01-01

    Tokamak-like plasmas are modeled by a periodic cylindrical system with magnetic shear and realistic density and temperature profiles. Linear electrostatic microinstabilities in such plasmas are studied by solving the eigenvalue problem starting from gyrokinetic theory. The actual eigenvalue equation is then of integral type. With this approach, finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects to all orders are taken into account. FLR effects provide for the only radial coupling in a cylinder and to lowest order correspond to polarization drift. This effectively one-dimensional problem helped us to gain useful knowledge for solving gyrokinetic equations in a curved system. When searching for the eigenfrequencies of the global modes, two different methods have been tested and compared. Either the true eigenvalue problem is solved by finding the zeros of the characteristic equation, or one considers a system driven by an antenna and looks for resonances in the power response of the plasma. In addition, mode structures were computed as well in direct as in Fourier space. The advantages and disadvantages of these various approaches are discussed. Ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities are studied over a wide range of parameters and for wavelengths perpendicular to the magnetic field down to the scale of ion Larmor radii. Flute instabilities driven by magnetic curvature drifts are also considered. Some of these results are compared with a time evolution PIC code. Such comparisons are valuable as the convergence of PIC results is often questioned. Work considering true toroidal geometry is in progress

  8. The Effectiveness of Parents' Skills Training Program on Reducing Children's Behavior Problems

    مریم نعمت‌اللهی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of parents' skill training program on reducing children's behavioral problems. Method: In an experimental study (pre-post-test, 4 primary schools were randomly selected from schools of Tehran. Two schools were randomly allocated into experimental group and two into control group. Experimental group (mothers of children aged 7-9 years received parents' skill training program for 8 weeks, two hours sessions. Parents' reports participating in the training program (n=30 mothers were compared with parents' reports of non-trained control group (n=31 mothers. Data were gathered using Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and analyzed using covariance analyses. Results: There was a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the training. The experimental group reported a significant decrease in children's behavioral problems.

  9. Drowning - a scientometric analysis and data acquisition of a constant global problem employing density equalizing mapping and scientometric benchmarking procedures

    Groneberg David A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drowning is a constant global problem which claims approximately half a million victims worldwide each year, whereas the number of near-drowning victims is considerably higher. Public health strategies to reduce the burden of death are still limited. While research activities in the subject drowning grow constantly, yet there is no scientometric evaluation of the existing literature at the present time. Methods The current study uses classical bibliometric tools and visualizing techniques such as density equalizing mapping to analyse and evaluate the scientific research in the field of drowning. The interpretation of the achieved results is also implemented in the context of the data collection of the WHO. Results All studies related to drowning and listed in the ISI-Web of Science database since 1900 were identified using the search term "drowning". Implementing bibliometric methods, a constant increase in quantitative markers such as number of publications per state, publication language or collaborations as well as qualitative markers such as citations were observed for research in the field of drowning. The combination with density equalizing mapping exposed different global patterns for research productivity and the total number of drowning deaths and drowning rates respectively. Chart techniques were used to illustrate bi- and multilateral research cooperation. Conclusions The present study provides the first scientometric approach that visualizes research activity on the subject of drowning. It can be assumed that the scientific approach to this topic will achieve even greater dimensions because of its continuing actuality.

  10. Drowning - a scientometric analysis and data acquisition of a constant global problem employing density equalizing mapping and scientometric benchmarking procedures

    2011-01-01

    Background Drowning is a constant global problem which claims approximately half a million victims worldwide each year, whereas the number of near-drowning victims is considerably higher. Public health strategies to reduce the burden of death are still limited. While research activities in the subject drowning grow constantly, yet there is no scientometric evaluation of the existing literature at the present time. Methods The current study uses classical bibliometric tools and visualizing techniques such as density equalizing mapping to analyse and evaluate the scientific research in the field of drowning. The interpretation of the achieved results is also implemented in the context of the data collection of the WHO. Results All studies related to drowning and listed in the ISI-Web of Science database since 1900 were identified using the search term "drowning". Implementing bibliometric methods, a constant increase in quantitative markers such as number of publications per state, publication language or collaborations as well as qualitative markers such as citations were observed for research in the field of drowning. The combination with density equalizing mapping exposed different global patterns for research productivity and the total number of drowning deaths and drowning rates respectively. Chart techniques were used to illustrate bi- and multilateral research cooperation. Conclusions The present study provides the first scientometric approach that visualizes research activity on the subject of drowning. It can be assumed that the scientific approach to this topic will achieve even greater dimensions because of its continuing actuality. PMID:21999813

  11. Uniqueness of global quasi-classical solutions of the Cauchy problems for first-order nonlinear partial differential equations

    Tran Duc Van

    1994-01-01

    The notion of global quasi-classical solutions of the Cauchy problems for first-order nonlinear partial differential equations is presented, some uniqueness theorems and a stability result are established by the method based on the theory of differential inclusions. In particular, the answer to an open problem of S.N. Kruzhkov is given. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig

  12. Picosecond scale experimental verification of a globally convergent algorithm for a coefficient inverse problem

    Klibanov, Michael V; Pantong, Natee; Fiddy, Michael A; Schenk, John; Beilina, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    A globally convergent algorithm by the first and third authors for a 3D hyperbolic coefficient inverse problem is verified on experimental data measured in the picosecond scale regime. Quantifiable images of dielectric abnormalities are obtained. The total measurement timing of a 100 ps pulse for one detector location was 1.2 ns with 20 ps (=0.02 ns) time step between two consecutive readings. Blind tests have consistently demonstrated an accurate imaging of refractive indexes of dielectric abnormalities. At the same time, it is shown that a modified gradient method is inapplicable to this kind of experimental data. This inverse algorithm is also applicable to other types of imaging modalities, e.g. acoustics. Potential applications are in airport security, imaging of land mines, imaging of defects in non-distractive testing, etc

  13. VACCINATION AGAINST HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION: A SAFE SOLUTION TO THE GLOBAL PROBLEM

    M.G. Galitskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases caused by human papilloma virus (HPV, in recent years has become more urgent, not only for physicians, scientists, but also for patients. This is due to the high contagiousness of HPV, its prevalence and, of course, proved oncogenicity. Creation and introduction of preventive vaccines against the most common HPV types played a definite role in the global health, and, of course, raised the attention of doctors and the public to human papillomavirus infection and associated diseases. At the same time propaganda against vaccination blocks the widespread adoption of this disease prevention in our country. In this paper, we introduce the American experience of monitoring vaccination adverse events.Key words: human papillomavirus infection, prevention, vaccination, adverse events, monitoring, children.

  14. Complementary Constrains on Component based Multiphase Flow Problems, Should It Be Implemented Locally or Globally?

    Shao, H.; Huang, Y.; Kolditz, O.

    2015-12-01

    Multiphase flow problems are numerically difficult to solve, as it often contains nonlinear Phase transition phenomena A conventional technique is to introduce the complementarity constraints where fluid properties such as liquid saturations are confined within a physically reasonable range. Based on such constraints, the mathematical model can be reformulated into a system of nonlinear partial differential equations coupled with variational inequalities. They can be then numerically handled by optimization algorithms. In this work, two different approaches utilizing the complementarity constraints based on persistent primary variables formulation[4] are implemented and investigated. The first approach proposed by Marchand et.al[1] is using "local complementary constraints", i.e. coupling the constraints with the local constitutive equations. The second approach[2],[3] , namely the "global complementary constrains", applies the constraints globally with the mass conservation equation. We will discuss how these two approaches are applied to solve non-isothermal componential multiphase flow problem with the phase change phenomenon. Several benchmarks will be presented for investigating the overall numerical performance of different approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of different models will also be concluded. References[1] E.Marchand, T.Mueller and P.Knabner. Fully coupled generalized hybrid-mixed finite element approximation of two-phase two-component flow in porous media. Part I: formulation and properties of the mathematical model, Computational Geosciences 17(2): 431-442, (2013). [2] A. Lauser, C. Hager, R. Helmig, B. Wohlmuth. A new approach for phase transitions in miscible multi-phase flow in porous media. Water Resour., 34,(2011), 957-966. [3] J. Jaffré, and A. Sboui. Henry's Law and Gas Phase Disappearance. Transp. Porous Media. 82, (2010), 521-526. [4] A. Bourgeat, M. Jurak and F. Smaï. Two-phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in

  15. Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities

    Salim, S. S.; Paytan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The project `Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities' (GULLS) falls within the Belmont Forum and G8 Research Councils Initiative on Multilateral Research Funding. Participants include teams from nine countries: Australia, Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The project focuses on five regional `hotspots' of climate and social change, defined as fast-warming marine areas and areas experiencing social tensions as a result of change: south-east Australia, Brazil, India, South Africa, and the Mozambique Channel and adjacent countries of Mozambique and Madagascar. These areas require most urgent attention and serve as valuable case studies for wider applications. The project aims to assist coastal communities and other stakeholders dependent on marine resources to adapt to climate change and variability through an integrated and trans-disciplinary approach. Combining best available global knowledge with local knowledge and conditions, it is exploring adaptation options and approaches to strengthen resilience at local and community levels, with a focus on options for reconciling the needs for food security with long-term sustainability and conservation. The project will also contribute to capacity development and empowering fishing communities and other fisheries-dependent stakeholders.A standardized vulnerability assessment framework is being developed that will be used to integrate results from natural, social and economic studies in order to identify needs and options for strengthening management and existing policies. Structured comparisons between the hot-spots will assist global efforts for adaptation and strengthening resilience in marine and coastal social-ecological systems.

  16. Reducing global warming through the provision of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels

    1993-04-01

    Concern has increased in recent years regarding the rising atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and its potential effect on future global climate. One element of strategies for the reduction of CO 2 emissions would be to increase the proportion of energy derived from non-fossil energy sources. This option has led to renewed interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy vector which could facilitate the transfer of non-fossil energy into a wider range of end-use sectors. To assess, in this context, the potential role of non-fossil-fuel hydrogen (NFFH), published information on the costs and performance of technologies for the production, storage, distribution and utilisation of hydrogen has been reviewed in this study. These data have been used in a model of the UK energy system to investigate the potential contributions of the various hydrogen technologies, over a 50 year timeframe, and with different levels of constraint imposed on the rate of CO 2 release. Finally, to set these reduced CO 2 release rates in the context of the resultant reduction in global warming commitment, a further modelling study has been made to estimate the residual transient warming to 2050, assuming the world as a whole follows the same CO 2 emission profiles as modelled for the UK. This 259 page report of the study contains extensive tables of data and references, and a glossary of terms, units and conversion factors. (author)

  17. Violence a global public health problem Violência como um problema global de saúde pública

    Linda L. Dahlberg

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a version of the Introduction to the World Report on Violence and Health, published by the World Health Organization (WHO. It presents a general description about this phenomenon and points some basic questions: concepts and definitions about the theme; the state of knowledge about it; nature and typology on violence; proposal of a quantitative and qualitative approach of an ecological model; responsibilities and functions of the public health sector and its potentiality to prevent and reduce violence in the world; the responsibilities of the nations and the policy makers in a intersetorial point of view; difficulties and obstacles for actuation and challenges for the health sector.Este artigo é uma versão do que foi publicado no Informe Mundial sobre Violência e Saúde da Organização Mundial de Saúde, como introdução ao tema. Apresenta uma descrição geral da problemática e a posição da OMS. Nele os autores se dedicam a responder algumas questões básicas: o estado do conhecimento sobre o assunto; os conceitos e definições com os quais a OMS trabalha; a natureza e a tipologia sobre violência; as formas de abordagem quantitativa e qualitativa em um modelo ecológico; o lugar e o papel da saúde pública e sua potencialidade com vistas a contribuir para prevenir e diminuir a violência no mundo; as responsabilidades das nações e dos gestores em todos os níveis; os obstáculos para atuação e os desafios para o setor.

  18. Assessing the potential of hybrid energy technology to reduce exhaust emissions from global shipping

    Dedes, Eleftherios K.; Hudson, Dominic A.; Turnock, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of a prime mover and an energy storage device for reduction of fuel consumption has successfully been used in automotive industry. The shipping industry has utilised this for conventional submarines. The potential of a load levelling strategy through use of a hybrid battery–diesel–electric propulsion system is investigated. The goal is to reduce exhaust gas emissions by reducing fuel oil consumption through consideration of a re-engineered ship propulsion system. This work is based on operational data for a shipping fleet containing all types of bulk carriers. The engine loading and the energy requirements are calculated, and sizing of suitable propulsion and the battery storage system are proposed. The changes in overall emissions are estimated and the potential for fuel savings identified. The efficiency of the system depends on the storage medium type, the availability of energy and the displacement characteristics of the examined vessels. These results for the global fleet indicate that savings depending on storage system, vessel condition and vessel type could be up to 0.32 million tonnes in NO x , 0.07 million tonnes in SO x and 4.1 million tonnes in CO 2 . These represent a maximum 14% of reduction in dry bulk sector and 1.8% of world's fleet emissions. - Highlights: ► Global shipping makes a significant contribution to CO 2 , SO x and NO x emissions. ► We examine noon reports from a fleet of bulk carriers to identify the amount engine is operating off design. ► A hybrid propulsion system is proposed that uses multiple diesel–electric generators and battery storage. ► Analysis indicates hybrid may give an attractive rate of return as well as emissions savings in emissions. ► Implementation will require review of class society regulations.

  19. Supply chain management of health commodities for reducing global disease burden.

    Chukwu, Otuto Amarauche; Ezeanochikwa, Valentine Nnaemeka; Eya, Benedict Ejikeme

    Reducing global disease burden requires improving access to medicines, thus the need for efficient and effective supply chain management for medicines. The Nigerian government came up with new policies on Mega Drug Distribution Centres and National Drug Distribution Guidelines to improve access to quality medicines with pharmacists having a key role to play. However, pharmacists in Nigeria seem not to be aware and adequately equipped to handle the medicines supply chain. This article aimed at assessing the awareness and readiness of Nigerian pharmacists on supply chain management practices for improving access to medicines. Pharmacists in Nigeria's Capital were randomly sampled. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered. Descriptive statistics was used in data analysis. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be significant. 29.3%, 20.7% and 53.7% were not aware of supply chain management, National Drug Distribution Guidelines and Mega Drug Distribution Centres, respectively. 85.46% do not have a copy of the National Drug Distribution Guidelines. 78% were not aware that Mega Drug Distribution Centres are already operational. 35.4% have never been involved in any supply chain management practice. 69.5% often experience stock out of vital and essential medicines, of which 85.2% were in hospitals. 15.9% were successful in managing their facility's supply chains. 84.1% opined that pharmacists in Nigeria are not yet ready to handle the medicines supply chain. Findings showed limited awareness and readiness on supply chain management of medicines. This may be due to inadequate supply chain management skills and infrastructure, poor financing, lack of accountability and poor management. Tackling these as well as pharmacists showing more interest in the country's health policies and obtaining necessary postgraduate certifications will lead to improvements. This will improve access to quality medicines and thus help in the fight to reduce disease burden both

  20. Sleep Problems are Associated with Development and Progression of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Results from REDUCE.

    Branche, Brandee L; Howard, Lauren E; Moreira, Daniel M; Roehrborn, Claus; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Andriole, Gerald L; Hopp, Martin L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2018-02-01

    Although lower urinary tract symptoms and sleep problems often develop together, to our knowledge it is unknown whether sleep disturbances are linked to lower urinary tract symptoms development and progression. As measured by the 6-item MOS-Sleep (Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale) survey we examined the relationship between sleep problems, and the development and progression of lower urinary tract symptoms in the REDUCE (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) study. REDUCE was a randomized trial testing prostate cancer chemoprevention with dutasteride in men with prostate specific antigen 2.5 to 10 ng/ml and a negative biopsy. At baseline men completed MOS-Sleep and a scaled average was used to calculate the sleep score. Men were followed for 4 years and I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) was completed at baseline and every 6 months. Asymptomatic men had I-PSS less than 8 while symptomatic men had I-PSS 8 or greater. In the placebo arm of 2,588 men not receiving α-blockers or 5α-reductase inhibitors at baseline we tested the association between sleep problems and lower urinary tract symptom development and progression using Cox models. During followup lower urinary tract symptoms developed in 209 of 1,452 asymptomatic men (14%) and 580 of 1,136 (51%) with lower urinary tract symptoms demonstrated progression. On multivariable analysis higher sleep scores were suggestively associated with increased lower urinary tract symptoms in asymptomatic men (quartile 4 vs 1 HR 1.41, 95% CI 0.92-2.17, p = 0.12) and with lower urinary tract symptom progression in symptomatic men (per 10 points of sleep score HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.12, p = 0.029). Among men with lower urinary tract symptoms worse sleep scores were associated with the progression of lower urinary tract symptoms and among asymptomatic men worse sleep scores were suggestively associated with the development of lower urinary tract symptoms. If confirmed, these data suggest that sleep

  1. Learning about “wicked” problems in the Global South. Creating a film-based learning environment with “Visual Problem Appraisal”

    Witteveen, L.M.; Lie, R.

    2012-01-01

    The current complexity of sustainable development in the Global South calls for the design of learning strategies that can deal with this complexity. One such innovative learning strategy, called Visual Problem Appraisal (VPA), is highlighted in this article. The strategy is termed visual as it

  2. Globalization of problem-based learning (PBL): cross-cultural implications.

    Gwee, Matthew Choon-Eng

    2008-03-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is essentially a learning system design that incorporates several educational strategies to optimize student-centered learning outcomes beyond just knowledge acquisition. PBL was implemented almost four decades ago as an innovative and alternative pathway to learning in medical education in McMaster University Medical School. Since then, PBL has spread widely across the world and has now been adopted globally, including in much of Asia. The globalization of PBL has important cross-cultural implications. Delivery of instruction in PBL involves active peer teaching-learning in an open communication style. Consequently, this may pose an apparent serious conflict with the Asian communication style generally dominated by a cultural reticence. However, evidence available, especially from the PBL experience of some senior Korean medical students doing an elective in the University of Toronto Medical School and the cross-cultural PBL experience initiated by Kaohsiung Medical University, strongly suggests creating a conducive and supportive learning environment for students learning in a PBL setting can overcome the perceived cultural barriers; that is, nurture matters more than culture in the learning environment. Karaoke is very much an Asian initiative. The Karaoke culture and philosophy provide a useful lesson on how to create a conducive and supportive environment to encourage, enhance and motivate group activity. Some key attributes associated with Asian culture are in fact consistent with, and aligned to, some of the basic tenets of PBL, including the congruence between the Asian emphasis on group before individual interest, and the collaborative small group learning design used in PBL. Although there are great expectations of the educational outcomes students can acquire from PBL, the available evidence supports the contention the actual educational outcomes acquired from PBL do not really match the expected educational outcomes commonly

  3. Globalization of Problem-based Learning (PBL: Cross-cultural Implications

    Matthew Choon-Eng Gwee

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem-based learning (PBL is essentially a learning system design that incorporates several educational strategies to optimize student-centered learning outcomes beyond just knowledge acquisition. PBL was implemented almost four decades ago as an innovative and alternative pathway to learning in medical education in McMaster University Medical School. Since then, PBL has spread widely across the world and has now been adopted globally, including in much of Asia. The globalization of PBL has important cross-cultural implications. Delivery of instruction in PBL involves active peer teaching-learning in an open communication style. Consequently, this may pose an apparent serious conflict with the Asian communication style generally dominated by a cultural reticence. However, evidence available, especially from the PBL experience of some senior Korean medical students doing an elective in the University of Toronto Medical School and the cross-cultural PBL experience initiated by Kaohsiung Medical University, strongly suggests creating a conducive and supportive learning environment for students learning in a PBL setting can overcome the perceived cultural barriers; that is, nurture matters more than culture in the learning environment. Karaoke is very much an Asian initiative. The Karaoke culture and philosophy provide a useful lesson on how to create a conducive and supportive environment to encourage, enhance and motivate group activity. Some key attributes associated with Asian culture are in fact consistent with, and aligned to, some of the basic tenets of PBL, including the congruence between the Asian emphasis on group before individual interest, and the collaborative small group learning design used in PBL. Although there are great expectations of the educational outcomes students can acquire from PBL, the available evidence supports the contention the actual educational outcomes acquired from PBL do not really match the expected

  4. Enhancing global control of alcohol to reduce unsafe sex and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    Rees Helen V

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa carries a massive dual burden of HIV and alcohol disease, and these pandemics are inextricably linked. Physiological and behavioural research indicates that alcohol independently affects decision-making concerning sex, and skills for negotiating condoms and their correct use. More than 20 studies in Africa have reported higher occurrence of HIV among people with problem drinking; a finding strongly consistent across studies and similar among women and men. Conflation of HIV and alcohol disease in these setting is not surprising given patterns of heavy-episodic drinking and that drinking contexts are often coterminous with opportunities for sexual encounters. HIV and alcohol also share common ground with sexual violence. Both perpetrators and victims of sexual violence have a high likelihood of having drunk alcohol prior to the incident, as with most forms of violence and injury in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing alcohol harms necessitates multi-level interventions and should be considered a key component of structural interventions to alleviate the burden of HIV and sexual violence. Brief interventions for people with problem drinking (an important component of primary health care, must incorporate specific discussion of links between alcohol and unsafe sex, and consequences thereof. Interventions to reduce alcohol harm among HIV-infected persons are also an important element in positive-prevention initiatives. Most importantly, implementation of known effective interventions could alleviate a large portion of the alcohol-attributable burden of disease, including its effects on unsafe sex, unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission.

  5. Effective strategies to reduce commercial tobacco use in Indigenous communities globally: A systematic review.

    Minichiello, Alexa; Lefkowitz, Ayla R F; Firestone, Michelle; Smylie, Janet K; Schwartz, Robert

    2016-01-11

    All over the world, Indigenous populations have remarkably high rates of commercial tobacco use compared to non-Indigenous groups. The high rates of commercial tobacco use in Indigenous populations have led to a variety of health issues and lower life expectancy than the general population. The objectives of this systematic review were to investigate changes in the initiation, consumption and quit rates of commercial tobacco use as well as changes in knowledge, prevalence, community interest, and smoke-free environments in Indigenous populations. We also aimed to understand which interventions had broad reach, what the common elements that supported positive change were and how Aboriginal self-determination was reflected in program implementation. We undertook a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications and grey literature selected from seven databases and 43 electronic sources. We included studies between 1994 and 2015 if they addressed an intervention (including provision of a health service or program, education or training programs) aimed to reduce the use of commercial tobacco use in Indigenous communities globally. Systematic cross-regional canvassing of informants in Canada and internationally with knowledge of Indigenous health and/or tobacco control provided further leads about commercial tobacco reduction interventions. We extracted data on program characteristics, study design and learnings including successes and challenges. In the process of this review, we investigated 73 commercial tobacco control interventions in Indigenous communities globally. These interventions incorporated a myriad of activities to reduce, cease or protect Indigenous peoples from the harms of commercial tobacco use. Interventions were successful in producing positive changes in initiation, consumption and quit rates. Interventions also facilitated increases in the number of smoke-free environments, greater understandings of the harms of commercial tobacco use and a

  6. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  7. Non-intrusive reduced order modeling of nonlinear problems using neural networks

    Hesthaven, J. S.; Ubbiali, S.

    2018-06-01

    We develop a non-intrusive reduced basis (RB) method for parametrized steady-state partial differential equations (PDEs). The method extracts a reduced basis from a collection of high-fidelity solutions via a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and employs artificial neural networks (ANNs), particularly multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs), to accurately approximate the coefficients of the reduced model. The search for the optimal number of neurons and the minimum amount of training samples to avoid overfitting is carried out in the offline phase through an automatic routine, relying upon a joint use of the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) training algorithm. This guarantees a complete offline-online decoupling, leading to an efficient RB method - referred to as POD-NN - suitable also for general nonlinear problems with a non-affine parametric dependence. Numerical studies are presented for the nonlinear Poisson equation and for driven cavity viscous flows, modeled through the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Both physical and geometrical parametrizations are considered. Several results confirm the accuracy of the POD-NN method and show the substantial speed-up enabled at the online stage as compared to a traditional RB strategy.

  8. The global dimension of water governance: Nine reasons for global arrangements in order to cope with local water problems

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2006-01-01

    Where water problems extend beyond the borders of local communities, the catchment area or river basin is generally seen as the most appropriate unit for analysis, planning and institutional arrangements. In this paper it is argued that addressing water problems at the river basin level is not

  9. Few-Group Transport Analysis of the Core-Reflector Problem in Fast Reactor Cores via Equivalent Group Condensation and Local/Global Iteration

    Won, Jong Hyuck; Cho, Nam Zin

    2011-01-01

    In deterministic neutron transport methods, a process called fine-group to few-group condensation is used to reduce the computational burden. However, recent results on the core-reflector problem in fast reactor cores show that use of a small number of energy groups has limitation to describe neutron flux around core reflector interface. Therefore, researches are still ongoing to overcome this limitation. Recently, the authors proposed I) direct application of equivalently condensed angle-dependent total cross section to discrete ordinates method to overcome the limitation of conventional multi-group approximations, and II) local/global iteration framework in which fine-group discrete ordinates calculation is used in local problems while few-group transport calculation is used in the global problem iteratively. In this paper, an analysis of the core-reflector problem is performed in few-group structure using equivalent angle-dependent total cross section with local/global iteration. Numerical results are obtained under S 12 discrete ordinates-like transport method with scattering cross section up to P1 Legendre expansion

  10. A Study on Efficiency Improvement of the Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Method for Global Transport Problems

    Kim, Jong Woo; Woo, Myeong Hyeon; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2017-01-01

    In this study hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic method is explained for radiation transport analysis in global system. FW-CADIS methodology construct the weight window parameter and it useful at most global MC calculation. However, Due to the assumption that a particle is scored at a tally, less particles are transported to the periphery of mesh tallies. For compensation this space-dependency, we modified the module in the ADVANTG code to add the proposed method. We solved the simple test problem for comparing with result from FW-CADIS methodology, it was confirmed that a uniform statistical error was secured as intended. In the future, it will be added more practical problems. It might be useful to perform radiation transport analysis using the Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic method in global transport problems.

  11. Global exergetic dimension of hydrogen use in reducing fossil fuel consumption

    Adnan Midilli; Ibrahim Dincer

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for minimizing the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient of global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions such as global waste exergy factor, global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based-global exergetic indicator. In order to investigate the role of hydrogen use at minimizing the fossil fuel based global irreversibility, the actual fossil fuel consumption data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient will decrease. (author)

  12. Canceling effect: a natural mechanism to reduce the effects of global warming

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    The temperature sensitivity of enzymes responsible for organic matter decomposition in soil is crucial for predicting the effects of global warming on the carbon cycle and sequestration. We tested the hypothesis that differences in temperature sensitivity of enzyme kinetic parameters Vmax and Km will lead to a canceling effect: strong reduction of temperature response of catalytic reactions. Short-term temperature response of Vmax and Km of three hydrolytic enzymes responsible for decomposition of cellulose (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase) and hemicelluloses (xylanase) were analyzed in situ from 0 to 40 °C. The apparent activation energy varied between enzymes from 20.7 to 35.2 kJ mol-1 corresponding to the Q10 values of the enzyme activities of 1.4-1.9 (with Vmax-Q10 1.0-2.5 and Km-Q10 0.94-2.3). Temperature response of all tested enzymes fitted well to the Arrhenius equation. Despite that,the fitting of Arrhenius model revealed the non-linear increase of two cellulolytic enzymes activities with two distinct thresholds at 10-15 °C and 25-30 °C, which were less pronounced for xylanase. The nonlinearity between 10 and 15 °C was explained by 30-80% increase in Vmax. At 25-30 °C, however, the abrupt decrease of enzyme-substrate affinity was responsible for non-linear increase of enzyme activities. Our study is the first demonstrating nonlinear response of Vmax and Km to temperature causing canceling effect, which was most strongly pronounced at low substrate concentrations and at temperatures above 15 °C. Under cold climate, however, the regulation of hydrolytic activity by canceling in response to warming is negligible because canceling was never observed below 10 °C. The canceling, therefore, can be considered as natural mechanism reducing the effects of global warming on decomposition of soil organics at moderate temperatures. The non-linearity of enzyme responses to warming and the respective thresholds should therefore be investigated for other enzymes

  13. Assessing the contribution of beach-cast seagrass wrack to global GHGs emissions: experimental models, problems and perspectives

    Misson, Gloria; Incerti, Guido; Alberti, Giorgio; Delle Vedove, Gemini; Pirelli, Tiziana; Peressotti, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Carbon stock in coastal seagrass ecosystems is estimated to be 4.2-8.4 Pg C. While covering less than 0.2% of the ocean floor, seagrasses store about 10% of the carbon buried in the oceans each year. However, such a potential contribution is reduced by the annual loss of seagrasses globally (-1.5% per year) mainly because of anthropogenic coastal development and climate change. Like many terrestrial higher plants, marine seagrasses lose their old leaves during annual or inter-annual senescence, and a significant proportion of these residues is transported in surface waters and washed up on shores by surf, tides and winds. This beach-cast seagrass wrack provides important ecosystem services, such as reducing wave impact, protecting beaches from erosion, providing habitat to bird and invertebrate species that colonize shorelines, and being a primary food resource for beach detritivores. However, accumulation of seagrass wrack on beaches, following degradation of meadows, can negatively impact tourism. Therefore, wrack piles are frequently collected and disposed of in landfills or biomass waste facilities, and the adoption of these management practices implies substantial environmental and economic costs. On the other hand, wrack piles might be a significant source of greenhouse emissions (GHGs). Recent studies reported CO2 emission rates and suggested possible mitigation options, such as energy conversion and biochar production through pyrolysis. Even though quantitative estimates of both seagrass coastal distribution and residues disposal to seashores are partially available, at least at regional level, the assessment of their contribution to global GHGs emissions is still lacking, due to a knowledge gap about the effects of peculiar environmental conditions of beach ecosystems on seagrass decay rates. In this framework, we propose an experimental model to assess seagrass wrack decomposition dynamics in both controlled conditions and experimental fields in North

  14. A non-linear branch and cut method for solving discrete minimum compliance problems to global optimality

    Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper present some initial results pertaining to a search for globally optimal solutions to a challenging benchmark example proposed by Zhou and Rozvany. This means that we are dealing with global optimization of the classical single load minimum compliance topology design problem with a fixed...... finite element discretization and with discrete design variables. Global optimality is achieved by the implementation of some specially constructed convergent nonlinear branch and cut methods, based on the use of natural relaxations and by applying strengthening constraints (linear valid inequalities...

  15. A non-linear branch and cut method for solving discrete minimum compliance problems to global optimality

    Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper present some initial results pertaining to a search for globally optimal solutions to a challenging benchmark example proposed by Zhou and Rozvany. This means that we are dealing with global optimization of the classical single load minimum compliance topology design problem with a fixed...... finite element discretization and with discrete design variables. Global optimality is achieved by the implementation of some specially constructed convergent nonlinear branch and cut methods, based on the use of natural relaxations and by applying strengthening constraints (linear valid inequalities......) and cuts....

  16. Modeling Multioperator Multi-UAV Operator Attention Allocation Problem Based on Maximizing the Global Reward

    Yuhang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the attention allocation problem (AAP in modeling multioperator multi-UAV (MOMU, with the operator model and task properties taken into consideration. The model of MOMU operator AAP based on maximizing the global reward is established and used to allocate tasks to all operators as well as set work time and rest time to each task simultaneously for operators. The proposed model is validated in Matlab simulation environment, using the immune algorithm and dynamic programming algorithm to evaluate the performance of the model in terms of the reward value with regard to the work time, rest time, and task allocation. The result shows that the total reward of the proposed model is larger than the one obtained from previously published methods using local maximization and the total reward of our method has an exponent-like relation with the task arrival rate. The proposed model can improve the operators’ task processing efficiency in the MOMU command and control scenarios.

  17. Leptin, An Adipokine With Central Importance in the Global Obesity Problem.

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Zhao, Shan; Garvey, W Timothy

    2017-12-13

    Leptin has central importance in the global obesity and cardiovascular disease problem. Leptin is principally secreted by adipocytes and acts in the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and food intake, increase energy expenditure, and regulate body weight. Based on clinical translation of specific and networked actions, leptin affects the cardiovascular system and may be a marker and driver of cardiometabolic risk factors with interventions that are actionable by cardiologists. Leptin subnetwork analysis demonstrates a statistically significant role for ethnoculturally and socioeconomically appropriate lifestyle intervention in cardiovascular disease. Emergent mechanistic components and potential diagnostic or therapeutic targets include hexokinase 3, urocortins, clusterin, sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 6, C-reactive protein, platelet glycoprotein VI, albumin, pentraxin 3, ghrelin, obestatin prepropeptide, leptin receptor, neuropeptide Y, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1. Emergent associated symptoms include weight change, eating disorders, vascular necrosis, chronic fatigue, and chest pain. Leptin-targeted therapies are reported for lipodystrophy and leptin deficiency, but they are investigational for leptin resistance, obesity, and other chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictability problems of global change as seen through natural systems complexity description. 2. Approach

    Vladimir V. Kozoderov

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing the general statements of the proposed global change theory, outlined in Part 1 of the publication, Kolmogorov's probability space is used to study properties of information measures (unconditional, joint and conditional entropies, information divergence, mutual information, etc.. Sets of elementary events, the specified algebra of their sub-sets and probability measures for the algebra are composite parts of the space. The information measures are analyzed using the mathematical expectance operator and the adequacy between an additive function of sets and their equivalents in the form of the measures. As a result, explanations are given to multispectral satellite imagery visualization procedures using Markov's chains of random variables represented by pixels of the imagery. The proposed formalism of the information measures application enables to describe the natural targets complexity by syntactically governing probabilities. Asserted as that of signal/noise ratios finding for anomalies of natural processes, the predictability problem is solved by analyses of temporal data sets of related measurements for key regions and their background within contextually coherent structures of natural targets and between particular boundaries of the structures.

  19. On global solutions of the random Hamilton-Jacobi equations and the KPZ problem

    Bakhtin, Yuri; Khanin, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss possible qualitative approaches to the problem of KPZ universality. Throughout the paper, our point of view is based on the geometrical and dynamical properties of minimisers and shocks forming interlacing tree-like structures. We believe that the KPZ universality can be explained in terms of statistics of these structures evolving in time. The paper is focussed on the setting of the random Hamilton-Jacobi equations. We formulate several conjectures concerning global solutions and discuss how their properties are connected to the KPZ scalings in dimension 1  +  1. In the case of general viscous Hamilton-Jacobi equations with non-quadratic Hamiltonians, we define generalised directed polymers. We expect that their behaviour is similar to the behaviour of classical directed polymers, and present arguments in favour of this conjecture. We also define a new renormalisation transformation defined in purely geometrical terms and discuss conjectural properties of the corresponding fixed points. Most of our conjectures are widely open, and supported by only partial rigorous results for particular models.

  20. THE GLOBAL GOVERNANCE PROBLEM AND THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

    Sidorova E. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, globalization begins to permeate more and more areas of human activity, therefore it is important question of the complex mechanisms and principles of global governance formation.The article analyzes the essence, subjects and mechanisms for the implementation of the global economic governance. Moreover, it investigates the role and current state of the International Monetary Fund (IMF in the global economy. In conclusion, it clarifies the relationship of the IMF and processes of global governance. Research has shown that it is necessary to create within the IMF more representative, economically and politically balanced system of global governance of the world monetary and financial relations as part of the emerging mechanisms of global economic governance. This article extends the knowledge about the features of the IMF in the forming global governance.

  1. Higher levels of depression are associated with reduced global bias in visual processing.

    de Fockert, Jan W; Cooper, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Negative moods have been associated with a tendency to prioritise local details in visual processing. The current study investigated the relation between depression and visual processing using the Navon task, a standard task of local and global processing. In the Navon task, global stimuli are presented that are made up of many local parts, and the participants are instructed to report the identity of either a global or a local target shape. Participants with a low self-reported level of depression showed evidence of the expected global processing bias, and were significantly faster at responding to the global, compared with the local level. By contrast, no such difference was observed in participants with high levels of depression. The reduction of the global bias associated with high levels of depression was only observed in the overall speed of responses to global (versus local) targets, and not in the level of interference produced by the global (versus local) distractors. These results are in line with recent findings of a dissociation between local/global processing bias and interference from local/global distractors, and support the claim that depression is associated with a reduction in the tendency to prioritise global-level processing.

  2. Comments on the comparison of global methods for linear two-point boundary value problems

    de Boor, C.; Swartz, B.

    1977-01-01

    A more careful count of the operations involved in solving the linear system associated with collocation of a two-point boundary value problem using a rough splines reverses results recently reported by others in this journal. In addition, it is observed that the use of the technique of ''condensation of parameters'' can decrease the computer storage required. Furthermore, the use of a particular highly localized basis can also reduce the setup time when the mesh is irregular. Finally, operation counts are roughly estimated for the solution of certain linear system associated with two competing collocation methods; namely, collocation with smooth splines and collocation of the equivalent first order system with continuous piecewise polynomials

  3. Global 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Levels Are Profoundly Reduced in Multiple Genitourinary Malignancies.

