WorldWideScience

Sample records for global primary energy

  1. Energy globalization

    Tierno Andres

    1997-01-01

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum

  2. The Global Energy Challenge

    Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only. The report begins by outlining...... the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussing how it has evolved over the last 30 years and also, how it is expected to evolve in the coming 30 years....... Afterwards, the security of the world’s energy supply is investigated and it becomes clear that there is both an inevitable shortage of fossil fuels and a dangerous separation of supply and demand. The final topic discussed is renewable energy, since it is one sustainable solution to the global energy...

  3. Long-term implications of alternative light-duty vehicle technologies for global greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demands

    Kyle, Page; Kim, Son H.

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses global light-duty vehicle (LDV) transport in the upcoming century, and the implications of vehicle technology advancement and fuel-switching on greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demands. Five different vehicle technology scenarios are analyzed with and without a CO 2 emissions mitigation policy using the GCAM integrated assessment model: a reference internal combustion engine vehicle scenario, an advanced internal combustion engine vehicle scenario, and three alternative fuel vehicle scenarios in which all LDVs are switched to natural gas, electricity, or hydrogen by 2050. The emissions mitigation policy is a global CO 2 emissions price pathway that achieves 450 ppmv CO 2 at the end of the century with reference vehicle technologies. The scenarios demonstrate considerable emissions mitigation potential from LDV technology; with and without emissions pricing, global CO 2 concentrations in 2095 are reduced about 10 ppmv by advanced ICEV technologies and natural gas vehicles, and 25 ppmv by electric or hydrogen vehicles. All technological advances in vehicles are important for reducing the oil demands of LDV transport and their corresponding CO 2 emissions. Among advanced and alternative vehicle technologies, electricity- and hydrogen-powered vehicles are especially valuable for reducing whole-system emissions and total primary energy. - Highlights: → Alternative-fuel LDVs reduce whole-system CO 2 emissions, even without carbon pricing. → Alternative-fuel LDVs enhance the CO 2 mitigation capacity of the transportation sector. → Electric and hydrogen vehicles reduce whole-system primary energy supporting LDV transport.

  4. Global energy / CO2 projections

    Sinyak, Y.

    1990-09-01

    Section headings are: (1) Social and economic problems of the 21 st century and the role of energy supply systems (2) Energy-environment interactions as a central point of energy research activities (3) New ways of technological progress and its impacts on energy demand and supply (4) Long-term global energy projections (5) Comparative analysis of global long-term energy / CO 2 studies (6) Conclusions. The author shows that, in order to alleviate the negative impacts of energy systems on the climate, it will be necessary to undertake tremendous efforts to improve the energy use efficiency, to drastically change the primary energy mix, and, at the same time, to take action to reduce greenhouse emissions from other sources and increase the CO 2 sink through enhanced reforestation. (Quittner)

  5. Energy and global environment

    Fyfe, W.S.; Powell, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    At present about 90% of the world's energy consumption is met by the fossil carbon fuel used in the form of coal, oil and natural gas. This results into release of vast amounts of waste gas CO 2 into the atmosphere posing a threat to the global environment. Moreover this energy source is not sustainable (renewable) and its use amounts to spending Earth's capital resources. The options to this energy source are biomass energy, hydro power, solar energy, geothermal energy and nuclear energy. The potentials, limitations, geological impact and environmental dangers, if any, of these sources are discussed in brief. Energy conservation through energy efficient systems is also one more option. Problems and potential for change to sustainable energy systems with respect to India and Canada are examined. Finally it is pointed out that the ultimate solution to the world's energy problem lies in population control and population reduction. This will make possible for the world to have a sustainable energy system primarily based on solar energy. (M.G.B.). 15 refs

  6. Studies of global warming and global energy

    Inaba, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    Global warming caused by increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration has been the focus of many recent global energy studies. CO 2 is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels. This means that global warming is fundamentally a problem of the global energy system. An analysis of the findings of recent global energy studies is made in this report. The results are categorized from the viewpoint of concern about global warming. The analysis includes energy use and CO 2 emissions, measures taken to restrain CO 2 emissions and the cost of such measure, and suggestions for long term global energy generation. Following this comparative analysis, each of the studies is reviewed in detail. (author) 63 refs

  7. Global challenges in energy

    Dorian, James P.; Franssen, Herman T.; Simbeck, Dale R. MD

    2006-01-01

    Environmental and security concerns are stimulating global interest in hydrogen power, renewable energy, and advanced transportation technologies, but no significant movement away from oil and a carbon-based world economy is expected soon. Over the longer-term, however, a transition from fossil fuels to a non-carbon-based economy will likely occur, affecting the type of environment future generations may encounter. Key challenges will face the world's energy industry over the next few decades to ensure a smooth transition-challenges which will require government and industry solutions beginning as early as today. This paper identifies four critical challenges in energy and the choices which will have to be made on how best to confront growing pollution caused by fossil fuels and how to facilitate an eventual revolutionary-like transition to a non-carbon-based global economy

  8. Energy and globalization

    Birjandi, Hossein Saremi

    Before the Industrial Revolution, nations required no energy fuel. People relied on human, animal, and wind and waterpower for energy need. Energy (oil) has resettled populations, elected officials in the free world, or changed the governments of the energy rich countries by force. Energy fueled wars, played the major factor in the might of those who have it or more importantly the abilities to acquire it by force. This dissertation researches the primacy of oil as an energy source from the time of oil's discovery to the present times. Between 1945 and 1960, the use of oil and gas doubled as power was generated for industries as steel, cement, metalworking and more important of all filling station hoses into automobiles gas tanks, thus energy swept people and societies quite literally off their feet. One in every six jobs in the industrial world hired by the giant automotive industries. The big five American oil companies spurred on by special tax benefit, these companies grew to gigantic sizes by taking out the best part of the nation's oil. Then, for greater growth, they leaped overseas and built up an immensely profitable system, in alliance with Anglo-Dutch Shell and British Petroleum, known as seven sisters. On the other side of the world, the energy producing nations form an alliance mainly to protect themselves from downward price fluctuations of oil. The struggle for survival in the global energy market forced those countries to get together and form OPEC, which is referred as an "oil cartel".

  9. Global energy perspective of Turkey

    Sen, H. Mete

    2006-01-01

    Global energy demand is growing rapidly at an average rate of 4% per year in parallel with the economy while EU-25 has only 0,8% during the last decade. Total primary energy supply is 87 818 000 toe of which 72% was imported; in comparison the average dependency rate is 49,5% in the EU. Such excessive dependency creates harmful effects on the national economy. Oil and natural gas imports bill was 19,5 billion US $ in 2005. Primary energy demand growth rate is twice as much of the production rate in the period 1980 2004. Fossil fuels accounts for 86% of Turkeys global energy supply in 2004. Population growth rate is one of the major parameters affecting the energy balance. Energy and electricity consumptions per capita are still one third of the EUs average.. Turkeys coal reserves needs to be utilized at higher rate and hydropower, wind power and geothermal energy potentials should be developed in order to decrease the imported energy dependence, soon. Due to the buy or pay bilateral agreements with suppliers, storage capabilities should be realized for excessive natural gas supply. Turkeys average growth rate of electricity production is 8,1% while installed capacity has 8,5% for the last 25 years. The present total installed capacity is 39 020 MW in which renewables has a share of 34%. Total electricity production was 162 TWh in 2005 of which 75,4% was supplied by thermal power plants. Share of natural gas is 44% of the annual electricity production. Considering the present power plants and the ones under construction, electricity supply and demand will be in balance till the year of 2010 (with high demand scenario) or 2015 (with low demand scenario). Nuclear power is being considered for electricity supply security after 2015. But, the general approach for supply security is first to develop the domestic coal reserves, renewable energy resources.