    Enrico Munari

    Full Text Available Solid tumors are characterized by a plethora of epigenetic changes. In particular, patterns methylation of cytosines at the 5-position (5mC in the context of CpGs are frequently altered in tumors. Recent evidence suggests that 5mC can get converted to 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC in an enzymatic process involving ten eleven translocation (TET protein family members, and this process appears to be important in facilitating plasticity of cytosine methylation. Here we evaluated the global levels of 5hmC using a validated immunohistochemical staining method in a large series of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n = 111, urothelial cell carcinoma (n = 55 and testicular germ cell tumors (n = 84 and matched adjacent benign tissues. Whereas tumor-adjacent benign tissues were mostly characterized by high levels of 5hmC, renal cell carcinoma and urothelial cell carcinoma showed dramatically reduced staining for 5hmC. 5hmC levels were low in both primary tumors and metastases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and showed no association with disease outcomes. In normal testis, robust 5hmC staining was only observed in stroma and Sertoli cells. Seminoma showed greatly reduced 5hmC immunolabeling, whereas differentiated teratoma, embryonal and yolk sack tumors exhibited high 5hmC levels. The substantial tumor specific loss of 5hmC, particularly in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and urothelial cell carcinoma, suggests that alterations in pathways involved in establishing and maintaining 5hmC levels might be very common in cancer and could potentially be exploited for diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Grazing reduces soil greenhouse gas fluxes in global grasslands: a meta-analysis

    Tang, Shiming; Tian, Dashuan; Niu, Shuli

    2017-04-01

    Grazing causes a worldwide degradation in grassland and likely alters soil greenhouse gas fluxes (GHGs). However, the general patterns of grazing-induced changes in grassland soil GHGs and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we synthesized 63 independent experiments in global grasslands that examined grazing impacts on soil GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O). We found that grazing with light or moderate intensity did not significantly influence soil GHGs, but consistently depressed them under heavy grazing, reducing CO2 emission by 10.55%, CH4 uptake by 19.24% and N2O emission by 28.04%. The reduction in soil CO2 was mainly due to decreased activity in roots and microbes (soil respiration per unit root and microbial biomass), which was suppressed by less water availability due to higher soil temperature induced by lower community cover under heavy grazing. N2O emission decreased with grazing-caused decline in soil total N. The inhibitory effect on methanotroph activities by water stress is responsible for the decreased CH4 uptake. Furthermore, grazing duration and precipitation also influenced the direction and magnitude of responses in GHGs fluxes. Overall, our results indicate that the reduction in soil CO2 and N2O emission under heavy grazing is partially compensated by the decrease in CH4 uptake, which is mainly regulated by variations in soil moisture.

  5. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  6. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  7. Reduced-Size Integer Linear Programming Models for String Selection Problems: Application to the Farthest String Problem.

    Zörnig, Peter

    2015-08-01

    We present integer programming models for some variants of the farthest string problem. The number of variables and constraints is substantially less than that of the integer linear programming models known in the literature. Moreover, the solution of the linear programming-relaxation contains only a small proportion of noninteger values, which considerably simplifies the rounding process. Numerical tests have shown excellent results, especially when a small set of long sequences is given.

  8. Stress and coping mediate relationships between contingent and global self-esteem and alcohol-related problems among college drinkers.

    Tomaka, Joe; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Shamaley, Angelee Gigi

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the hypotheses that contingent self-esteem would be positively associated with alcohol-related problems and that global self-esteem would be negatively associated with such problems. It also examined the hypothesis that high stress and maladaptive coping would mediate these relationships. A sample of college students (n = 399) who were predominantly Hispanic (89%) completed measures of global and contingent self-esteem; stress and coping; and alcohol-related problems. Correlational and latent variable analyses indicated that contingent self-esteem positively related to alcohol-related problems, with maladaptive coping mediating this relationship. In contrast, global self-esteem negatively related to such problems, a relationship that was also mediated by maladaptive coping and stress. Overall, the results highlight the potentially harmful consequences of contingent self-worth and the adaptive nature of non-contingent self-esteem. They also demonstrate the important role that coping plays in mediating self-esteem's associations with alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Learning about “wicked” problems in the Global South. Creating a film-based learning environment with “Visual Problem Appraisal”

    Loes Witteveen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The current complexity of sustainable development in the Global South calls for the design of learning strategies that can deal with this complexity. One such innovative learning strategy, called Visual Problem Appraisal (VPA, is highlighted in this article. The strategy is termed visual as it creates a learning environment that is film-based. VPA enhances the analysis of complex issues, and facilitates stakeholder dialogue and action planning. The strategy is used in workshops dealing with problem analysis and policy design, and involves the participants “meeting” stakeholders through filmed narratives. The article demonstrates the value of using film in multi stakeholder learning environments addressing issues concerning sustainable development.

  10. Learning about “wicked” problems in the Global South. Creating a film-based learning environment with “Visual Problem Appraisal”

    Loes Witteveen; Rico Lie

    2012-01-01

    The current complexity of sustainable development in the Global South calls for the design of learning strategies that can deal with this complexity. One such innovative learning strategy, called Visual Problem Appraisal (VPA), is highlighted in this article. The strategy is termed visual as it creates a learning environment that is film-based. VPA enhances the analysis of complex issues, and facilitates stakeholder dialogue and action planning. The strategy is used in workshops dealing with ...

  11. Global sensitivity analysis of computer-aided molecular design problem for the development of novel working fluids for power cycles

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    This study compares two methods for global sensitivity analysis as a new approach for the identification and ranking of target properties in molecular design problems: A modified Morris Screening technique and Monte Carlo based standard regression. The two methodologies are highlighted in a case ...

  12. Lagged life cycle structures for food products: Their role in global marketing, their determinants and some problems in their estimation

    Baadsgaard, Allan; Gede, Mads Peter; Grunert, Klaus G.

    cycles for different product categories may be lagged (type II lag) because changes in economic and other factors will result in demands for different products. Identifying lagged life cycle structures major importance in global marketing of food products. The problems in arriving at such estimates...

  13. Global solutions to the initial-boundary value problem for the quasilinear viscoelastic equation with a derivative nonlinearity

    Mitsuhiro Nakao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence and uniqueness of a global decaying solution to the initial boundary value problem for the quasilinear wave equation with Kelvin-Voigt dissipation and a derivative nonlinearity. To derive the required estimates of the solutions we employ a 'loan' method and use a difference inequality on the energy.

  14. The Role of Information Professionals in Reducing the Effects of Global Warming through Knowledge Management

    Lect. Ph. D. Priti Jain

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of global environmental change, global warming is the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century. It could lead to the ultimate end of existence of earth and man. Potential catastrophic effects on the environment and for human life are one of the biggest concerns and most widely discussed issues in the world. This paper will explore how Information Professionals can build knowledge management related to global warming and thus make their contribution towards a sustainable environment. With a brief discussion of causes, effects, solutions and challenges related to global warming, the conclusion suggests a way forward for librarians and information professionals.

  15. A Review of Single-Case Studies Utilizing Self-Monitoring Interventions to Reduce Problem Classroom Behaviors

    Sheffield, Kim; Waller, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Trying to manage the problem behaviors of one or two students in the classroom can take teachers away from valuable instructional time with all students. However, these problem behaviors can be reduced and student engagement increased by teachers implementing effective behavior management strategies. 2008). Because behavior management is only one…

  16. Using Facebook to deliver a social norm intervention to reduce problem drinking at university.

    Ridout, Brad; Campbell, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    University students usually overestimate peer alcohol use, resulting in them 'drinking up' to perceived norms. Social norms theory suggests correcting these inflated perceptions can reduce alcohol consumption. Recent findings by the current authors show portraying oneself as 'a drinker' is considered by many students to be a socially desirable component of their Facebook identity, perpetuating an online culture that normalises binge drinking. However, social networking sites have yet to be utilised in social norms interventions. Actual and perceived descriptive and injunctive drinking norms were collected from 244 university students. Ninety-five students screened positive for hazardous drinking and were randomly allocated to a control group or intervention group that received social norms feedback via personalised Facebook private messages over three sessions. At 1 month post-intervention, the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumed by intervention group during the previous month had significantly reduced compared with baseline and controls. Reductions were maintained 3 months post-intervention. Intervention group perceived drinking norms were significantly more accurate post-intervention. This is the first study to test the feasibility of using Facebook to deliver social norms interventions. Correcting misperceptions of peer drinking norms resulted in clinically significant reductions in alcohol use. Facebook has many advantages over traditional social norms delivery, providing an innovative method for tackling problem drinking at university. These results have implications for the use of Facebook to deliver positive messages about safe alcohol use to students, which may counter the negative messages regarding alcohol normally seen on Facebook. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Global-in-time smoothness of solutions to the vacuum free boundary problem for compressible isentropic Navier–Stokes equations

    Zeng, Huihui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we establish the global existence of smooth solutions to vacuum free boundary problems of the one-dimensional compressible isentropic Navier–Stokes equations for which the smoothness extends all the way to the boundaries. The results obtained in this work include the physical vacuum for which the sound speed is C 1/2 -Hölder continuous near the vacuum boundaries when 1 < γ < 3. The novelty of this result is its global-in-time regularity which is in contrast to the previous main results of global weak solutions in the literature. Moreover, in previous studies of the one-dimensional free boundary problems of compressible Navier–Stokes equations, the Lagrangian mass coordinates method has often been used, but in the present work the particle path (flow trajectory) method is adopted, which has the advantage that the particle paths and, in particular, the free boundaries can be traced. (paper)

  18. Education of a Future Human is the Key to Solving the Global Problems Facing Humanity

    Olga Khrystenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research considers two Global problems of the humanity:intercivilizational contradictions and the pandemic of abortion as serious conflicts, the solution of which depends on the relevant public educational policies. The tension in the relationship between the Islamic World and the West, caused by the so-called “caricature scandal”, encourages to understanding the conflict and the ways of its solution. There is also the problem of massive numbers of abortions in the world that requires a scientific analysis and relevant conclusions. The research revealed that both sides of intercivilizational conflicts are responsible for it. The freedom of speech as an ingredient of democracy cannot exist only for itself. It should be based on the human values, including respect for other nations, religions, cultures, as well as the protection of human life. The second part of the research concerns the pandemic of abortion. Based on the achievements of modern embryology, sociology and bioethics, four levels of this conflict were defined. The first level is a conflict concerning the life of the unborn child. The second one is a conflict concerning a mother. The third one is a conflict with the nation. The fourth one is a conflict with God. On these issues, the survey was conducted among the first year medical students at Ternopil State Medical University. It was also concluded that it would have been useful to present the model of state policy aimed to prevent conflictsbetween civilizations, aswellasthepandemicofabortiontothestudents. Thispolicy should include: information policy (promotion of the idea that human life is the highest value, and human relationships should be based on the principles of tolerance; education policy (education in today’s youth of the culture of interpersonal relationships based on honesty, responsibility; social policy (creation of the material conditions for young families, single mothers; policy in the health sector

  19. Reduced memory specificity predicts the acquisition of problem solving skills in psychoeducation.

    Van Daele, Tom; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Raes, Filip; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-03-01

    Research has shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a valid predictor for the course of depression. It is not known, however, whether OGM also moderates information uptake and consolidation in a psychoeducation program to prevent stress, anxiety and depression. The present study was designed to investigate whether the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams, & Broadbent, 1986) is a valid predictor for the actual unfolding of skills learned through psychoeducation. The questionnaire included primarily the AMT and the Stress Anxiety Depression Means-Ends Problem Solving Questionnaire (SAD-MEPS). It was filled in prior to and after the psychoeducational course by 23 participants. Correlations were calculated for the AMT at baseline and the differences between the pre and post measurements on the SAD-MEPS. Significant correlations were observed between the number of specific responses and the changes in the number of relevant means (r = .49, p < .01). The sample size was rather small, but several checks were able to reduce the chance of spurious findings. These findings may have important implications for the guidance to and the setup of psychoeducational interventions. Suggestions include screening and memory specificity training prior to course commencement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Communication Reducing Algorithms for Distributed Hierarchical N-Body Problems with Boundary Distributions

    AbdulJabbar, Mustafa Abdulmajeed

    2017-05-11

    Reduction of communication and efficient partitioning are key issues for achieving scalability in hierarchical N-Body algorithms like Fast Multipole Method (FMM). In the present work, we propose three independent strategies to improve partitioning and reduce communication. First, we show that the conventional wisdom of using space-filling curve partitioning may not work well for boundary integral problems, which constitute a significant portion of FMM’s application user base. We propose an alternative method that modifies orthogonal recursive bisection to relieve the cell-partition misalignment that has kept it from scaling previously. Secondly, we optimize the granularity of communication to find the optimal balance between a bulk-synchronous collective communication of the local essential tree and an RDMA per task per cell. Finally, we take the dynamic sparse data exchange proposed by Hoefler et al. [1] and extend it to a hierarchical sparse data exchange, which is demonstrated at scale to be faster than the MPI library’s MPI_Alltoallv that is commonly used.

  1. An Improved Cuckoo Search for a Patient Transportation Problem with Consideration of Reducing Transport Emissions

    Liyang Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many government agencies and business organizations have realized that it is necessary to consider not only the economic cost but also the road transport emissions when they determine the transport policies and operations. In this study, a patient transportation problem with the aim of reducing transport emissions has been formulated by implementing CVRP model. In order to determine the routes of patient transportation with optimized emissions for targeted hospital, an improved Cuckoo Search (ICS algorithm is proposed. In this study, a ‘split’ procedure has been implemented to simplify the individual’s representation. A new category of cuckoos has been introduced to improve the ICS’s search ability. Two heuristics have been applied to improve the quality of initial population. A local search mechanism has been embedded in the search procedure to improve the quality of solutions obtained at the end of each iteration. The computational results were encouraging and demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution method.

  2. Technological significances to reduce the material problems. Feasibility of heat flux reduction

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Shimada, Michiya.

    1994-01-01

    For a divertor plate in a fusion power reactor, a high temperature coolant must be used for heat removal to keep thermal efficiency high. It makes the temperature and thermal stress of wall materials higher than the design limits. Issues of the coolant itself, e.g. burnout of high temperature water, will also become a serious problem. Sputtering erosion of the surface material will be a great concern of its lifetime. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the heat and particle loads to the divertor plate technologically. The feasibility of some technological methods of heat reduction, such as separatrix sweeping, is discussed. As one of the most promising ideas, the methods of radiative cooling of the divertor plasma are summarized based on the recent results of large tokamaks. The feasibility of remote radiative cooling and gas divertor is discussed. The ideas are considered in recent design studies of tokamak power reactors and experimental reactors. By way of example, conceptual designs of divertor plate for the steady state tokamak power reactor are described. (author)

  3. Delivering interventions to reduce the global burden of stillbirths: improving service supply and community demand

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Darmstadt, Gary L; Haws, Rachel A; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Lawn, Joy E

    2009-01-01

    impact of the wide-scale implementation of these strategies on stillbirth rates. Strategies to improve quality of care by upgrading the skills of community cadres have shown demonstrable impact on perinatal mortality, particularly in conjunction with health systems strengthening and facilitation of referrals. Neonatal resuscitation training for physicians and other health workers shows potential to prevent many neonatal deaths currently misclassified as stillbirths. Perinatal audit systems, which aim to improve quality of care by identifying deficiencies in care, are a quality improvement measure that shows some evidence of benefit for changes in clinical practice that prevent stillbirths, and are strongly recommended wherever practical, whether as hospital case review or as confidential enquiry at district or national level. Conclusion Delivering interventions to reduce the global burden of stillbirths requires action at all levels of the health system. Packages of interventions should be tailored to local conditions, including local levels and causes of stillbirth, accessibility of care and health system resources and provider skill. Antenatal care can potentially serve as a platform to deliver interventions to improve maternal nutrition, promote behaviour change to reduce harmful exposures and risk of infections, screen for and treat risk factors, and encourage skilled attendance at birth. Following the example of high-income countries, improving intrapartum monitoring for fetal distress and access to Caesarean section in low-/middle-income countries appears to be key to reducing intrapartum stillbirth. In remote or low-resource settings, families and communities can be galvanised to demand and seek quality care through financial incentives and health promotion efforts of local cadres of health workers, though these interventions often require simultaneous health systems strengthening. Perinatal audit can aid in the development of better standards of care, improving

  4. Apocalypse soon? Dire messages reduce belief in global warming by contradicting just-world beliefs.

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb

    2011-01-01

    Though scientific evidence for the existence of global warming continues to mount, in the United States and other countries belief in global warming has stagnated or even decreased in recent years. One possible explanation for this pattern is that information about the potentially dire consequences of global warming threatens deeply held beliefs that the world is just, orderly, and stable. Individuals overcome this threat by denying or discounting the existence of global warming, and this process ultimately results in decreased willingness to counteract climate change. Two experiments provide support for this explanation of the dynamics of belief in global warming, suggesting that less dire messaging could be more effective for promoting public understanding of climate-change research.

  5. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  6. Local plant responses to global problems: Dactylis glomerata responses to different traffic pollutants on roadsides.

    Jiménez, M D; de Torre, R; Mola, I; Casado, M A; Balaguer, L

    2018-04-15

    The growing number of road vehicles is a major source of regional and global atmospheric pollution increasing concentrations of CO 2 in the air, and levels of metals in air and soil. Nevertheless, the effects of these pollutants on plants growing at roadsides are poorly documented. We carried out an observational study of unmanipulated plants growing by the road, to identify the morpho-physiological responses in a perennial grass Dactylis glomerata. Firstly, we wanted to know the general effect of traffic intensity and ambient CO 2 and its interactions on different plant traits. Accordingly, we analyzed the photosynthetic response by field A/Ci Response Curves, SLA, pigment pools, foliar nitrogen, carbohydrates and morphological traits in plants at three distances to the road. Secondly, we wanted to know if Dactylis glomerata plants can accumulate metals present on the roadside (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Sr) in their tissues and rhizosphere, and the effect of these metals on morphological traits. The MANCOVA whole model results shown: 1) a significant effect of road ambient CO 2 concentration on morphological traits (not affected by traffic intensity, P interaction CO2 x traffic intensity >0.05), that was mainly driven by a significant negative relationship between the inflorescence number and ambient CO 2 ; 2) a positive and significant relationship between ambient CO 2 and the starch content in leaves (unaffected by traffic intensity); 3) a reduction in J max (electron transport rate) at high traffic intensity. These lines of evidences suggest a decreased photosynthetic capacity due to high traffic intensity and high levels of ambient CO 2 . In addition, Pb, Cu, Zn and Sr were detected in Dactylis glomerata tissues, and Cu accumulated in roots. Finally, we observed that Dactylis glomerata individuals growing at the roadside under high levels of CO 2 and in the presence of metal pollutants, reduced their production of inflorescences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. An Analysis of Global Problems Issues in Sixth and Seventh Grade Science Textbooks.

    Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis

    The study examines the extent to which the global issues of population growth, world hunger, air quality and atmosphere, and water resources were treated in sixth and seventh grade science textbooks. Ten textbooks were examined by five raters to determine the amount of content presented by different textbooks on global issues, the number of pages…

  8. Millennial medical anthropology: from there to here and beyond, or the problem of global health.

    Gaines, Atwood D

    2011-03-01

    While much of Medical Anthropology was and is what we can call "Normal" (following Kuhn) Medical Anthropology, I coined the term Millennial Medical Anthropology for that branch of the discipline that, in the 1990s, was departing from the Normal research paradigms and was deserving of a distinct sobriquet. This paper considers the Strong Program in Medical Anthropology's Millennial Medical Anthropology and its key subdivisions, the Cultural Studies of Science and Cultural Bioethics. Specifically it considers Medical Anthropology's movement from the past into an ethical future wherein Normal Biomedicine, Bioethics and Global Health are problematized. This provides the basis for the construction of a truly anthropological global health (i.e., Global, Global Health or Global Health 2.0).

  9. Innovative Use of the Law to Address Complex Global Health Problems Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings toGlobal Health Governance?"

    Walls, Helen L; Ooms, Gorik

    2017-05-20

    Addressing the increasingly globalised determinants of many important problems affecting human health is a complex task requiring collective action. We suggest that part of the solution to addressing intractable global health issues indeed lies with the role of new legal instruments in the form of globally binding treaties, as described in the recent article of Nikogosian and Kickbusch. However, in addition to the use of international law to develop new treaties, another part of the solution may lie in innovative use of existing legal instruments. A 2015 court ruling in The Hague, which ordered the Dutch government to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 25% within five years, complements this perspective, suggesting a way forward for addressing global health problems that critically involves civil society and innovative use of existing domestic legal instruments. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  10. Reduce growth rate of light-duty vehicle travel to meet 2050 global climate goals

    Sager, Jalel; Apte, Joshua S; Lemoine, Derek M; Kammen, Daniel M, E-mail: jalel.sager@berkeley.edu, E-mail: japte@berkeley.edu, E-mail: dlemoine@berkeley.edu, E-mail: daniel.kammen@gmail.com [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Strong policies to constrain increasing global use of light-duty vehicles (cars and light trucks) should complement fuel efficiency and carbon intensity improvements in order to meet international greenhouse gas emission and climate targets for the year 2050.

  11. The Global Trend of Energy Saving and Carbon Reducing in Post-Kyoto Protocol Era

    Chih-Lun Chen

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, with increased focus on extreme global climates, the drastic population growth, and the exhaustion of resources, humanity has a greater need for and reliance on intelligent, technology-enhanced living, as well as more effective means of production. Being sustainable, green, and environmentally friendly is becoming more and more a global priority. Energy saving and carbon reduction are the keys to achieving intelligent living, clean production, and environmental responsibility...

  12. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight by 2015.

    Bahl, Rajiv; Martines, Jose; Bhandari, Nita; Biloglav, Zrinka; Edmond, Karen; Iyengar, Sharad; Kramer, Michael; Lawn, Joy E; Manandhar, D S; Mori, Rintaro; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Sachdev, H P S; Singhal, Nalini; Tomlinson, Mark; Victora, Cesar; Williams, Anthony F; Chan, Kit Yee; Rudan, Igor

    2012-06-01

    This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW), as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4. We applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. In the process coordinated by the World Health Organization in 2007-2008, 21 researchers with interest in child, maternal and newborn health suggested 82 research ideas that spanned across the broad spectrum of epidemiological research, health policy and systems research, improvement of existing interventions and development of new interventions. The 82 research questions were then assessed for answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, maximum potential for mortality reduction and the effect on equity using the CHNRI method. The top 10 identified research priorities were dominated by health systems and policy research questions (eg, identification of LBW infants born at home within 24-48 hours of birth for additional care; approaches to improve quality of care of LBW infants in health facilities; identification of barriers to optimal home care practices including care seeking; and approaches to increase the use of antenatal corticosteriods in preterm labor and to improve access to hospital care for LBW infants). These were followed by priorities for improvement of the existing interventions (eg, early initiation of breastfeeding, including feeding mode and techniques for those unable to suckle directly from the breast; improved cord care, such as chlorhexidine application; and alternative methods to Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) to keep LBW infants warm in community settings). The highest-ranked epidemiological question suggested improving criteria for identifying LBW infants who need to be cared for in a hospital. Among the new interventions, the greatest support was shown for the development of

  13. Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels

    Purdie, J.

    1995-01-01

    State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined

  14. Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas—Part I: Theory of relaxed problems

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    the case of discrete areas. This problem is of major practical relevance if the truss must be built from pre-produced bars with given areas. As a special case, we consider the design problem for a single bar area, i.e., a 0/1-problem. In contrast to heuristic methods considered in other approaches, Part I....... The main issue of the paper and of the approach lies in the fact that the relaxed nonlinear optimization problem can be formulated as a quadratic program (QP). Here the paper generalizes and extends the available theory from the literature. Although the Hessian of this QP is indefinite, it is possible...

  15. Global approach to the n-dimensional traveling salesman problem: Application to the optimization of crystallographic data collection

    Weinrach, J.B.; Bennett, D.W.

    1987-12-01

    An algorithm for the optimization of data collection time has been written and a subsequent computer program tested for diffractometer systems. The program, which utilizes a global statistical approach to the traveling salesman problem, yields reasonable solutions in a relatively short time. The algorithm has been successful in treating very large data sets (up to 4000 points) in three dimensions with subsequent time savings of ca 30%.

  16. Divide et impera: subgoaling reduces the complexity of probabilistic inference and problem solving.

    Maisto, Domenico; Donnarumma, Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-03-06

    It has long been recognized that humans (and possibly other animals) usually break problems down into smaller and more manageable problems using subgoals. Despite a general consensus that subgoaling helps problem solving, it is still unclear what the mechanisms guiding online subgoal selection are during the solution of novel problems for which predefined solutions are not available. Under which conditions does subgoaling lead to optimal behaviour? When is subgoaling better than solving a problem from start to finish? Which is the best number and sequence of subgoals to solve a given problem? How are these subgoals selected during online inference? Here, we present a computational account of subgoaling in problem solving. Following Occam's razor, we propose that good subgoals are those that permit planning solutions and controlling behaviour using less information resources, thus yielding parsimony in inference and control. We implement this principle using approximate probabilistic inference: subgoals are selected using a sampling method that considers the descriptive complexity of the resulting sub-problems. We validate the proposed method using a standard reinforcement learning benchmark (four-rooms scenario) and show that the proposed method requires less inferential steps and permits selecting more compact control programs compared to an equivalent procedure without subgoaling. Furthermore, we show that the proposed method offers a mechanistic explanation of the neuronal dynamics found in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys that solve planning problems. Our computational framework provides a novel integrative perspective on subgoaling and its adaptive advantages for planning, control and learning, such as for example lowering cognitive effort and working memory load. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. The future role of nuclear power in addressing global environmental problems

    Stumpf, W.

    1995-01-01

    Decision makers have to increasingly balance the costs versus benefits of various energy choices against a background of global environmental deterioration. This is particularly so in the choice of long term electricity production strategies where these have to be balanced against the potential of a very severe disruption of the world's climate due to global warming. In this presentation, the threat of global warming is quantified and scenarios are developed of future predicted energy consumption patterns and their impact on international policies to curb global warming, are analyzed. The conclusion is reached that the threat of global warming is so severe that, on the macro level, an international accepted strategy of utilising a proper balance between all forms of electricity production, is a matter of priority and that all national energy choices should be taken against this framework. Such strategic decisions on the macro level must, however, also translate into the micro level of energy production on topics which include: - more efficient plant utilisation; - more effective risk management; correct choice and application of technology; and - better understanding of issues concerning safety, quality and environmental impact. (author)

  18. A new prospect on global environmental problems in the case of climate change: the impacts of strategic complementarity between countries

    Heugues, M.

    2009-06-01

    Among global environmental problems, climate change is one of the most serious. According to nearly all scientists, the roots of the problem is related to the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere and linked with human activities. The global character of this problem turns it into a big challenge. Within a framework of international trade liberalization, the analysis emphasizes the consequences of the inter-dependencies between economic agents, i.e. States, and of their strategic behaviours - when implementing national environmental policy - on natural environment. Starting with a deliberately conventional model and considering that countries' strategy can be complementary when emitting GHG, we bring new results in many respects and with regard to the existing ones. The thesis includes four chapters. The study highlights the impacts of the nature of the inter-dependencies between countries i) on the existence and the properties of equilibrium solutions - first, when no country cooperates and then from a globally optimal point of view -, ii) on the sequence of decisions, i.e. the circumstances under which a leader endogenously emerges when initiating its national environmental policy, iii) on profitability and stability of an international environmental agreement (IEA), iv) on the level of participation to an IEA and on the environmental impact of such a cooperation. A distinct feature of this research is to rely on the theorems of super-modular game theory. (author)

  19. Reducing Children Behavior Problems: A Pilot Study of Tuning in to Kids in Iran

    Fateme Aghaie Meybodi

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: The Tuning in to Kids program appears to be a promising parenting intervention for mothers and children with disruptive behavior problems, offering a useful addition to usual programs used in Iran.

  20. Shifting problems and shifting policies to reduce student drop-out

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2016-01-01

    , as well as the policies that have been implemented in pursuit of improving student retention. The review identifies two pervasive ways in which the drop-out problem has been framed in both policy and research. The first locates the drop-out problem with individual students, while the second locates...... finds that the rate of student drop-out has been a cause for ongoing concern among policy makers for more than a century, and that the framing of the problem has shifted considerably over time. The problem has variously been placed with the individual apprentice, the basic structure of vocational......Education policy generally places a premium on raising the level of education attained by the young generation ultimately heading towards the labour market. While the rate of enrolment in post-compulsory education has risen in most countries, so too has the rate of drop-out, in particular from...

  1. Consumption, Ecological Footprints and Global Inequality: A Lesson in Individual and Structural Components of Environmental Problems

    Obach, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    As evidence of the growing ecological crisis mounts, it is imperative that sociologists speak to this social problem and incorporate a sociological perspective on environmental issues into the curriculum. Central to understanding how social issues relate to environmental problems is an examination of the ties between consumption and its ecological…

  2. A Novel Discrete Global-Best Harmony Search Algorithm for Solving 0-1 Knapsack Problems

    Wan-li Xiang

    2014-01-01

    is applied to decide whether or not a new randomly generated harmony is included into the HM. The proposed DGHS is evaluated on twenty knapsack problems with different scales and compared with other three metaheuristics from the literature. The experimental results indicate that DGHS is efficient, effective, and robust for solving difficult 0-1 knapsack problems.

  3. Experiments with duckweed-moth systems suggest global warming may reduce rather than promote herbivory

    Heide, van Tj.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Nes, van E.H.

    2006-01-01

    1. Wilf & Labandeira (1999)suggested that increased temperatures because of global warming will cause an increase in herbivory by insects. This conclusion was based on the supposed effect of temperature on herbivores but did not consider an effect of temperature on plant growth. 2. We studied

  4. On globally static and stationary cosmologies with or without a cosmological constant and the dark energy problem

    Buchert, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of spatially averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies in classical general relativity, effective Einstein equations govern the regional and the global dynamics of averaged scalar variables of cosmological models. A particular solution may be characterized by a cosmic equation of state. In this paper, it is pointed out that a globally static averaged dust model is conceivable without employing a compensating cosmological constant. Much in the spirit of Einstein's original model we discuss consequences for the global, but also for the regional properties of this cosmology. We then consider the wider class of globally stationary cosmologies that are conceivable in the presented framework. All these models are based on exact solutions of the averaged Einstein equations and provide examples of cosmologies in an out-of-equilibrium state, which we characterize by an information-theoretical measure. It is shown that such cosmologies preserve high-magnitude kinematical fluctuations and so tend to maintain their global properties. The same is true for a Λ-driven cosmos in such a state despite exponential expansion. We outline relations to inflationary scenarios and put the dark energy problem into perspective. Here, it is argued, on the grounds of the discussed cosmologies, that a classical explanation of dark energy through backreaction effects is theoretically conceivable, if the matter-dominated universe emerged from a non-perturbative state in the vicinity of the stationary solution. We also discuss a number of caveats that furnish strong counter arguments in the framework of structure formation in a perturbed Friedmannian model

  5. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  6. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  7. E-Waste and Harm to Vulnerable Populations : A Growing Global Problem

    Heacock, Michelle; Kelly, Carol B; Asante, Kwadwo A; Birnbaum, Linda S; Bergman, Ake L; Bruné, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Carpenter, David O; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia; Kamel, Mostafa; Landrigan, Philip J; Magalini, Federico; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Neira, Maria; Omar, Magdy; Pascale, Antonio; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D; Van den Berg, Martin; Suk, William A

    BACKGROUND: Electronic waste (e-waste) is produced in staggering quantities, estimated globally to be 41.8 million tonnes in 2014. Informal e-waste recycling is a source of much-needed income in many low- to middle-income countries. However, its handling and disposal in underdeveloped countries is

  8. Rosiglitazone Reduces Plasma Levels of Inflammatory and Hemostatic Biomarkers and Improves Global Endothelial Function in Habitual Heavy Smokers Without Diabetes Mellitus or Metabolic Syndrome

    I-Chih Chen

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Rosiglitazone significantly reduces plasma levels of inflammatory and hemostatic biomarkers, and restores global endothelial dysfunction, independently from insulin sensitization, in healthy smokers.

  9. Reduced heart rate variability in pet dogs affected by anxiety-related behaviour problems.

    Wormald, Dennis; Lawrence, Andrew J; Carter, Gabrielle; Fisher, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    We present here the first evidence of correlation between canine anxiety-related behavioural problems and heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is known to be related to a range of mental disorders in humans; however this has not been explored in dogs. Behavioural problems in dogs can result in suffering, property destruction and human injury. Dog behaviour problems were assessed by owner questionnaire and the extreme high and low scoring dogs were recruited into either affected (n=10) or unaffected (n=20) groups. HRV was assessed in dogs at their homes, while being held in lateral recumbency for 5min using manual restraint. Salivary cortisol samples were taken before and after HRV testing. Dogs were assessed as either being reactive to the procedure (barking, growling, struggling or shaking) or unreactive. There was no effect of reactivity or behaviour problems on salivary cortisol levels at baseline or in response to the treatment. There was a significant effect of reactivity on HR (F 1,26 =5.54; P=0.026), and no effect of behaviour problems (F 1,26 =1.07; P=0.311). There was no effect of reactivity on any of the HRV measures. The presence of behaviour problems had a significant effect on a range of measures of HRV, with unaffected dogs having higher standard deviation of RR intervals (F 1,26 =6.39; P=0.018), higher high frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =5.23; P=0.031) and higher low frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =9.25; P=0.005) power. There was no effect of behaviour problems on very low frequency spectrum power (F 1,26 =1.40; P=0.248). Together these results provide evidence for a fundamental physiological difference between dogs affected or unaffected with behaviour problems. This study provides evidence for further investigation into the role of HRV in the pathophysiology of canine anxiety-related behaviour problems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. National water resource management as a global problem: The example of Egypt

    Elshorbagy, A. A.; Abdelkader, A. A.; Tuninetti, M.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.; Fahmy, H.

    2017-12-01

    The engineering redistribution of water remains limited in its spatial scope, when compared with the socioeconomic redistribution of water in its virtual form. Virtual water (VW) embedded in products has its own human-induced cycle by moving across the globe. There is a significant body of literature on global VW trade networks (VWTN), with most studies focused on the network structure and the variables controlling its behavior. It was shown that the importing nations will play an important role in the evolution of the network dynamics. The increased connectivity of the global network highlights the risk of systemic disruptions and the vulnerability of the global food, especially when exporting countries change to non-exporting ones. The existing models of VWTN characterize the properties of the network, along with its nodes and links. Acknowledging its contribution to understand the global redistribution of virtual water, hardly can this approach attract potential users to adopt it. The VW trade (VWT) modeling needs to be repositioned to allow resource managers and policy makers at various scales to benefit from it and link global VW dynamics to their local decisions. The aim of this research is to introduce a new modeling approach for the VWT where detailed national scale water management is nested within the coarser global VWTN. The case study of Egypt, the world biggest importer of wheat, is considered here because its population growth and limitations of water and arable land position it as a significant node in the global network. A set of potential scenarios of Egypt's future, driven by population growth, development plans, consumption patterns, technology change, and water availability are developed. The annual national food and water balance in every scenario is calculated to estimate the potential for VW export and import of Egypt. The results indicate that Egypt's demand for food might cause unexpectedly higher demands on other countries' water resources

  11. Present status of seawater desalination and problems of nuclear utilization. Aiming at coping with global shortage of water

    2006-07-01

    With recent global population increase and economic and life level improvement, water demand increases tremendously and in 2025 water scarcity will occur in almost the half of countries and regions in the world. Nuclear desalination is highly expected to cope with this issue. The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) established special committee on seawater desalination problems to discuss possibilities of nuclear desalination introduction. Present status of seawater desalination and problems of nuclear utilization were reviewed and the committee recommended the necessity of establishing medium and long-term plan on international business development of nuclear desalination and also the start of basic research on problems of nuclear utilization such as technical and institutional limits and efficient applicability of nuclear energy. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Risk perception and commitment to reduce global climate change in Spain

    Rodríguez-Priego, Nuria

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An online national survey among the Spanish population (n = 602 was conducted to examine the factors underlying a person’s support for commitments to global climate change reductions. Multiple hierarchical regression analysis was conducted in four steps and a structural equations model was tested. A survey tool designed by the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication was applied in order to build scales for the variables introduced in the study. The results show that perceived consumer effectiveness and risk perception are determinant factors of commitment to mitigating global climate change. However, there are differences in the influence that other factors, such as socio-demographics, view of nature and cultural cognition, have on the last predicted variable.Una encuesta online a la población española (n = 602 examina los factores que predicen el apoyo al compromiso con el medio ambiente por parte de los participantes para reducir el cambio climático global. Se realizó una regresión múltiple jerárquica en cuatro pasos y se testó el modelo de ecuaciones estructurales propuesto. En la encuesta se aplicó una herramienta diseñada por el Yale Project on Climate Change Communication con la finalidad de construir escalas para las variables introducidas en el estudio. Los resultados muestran que la efectividad percibida por el consumidor y el riesgo percibido son factores determinantes del apoyo al compromiso para reducir el cambio climático global. No obstante, se encontraron algunas diferencias en cuanto a la influencia de otros factores tales como las variables socio-demográficas, la visión de la naturaleza y la cognición cultural.