  10. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection maps the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through...

  11. Global energy demand outlook

    Hatcher, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Perhaps the most compelling issue the world will face in the next century is the quality of life of the increasing populations of the poorer regions of the world. Energy is the key to generating wealth and protecting the environment. Today, most of the energy generated comes from fossil fuels and there should be enough for an increase in consumption over the next half century. However, this is likely to be impacted by the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide emissions. Various authoritative studies lead to a global energy demand projection of between 850 to 1070 EJ per year in the mid-21 st century, which is nearly three times as much as the world uses today. The studies further indicate that, unless there is a major thrust by governments to create incentives and/or to levy heavy taxes, the use of fossil fuels will continue to increase and there will be a major increase in carbon dioxide emissions globally. Most of the increase will come from the newly industrializing countries which do not have the technology or financial resources to install non-carbon energy sources such as nuclear power, and the new renewable energy technologies. The real issue for the nuclear industry is investment cost. Developing countries, in particular will have difficulty in raising capital for energy projects with a high installed cost and will have difficulties in raising large blocks of capital. A reduction in investment costs of the order of 50% with a short construction schedule is in order if nuclear power is to compete and contribute significantly to energy supply and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Current nuclear power plants and methods are simply not suited to the production of plants that will compete in this situation. Mass production designs are needed to get the benefits of cost reduction. Water cooled reactors are well demonstrated and positioned to achieve the cost reduction necessary but only via some radical thinking on the part of the designers. The reactors of

  12. Regional and global exergy and energy efficiencies

    Nakicenovic, N; Kurz, R [International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria). Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (Ecuador) Project; Gilli, P V [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria)

    1996-03-01

    We present estimates of global energy efficiency by applying second-law (exergy) analysis to regional and global energy balances. We use a uniform analysis of national and regional energy balances and aggregate these balances first for three main economic regions and subsequently into world totals. The procedure involves assessment of energy and exergy efficiencies at each step of energy conversion, from primary exergy to final and useful exergy. Ideally, the analysis should be extended to include actual delivered energy services; unfortunately, data are scarce and only rough estimates can be given for this last stage of energy conversion. The overall result is that the current global primary to useful exergy efficiency is about one-tenth of the theoretical maximum and the service efficiency is even lower. (Author)

  13. Energy supply - a global problem

    Rittstieg, G.

    1980-12-01

    A briefly commented data collection is presented. The following diagrams are related to energy requirements and consumption as well as primary energy reserves. Finally some comments referring to nuclear energy are given. (UA) [de

  14. Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN): a statistically based estimate of global surface turbulent fluxes and gross primary productivity using solar-induced fluorescence

    Hamed Alemohammad, Seyed; Fang, Bin; Konings, Alexandra G.; Aires, Filipe; Green, Julia K.; Kolassa, Jana; Miralles, Diego; Prigent, Catherine; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    A new global estimate of surface turbulent fluxes, latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H), and gross primary production (GPP) is developed using a machine learning approach informed by novel remotely sensed solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) and other radiative and meteorological variables. This is the first study to jointly retrieve LE, H, and GPP using SIF observations. The approach uses an artificial neural network (ANN) with a target dataset generated from three independent data sources, weighted based on a triple collocation (TC) algorithm. The new retrieval, named Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN), provides estimates of LE, H, and GPP from 2007 to 2015 at 1° × 1° spatial resolution and at monthly time resolution. The quality of ANN training is assessed using the target data, and the WECANN retrievals are evaluated using eddy covariance tower estimates from the FLUXNET network across various climates and conditions. When compared to eddy covariance estimates, WECANN typically outperforms other products, particularly for sensible and latent heat fluxes. Analyzing WECANN retrievals across three extreme drought and heat wave events demonstrates the capability of the retrievals to capture the extent of these events. Uncertainty estimates of the retrievals are analyzed and the interannual variability in average global and regional fluxes shows the impact of distinct climatic events - such as the 2015 El Niño - on surface turbulent fluxes and GPP.

  15. Global geothermal energy scenario

    Singh, S.K.; Singh, A.; Pandey, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    To resolve the energy crisis efforts have been made in exploring and utilizing nonconventional energy resources since last few decades. Geothermal energy is one such energy resource. Fossil fuels are the earth's energy capital like money deposited in bank years ago. The energy to build this energy came mainly from the sun. Steam geysers and hot water springs are other manifestations of geothermal energy. Most of the 17 countries that today harness geothermal energy have simply tapped such resources where they occur. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Global view of energy

    Kursunoglu, B.N.; Millunzi, A.C.; Perlmutter, A.

    1982-01-01

    This book contains selected papers presented at the fourth interdisciplinary international forum on the Geopolitics of Energy. Topics included: energy demand; energy modeling; urgency of world energy problems; nuclear fission; progress in nuclear fusion; financing energy investments; conservation of energy in developed countries; public safety - risks and benefits; and atmospheric carbon dioxide. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base; all will appear in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis and five in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA)

  17. Global energy context: future scenarios

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2006-01-01

    After a brief analysis of the history of global energy consumption, this paper discusses a plausible scenario of energy needs and related carbon emissions for the rest of the century. The global outlook and the probable evolution of several factors that impact on energy policy considerations - even on the local scale - demonstrate the great complexity and planetary dimension of the problems, as well as the almost certain sterility of out-of-context domestic energy-policy measures [it

  18. 2007 Global Energy Survey

    Lauzon, Jean-Claude; Preng, Richard; Sutton, Bob; Pavlovic, Bojan

    2007-06-15

    The World Energy Council (WEC), in partnership with Korn/Ferry International undertook a survey focussing on the topic ''Tackling the Three S's: Sustainability, Security and Strategy.'' More than 50 senior executives from the world's leading energy companies and their strategic suppliers were interviewed by Korn/Ferry International.

  19. Global risks from energy consumption

    von Hippel, F.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion of some of the global risks associated with current and frequently proposed future levels of consumption of energy from oil, coal, fission, fusion, and renewable sources points out the the dangers are serious and relatively near term. These include world war over Persian Gulf oil, climate change due to the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, the accelerated proliferation of nuclear weapons, and competition between food and energy for land and water. The author urges placing a greater emphasis on how we use energy and how to reduce energy waste. At the levels of consumption which economically justified levels of energy efficiency could bring about, enough flexibility could develop in our choice of a future energy-supply mix to dramatically reduce the associated global risks. 47 references, 3 figures

  20. Global wind energy outlook 2006

    2006-09-01

    The global market for wind power has been expanding faster than any other source of renewable energy. From just 4,800 MW in 1995 the world total has multiplied more than twelve-fold to reach over 59,000 MW at the end of 2005. The international market is expected to have an annual turnover in 2006 of more than euro 13 billion, with an estimated 150,000 people employed around the world. The success of the industry has attracted investors from the mainstream finance and traditional energy sectors. In a number of countries the proportion of electricity generated by wind power is now challenging conventional fuels. The Global Wind Energy Outlook 2006 reports that over a third of the world's electricity - crucially including that required by industry - can realistically be supplied by wind energy by the middle of the century. The report provides an industry blueprint that explains how wind power could supply 34% of the world's electricity by 2050. Most importantly, it concludes that if wind turbine capacity implemented on this scale it would save 113 billion tonnes of CO2 from entering the atmosphere by 2050. This places wind power as one of the world's most important energy sources for the 21st century. The 'Global Wind Energy Outlook 2006' runs three different scenarios for wind power - a Reference scenario based on figures from the International Energy Agency (IEA); a Moderate version which assumes that current targets for renewable energy are successful; and an advanced version assuming that all policy options in favour of renewables have been adopted. These are then set against two scenarios for global energy demand. Under the Reference scenario, growth in demand is again based on IEA projections; under the High Energy Efficiency version, a range of energy efficiency measures result in a substantial reduction in demand

  1. Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence, William T.

    2004-06-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, energy flows within food webs and the provision of important ecosystem services. Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production `supply' and `demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production `imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  2. Regional and global significance of nuclear energy

    Schilling, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    Measures to combat poverty and improve the standard of living in countries of the Third World will inevitably boost global demand for energy, and energy conservation measures will not be able to offset this increase. Nuclear energy will regain significance in the framework of approaches adopted to resolve the energy problem, which primarily is an ecologic problem created by an extremely large flow of materials. The extraordinarily high energy density of nuclear fuels can contribute to markedly reduce the flow of materials; and at that, electric energy is an efficient substitute for primary energy forms. Thus nuclear electricity generation is of double benefit to the ecology. Engineering goals in nuclear technology thus gain a service aspect, with progress in power plant engineering and design aiming not only at enhanced engineered safety, but also at regaining public acceptance of and confidence in nuclear power plant technology. (orig./UA) [de

  3. Energy principle with global invariants

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Dewar, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    A variational principle is proposed for constructing equilibria with minimum energy in a toroidal plasma. The total energy is minimized subject to global invariants which act as constraints during relaxation of the plasma. These global integrals of motion are preserved exactly for all idea motions and approximately for a wide class of resistive motions. We assume, specifically, that relaxation of the plasma is dominated by a tearing mode of single helicity. Equilibria with realistic current density and pressure profiles may be constructed in this theory, which is also used here to study current penetration in tokamaks. The second variation of the free energy functional is computed. It is shown that if the second variation of any equilibrium constructed in this theory is positive, the equilibrium satisfies the necessary and sufficient conditions for ideal stability

  4. 2012 Global Energy Competitiveness Index

    Lorot, Pascal; Lauriano do Rego, Wilfrid

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 Global Energy Competitiveness Index, a survey jointly conducted by Institut Choiseul and KPMG, is the first of its kind. It ranks 146 countries, grouping them into 5 categories ranging from the best performers to under-performers. The first edition of this annual study ranks the countries surveyed not only by continent but also according to the quality of their energy mix, electricity access and availability levels and the compatibility of their energy policies with environmental challenges. The governing bodies of the countries in the panel (relevant ministries and regulatory authorities) can gain much from this decision-making support tool that fosters dialogue on energy-related issues. The targeted audience also includes industry professionals, NGOs, international organisations and other economic players such as banks, consulting firms and specialist commercial law firms commercial law firms. Europe is by far the best performing continent ahead of the best performing continent, ahead of the Americas and Americas and even further ahead of Asia/Oceania and Africa. Generally speaking, the Nordic countries are among the best performers: Norway, Canada, Iceland, Denmark, Sweden and Finland rank, in this order, in the global Top 10. Four EU countries are among the global Top 10 (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and France) and five others (the United Kingdom, Austria, Germany, Slovakia and Spain) are in the Top 20. Surprisingly, Colombia stood out as the fifth most competitive country in terms of energy. Its outstanding performance is due to a strong energy mix (ranked second worldwide) and an energy strategy compatible with today's key environmental challenges. The apparent domination of Northern-hemisphere countries needs to be considered in conjunction with the results achieved by the other Seeming domination of be considered in conjunction with the results achieved by the other countries with regard to their energy mix and the environmental compatibility of

  5. Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2012

    Hong, Tao; Pinson, Pierre; Fan, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The Global Energy Forecasting Competition (GEFCom2012) attracted hundreds of participants worldwide, who contributed many novel ideas to the energy forecasting field. This paper introduces both tracks of GEFCom2012, hierarchical load forecasting and wind power forecasting, with details...... on the aspects of the problem, the data, and a summary of the methods used by selected top entries. We also discuss the lessons learned from this competition from the organizers’ perspective. The complete data set, including the solution data, is published along with this paper, in an effort to establish...

  6. Global Geopotential Energy & Stress Field

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    of the oceanic lithosphere. An entire modelling of the shallow Geopotential Energy is hereby approached, not taking into account possible deeper signals but all lithospheric signals for the subsequent stress calculation. Therefore a global lithospheric density model is necessary to calculate the corresponding...... response to Geopotential Energy and the Geoid. A linearized inverse method fits a lithospheric reference model to reproduce measured data sets, such as topography and surface heat flow, while assuming isostasy and solving the steady state heat equation. A FEM code solves the equations of equilibrium...

  7. Global wind energy outlook 2008

    2008-10-01

    An overview is given of the global potential of wind power up to 2050. This potential could play a key part in achieving a decline in emissions by 2020, which the IPCC indicates is necessary to avoid the worst consequences of climate change. By 2020, wind power could save as much as 1.5 billion tonnes of CO2 every year, which would add up to over 10 billion tonnes in this timeframe. The report also explains how wind energy can provide up to 30% of the word's electricity by the middle of the century. More importantly, wind power could save as much as 1.5 billion tonnes of CO2 every year by 2020. GWEO 2008 explores three different scenarios for wind power: a Reference scenario based on figures from the International Energy Agency (IEA); a Moderate version which assumes that current targets for renewable energy are successful; and an Advanced Scenario which assumes that all policy options in favour of renewables have been adopted. These are then set against two demand projections for global energy demand. Wind energy has already become a mainstream power generation source in many regions around the world, and it is being deployed in over 70 countries. In addition to environmental benefits, wind energy also provides a sustainable answer to increasing concerns about security of energy supply and volatile fossil fuel prices. Moreover, wind energy is becoming a substantial factor in economic development, providing more than 350,000 'green collar' jobs today both in direct and indirect employment. By 2020, this figure is projected to increase to over 2 million

  8. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  9. Global Energy Trends - 2016 edition