  13. Reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from global dairy processing facilities

    Xu Tengfang, E-mail: ttxu@lbl.go [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Flapper, Joris [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen, IVEM, Nijenborgh 4, 9747, AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Global butter, concentrated milk, and milk powder products use approximately 15% of annual raw milk production. Similar to cheese and fluid milk, dairy processing of these products can be energy intensive. In this paper, we analyzed production and energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on butter, concentrated milk, milk and whey powder processing across various countries and plants. Magnitudes of national final and primary specific energy consumption (SEC) exhibited large variations across dairy products; in addition, the final SEC of individual plants and products exhibited significant variations within a country and between countries. Furthermore, we quantified national energy intensity indicators (EIIs) accounting for dairy product mixes and technological advancement. The significant variations of SEC and EII values indicate a high degree of likelihood that there is significant potential for energy savings in the global dairy processing industry. Based upon the study samples, we estimate potential energy savings for dairy processing industry in selected countries, and estimates annual reduction of 9-14 million metric-ton carbon-equivalent could be achieved if measures are implemented to lower SEC values by 50-80% in half of global dairy plants. The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry. - Research highlights: {yields} The specific energy consumption exhibited large variations across dairy products, plants, and countries. {yields} National energy intensity indicators also exhibited significant variations. {yields} There is a large global potential for energy savings and carbon reduction in dairy processing plants. {yields} The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry.

  14. Reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from global dairy processing facilities

    Xu, Tengfang [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Flapper, Joris [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen, IVEM, Nijenborgh 4, 9747, AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Global butter, concentrated milk, and milk powder products use approximately 15% of annual raw milk production. Similar to cheese and fluid milk, dairy processing of these products can be energy intensive. In this paper, we analyzed production and energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on butter, concentrated milk, milk and whey powder processing across various countries and plants. Magnitudes of national final and primary specific energy consumption (SEC) exhibited large variations across dairy products; in addition, the final SEC of individual plants and products exhibited significant variations within a country and between countries. Furthermore, we quantified national energy intensity indicators (EIIs) accounting for dairy product mixes and technological advancement. The significant variations of SEC and EII values indicate a high degree of likelihood that there is significant potential for energy savings in the global dairy processing industry. Based upon the study samples, we estimate potential energy savings for dairy processing industry in selected countries, and estimates annual reduction of 9-14 million metric-ton carbon-equivalent could be achieved if measures are implemented to lower SEC values by 50-80% in half of global dairy plants. The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry. (author)

  15. How to globally reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from sewage systems?

    Batz, S. de; Bonardet, P.; Trouve, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    A reliable and exhaustive measurement of the global greenhouse gas emissions from a given sewage plant must be performed prior to the implementation of any abatement measure. The method presented in this paper takes into consideration both the direct emissions but also the indirect ones generated by the plant activity and identified using a life cycle-type approach. Three examples of projects or realizations are presented in this paper to illustrate the different means of abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from a sewage plant in a global way. The first example concerns a project of abatement of the electricity consumption of a plant for sludges and fats digestion and biogas valorization. A 85% global abatement of CO 2 emissions is obtained thanks to the substitution of the aerobic digestion process by an anaerobic one. The second example presents an optimization of the greenhouse gas emissions of the municipal sewage plant of Valenton (Paris region) thanks to a valorization of sludges as fertilizers and fuels and to the recovery of the process heat. The last example concerns the Seine-aval sewage plant which gathers several projects of improvement: setting up of a second biogas turbine, redesign of the heat loop, use of river transport for a significant abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. (J.S.)

  16. On problem of quantization of infinitely reduced communications of the first type

    Galazhinskij, A.V.; Deriglazov, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Explicitly covariant pattern of adding-on of infinity reducible fermion communications of the first type (IRC1) up to nonreducible ones is suggested in a Hamiltonian form for the class of theories (including D=10 super-strings and super-particles in a covariant formulation). A modified formulation obtained after the implementation of the pattern in the theory covering IRC1 only, contains non-reducible communications of the first type and non-reducible communications of the second type separated from them. 12 refs

  17. Reducing the global threat of radiological terrorism in Central Asia and Caucus regions. The global threat reduction initiative approach to radioactive source security

    Smith, E.

    2010-01-01

    The security of radioactive sources is of worldwide concern, due to their wide use in civilian commerce and the potentially devastating effects of their misuse. In cooperation with host countries and international partners, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative has utilized a proven process for providing technical and financial assistance to protect radioactive sources in diverse uses and unique circumstances at hundreds of sites worldwide. The mission of the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's program includes reducing the risk posed by vulnerable radiological materials that could be used in a Radioactive Dispersal Device). The program's objectives are to identify, consolidate, secure, and/or dispose of high-activity radiological materials to prevent their theft and malicious use. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative Program's scope is global, with projects in over 100 countries at more than 755 radiological sites, including industrial, medical and commercial facilities. In addition to working bilaterally, the Program works closely with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other partner countries. (author)

  18. Reducing developmental risk for emotional/behavioral problems: a randomized controlled trial examining the Tools for Getting Along curriculum.

    Daunic, Ann P; Smith, Stephen W; Garvan, Cynthia W; Barber, Brian R; Becker, Mallory K; Peters, Christine D; Taylor, Gregory G; Van Loan, Christopher L; Li, Wei; Naranjo, Arlene H

    2012-04-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that cognitive-behavioral intervention strategies - such as social problem solving - provided in school settings can help ameliorate the developmental risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties. In this study, we report the results of a randomized controlled trial of Tools for Getting Along (TFGA), a social problem-solving universally delivered curriculum designed to reduce the developmental risk for serious emotional or behavioral problems among upper elementary grade students. We analyzed pre-intervention and post-intervention teacher-report and student self-report data from 14 schools, 87 classrooms, and a total of 1296 students using multilevel modeling. Results (effect sizes calculated using Hedges' g) indicated that students who were taught TFGA had a more positive approach to problem solving (g=.11) and a more rational problem-solving style (g=.16). Treated students with relatively poor baseline scores benefited from TFGA on (a) problem-solving knowledge (g=1.54); (b) teacher-rated executive functioning (g=.35 for Behavior Regulation and .32 for Metacognition), and proactive aggression (g=.20); and (c) self-reported trait anger (g=.17) and anger expression (g=.21). Thus, TFGA may reduce risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties by improving students' cognitive and emotional self-regulation and increasing their pro-social choices. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reducing Teacher Stress by Implementing Collaborative Problem Solving in a School Setting

    Schaubman, Averi; Stetson, Erica; Plog, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Student behavior affects teacher stress levels and the student-teacher relationship. In this pilot study, teachers were trained in Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS), a cognitive-behavioral model that explains challenging behavior as the result of underlying deficits in the areas of flexibility/adaptability, frustration tolerance, and problem…

  20. The Solution of Large Time-Dependent Problems Using Reduced Coordinates.

    1987-06-01

    numerical intergration schemes for dynamic problems, the algorithm known as Newmark’s Method. The behavior of the Newmark scheme, as well as the basic...T’he horizontal displacements at the mid-height and the bottom of the buildin- are shown in f igure 4. 13. The solution history illustrated is for a

  1. Coping with persistent environmental problems: systemic delays in reducing eutrophication of the Baltic Sea

    Riku Varjopuro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on systemic delays in the Baltic Sea that cause the problem of eutrophication to persist. These problems are demonstrated in our study by addressing three types of delays: (1 decision delay: the time it takes for an idea or perceived need to be launched as a policy; (2 implementation delay: the time from the launch of a policy to the actual implementation; (3 ecosystem delay: the time difference between the implementation and an actual measurable effects. A policy process is one characterized by delays. It may take years from problem identification to a decision to taking action and several years further for actual implementation. Ecosystem responses to measures illustrate that feedback can keep the ecosystem in a certain state and cause a delay in ecosystem response. These delays can operate on decadal scales. Our aim in this paper is to analyze these systemic delays and especially to discuss how the critical delays can be better addressed in marine protection policies by strengthening the adaptive capacity of marine protection. We conclude that the development of monitoring systems and reflexive, participatory analysis of dynamics involved in the implementation are keys to improve understanding of the systemic delays. The improved understanding is necessary for the adaptive management of a persistent environmental problem. In addition to the state of the environment, the monitoring and analysis should be targeted also at the implementation of policies to ensure that the societies are investing in the right measures.

  2. Ethnic differences in problem perception : Immigrant mothers in a parenting intervention to reduce disruptive child behavior

    Leijten, P.; Raaijmakers, M.A.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Matthys, W.

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care—a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less

  3. Problems in the Relationship between CO2 Emissions and Global Warming

    Ferenc Kovács

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis of environmental conditions and impacts, the viewpoint that greenhouse gases, primarily anthropogenic (industrial, human carbon dioxide, play a determining role in the change of global temperatures, ( the increase experienced in the last one and a half decade, has been given widespread publicity recently. Coal-fired power plants are the first to blame for the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the last two centuries. The study indicates possibilities to increase the efficiency of coal-fired power plants, which would involve a considerable reduction in CO2 emissions with an identical production volume of electrical energy. On the basis of the analysis of the amount of fossil fuels used, the amount of CO2 emissions and changes in the concentrations of atmospheric CO2, it is shown that no correlation can be proved between the factors investigated and changes in global temperatures.

  4. Problems of Ensuring Complex Business Security in the Conditions of Modern Globalization

    Anatoliy Petrovich Sterkhov

    2015-01-01

    From the viewpoint of ensuring complex business security, the relevance of the present work is associated with the rationale of multilevel hierarchical approach to the classification of security threats in the age of globalization. The specificity of the threats specific to one or another level of the economy, helps to better understand and consequently to build an effective system of ensuring complex business security. For each of the nine hierarchical levels of the economy the author identi...

  5. Global approach to the spectral problem of microinstabilities in tokamak plasmas using a gyrokinetic model

    Brunner, S.

    1997-08-01

    Ion temperature gradient (ITG)-related instabilities are studied in tokamak-like plasmas with the help of a new global eigenvalue code. Ions are modelled in the frame of gyrokinetic theory so that finite Larmor radius effects of these particles are retained to all orders. Non-adiabatic trapped electron dynamics is taken into account through the bounce-averaged drift kinetic equation. Assuming electrostatic perturbations, the system is closed with the quasineutrality relation. Practical methods are presented which make this global approach feasible. These include a non-standard wave decomposition compatible with the curved geometry as well as adapting an efficient root finding algorithm for computing the unstable spectrum. These techniques are applied to a low pressure configuration given by a large aspect ratio torus with circular, concentric magnetic surfaces. Simulations from a linear, time evolution, particle in cell code provide a useful benchmark. Comparisons with local ballooning calculations for different parameter scans enable further validation while illustrating the limits of that representation at low toroidal wave numbers or for non-interchange-like instabilities. The stabilizing effect of negative magnetic shear is also considered, in which case the global results show not only an attenuation of the growth rate but also a reduction of the radial extent induced by a transition from the toroidal- to the slab-ITG mode. Contributions of trapped electrons to the ITG instability as well as the possible coupling to the trapped electron mode are clearly brought to the fore. (author) figs., tabs., 69 refs

  6. The communication of the risk of coastal erosion in Portugal: a global problem, a local trouble

    Eduardo BASTO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades a set of instruments has been devised by the Portuguese authorities to handle the issue of coastal erosion. We argue that this legal apparatus not only lacks the internal integration necessary for its effectiveness, but it also fails to recognise the ways in which the problem materialises in the everyday life of coastal areas. Through a case study in the village of Furadouro in Western Portugal, we demonstrate how this top-down implementation of policies does not promote a true communication of risks, in the sense that the problem of coastal erosion is not “put in common” across levels of governance.

  7. Problems posed by the development of the Oklo phenomenon: tentative global interpretation

    Naudet, R.

    This paper discusses the basic problems posed by the development of the Oklo phenomenon: the conditions in which the reactions are triggered and propagated and how they have been controlled. The reactions were maintained by the destruction of neutron poisons in the ore and were controlled by temperature. Oklo is made up of a large number of contiguous reactors. Geological problems of the origin of the clays, desilification, and uranium concentration are discussed. Oklo is shown to be a very complex phenomenon which developed in space and time. Besides the thermal, neutron, and geochemical coupling, there is also a tectonic coupling

  8. The efficacy of problem solving therapy to reduce post stroke emotional distress in younger (18-65) stroke survivors.

    Chalmers, Charlotte; Leathem, Janet; Bennett, Simon; McNaughton, Harry; Mahawish, Karim

    2017-11-26

    To investigate the efficacy of problem solving therapy for reducing the emotional distress experienced by younger stroke survivors. A non-randomized waitlist controlled design was used to compare outcome measures for the treatment group and a waitlist control group at baseline and post-waitlist/post-therapy. After the waitlist group received problem solving therapy an analysis was completed on the pooled outcome measures at baseline, post-treatment, and three-month follow-up. Changes on outcome measures between baseline and post-treatment (n = 13) were not significantly different between the two groups, treatment (n = 13), and the waitlist control group (n = 16) (between-subject design). The pooled data (n = 28) indicated that receiving problem solving therapy significantly reduced participants levels of depression and anxiety and increased quality of life levels from baseline to follow up (within-subject design), however, methodological limitations, such as the lack of a control group reduce the validity of this finding. The between-subject results suggest that there was no significant difference between those that received problem solving therapy and a waitlist control group between baseline and post-waitlist/post-therapy. The within-subject design suggests that problem solving therapy may be beneficial for younger stroke survivors when they are given some time to learn and implement the skills into their day to day life. However, additional research with a control group is required to investigate this further. This study provides limited evidence for the provision of support groups for younger stroke survivors post stroke, however, it remains unclear about what type of support this should be. Implications for Rehabilitation Problem solving therapy is no more effective for reducing post stroke distress than a wait-list control group. Problem solving therapy may be perceived as helpful and enjoyable by younger stroke survivors. Younger stroke

  9. Model and algorithm for bi-fuel vehicle routing problem to reduce GHG emissions.

    Abdoli, Behroz; MirHassani, Seyed Ali; Hooshmand, Farnaz

    2017-09-01

    Because of the harmful effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted by petroleum-based fuels, the adoption of alternative green fuels such as biodiesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) is an inevitable trend in the transportation sector. However, the transition to alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) fleets is not easy and, particularly at the beginning of the transition period, drivers may be forced to travel long distances to reach alternative fueling stations (AFSs). In this paper, the utilization of bi-fuel vehicles is proposed as an operational approach. We present a mathematical model to address vehicle routing problem (VRP) with bi-fuel vehicles and show that the utilization of bi-fuel vehicles can lead to a significant reduction in GHG emissions. Moreover, a simulated annealing algorithm is adopted to solve large instances of this problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on some random instances.

  10. Reducing appropriable quasi rents to combat the hold-up problem in contract agriculture

    Karantininis, Kostas; Graversen, Jesper Tranbjerg

    2005-01-01

    , when building the broiler house, to prepare a viable future change in production from broilers to pigs. This will increase the bargaining power to farmers and may result in higher producer prices. Based on the general model of the hold-up problem with co-specific investments (Koss & Eaton, 1997......This paper examines the problem of hold-up in the agri-food sector. Production contracts offered to future Danish Broiler producers give rise to specific investments and appropriable quasi rents. Farmers are vulnerable to opportunistic behaviour by poultry processors which materializes in lower...... prices and results in lower investments. One obvious alternative to producing broilers is to produce pigs; since the pork industry is very well developed with the pork slaughter and processing being mainly (more than 90 %) run by two producer-owned cooperatives. Then it might be possible for the farmer...

  11. Genomic Microbial Epidemiology Is Needed to Comprehend the Global Problem of Antibiotic Resistance and to Improve Pathogen Diagnosis.

    Wyrsch, Ethan R; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Chapman, Toni A; Charles, Ian G; Hammond, Jeffrey M; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of waste effluent from hospitals and intensive food animal production with antimicrobial residues is an immense global problem. Antimicrobial residues exert selection pressures that influence the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in diverse microbial populations. Despite these concerns there is only a limited understanding of how antimicrobial residues contribute to the global problem of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, rapid detection of emerging bacterial pathogens and strains with resistance to more than one antibiotic class remains a challenge. A comprehensive, sequence-based genomic epidemiological surveillance model that captures essential microbial metadata is needed, both to improve surveillance for antimicrobial resistance and to monitor pathogen evolution. Escherichia coli is an important pathogen causing both intestinal [intestinal pathogenic E. coli (IPEC)] and extraintestinal [extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)] disease in humans and food animals. ExPEC are the most frequently isolated Gram negative pathogen affecting human health, linked to food production practices and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics. Cattle are a known reservoir of IPEC but they are not recognized as a source of ExPEC that impact human or animal health. In contrast, poultry are a recognized source of multiple antibiotic resistant ExPEC, while swine have received comparatively less attention in this regard. Here, we review what is known about ExPEC in swine and how pig production contributes to the problem of antibiotic resistance.

  12. Additional Insights Into Problem Definition and Positioning From Social Science Comment on "Four Challenges That Global Health Networks Face".

    Quissell, Kathryn

    2017-09-10

    Commenting on a recent editorial in this journal which presented four challenges global health networks will have to tackle to be effective, this essay discusses why this type of analysis is important for global health scholars and practitioners, and why it is worth understanding and critically engaging with the complexities behind these challenges. Focusing on the topics of problem definition and positioning, I outline additional insights from social science theory to demonstrate how networks and network researchers can evaluate these processes, and how these processes contribute to better organizing, advocacy, and public health outcomes. This essay also raises multiple questions regarding these processes for future research. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  13. Voicing as an Essential Problem of Communication: Language and Education of Chinese Immigrant Children in Globalization

    Dong, Jie; Dong, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article explores voicing processes of identity construction among labor immigrants both inside China and in the Dutch Chinese Diaspora. We provide ethnographically grounded data oriented toward a theoretical point: voicing is an essential problem in communication. Whether one is able to achieve his voice--an outcome of a communicative…

  14. Survey on problems in developing technologies for the global environment issues (Version II); Chikyu kankyo mondai gijutsu kaihatsu kadai chosa. 2

    NONE

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes a survey on problems in developing technologies for the global environment issues. Technological development of means to reduce generation of environmental issues and substitutive means for non-generation thereof is being moved forward specifically in the Sunshine Project and the Moonlight Project. The Chemical Technology Research Institute assumes that it has a responsibility to positively contribute to developing a technological system that matches the substance circulation mechanism of the earth from the fields of chemistry. Therefore, the Institute has organized working groups that have been identifying problems from their expertise standpoints and have been extracting study assignments. Subsequent to the Version I, the Version II has been compiled. The Version II takes up the simulation of global warming mechanisms, behavior of gases dissolved in oceans, and possibility of fixing CO2 in oceans. With respect to fluorocarbons, the Version II describes development of substitutive substances, their stability, combustion method as a destruction technique, and destruction by means of super criticality. Regarding CO2, the version introduces technologies to re-use CO2 as a resource by means of membrane separation, storage, and contact hydrogenation. The volume also dwells on CO2 reduction by using photo-chemical and electrochemical reactions, CO2 reduction and photo-synthesis by using semiconductors as photo catalysts and electrodes. (NEDO)

  15. Target salt 2025: a global overview of national programs to encourage the food industry to reduce salt in foods.

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna

    2014-08-21

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods-the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target.

  16. On the Role of Situational Stressors in the Disruption of Global Neural Network Stability during Problem Solving.

    Liu, Mengting; Amey, Rachel C; Forbes, Chad E

    2017-12-01

    When individuals are placed in stressful situations, they are likely to exhibit deficits in cognitive capacity over and above situational demands. Despite this, individuals may still persevere and ultimately succeed in these situations. Little is known, however, about neural network properties that instantiate success or failure in both neutral and stressful situations, particularly with respect to regions integral for problem-solving processes that are necessary for optimal performance on more complex tasks. In this study, we outline how hidden Markov modeling based on multivoxel pattern analysis can be used to quantify unique brain states underlying complex network interactions that yield either successful or unsuccessful problem solving in more neutral or stressful situations. We provide evidence that brain network stability and states underlying synchronous interactions in regions integral for problem-solving processes are key predictors of whether individuals succeed or fail in stressful situations. Findings also suggested that individuals utilize discriminate neural patterns in successfully solving problems in stressful or neutral situations. Findings overall highlight how hidden Markov modeling can provide myriad possibilities for quantifying and better understanding the role of global network interactions in the problem-solving process and how the said interactions predict success or failure in different contexts.

  17. Reducing child conduct problems and promoting social skills in a middle-income country: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Scott, Stephen; Jones, Kelvyn; Walker, Susan

    2012-08-01

    There is an urgent need for effective, affordable interventions to prevent child mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries. To determine the effects of a universal pre-school-based intervention on child conduct problems and social skills at school and at home. In a cluster randomised design, 24 community pre-schools in inner-city areas of Kingston, Jamaica, were randomly assigned to receive the Incredible Years Teacher Training intervention (n = 12) or to a control group (n = 12). Three children from each class with the highest levels of teacher-reported conduct problems were selected for evaluation, giving 225 children aged 3-6 years. The primary outcome was observed child behaviour at school. Secondary outcomes were child behaviour by parent and teacher report, child attendance and parents' attitude to school. The study is registered as ISRCTN35476268. Children in intervention schools showed significantly reduced conduct problems (effect size (ES) = 0.42) and increased friendship skills (ES = 0.74) through observation, significant reductions to teacher-reported (ES = 0.47) and parent-reported (ES = 0.22) behaviour difficulties and increases in teacher-reported social skills (ES = 0.59) and child attendance (ES = 0.30). Benefits to parents' attitude to school were not significant. A low-cost, school-based intervention in a middle-income country substantially reduces child conduct problems and increases child social skills at home and at school.

  18. Reducing child conduct problems and promoting social skills in a middle-income country: cluster randomised controlled trial†

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Scott, Stephen; Jones, Kelvyn; Walker, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for effective, affordable interventions to prevent child mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries. Aims To determine the effects of a universal pre-school-based intervention on child conduct problems and social skills at school and at home. Method In a cluster randomised design, 24 community pre-schools in inner-city areas of Kingston, Jamaica, were randomly assigned to receive the Incredible Years Teacher Training intervention (n = 12) or to a control group (n = 12). Three children from each class with the highest levels of teacher-reported conduct problems were selected for evaluation, giving 225 children aged 3–6 years. The primary outcome was observed child behaviour at school. Secondary outcomes were child behaviour by parent and teacher report, child attendance and parents’ attitude to school. The study is registered as ISRCTN35476268. Results Children in intervention schools showed significantly reduced conduct problems (effect size (ES) = 0.42) and increased friendship skills (ES = 0.74) through observation, significant reductions to teacher-reported (ES = 0.47) and parent-reported (ES = 0.22) behaviour difficulties and increases in teacher-reported social skills (ES = 0.59) and child attendance (ES = 0.30). Benefits to parents’ attitude to school were not significant. Conclusions A low-cost, school-based intervention in a middle-income country substantially reduces child conduct problems and increases child social skills at home and at school. PMID:22500015

  19. Gesturing during mental problem solving reduces eye movements, especially for individuals with lower visual working memory capacity.

    Pouw, Wim T J L; Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2016-08-01

    Non-communicative hand gestures have been found to benefit problem-solving performance. These gestures seem to compensate for limited internal cognitive capacities, such as visual working memory capacity. Yet, it is not clear how gestures might perform this cognitive function. One hypothesis is that gesturing is a means to spatially index mental simulations, thereby reducing the need for visually projecting the mental simulation onto the visual presentation of the task. If that hypothesis is correct, less eye movements should be made when participants gesture during problem solving than when they do not gesture. We therefore used mobile eye tracking to investigate the effect of co-thought gesturing and visual working memory capacity on eye movements during mental solving of the Tower of Hanoi problem. Results revealed that gesturing indeed reduced the number of eye movements (lower saccade counts), especially for participants with a relatively lower visual working memory capacity. Subsequent problem-solving performance was not affected by having (not) gestured during the mental solving phase. The current findings suggest that our understanding of gestures in problem solving could be improved by taking into account eye movements during gesturing.

  20. Some global problems in gauge theories (Variations on a theme of Aharonov and Bohm)

    Wilczek, F.

    1989-12-01

    Several situations are discussed, in which the sort of global considerations made famous by Aharonov and Bohm in their discussion of the interaction of charged particles with magnetic flux tubes have important physical implications. It is argued that discrete gauge symmetries in the continuum make sense, and manifest themselves most clearly in Aharonov-Bohm type scattering of charged particles off string singularities. The existence of such discrete symmetries has important implications for the quantum mechanics of topologically non-trivial space-times in general and black holes in particular. It is argued that in the non-abelian case essentially new features arise, most notably that the symmetry group of the homogeneous ground state generally ceases to be globally defined in the presence of a string. When continuous rather than discrete symmetries are involved, a variety of fascinating and as yet poorly understood dynamical effects occur. Perhaps the most striking is a new form of string superconductivity, that exists for purely topological reasons, and is not well modeled by regarding the string as a superconducting wire. 8 refs., 2 figs

  1. Systematic framework for carbon dioxide capture and utilization processes to reduce the global carbon dioxide emissions

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Gani, Rafiqul

    information-data on various carbon dioxide emission sources and available capture-utilization technologies; the model and solution libraries [2]; and the generic 3-stage approach for determining more sustainable solutions [3] through superstructure (processing networks) based optimization – adopted for global...... need to provide, amongst other options: useful data from in-house databases on carbon dioxide emission sources; mathematical models from a library of process-property models; numerical solvers from library of implemented solvers; and, work-flows and data-flows for different benefit scenarios...... to be investigated. It is useful to start by developing a prototype framework and then augmenting its application range by increasing the contents of its databases, libraries and work-flows and data-flows. The objective is to present such a prototype framework with its implemented database containing collected...

  2. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    Y. Baradey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  3. Global CO2 rise leads to reduced maximum stomatal conductance in Florida vegetation

    Lammertsma, E.I.; de Boer, H.J.; Dekker, S.C.; Dilcher, D.L.; Lotter, A.F.; Wagner-Cremer, F.

    2011-01-01

    A principle response of C3 plants to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (CO2) is to reduce transpirational water loss by decreasing stomatal conductance (gs) and simultaneously increase assimilation rates. Via this adaptation, vegetation has the ability to alter hydrology and climate.

  4. Existence and Global Asymptotic Behavior of Positive Solutions for Nonlinear Fractional Dirichlet Problems on the Half-Line

    Imed Bachar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We are interested in the following fractional boundary value problem: Dαu(t+atuσ=0, t∈(0,∞, limt→0⁡t2-αu(t=0, limt→∞⁡t1-αu(t=0, where 1<α<2, σ∈(-1,1, Dα is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, and a is a nonnegative continuous function on (0,∞ satisfying some appropriate assumptions related to Karamata regular variation theory. Using the Schauder fixed point theorem, we prove the existence and the uniqueness of a positive solution. We also give a global behavior of such solution.

  5. An investigation into electromagnetic force models: differences in global and local effects demonstrated by selected problems

    Reich, Felix A.; Rickert, Wilhelm; Müller, Wolfgang H.

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the implications of various electromagnetic force models in macroscopic situations. There is an ongoing academic discussion which model is "correct," i.e., generally applicable. Often, gedankenexperiments with light waves or photons are used in order to motivate certain models. In this work, three problems with bodies at the macroscopic scale are used for computing theoretical model-dependent predictions. Two aspects are considered, total forces between bodies and local deformations. By comparing with experimental data, insight is gained regarding the applicability of the models. First, the total force between two cylindrical magnets is computed. Then a spherical magnetostriction problem is considered to show different deformation predictions. As a third example focusing on local deformations, a droplet of silicone oil in castor oil is considered, placed in a homogeneous electric field. By using experimental data, some conclusions are drawn and further work is motivated.

  6. Solving non-standard packing problems by global optimization and heuristics

    Fasano, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    This book results from a long-term research effort aimed at tackling complex non-standard packing issues which arise in space engineering. The main research objective is to optimize cargo loading and arrangement, in compliance with a set of stringent rules. Complicated geometrical aspects are also taken into account, in addition to balancing conditions based on attitude control specifications. Chapter 1 introduces the class of non-standard packing problems studied. Chapter 2 gives a detailed explanation of a general model for the orthogonal packing of tetris-like items in a convex domain. A number of additional conditions are looked at in depth, including the prefixed orientation of subsets of items, the presence of unusable holes, separation planes and structural elements, relative distance bounds as well as static and dynamic balancing requirements. The relative feasibility sub-problem which is a special case that does not have an optimization criterion is discussed in Chapter 3. This setting can be exploit...

  7. Legislative provisions related to marriage and divorce of persons with mental health problems: a global review.

    Bhugra, Dinesh; Pathare, Soumitra; Nardodkar, Renuka; Gosavi, Chetna; Ng, Roger; Torales, Julio; Ventriglio, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Realization of right to marry by a person is an exercise of personal liberty, even if concepts of marriage and expectations from such commitment vary across cultures and societies. Once married, if an individual develops mental illness the legal system often starts to discriminate against the individual. There is no doubt that every individual's right to marry or remain married is regulated by their country's family codes, civil codes, marriage laws, or divorce laws. Historically mental health condition of a spouse or intending spouse has been of interest to lawmakers in a number of ways from facilitating divorce to helping the individual with mental illness. There is no doubt that there are deeply ingrained stereotypes that persons with mental health problems lack capacity to consent and, therefore, cannot enter into a marital contract of their own free will. These assumptions lead to discrimination both in practice and in law. Furthermore, the probability of mental illness being genetically transmitted and passed on to offspring adds yet another dimension of discrimination. Thus, the system may also raise questions about the ability of persons with mental health problems to care, nurture, and support a family and children. Internationally, rights to marry, the right to remain married, and dissolution of marriage have been enshrined in several human rights instruments. Domestic laws were studied in 193 countries to explore whether laws affected the rights of people with mental illness with respect to marriage; it was found that 37% of countries explicitly prohibit marriage by persons with mental health problems. In 11% (21 countries) the presence of mental health problems can render a marriage void or can be considered grounds for nullity of marriage. Thus, in many countries basic human rights related to marriage are being flouted.

  8. Bell's theorem and the measurement problem: reducing two mysteries to one?

    Cavalcanti, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    In light of a recent reformulation of Bell's theorem from causal principles by Wiseman and the author, I argue that the conflict between quantum theory and relativity brought up by Bell's work can be softened by a revision of our classical notions of causation. I review some recent proposals for a quantum theory of causation that make great strides towards that end, but highlight a property that is shared by all those theories that would not have satisfied Bell's realist inclinations. They require (implicitly or explicitly) agent-centric notions such as “controllables” and “uncontrollables”, or “observed” and “unobserved”. Thus they relieve the tensions around Bell's theorem by highlighting an issue more often associated with another deep conceptual issue in quantum theory: the measurement problem. Rather than rejecting those terms, however, I argue that we should understand why they seem to be, at least at face-value, needed in order to reach compatibility between quantum theory and relativity. This seems to suggest that causation, and thus causal structure, are emergent phenomena, and lends support to the idea that a resolution of the conflict between quantum theory and relativity necessitates a solution to the measurement problem. (paper)

  9. Global environmental problems in the electric industry. Denki jigyo ni okeru chikyu kankyo mondai ni tsuite

    Sugi, T [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1992-09-30

    Since the electric industry has grappled with a prevention of the environmental pollution such as the air pollution and water contamination as a forerunner in case of construction and operation of the power facilities, and at the same time has conducted actively the environmental conservation countermeasures, it has consequently achieved the environmental conservation level as a top level in the world. On the other hand, as for the emission quantity of CO2 relating to the earth warming, the power field occupies about one fourth of total Japan. Therefore the electric industry should aim at the electric energy supply considering the influence on the environment, such as the power supply structure to restrain CO2 emission as less as possible, higher efficiency of equipments, higher efficiency of energy utilization by using the unused energy and so forth. In addition to it, the consumer side should aim at the social structure with a recycle type such as saving resources and saving energy, and aim at changeover of life style. It is hoped to conduct the overall measure including the items mentioned above. In this report, the recent trend of earth enviromental problems, grappling with the environmental problems as a forerunner such as the prevention measure of air pollution in the thermal power plant, etc., and the correspondence to the earth warming problems are outlined. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Credit where credit is due: Pakistan's role in reducing the global burden of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH).

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Qazi, Shamim; Shah, Iqbal

    2015-11-25

    Factors contributing to Pakistan's poor progress in reducing reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) include its low level of female literacy, gender inequity, political challenges, and extremism along with its associated relentless violence; further, less than 1% of Pakistan's GDP is allocated to the health sector. However, despite these disadvantages, Pakistani researchers have been able to achieve positive contributions towards RMNCH-related global knowledge and evidence base, in some cases leading to the formulation of WHO guidelines, for which they should feel proud. Nevertheless, in order to improve the health of its own women and children, greater investments in human and health resources are required to facilitate the generation and use of policy-relevant knowledge. To accomplish this, fair incentives for research production need to be introduced, policy and decision-makers' capacity to demand and use evidence needs to be increased, and strong support from development partners and the global health community must be secured.

  11. To reduce the global burden of human schistosomiasis, use ‘old fashioned’ snail control

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Jones, Isabel J.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand; Hsieh, Michael H.; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2018-01-01

    Control strategies to reduce human schistosomiasis have evolved from ‘snail picking’ campaigns, a century ago, to modern wide-scale human treatment campaigns, or preventive chemotherapy. Unfortunately, despite the rise in preventive chemotherapy campaigns, just as many people suffer from schistosomiasis today as they did 50 years ago. Snail control can complement preventive chemotherapy by reducing the risk of transmission from snails to humans. Here, we present ideas for modernizing and scaling up snail control, including spatiotemporal targeting, environmental diagnostics, better molluscicides, new technologies (e.g., gene drive), and ‘outside the box’ strategies such as natural enemies, traps, and repellants. We conclude that, to achieve the World Health Assembly’s stated goal to eliminate schistosomiasis, it is time to give snail control another look.

  12. Reduced resilience of a globally distributed coccolithophore to ocean acidification: Confirmed up to 2000 generations

    Jin, Peng

    2015-12-30

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Ocean acidification (OA), induced by rapid anthropogenic CO2 rise and its dissolution in seawater, is known to have consequences for marine organisms. However, knowledge on the evolutionary responses of phytoplankton to OA has been poorly studied. Here we examined the coccolithophore Gephyrocapsa oceanica, while growing it for 2000 generations under ambient and elevated CO2 levels. While OA stimulated growth in the earlier selection period (from generations ~700 to ~1550), it reduced it in the later selection period up to 2000 generations. Similarly, stimulated production of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen reduced with increasing selection period and decreased under OA up to 2000 generations. The specific adaptation of growth to OA disappeared in generations 1700 to 2000 when compared with that at 1000 generations. Both phenotypic plasticity and fitness decreased within selection time, suggesting that the species\\' resilience to OA decreased after 2000 generations under high CO2 selection.

  13. Emotional intensity reduces later generalized anxiety disorder symptoms when fear of anxiety and negative problem-solving appraisal are low.

    Sugiura, Yoshinori; Sugiura, Tomoko

    2015-08-01

    While research based on the emotion dysregulation model indicates a positive relationship between intense emotions and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms, emotion-focused intervention involves the use of techniques to enhance emotional experiences, based on the notion that GAD patients are engaging in avoidance strategies. To reveal the conditions under which intense emotions lead to reduced GAD symptoms, we designed a longitudinal study to monitor changes in GAD symptoms among students (N = 129) over 3 months. Our focus was on possible moderators of the effect of emotional intensity. Results indicated that when fear of emotions and negative appraisals about problem solving were low, negative emotional intensity reduced later GAD symptoms. Moreover, under the condition of high responsibility to continue thinking, emotional intensity tended to reduce later GAD symptoms. Results suggest that reduced fear of emotions and reduced negative appraisals about problem solving may enhance the use of emotional processing techniques (e.g., emotional exposure). The interaction between responsibility to continue thinking and emotional intensity requires further examination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Drink-driving and the alcohol beverage industry: will reducing per capita consumption solve the problem in the United Kingdom?

    Riley, D

    1987-12-01

    The impact of drinking and driving is one focus of the mounting concern in the West over the widespread incidence of alcohol-related problems. Conventional wisdom, in the United Kingdom as well as in other countries, suggests that reducing average consumption levels will diminish the impact of the negative effects of alcohol including drinking and driving. But whether policies designed to achieve changes in per capita consumption by increasing alcohol taxes across the board constitute the most effective strategy to reduce drinking and driving is called into question. A number of competing interventions directed at the alcohol beverage industry are analysed and new directions for producers and policymakers are proposed.

  15. Reducing Children’s Behavior Problems through Social Capital: A Causal Assessment

    López Turley, Ruth N.; Gamoran, Adam; McCarty, Alyn Turner; Fish, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Behavior problems among young children have serious detrimental effects on short and long-term educational outcomes. An especially promising prevention strategy may be one that focuses on strengthening the relationships among families in schools, or social capital. However, empirical research on social capital has been constrained by conceptual and causal ambiguity. This study attempts to construct a more focused conceptualization of social capital and aims to determine the causal effects of social capital on children’s behavior. Using data from a cluster randomized trial of 52 elementary schools, we apply several multilevel models to assess the causal relationship, including intent to treat and treatment on the treated analyses. Taken together, these analyses provide stronger evidence than previous studies that social capital improves children’s behavioral outcomes and that these improvements are not simply a result of selection into social relations but result from the social relations themselves. PMID:27886729

  16. Utilizing Social Stories to Increase Prosocial Behavior and Reduce Problem Behavior in Young Children with Autism

    Lisa A. Wright

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effects of a Social Story intervention on the behavior rates of 4 young children with autism using a multiple-baseline across participants design. The results of this paper indicate that the Social Story was modestly effective in increasing prosocial behavior rates in 3 of the 4 participants, though none of the participants reached the prosocial behavior rates of age and gender-matched peers. The problem behaviors of the participants modestly decreased with the intervention. Maintenance of skills over a 1-month period was demonstrated for all of the participants. The variable and inconsistent results of the research add to the current literature base in support of the use of Social Stories for some children with autism.

  17. Reducing Behavior Problems Among Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Coaching Teachers in a Mixed-Reality Setting.

    Pas, Elise T; Johnson, Stacy R; Larson, Kristine E; Brandenburg, Linda; Church, Robin; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2016-12-01

    Most approaches aiming to reduce behavior problems among youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) focus on individual students; however, school personnel also need professional development to better support students. This study targeted teachers' skill development to promote positive outcomes for students with ASD. The sample included 19 teachers in two non-public special education settings serving students with moderate to severe ASD. Participating teachers received professional development and coaching in classroom management, with guided practice in a mixed-reality simulator. Repeated-measures ANOVAs examining externally-conducted classroom observations revealed statistically significant improvements in teacher management and student behavior over time. Findings suggest that coaching and guided practice in a mixed-reality simulator is perceived as acceptable and may reduce behavior problems among students with ASD.

  18. Potential for reducing air-pollutants while achieving 2 °C global temperature change limit target.

    Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Akashi, Osamu; Fujiwara, Kazuya; Motoki, Yuko; Hibino, Go

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzes the potential to reduce air pollutants while achieving the 2 °C global temperature change limit target above pre-industrial levels, by using the bottom-up optimization model, AIM/Enduse[Global]. This study focuses on; 1) estimating mitigation potentials and costs for achieving 2 °C, 2.5 °C, and 3 °C target scenarios, 2) assessing co-benefits of reducing air pollutants such as NOx, SO2, BC, PM, and 3) analyzing features of sectoral attributions in Annex I and Non-Annex I groups of countries. The carbon tax scenario at 50 US$/tCO2-eq in 2050 can reduce GHG emissions more than the 3 °C target scenario, but a higher carbon price around 400 US$/tCO2-eq in 2050 is required to achieve the 2 °C target scenario. However, there is also a co-benefit of large reduction potential of air pollutants, in the range of 60-80% reductions in 2050 from the reference scenario while achieving the 2 °C target. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A stabilized MFE reduced-order extrapolation model based on POD for the 2D unsteady conduction-convection problem

    Hong Xia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we devote ourselves to establishing a stabilized mixed finite element (MFE reduced-order extrapolation (SMFEROE model holding seldom unknowns for the two-dimensional (2D unsteady conduction-convection problem via the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD technique, analyzing the existence and uniqueness and the stability as well as the convergence of the SMFEROE solutions and validating the correctness and dependability of the SMFEROE model by means of numerical simulations.

  20. A stabilized MFE reduced-order extrapolation model based on POD for the 2D unsteady conduction-convection problem.

    Xia, Hong; Luo, Zhendong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we devote ourselves to establishing a stabilized mixed finite element (MFE) reduced-order extrapolation (SMFEROE) model holding seldom unknowns for the two-dimensional (2D) unsteady conduction-convection problem via the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique, analyzing the existence and uniqueness and the stability as well as the convergence of the SMFEROE solutions and validating the correctness and dependability of the SMFEROE model by means of numerical simulations.

  1. The impact of reducing car weight on global emissions: the future fleet in Great Britain

    Serrenho, André Cabrera; Norman, Jonathan B.; Allwood, Julian M.

    2017-05-01

    Current European policies define targets for future direct emissions of new car sales that foster a fast transition to electric drivetrain technologies. However, these targets do not consider the emissions produced in electricity generation and material production, and therefore fail to incentivise car manufacturers to consider the benefits of vehicle weight reduction. In this paper, we examine the potential benefits of limiting the average weight and altering the material composition of new cars in terms of global greenhouse gas emissions produced during the use phase, electricity generation and material production. We anticipate the emissions savings for the future car fleet in Great Britain until 2050 for various alternative futures, using a dynamic material flow analysis of ferrous metals and aluminium, and considering an evolving demand for car use. The results suggest that fostering vehicle weight reduction could produce greater cumulative emissions savings by 2050 than those obtained by incentivising a fast transition to electric drivetrains, unless there is an extreme decarbonization of the electricity grid. Savings promoted by weight reduction are immediate and do not depend on the pace of decarbonization of the electricity grid. Weight reduction may produce the greatest savings when mild steel in the car body is replaced with high-strength steel. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  2. A framework for strategic investments in research to reduce the global burden of preterm birth.

    Gravett, Michael G; Rubens, Craig E

    2012-11-01

    Preterm birth and stillbirth are among the greatest health burdens associated with pregnancy and childbirth. Fifteen million babies are born preterm each year, causing about 1 million deaths annually and lifelong problems for many survivors; 3 million stillbirths also occur annually. Worldwide, the number of women and children who die during pregnancy and childbirth exceeds the total number of births in the United States. New approaches could provide a greater understanding of prematurity, stillbirth, and maternal complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Integrated multidisciplinary investigations of the mother, fetus, and newborn in different contexts and populations could elucidate the biological pathways that result in adverse outcomes and how to prevent them. Descriptive research can determine the burden of disease, while more mechanistic discovery research could explore the physiology and pathophysiology of pregnancy and childbirth. Together, this research can lead to the development and delivery of new and much more effective interventions, even in low-resource settings. Recent surveys of researchers and funders reveal a striking lack of consensus regarding priority areas for research and the development of interventions. While researchers enumerate unanswered questions about pregnancy and childbirth, they lack consensus on priorities. Funders are equally uncertain about research and development projects that need to be undertaken, and many are hard-pressed to support research on the complex problems of pregnancy and childbirth given competing priorities. This lack of consensus provides an opportunity to engage with funders and researchers to recognize the importance of understanding healthy pregnancies and the consequences of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A strategic alliance of funders, researchers, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, and others could organize a set of grand challenges centered on pregnancy and childbirth that could yield a

  3. Are therapeutic vaccines an answer to the global problem of drug and alcohol abuse?

    Brashier, Dick B S; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Akhoon, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol. Research in field of nicotine abuse has gone a way ahead with number of vaccines being tried clinically followed by cocaine, opioids, methamphetamine, phencyclidine and alcohol. All of them have a common mechanism of action by antibody production whereas alcohol acts by genetic intervention. None have being approved yet due to poor results in phase II trials, possibly due to not able to trigger an adequate immunological response. But still quest is on for cracking the ice by developing first successful vaccine against drug of abuse, that would follow for other drugs too. It would be great step in field of therapeutic vaccines for drug abuse after similar successful vaccines being approved for other diseases like cancer.

  4. A case-based, problem-based learning approach to prepare master of public health candidates for the complexities of global health.

    Leon, Juan S; Winskell, Kate; McFarland, Deborah A; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Global health is a dynamic, emerging, and interdisciplinary field. To address current and emerging global health challenges, we need a public health workforce with adaptable and collaborative problem-solving skills. In the 2013-2014 academic year, the Hubert Department of Global Health at the Rollins School of Public Health-Emory University launched an innovative required core course for its first-year Master of Public Health students in the global health track. The course uses a case-based, problem-based learning approach to develop global health competencies. Small teams of students propose solutions to these problems by identifying learning issues and critically analyzing and synthesizing new information. We describe the course structure and logistics used to apply this approach in the context of a large class and share lessons learned.

  5. A Mixed Integer Efficient Global Optimization Framework: Applied to the Simultaneous Aircraft Design, Airline Allocation and Revenue Management Problem

    Roy, Satadru

    Traditional approaches to design and optimize a new system, often, use a system-centric objective and do not take into consideration how the operator will use this new system alongside of other existing systems. This "hand-off" between the design of the new system and how the new system operates alongside other systems might lead to a sub-optimal performance with respect to the operator-level objective. In other words, the system that is optimal for its system-level objective might not be best for the system-of-systems level objective of the operator. Among the few available references that describe attempts to address this hand-off, most follow an MDO-motivated subspace decomposition approach of first designing a very good system and then provide this system to the operator who decides the best way to use this new system along with the existing systems. The motivating example in this dissertation presents one such similar problem that includes aircraft design, airline operations and revenue management "subspaces". The research here develops an approach that could simultaneously solve these subspaces posed as a monolithic optimization problem. The monolithic approach makes the problem a Mixed Integer/Discrete Non-Linear Programming (MINLP/MDNLP) problem, which are extremely difficult to solve. The presence of expensive, sophisticated engineering analyses further aggravate the problem. To tackle this challenge problem, the work here presents a new optimization framework that simultaneously solves the subspaces to capture the "synergism" in the problem that the previous decomposition approaches may not have exploited, addresses mixed-integer/discrete type design variables in an efficient manner, and accounts for computationally expensive analysis tools. The framework combines concepts from efficient global optimization, Kriging partial least squares, and gradient-based optimization. This approach then demonstrates its ability to solve an 11 route airline network

  6. The E. coli Global Regulator DksA Reduces Transcription during T4 Infection

    Jennifer Patterson-West

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage T4 relies on host RNA polymerase to transcribe three promoter classes: early (Pe, requires no viral factors, middle (Pm, requires early proteins MotA and AsiA, and late (Pl, requires middle proteins gp55, gp33, and gp45. Using primer extension, RNA-seq, RT-qPCR, single bursts, and a semi-automated method to document plaque size, we investigated how deletion of DksA or ppGpp, two E. coli global transcription regulators, affects T4 infection. Both ppGpp0 and ΔdksA increase T4 wild type (wt plaque size. However, ppGpp0 does not significantly alter burst size or latent period, and only modestly affects T4 transcript abundance, while ΔdksA increases burst size (2-fold without affecting latent period and increases the levels of several Pe transcripts at 5 min post-infection. In a T4motAam infection, ΔdksA increases plaque size and shortens latent period, and the levels of specific middle RNAs increase due to more transcription from Pe’s that extend into these middle genes. We conclude that DksA lowers T4 early gene expression. Consequently, ΔdksA results in a more productive wt infection and ameliorates the poor expression of middle genes in a T4motAam infection. As DksA does not inhibit Pe transcription in vitro, regulation may be indirect or perhaps requires additional factors.

  7. Corrosion of Iron by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: New Views of an Old Problem

    Garrelfs, Julia

    2014-01-01

    About a century ago, researchers first recognized a connection between the activity of environmental microorganisms and cases of anaerobic iron corrosion. Since then, such microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has gained prominence and its technical and economic implications are now widely recognized. Under anoxic conditions (e.g., in oil and gas pipelines), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are commonly considered the main culprits of MIC. This perception largely stems from three recurrent observations. First, anoxic sulfate-rich environments (e.g., anoxic seawater) are particularly corrosive. Second, SRB and their characteristic corrosion product iron sulfide are ubiquitously associated with anaerobic corrosion damage, and third, no other physiological group produces comparably severe corrosion damage in laboratory-grown pure cultures. However, there remain many open questions as to the underlying mechanisms and their relative contributions to corrosion. On the one hand, SRB damage iron constructions indirectly through a corrosive chemical agent, hydrogen sulfide, formed by the organisms as a dissimilatory product from sulfate reduction with organic compounds or hydrogen (“chemical microbially influenced corrosion”; CMIC). On the other hand, certain SRB can also attack iron via withdrawal of electrons (“electrical microbially influenced corrosion”; EMIC), viz., directly by metabolic coupling. Corrosion of iron by SRB is typically associated with the formation of iron sulfides (FeS) which, paradoxically, may reduce corrosion in some cases while they increase it in others. This brief review traces the historical twists in the perception of SRB-induced corrosion, considering the presently most plausible explanations as well as possible early misconceptions in the understanding of severe corrosion in anoxic, sulfate-rich environments. PMID:24317078

  8. Water pollution in low and middle resources countries: a global health public problem

    Oscar Gómez-Duarte

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El agua es un elemento esencial para la vida de todos los seres vivientes del planeta, además es un derecho humano fundamental (1. El 97.2% del agua en el planeta Tierra es salina y solo el 2.5% corresponde a agua fresca; de ese 2.5%, 30% es subterránea, 68% está en los glaciares y otras capas de nieve y solo el 1.2% es superficial y se encuentra en ríos, lagos y otras formas de agua de superficie (2. El agua potable está amenazada por la continua contaminación que genera la actividad humana y por la disminución de los recursos hídricos como consecuencia del calentamiento global (3. Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, desde el año 2015 solo el 89% de la población mundial tiene acceso a agua apta para consumo y se anticipa que este porcentaje continuará disminuyendo (4, aunque se estima que la situación ya es crítica para 260 millones de personas que carecen de agua apta para el consumo (5.

  9. The deficit of decent work as a global problem of social and labor segment

    Anatoliy Kolot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The overview of the current trends in social and labor segment globally and in the Ukrainian economy is provided. The crises in functioning of the social and labor segment as the forms of expression of the deficit of decent work were isolated. The reasons destabilizing the social and labor segment and limiting the development of the decent work institute are presented. The findings on the situation of self-employment and vulnerable employment worldwide are given. The modern transformations in employment through the lens of decent work are disclosed, with a focus on vulnerable employment. A correlation between inequality in income and a deficit of decent work is shown. The relationship and interaction between decent work and human values in terms of the new economy and postindustrial society development as a philosophical platform of the modern concept of decent work is proven. The aggravation of the crisis of values of the labor g life in the light of deficit of the decent work is explained. The conceptual foundations of the decent work are revealed. The author's vision of the decent work institute as an integrated political, economic, and social platform of sustainable development is reasoned. The criteria and components of the decent work are presented. The importance of inclusive labor markets to expand the scale of decent work is disclosed. The strategic landmarks of overcoming the deficit of decent work are delineated.

  10. Radiation accidents with global consequences for the population. Problems of risk evaluation

    Vasilev, G.; Doncheva, B.; Stoilova, S.; Miloslavov, V.; Tsenova, T.; Novkirishki, V.

    1987-01-01

    The theoretical problems concerning the delayed impacts as a result of considerable radiation accidents are discussed. The attention is paid to the maximum individual doses which are relatively low but many people are affected. In these cases, the risk evaluation is based on the cancerogenesis, genetic and teratogenetic consequences among the concerned population. The main equation of the linear threshold-free model 'dose effect' is subjected to analysis. Considering the real prognostic importance of this equation the following recommendations are made: further observation on epidemic diseases; investigation of teratogenetic consequences in connection with the radiation doses obtained during the antenatal development; radiation-hygienic standardization of the oral absorbtion of radionuclides for short and long periods of time; effective equivalent dose determination according to the irradiated organ or tissue (mammary glands, lungs, red marrow, gonads, skin); necessity of national system for in time announcement of radiation accidents, as well as suitable control of the internal and the external irradiation

  11. Global case studies of soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS: Definitions, classifications, advances, origins, and problems

    G. Shanmugam

    2017-10-01

    Problems that hinder our understanding of SSDS still remain. They are: (1 vague definitions of the phrase “soft-sediment deformation”; (2 complex factors that govern the origin of SSDS; (3 omission of vital empirical data in documenting vertical changes in facies using measured sedimentological logs; (4 difficulties in distinguishing depositional processes from tectonic events; (5 a model-driven interpretation of SSDS (i.e., earthquake being the singular cause; (6 routine application of the genetic term “seismites” to the “SSDS”, thus undermining the basic tenet of process sedimentology (i.e., separation of interpretation from observation; (7 the absence of objective criteria to differentiate 21 triggering mechanisms of liquefaction and related SSDS; (8 application of the process concept “high-density turbidity currents”, a process that has never been documented in modern oceans; (9 application of the process concept “sediment creep” with a velocity connotation that cannot be inferred from the ancient record; (10 classification of pockmarks, which are hollow spaces (i.e., without sediments as SSDS, with their problematic origins by fluid expulsion, sediment degassing, fish activity, etc.; (11 application of the Earth's climate-change model; and most importantly, (12 an arbitrary distinction between depositional process and sediment deformation. Despite a profusion of literature on SSDS, our understanding of their origin remains muddled. A solution to the chronic SSDS problem is to utilize the robust core dataset from scientific drilling at sea (DSDP/ODP/IODP with a constrained definition of SSDS.

  12. Reduced order models, inertial manifolds, and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.suarez@miem.gub.u, E-mail: rsuarez@ucu.edu.u [Universidad Catolica del Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay). Fac. de Ingenieria y Tecnologias. Dept. de Matematica; Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria, Montevideo (Uruguay). Direccion General de Secretaria

    2011-07-01

    One of the goals of nuclear power systems design and operation is to restrict the possible states of certain critical subsystems to remain inside a certain bounded set of admissible states and state variations. In the framework of an analytic or numerical modeling process of a BWR power plant, this could imply first to find a suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behavior, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant. Inertial manifold theory gives a foundation for the construction and use of reduced order models (ROM's) of reactor dynamics to discover and characterize meaningful bifurcations that may pass unnoticed during digital simulations done with full scale computer codes of the nuclear power plant. The March-Leuba's BWR ROM is generalized and used to exemplify the analytical approach developed here. A nonlinear integral-differential equation in the logarithmic power is derived. Introducing a KBM Ansatz, a coupled set of two nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained. Analytical formulae are derived for the frequency of oscillation and the parameters that determine the stability of the steady states, including sub- and supercritical PAH bifurcations. A Bautin's bifurcation scenario seems possible on the power-flow plane: near the boundary of stability, a region where stable steady states are surrounded by unstable limit cycles surrounded at their turn by stable limit cycles. The analytical results are compared with recent digital simulations and applications of semi-analytical bifurcation theory done with reduced order models of BWR. (author)

  13. Reduced order models, inertial manifolds, and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto; Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria, Montevideo

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of nuclear power systems design and operation is to restrict the possible states of certain critical subsystems to remain inside a certain bounded set of admissible states and state variations. In the framework of an analytic or numerical modeling process of a BWR power plant, this could imply first to find a suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behavior, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant. Inertial manifold theory gives a foundation for the construction and use of reduced order models (ROM's) of reactor dynamics to discover and characterize meaningful bifurcations that may pass unnoticed during digital simulations done with full scale computer codes of the nuclear power plant. The March-Leuba's BWR ROM is generalized and used to exemplify the analytical approach developed here. A nonlinear integral-differential equation in the logarithmic power is derived. Introducing a KBM Ansatz, a coupled set of two nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained. Analytical formulae are derived for the frequency of oscillation and the parameters that determine the stability of the steady states, including sub- and supercritical PAH bifurcations. A Bautin's bifurcation scenario seems possible on the power-flow plane: near the boundary of stability, a region where stable steady states are surrounded by unstable limit cycles surrounded at their turn by stable limit cycles. The analytical results are compared with recent digital simulations and applications of semi-analytical bifurcation theory done with reduced order models of BWR. (author)

  14. Multiple Approaches for Testing Novel Coatings in the Laboratory and in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii with Emphasis on the Global, Problem-Fouling Invertebrates

    2015-09-25

    Multiple Approaches for Testing Novel Coatings in the Laboratory and in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii with Emphasis on the Global, Problem-Fouling Invertebrates 5a...on the Global, Problem-Fouling Invertebrates ONR AWARD NUMBER: N00014-11-1-0167 PRINCIPLE INVESTIGATOR: Michael G. Hadfield, Ph.D...luteoviolacea a phage tail-like component that is capable of inducing the metamorphosis of a marine invertebrate . However, our continued studies in the

  15. Lupus nephritis: prolonged immunoadsorption (IAS) reduces proteinuria and stabilizes global disease activity.

    Stummvoll, Georg H; Schmaldienst, Sabine; Smolen, Josef S; Derfler, Kurt; Biesenbach, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by pathogenic autoantibodies, which can be removed by extracorporeal procedures. While previous studies have shown short-term efficacy of immunoadsorption (IAS) in SLE, no information on long-term benefit and safety is available. IAS was offered to patients with highly active renal disease when conventional therapy had failed. Eleven patients entered the prolonged IAS programme and were followed for up to 10 years (mean 6.4 ± 3.5). Efficacy of IAS was determined by reduction in proteinuria (primary outcome), global disease activity [SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI)] and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) levels (secondary outcomes). Full/partial remission was defined as ≤ 0.5/≤ 1.0 g/day for proteinuria, ≤ 5/≤ 8 for SLEDAI and ≤ 25/≤ 50 IU/mL for anti-dsDNA levels. We further assessed flares, infections, malignancies and procedure-related adverse events. Short-term IAS (≤ 1 year) resulted in a significant reduction of proteinuria (9.2 ± 3.7 to 2.3 ± 2.4, P = 0.0001), disease activity (SLEDAI 19 ± 8 to 4 ± 2, P = 0.0004) and dsDNA levels (168 ± 205 to 45 ± 34, P = 0.001). In patients without remission after 1 year (n = 5), prolonged IAS decreased proteinuria from 4.3 ± 2.4 to 0.5 ± 0.4 g/day, P = 0.02. At the end of observation, complete remission in proteinuria was achieved in seven patients (64%) and partial remission in two (18%) additional patients. One patient flared and was discontinued; in all other patients, disease activity and anti-dsDNA stabilized at remission levels. Flares (0.28 ± 0.30) and infections (0.66 ± 0.70 per patient/year) were relatively uncommon; no malignancies, anaphylactic or orthostatic adverse events were observed. IAS is effective in short-term use but prolonged IAS can provide additional therapeutic benefit while showing an acceptable safety profile. The vast majority of initially therapy-refractory patients met the remission criteria at the end of

  16. Problems of Ensuring Complex Business Security in the Conditions of Modern Globalization

    Anatoliy Petrovich Sterkhov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of ensuring complex business security, the relevance of the present work is associated with the rationale of multilevel hierarchical approach to the classification of security threats in the age of globalization. The specificity of the threats specific to one or another level of the economy, helps to better understand and consequently to build an effective system of ensuring complex business security. For each of the nine hierarchical levels of the economy the author identifies the main threats to the business, as well as the objects and subjects of this study. It is noted that the performance of the business in the form of a complex hierarchical system depends on the principle of specification. The author gives examples of the use of the basic principles of specification. It is noted that the decomposition of the economic system from the viewpoint of its hierarchical nature is of great importance not only to the distribution of the goals and objectives of security of business levels of the system, but their subordination corresponding to each level. The result is the development of specific recommendations and elaboration of the main directions to ensure complex business security for mega-, macro-, micro-, mini-, nano - and mesoeconomic levels. Although the priority of action in multi-level hierarchical system is directed from the upper to the lower levels, the success of the system as a whole depends on the behavior of all system components. It is stated that the interaction with the environment in business occurs mainly in the lower levels of the hierarchy. The quality system of ensuring complex business security which deals with hierarchical positions, will depend not so much on top-level elements, but on response to intervention on the part of lower level, more precisely from their total effect. In other words, the quality of the system of integrated safety management business provides organized feedbacks in the system.

  17. Reducing Harmonic Instability and Resonance Problems in PMSG Based Wind Farms

    Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei

    2018-01-01

    Unlike conventional power systems where harmonic resonances are coming from passive inductive and capacitive elements, large-scale power electronic systems like wind farms present a more complex system, where the fast dynamics of the power electronic converters may present an inductive or capacit......Unlike conventional power systems where harmonic resonances are coming from passive inductive and capacitive elements, large-scale power electronic systems like wind farms present a more complex system, where the fast dynamics of the power electronic converters may present an inductive...... or capacitive behavior. Therefore, the interactions between the fast controllers of the power converters and the passive elements may lead to harmonic instability and new resonances at various frequencies. This paper presents an optimum design technique for the Wind Turbine (WT) inner controllers in a PMSG...... based wind farm in order to reduce the number of resonances and to mitigate harmonic instability. In the approach, a PMSG based wind farm is modeled as a Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) dynamic system by modeling the high bandwidth control loops of the power converters. Resonance frequencies...

  18. Reducing the Complexity of Genetic Fuzzy Classifiers in Highly-Dimensional Classification Problems

    DimitrisG. Stavrakoudis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the Fast Iterative Rule-based Linguistic Classifier (FaIRLiC, a Genetic Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification System (GFRBCS which targets at reducing the structural complexity of the resulting rule base, as well as its learning algorithm's computational requirements, especially when dealing with high-dimensional feature spaces. The proposed methodology follows the principles of the iterative rule learning (IRL approach, whereby a rule extraction algorithm (REA is invoked in an iterative fashion, producing one fuzzy rule at a time. The REA is performed in two successive steps: the first one selects the relevant features of the currently extracted rule, whereas the second one decides the antecedent part of the fuzzy rule, using the previously selected subset of features. The performance of the classifier is finally optimized through a genetic tuning post-processing stage. Comparative results in a hyperspectral remote sensing classification as well as in 12 real-world classification datasets indicate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in generating high-performing and compact fuzzy rule-based classifiers, even for very high-dimensional feature spaces.

  19. Reduced order models, inertial manifolds, and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of nuclear power systems design and operation is to restrict the possible states of certain critical subsystems, during steady operation and during transients, to remain inside a certain bounded set of admissible states and state variations. Also, during transients, certain restrictions must be imposed on the time scale of evolution of the critical subsystem's state. A classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant is done by distributing the different solution types in relation with the exclusion region of the power-flow map. In the framework of an analytic or numerical modeling process of a boiling water reactor (BWR) power plant, this could imply first to find an suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behavior of this nonlinear system, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant, by distributing the different solution types in relation with the exclusion region of the power-flow map. Inertial manifold theory gives a foundation for the construction and use of reduced order models (ROM's) of reactor dynamics to discover and characterize meaningful bifurcations that may pass unnoticed during digital simulations done with full scale computer codes of the nuclear power plant. The March-Leuba's BWR ROM is used to exemplify the analytical approach developed here. The equation for excess void reactivity of this ROM is generalized. A nonlinear integral-differential equation in the logarithmic power is derived, including the generalized thermal-hydraulics feedback on the reactivity. Introducing a Krilov- Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky (KBM) ansatz with both amplitude and phase being slowly varying functions of time relative to the center period of oscillation, a coupled set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for amplitude and phase

  20. World Health Organization perspectives on the contribution of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization on reducing child mortality.

    Bustreo, F; Okwo-Bele, J-M; Kamara, L

    2015-02-01

    Child mortality has decreased substantially globally-from 12.6 million in 1990 to 6.3 million in 2013-due, in large part to of governments' and organisations' work, to prevent pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria, the main causes of death in the postneonatal period. In 2012, the World Health Assembly adopted the Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 as the current framework aimed at preventing millions of deaths through more equitable access to existing vaccines for people in all communities. The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) plays a critical role in this effort by financing and facilitating delivery platforms for vaccines, with focused support for the achievements of improved vaccination coverage and acceleration of the uptake of WHO-recommended lifesaving new vaccines in 73 low-income countries. The GAVI Alliance has contributed substantially towards the progress of Millennium Development Goal 4 and to improving women's lives. By 2013, the GAVI Alliance had immunised 440 million additional children and averted six million future deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases in the world's poorest countries. The GAVI Alliance is on track to reducing child mortality to 68 per 1000 live births by 2015 in supported countries. This paper discusses the GAVI Alliance achievements related to Millennium Development Goal 4 and its broader contribution to improving women's lives and health systems, as well as challenges and obstacles it has faced. Additionally, it looks at challenges for the future and how it will continue its work related to reducing child mortality and improving women's health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Under-Nutrition in Older People: A Serious and Growing Global Problem!

    Visvanathan R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Everyone agrees that adequate nutrient intake is important to all living things. Without food or water, life on earth would cease to exist. In the field of medical health, some gains have been made in meeting maternal and child nutritional needs. There is great community awareness regarding the importance of meeting the nutritional needs of the developing foetus and child. Malnutrition secondary to decreased intake in older people and weight loss is also a serious problem with unfortunately, very little notice from the community at large. As one ages, several physiological processes may contribute towards the development of protein energy malnutrition. Under-nutrition in older people is sadly far too common, even in developed countries. It is very likely that the same concerted effort used to address child malnutrition is required to combat under-nutrition in our elders. Protein energy malnutrition in older people comes at a significant cost to the individual, families, communities and the healthcare system. Failure to address this syndrome is not only unethical and unhealthy, but also costly. Vigilance and community awareness is important in ensuring that this important syndrome is detected and managed appropriately. This review mainly attempts to describe the pathophysiology, prevalence and consequences of under-nutrition and aims to highlight the importance of this clinical syndrome and the recent growth in our understanding of the processes behind its development. Some management strategies are also briefly described.

  2. Biochar amendment reduces paddy soil nitrogen leaching but increases net global warming potential in Ningxia irrigation, China.

    Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Yansui; Liu, Ruliang; Zhang, Aiping; Yang, Shiqi; Liu, Hongyuan; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Zhengli

    2017-05-09

    The efficacy of biochar as an environmentally friendly agent for non-point source and climate change mitigation remains uncertain. Our goal was to test the impact of biochar amendment on paddy rice nitrogen (N) uptake, soil N leaching, and soil CH 4 and N 2 O fluxes in northwest China. Biochar was applied at four rates (0, 4.5, 9 and13.5 t ha -1 yr -1 ). Biochar amendment significantly increased rice N uptake, soil total N concentration and the abundance of soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), but it significantly reduced the soil NO 3 - -N concentration and soil bulk density. Biochar significantly reduced NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N leaching. The C2 and C3 treatments significantly increased the soil CH 4 flux and reduced the soil N 2 O flux, leading to significantly increased net global warming potential (GWP). Soil NO 3 - -N rather than NH 4 + -N was the key integrator of the soil CH 4 and N 2 O fluxes. Our results indicate that a shift in abundance of the AOA community and increased rice N uptake are closely linked to the reduced soil NO 3 - -N concentration under biochar amendment. Furthermore, soil NO 3 - -N availability plays an important role in regulating soil inorganic N leaching and net GWP in rice paddies in northwest China.

  3. Drowning--a scientometric analysis and data acquisition of a constant global problem employing density equalizing mapping and scientometric benchmarking procedures.

    Groneberg, David A; Schilling, Ute; Scutaru, Cristian; Uibel, Stefanie; Zitnik, Simona; Mueller, Daniel; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Kloft, Beatrix

    2011-10-14

    Drowning is a constant global problem which claims approximately half a million victims worldwide each year, whereas the number of near-drowning victims is considerably higher. Public health strategies to reduce the burden of death are still limited. While research activities in the subject drowning grow constantly, yet there is no scientometric evaluation of the existing literature at the present time. The current study uses classical bibliometric tools and visualizing techniques such as density equalizing mapping to analyse and evaluate the scientific research in the field of drowning. The interpretation of the achieved results is also implemented in the context of the data collection of the WHO. All studies related to drowning and listed in the ISI-Web of Science database since 1900 were identified using the search term "drowning". Implementing bibliometric methods, a constant increase in quantitative markers such as number of publications per state, publication language or collaborations as well as qualitative markers such as citations were observed for research in the field of drowning. The combination with density equalizing mapping exposed different global patterns for research productivity and the total number of drowning deaths and drowning rates respectively. Chart techniques were used to illustrate bi- and multilateral research cooperation. The present study provides the first scientometric approach that visualizes research activity on the subject of drowning. It can be assumed that the scientific approach to this topic will achieve even greater dimensions because of its continuing actuality.

  4. Comparison of detailed and reduced kinetics mechanisms of silane oxidation in the basis of detonation wave structure problem

    Fedorov, A. V.; Tropin, D. A.; Fomin, P. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper deals with the problem of the structure of detonation waves in the silane-air mixture within the framework of mathematical model of a nonequilibrium gas dynamics. Detailed kinetic scheme of silane oxidation as well as the newly developed reduced kinetic model of detonation combustion of silane are used. On its basis the detonation wave (DW) structure in stoichiometric silane - air mixture and dependences of Chapman-Jouguet parameters of mixture on stoichiometric ratio between the fuel (silane) and an oxidizer (air) were obtained.

  5. Solving global problem by considering multitude of local problems: Application to fluid flow in anisotropic porous media using the multipoint flux approximation

    Salama, Amgad

    2014-09-01

    In this work we apply the experimenting pressure field approach to the numerical solution of the single phase flow problem in anisotropic porous media using the multipoint flux approximation. We apply this method to the problem of flow in saturated anisotropic porous media. In anisotropic media the component flux representation requires, generally multiple pressure values in neighboring cells (e.g., six pressure values of the neighboring cells is required in two-dimensional rectangular meshes). This apparently results in the need for a nine points stencil for the discretized pressure equation (27 points stencil in three-dimensional rectangular mesh). The coefficients associated with the discretized pressure equation are complex and require longer expressions which make their implementation prone to errors. In the experimenting pressure field technique, the matrix of coefficients is generated automatically within the solver. A set of predefined pressure fields is operated on the domain through which the velocity field is obtained. Apparently such velocity fields do not satisfy the mass conservation equations entailed by the source/sink term and boundary conditions from which the residual is calculated. In this method the experimenting pressure fields are designed such that the residual reduces to the coefficients of the pressure equation matrix. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Solving global problem by considering multitude of local problems: Application to fluid flow in anisotropic porous media using the multipoint flux approximation

    Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu; Wheeler, Mary Fanett

    2014-01-01

    In this work we apply the experimenting pressure field approach to the numerical solution of the single phase flow problem in anisotropic porous media using the multipoint flux approximation. We apply this method to the problem of flow in saturated anisotropic porous media. In anisotropic media the component flux representation requires, generally multiple pressure values in neighboring cells (e.g., six pressure values of the neighboring cells is required in two-dimensional rectangular meshes). This apparently results in the need for a nine points stencil for the discretized pressure equation (27 points stencil in three-dimensional rectangular mesh). The coefficients associated with the discretized pressure equation are complex and require longer expressions which make their implementation prone to errors. In the experimenting pressure field technique, the matrix of coefficients is generated automatically within the solver. A set of predefined pressure fields is operated on the domain through which the velocity field is obtained. Apparently such velocity fields do not satisfy the mass conservation equations entailed by the source/sink term and boundary conditions from which the residual is calculated. In this method the experimenting pressure fields are designed such that the residual reduces to the coefficients of the pressure equation matrix. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Liver diseases: A major, neglected global public health problem requiring urgent actions and large-scale screening.

    Marcellin, Patrick; Kutala, Blaise K

    2018-02-01

    CLDs represent an important, and certainly underestimated, global public health problem. CLDs are highly prevalent and silent, related to different, sometimes associated causes. The distribution of the causes of these diseases is slowly changing, and within the next decade, the proportion of virus-induced CLDs will certainly decrease significantly while the proportion of NASH will increase. There is an urgent need for effective global actions including education, prevention and early diagnosis to manage and treat CLDs, thus preventing cirrhosis-related morbidity and mortality. Our role is to increase the awareness of the public, healthcare professionals and public health authorities to encourage active policies for early management that will decrease the short- and long-term public health burden of these diseases. Because necroinflammation is the key mechanism in the progression of CLDs, it should be detected early. Thus, large-scale screening for CLDs is needed. ALT levels are an easy and inexpensive marker of liver necroinflammation and could be the first-line tool in this process. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Impact of Pharmacist-Conducted Comprehensive Medication Reviews for Older Adult Patients to Reduce Medication Related Problems.

    Kiel, Whitney J; Phillips, Shaun W

    2017-12-31

    Older adults are demanding increased healthcare attention with regards to prescription use due in large part to highly complex medication regimens. As patients age, medications often have a more pronounced effect on older adults, negatively impacting patient safety and increasing healthcare costs. Comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) optimize medications for elderly patients and help to avoid inappropriate medication use. Previous literature has shown that such CMRs can successfully identify and reduce the number of medication-related problems and improve acute healthcare utilization. The purpose of this pharmacy resident research study is to examine the impact of pharmacist-conducted geriatric medication reviews to reduce medication-related problems within a leading community health system in southwest Michigan. Furthermore, the study examines type of pharmacist interventions made during medication reviews, acute healthcare utilization, and physician assessment of the pharmacist's value. The study was conducted as a retrospective post-hoc analysis on ambulatory patients who received a CMR by a pharmacist at a primary care practice. Inclusion criteria included patients over 65 years of age with concurrent use of at least five medications who were a recent recipient of a CMR. Exclusion criteria included patients with renal failure, or those with multiple providers involved in primary care. The primary outcome was the difference in number of medication-related problems, as defined by the START and STOPP Criteria (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment/Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions). Secondary outcomes included hospitalizations, emergency department visits, number and type of pharmacist interventions, acceptance rate of pharmacist recommendations, and assessment of the pharmacist's value by clinic providers. There were a total of 26 patients that received a comprehensive medication review from the pharmacist and were compared to a

  9. Reduced connection between the East Asian Summer Monsoon and Southern Hemisphere Circulation on interannual timescales under intense global warming

    Yu, Tianlei; Guo, Pinwen; Cheng, Jun; Hu, Aixue; Lin, Pengfei; Yu, Yongqiang

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies show a close relationship between the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) and Southern Hemisphere (SH) circulation on interannual timescales. In this study, we investigate whether this close relationship will change under intensive greenhouse-gas effect by analyzing simulations under two different climate background states: preindustrial era and Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 stabilization from the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4). Results show a significantly reduced relationship under stabilized RCP8.5 climate state, such a less correlated EASM with the sea level pressure in the southern Indian Ocean and the SH branch of local Hadley Cell. Further analysis suggests that the collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) due to this warming leads to a less vigorous northward meridional heat transport, a decreased intertropical temperature contrast in boreal summer, which produces a weaker cross-equatorial Hadley Cell in the monsoonal region and a reduced Interhemispheric Mass Exchange (IME). Since the monsoonal IME acts as a bridge connecting EASM and SH circulation, the reduced IME weakens this connection. By performing freshwater hosing experiment using the Flexible Global Ocean—Atmosphere—Land System model, Grid-point Version 2 (FGOALS-g2), we show a weakened relationship between the EASM and SH circulation as in CCSM4 when AMOC collapses. Our results suggest that a substantially weakened AMOC is the main driver leading to the EASM, which is less affected by SH circulation in the future warmer climate.