    2016-01-01

    Based on its 2015 data for G20 countries, Enerdata analyses the trends of the world energy markets. The full report presents in-depth information on the energy markets as well as upcoming trends for all energies in the G20. With over 400 premium sources, Enerdata analysts highlight major developments in 2015 concerning global demand, supply and key indicators across the globe. Key Points: 2.8%: The weakest economic growth since 2002: If the economic activity of OECD countries improved slightly (USA, EU...), that of non - OECD countries slowed down, particularly in China, and with some even declining (Brazil and Russia). +0.5%: Near stagnation of energy consumption: As with last year, 2015 saw weak growth in energy consumption for G20 countries (10.8 Gtoe, or +0.5%, while the 10-year average exceeds 2%). Within the OECD, consumption declined slightly. In non-OECD countries, the evolution becomes historic with an increase limited to 1.3%, compared to a 10-year average of 5%. Besides the direct impact of the economic downturn mentioned above, this result comes largely from China where the near stagnation of energy consumption confirms a trend beginning in 2014 towards a less energy-intensive economy. 0: Stability of CO_2 emissions - cyclical or structural?: After the surprising slowdown in 2014, 2015 also saw a stable level of CO_2 -energy emissions (27 GtCO_2). A direct result from the stagnation in energy consumption, this figure also results from a slight modification in the power mix, in particular from the decline in coal consumption (China, USA..). -3 %: Decrease in the carbon intensity of the economy: In 2015 we acknowledge a 3% decrease in carbon intensity compared to an historical average of -1.5%/year; this progress comes from a decrease in China (stability of energy consumption and decrease of coal share in the mix) and in the USA (more gas, less coal). A trend still far away from climate change targets set at the COP21: On the climate side, the stagnation

  10. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2009-01-01

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

  11. The Global Energy Challenge:A Contextual Framework

    Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only.The report begins by outlining the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussin...

  12. Primary Energy of the District city and Suburb

    Pitonak, Anton; Lopusniak, Martin; Bagona, Miloslav

    2017-10-01

    In member states of the European Union, portion of buildings in the total consumption of energy represents 40 %, and their share in CO2 emissions represents 35 %. Taking into account the dependence of the European Union on import of energy, this represents a large quantity of energy and CO2 in spite of the fact that effective solutions for the reduction of energy demand of buildings exist. The European Union adopted three main commitments for fulfilment of criteria by year 2020 in the 20-20-20 Directive. Based on this Directive Slovakia declares support for renovating the building stock. The goal of the paper was to prove that renovation of the building stock is environmentally and energy preferably as construction of new buildings. In the paper, the settlement unit with the suburban one were compared. Both territories are dealt with in Kosice city, in Slovakia. The settlement units include apartment dwelling houses, amenities, parking areas and green. Suburban part contains family houses. The decisive factor for the final assessment of the buildings was global indicator. Global indicator of the energy performance is primary energy. The new building must meet minimum requirements for energy performance and it must be classified to energy class A1 since 2016, and to energy class A0 since 2020. The paper analyses the effects of the use of different resources of heat considering the global indicator. Primary energy was calculated and based on comparable unit. The primary energy was accounted for on the built-up area, area corresponding to district city and suburb, number of inhabitants. The study shows that the lowest values of global indicator are achieved by using wood. The highest values of global indicator are achieved by using electricity or district heating as an energy source. The difference between the highest and lowest value is 87 %. Primary energy based on inhabitant is 98 % lower in settlement unit compared to the suburban one.

  13. Global energy and technology trends

    Rogner, Hans-Holger

    2008-01-01

    Economic development translates into growing demand for energy services. However, more than 1.6 billion people at present still do not have access to modern energy services. Continued population growth compounds this demand for energy, which is central to achieving sustainable development goals. Poverty eradication calls for affordable energy services. There is a need to minimize health and environmental impacts of energy use. Nuclear power's share of global electricity rose to 16% in 1986. Near the end of the 1980s growth stagnated. Regulatory interventions often stretched out licensing times and increased costs. Inflation and rising energy costs resulting from the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 brought about a significant drop in electricity demand and raised the costs of capital intensive power plants, like nuclear power plants. Some utilities found the regulatory and transaction costs of nuclear power simply too high to manage costs-effectively. The 1979 Three Mile Island accident and the Chernobyl accident in 1986 retarded the expansion of nuclear power. The electricity market liberalization and privatization exposed excess capacity, pushed electricity prices lower and made power plant investments more risky. Other things being equal, nuclear power's front-loaded cost structure was a disadvantage in markets that emphasize short term profits and rapid returns. In the 1990s, growth in nuclear electricity generation exceeded the growth in nuclear capacity as management efficiencies and technological advances progressively raised the average energy availability of the world's nuclear plants. The energy availability factor measures the percentage of time that a power reactor is available to generate electricity, rather than being shutdown for refuelling, maintenance and other reasons. The global average for nuclear power reactors has risen from 67% in 1990 to 81% in 2004. This increase is equivalent to the addition of 34 new 1000 MW reactors. Electricity generation

  14. Development of an Integrated Global Energy Model

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to develop a forefront analysis tool for application to enhance understanding of long-term, global, nuclear-energy and nuclear-material futures. To this end, an existing economics-energy-environmental (E 3 ) model was adopted, modified, and elaborated to examine this problem in a multi-regional (13), long-term (approximately2,100) context. The E 3 model so developed was applied to create a Los Alamos presence in this E 3 area through ''niche analyses'' that provide input to the formulation of policies dealing with and shaping of nuclear-energy and nuclear-materials futures. Results from analyses using the E 3 model have been presented at a variety of national and international conferences and workshops. Through use of the E 3 model Los Alamos was afforded the opportunity to participate in a multi-national E 3 study team that is examining a range of global, long-term nuclear issues under the auspices of the IAEA during the 1998-99 period . Finally, the E 3 model developed under this LDRD project is being used as an important component in more recent Nuclear Material Management Systems (NMMS) project

  15. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) Collection maps the net amount of solar...

  16. Dynamics of energy technologies and global change

    Grubler, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Victor, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Technological choices largely determine the long-term characteristics of industrial society, including impacts on the natural environment. However, the treatment of technology in existing models that are used to project economic and environmental futures remains highly stylized. Based on work over two decades at IIASA, we present a useful typology for technology analysis and discuss methods that can be used to analyze the impact of technological changes on the global environment, especially global warming. Our focus is energy technologies, the main source of many atmospheric environmental problems. We show that much improved treatment of technology is possible with a combination of historical analysis and new modeling techniques. In the historical record, we identify characteristic 'learning rates' that allow simple quantified characterization of the improvement in cost and performance due to cumulative experience and investments. We also identify patterns, processes and timescales that typify the diffusion of new technologies in competitive markets. Technologies that are long-lived and are components of interlocking networks typically require the longest time to diffuse and co-evolve with other technologies in the network; such network effects yield high barriers to entry even for superior competitors. These simple observations allow three improvements to modeling of technological change and its consequences for global environmental change. One is that the replacement of long-lived infrastructures over time has also replaced the fuels that power the economy to yield progressively more energy per unit of carbon pollution - from coal to oil to gas. Such replacement has 'decarbonized' the global primary energy supply 0.3% per year. In contrast, most baseline projections for emissions of carbon, the chief cause of global warming, ignore this robust historical trend and show Iittle or no decarbonization. A second improvement is that by incorporating learning curves and

  17. Energy: global prospects 1985-2000

    Wilson, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    The results from the evaluation of global energy resources up to year 2000, done by the Group of Energetic Strategy of Energy Studies are presented. The studies were concentrated in the fuel supply and demand for the next 25 years, such as: petroleum, natural gas, coal and nuclear energy. The national and international energy policy are studied. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Global energy futures and human development: a framework for analysis