  10. Cost Benefit Analysis of Using Clean Energy Supplies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Global Automotive Manufacturing

    Xiang Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Automotive manufacturing is energy-intensive. The consumed energy contributes to the generation of significant amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by the automotive manufacturing industry. In this paper, a study is conducted on assessing the application potential of such clean energy power systems as solar PV, wind and fuel cells in reducing the GHG emissions of the global auto manufacturing industry. The study is conducted on the representative solar PV, wind and fuel cell clean energy systems available on the commercial market in six representative locations of GM’s global facilities, including the United States, Mexico, Brazil, China, Egypt and Germany. The results demonstrate that wind power is superior to other two clean energy technologies in the economic performance of the GHG mitigation effect. Among these six selected countries, the highest GHG emission mitigation potential is in China, through wind power supply. The maximum GHG reduction could be up to 60 tons per $1,000 economic investment on wind energy supply in China. The application of wind power systems in the United States and Germany could also obtain relatively high GHG reductions of between 40–50 tons per $1,000 economic input. When compared with wind energy, the use of solar and fuel cell power systems have much less potential for GHG mitigation in the six countries selected. The range of median GHG mitigation values resulting from solar and wind power supply are almost at the same level.

  11. A global social contract to reduce maternal mortality: the human rights arguments and the case of Uganda.

    Ooms, Gorik; Mulumba, Moses; Hammonds, Rachel; Latif Laila, Abdul; Waris, Attiya; Forman, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5a, reducing maternal deaths by 75% between 1990 and 2015, has been substantial; however, it has been too slow to hope for its achievement by 2015, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, including Uganda. This suggests that both the Government of Uganda and the international community are failing to comply with their right-to-health-related obligations towards the people of Uganda. This country case study explores some of the key issues raised when assessing national and international right-to-health-related obligations. We argue that to comply with their shared obligations, national and international actors will have to take steps to move forward together. The Government of Uganda should not expect additional international assistance if it does not live up to its own obligations; at the same time, the international community must provide assistance that is more reliable in the long run to create the 'fiscal space' that the Government of Uganda needs to increase recurrent expenditure for health - which is crucial to addressing maternal mortality. We propose that the 'Roadmap on Shared Responsibility and Global Solidarity for AIDS, TB and Malaria Response in Africa', adopted by the African Union in July 2012, should be seen as an invitation to the international community to conclude a global social contract for health. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measured improvement of global magnetohydrodynamic mode stability at high-beta, and in reduced collisionality spherical torus plasmas

    Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Balbaky, A. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Manickam, J.; Menard, J. E.; Podestà, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Global mode stability is studied in high-β National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas to avoid disruptions. Dedicated experiments in NSTX using low frequency active magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy of applied rotating n = 1 magnetic fields revealed key dependencies of stability on plasma parameters. Observations from previous NSTX resistive wall mode (RWM) active control experiments and the wider NSTX disruption database indicated that the highest β{sub N} plasmas were not the least stable. Significantly, here, stability was measured to increase at β{sub N}∕l{sub i} higher than the point where disruptions were found. This favorable behavior is shown to correlate with kinetic stability rotational resonances, and an experimentally determined range of measured E × B frequency with improved stability is identified. Stable plasmas appear to benefit further from reduced collisionality, in agreement with expectation from kinetic RWM stabilization theory, but low collisionality plasmas are also susceptible to sudden instability when kinetic profiles change.

  13. Numerical solution of a coefficient inverse problem with multi-frequency experimental raw data by a globally convergent algorithm

    Nguyen, Dinh-Liem; Klibanov, Michael V.; Nguyen, Loc H.; Kolesov, Aleksandr E.; Fiddy, Michael A.; Liu, Hui

    2017-09-01

    We analyze in this paper the performance of a newly developed globally convergent numerical method for a coefficient inverse problem for the case of multi-frequency experimental backscatter data associated to a single incident wave. These data were collected using a microwave scattering facility at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. The challenges for the inverse problem under the consideration are not only from its high nonlinearity and severe ill-posedness but also from the facts that the amount of the measured data is minimal and that these raw data are contaminated by a significant amount of noise, due to a non-ideal experimental setup. This setup is motivated by our target application in detecting and identifying explosives. We show in this paper how the raw data can be preprocessed and successfully inverted using our inversion method. More precisely, we are able to reconstruct the dielectric constants and the locations of the scattering objects with a good accuracy, without using any advanced a priori knowledge of their physical and geometrical properties.

  14. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment

    Smith, Mark R; Eastman, Charmane I

    2012-01-01

    There are three mechanisms that may contribute to the health, performance, and safety problems associated with night-shift work: (1) circadian misalignment between the internal circadian clock and activities such as work, sleep, and eating, (2) chronic, partial sleep deprivation, and (3) melatonin suppression by light at night. The typical countermeasures, such as caffeine, naps, and melatonin (for its sleep-promoting effect), along with education about sleep and circadian rhythms, are the components of most fatigue risk-management plans. We contend that these, while better than nothing, are not enough because they do not address the underlying cause of the problems, which is circadian misalignment. We explain how to reset (phase-shift) the circadian clock to partially align with the night-work, day-sleep schedule, and thus reduce circadian misalignment while preserving sleep and functioning on days off. This involves controlling light and dark using outdoor light exposure, sunglasses, sleep in the dark, and a little bright light during night work. We present a diagram of a sleep-and-light schedule to reduce circadian misalignment in permanent night work, or a rotation between evenings and nights, and give practical advice on how to implement this type of plan. PMID:23620685

  15. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment

    Smith MR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mark R Smith, Charmane I EastmanBiological Rhythms Research Laboratory, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: There are three mechanisms that may contribute to the health, performance, and safety problems associated with night-shift work: (1 circadian misalignment between the internal circadian clock and activities such as work, sleep, and eating, (2 chronic, partial sleep deprivation, and (3 melatonin suppression by light at night. The typical countermeasures, such as caffeine, naps, and melatonin (for its sleep-promoting effect, along with education about sleep and circadian rhythms, are the components of most fatigue risk-management plans. We contend that these, while better than nothing, are not enough because they do not address the underlying cause of the problems, which is circadian misalignment. We explain how to reset (phase-shift the circadian clock to partially align with the night-work, day-sleep schedule, and thus reduce circadian misalignment while preserving sleep and functioning on days off. This involves controlling light and dark using outdoor light exposure, sunglasses, sleep in the dark, and a little bright light during night work. We present a diagram of a sleep-and-light schedule to reduce circadian misalignment in permanent night work, or a rotation between evenings and nights, and give practical advice on how to implement this type of plan.Keywords: circadian rhythms, night work, bright light, phase-shifting, sleep, melatonin

  16. An application of Six Sigma methodology to reduce the engine-overheating problem in an automotive company

    Antony, J. [Glasgow Caledonian University (United Kingdom). Six Sigma and Process Improvement Research Centre; Kumar, M. [Glasgow Caledonian University (United Kingdom). Division of Management; Tiwari, M.K. [National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology, Ranchi (India). Department of Manufacturing Engineering

    2005-08-15

    Six Sigma is a systematic methodology for continuous process quality improvement and for achieving operational excellence. The overstatement that often accompanies the presentation and adoption of Six Sigma in industry can lead to unrealistic expectations as to what Six Sigma is truly capable of achieving. This paper deals with the application of Six Sigma based methodology in eliminating an engine-overheating problem in an automotive company. The DMAIC (define-measure-analyse-improve-control) approach has been followed here to solve an underlying problem of reducing process variation and the associated high defect rate. This paper explores how a foundry can use a systematic and disciplined approach to move towards the goal of Six Sigma quality level. The application of the Six Sigma methodology resulted in a reduction in the jamming problem encountered in the cylinder head and increased the process capability from 0.49 to 1.28. The application of DMAIC has had a significant financial impact (saving over $US110 000 per annum) on the bottom-line of the company. (author)

  17. Informing policy to protect coastal coral reefs: insight from a global review of reducing agricultural pollution to coastal ecosystems.

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Schaffelke, Britta; Bartley, Rebecca

    2014-08-15

    The continuing degradation of coral reefs has serious consequences for the provision of ecosystem goods and services to local and regional communities. While climate change is considered the most serious risk to coral reefs, agricultural pollution threatens approximately 25% of the total global reef area with further increases in sediment and nutrient fluxes projected over the next 50 years. Here, we aim to inform coral reef management using insights learned from management examples that were successful in reducing agricultural pollution to coastal ecosystems. We identify multiple examples reporting reduced fluxes of sediment and nutrients at end-of-river, and associated declines in nutrient concentrations and algal biomass in receiving coastal waters. Based on the insights obtained, we recommend that future protection of coral reef ecosystems demands policy focused on desired ecosystem outcomes, targeted regulatory approaches, up-scaling of watershed management, and long-term maintenance of scientifically robust monitoring programs linked with adaptive management. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Validity and reliability problems with patient global as a component of the ACR/EULAR remission criteria as used in clinical practice.

    Masri, Karim R; Shaver, Timothy S; Shahouri, Shadi H; Wang, Shirley; Anderson, James D; Busch, Ruth E; Michaud, Kaleb; Mikuls, Ted R; Caplan, Liron; Wolfe, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    To investigate what factors influence patient global health assessment (PtGlobal), and how those factors and the reliability of PtGlobal affect the rate, reliability, and validity of recently published American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remission criteria when used in clinical practice. We examined consecutive patients with RA in clinical practice and identified 77 who met ACR/EULAR joint criteria for remission (≤ 1 swollen joint and ≤ 1 tender joint). We evaluated factors associated with a PtGlobal > 1, because a PtGlobal ≤ 1 defined ACR/EULAR remission in this group of patients who had already met ACR/EULAR joint criteria. Of the 77 patients examined, only 17 (22.1%) had PtGlobal ≤ 1 and thus fully satisfied ACR/EULAR criteria. A large proportion of patients not in remission by ACR/EULAR criteria had high PtGlobal related to noninflammatory issues, including low back pain, fatigue, and functional limitations, and a number of patients clustered in the range of PtGlobal > 1 and ≤ 2. However, the minimal detectable difference for PtGlobal was 2.3. In addition, compared with a PtGlobal severity score, a PtGlobal activity score was 3.3% less likely to be abnormal (> 1). Noninflammatory factors contribute to the level of PtGlobal and result in the exclusion of many patients who would otherwise be in "true" remission according to the ACR/EULAR definition. Reliability problems associated with PtGlobal can also result in misclassification, and may explain the observation of low longterm remission rates in RA. As currently constituted, the use of the ACR/EULAR remission criteria in clinical practice appears to be problematic.

  19. Active-Set Reduced-Space Methods with Nonlinear Elimination for Two-Phase Flow Problems in Porous Media

    Yang, Haijian

    2016-07-26

    Fully implicit methods are drawing more attention in scientific and engineering applications due to the allowance of large time steps in extreme-scale simulations. When using a fully implicit method to solve two-phase flow problems in porous media, one major challenge is the solution of the resultant nonlinear system at each time step. To solve such nonlinear systems, traditional nonlinear iterative methods, such as the class of the Newton methods, often fail to achieve the desired convergent rate due to the high nonlinearity of the system and/or the violation of the boundedness requirement of the saturation. In the paper, we reformulate the two-phase model as a variational inequality that naturally ensures the physical feasibility of the saturation variable. The variational inequality is then solved by an active-set reduced-space method with a nonlinear elimination preconditioner to remove the high nonlinear components that often causes the failure of the nonlinear iteration for convergence. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we compare it with the classical implicit pressure-explicit saturation method for two-phase flow problems with strong heterogeneity. The numerical results show that our nonlinear solver overcomes the often severe limits on the time step associated with existing methods, results in superior convergence performance, and achieves reduction in the total computing time by more than one order of magnitude.

  20. Reducing the drop-out rate of a technical oriented course by introducing Problem Based Learning – a first concept

    Christian Kaufmann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At the University of Applied Sciences (UAS Technikum Wien one of the most difficult courses in the Bachelor degree program of Computer Science is “Database Systems and Database Design”. Together with “Advanced Computer Programming”, this course accounts for the high drop-out rate in the degree program. For this reason, this course was chosen for a redesign, in line with the research project QUADRO (Measures to increase quality of teaching and to reduce drop-out rates promoted by the City of Vienna – MA 27 (EU strategy and promote economic development. As the authors have already gained experience in Problem Based Learning (PBL, they saw an opportunity to improve students’ database knowledge by changing the teaching method to Problem Based Learning (PBL. The proposed paper first explains the current situation, identifies its drawbacks and difficulties. In a second step, it describes the new method, shows the students’ feedback after the first semester and the resulting changes in the concept.

  1. Active-Set Reduced-Space Methods with Nonlinear Elimination for Two-Phase Flow Problems in Porous Media

    Yang, Haijian; Yang, Chao; Sun, Shuyu

    2016-01-01

    Fully implicit methods are drawing more attention in scientific and engineering applications due to the allowance of large time steps in extreme-scale simulations. When using a fully implicit method to solve two-phase flow problems in porous media, one major challenge is the solution of the resultant nonlinear system at each time step. To solve such nonlinear systems, traditional nonlinear iterative methods, such as the class of the Newton methods, often fail to achieve the desired convergent rate due to the high nonlinearity of the system and/or the violation of the boundedness requirement of the saturation. In the paper, we reformulate the two-phase model as a variational inequality that naturally ensures the physical feasibility of the saturation variable. The variational inequality is then solved by an active-set reduced-space method with a nonlinear elimination preconditioner to remove the high nonlinear components that often causes the failure of the nonlinear iteration for convergence. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we compare it with the classical implicit pressure-explicit saturation method for two-phase flow problems with strong heterogeneity. The numerical results show that our nonlinear solver overcomes the often severe limits on the time step associated with existing methods, results in superior convergence performance, and achieves reduction in the total computing time by more than one order of magnitude.

  2. Encouraging GPs to undertake screening and a brief intervention in order to reduce problem drinking: a randomized controlled trial

    Hansen, Lars Jørgen; Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Beich, Anders

    1999-01-01

    intervention, problem drinking, randomized controlled trial, family practice, marketing of health services......intervention, problem drinking, randomized controlled trial, family practice, marketing of health services...

  3. High food prices and the global financial crisis have reduced access to nutritious food and worsened nutritional status and health.

    Brinkman, Henk-Jan; de Pee, Saskia; Sanogo, Issa; Subran, Ludovic; Bloem, Martin W

    2010-01-01

    A global economic and financial crisis is engulfing the developing world, coming on top of high food and fuel prices. This paper assesses the impact of the crises on food consumption, nutrition, and health. Several methods were applied, including risk analysis using the cost of the food basket, assessment surveys, simulations, regression analysis using a food consumption score (FCS), reflecting diet frequency and diversity, and a review of the impact of such dietary changes on nutritional status and health. The cost of the food basket increased in several countries, forcing households to reduce quality and quantity of food consumed. The FCS, which is a measure of diet diversity, is negatively correlated with food prices. Simulations show that energy consumption declined during 2006-2010 in nearly all developing regions, resulting potentially in an additional 457 million people (of 4.5 billion) at risk of being hungry and many more unable to afford the dietary quality required to perform, develop, and grow well. As a result of the crises, large numbers of vulnerable households have reduced the quality and quantity of foods they consume and are at risk of increased malnutrition. Population groups most affected are those with the highest requirements, including young children, pregnant and lactating women, and the chronically ill (particularly people with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis). Because undernutrition during the first 2 y of life has life-long consequences, even short-term price rises will have long-term effects. Thus, measures to mitigate the impact of the crises are urgently required.

  4. Reducing Production Basis Risk through Rainfall Intensity Frequency (RIF) Indexes: Global Sensitivity Analysis' Implication on Policy Design

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus; Huffaker, Ray; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions with swift compensation at affordable premium thanks to its minimal adverse selection and moral hazard. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing causes the presence of "production basis risk" that the selected weather indexes and their thresholds do not correspond to actual damages. To reduce basis risk without additional data collection cost, we propose the use of rain intensity and frequency as indexes as it could offer better protection at the lower premium by avoiding basis risk-strike trade-off inherent in the total rainfall index. We present empirical evidences and modeling results that even under the similar cumulative rainfall and temperature environment, yield can significantly differ especially for drought sensitive crops. We further show that deriving the trigger level and payoff function from regression between historical yield and total rainfall data may pose significant basis risk owing to their non-unique relationship in the insured range of rainfall. Lastly, we discuss the design of index insurance in terms of contract specifications based on the results from global sensitivity analysis.

  5. Technical Note: Method of Morris effectively reduces the computational demands of global sensitivity analysis for distributed watershed models

    J. D. Herman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The increase in spatially distributed hydrologic modeling warrants a corresponding increase in diagnostic methods capable of analyzing complex models with large numbers of parameters. Sobol' sensitivity analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for diagnostic analyses of hydrologic models. However, for many spatially distributed models, the Sobol' method requires a prohibitive number of model evaluations to reliably decompose output variance across the full set of parameters. We investigate the potential of the method of Morris, a screening-based sensitivity approach, to provide results sufficiently similar to those of the Sobol' method at a greatly reduced computational expense. The methods are benchmarked on the Hydrology Laboratory Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM over a six-month period in the Blue River watershed, Oklahoma, USA. The Sobol' method required over six million model evaluations to ensure reliable sensitivity indices, corresponding to more than 30 000 computing hours and roughly 180 gigabytes of storage space. We find that the method of Morris is able to correctly screen the most and least sensitive parameters with 300 times fewer model evaluations, requiring only 100 computing hours and 1 gigabyte of storage space. The method of Morris proves to be a promising diagnostic approach for global sensitivity analysis of highly parameterized, spatially distributed hydrologic models.

  6. Problems of Technical Standards Teaching in the Context of the Globalization and Euro-Integration in Higher Education System of Ukraine

    Kornuta, Olena; Pryhorovska, Tetiana

    2015-01-01

    Globalization and Ukraine association with EU imply including Ukrainian universities into the world scientific space. The aim of this article is to analyze the problem of drawing standards teaching, based on the experience of Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas (Ukraine) and to summarize the experience of post Soviet…

  7. Problem solving for breast health care delivery in low and middle resource countries (LMCs): consensus statement from the Breast Health Global Initiative.

    Harford, J.B.; Otero, I.V.; Anderson, B.O.; Cazap, E.; Gradishar, W.J.; Gralow, J.R.; Kane, G.M.; Niens, L.M.; Porter, P.L.; Reeler, A.V.; Rieger, P.T.; Shockney, L.D.; Shulman, L.N.; Soldak, T.; Thomas, D.B.; Thompson, B.; Winchester, D.P.; Zelle, S.G.; Badwe, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    International collaborations like the Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) can help low and middle income countries (LMCs) to establish or improve breast cancer control programs by providing evidence-based, resource-stratified guidelines for the management and control of breast cancer. The Problem

  8. The present global financial and economic crisis poses an additional risk factor for mental health problems on the employees.

    Avčin, Bojana Avguštin; Kučina, Andrea Užmah; Sarotar, Brigita Novak; Radovanović, Mirjana; Plesničar, Blanka Kores

    2011-09-01

    The global financial and economic crisis starting in 2007 led to a deterioration of several socio-economic determinants of mental health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the impact of the present economic crisis on the depression and anxiety levels of the employed in the private and public sector in Slovenia. Altogether 1592 employees completed an internet based self-reported questionnaire. Data about perceived impact of the economic crisis, several socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and health parameters were collected. Depression symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale and anxiety symptoms by the Spielberger State-Inventory. Regression models were used 1) to explore the associations of the economic crisis with the level of depression and anxiety symptoms while controlling for some sociodemographic and work characteristic variables, and 2) to understand the relationship between some potentially important socioeconomic variables and the perception of the economic crisis. Depressive and anxiety scores were significantly increased among 590 (46.6%) employees being affected by the economic crisis. The level of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with perceived impact by the crisis, recent sick leave, reported injuries sustained at work, benzodiazepine and analgesic use, the lack of emotional support, and trust in crisis telephone lines. The level of anxiety symptoms yielded the robust association with the level of depression symptoms, reported injuries sustained on the way to work and education. The economic crisis poses an additional risk factor for mental health problems which clinicians should internalize and become more aware of them. Symptoms of depression and anxiety can be masked in high-utilizers of medical care with physical complaints or psychoactive drug use.

  9. An application of deviance regulation theory to reduce alcohol-related problems among college women during spring break.

    Dvorak, Robert D; Kramer, Matthew P; Stevenson, Brittany L; Sargent, Emily M; Kilwein, Tess M

    2017-05-01

    Spring break (SB) can lead to heavy episodic drinking and increased alcohol-related risks. This may be especially relevant for women. The current study utilized deviance regulation theory to increase the use of protective behavioral strategies (PBSs) among female college students on SB. Female college students going on SB (n = 62) completed a screening, a pre-SB intervention (where they were randomly assigned to receive either a positively or negatively framed message about individuals who do or do not use PBS), and a post-SB assessment that provided alcohol and PBS use data for each day of SB (n = 620 person-days). Data were analyzed using a multilevel structural equation model. In the negative frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be more common on SB relative to non-SB. In the positive frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be less common on SB relative to non-SB. These associations did not result in lower alcohol consumption, but did result in a lower likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related problems during SB. These results suggest that a brief online intervention, that utilizes targeted messages based on normative perceptions of SB PBS use, could be an effective strategy for reducing alcohol-related consequences among college student women during SB. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Familias Unidas: a family-centered ecodevelopmental intervention to reduce risk for problem behavior among Hispanic adolescents.

    Coatsworth, J Douglas; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes the theoretical and empirical foundations of Familias Unidas, a multilevel, family-centered intervention designed to prevent problem behavior in Hispanic adolescents. The main theoretical tenets for the intervention model; an ecological-developmental perspective, the centrality of ethnic and cultural themes, application of empowerment principles, and a family focus are reviewed. The literature on the risk and protective factors that provided the justification for the intervention's targeted mediators and the core clinical applications that are intended to alter them are discussed. Familias Unidas engages Hispanic immigrant parents into an empowerment process in which they first build a strong parent-support network and then use the network to increase knowledge of culturally relevant parenting, strengthen parenting skills, and then apply these new skills in a series of activities designed to reduce risks frequently found in poor, urban environments. The available evidence supporting the efficacy of Familias Unidas is summarized, as are future goals and a current, second-generation application of the intervention.

  11. [Peripheral venous catheter use in the emergency department: reducing adverse events in patients and biosafety problems for staff].

    Tomás Vecina, Santiago; Mozota Duarte, Julián; Ortega Marcos, Miguel; Gracia Ruiz Navarro, María; Borillo, Vicente; San Juan Gago, Leticia; Roqueta Egea, Fermin; Chanovas Borrás, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    To test a strategy to reduce the rate of adverse events in patients and safety problems for emergency department staff who insert peripheral venous catheters (PVCs). The strategy consisted of training, implementing a protocol, and introducing safety-engineered PVCs. Prospective, multicenter, observational, preauthorization study in patients requiring PVC placement in an emergency department. The study had 2 phases. The first consisted of training, implementing a protocol for using conventional PVCs, and monitoring practice. The second phase introduced safety-engineered PVC sets. The number of adverse events in patients and threats to safety for staff were compared between the 2 phases. A total of 520 patients were included, 180 in the first phase and 340 in the second. We detected breaches in aseptic technique, failure to maintain a sterile field, and improper management of safety equipment and devices. Some practices improved significantly during the second phase. Eighty-six adverse events occurred in the first phase and 52 (15.4%) in the second; the between-phase difference was not statistically significant. The incidence of postinfusion phlebitis was 50% lower in the second phase. Seven splash injuries and 1 accidental puncture occurred with conventional PVCs in the first phase; 2 splash injuries occurred with the safety-engineered PVCs in the second phase (36% decrease, P = .04). Differences were particularly noticeable for short-term PVC placements (P = .02). Combining training, a protocol, and the use of safety-engineered PVC sets offers an effective strategy for improving patient and staff safety.

  12. Reducing Child Problem Behaviors and Improving Teacher-Child Interactions and Relationships: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Best in Class

    Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Algina, James; Ladwig, Crystal; Jesse, Gabriel; Gyure, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Research has consistently linked early problem behavior with later adjustment problems, including antisocial behavior, learning problems and risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). Researchers have focused upon developing effective intervention programs for young children who arrive in preschool exhibiting chronic…

  13. Solving the Global Climate Monitoring Problem in the Atmosphere: Towards SI-tied Climate Records with Integrated Uncertainty Propagation

    Kirchengast, G.; Schwaerz, M.; Fritzer, J.; Schwarz, J.; Scherllin-Pirscher, B.; Steiner, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring the atmosphere to gain accurate and long-term stable records of essential climate variables (ECVs) such as temperature and greenhouse gases is the backbone of contemporary atmospheric and climate science. Earth observation from space is the key to obtain such data globally in the atmosphere. Currently, however, not any existing satellite-based atmospheric ECV record can serve as authoritative benchmark over months to decades so that climate variability and change in the atmosphere are not yet reliably monitored. Radio occultation (RO) using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals provides a unique opportunity to solve this problem in the free atmosphere (from ~1-2 km altitude upwards) for core ECVs: the thermodynamic variables temperature and pressure, and to some degree water vapor, which are key parameters for tracking climate change. On top of RO we have recently conceived next-generation methods, microwave and infrared-laser occultation and nadir-looking infrared-laser reflectometry. These can monitor a full set of thermo-dynamic ECVs (incl. wind) as well as the greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane as main drivers of climate change; for the latter we also target the boundary layer for tracking carbon sources and sinks. We briefly introduce to why the atmospheric climate monitoring challenge is unsolved so far and why just the above methods have the capabilities to break through. We then focus on RO, which already provided more than a decade of observations. RO accurately measures time delays from refraction of GNSS signals during atmospheric occultation events. This enables to tie RO-derived ECVs and their uncertainty to fundamental time standards, effectively the SI second, and to their unique long-term stability and narrow uncertainty. However, despite impressive advances since the pioneering RO mission GPS/Met in the mid-1990ties no rigorous trace from fundamental time to the ECVs (duly accounting also for relevant side

  14. General problems

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  15. Global environment and cogeneration

    Miyahara, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    The environment problems on global scale have been highlighted in addition to the local problems due to the rapid increase of population, the increase of energy demand and so on. The global environment summit was held in Brazil. Now, global environment problems are the problems for mankind, and their importance seems to increase toward 21st century. In such circumstances, cogeneration can reduce carbon dioxide emission in addition to energy conservation, therefore, attention has been paid as the countermeasure for global environment. The background of global environment problems is explained. As to the effectiveness of cogeneration for global environment, the suitability of city gas to environment, energy conservation, the reduction of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emission are discussed. As for the state of spread of cogeneration, as of March, 1992, those of 2250 MW in terms of power generation capacity have been installed in Japan. It is forecast that cogeneration will increase hereafter. As the future systems of cogeneration, city and industry energy center conception, industrial repowering, multiple house cogeneration and fuel cells are described. (K.I.)

  16. Energy Choices. Global Energy Trends and Problems to Supply the Energy Demand; Vaegval Energi. Globala energitrender och problem att tillgodose energibehoven

    Radetzki, Marian (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Although the use of renewable fuels is increasing, oil and other fossil fuels still dominate the global energy supply the next decades, as shown by a review of energy sector development from 1990 to today and projections up to 2030. Nothing indicates that the supplies of oil or any other fossil fuel will be depleted during the coming decades. Resource Nationalism has long characterized the oil market. OPEC has since 1970 successfully controlled the supply and price of oil for its producing member countries. The cartel's grip on the oil market has been strengthened in the 2000s commodity boom, not least as a result of improved production discipline among member countries. At the same time, the long-term trend in the world's great centers of consumption is towards a lower degree of self-sufficiency in energy. The EU dependence on import of oil is expected to rise to over ninety per cent by year 2030. In order to secure a stable energy supply, clear strategies in the oil-importing countries are needed. Tools include diversified import, storage and securing supplies through futures trading on commodity exchanges. Energy policy has long been focused on supply. But the environmental aspects of energy production and use has grown in importance and now the climate issue dominates the energy policy. So far, however, the policy measures to curb the effects of climate change has been both limited and cost-ineffective. The cost to seriously limit emissions of greenhouse gases will be high. To carry out serious climate measures will annually take at least one percent of global GDP, according to an estimate by the British economist Nicholas Stern. This can be compared to the additional cost of approximately five percent of global GDP as energy consumers had to absorb between 2005 and 2008 because of rising prices for fossil fuels

  17. Using a videogame intervention to reduce anxiety and externalizing problems among youths in residential care: An initial randomized controlled trial

    Schuurmans, A.T.; Nijhof, K.S.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Granic, I.

    2018-01-01

    Residential care is among the most intensive forms of treatment in youth care. It serves youths with severe behavioral problems and is primarily focused on targeting externalizing problems. Despite best efforts, effect sizes remain moderate, which may be due to the disregarding of internalizing

  18. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Constant-time solution to the global optimization problem using Brüschweiler's ensemble search algorithm

    Protopopescu, V.; D'Helon, C.; Barhen, J.

    2003-06-01

    A constant-time solution of the continuous global optimization problem (GOP) is obtained by using an ensemble algorithm. We show that under certain assumptions, the solution can be guaranteed by mapping the GOP onto a discrete unsorted search problem, whereupon Brüschweiler's ensemble search algorithm is applied. For adequate sensitivities of the measurement technique, the query complexity of the ensemble search algorithm depends linearly on the size of the function's domain. Advantages and limitations of an eventual NMR implementation are discussed.

  19. The Wood-Growth-and-Burial Process (WGBP) Permanent Wood Sequestration to Solve the Global Carbon Dioxide Problem

    Scholz, F.; Hasse, U.

    2008-12-01

    Among all global environmental problems there is one which dominates over all others: this is the excessive release of carbon dioxide due to burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil, and gas. The only way to achieve a permanent removal of anthropogenic CO2 must make use of photosynthesis since, so-far, no other technology is able to bind the necessary huge amounts of carbon. Therefore, we propose to grow wood on any available areas, and to bury the wood under anaerobic conditions, e.g., in emptied open pits of coal mining, any other available pits, and possibly also in emptied underground mines. At these places the wood will keep for practically unlimited times, undergoing only very slow carbonization reactions. Simple calculations allow concluding that humans could already now scavenge even all the released CO2, but a more realistic goal may be to bind 20, 30, or 60 percent. This is more a political question than a scientific one. General features of the WGBP are: The growth of woods will transform deforested areas and fallow land to some kind of natural vegetation with the accompanying positive side effects of restoring biotopes, improving the water balance and thus also improving the climate. The growth of woods will produce enormous amounts of oxygen and thus it will add to a sound oxygen balance. It will improve the air quality because of the filtering effect of woods. The growth of woods will improve the soil quality because leaves and roots will stay on and in the ground when the wood is harvested. The WGBP will create jobs in areas where there is an urgent demand for these. The WGBP will offer the opportunity to re-cultivate open pit mining areas. The WGBP will offer the possibility to fill underground mines in a way to prevent earth quakes caused by collapsing mine shafts. The WGBP will enable mankind to survive the time span ahead of us in which mankind will still use fossil fuels. The WGBP can be easily financed by societies via very small additional taxes

  20. The Problem and Goals Are Global, the Solutions Are Local: Revisiting Quality Measurements and the Role of the Private Sector in Global Health Professions Education.

    Hamdy, Hossam

    2017-08-01

    The shortage of a competent health workforce is a global challenge. However, its manifestations and proposed solutions are very much context related (i.e., local). In addition to the shortage of health professionals, the quality of health professions education programs, institutions, and graduates, and how to measure quality, are also problematic. Commonly used metrics like the Credit Hours System and the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System have limitations (e.g., being more focused on quantity than quality).In this Invited Commentary, the author discusses the need to revisit quality measurements in health professions education and the issue of whether the private sector has a role to play in narrowing the ever-increasing gap between the demand for health care professionals and the health care workforce shortage.

  1. How to Address a Global Problem with Earth Observations? Developing Best Practices to Monitor Forests Around the World

    Flores Cordova, Africa I.; Cherrington, Emil A.; Vadrevu, Krishna; Thapa, Rajesh Bahadur; Odour, Phoebe; Mehmood, Hamid; Quyen, Nguyen Hanh; Saah, David; Yero, Kadidia; Mamane, Bako; hide

    2017-01-01

    Forests represent a key natural resource, for which degradation or disturbance is directly associated to economic implications, particularly in the context of the United Nations program REDD+ in supporting national policies to fight illegal deforestation. SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations (EO) for improved environmental decision making in developing countries, works with established institutions, called SERVIR hubs, in four regions around the world. SERVIR is partnering with global programs with great experience in providing best practices in forest monitoring systems, such as SilvaCarbon and the Global Forest Observation Initiative (GFOI), to develop a capacity building plan that prioritizes user needs. Representatives from the SERVIR global network met in February 2017 with experts in the field of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for forest applications to envisage this capacity building plan that aims to leverage the state-of-the-art knowledge on remote sensing to enhance forest monitoring for user agencies in SERVIR regions.

  2. Interventions aimed at reducing problems in adult patients discharged from hospital to home: a systematic meta-review.

    Mistiaen, P.; Francke, A.L.; Poot, E.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients encounter a variety of problems after discharge from hospital and many discharge (planning and support) interventions have been developed and studied. These primary studies have already been synthesized in several literature reviews with conflicting conclusions. We

  3. Interactions between global processes and local health problems. A human ecology approach to health among indigenous groups in the Amazon

    Maj-Lis Follér

    Full Text Available This article deals with methodological issues and how to link global processes - social and ecological - with environmental changes and human health in local communities. The discussion concerns how interdisciplinary approaches can help us find tools to develop new knowledge. Scientific knowledge and local knowledge are not seen as opposite epistemological forms, but as socially and culturally constructed. Power and social legitimacy have to be included when analyzing how to deal with the interaction between global processes and local environmental change and the health/disease interface.

  4. Anisotropic Density Estimation in Global Illumination

    Schjøth, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Density estimation employed in multi-pass global illumination algorithms gives cause to a trade-off problem between bias and noise. The problem is seen most evident as blurring of strong illumination features. This thesis addresses the problem, presenting four methods that reduce both noise...

  5. Additive for reducing operational problems in waste fired grate boilers; Additiv foer att minska driftproblem vid rostfoerbraenning av avfall

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Davidsson, Kent; Hermansson, Sven; Liske, Jesper; Larsson, Erik; Jonsson, Torbjoern; Zhao, Dongmei

    2013-09-01

    The combustion of waste implies a risk for deposits and corrosion in different parts of the combustion facility. In recent years, research and tests have been performed in order to find ways to mitigate these problems in waste-fired plants. Most waste-fired plants in Sweden are grates whereas most of the research has been carried out in fluidized bed plants. The purpose of this project is to examine whether co-firing of sewage sludge and waste can reduce deposition and corrosion also in grate-fired boilers as has been shown in fludised beds. The objective is to determine the deposit growth and its composition as well as describing the initial corrosion attack. Representing sulphur-rich waste, elementary sulphur is also added to the waste and thereby compared with sludge as an additive. The target groups for this project are plant owners, researchers, consultants and authorities. Tests were performed in a 15 MWth waste-fired boiler with moving grate at Gaerstadverket, Tekniska Verken (Linkoeping). The boiler produces saturated steam of 17 bars and 207 deg C, and the normal fuel mixture contains of household and industry waste. The results show that co-firing with as heigh as 20 weight-% SLF (25 energy-%) was possible from an operational point of view, but the deposit rate increased especially at the two warmest positions. Generally the deposit rate was highest in the position closest to the boiler and decreased further downstream. During the tests a lot higher amount of SLF than normal was used (recommended mix is 5-10 % of SLF) this to be able to see effects of the different measures. Up to 23 weight-% of the rather moist sewage sludge was possible to fire when co-firing waste and SLF, without addition of oil. By adding sludge the deposit rate decreased but the increase upon adding SLF to ordinary waste was not totally eliminated. In the tests 'Avfall and SLF' the deposits were rich in chlorine. High concentrations of metal chlorides were found in the

  6. Number of Psychosocial Strengths Predicts Reduced HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Above and Beyond Syndemic Problems Among Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Hart, Trevor A; Noor, Syed W; Adam, Barry D; Vernon, Julia R G; Brennan, David J; Gardner, Sandra; Husbands, Winston; Myers, Ted

    2017-10-01

    Syndemics research shows the additive effect of psychosocial problems on high-risk sexual behavior among gay and bisexual men (GBM). Psychosocial strengths may predict less engagement in high-risk sexual behavior. In a study of 470 ethnically diverse HIV-negative GBM, regression models were computed using number of syndemic psychosocial problems, number of psychosocial strengths, and serodiscordant condomless anal sex (CAS). The number of syndemic psychosocial problems correlated with serodiscordant CAS (RR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.18-1.92; p = 0.001). When adding the number of psychosocial strengths to the model, the effect of syndemic psychosocial problems became non-significant, but the number of strengths-based factors remained significant (RR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.53-0.86; p = 0.002). Psychosocial strengths may operate additively in the same way as syndemic psychosocial problems, but in the opposite direction. Consistent with theories of resilience, psychosocial strengths may be an important set of variables predicting sexual risk behavior that is largely missing from the current HIV behavioral literature.