    Pasternak, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between measures of human well-being and consumption of energy and electricity. A correlation is shown between the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) and annual per- capita electricity consumption for 60 populous countries comprising 90% of the world population. In this correlation, HDI reaches a maximum value when electricity consumption is about 4,000 kWh per person per year, well below consumption levels for most developed countries but also well above the level for developing countries. The correlation with electricity use is better than with total primary energy use. Global electricity consumption associated with a ''Human Development Scenario'' is estimated by adding to U.S. Department of Energy projections for the year 2020 increments of additional electricity consumption sufficient to reach 4,000 kWh per capita on a country-by-country basis. A roughly constant ratio of primary energy consumption to electric energy consumption is observed for countries with high levels of electricity use, and this ratio is used to estimate global primary energy consumption in the Human Development Scenario. The Human Development Scenario implies significantly greater global consumption of electricity and primary energy than do projections for 2020 by the DOE and others. (author)

  19. Global energy futures and human development: a framework for analysis

    Pasternak, A.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper explores the relationship between measures of human well-being and consumption of energy and electricity. A correlation is shown between the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) and annual per- capita electricity consumption for 60 populous countries comprising 90% of the world population. In this correlation, HDI reaches a maximum value when electricity consumption is about 4,000 kWh per person per year, well below consumption levels for most developed countries but also well above the level for developing countries. The correlation with electricity use is better than with total primary energy use. Global electricity consumption associated with a ''Human Development Scenario'' is estimated by adding to U.S. Department of Energy projections for the year 2020 increments of additional electricity consumption sufficient to reach 4,000 kWh per capita on a country-by-country basis. A roughly constant ratio of primary energy consumption to electric energy consumption is observed for countries with high levels of electricity use, and this ratio is used to estimate global primary energy consumption in the Human Development Scenario. The Human Development Scenario implies significantly greater global consumption of electricity and primary energy than do projections for 2020 by the DOE and others. (author)

  20. Role and potential of renewable energy and energy efficiency for global energy supply

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Nienhaus, Kristina [German Aerospace Center e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany); Klessmann, Corinna; Capone, Carolin; Stricker, Eva [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Graus, Wina; Hoogwijk, Monique [Ecofys Netherlands BV, Utrecht (Netherlands); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Winterfeld, Uta von; Samadi, Sascha [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The analysis of different global energy scenarios in part I of the report confirms that the exploitation of energy efficiency potentials and the use of renewable energies play a key role in reaching global CO2 reduction targets. An assessment on the basis of a broad literature research in part II shows that the technical potentials of renewable energy technologies are a multiple of today's global final energy consumption. The analysis of cost estimates for renewable electricity generation technologies and even long term cost projections across the key studies in part III demonstrates that assumptions are in reasonable agreement. In part IV it is shown that by implementing technical potentials for energy efficiency improvements in demand and supply sectors by 2050 can be limited to 48% of primary energy supply in IEA's ''Energy Technology Perspectives'' baseline scenario. It was found that a large potential for cost-effective measures exists, equivalent to around 55-60% of energy savings of all included efficiency measures (part V). The results of the analysis on behavioural changes in part VI show that behavioural dimensions are not sufficiently included in energy scenarios. Accordingly major research challenges are revealed. (orig.)

  1. Global Energy Issues and Alternate Fueling

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes world energy issues and alternate fueling effects on aircraft design. The contents include: 1) US Uses about 100 Quad/year (1 Q = 10(exp 15) Btu) World Energy Use: about 433 Q/yr; 2) US Renewable Energy about 6%; 3) Nuclear Could Grow: Has Legacy Problems; 4) Energy Sources Primarily NonRenewable Hydrocarbon; 5) Notes; 6) Alternate Fuels Effect Aircraft Design; 7) Conventional-Biomass Issue - Food or Fuel; 8) Alternate fuels must be environmentally benign; 9) World Carbon (CO2) Emissions Problem; 10) Jim Hansen s Global Warming Warnings; 11) Gas Hydrates (Clathrates), Solar & Biomass Locations; 12) Global Energy Sector Response; 13) Alternative Renewables; 14) Stratospheric Sulfur Injection Global Cooling Switch; 15) Potential Global Energy Sector Response; and 16) New Sealing and Fluid Flow Challenges.

  2. Renewables in Global Energy Supply

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  3. Energy problems in a global view

    Dubois, J.-E.

    1976-01-01

    Energy problems in general are examined, considering first the ecosystem of pre-Newtonian societies, then that of industrial societies and their resulting energy consumptions. Primary energy sources are listed and the manner in which they are used is described. New techniques (uranium isotope separation, energy conversion, solar energy, controlled fusion) are discussed as a function of their potential saving in energy expenditure. Solutions are proposed for the future of post-industrial societies [fr

  4. Brazil in the global energy world

    Kim, Frank D.; Vossoughi, Shapour [University of Kansas (KU), KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has increased significantly in recent years; and over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly oil. Brazil has the second-largest crude oil reserves in South America (behind Venezuela), and is one of the fastest growing oil producers in the world. According to United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Brazil had 12.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in 2008. In 2007, Brazil's state owned Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS) announced that it had discovered an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of recoverable reserves (including both oil and natural gas) in the Tupi field, located in the Santos Basin. In 2008, subsequent discoveries were announced, to include Jupiter and Carioca (aka Sugar Loaf). Although PETROBRAS has yet to confirm the size of the discoveries, some industry analysts estimate the total extent of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves in the entire pre-salt layer have approached 40 to 80 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The reserves occur below a salt zone that is estimated to be 7,000 meters below the ocean surface. However, Brazil faces many challenges to recover the hydrocarbons to include technical, political, fiscal, and infrastructure hurdles. In spite of the challenges ahead, these discoveries transformed the nature and focus of Brazil's oil industry, economy, and future; and the potential impact of the pre-salt discoveries upon world oil markets is vast. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the recent discoveries will affect Brazil's future and the impact it will have on the global energy world. (author)

  5. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-12-15

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

  6. Energy supply - a global problem

    Barthelt, K.

    1990-01-01

    The text of a speech celebrating the 10 years operation of the nuclear power plant in Goesgen. The author expresses his opinion on the future of nuclear energy, on the responsibility towards the next generation and on the energy supply for the Third World. He draws attention to the gap between north and south and to the limited amount of resources and mention the CO2-problem and the potential of nuclear energy

  7. Wind energy in a global world

    Hjuler Jensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    For the past 25 years there has been a dramatic development in the wind energy sector, with regard to the increase in overall utilisation of wind energy as well as technological development, the development of markets and expectations to the role of wind energy in the global electricity supply...... system. The purpose of this paper is to outline developments in the global capacity of wind energy this past quarter of a century, including technology, market aspects, scientific developments, testing and certification, formulation of standards and scenarios for the future development of wind energy...