  7. Limiting global-mean temperature increase to 1.5–2 °C could reduce the incidence and spatial spread of dengue fever in Latin America

    Harris, Ian; Osborn, Timothy J.; Steiner São Bernardo, Christine; Peres, Carlos A.; Lake, Iain R.

    2018-01-01

    The Paris Climate Agreement aims to hold global-mean temperature well below 2 °C and to pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 °C above preindustrial levels. While it is recognized that there are benefits for human health in limiting global warming to 1.5 °C, the magnitude with which those societal benefits will be accrued remains unquantified. Crucial to public health preparedness and response is the understanding and quantification of such impacts at different levels of warming. Using dengue in Latin America as a study case, a climate-driven dengue generalized additive mixed model was developed to predict global warming impacts using five different global circulation models, all scaled to represent multiple global-mean temperature assumptions. We show that policies to limit global warming to 2 °C could reduce dengue cases by about 2.8 (0.8–7.4) million cases per year by the end of the century compared with a no-policy scenario that warms by 3.7 °C. Limiting warming further to 1.5 °C produces an additional drop in cases of about 0.5 (0.2–1.1) million per year. Furthermore, we found that by limiting global warming we can limit the expansion of the disease toward areas where incidence is currently low. We anticipate our study to be a starting point for more comprehensive studies incorporating socioeconomic scenarios and how they may further impact dengue incidence. Our results demonstrate that although future climate change may amplify dengue transmission in the region, impacts may be avoided by constraining the level of warming. PMID:29844166

  8. A global solution of the ICRH problem based on the combined use of a planar coupling model and hot-plasma ray-tracing in tokamak geometry

    Koch, R.; Bhatnagar, V.P.; Messiaen, A.M.; Eester, D. van

    1986-01-01

    The global solution of the theoretical problem of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating in tokamak plasmas is obtained by a subdivision of the problem into two simpler ones by virtue of the ''single pass absorption'' hypothesis. The coupling problem is solved in planar geometry, allowing computation of both the antenna electrical properties and the Radio-Frequency (RF) field distribution in the plasma facing the antenna. Starting from this field distribution, the initial conditions for ray-tracing are derived and the propagation and absorption of waves in the plasma bulk is solved in the geometric optics limit taking into account the full tokamak geometry and the kinetic wave description. In the minority heating, redistribution of the minority absorbed power to the other species is carred out using standard quasilinear theory. (orig.)

  9. Reliability ensemble averaging of 21st century projections of terrestrial net primary productivity reduces global and regional uncertainties

    Exbrayat, Jean-François; Bloom, A. Anthony; Falloon, Pete; Ito, Akihiko; Smallman, T. Luke; Williams, Mathew

    2018-02-01

    Multi-model averaging techniques provide opportunities to extract additional information from large ensembles of simulations. In particular, present-day model skill can be used to evaluate their potential performance in future climate simulations. Multi-model averaging methods have been used extensively in climate and hydrological sciences, but they have not been used to constrain projected plant productivity responses to climate change, which is a major uncertainty in Earth system modelling. Here, we use three global observationally orientated estimates of current net primary productivity (NPP) to perform a reliability ensemble averaging (REA) method using 30 global simulations of the 21st century change in NPP based on the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) business as usual emissions scenario. We find that the three REA methods support an increase in global NPP by the end of the 21st century (2095-2099) compared to 2001-2005, which is 2-3 % stronger than the ensemble ISIMIP mean value of 24.2 Pg C y-1. Using REA also leads to a 45-68 % reduction in the global uncertainty of 21st century NPP projection, which strengthens confidence in the resilience of the CO2 fertilization effect to climate change. This reduction in uncertainty is especially clear for boreal ecosystems although it may be an artefact due to the lack of representation of nutrient limitations on NPP in most models. Conversely, the large uncertainty that remains on the sign of the response of NPP in semi-arid regions points to the need for better observations and model development in these regions.

  10. Credit where credit is due: Pakistan?s role in reducing the global burden of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH)

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Qazi, Shamim; Shah, Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Factors contributing to Pakistan?s poor progress in reducing reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) include its low level of female literacy, gender inequity, political challenges, and extremism along with its associated relentless violence; further, less than 1% of Pakistan?s GDP is allocated to the health sector. However, despite these disadvantages, Pakistani researchers have been able to achieve positive contributions towards RMNCH-related global knowledge and evidence ...

  11. Reduced Risk-Taking After Prior Losses in Pathological Gamblers Under Treatment and Healthy Control Group but not in Problem Gamblers.

    Bonini, Nicolao; Grecucci, Alessandro; Nicolè, Manuel; Savadori, Lucia

    2018-06-01

    A group of pathological gamblers and a group of problem gamblers (i.e., gamblers at risk of becoming pathological) were compared to healthy controls on their risk-taking propensity after prior losses. Each participant played both the Balloon Analogue Risk Taking task (BART) and a modified version of the same task, where individuals face five repeated predetermined early losses at the onset of the game. No significant difference in risk-taking was found between groups on the standard BART task, while significant differences emerged when comparing behaviors in the two tasks: both pathological gamblers and controls reduced their risk-taking tendency after prior losses in the modified BART compared to the standard BART, whereas problem gamblers showed no reduction in risk-taking after prior losses. We interpret these results as a sign of a reduced sensitivity to negative feedback in problem gamblers which might contribute to explain their loss-chasing tendency.

  12. Effectiveness of a pragmatic school-based universal intervention targeting student resilience protective factors in reducing mental health problems in adolescents.

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Campbell, Elizabeth; Freund, Megan; Hodder, Rebecca; Wolfenden, Luke; Richards, Jody; Leane, Catherine; Green, Sue; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Attia, John; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide, 10-20% of adolescents experience mental health problems. Strategies aimed at strengthening resilience protective factors provide a potential approach for reducing mental health problems in adolescents. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a universal, school-based intervention targeting resilience protective factors in reducing mental health problems in adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 20 intervention and 12 control secondary schools located in socio-economically disadvantaged areas of NSW, Australia. Data were collected from 3115 students at baseline (Grade 7, 2011), of whom 2149 provided data at follow up (Grade 10, 2014; enrolments in Grades 7 to 10 typically aged 12-16 years; 50% male; 69.0% retention). There were no significant differences between groups at follow-up for three mental health outcomes: total SDQ, internalising problems, and prosocial behaviour. A small statistically significant difference in favour of the control group was found for externalising problems. Findings highlight the continued difficulties in developing effective, school-based prevention programs for mental health problems in adolescents. ANZCTR (Ref no: ACTRN12611000606987). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary supplement for energy and reduced appetite containing the β-agonist isopropyloctopamine leads to heart problems and hospitalisations

    Bovee, Toine F.H.; Mol, Hans G.J.; Bienenmann-Ploum, Monique E.; Heskamp, Henri H.; Bruchem, van Gerard D.; Ginkel, van Leendert A.; Kooijman, Martin; Lasaroms, Johan J.P.; Dam, van Ruud; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 the Dutch authorities issued a warning against a dietary supplement that was linked to 11 reported adverse reactions, including heart problems and in one case even a cardiac arrest. In the UK a 20-year-old woman, said to have overdosed on this supplement, died. Since according to the

  14. An Annotated Bibliography of the Literature Dealing with Adolescent Suicide and What Educators Can Do To Help Reduce This Problem.

    Van Dyke, Catherine A.

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the complex and growing problem of adolescent suicide. The annotated bibliography consists of 7 articles on recent facts and data, 10 articles on causes determined by research, 11 items on indicators seen in adolescents, and 14 documents on how educators can help. A lack of secure social…

  15. Gesturing during mental problem solving reduces eye movements, especially for individuals with lower visual working memory capacity

    W.T.J.L. Pouw (Wim); M.-F. Mavilidi (Myrto-Foteini); T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractNon-communicative hand gestures have been found to benefit problem-solving performance. These gestures seem to compensate for limited internal cognitive capacities, such as visual working memory capacity. Yet, it is not clear how gestures might perform this cognitive function. One

  16. Gesturing during mental problem solving reduces eye movements, especially for individuals with lower visual working memory capacity

    Pouw, Wim T J L; Mavilidi, Myrto Foteini; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicative hand gestures have been found to benefit problem-solving performance. These gestures seem to compensate for limited internal cognitive capacities, such as visual working memory capacity. Yet, it is not clear how gestures might perform this cognitive function. One hypothesis is that

  17. MHD-model for low-frequency waves in a tokamak with toroidal plasma rotation and problem of existence of global geodesic acoustic modes

    Lakhin, V. P.; Sorokina, E. A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com, E-mail: vilkiae@gmail.com; Ilgisonis, V. I. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Konovaltseva, L. V. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A set of reduced linear equations for the description of low-frequency perturbations in toroidally rotating plasma in axisymmetric tokamak is derived in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The model suitable for the study of global geodesic acoustic modes (GGAMs) is designed. An example of the use of the developed model for derivation of the integral conditions for GGAM existence and of the corresponding dispersion relation is presented. The paper is dedicated to the memory of academician V.D. Shafranov.

  18. Global IP6K1 deletion enhances temperature modulated energy expenditure which reduces carbohydrate and fat induced weight gain

    Qingzhang Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: IP6 kinases (IP6Ks regulate cell metabolism and survival. Mice with global (IP6K1-KO or adipocyte-specific (AdKO deletion of IP6K1 are protected from diet induced obesity (DIO at ambient (23 °C temperature. AdKO mice are lean primarily due to increased AMPK mediated thermogenic energy expenditure (EE. Thus, at thermoneutral (30 °C temperature, high fat diet (HFD-fed AdKO mice expend energy and gain body weight, similar to control mice. IP6K1 is ubiquitously expressed; thus, it is critical to determine to what extent the lean phenotype of global IP6K1-KO mice depends on environmental temperature. Furthermore, it is not known whether IP6K1 regulates AMPK mediated EE in cells, which do not express UCP1. Methods: Q-NMR, GTT, food intake, EE, QRT-PCR, histology, mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR, fatty acid metabolism assays, and immunoblot studies were conducted in IP6K1-KO and WT mice or cells. Results: Global IP6K1 deletion mediated enhancement in EE is impaired albeit not abolished at 30 °C. As a result, IP6K1-KO mice are protected from DIO, insulin resistance, and fatty liver even at 30 °C. Like AdKO, IP6K1-KO mice display enhanced adipose tissue browning. However, unlike AdKO mice, thermoneutrality only partly abolishes browning in IP6K1-KO mice. Cold (5 °C exposure enhances carbohydrate expenditure, whereas 23 °C and 30 °C promote fat oxidation in HFD-KO mice. Furthermore, IP6K1 deletion diminishes cellular fat accumulation via activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. Conclusions: Global deletion of IP6K1 ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance irrespective of the environmental temperature conditions, which strengthens its validity as an anti-obesity target. Keywords: IP6K, Obesity, Diabetes, Energy expenditure, β-oxidation

  19. The problem of search safe and effective method in reducing injuries in bodybuilding stage of specialized basic training

    O.S. Slavityak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify the most frequently used coaches and athletes in bodybuilding principles that can help to reduce the injuries of athletes while maintaining the progressivity results. Material : a survey participated 86 coaches and 120 athletes, bodybuilders from 5 to 8 years. Results : It was found that most of the coaches used in the course of employment principles generally accepted system of training. In such circumstances, the risk of injury to athletes is large enough. When using pre-exhaustion principle to increase the intensity of the training process increases the risk of overloading the body athletes. Conclusions : Athletes with a longer training experience (about 8 years, more likely to use the principle of prior exhaustion. In this case athletes try using this principle to reduce the operating parameters of volume load. This helps to reduce the level of injury and maintain positive dynamics performance.

  20. Genetically Modified Organisms and the Future Global Nutrient Supply: Part of the Solution or a New Problem?

    Phillips, Peter W B

    2016-01-01

    For almost a generation now, scientists and policy makers have enthusiastically advanced genetically modified (GM) crops as a solution to both global food security and, specifically, the micronutrient needs of the hidden hungry. While genetic modification offers the prospect of overcoming technological barriers to food security, the gap between the vision and reality remains large. This chapter examines the impact of GM crops at three levels. Undoubtedly, at the micro level, bio-fortification offers a real opportunity to enhance the availability of micronutrients. However, the inexorable 'research sieve' ruthlessly culls most technical candidates in the agri-food system. GM bio-fortified foods, such as Golden RiceTM, remain only a promise. At the meso level, GM crops have generated benefits for both producers and consumers who have adopted GM crops, but given that the technology has been differentially applied to maize, the average diet for the food insecure has become somewhat less balanced. Finally, while GM crops have increased yields and the global food supply, these have come at the cost of more complex and costly trade and market systems, which impair access and availability. In essence, while biotechnology offers some tantalizing technological prospects, the difficulties of getting the corresponding benefits to the most needy have dampened some of the enthusiasm. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Reduced stress and improved physical functional ability in elderly with mental health problems following a horticultural therapy program.

    Han, Ah-Reum; Park, Sin-Ae; Ahn, Byung-Eun

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a plant cultivation-based horticultural therapy program for elderly people with mental health problems. Pre- and post-test design with experimental and control groups. Twenty-eight elderly Korean people with mental health problems participated from April to June 2017 at a farm located in Suwon, South Korea. The participants were randomly assigned to either the control (n = 14) or horticultural therapy group (n = 14); the latter participated in once-weekly sessions of a previously designed 10-session horticultural therapy program. The pre-test occurred 1 week before starting the horticultural therapy program. The post-test was completed within 1 week after finishing the final program session. Cortisol levels were measured in saliva samples collected from both groups. The Senior Fitness Test was used to assess physical functional ability in both groups. In the horticultural therapy group, the cortisol levels decreased significantly from before to after the horticultural therapy program, and the post-test scores for six subtests of the Senior Fitness Test improved significantly. No significant improvements were seen in either measure in the control group. This study demonstrates the potential ability of horticultural therapy to improve the stress levels and physical functional abilities of elderly people with mental health problems. In future studies, it would be interesting to verify the long-term effects of this horticultural therapy program and to compare its effects with regard to sex, age, and various mental symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing and preventing internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children with type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program.

    Westrupp, E M; Northam, E; Lee, K J; Scratch, S E; Cameron, F

    2015-11-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of mental health problems, which in turn are associated with poor glycemic control, diabetes-related complications, and long-term psychiatric morbidity. We tested the efficacy of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program in reducing or preventing mental health problems and improving glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited from the Diabetes Clinic, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, and randomized to Triple P or standard diabetes care. The primary outcome was child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems 3 and 12 months postrandomization. Secondary outcomes were glycemic control, parent mental health, parenting skills, and family functioning at 3 and 12 months, and glycemic control at 24 months. A total of 76 participants were randomized (38 to intervention and 38 to control), 60 completed 3-month, and 57 completed 12-month assessments. Benefits of Triple P were evident at 3 months for parent mental health, parenting skills, and family functioning (p externalizing behavior problems indicated greater improvements in child mental health, parent mental health, parenting skills, and diabetes family conflict (p parenting self-efficacy at 3 months. Improvements in parent mental health and parenting competency associated with Triple P were sustained to 12 months for children with pre-existing mental health problems. This study provides some support for the efficacy of Triple P in improving parent and family outcomes, and reducing child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems primarily in children who have pre-existing mental health problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Solution of resource allocation problem for identification of cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks

    Andrianov, A.; Kuptsov, I.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a methodology of selection of cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks. The methodology relies on a graded security model used in practice in different applications. The method is based on the controlled finite Markov chain approach set in combination with discrete dynamic programming and MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making) techniques that enables the expert to select the cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks depending on availability of resources. The analysis performed with different number of possible measures confirms the conclusions that the implementation of extra-large costs may not produce the required effect, and the increase in resources above a certain level does not appear sensitive. Diversification in improving the effectiveness of other measures seems more rational and efficient for the whole system than the unlimited improvement of the effectiveness of only one measure

  4. Solution of resource allocation problem for identification of cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks

    Andrianov, A.; Kuptsov, I. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering, Studgorodok 1, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249030 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    This report presents a methodology of selection of cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks. The methodology relies on a graded security model used in practice in different applications. The method is based on the controlled finite Markov chain approach set in combination with discrete dynamic programming and MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making) techniques that enables the expert to select the cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks depending on availability of resources. The analysis performed with different number of possible measures confirms the conclusions that the implementation of extra-large costs may not produce the required effect, and the increase in resources above a certain level does not appear sensitive. Diversification in improving the effectiveness of other measures seems more rational and efficient for the whole system than the unlimited improvement of the effectiveness of only one measure.

  5. Proposing of an aerated water treatment plant for reducing water pollution problem in Losari Beach after reclamation

    Suryani, Sri; Maharani, Hamzah, Muhammad Alimuddin

    2017-01-01

    Losari Beach is the most important site in Makassar. It lies at the west side of Makassar city. This place is known as the place where people are relaxed and gathering with friends or family after working, and now it becomes the icon of Makassar city. As the biggest city in eastern Indonesia, Makassar grows very fast. We can find constructions for building hospitals, shopping malls, bussines activities, and residences everywhere. The most important construction activities that will effect Losari Beach is the reclamation to build the Center Point of Indonesia that takes an area of 157 hectares and it is located at the west side of Losari Beach. In the last research presented in 9th International Conference on Marine Technology (October 2014) using surface-water modeling system (SMS) software showed that reclamation will significantly increase concentrations of BOD and COD (± 7 mg/L for BOD and 6.2 mg/L for COD). This condition will cause Losari Beach becomes very polluted. A probable solution to overcome this problem is to clean the wastewater before introducing to the sea. This paper will describe the type of the wastewater treatment plant that can be used to solve the water pollution problem in Losari Beach.

  6. Global existence and large time asymptotic behavior of strong solutions to the Cauchy problem of 2D density-dependent Navier–Stokes equations with vacuum

    Lü, Boqiang; Shi, Xiaoding; Zhong, Xin

    2018-06-01

    We are concerned with the Cauchy problem of the two-dimensional (2D) nonhomogeneous incompressible Navier–Stokes equations with vacuum as far-field density. It is proved that if the initial density decays not too slow at infinity, the 2D Cauchy problem of the density-dependent Navier–Stokes equations on the whole space admits a unique global strong solution. Note that the initial data can be arbitrarily large and the initial density can contain vacuum states and even have compact support. Furthermore, we also obtain the large time decay rates of the spatial gradients of the velocity and the pressure, which are the same as those of the homogeneous case.

  7. How to address a global problem with Earth Observations? Developing best practices to monitor forests around the world

    Flores Cordova, A. I.; Cherrington, E. A.; Vadrevu, K.; Thapa, R. B.; Oduor, P.; Mehmood, H.; Quyen, N. H.; Saah, D. S.; Yero, K.; Mamane, B.; Bartel, P.; Limaye, A. S.; French, R.; Irwin, D.; Wilson, S.; Gottielb, S.; Notman, E.

    2017-12-01

    Forests represent a key natural resource, for which degradation or disturbance is directly associated to economic implications, particularly in the context of the United Nations program REDD+ in supporting national policies to fight illegal deforestation. SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations (EO) for improved environmental decision making in developing countries, works with established institutions, called SERVIR hubs, in four regions around the world. SERVIR is partnering with global programs with great experience in providing best practices in forest monitoring systems, such as SilvaCarbon and the Global Forest Observation Initiative (GFOI), to develop a capacity building plan that prioritizes user needs. Representatives from the SERVIR global network met in February 2017 with experts in the field of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for forest applications to envisage this capacity building plan that aims to leverage the state-of-the-art knowledge on remote sensing to enhance forest monitoring for user agencies in SERVIR regions. SERVIR Hubs in West Africa, Eastern and Southern Africa, Hindu Kush-Himalaya and Lower Mekong, have long-lasting relations with local, national and regional initiatives, and there is a strong understanding of needs, concerns and best practices when addressing forest monitoring and capacity building. SERVIR Hubs also have a wealth of experience in building capacity on the use of EO to monitor forests, mostly using optical imagery. Most of the forest cover maps generated with SERVIR support have been used as the official national forest cover dataset for international reporting commitments. However, as new EO datasets become available, and in view of the inherent limitations of optical imagery, there is a strong need to use all freely available EO datasets, including SAR, to improve Monitoring & Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) systems and provide more frequent and accurate information. SERVIR

  8. The effects of global climate change on Southeast Asia: A survey of likely impacts and problems of adaptation

    Njoto, Sukrisno; Howe, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    Study results indicate the likelihood of significant net damages from climate change, in particular damages from sea-level rise and higher temperatures that seem unlikely to be offset by favorable shifts in precipitation and carbon dioxide. Also indicated was the importance of better climate models, in particular models that can calculate climate change on a regional scale appropriate to policy-making. In spite of this potential for damage, there seems to be a low level of awareness and concern, probably caused by the higher priority given to economic growth and reinforced by the great uncertainty in the forecasts. The common property nature of global environment systems also leads to a feeling of helplessness on the part of country governments.

  9. [Macro- and microevolution as related to the problem of origin and global expansion of the plague pathogen Yersinia pestis].

    Suntsov, V V; Suntsova, N I

    2008-01-01

    The ratio of macro- and microevolutionary processes is considered with reference to the ecological scenario of the origin of the plague pathogen and its subsequent natural and anthropogenic global expansion. The macroevolutionary transformation of the ancestral pseudotuberculosis microbe clone into the initial plague microbe Yersinia pestis tarbagani occurred in Central Asia at the end of the Late Pleistocene by a "vertical" Darwinian way in an inadaptive heterothermal continual intermediate environment--the Mongolian marmot Marmota sibirica-flea Oropsylla silantiewi system--via a sequence of unstable and currently extinct intermediate forms. Its natural geographic expansion on the "oil spot" principle in the postglacial time led to the microevolutionary formation of 20-30 hostal subspecies circulating in populations of the background species of burrowing rodents and pikas in arid areas of Eurasia. The intercontinental spread of the "marmot" and "rat" pathogen subspecies in the past few centuries has been exclusively anthropogenic, with the involvement of synanthropic (ship) rats.

  10. A New Approach to Reducing Search Space and Increasing Efficiency in Simulation Optimization Problems via the Fuzzy-DEA-BCC

    Rafael de Carvalho Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of discrete-event simulation software was one of the most successful interfaces in operational research with computation. As a result, research has been focused on the development of new methods and algorithms with the purpose of increasing simulation optimization efficiency and reliability. This study aims to define optimum variation intervals for each decision variable through a proposed approach which combines the data envelopment analysis with the Fuzzy logic (Fuzzy-DEA-BCC, seeking to improve the decision-making units’ distinction in the face of uncertainty. In this study, Taguchi’s orthogonal arrays were used to generate the necessary quantity of DMUs, and the output variables were generated by the simulation. Two study objects were utilized as examples of mono- and multiobjective problems. Results confirmed the reliability and applicability of the proposed method, as it enabled a significant reduction in search space and computational demand when compared to conventional simulation optimization techniques.

  11. Reduce of adherence problems in galvanised processes through data mining techniques; Reducciond e problemas de adherencia en procesos de galvanizado mediante tecnicas de mineria de datos

    Martinez de Pison, F. J.; Ordieres, J.; Pernia, A.; Alba, F.; Torre, V.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents an example of the application of data mining techniques to obtain hidden knowledge from the historical data of a hot dip galvanizing process and to establish rules to improve quality in the final product and to reduce errors in the process. For this purpose, the tuning records of a hot dip galvanizing line where coils with adherence problems in the zinc coating had been identified were used as starting point. From the database of the process, the classical data mining approach was applied to obtain and analyze a number of decision trees hat classified two types of coils, i.e. those with the right adherence and those with irregular adherence. The variables and values that might have influenced the quality of the coating were extracted from these tress. Several rules that may be applied to reduce the number of faulty coils with adherence problems were also established. (Author) 24 refs.

  12. Dietary supplement for energy and reduced appetite containing the β-agonist isopropyloctopamine leads to heart problems and hospitalisations.

    Bovee, Toine F H; Mol, Hans G J; Bienenmann-Ploum, Monique E; Heskamp, Henri H; Van Bruchem, Gerard D; Van Ginkel, Leendert A; Kooijman, Martin; Lasaroms, Johan J P; Van Dam, Ruud; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2016-05-01

    In 2013 the Dutch authorities issued a warning against a dietary supplement that was linked to 11 reported adverse reactions, including heart problems and in one case even a cardiac arrest. In the UK a 20-year-old woman, said to have overdosed on this supplement, died. Since according to the label the product was a herbal mixture, initial LC-MS/MS analysis focused on the detection of plant toxins. Yohimbe alkaloids, which are not allowed to be present in herbal preparations according to Dutch legislation, were found at relatively high levels (400-900 mg kg(-1)). However, their presence did not explain the adverse health effects reported. Based on these effects the supplement was screened for the presence of a β-agonist, using three different biosensor assays, i.e. the validated competitive radioligand β2-adrenergic receptor binding assay, a validated β-agonists ELISA and a newly developed multiplex microsphere (bead)-based β-agonist assay with imaging detection (MAGPIX(®)). The high responses obtained in these three biosensors suggested strongly the presence of a β-agonist. Inspection of the label indicated the presence of N-isopropyloctopamine. A pure standard of this compound was bought and shown to have a strong activity in the three biosensor assays. Analysis by LC-full-scan high-resolution MS confirmed the presence of this 'unknown known' β3-agonist N-isopropyloctopamine, reported to lead to heart problems at high doses. A confirmatory quantitative analysis revealed that one dose of the preparation resulted in an intake of 40-60 mg, which is within the therapeutic range of this compound. The case shows the strength of combining bioassays with chemical analytical techniques for identification of illegal pharmacologically active substances in food supplements.

  13. Development of Open-Ended Problems for Measuring The Higher-Order-Thinking-Skills of High School Students on Global Warming Phenomenon

    Fianti; Najwa, F. L.; Linuwih, S.

    2017-04-01

    Higher-order-thinking-skills can not be developed directly, except by training which is employing open-ended problems for measuring and developing critics, creativeness, and problem-solving thinking-skills of students. This study is a research and development producing open-ended problems. The purpose of this study is to measure the properness and effectiveness of the developed product and to observe the profile of higher-order-thinking-skills of students on global warming phenomenon. The result of properness test of open-ended problems according to the experts is 92,59% on the first stage and 97,53% on the second stage, so we can assume that the product isvery proper. The result of effectiveness test shows the coefficient of correlation between student’s midterm test scores and open-ended questions is 0,634 which is in the category of strong. Higher-order-thinking-skills of SMA Negeri 1 Salatiga students is in the category of good with the average achievement scores 61,28.

  14. LEGAL PROTECTION OF AVIATION IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION, RISKS AND SOCIAL ENTROPY AS A SCIENTIFIC PROBLEM: APPROACHES AND SOLUTIONS

    O. O. Chernaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue concerning the international legal problem of using armed forces to counter the threats posed by the misuse of civil aircraft, in particular, the use of civil aircraft as a weapon to kill people and destroy objects on the territory of States (the events of 11th September 2001 in the USA. It proves the need for universal international legal norms regulating the actions of States to prevent and suppress acts of the misuse of civil aircraft.

  15. Current problems of the Bulgarian energy industry against the background of global short-term energy demand

    Batov, S.

    1999-01-01

    The energy demand during the next century due first of all to the expected growth of population necessitates more efficient technologies and huge investments. The production of nuclear energy requires higher safety as well as reduction of costs. A new form of partnership between the developed and developing countries is needed for transferring capital and technologies at special framework terms in order to avoid errors in the process of transition. The Energy Forum'99 highlights the current problems of Bulgarian energy branch and the projects for its future including better utilization of the existing energy resources, for development of new or renewable energy sources, not well utilized at present, and to harmonize the sector with better environmental protection. The most important problems discussed are: 1. Structure and restructuring strategy of the energy sector. Prices and tariffs. Privatization aspects. Construction of new replacement generating capacities; 2. Thermal power plants; 3. Nuclear power plants; 4. District heating and natural gas supply; 5. Efficient energy utilization; 6. Renewable energy sources; 7. Environmental protection and 8. Education

  16. Using Perturbed Physics Ensembles and Machine Learning to Select Parameters for Reducing Regional Biases in a Global Climate Model

    Li, S.; Rupp, D. E.; Hawkins, L.; Mote, P.; McNeall, D. J.; Sarah, S.; Wallom, D.; Betts, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the potential to reduce known summer hot/dry biases over Pacific Northwest in the UK Met Office's atmospheric model (HadAM3P) by simultaneously varying multiple model parameters. The bias-reduction process is done through a series of steps: 1) Generation of perturbed physics ensemble (PPE) through the volunteer computing network weather@home; 2) Using machine learning to train "cheap" and fast statistical emulators of climate model, to rule out regions of parameter spaces that lead to model variants that do not satisfy observational constraints, where the observational constraints (e.g., top-of-atmosphere energy flux, magnitude of annual temperature cycle, summer/winter temperature and precipitation) are introduced sequentially; 3) Designing a new PPE by "pre-filtering" using the emulator results. Steps 1) through 3) are repeated until results are considered to be satisfactory (3 times in our case). The process includes a sensitivity analysis to find dominant parameters for various model output metrics, which reduces the number of parameters to be perturbed with each new PPE. Relative to observational uncertainty, we achieve regional improvements without introducing large biases in other parts of the globe. Our results illustrate the potential of using machine learning to train cheap and fast statistical emulators of climate model, in combination with PPEs in systematic model improvement.

  17. Behaviour change strategies for reducing blood pressure-related disease burden: findings from a global implementation research programme.

    Peiris, David; Thompson, Simon R; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Cárdenas, María Kathia; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Goudge, Jane; Gyamfi, Joyce; Kamano, Jemima Hoine; Irazola, Vilma; Johnson, Claire; Kengne, Andre P; Keat, Ng Kien; Miranda, J Jaime; Mohan, Sailesh; Mukasa, Barbara; Ng, Eleanor; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Praveen, Devarsetty; Salam, Abdul; Thorogood, Margaret; Thrift, Amanda G; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Waddy, Salina P; Webster, Jacqui; Webster, Ruth; Yeates, Karen; Yusoff, Khalid

    2015-11-09

    The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases comprises the majority of the world's public research funding agencies. It is focussed on implementation research to tackle the burden of chronic diseases in low- and middle-income countries and amongst vulnerable populations in high-income countries. In its inaugural research call, 15 projects were funded, focussing on lowering blood pressure-related disease burden. In this study, we describe a reflexive mapping exercise to identify the behaviour change strategies undertaken in each of these projects. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel framework, each team rated the capability, opportunity and motivation of the various actors who were integral to each project (e.g. community members, non-physician health workers and doctors in projects focussed on service delivery). Teams then mapped the interventions they were implementing and determined the principal policy categories in which those interventions were operating. Guidance was provided on the use of Behaviour Change Wheel to support consistency in responses across teams. Ratings were iteratively discussed and refined at several group meetings. There was marked variation in the perceived capabilities, opportunities and motivation of the various actors who were being targeted for behaviour change strategies. Despite this variation, there was a high degree of synergy in interventions functions with most teams utilising complex interventions involving education, training, enablement, environmental restructuring and persuasion oriented strategies. Similar policy categories were also targeted across teams particularly in the areas of guidelines, communication/marketing and service provision with few teams focussing on fiscal measures, regulation and legislation. The large variation in preparedness to change behaviour amongst the principal actors across these projects suggests that the interventions themselves will be variably taken up, despite the similarity in approaches taken

  18. Variation in the thermal ecology of an endemic iguana from Mexico reduces its vulnerability to global warming.

    Valenzuela-Ceballos, Sara; Castañeda, Gamaliel; Rioja-Paradela, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Bastiaans, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    The persistence of reptile populations in a specific location is influenced by individuals' capacity to regulate their body temperatures, among other factors. Anthropogenic climate change may pose a risk to the survival of ectothermic animals due to their dependence on external heat sources to thermoregulate. In this study, we calculated indices of thermal habitat quality, thermoregulatory precision, and thermoregulatory effectiveness for the endemic spiny-tailed iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana. We evaluated these indices and the thermoregulatory behavior of the iguanas in the four types of vegetation that provide the most favorable conditions for thermoregulation. We also performed our experiments during both the wet and dry seasons to capture the full range of thermal conditions available to C. oaxacana over the course of a year. Finally, we evaluated the potential niche for the iguana in the years 2020, 2050, and 2080. Thermoregulation depends on both seasonal and environmental factors in this species. We found that thermoregulation effectiveness in both wet and dry seasons depends not only on the thermal conditions of the immediate environment, but also on the cover vegetation and habitat structure available across the range of habitats the species uses. Thus, heterogeneous habitats with dispersed vegetation may be most suitable for this species' thermoregulatory strategy. Likewise, niche modeling results suggested that suitable habitat for our study species may continue to be available for the next few decades, despite global warming tendencies, as long as cover vegetation remains unaltered. Our results suggest that thermoregulation is a complex process that cannot be generalized for all ectothermic species inhabiting a given region. We also found that temperature changes are not the only factor one must consider when estimating the risk of species loss. To understand the necessary thermal conditions and extinction risk for any ectothermic species, it is necessary

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance Expressed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Major Global Public Health Problem in the 21st Century.

    Unemo, Magnus; Del Rio, Carlos; Shafer, William M

    2016-06-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a strictly human pathogen that is typically transmitted by sexual contact. The associated disease gonorrhea has plagued humankind for thousands of years, with a current estimated incidence of 78 million cases per year. Advances in antimicrobial discovery in the 1920s and 1930s leading to the discovery of sulfonamides and penicillin begun the era of effective antimicrobial treatment of gonorrhea. Unfortunately, the gonococcus developed decreased susceptibility or even resistance to these initially employed antibiotics, a trend that continued over subsequent decades with each new antibiotic that was brought into clinical practice. As this pattern of resistance has continued into the 21st century, there is now reason for great concern, especially in an era when few new antibiotics have prospects for use as treatment of gonorrhea. Here, we review the history of gonorrhea treatment regimens and gonococcal resistance to antibiotics, the mechanisms of resistance, resistance monitoring schemes that exist in different international settings, global responses to the challenge of resistance, and prospects for future treatment regimens in the 21st century.

  20. Problem-based, peer-to-peer global mental health e-learning between the UK and Somaliland: a pilot study.

    Murphy, Roberta; Clissold, Elliot; Keynejad, Roxanne C

    2017-11-01

    WHO's mental health gap action programme intervention guide (mhGAP-IG) is an evidence-based tool aimed at front-line health workers in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Its potential to improve global mental health education, especially through digital technologies, has been little studied. Problem-based learning (PBL) is usually conducted face-to-face, but its remote application could facilitate cross-cultural education. To evaluate PBL, applied to peer-to-peer global mental health e-learning (Aqoon), using mhGAP-IG. Twelve pairs of UK and Somaliland medical students completed the full programme. Participants self-directedly met online, via the low-bandwidth Medicine Africa website, for PBL-style tutorials focused on modules of the mhGAP-IG, V.2.0. Preparticipation and postparticipation surveys used mixed methods to evaluate Aqoon, including the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry (ATP-30) instrument. Median ATP-30 scores for Somaliland (82.0 vs 95.0, p=0.003) and UK students (82.0 vs 95.0, p = 0.011) improved significantly following Aqoon. Qualitative feedback showed that participants valued peer connectivity and learning about cultural and psychosocial differences in their partner's country. Somaliland students were motivated by clinical learning and UK students by global health education. Feedback on the PBL structure was positive. Digital PBL represents an innovative method to extend the benefits of mhGAP-IG beyond front-line clinical staff, to healthcare students in LMICs. Educational resource limitations in LMICs may be overcome using digital platforms and PBL. Replication with non-medical healthcare students is the next step for this model to explore Aqoon's relevance to pressing global mental health workforce challenges. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Can the household sector reduce global warming mitigation costs? sensitivity to key parameters in a TIMES techno-economic energy model

    Astudillo, Miguel F.; Vaillancourt, Kathleen; Pineau, Pierre-Olivier; Amor, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An energy system model of Quebec is combined with building simulation software. •Greenhouse gas emission reductions efforts increase annual electricity peak demand. •Alternative heating tech. And building envelopes can effectively reduce peak demand. •Denser urban developments massively reduced costs of global warming mitigation. •CO 2 emissions from hydropower reservoirs are relevant in global warming mitigation. -- Abstract: The transition to low carbon societies may increase peak electricity demand, which can be costly to supply with renewable energy, whose availability is uncertain. Buildings are often the main cause of peak demand, and they are believed to hold a large unrealised energy-efficiency potential. If realised, this potential could considerably mitigate the transition costs to low carbon societies, reducing average and peak electricity demands. We explore this potential in several cost-optimal global warming (GW) mitigation scenarios using a multi-sector TIMES energy system model of the province of Quebec for the period 2011–2050. Heating and conservation measures in the residential sector are modelled using building simulations and parameters’ values from the literature. The intra-annual availability of renewable energy and electricity imports is derived from time-series analysis. Additionally, the influence of key parameters such as the projections of primary energy demand and emissions from reservoir impoundment is evaluated. Finally, we discuss some of the barriers that could hamper the energy transition and how they can be overcome. Results indicate that peak demand would rise by 30% due to GW mitigation efforts, but it can be effectively reduced by interventions in the residential sector. Heat pumps are the most cost effective heating technology, despite their lower efficiencies in cold climates. Better-insulated building envelopes have an important role in new houses, reducing by 14% the GW mitigation costs and

  2. Impact of agronomy practices on the effects of reduced tillage systems on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields: A global meta-analysis.