  8. Nuclear primary energy carriers. Short version

    Jaeck, W

    1978-04-01

    Basing on our present knowledge the following energy sources for energy supply must be taken into consideration in the long term: regenerative energy sources, fission energy gained by breeder reactors, nuclear fusion. While regenerative energy sources were treated at full length in the study 'Energy Sources for Tomorrow' the present study specifies the other two energy options. The availability and the reliability of nuclear primary energy carrier supply is described in detail and the conversion systems available or still being developed are investigated with regard to their specific consumption of primary energy. Topical questions concerning the proliferation stability of the fuel cycles and techniques are subject to the INFCE program. With reference to the nuclear energy documentation activities of the Federal Government this study is supposed to supply further fundamental material on nuclear primary energy carriers, consumption and readiness for application. Thus it will contribute to the question: 'Is nuclear energy an option which guarantees energy supply in the long term for the Federal Republic of Germany'. (orig.) 891 UA 892 ARA.

  9. Nuclear primary energy carriers. Pt. 1

    1978-04-01

    Basing on our present knowledge the following energy sources for energy supply must be taken into consideration in the long term: regenerative energy sources, fission energy gained by breeder reactors, nuclear fusion. While regenerative energy sources were treated at full length in the study 'Energy Sources for tomorrow' the present study specifies the other two energy options. The availability and the reliability of nuclear primary energy carrier supply is described in detail and the conversion systems available or still being developed are investigated with regard to their specific consumption of primary energy. Topical questions concerning the proliferation stability of the fuel cycles and techniques are subject to the INFCE programme. With reference to the nuclear energy documentation activities of the Federal Govenment this study is supposed to supply further fundamental material on nuclear primary energy carriers, consumption and readiness for application. Thus it will contribute to the question: 'Is nuclear energy an option which guarantees energy supply in the long term for the Federal Republic of Germany'. (orig.) [de

  10. Empirical and dynamic primary energy factors

    Wilby, Mark Richard; Rodríguez González, Ana Belén; Vinagre Díaz, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    Current legislation, standards, and scientific research in the field of energy efficiency often make use of PEFs (primary energy factors). The measures employed are usually fixed and based on theoretical calculations. However given the intrinsically variable nature of energy systems, these PEFs should rely on empirical data and evolve in time. Otherwise the obtained efficiencies may not be representative of the actual energy system. In addition, incorrect PEFs may cause a negative effect on the energy efficiency measures. For instance, imposing a high value on the PEF of electricity may discourage the use of renewable energy sources, which have an actual value close to 1. In order to provide a solution to this issue, we propose an application of the Energy Networks (ENs), described in a previous work, to calculate dynamic PEFs based on empirical data. An EN represents an entire energy system both numerically and graphically, from its primary energy sources to their final energy forms, and consuming sectors. Using ENs we can calculate the PEF of any energy form and depict it in a simple and meaningful graph that shows the details of the contribution of each primary energy and the efficiency of the associated process. The analysis of these PEFs leads to significant conclusions regarding the energy models adopted among countries, their evolution in time, the selection of viable ways to improve efficiency, and the detection of best practices that could contribute to the overall energy efficiency targets. - Highlights: • Primary Energy Factors (PEFs) are foundation of much energy legislation and research. • Traditionally, they have been treated as geotemporally invariant. • This work provides a systematic and transparent methodology for adding variability. • It also shows the variability between regions due to market, policy, and technology. • Finally it demonstrates the utility of extended PEFs as a tool in their own right

  11. Global Energy Assessment. Toward a Sustainable Future

    Johansson, T B; Nakicenovic, N; Patwardhan, A; Gomez-Echeverri, L [eds.

    2012-11-01

    The Global Energy Assessment (GEA) brings together over 300 international researchers to provide an independent, scientifically based, integrated and policy-relevant analysis of current and emerging energy issues and options. It has been peer-reviewed anonymously by an additional 200 international experts. The GEA assesses the major global challenges for sustainable development and their linkages to energy; the technologies and resources available for providing energy services; future energy systems that address the major challenges; and the policies and other measures that are needed to realize transformational change toward sustainable energy futures. The GEA goes beyond existing studies on energy issues by presenting a comprehensive and integrated analysis of energy challenges, opportunities and strategies, for developing, industrialized and emerging economies. This volume is an invaluable resource for energy specialists and technologists in all sectors (academia, industry and government) as well as policymakers, development economists and practitioners in international organizations and national governments.

  12. Global energy modeling - A biophysical approach

    Dale, Michael

    2010-09-15

    This paper contrasts the standard economic approach to energy modelling with energy models using a biophysical approach. Neither of these approaches includes changing energy-returns-on-investment (EROI) due to declining resource quality or the capital intensive nature of renewable energy sources. Both of these factors will become increasingly important in the future. An extension to the biophysical approach is outlined which encompasses a dynamic EROI function that explicitly incorporates technological learning. The model is used to explore several scenarios of long-term future energy supply especially concerning the global transition to renewable energy sources in the quest for a sustainable energy system.

  13. Remarks - Global energy outlook and externalities

    Gray, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The author presents a global energy outlook, for the period 1990-2010. Then, he presents some views on the subject of externalities, some regulations and proscriptions about internalization of costs are detailed. (TEC)

  14. Global energy confinement in TORE SUPRA

    Hoang, G.T.; Bizarro, J.P.; Genile, B. de; Hutter, Th.; Laurent, L.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y.; Tonon, G.; Houtte, D. van

    1992-01-01

    The global energy confinement behaviour of mixed Ohmic/Lower Hybrid driven Tore Supra plasmas has been analysed at various densities. In contradiction with L-mode ITER scaling law, this analysis indicates that the global energy confinement time depends strongly on the plasma density and the isotopic dependence seems not to be observed. The thermal electron energy content of steady-state discharges is in good agreement with the offset linear Rebut-Lallia scaling law. During current ramp experiments, the global energy confinement time was found to depend on the internal self-inductance (li). Improved confinement has been obtained for a steady-state 0.8 MA plasma where the plasma current profile is peaked by LH waves (li ∼1.8). In this case, the global confinement time is found to be about 40% higher than the value predicted by the Rebut-Lallia scaling law. (author) 3 refs., 6 figs

  15. Technology Learning Ratios in Global Energy Models

    Varela, M.

    2001-01-01

    The process of introduction of a new technology supposes that while its production and utilisation increases, also its operation improves and its investment costs and production decreases. The accumulation of experience and learning of a new technology increase in parallel with the increase of its market share. This process is represented by the technological learning curves and the energy sector is not detached from this process of substitution of old technologies by new ones. The present paper carries out a brief revision of the main energy models that include the technology dynamics (learning). The energy scenarios, developed by global energy models, assume that the characteristics of the technologies are variables with time. But this trend is incorporated in a exogenous way in these energy models, that is to say, it is only a time function. This practice is applied to the cost indicators of the technology such as the specific investment costs or to the efficiency of the energy technologies. In the last years, the new concept of endogenous technological learning has been integrated within these global energy models. This paper examines the concept of technological learning in global energy models. It also analyses the technological dynamics of the energy system including the endogenous modelling of the process of technological progress. Finally, it makes a comparison of several of the most used global energy models (MARKAL, MESSAGE and ERIS) and, more concretely, about the use these models make of the concept of technological learning. (Author) 17 refs

  16. Global energy perspectives until 2050

    Schiffer, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    A sustained energy supply must do equal justice to the goals of economic, environmental and social compatibility. If there is a conflict of goals, the object cannot be to maximize one parameter from this bundle of goals; a balance should rather be sought between the set targets. An analysis of long-term projections for world energy supply shows that a greater convergence between expected developments and those considered necessary for climate policy reasons can only be reached by consistently pursuing all approaches suitable for achieving the targets set - e. g. in climate protection - at a minimum cost. The solution is not one of 'either - or' but of 'both - and'. (orig.)