    Feng, Jinfei; Li, Fengbo; Zhou, Xiyue; Xu, Chunchun; Ji, Long; Chen, Zhongdu; Fang, Fuping

    2018-01-01

    The effect of no- and reduced tillage (NT/RT) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission was highly variable and may depend on other agronomy practices. However, how the other practices affect the effect of NT/RT on GHG emission remains elusive. Therefore, we conducted a global meta-analysis (including 49 papers with 196 comparisons) to assess the effect of five options (i.e. cropping system, crop residue management, split application of N fertilizer, irrigation, and tillage duration) on the effect of NT/RT on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields. The results showed that NT/RT significantly mitigated the overall global warming potential (GWP) of CH4 and N2O emissions by 6.6% as compared with conventional tillage (CT). Rotation cropping systems and crop straw remove facilitated no-tillage (NT) to reduce the CH4, N2O, or overall GWP both in upland and paddy field. NT significantly mitigated the overall GWP when the percentage of basal N fertilizer (PBN) >50%, when tillage duration > 10 years or rainfed in upland, while when PBN agronomy practices and land use type.

  3. Chronic arsenic exposure and its adverse health effects in Taiwan: A paradigm for management of a global environmental problem

    Cheng-Che Lan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It was estimated that, nearly 100 million people are at risk for drinking arsenic (As-contaminated drinking water. Although the WHO guideline recommends that levels of As in drinking water should not exceed 10 μm/L, it was estimated that more than 30 million people drink As-containing water at levels more than 50 μm/L in Bangladesh and India alone. Therefore, the adverse health effects resulting from chronic As exposure pose a global threat. In Taiwan, studies focusing on the health effects resulting from chronic As exposure through contaminated drinking water have been ongoing for more than 50 years. During the past half century, it was recognized that the impact of high As exposure on human health is much more complicated than originally anticipated. Chronic As exposure resulted in infamous blackfoot disease, which is unique to As endemic areas in Taiwan, and various diseases including cancers and non-cancers. Although the potential-biological outcomes have been well-documented, the pathomechanisms leading from As exposure to occurrence and development of the diseases remain largely unclear. One of the major obstacles that hindered further understanding regarding the adverse health effect resulting from chronic As exposure is documentation of cumulative As exposure from the distant past, which remains difficult as the present technologies mostly document relatively recent As exposure. Furthermore, the susceptibility to As exposure appears to differ between different ethnic groups and individuals and is modified by lifestyle factors including smoking habits and nutrition status. No consensus data has yet been reached even after comparing the study results obtained from different parts of the world focusing on associations between human As toxicity and genetic polymorphisms in terms of cellular detoxification enzymes, tumor suppressor proteins, and DNA repair pathway. With the availability of the new powerful “OMIC” technologies, it may

  4. Site selection in global clinical trials in patients hospitalized for heart failure: perceived problems and potential solutions.

    Gheorghiade, Mihai; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Greene, Stephen J; Mentz, Robert J; Adams, Kirkwood F; Anker, Stefan D; Arnold, Malcolm; Baschiera, Fabio; Cleland, John G F; Cotter, Gadi; Fonarow, Gregg C; Giordano, Christopher; Metra, Marco; Misselwitz, Frank; Mühlhofer, Eva; Nodari, Savina; Frank Peacock, W; Pieske, Burkert M; Sabbah, Hani N; Sato, Naoki; Shah, Monica R; Stockbridge, Norman L; Teerlink, John R; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Zalewski, Andrew; Zannad, Faiez; Butler, Javed

    2014-03-01

    There are over 1 million hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) annually in the United States alone, and a similar number has been reported in Europe. Recent clinical trials investigating novel therapies in patients with hospitalized HF (HHF) have been negative, and the post-discharge event rate remains unacceptably high. The lack of success with HHF trials stem from problems with understanding the study drug, matching the drug to the appropriate HF subgroup, and study execution. Related to the concept of study execution is the importance of including appropriate study sites in HHF trials. Often overlooked issues include consideration of the geographic region and the number of patients enrolled at each study center. Marked differences in baseline patient co-morbidities, serum biomarkers, treatment utilization and outcomes have been demonstrated across geographic regions. Furthermore, patients from sites with low recruitment may have worse outcomes compared to sites with higher enrollment patterns. Consequently, sites with poor trial enrollment may influence key patient end points and likely do not justify the costs of site training and maintenance. Accordingly, there is an unmet need to develop strategies to identify the right study sites that have acceptable patient quantity and quality. Potential approaches include, but are not limited to, establishing a pre-trial registry, developing site performance metrics, identifying a local regionally involved leader and bolstering recruitment incentives. This manuscript summarizes the roundtable discussion hosted by the Food and Drug Administration between members of academia, the National Institutes of Health, industry partners, contract research organizations and academic research organizations on the importance of selecting optimal sites for successful trials in HHF.

  5. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys.

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-05-15

    Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, 'environmental equity' indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International 'best practice benchmarks' will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. This research is highly original due to the very 'upstream' approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative

  6. Global challenges

    Blix, H.

    1990-01-01

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO 2 and NO x which cause acid rain, and CO 2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  7. Progress and Impact of 13 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis on Reducing the Burden of Filarial Disease

    Ramaiah, K. D.; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Background A Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis was launched in 2000, with mass drug administration (MDA) as the core strategy of the programme. After completing 13 years of operations through 2012 and with MDA in place in 55 of 73 endemic countries, the impact of the MDA programme on microfilaraemia, hydrocele and lymphedema is in need of being assessed. Methodology/Principal findings During 2000–2012, the MDA programme made remarkable achievements – a total of 6.37 billion treatments were offered and an estimated 4.45 billion treatments were consumed by the population living in endemic areas. Using a model based on empirical observations of the effects of treatment on clinical manifestations, it is estimated that 96.71 million LF cases, including 79.20 million microfilaria carriers, 18.73 million hydrocele cases and a minimum of 5.49 million lymphedema cases have been prevented or cured during this period. Consequently, the global prevalence of LF is calculated to have fallen by 59%, from 3.55% to 1.47%. The fall was highest for microfilaraemia prevalence (68%), followed by 49% in hydrocele prevalence and 25% in lymphedema prevalence. It is estimated that, currently, i.e. after 13 years of the MDA programme, there are still an estimated 67.88 million LF cases that include 36.45 million microfilaria carriers, 19.43 million hydrocele cases and 16.68 million lymphedema cases. Conclusions/Significance The MDA programme has resulted in significant reduction of the LF burden. Extension of MDA to all at-risk countries and to all regions within those countries where MDA has not yet reached 100% geographic coverage is imperative to further reduce the number of microfilaraemia and chronic disease cases and to reach the global target of interrupting transmission of LF by 2020. PMID:25412180

  8. Local adaptations to global problems; Lokale tilpasninger til globale problemer

    Solberg, Nina

    2010-07-01

    Information booklet published by KS (The Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities) and show examples from several municipalities in Norway that have completed, or are in the process of adaptation measures. The release of the new information booklet is the first step in a work of KS to push climate change higher up the agenda in local government. (Author)

  9. Evaluation of nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride to reduce global warming impacts of ANSI/HPS N13.1 gaseous uniformity testing

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Barnett, J. Matthew; Amidan, Brett G.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Glissmeyer, John A.

    2018-03-01

    The ANSI/HPS N13.1-2011 standard requires gaseous tracer uniformity testing for sampling associated with stacks used in radioactive air emissions. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), a greenhouse gas with a high global warming potential, has long been the gas tracer used in such testing. To reduce the impact of gas tracer tests on the environment, nitrous oxide (N2O) was evaluated as a potential replacement to SF6. The physical evaluation included the development of a test plan to record percent coefficient of variance and the percent maximum deviation between the two gases while considering variables such as fan configuration, injection position, and flow rate. Statistical power was calculated to determine how many sample sets were needed, and computational fluid dynamic modeling was utilized to estimate overall mixing in stacks. Results show there are no significant differences between the behaviors of the two gases, and SF6 modeling corroborated N2O test results. Although, in principle, all tracer gases should behave in an identical manner for measuring mixing within a stack, the series of physical tests guided by statistics was performed to demonstrate the equivalence of N2O testing to SF6 testing in the context of stack qualification tests. The results demonstrate that N2O is a viable choice leading to a four times reduction in global warming impacts for future similar compliance driven testing.

  10. Making sense of personal and global problems: an analysis of the writings and lectures of Rauni-Leena Luukanen-Kilde

    Tommy Ramstedt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rauni-Leena Luukanen-Kilde (b. 1939 is a well-known figure in the Finnish alternative spiritual milieu. She is an author and lecturer on parapsychology and ufology and has been a guest on several talk shows in the Nordic countries. The topics discussed by Luukanen-Kilde range from the psychic abilities of mankind to visitations from extraterrestrial beings. Since the mid-1980s Luukanen-Kilde has developed conspiracy theories about an elite group governing the world in secret. Luukanen-Kilde is a bestselling author and draws audiences of several hundreds to her talks. Her conspiracy theory view of the world offers explanations for all kinds of personal, national, as well as global problems and disasters. Personal health problems, tragic incidents such as school shootings, economic crises and unemployment, earthquakes and floods can, according to her belief system, all be attributed to a single cause; namely to the actions of a clandestine, malevolent group. The popularity of Luukanen-Kilde’s books and lectures can be seen as an example of how people in late modernity are seeking alternative interpretations of themselves and of world events.

  11. Wie viel muss ich wissen, um global handeln zu können? Verantwortung für Weltarmut und das Problem der epistemischen Überforderung

    Weber-Guskar Eva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Was heißt es, sich in unserer globalisierten Welt als eine vollverantwortliche Person zu verstehen und zu verhalten? Einerseits scheint es richtig, dass wir global verantwortlich sind, d.h. dass wir auch gegen entferntes Leid etwas tun sollten; andererseits aber ist wegen vielfacher Überforderungsproblemen unklar ist, wie man diese Verantwortung tatsächlich übernehmen können soll – was wiederum dagegen spricht, dass wir diese Verantwortung berechtigtermaßen zuschreiben können. Um einen Aspekt dieses großen Themas zu behandeln, konzentriere ich mich in diesem Aufsatz auf den Anwendungsbereich von extremer Armut und argumentiere in folgenden Schritten. Zuerst spitze ich das Thema zu auf ein Problem, das Samuel Scheffler in diesem Zusammenhang konstatiert hat, nämlich einen Widerstreit zwischen dem, was Verantwortung unter den Bedingungen der Globalisierung bedeutet und dem, wie wir uns grundsätzlich als Handelnde zu verstehen gewohnt sind. Dann zeige ich erstens, dass dem Thema einer epistemischen Überforderung dabei entscheidendes Gewicht zugesprochen wird, zweitens jedoch, dass sich, genauer besehen, dieses Problem gar nicht in dieser Art stellt. Dafür schlage ich eine Analyse des Verantwortungsbegriffs vor, die es ermöglicht, Kriterien zu identifizieren, anhand derer gewisse Grenzen gezogen werden können, so dass die Zuschreibung der Verantwortung gerechtfertigt werden kann.

  12. Reduced ventral cingulum integrity and increased behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment.

    Webb, Emma A; O'Reilly, Michelle A; Clayden, Jonathan D; Seunarine, Kiran K; Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison; Clark, Chris A; Dattani, Mehul T

    2013-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia, mild to moderate or no visual impairment, and no developmental delay. To identify white matter abnormalities that may provide neural correlates for any behavioral abnormalities identified. Eleven children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia (mean age 5.9 years) underwent behavioral assessment and brain diffusion tensor imaging, Twenty four controls with isolated short stature (mean age 6.4 years) underwent MRI, 11 of whom also completed behavioral assessments. Fractional anisotropy images were processed using tract-based spatial statistics. Partial correlation between ventral cingulum, corpus callosum and optic radiation fractional anisotropy, and child behavioral checklist scores (controlled for age at scan and sex) was performed. Children with optic nerve hypoplasia had significantly higher scores on the child behavioral checklist (pchildren with optic nerve hypoplasia. Right ventral cingulum fractional anisotropy correlated with total and externalising child behavioral checklist scores (r = -0.52, pchildren with optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment require behavioral assessment to determine the presence of clinically significant behavioral problems. Reduced structural integrity of the ventral cingulum correlated with behavioral scores, suggesting that these white matter abnormalities may be clinically significant. The presence of reduced fractional anisotropy in the optic radiations of children with mild to moderate or no visual impairment raises questions as to the pathogenesis of these changes which will need to be addressed by future studies.

  13. Saltelli Global Sensitivity Analysis and Simulation Modelling to Identify Intervention Strategies to Reduce the Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 Contaminated Beef Carcasses.

    Victoria J Brookes

    Full Text Available Strains of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157 are important foodborne pathogens in humans, and outbreaks of illness have been associated with consumption of undercooked beef. Here, we determine the most effective intervention strategies to reduce the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated beef carcasses using a modelling approach.A computational model simulated events and processes in the beef harvest chain. Information from empirical studies was used to parameterise the model. Variance-based global sensitivity analysis (GSA using the Saltelli method identified variables with the greatest influence on the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated carcasses. Following a baseline scenario (no interventions, a series of simulations systematically introduced and tested interventions based on influential variables identified by repeated Saltelli GSA, to determine the most effective intervention strategy.Transfer of STEC O157 from hide or gastro-intestinal tract to carcass (improved abattoir hygiene had the greatest influence on the prevalence of contaminated carcases. Due to interactions between inputs (identified by Saltelli GSA, combinations of interventions based on improved abattoir hygiene achieved a greater reduction in maximum prevalence than would be expected from an additive effect of single interventions. The most effective combination was improved abattoir hygiene with vaccination, which achieved a greater than ten-fold decrease in maximum prevalence compared to the baseline scenario.Study results suggest that effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated carcasses should initially be based on improved abattoir hygiene. However, the effect of improved abattoir hygiene on the distribution of STEC O157 concentration on carcasses is an important information gap-further empirical research is required to determine whether reduced prevalence of contaminated carcasses is likely to result in reduced

  14. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents' vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants' increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 290% (AOR: 3.9 (1

  15. Reduced ventral cingulum integrity and increased behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment.

    Emma A Webb

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia, mild to moderate or no visual impairment, and no developmental delay. To identify white matter abnormalities that may provide neural correlates for any behavioral abnormalities identified. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia (mean age 5.9 years underwent behavioral assessment and brain diffusion tensor imaging, Twenty four controls with isolated short stature (mean age 6.4 years underwent MRI, 11 of whom also completed behavioral assessments. Fractional anisotropy images were processed using tract-based spatial statistics. Partial correlation between ventral cingulum, corpus callosum and optic radiation fractional anisotropy, and child behavioral checklist scores (controlled for age at scan and sex was performed. RESULTS: Children with optic nerve hypoplasia had significantly higher scores on the child behavioral checklist (p<0.05 than controls (4 had scores in the clinically significant range. Ventral cingulum, corpus callosum and optic radiation fractional anisotropy were significantly reduced in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. Right ventral cingulum fractional anisotropy correlated with total and externalising child behavioral checklist scores (r = -0.52, p<0.02, r = -0.46, p<0.049 respectively. There were no significant correlations between left ventral cingulum, corpus callosum or optic radiation fractional anisotropy and behavioral scores. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that children with optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment require behavioral assessment to determine the presence of clinically significant behavioral problems. Reduced structural integrity of the ventral cingulum correlated with behavioral scores, suggesting that these white matter abnormalities may be clinically significant. The presence of reduced fractional anisotropy in the optic

  16. Energy supply - a global problem

    Rittstieg, G.

    1980-12-01

    A briefly commented data collection is presented. The following diagrams are related to energy requirements and consumption as well as primary energy reserves. Finally some comments referring to nuclear energy are given. (UA) [de

  17. Problems in global atmospheric chemistry

    Crutzen, Paul J.

    1993-02-01

    The chemistry of the atmosphere is substantially influenced by a wide range of chemical processes which are primarily driven by the action of ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths shorter than 320 nm (UV-B) on ozone and water vapor. This leads to the formation of hydroxyl (OH) radicals which, despite very low tropospheric concentrations, remove most gases that are emitted into the atmosphere by natural and anthropogenic processes. Therefore, although only about 10% of all atmospheric ozone is located in the troposphere, through the formation of OH, it determines the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere and is, therefore, of the utmost importance for maintaining its chemical composition. Due to a variety of human activities, especially through increasing emissions of CH4, CO, and NOx, the concentrations of tropospheric ozone and hydroxyl are expected to be increasing in polluted and decreasing in clean tropospheric environments. Altogether, this may be leading to an overall decrease in the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere, contributing to a gradual buildup of several longlived trace gases that are primarily removed by reaction with OH. In the stratosphere, especially due to catalytic reactions of chlorine-containing gases of industrial origin, ozone is being depleted, most drastically noted during the early spring months over Antarctica. Because ozone is the only atmospheric constituent that can significantly absorb solar radiation in the wavelength region 240 - 320 nm, this loss of ozone enhances the penetration of biologically harmful UV-B radiation to the earth's surface with ensuing negative consequences for the biosphere. Several of the aforementioned chemically active trace gases with growing trends in the atmosphere are also efficient greenhouse gases. Together they can exert a warming effect on the earth's climate about equal to that of carbon dioxide.

  18. The development and experimental validation of a reduced ternary kinetic mechanism for the auto-ignition at HCCI conditions, proposing a global reaction path for ternary gasoline surrogates

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon; Amouroux, Jacques [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2009-02-15

    To acquire a high amount of information of the behaviour of the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) auto-ignition process, a reduced surrogate mechanism has been composed out of reduced n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene mechanisms, containing 62 reactions and 49 species. This mechanism has been validated numerically in a 0D HCCI engine code against more detailed mechanisms (inlet temperature varying from 290 to 500 K, the equivalence ratio from 0.2 to 0.7 and the compression ratio from 8 to 18) and experimentally against experimental shock tube and rapid compression machine data from the literature at pressures between 9 and 55 bar and temperatures between 700 and 1400 K for several fuels: the pure compounds n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene as well as binary and ternary mixtures of these compounds. For this validation, stoichiometric mixtures and mixtures with an equivalence ratio of 0.5 are used. The experimental validation is extended by comparing the surrogate mechanism to experimental data from an HCCI engine. A global reaction pathway is proposed for the auto-ignition of a surrogate gasoline, using the surrogate mechanism, in order to show the interactions that the three compounds can have with one another during the auto-ignition of a ternary mixture. (author)

  19. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Mediation in Improving Family Functioning and Reducing Adolescent Problem Behavior: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Tucker, Joan S; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Huang, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    Parent-child mediation programs are intended to resolve or manage disputes and improve family functioning, but rigorous evaluations of their effectiveness are lacking. Families referred to a community-based mediation program (N = 111) were randomized to an intervention or wait-list control group, and completed three surveys over a 12-week period. With the exception of parent-reported child delinquency (which decreased more in the intervention group), this evaluation provides little support for the short-term effectiveness of parent-child mediation for improving family functioning and reducing child problem behaviors in general. Given that this is the first randomized controlled trial of a parent-child mediation program, additional evaluations involving larger samples and longer follow-ups are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about the effectiveness of this intervention.

  20. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Mediation in Improving Family Functioning and Reducing Adolescent Problem Behavior: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Huang, Wenjing

    2016-01-01

    Parent-child mediation programs are intended to resolve or manage disputes and improve family functioning, but rigorous evaluations of their effectiveness are lacking. Families referred to a community-based mediation program (N=111) were randomized to an intervention or wait-list control group, and completed three surveys over a 12-week period. With the exception of parent-reported child delinquency (which decreased more in the intervention group), this evaluation provides little support for the short-term effectiveness of parent-child mediation for improving family functioning and reducing child problem behaviors in general. Given that this is the first randomized controlled trial of a parent-child mediation program, additional evaluations involving larger samples and longer follow-ups are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about the effectiveness of this intervention. PMID:26762375

  1. A spectral nodal method for eigenvalue S{sub N} transport problems in two-dimensional rectangular geometry for energy multigroup nuclear reactor global calculations

    Silva, Davi Jose M.; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: davijmsilva@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: halves@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional

    2015-07-01

    A spectral nodal method is developed for multigroup x,y-geometry discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) eigenvalue problems for nuclear reactor global calculations. This method uses the conventional multigroup SN discretized spatial balance nodal equations with two non-standard auxiliary equations: the spectral diamond (SD) auxiliary equations for the discretization nodes inside the fuel regions, and the spectral Green's function (SGF) auxiliary equations for the non-multiplying regions, such as the baffle and the reactor. This spectral nodal method is derived from the analytical general solution of the SN transverse integrated nodal equations with constant approximations for the transverse leakage terms within each discretization node. The SD and SGF auxiliary equations have parameters, which are determined to preserve the homogeneous and the particular components of these local general solutions. Therefore, we refer to the offered method as the hybrid SD-SGF-Constant Nodal (SD-SGF-CN) method. The S{sub N} discretized spatial balance equations, together with the SD and the SGF auxiliary equations form the SD-SGF-CN equations. We solve the SD-SGF-CN equations by using the one-node block inversion inner iterations (NBI), wherein the most recent estimates for the incoming group node-edge average or prescribed boundary conditions are used to evaluate the outgoing group node-edge average fluxes in the directions of the S{sub N} transport sweeps, for each estimate of the dominant eigenvalue in the conventional Power outer iterations. We show in numerical calculations that the SD-SGF-CN method is very accurate for coarse-mesh multigroup S{sub N} eigenvalue problems, even though the transverse leakage terms are approximated rather simply. (author)

  2. A spectral nodal method for eigenvalue SN transport problems in two-dimensional rectangular geometry for energy multigroup nuclear reactor global calculations

    Silva, Davi Jose M.; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2015-01-01

    A spectral nodal method is developed for multigroup x,y-geometry discrete ordinates (S N ) eigenvalue problems for nuclear reactor global calculations. This method uses the conventional multigroup SN discretized spatial balance nodal equations with two non-standard auxiliary equations: the spectral diamond (SD) auxiliary equations for the discretization nodes inside the fuel regions, and the spectral Green's function (SGF) auxiliary equations for the non-multiplying regions, such as the baffle and the reactor. This spectral nodal method is derived from the analytical general solution of the SN transverse integrated nodal equations with constant approximations for the transverse leakage terms within each discretization node. The SD and SGF auxiliary equations have parameters, which are determined to preserve the homogeneous and the particular components of these local general solutions. Therefore, we refer to the offered method as the hybrid SD-SGF-Constant Nodal (SD-SGF-CN) method. The S N discretized spatial balance equations, together with the SD and the SGF auxiliary equations form the SD-SGF-CN equations. We solve the SD-SGF-CN equations by using the one-node block inversion inner iterations (NBI), wherein the most recent estimates for the incoming group node-edge average or prescribed boundary conditions are used to evaluate the outgoing group node-edge average fluxes in the directions of the S N transport sweeps, for each estimate of the dominant eigenvalue in the conventional Power outer iterations. We show in numerical calculations that the SD-SGF-CN method is very accurate for coarse-mesh multigroup S N eigenvalue problems, even though the transverse leakage terms are approximated rather simply. (author)

  3. Energy, oil and global environmental problems towards21st. century. 21 seiki ni mukatte no energyter dot sekiyuter dot chikyu kankyo mondai

    Ishikawa, K [Mitsubishi Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-09-01

    The world energy demand is increasing with the development of the world economy and the improvement of the life level. In view of the future economic development and population growth, the world energy demand will considerably increase especially in the LDCs. Since the oil crisis, saving of energy and material were effectively executed, thus significantly reducing the energy requirement per GNP. However, in the recent several years, the conciousness of energy has become diluted, causing considerable consumption in larger size and higher grade products, thus increasing the non-industrial and transportation consumption. This report considered the effective use of energy and the nuclear application. It is to be noted that the accident frequency in the Japanese nuclear plants is much less than the other countries. The coal utilization requires further technical development in view of the environmental problems. Other substitutible energies are all weak in competition and cannot be expected utilizable in large scale for the time being. This report also referred to the oil problem. 9 figs.

  4. Strategies and future attempts to reduce stigmatization and increase awareness of mental health problems among young people: a narrative review of educational interventions.

    Yamaguchi, Sosei; Mino, Yoshio; Uddin, Shahir

    2011-08-01

    There is a need to reduce stigma and increase awareness in order to prevent social exclusion of people with mental illness and to facilitate the use of mental health services in young people. The purpose of this review was to examine the effects of educational interventions to reduce stigmatization and improve awareness of mental health problems among young people. An electronic search using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Academic Search Complete was carried out for studies that evaluated the effectiveness of educational interventions. Forty eligible studies were identified. There were three types of educational interventions (Educational condition, Video-based Contact condition and Contact condition). Eighteen of 23 studies reported significant improvements in knowledge, 27 of 34 studies yielded significant changes in attitudes towards people with mental illness. Significant effects in social distance were found in 16 of 20 studies. Two of five studies significantly improved young people's awareness of mental illness. However, six studies reported difficulties in maintaining improved knowledge, attitudes and social distance in young people. Furthermore, the majority of studies did not measure the actual behavioral change. From the comparison of the three types of educational interventions, direct contact with people with mental illness (Contact condition) seems to be key in reducing stigmatization, while the components of Education and Video-based contact conditions are still arguable. Despite the demonstration of the positive effects of each educational intervention, their long-term effects are still unclear. Further research needs to involve measuring actual behavioral change and performing a long-term follow up. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. Subsurface watering resulted in reduced soil N2O and CO2 emissions and their global warming potentials than surface watering

    Wei, Qi; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong; Liao, Linxian; Jin, Guangqiu; Li, Yawei; Hameed, Fazli

    2018-01-01

    Water management is an important practice with significant effect on greenhouse gases (GHG) emission from soils. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their global warming potentials (GWPs) from subsurface watering soil (SUW) were investigated, with surface watering (SW) as a control. Results indicated that the N2O and CO2 emissions from SUW soils were somewhat different to those from SW soil, with the peak N2O and CO2 fluxes from SUW soil reduced by 28.9% and 19.4%, and appeared 72 h and 168 h later compared with SW. The fluxes of N2O and CO2 from SUW soils were lower than those from SW soil in both pulse and post-pulse periods, and the reduction was significantly (p0.1) lower that from SW soil. Moreover, N2O and CO2 fluxes from both watering treatments increased exponentially with increase of soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) and temperature. Our results suggest that watering soil from subsurface could significantly reduce the integrative greenhouse effect caused by N2O and CO2 and is a promising strategy for soil greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation. And the pulse period, contributed most to the reduction in emissions of N2O and CO2 from soils between SW and SUW, should be a key period for mitigating GHGs emissions. Response of N2O and CO2 emissions to soil WFPS and temperature illustrated that moisture was the dominant parameters that triggering GHG pulse emissions (especially for N2O), and temperature had a greater effect on the soil microorganism activity than moisture in drier soil. Avoiding moisture and temperature are appropriate for GHG emission at the same time is essential for GHGs mitigation, because peak N2O and CO2 emission were observed only when moisture and temperature are both appropriate.

  6. Global warming

    Houghton, John

    2005-01-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of the SMART contract-signing strategy in reducing the growth of Swedish Adolescents’ substance use and problem behaviors

    Cristian Bortes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2013, around 40 % of the schools in Sweden had structured programs to prevent tobacco and alcohol debut in compulsory school. There has unfortunately been a lack of scientific evidence to support most of the prevention methods focusing on primary prevention in schools in Sweden. The aim and purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Non-Governmental Organization SMART contract-signing strategy in reducing the growth of youth substance use and other problem behaviors amongst Swedish adolescents. Methods Students from five schools in a medium-sized Swedish municipality were surveyed in three waves from 7th to 9th grade of compulsory school. We used General Linear Model (GLM repeated-measures ANOVA to test if the outcome measures smoking, use of snus and alcohol, drunkenness, delinquency, and bullying significantly changed different amounts over time in groups that had participated in the SMART program for long time, a short time, sporadically- or not at all. Groups were compared on demographic background variables, and outcome measures were assessed on all measurement occasions by a one-way ANOVA. The magnitude of group differences at the end of the study was estimated according to Cohen’s d. Results Number of years with a contract has an effect on the levels of self-reported youth problems in 9th grade. We found small to medium-sized differences in measured outcomes between students who participated in the program for the longest period of time, 5 years, and who participated for the shortest time, 0–2 years. Conclusion Findings suggests that the SMART program has preventive effects on adolescent substance use.

  8. Effectiveness of reducing the risk of eating-related problems using the German school-based intervention program, "Torera", for preadolescent boys and girls.

    Berger, U; Schaefer, J-M; Wick, K; Brix, C; Bormann, B; Sowa, M; Schwartze, D; Strauss, B

    2014-08-01

    Representative surveys indicate that eating disorders are an increasing problem, especially among (pre)adolescents. We assessed the effects of a German school-based primary prevention program ("Torera") for seventh graders. Torera especially relates to pathological eating behavior in the realm of bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. The program is built upon two previously evaluated modules for sixth graders with a gender-specific adaption. The coeducational intervention involves nine manual-guided lessons touching a wide range of eating-related problems. Twenty-two Thuringian secondary schools (n = 256 boys and 277 girls, aged 11-13 years at baseline) participated in a trial with 2 control groups (untreated and pretreated) with pre-post assessment. Primary outcomes were conspicuous eating behavior and body self-esteem, measured by standardized questionnaires (SCOFF, EAT-26D, and FBeK). Girls and students at risk showed significant improvement with small (d = 0.35) to medium (d = 0.66) effect sizes on eating behavior, significantly mediated by body self-esteem. Boys only improved with respect to eating attitudes, revealing a small effect size (d = 0.35). With relatively low implementation costs (about 2.50 per student), Torera provides an efficient model for reducing risky eating behavior and strengthening body self-esteem without negative side effects. To improve the effectiveness of the intervention, further research efforts focusing on at-risk groups (secondary prevention) and structural actions for prevention (e.g., offering healthy school catering) are needed.

  9. HIGH-RESOLUTION CALCULATION OF THE SOLAR GLOBAL CONVECTION WITH THE REDUCED SPEED OF SOUND TECHNIQUE. II. NEAR SURFACE SHEAR LAYER WITH THE ROTATION

    Hotta, H.; Rempel, M. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Yokoyama, T., E-mail: hotta@ucar.edu [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-resolution, highly stratified numerical simulation of rotating thermal convection in a spherical shell. Our aim is to study in detail the processes that can maintain a near surface shear layer (NSSL) as inferred from helioseismology. Using the reduced speed of sound technique, we can extend our global convection simulation to 0.99 R {sub ☉} and include, near the top of our domain, small-scale convection with short timescales that is only weakly influenced by rotation. We find the formation of an NSSL preferentially in high latitudes in the depth range of r = 0.95-0.975 R {sub ☉}. The maintenance mechanisms are summarized as follows. Convection under the weak influence of rotation leads to Reynolds stresses that transport angular momentum radially inward in all latitudes. This leads to the formation of a strong poleward-directed meridional flow and an NSSL, which is balanced in the meridional plane by forces resulting from the 〈v{sub r}{sup ′}v{sub θ}{sup ′}〉 correlation of turbulent velocities. The origin of the required correlations depends to some degree on latitude. In high latitudes, a positive correlation 〈v{sub r}{sup ′}v{sub θ}{sup ′}〉 is induced in the NSSL by the poleward meridional flow whose amplitude increases with the radius, while a negative correlation is generated by the Coriolis force in bulk of the convection zone. In low latitudes, a positive correlation 〈v{sub r}{sup ′}v{sub θ}{sup ′}〉 results from rotationally aligned convection cells ({sup b}anana cells{sup )}. The force caused by these Reynolds stresses is in balance with the Coriolis force in the NSSL.

  10. The Ongoing Addition of Infrasound Sensors and the Flexette Wind-Noise Reducing System to Global Seismic Network Stations Operated by Project IDA

    Ebeling, C. W.; Coon, C.

    2017-12-01

    Infrasound sensors are now being installed at Global Seismic Network (GSN) stations meeting certain infrastructure criteria. Manufactured by Hyperion Technology Group, Inc., these instruments (model IFS-3312) have a nominal sensitivity of 140 mV/Pa (at 1 Hz), a full-scale range of ±100 Pa, and a dynamic range of 120 dB. Low power consumption (750 mW at 12 VDC) and small size (153 mm x 178 mm) ease incorporation into the mix of existing GSN instrumentation. The accompanying flexible rosette ("Flexette") acoustic wind-noise reducing system, designed by Project IDA (International Deployment of Accelerometers-IDA), optimally includes 24 inlets, 4 secondary manifolds, and a single primary manifold. Each secondary manifold is connected to 6 inlets and to the primary manifold by 10-ft air hoses, thus eliminating stresses and the greater potential for leaks associated with the use of pipe. While the main design goal was to maximize the reduction of acoustic wind-noise over the widest range of wind speeds possible, consideration of additional criteria resulted in a Flexette base design easily tailored to meet individual station constraints and restrictions, made up of inexpensive (total cost Marshall Islands), in August 2017. During the next 6 months infrasound capability will be extended to IDA GSN stations BORG (Borganes, Iceland), EFI (Mount Kent, East Falkland Islands), and SACV (Santiago Island, Cape Verde).As with other data from GSN stations, real-time infrasound data are freely available from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology-Data Management Center (IRIS-DMC).

  11. Global safety

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  12. A Multilevel Congestion-Based Global Router

    Logan Rakai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in nanometer nodes creates an elevated level of importance for low-congestion routing. At the same time, advances in mathematical programming have increased the power to solve complex problems, such as the routing problem. Hence, new routing methods need to be developed that can combine advanced mathematical programming and modeling techniques to provide low-congestion solutions. In this paper, a hierarchical mathematical programming-based global routing technique that considers congestion is proposed. The main contributions presented in this paper include (i implementation of congestion estimation based on actual routing solutions versus purely probabilistic techniques, (ii development of a congestion-based hierarchy for solving the global routing problem, and (iii generation of a robust framework for solving the routing problem using mathematical programming techniques. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed global router is capable of reducing congestion and overflow by as much as 36% compared to the state-of-the-art mathematical programming models.

  13. Global chemical pollution

    Travis, C.C.; Hester, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past decade, public and governmental awareness of environmental problems has grown steadily, with an accompanying increase in the regulation of point sources of pollution. As a result, great strides have been made in cleaning polluted rivers and decreasing air pollution near factories. However, traditional regulatory approaches to environmental pollution have focused primarily on protecting the maximally exposed individual located in the immediate vicinity of the pollution source. Little attention has been given to the global implications of human production and use of synthetic chemicals. A consensus is emerging that even trace levels of environmental contamination can have potentially devastating environmental consequences. The authors maintain that ambient levels of pollution have risen to the point where human health is being affected on a global scale. Atmospheric transport is recognized as the primary mode of global distribution and entry into the food chain for organic chemicals. The following are examples of global chemical pollutants that result in human exposure of significant proportions: PCBs, dioxins, benzene, mercury and lead. Current regulatory approaches for environmental pollution do not incorporate ways of dealing with global pollution. Instead the major focus has been on protecting the maximally exposed individual. If we do not want to change our standard of living, the only way to reduce global chemical pollution is to make production and consumption processes more efficient and to lower the levels of production of these toxic chemicals. Thus the only reasonable solution to global pollution is not increased regulation of isolated point sources, but rather an increased emphasis on waste reduction and materials recycling. Until we focus on these issues, we will continue to experience background cancer risk in the 10 -3 range

  14. Experience in a Climate Microworld: Influence of Surface and Structure Learning, Problem Difficulty, and Decision Aids in Reducing Stock-Flow Misconceptions

    Medha Kumar

    2018-03-01

    both simple and difficult problems, indicating the role of cognitive load to hamper learning. Finally, misconceptions were reduced when DCCS was used as a decision aid. Overall, these results highlight the role of simulation tools in alleviating climate misconceptions. We discuss the implication of using simulation tools for climate education and policymaking.

  15. Assessing Diabetes Self-Management with the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ Can Help Analyse Behavioural Problems Related to Reduced Glycaemic Control.