  17. The emerging global energy industry

    Churchill, A. [Washington International Energy Group, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The global focus of the electric power industry was discussed. The shift from small regional monopolies to internationally competitive firms has been the driving force for change in industrial or market structures. The financial forces behind these changes were examined. The changes at the firm level and the implications of these changes for the North American market were explored. Changes in the North American market have influenced and are influenced by changes in international markets. The well established public and private monopolies in North America have been slow to welcome competition. However, with growing pressure from consumers, North America is becoming a major leader of global market trends. The following predictions regarding a deregulated electric power industry can be made with some confidence: (1) prices will fall, (2) customer choice will become a reality, (3) debt ridden public dinosaurs are not likely to survive, and (4) the same big firms in international markets will be the dominant players in the North American market. Canadian companies were warned that unless they can compete on equal terms with their American competitors, they may find themselves at a disadvantage in the new, competitive market.

  18. The emerging global energy industry

    Churchill, A [Washington International Energy Group, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The global focus of the electric power industry was discussed. The shift from small regional monopolies to internationally competitive firms has been the driving force for change in industrial or market structures. The financial forces behind these changes were examined. The changes at the firm level and the implications of these changes for the North American market were explored. Changes in the North American market have influenced and are influenced by changes in international markets. The well established public and private monopolies in North America have been slow to welcome competition. However, with growing pressure from consumers, North America is becoming a major leader of global market trends. The following predictions regarding a deregulated electric power industry can be made with some confidence: (1) prices will fall, (2) customer choice will become a reality, (3) debt ridden public dinosaurs are not likely to survive, and (4) the same big firms in international markets will be the dominant players in the North American market. Canadian companies were warned that unless they can compete on equal terms with their American competitors, they may find themselves at a disadvantage in the new, competitive market.

  19. The global and Canadian energy outlook

    Stewart, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The global energy situation is rapidly changing. Global oil and gas trade is increasing, in an environment of rising prices, higher costs, greater environmental concerns, and growing security uncertainties. While predictions of shortages through depletion of oil and gas reserves are unfounded, the world must adapt to higher prices and changing trade patterns, as conventional reserves are increasingly being replaced un-conventional resources. Canada, drawing upon its vast natural resources and technological innovation, is positioned to be an even more important global energy leader in the 21st century. (author)

  20. 2005 primary energy consumption in Germany

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    According to preliminar calculations by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Working Party on Energy Balances, AGEB), the consumption of an aggregate 486 million TCE of primary energy resources in Germany last year was 1.3% below the level of the year before. Energy consumption was influenced by both the high level of prices and the development of the economy. Hardly any influence was attributable to the level of temperatures, which was largely unchanged compared to the figure of the year before. Oil consumption in 2005 in Germany dropped by nearly 2% to 174.8 million TCE. On the whole, oil with its 36% share in the energy balance remained by far the most important energy resource in Germany. Natural gas consumption of 110.4 million TCE was at the level of the year before. Its share in the primary energy balance rose slightly to 22.7%. Hard coal, because of lower use in power plants and the decline in iron making, showed a 4.6% drop in consumption to 62.8 million TCE. In this way, hard coal contributed 13% to total energy consumption. Lignite consumption dropped by 3.2% to 54.4 million TCE as a result of lower deliveries to power plants. Its 11.2% share in the total consumption of primary energy continued to make lignite the most important domestic energy resource. More than 90% of the lignite produced is used for electricity generation. The contribution to primary energy consumption of nuclear power dropped by more than 2% to 60.7 million TCE. Hydroelectric plants and wind power plants increased their contribution by 3.6%. The contribution to primary energy consumption made by all renewable energy resources rose to 4.6%. AGEB evaluates statistics of all areas of the power economy on the basis of standard criteria in order to combine these data in a comprehensive picture. Since 1994, the energy balances for Germany have been compiled by DIW on behalf of AGEB. (orig.)

  1. Hydrogen based global renewable energy network

    Akai, Makoto [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, AIST, MITI, Namiki, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    In the last quarter of this century, global environmental problem has emerged as a major scientific, political and social issue. Specific Problems include: depletion of ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), acid rain, destruction of tropical forests and desertification, pollution of the sea and global wanning due to the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide and others. Among these problems, particular attention of the world has been focused on the global warming because it has direct linkage to energy consumption which our economic development depends on so far. On the other hand, the future program of The Sunshine Project for alternative energy technology R&D, The Moonlight Project for energy conservation technology R&D, and The Global Environmental Technology Program for environmental problem mitigating technology R&D which are Japan`s national projects being promoted by their Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have been reexamined in view of recent changes in the situations surrounding new energy technology. In this regard, The New Sunshine Program will be established by integrating these three activities to accelerate R&D in the field of energy and environmental technologies. In the reexamination, additional stress has been laid on the contribution to solving global environmental problem through development of clean renewable energies which constitute a major part of the {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes}, a comprehensive, long-term and international cooperative program proposed by MITI. The present paper discusses the results of feasibility study on hydrogen energy system leading to the concept of WE-NET following a brief summary on R&D status on solar and wind energy in Japan.

  2. From black to green energy. Geopolitics of global energy transition

    Slingerland, S.; Van Geuns, L.; Van der Linde, C.

    2008-05-01

    The transition to a global low-carbon energy sector is on the agenda of policymakers in the Netherlands, Europe and world-wide. However, the way in which the international political discussion takes place makes it far from clear that such a transition will indeed take place. Conflicts of interest between climate concerns, energy security, access to energy and profits made from fossil fuels should be analysed more properly and taken into account in international energy and climate negotiations in order to prevent that an energy crisis will be the only way forward towards a low-carbon energy sector. [nl

  3. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Primary Production at a Global Scale

    Rousseaux, Cecile Severine; Gregg, Watson W.

    2013-01-01

    We used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of four phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. First, we assessed the contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production at a global scale for the period 1998-2011. Globally, diatoms contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production ((is)approximately 50%, the equivalent of 20 PgC·y1). Coccolithophores and chlorophytes each contributed approximately 20% ((is) approximately 7 PgC·y1) of the total primary production and cyanobacteria represented about 10% ((is) approximately 4 PgC·y1) of the total primary production. Primary production by diatoms was highest in the high latitudes ((is) greater than 40 deg) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We then assessed interannual variability of this group-specific primary production over the period 1998-2011. Globally the annual relative contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production varied by maximum 4% (1-2 PgC·y1). We assessed the effects of climate variability on group-specific primary production using global (i.e., Multivariate El Niño Index, MEI) and "regional" climate indices (e.g., Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability as indicated by significant correlation (p (is) less than 0.05) between the MEI and the group-specific primary production from all groups except coccolithophores. In the Atlantic, climate variability as indicated by NAO was significantly correlated to the primary production of 2 out of the 4 groups in the North Central Atlantic (diatoms/cyanobacteria) and in the North Atlantic (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). We found that climate variability as indicated by SAM had only a limited effect

  4. Global greenhouse and energy situation and outlook

    Allen, R.W.; Clively, S.R.; Tilley, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Fossil fuels provide the basis for world energy usage and, in the absence of fundamental policy changes, are expected to continue to do so for the next few decades. However, the prospect of global warming due to the greenhouse effect will have profound implications for the use of energy. This paper outlines the current situation and trends in world energy use, with a focus on energy requirements by region and fuel. Implications for greenhouse gas emissions and greenhouse policy challenges are also discussed. 8 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  5. Does nuclear energy save global environment?