    Andreas Schmitt

    Full Text Available To appraise the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ's measurement of diabetes self-management as a statistical predictor of glycaemic control relative to the widely used SDSCA.248 patients with type 1 diabetes and 182 patients with type 2 diabetes were cross-sectionally assessed using the two self-report measures of diabetes self-management DSMQ and SDSCA; the scales were used as competing predictors of HbA1c. We developed a structural equation model of self-management as measured by the DSMQ and analysed the amount of variation explained in HbA1c; an analogue model was developed for the SDSCA.The structural equation models of self-management and glycaemic control showed very good fit to the data. The DSMQ's measurement of self-management showed associations with HbA1c of -0.53 for type 1 and -0.46 for type 2 diabetes (both P < 0.001, explaining 21% and 28% of variation in glycaemic control, respectively. The SDSCA's measurement showed associations with HbA1c of -0.14 (P = 0.030 for type 1 and -0.31 (P = 0.003 for type 2 diabetes, explaining 2% and 10% of glycaemic variation. Predictive power for glycaemic control was significantly higher for the DSMQ (P < 0.001.This study supports the DSMQ as the preferred tool when analysing self-reported behavioural problems related to reduced glycaemic control. The scale may be useful for clinical assessments of patients with suboptimal diabetes outcomes or research on factors affecting associations between self-management behaviours and glycaemic control.

  16. Early MEK1/2 Inhibition after Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rats Reduces Brain Damage and Improves Outcome by Preventing Delayed Vasoconstrictor Receptor Upregulation

    Johansson, Sara Ellinor; Larsen, Stine Schmidt; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global cerebral ischemia following cardiac arrest is associated with increased cerebral vasoconstriction and decreased cerebral blood flow, contributing to delayed neuronal cell death and neurological detriments in affected patients. We hypothesize that upregulation of contractile ETB...... and 5-HT1B receptors, previously demonstrated in cerebral arteries after experimental global ischemia, are a key mechanism behind insufficient perfusion of the post-ischemic brain, proposing blockade of this receptor upregulation as a novel target for prevention of cerebral hypoperfusion and delayed...... neuronal cell death after global cerebral ischemia. The aim was to characterize the time-course of receptor upregulation and associated neuronal damage after global ischemia and investigate whether treatment with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 can prevent cerebrovascular receptor upregulation and thereby...

  17. Reduced ash-related operational problems by co-combustion peat and agricultural fuels; Minskade askrelaterade driftsproblem genom inblandning av torv i aakerbraenslen

    Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan; Skoglund, Nils; Grimm, Alejandro; Boman, Christoffer; Kofod-Hansen, Marie

    2010-06-15

    The objectives of the project were: To determine the admixing levels for different peat classes to various energy crops (straw, Salix and Reed canary grass) that are required to reach positive effects regarding slagging, deposit formation/(high temperature corrosion) and bed agglomeration; and, To demonstrate the possibilities to reduce the occurrence of ash related operational problems in combustion of energy crops upon admixing peat. Operational experiences and research of effects of co-firing peat and energy crops are scarce. Some previous tests in bench scale indicated though, on a strong reduction of the agglomeration tendency and lowering of the agglomeration temperature for straw and Salix at a peat admixing level corresponding to 15 - 20 weight% (on DS basis). A reduction in the amount of emitted fine particles was also observed in these experiments. However, care must be taken in the choice of peat. Some Carex dominated peats with high Si contents may cause problems with slagging. Another conclusion from the mentioned bench scale tests was that peats with relative high Ca/Si ratios should be selected to minimize the risk of slagging and bed agglomeration. Thermochemical modelling was performed to determine the effects of peat admixture, on slagging-, deposit formation- (corrosion)- and bed agglomeration tendencies during combustion of straw, willow and reed canary grass with high and low ash content. These results and previously conducted bench scale experiments were used as a basis for determining combinations of fuel and peat admixtures for the demonstration experiments. The calculations were performed with admixing levels of 0-, 5-, 15, 25-, and 40 weight% (on DS basis) of four peat samples to the investigated four crop fuels. The used peat samples were typical carex-containing Swedish peat with differences in e.g. silicon-, calcium- and sulfur contents. A number of the model calculations were qualitatively validated against previously conducted

  18. [Population problem, comprehension problem].

    Tallon, F

    1993-08-01

    Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur

  19. The Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) Improves Child Behavior by Reducing Negative Parenting: Analysis of Mediating Processes in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…

  20. Why Popper can't resolve the debate over global warming: Problems with the uses of philosophy of science in the media and public framing of the science of global warming.

    Mercer, David

    2018-02-01

    A notable feature in the public framing of debates involving the science of Anthropogenic Global Warming are appeals to uncritical 'positivist' images of the ideal scientific method. Versions of Sir Karl Popper's philosophy of falsification appear most frequently, featuring in many Web sites and broader media. This use of pop philosophy of science forms part of strategies used by critics, mainly from conservative political backgrounds, to manufacture doubt, by setting unrealistic standards for sound science, in the veracity of science of Anthropogenic Global Warming. It will be shown, nevertheless, that prominent supporters of Anthropogenic Global Warming science also often use similar references to Popper to support their claims. It will also be suggested that this pattern reflects longer traditions of the use of Popperian philosophy of science in controversial settings, particularly in the United States, where appeals to the authority of science to legitimize policy have been most common. It will be concluded that studies of the science of Anthropogenic Global Warming debate would benefit from taking greater interest in questions raised by un-reflexive and politically expedient public understanding(s) of the philosophy of science of both critics and supporters of the science of Anthropogenic Global Warming.

  1. Two-stage combustion, a new concept in reducing alkali related operational problem; Tvaastegsfoerbraenning, ett nytt koncept att minska alkalirelaterad driftproblematik

    Hjoernhede, Anders; Hermansson, Sven; Seemann, Martin; Alamia, Alberto; Larsson, Anton; Davidsson, Kent; Niklasson, Fredrik; Atongka Tchoffor, Placid; Jones, Frida

    2012-07-01

    A possible way to reduce alkali related problems during thermal conversion of fuels into heat and power is to thermally split the fuel into a relatively alkali-lean gas stream and a relatively alkali-rich char stream. The alkali-lean gas stream could then be combusted and used for high-temperature purpose, e.g. superheating of steam. The char residue could be combusted for heating of e.g. steam tubes at inferior temperatures. The purpose of this project has been to study and demonstrate such two-stage combustion, with separation of the early devolatilization from alkali-rich fuels for steam superheating. Within the project, it has been investigated if this type of thermal conversion is thermo-economically feasible. Furthermore, it has been investigated in laboratory and pilot scale trials, which kinds of fuels, temperature levels and fuel residence times that are required to achieve a flue gas with significantly lower concentrations of alkaloids, compared to single-stage conversion. The results from the thermo-economical simulations show that it is possible to arrange the heat exchanger surfaces in a power plant for thermal two-stage conversion. Compared to traditional one-stage combustion, the electricity efficiency could be increased from 35 % to more than 38 %. However, the results from combustion, gasification and pyrolysis in lab, together with gasification trials in the Chalmers pilot plant, show that the investigated woody fuels (bark and wood pellets) do not seem to be feasible for two-stage conversion. These fuels emit alkaloids exclusively in conjunction with the devolatilization in opposite to the desired effect. On the other hand, straw is a potential fuel candidate for two-stage conversion, since straw emits alkaloids during both devolatilization and char conversion. Furthermore, the results show that increased temperature generally causes increased alkali release. From the results it is suggested that the propensity of a fuel to release alkali during

  2. Supportive text messages to reduce mood symptoms and problem drinking in patients with primary depression or alcohol use disorder: protocol for an implementation research study.

    Agyapong, Vincent Israel Opoku; Mrklas, Kelly; Suen, Victoria Yung Mei; Rose, Marianne Sarah; Jahn, Megan; Gladue, Irene; Kozak, Jody; Leslie, Maureen; Dursun, Serdar; Ohinmaa, Arto; Greenshaw, Andrew

    2015-05-15

    Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) are two leading causes of disability worldwide and are associated with significant treatment challenges requiring new, innovative, cost-effective and technologically-based therapies including the use of supportive text messages. To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of supportive text messages in long-term follow-up to reduce mood symptoms and problem drinking in patients with Depression or AUD respectively and to explore the usefulness of self-reports of health services utilization as an outcomes measure. This will be a longitudinal, prospective, parallel-design, two-arm, placebo-controlled single-rater-blinded randomized clinical trial with a recruitment period of 6 months and an observation period of 12 months for each participant, with two strata based on primary diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder or AUD. The sample size will be 120, with about 60 patients randomized from each primary diagnostic grouping. Patients in all intervention groups will receive twice-daily supportive SMS text messages for 3 months and then daily supportive text messages for the next three months. Patients will also receive a phone call every two weeks from the research assistant assigning treatment allocation to confirm that they are still receiving the text messages and to thank them for taking part in the study. Patients in the control group will receive no text messages but will also receive a phone call from the same research assistant every two weeks to thank them for taking part in the study. The study starts in April 2015 and ends in September 2016. It is envisaged that both qualitative and quantitative primary and secondary outcomes, including patient perceptions of the intervention, will shed light on the feasibility of using automated supportive text message interventions in long term for patients with Depression and AUD. This will inform a full-scale clinical trial. The paradigm for behavior change using text messages

  3. Parallel hierarchical global illumination

    Snell, Quinn O. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    Solving the global illumination problem is equivalent to determining the intensity of every wavelength of light in all directions at every point in a given scene. The complexity of the problem has led researchers to use approximation methods for solving the problem on serial computers. Rather than using an approximation method, such as backward ray tracing or radiosity, the authors have chosen to solve the Rendering Equation by direct simulation of light transport from the light sources. This paper presents an algorithm that solves the Rendering Equation to any desired accuracy, and can be run in parallel on distributed memory or shared memory computer systems with excellent scaling properties. It appears superior in both speed and physical correctness to recent published methods involving bidirectional ray tracing or hybrid treatments of diffuse and specular surfaces. Like progressive radiosity methods, it dynamically refines the geometry decomposition where required, but does so without the excessive storage requirements for ray histories. The algorithm, called Photon, produces a scene which converges to the global illumination solution. This amounts to a huge task for a 1997-vintage serial computer, but using the power of a parallel supercomputer significantly reduces the time required to generate a solution. Currently, Photon can be run on most parallel environments from a shared memory multiprocessor to a parallel supercomputer, as well as on clusters of heterogeneous workstations.

  4. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  5. Global Inequality

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries....... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...

  6. The politics of global warming

    Moss, N.

    1991-01-01

    The probable warming of the world over the next few decades due to human activity presents a unique threat. The threat of global warming has been brought about by the activities of the entire human race, and only action by a large part of the human race can slow down the process or halt it. Other unwanted effects of industrial activity are trans-national, and require international agreements to regulate them, most obviously radioactivity from nuclear power accidents, acid rain and river pollution; but climatic change, unlike these, is global. International negotiations are going on now to deal with the problem of global warming, mostly by reducing the emission of gases that contribute to it. These are preliminary, yet already different perceptions and conflicting interests are emerging. The aim of the present negotiations is a convention for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in June 1992, the so-called ''Earth Summit''. (author)

  7. Seven steps to curb global warming

    Mathews, John

    2007-01-01

    Based on best current estimates that the world needs to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by 70% by 2050, and that there is at best a 10-year window of opportunity available to initiate the enormous changes needed, this paper proposes a set of seven self-contained steps that can be taken at a global level to tackle the problem with some prospect of success. The steps are self-financing and practicable, in that they are based on existing technologies. They involve agreement to create a new international agency charged with formulating and policing a global carbon pricing regime; a complementary step involving global monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions utilizing satellite resources; taking steps to compensate developing countries for preserving rainforest as carbon sinks; the dismantling of newly created trade barriers holding back global trade in biofuels; global promotion of a transition to renewable sources of electricity through facilitation of grid interconnections with independent power producers; a global moratorium on the building of new coal-fired power stations; and recycling of carbon revenues to promote uptake of renewable energy sources in developing countries, particularly Brazil, India and China. Taken as a group, it is argued that these steps are both necessary and sufficient. They call for institutional innovations at a global level that are politically difficult but feasible, given the magnitude of the problems addressed

  8. Prevalence of sexual problems and related help-seeking behaviors among mature adults in Brazil: data from the global study of sexual attitudes and behaviors

    Edson Duarte Moreira Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Relatively little is known about the usual frequency of sexual activity and how older individuals cope with sexual problems. The objective was to study sexual activity, prevalence of sexual problems and related help-seeking behaviors among middle-aged and older men and women in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population survey, by Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. METHODS: Interviews were held with 1,199 Brazilians aged 40-80 years (471 men and 728 women. The standardized questionnaire investigated demographics, general health, sexual behavior, attitudes and beliefs. RESULTS: Overall, 92.6% of men and 58.3% of women had had sexual intercourse during the preceding year. More than half of the men and women had done so more than once a week. Early ejaculation (30.3% was the commonest male sexual problem, followed by inability to reach orgasm (14.0%, erectile difficulties (13.1% and lack of sexual interest (11.2%. For women, the commonest sexual problems were lubrication difficulties (23.4% and lack of sexual interest (22.7%. Depression was a significant correlate of sexual problems, for men and women. More women than men had sought help for sexual problem(s from a healthcare professional. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of encouraging greater use of available healthcare services, including consultation with a medical doctor regarding sexual health. This should not only enable men and women to maintain satisfactory sexual function well into their later years, but may also result in overall improvement in the quality of healthcare.

  9. The Newsvendor Problem in a Global Market: Optimal Centralized and Decentralized Control Policies for a Two-Market Stochastic Inventory System

    Panagiotis Kouvelis; Genaro J. Gutierrez

    1997-01-01

    The global markets of today offer to the "style goods" producer more selling opportunities and pose new challenges in production planning and coordination. From a production management standpoint the opportunity to exploit the difference in timing of the selling season of geographically dispersed markets for "style goods" is important for improving the firm's profitability. In this paper we examine the above issue with an insightful model of a producer of "style goods" selling the goods to tw...

  10. State and global problems in ukrainian science fiction (based on the novel of m. Rudenko «the son of the sun – phaeton»

    Юлія Володимирівна Логвиненко

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is revealed the immensity of ideas that included by the author in the science fiction novel: threats and the possible consequences of the use of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons and criticism of the totalitarian state system. It is proved the relevance of the novel, which points to a possible way forward for Ukraine and the international community in the era of globalization 

  11. Reducing conflict-related employee strain: The benefits of an internal locus of control and a problem-solving conflict management strategy

    Dijkstra, M.T.M.; Beersma, B.; Evers, A.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace conflict is a potent stressor, but most previous research has focused on its effect on productivity and performance rather than on individual well-being. This paper examines the moderating roles of an individual's internal locus of control and a problem-solving conflict management

  12. Reducing conflict-related employee strain: the benefits of an internal locus of control and a problem-solving conflict management strategy

    Dijkstra, M.T.M.; Beersma, B.; Evers, A.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace conflict is a potent stressor, but most previous research has focused on its effect on productivity and performance rather than on individual well-being. This paper examines the moderating roles of an individual's internal locus of control and a problem-solving conflict management

  13. Quantifying and reducing the differences in forest CO2-fluxes estimated by eddy covariance, biometric and chamber methods: A global synthesis

    Wang, Xingchang; Wang, Chuankuan; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2017-12-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere are primarily measured with eddy covariance (EC), biometric, and chamber methods. However, it is unclear why the estimates of CO2-fluxes, when measured using these different methods, converge at some sites but diverge at others. We synthesized a novel global dataset of forest CO2-fluxes to evaluate the consistency between EC and biometric or chamber methods for quantifying CO2 budget in forests. The EC approach, comparing with the other two methods, tended to produce 25% higher estimate of net ecosystem production (NEP, 0.52Mg C ha-1 yr-1), mainly resulting from lower EC-estimated Re; 10% lower ecosystem respiration (Re, 1.39Mg C ha-1 yr-1); and 3% lower gross primary production (0.48 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) The discrepancies between EC and the other methods were higher at sites with complex topography and dense canopies versus those with flat topography and open canopies. Forest age also influenced the discrepancy through the change of leaf area index. The open-path EC system induced >50% of the discrepancy in NEP, presumably due to its surface heating effect. These results provided strong evidence that EC produces biased estimates of NEP and Re in forest ecosystems. A global extrapolation suggested that the discrepancies in CO2 fluxes between methods were consistent with a global underestimation of Re, and overestimation of NEP, by the EC method. Accounting for these discrepancies would substantially improve the our estimates of the terrestrial carbon budget .

  14. Studies of global warming and global energy

    Inaba, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    Global warming caused by increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration has been the focus of many recent global energy studies. CO 2 is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels. This means that global warming is fundamentally a problem of the global energy system. An analysis of the findings of recent global energy studies is made in this report. The results are categorized from the viewpoint of concern about global warming. The analysis includes energy use and CO 2 emissions, measures taken to restrain CO 2 emissions and the cost of such measure, and suggestions for long term global energy generation. Following this comparative analysis, each of the studies is reviewed in detail. (author) 63 refs

  15. A new prospect on global environmental problems in the case of climate change: the impacts of strategic complementarity between countries; Une nouvelle mise en perspective des problemes environnementaux globaux dans le cas du changement climatique: les impacts de la complementarite strategique entre pays

    Heugues, M.

    2009-06-15

    Among global environmental problems, climate change is one of the most serious. According to nearly all scientists, the roots of the problem is related to the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere and linked with human activities. The global character of this problem turns it into a big challenge. Within a framework of international trade liberalization, the analysis emphasizes the consequences of the inter-dependencies between economic agents, i.e. States, and of their strategic behaviours - when implementing national environmental policy - on natural environment. Starting with a deliberately conventional model and considering that countries' strategy can be complementary when emitting GHG, we bring new results in many respects and with regard to the existing ones. The thesis includes four chapters. The study highlights the impacts of the nature of the inter-dependencies between countries i) on the existence and the properties of equilibrium solutions - first, when no country cooperates and then from a globally optimal point of view -, ii) on the sequence of decisions, i.e. the circumstances under which a leader endogenously emerges when initiating its national environmental policy, iii) on profitability and stability of an international environmental agreement (IEA), iv) on the level of participation to an IEA and on the environmental impact of such a cooperation. A distinct feature of this research is to rely on the theorems of super-modular game theory. (author)

  16. Attributional processes in the learned helplessness paradigm: behavioral effects of global attributions.

    Mikulincer, M

    1986-12-01

    Following the learned helplessness paradigm, I assessed in this study the effects of global and specific attributions for failure on the generalization of performance deficits in a dissimilar situation. Helplessness training consisted of experience with noncontingent failures on four cognitive discrimination problems attributed to either global or specific causes. Experiment 1 found that performance in a dissimilar situation was impaired following exposure to globally attributed failure. Experiment 2 examined the behavioral effects of the interaction between stable and global attributions of failure. Exposure to unsolvable problems resulted in reduced performance in a dissimilar situation only when failure was attributed to global and stable causes. Finally, Experiment 3 found that learned helplessness deficits were a product of the interaction of global and internal attribution. Performance deficits following unsolvable problems were recorded when failure was attributed to global and internal causes. Results were discussed in terms of the reformulated learned helplessness model.

  17. Reducing conflict-related employee strain: The benefits of an internal locus of control and a problem-solving conflict management strategy

    Dijkstra, M.T.M.; Beersma, B.; Evers, A.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace conflict is a potent stressor, but most previous research has focused on its effect on productivity and performance rather than on individual well-being. This paper examines the moderating roles of an individual's internal locus of control and a problem-solving conflict management strategy. In the cross-sectional study, among 774 health care workers in the Netherlands, employees' internal locus of control did moderate the relationship between experienced conflict at work and psychol...

  18. The Problem of Soil Erosion in Developing Countries--Direct and Indirect Causes and Recommendations for Reducing It to a Sustainable Level.

    Middlebrook, Cathy H.; Goode, Pamela M.

    1992-01-01

    Presents direct and indirect causes of erosion in developing countries. Identifies soil conservation developments ranging from major international policy reforms to small-scale, local farming programs. Suggests that strategies at all levels, and the political will to implement them, are needed if erosion is to be reduced to a sustainable rate. (23…

  19. Reducing the memory size in the study of statistical properties of the pseudo-random number generators, focused on solving problems of cryptographic information protection

    Chugunkov, I.V.

    2014-01-01

    The report contains the description of an approach based on calculation of missing sets quantity, which allows to reduce memory usage needed for implementation of statistical tests. Information about estimation procedure of test statistics derived as a result of using this approach is also provided [ru

  20. Practical global oceanic state estimation

    Wunsch, Carl; Heimbach, Patrick

    2007-06-01

    The problem of oceanographic state estimation, by means of an ocean general circulation model (GCM) and a multitude of observations, is described and contrasted with the meteorological process of data assimilation. In practice, all such methods reduce, on the computer, to forms of least-squares. The global oceanographic problem is at the present time focussed primarily on smoothing, rather than forecasting, and the data types are unlike meteorological ones. As formulated in the consortium Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO), an automatic differentiation tool is used to calculate the so-called adjoint code of the GCM, and the method of Lagrange multipliers used to render the problem one of unconstrained least-squares minimization. Major problems today lie less with the numerical algorithms (least-squares problems can be solved by many means) than with the issues of data and model error. Results of ongoing calculations covering the period of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, and including among other data, satellite altimetry from TOPEX/POSEIDON, Jason-1, ERS- 1/2, ENVISAT, and GFO, a global array of profiling floats from the Argo program, and satellite gravity data from the GRACE mission, suggest that the solutions are now useful for scientific purposes. Both methodology and applications are developing in a number of different directions.

  1. Global optimization methods for engineering design

    Arora, Jasbir S.

    1990-01-01

    The problem is to find a global minimum for the Problem P. Necessary and sufficient conditions are available for local optimality. However, global solution can be assured only under the assumption of convexity of the problem. If the constraint set S is compact and the cost function is continuous on it, existence of a global minimum is guaranteed. However, in view of the fact that no global optimality conditions are available, a global solution can be found only by an exhaustive search to satisfy Inequality. The exhaustive search can be organized in such a way that the entire design space need not be searched for the solution. This way the computational burden is reduced somewhat. It is concluded that zooming algorithm for global optimizations appears to be a good alternative to stochastic methods. More testing is needed; a general, robust, and efficient local minimizer is required. IDESIGN was used in all numerical calculations which is based on a sequential quadratic programming algorithm, and since feasible set keeps on shrinking, a good algorithm to find an initial feasible point is required. Such algorithms need to be developed and evaluated.

  2. Globalization and the diffusion of ideas: why we should acknowledge the roots of mainstream ideas in global health.

    Robert, Emilie; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; El-Bialy, Rowan; Bidisha, Sayema Haque

    2014-06-01

    Although globalization has created ample opportunities and spaces to share experiences and information, the diffusion of ideas, especially in global health, is primarily influenced by the unequal distribution of economic, political and scientific powers around the world. These ideas in global health are generally rooted in High-Income Countries (HICs), and then reach Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). We argue that acknowledging and addressing this invisible trend would contribute to a greater degree of open discussions in global health. This is expected to favor innovative, alternative, and culturally sound solutions for persistent health problems and reducing inequities.

  3. Sleep problems: an emerging global epidemic? Findings from the INDEPTH WHO-SAGE study among more than 40,000 older adults from 8 countries across Africa and Asia.

    Stranges, Saverio; Tigbe, William; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Thorogood, Margaret; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin

    2012-08-01

    To estimate the prevalence of sleep problems and the effect of potential correlates in low-income settings from Africa and Asia, where the evidence is lacking. Cross-sectional. Community-wide samples from 8 countries across Africa and Asia participating in the INDEPTH WHO-SAGE multicenter collaboration during 2006-2007. The participating sites included rural populations in Ghana, Tanzania, South Africa, India, Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Indonesia, and an urban area in Kenya. There were 24,434 women and 19,501 men age 50 yr and older. N/A. Two measures of sleep quality, over the past 30 days, were assessed alongside a number of sociodemographic variables, measures of quality of life, and comorbidities. Overall, 16.6% of participants reported severe/extreme nocturnal sleep problems, with a striking variation across the 8 populations, ranging from 3.9% (Purworejo, Indonesia and Nairobi, Kenya) to more than 40.0% (Matlab, Bangladesh). There was a consistent pattern of higher prevalence of sleep problems in women and older age groups. In bivariate analyses, lower education, not living in partnership, and poorer self-rated quality of life were consistently associated with higher prevalence of sleep problems (P physical functionality or greater disability and feelings of depression and anxiety were consistently strong, independent correlates of sleep problems, in both women and men, across the 8 sites (P < 0.001). A large number of older adults in low-income settings are currently experiencing sleep problems, which emphasizes the global dimension of this emerging public health issue. This study corroborates the multifaceted nature of sleep problems, which are strongly linked to poorer general well-being and quality of life, and psychiatric comorbidities.

  4. The Emergence of Extensively Drug‐Resistant Tuberculosis: A Global Health Crisis Requiring New Interventions: Part I: The Origins and Nature of the Problem

    Ellner, Jerrold J.

    2008-01-01

    Surveillance studies and outbreak investigations indicate that an extensively drug‐resistant (XDR) form of tuberculosis (TB) is increasing in prevalence worldwide. In outbreak settings among HIV‐infected, there is a high‐case fatality rate. Better outcomes occur in HIV‐uninfected, particularly if drug susceptibility test (DST) results are available rapidly to allow tailoring of drug therapy. This review will be presented in two segments. The first characterizes the problem posed by XDR‐TB, ad...

  5. Looking beyond first-world problems: an emerging global workplace is encouraging more biomedical engineers to address the health issues of the developing world.

    Tucker, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the developed world is flooded with complex new medical technologies, from robotic prosthetics to remote-controlled aspirin implants. Meanwhile, only about 10% of health research funds are spent addressing the pressing problems of developing nations, although these countries make up 93% of the worldwide burden of disease. In short, while a small fraction of the world pops brand-name pharmaceuticals, the majority suffers from poor sanitation, contaminated drinking water, preventable disease, and child mortality.

  6. Political leadership and the development of problem-solving capacity in the global greenhouse: Prospects of Germany, Japan and the United States towards the 21st century

    Fermann, G.

    1994-07-01

    In this report, the author hopes to shed some light on the ``leadership`` potential of three major industrialized countries as to the development of problem-solving capacity in the field of climate change and suggest how this potential may be utilized and executed in the years to come. The selected countries are Germany, Japan and the USA. The study proceeds in three stages: the conceptual stage, the descriptive stage, and the predictive stage. In the conceptual stage it is argued that political ``leadership`` is needed to increase the ``problem-solving capacity`` of international institutions established to deal with the problem of climate change. In the descriptive stage, Germany, Japan and the USA are compared along several dimensions constituting the ``leadership potential`` of each of these countries and believed to be crucial for their ability to take a leadership role towards and beyond the year 2000. In the predictive stage of the study, a discussion is given of what avenues for taking a leadership role are the most promising for each of the countries, given the unique character of their ``leadership potential``. 64 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  7. Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) is dedicated to understanding the problems of global climate change and their potential solutions. The Institute...

  8. Experience in a Climate Microworld: Influence of Surface and Structure Learning, Problem Difficulty, and Decision Aids in Reducing Stock-Flow Misconceptions

    Medha Kumar; Varun Dutt; Varun Dutt

    2018-01-01

    Research shows that people’s wait-and-see preferences for actions against climate change are a result of several factors, including cognitive misconceptions. The use of simulation tools could help reduce these misconceptions concerning Earth’s climate. However, it is still unclear whether the learning in these tools is of the problem’s surface features (dimensions of emissions and absorptions and cover-story used) or of the problem’s structural features (how emissions and absorptions cause a ...

  9. Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy The challenge corporate lobbying poses to reducing society’s alcohol problems: insights from UK evidence on minimum unit pricing

    McCambridge, Jim; Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been insufficient research attention to alcohol industry methods of influencing public policies. With the exception of the tobacco industry, there have been few studies of the impact of corporate lobbying on public health policymaking more broadly. Methods We summarize here findings from documentary analyses and interview studies in an integrative review of corporate efforts to influence UK policy on minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol 2007–10. Results Alcohol producers and retailers adopted a long-term, relationship-building approach to policy influence, in which personal contacts with key policymakers were established and nurtured, including when they were not in government. The alcohol industry was successful in achieving access to UK policymakers at the highest levels of government and at all stages of the policy process. Within the United Kingdom, political devolution and the formation for the first time of a Scottish National Party (SNP) government disrupted the existing long-term strategy of alcohol industry actors and created the conditions for evidence-based policy innovations such as MUP. Conclusions Comparisons between policy communities within the United Kingdom and elsewhere are useful to the understanding of how different policy environments are amenable to influence through lobbying. Greater transparency in how policy is made is likely to lead to more effective alcohol and other public policies globally by constraining the influence of vested interests. PMID:24261642

  10. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. The challenge corporate lobbying poses to reducing society's alcohol problems: insights from UK evidence on minimum unit pricing.

    McCambridge, Jim; Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris

    2014-02-01

    There has been insufficient research attention to alcohol industry methods of influencing public policies. With the exception of the tobacco industry, there have been few studies of the impact of corporate lobbying on public health policymaking more broadly. We summarize here findings from documentary analyses and interview studies in an integrative review of corporate efforts to influence UK policy on minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol 2007-10. Alcohol producers and retailers adopted a long-term, relationship-building approach to policy influence, in which personal contacts with key policymakers were established and nurtured, including when they were not in government. The alcohol industry was successful in achieving access to UK policymakers at the highest levels of government and at all stages of the policy process. Within the United Kingdom, political devolution and the formation for the first time of a Scottish National Party (SNP) government disrupted the existing long-term strategy of alcohol industry actors and created the conditions for evidence-based policy innovations such as MUP. Comparisons between policy communities within the United Kingdom and elsewhere are useful to the understanding of how different policy environments are amenable to influence through lobbying. Greater transparency in how policy is made is likely to lead to more effective alcohol and other public policies globally by constraining the influence of vested interests. ©2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Fission yields and cross section uncertainty propagation in Boltzmann/Bateman coupled problems: Global and local parameters analysis with a focus on MTR

    Frosio, Thomas; Bonaccorsi, Thomas; Blaise, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear data uncertainty propagation for neutronic quantities in coupled problems. • Uncertainties are detailed for local isotopic concentrations and local power maps. • Correlations are built between space areas of the core and for different burnups. - Abstract: In a previous paper, a method was investigated to calculate sensitivity coefficients in coupled Boltzmann/Bateman problem for nuclear data (ND) uncertainties propagation on the reactivity. Different methodologies were discussed and applied on an actual example of multigroup cross section uncertainty problem for a 2D Material Testing Reactor (MTR) benchmark. It was shown that differences between methods arose from correlations between input parameters, as far as the method enables to take them into account. Those methods, unlike Monte Carlo (MC) sampling for uncertainty propagation and quantification (UQ), allow obtaining sensitivity coefficients, as well as correlations values between nuclear data, during the depletion calculation for the parameters of interest. This work is here extended to local parameters such as power factors and isotopic concentrations. It also includes fission yield (FY) uncertainty propagation, on both reactivity and power factors. Furthermore, it introduces a new methodology enabling to decorrelate direct and transmutation terms for local quantities: a Monte-Carlo method using built samples from a multidimensional Gaussian law is used to extend the previous studies, and propagate fission yield uncertainties from the CEA’s COMAC covariance file. It is shown that, for power factors, the most impacting ND are the scattering reactions, principally coming from 27 Al and (bounded hydrogen in) H 2 O. The overall effect is a reduction of the propagated uncertainties throughout the cycle thanks to negatively correlated terms. For fission yield (FY), the results show that neither reactivity nor local power factors are strongly affected by uncertainties. However, they

  12. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard

    Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and

  13. Institutionalizing Global Governance

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Global Compact – which is a Global Public Policy Network advocating 10 universal principles in the areas of human rights, labor standards, environmental protection, and anticorruption – has turned into the world's largest corporate responsibility initiative. Although the Global...... Compact is often characterized as a promising way to address global governance gaps, it remains largely unclear why this is the case. To address this problem, we discuss to what extent the initiative represents an institutional solution to exercise global governance. We suggest that new governance modes...

  14. Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries: policy makers' perspectives.

    Olinyk, Shannon; Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate the impact and transform gender relations. However, the effects of these policies have been less than successful. In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives of those involved in developing and implementing the Agenda to understand its strengths and limitations. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 individuals involved in the development and implementation of the Agenda. The data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Facilitators of the Agenda centred on the Agenda's ability to create political space for women and girls within the global HIV/AIDS response and the collaborative process of developing the Agenda. Barriers to the implementation and development of the Agenda include the limited financial and non-financial resources, the top-down nature of the Agenda's development and implementation and a lack of political will from within UNAIDS to implement it. We suggest that the Agenda achieved many goals, but its effect was constrained by a wide range of factors.

  15. Adiabatic quantum search algorithm for structured problems

    Roland, Jeremie; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2003-01-01

    The study of quantum computation has been motivated by the hope of finding efficient quantum algorithms for solving classically hard problems. In this context, quantum algorithms by local adiabatic evolution have been shown to solve an unstructured search problem with a quadratic speedup over a classical search, just as Grover's algorithm. In this paper, we study how the structure of the search problem may be exploited to further improve the efficiency of these quantum adiabatic algorithms. We show that by nesting a partial search over a reduced set of variables into a global search, it is possible to devise quantum adiabatic algorithms with a complexity that, although still exponential, grows with a reduced order in the problem size

  16. Global environmental engineering

    Cicerone, RJ; Elliott, S; Turco, RP

    1992-01-01

    All the signs are that global ozone depletion is increasing. Ideas to mitigate the problem that at first glance may seem far-fetched deserve more serious consideration and a scientific process of evaluation. © 1992 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: a global health crisis requiring new interventions: part I: the origins and nature of the problem.

    Ellner, Jerrold J

    2008-12-01

    Surveillance studies and outbreak investigations indicate that an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) form of tuberculosis (TB) is increasing in prevalence worldwide. In outbreak settings among HIV-infected, there is a high-case fatality rate. Better outcomes occur in HIV-uninfected, particularly if drug susceptibility test (DST) results are available rapidly to allow tailoring of drug therapy. This review will be presented in two segments. The first characterizes the problem posed by XDR-TB, addressing the epidemiology and evolution of XDR-TB and treatment outcomes. The second reviews technologic advances that may contribute to the solution, new diagnostics, and advances in understanding drug resistance and in the development of new drugs.

  18. Does the Incredible Years reduce child externalizing problems through improved parenting? The role of child negative affectivity and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype.

    Weeland, Joyce; Chhangur, Rabia R; Jaffee, Sara R; Van Der Giessen, Danielle; Matthys, Walter; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2018-02-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, the Observational Randomized Controlled Trial of Childhood Differential Susceptibility (ORCHIDS study), we tested whether observed parental affect and observed and reported parenting behavior are mechanisms of change underlying the effects of the behavioral parent training program the Incredible Years (IY). Furthermore, we tested whether some children are more susceptible to these change mechanisms because of their temperamental negative affectivity and/or serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype. Participants were 387 Dutch children between 4 and 8 years of age (M age = 6.31, SD = 1.33; 55.3% boys) and their parents. Results showed that although IY was successful in improving parenting behavior and increasing parental positive affect, these effects did not explain the significant decreases in child externalizing problems. We therefore found no evidence for changes in parenting behavior or parental affect being the putative mechanisms of IY effectiveness. Furthermore, intervention effects on child externalizing behavior were not moderated by child negative affectivity or 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, child 5-HTTLPR genotype did moderate intervention effects on negative parenting behavior. This suggests that in research on behavioral parent training programs, "what works for which parents" might also be an important question.

  19. An evaluation of the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing general psychological distress for adults with autism spectrum conditions and comorbid mental health problems.

    Blainey, Sarah H; Rumball, Freya; Mercer, Louise; Evans, Lauren Jayne; Beck, Alison

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing psychological distress for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) and co-morbid mental health conditions in routine clinical practice. To explore the effect of individual characteristics and service factors on change in general distress. In a specialist psychological therapies service for adults with ASC, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) self-report questionnaire of psychological distress is completed by clients at start and end of therapy. Change over time and reliable and clinical change was assessed for 81 of a total of 122 clients (66.4%). Factors which may influence change over time were explored using available clinical information. Overall, there was a significant reduction in CORE-OM score during therapy with a small effect size. Most clients showed an improvement in psychological distress over therapy (75.4% improved, with 36.9% of these showing reliable changes). Significant and comparable reductions from pre-therapy to post-therapy were seen across the sample, showing that individual differences did not mediate therapy effectiveness. CORE-OM scores mediate the association between age of ASD diagnosis and hours of therapeutic input required, with greater age at diagnosis and higher distress associated with longer therapy duration. Our preliminary findings suggest that psychological therapy may be effective in reducing general distress for clients with ASC and co-morbid mental health conditions and should be routinely offered. Individuals who are diagnosed with ASD in adulthood are likely to require a longer course of therapy when their general distress scores are high. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Middle Schoolers Go Global

    Wise, Mark; McTighe, Jay

    2017-01-01

    From global hunger to the world's water crisis, middle school students at New Jersey's West Windsor-Plainsboro Regional School District spend the last few days of the school year problem solving about the planet's most dire issues. With the Global Challenge, the school district's administrators not only want to implement an interesting and dynamic…