    Matsui, Kazuaki

    2006-01-01

    Since the ecological footprint analysis in 1970s suggested changing consumption patterns and overpopulation concerns, energy policy such as energy conservation and use of renewable energy has become of prime importance. Several results of the long-term energy demand and supply analysis in 2050 or 2100 to reduce drastically carbon dioxide emission as a measure against global warming, showed the necessity of nuclear power deployment as well as maximum efforts to save energy, exploitation of the separation and disposal of carbon dioxide, and shifting energy sources to fuels that emit less greenhouse gases or non-fossil fuels. As a promising means to contribute to long-term energy supply, nuclear power generation is expected with improving safety, economic efficiency, environmental adaptability, and nuclear proliferation resistance of the technologies. (T.Tanaka)

  6. Global Energy Challenges of the 21. Century and Nuclear Energy

    Gagarinskiy, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    The paper considers the world energy demand till the middle of the century, as well as possible forecasting solution for this challenge. On the base of the mathematical model developed in the Kurchatov Institute in 2003- 2006, the vision of the global nuclear energy system and its potential contribution in the energy mix was analyzed. The rate of rapprochement between specific energy consumptions in different countries of the world is a key parameter determining the energy market strain. It was shown that a continuation of the current world trends of this rapprochement would result in an energy resource deficit already in the nearest future. The energy mix picture would contain an 'unsatisfied demand' area of about 10 000 Mtoe of total energy to be consumed by the mid-century Supposing that the mankind has to meet the 'unsatisfied demand' by nuclear energy, the global energy challenges of the 21. century energy do not impose any upper limit on nuclear energy development, the scale of which would be determined by development opportunities. Russia, as one of the pioneers of the First Nuclear Era, possesses great experience of solving the key issues of nuclear energy of the 20. century, and is capable to play an important role in dealing with the challenges faced by nuclear in the 21. century. (authors)

  7. Global architecture of innovative nuclear energy

    Andreeva-Andrievskaya, L.N.; Kagramanyan, V.S.; Usanov, V.I.; )

    2011-01-01

    The study Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Based on Thermal and Fast Reactors including a Closed Fuel Cycle (GAINS), aimed at harmonization of tools used to assess various options for innovative development of nuclear energy, modeling of jointly defined scenarios and analysis of obtained results is presented in the paper. Objectives and methods of the study, issues of spent fuel and fissile materials management are discussed. Investment risks and economic indicators are also described [ru

  8. Decadal Changes in Global Ocean Annual Primary Production

    Gregg, Watson; Conkright, Margarita E.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Ginoux, Paul; Casey, Nancy W.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) has produced the first multi-year time series of global ocean chlorophyll observations since the demise of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) in 1986. Global observations from 1997-present from SeaWiFS combined with observations from 1979-1986 from the CZCS should in principle provide an opportunity to observe decadal changes in global ocean annual primary production, since chlorophyll is the primary driver for estimates of primary production. However, incompatibilities between algorithms have so far precluded quantitative analysis. We have developed and applied compatible processing methods for the CZCS, using modern advances in atmospheric correction and consistent bio-optical algorithms to advance the CZCS archive to comparable quality with SeaWiFS. We applied blending methodologies, where in situ data observations are incorporated into the CZCS and SeaWiFS data records, to provide improvement of the residuals. These re-analyzed, blended data records provide maximum compatibility and permit, for the first time, a quantitative analysis of the changes in global ocean primary production in the early-to-mid 1980's and the present, using synoptic satellite observations. An intercomparison of the global and regional primary production from these blended satellite observations is important to understand global climate change and the effects on ocean biota. Photosynthesis by chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton is responsible for biotic uptake of carbon in the oceans and potentially ultimately from the atmosphere. Global ocean annual primary decreased from the CZCS record to SeaWiFS, by nearly 6% from the early 1980s to the present. Annual primary production in the high latitudes was responsible for most of the decadal change. Conversely, primary production in the low latitudes generally increased, with the exception of the tropical Pacific. The differences and similarities of the two data records provide evidence

  9. Privatization and the globalization of energy markets

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

  10. A review on global wind energy policy

    Saidur, R.; Islam, M.R.; Rahim, N.A.; Solangi, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing negative effects of fossil fuel combustion on the environment in addition to limited stock of fossil fuel have forced many countries to inquire into and change to environmentally friendly alternatives that are renewable to sustain the increasing energy demand. Energy policy plays a vital role to mitigate the impacts of global warming and crisis of energy availability. This paper explores the wind energy industry from the point of view of the wind energy policy. It is noticed that energy policy could help increasing wind power generation as well as stimulating the energy industry. It may be stated that without specific energy policy, a country would not be able to solve the acute problems like reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission, scarcity of energy, etc. This paper discussed the existing successful energy policies for few selected countries. Based on literatures, it has been found that FIT, RPS, incentives, pricing law and Quota system are the most useful energy policies practiced by many countries around the world. Then, status of wind energy policy for Malaysia was investigated and compared with few selected countries around the world. (author)

  11. Global drivers for transformation of energy systems

    Christensen, John M.; Radka, M.

    2006-01-01

    With climate change gradually emerging as a major global environmental concern, illustrated by the establishment of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and later the negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol (KP)the role of the energy sector as the main emitter of greenhouse gases has brought a new political rationale for the development of more climate-friendly energy supply and increased efficiency. The last couple of years have seen the increasing importance in the global energy market of rapidly-expanding national economies, notably China and India. Together with other geopolitical developments such as political changes in some of the major oil producing regions, this has produced strong political concerns about future security of supply. This has been compounded by simultaneous dramatic increases in oil and gas prices. The role of energy supply as a key facilitator for economic development in the poorer regions of the world has been increasingly recognised over the last decade. Developing countries are devoting more attention to securing their future energy supplies for a variety of uses: industry, and urban uses and for the poorer communities in both rural and peri-urban areas communities. Global energy policy is therefore dominated by three overriding concerns making them drivers for future energy development activities: 1) security of supply; 2) climate change; 3) energy for development and poverty alleviation. The three areas are in several ways interlinked, and every energy policy or programme should ideally promote them allor at least not have negative effects in any area. In practice, however, many national policy landscapes have been dominated by just one of these factors. (au)

  12. Comparing primary energy attributed to renewable energy with primary energy equivalent to determine carbon abatement in a national context.

    Gallachóir, Brian P O; O'Leary, Fergal; Bazilian, Morgan; Howley, Martin; McKeogh, Eamon J

    2006-01-01

    The current conventional approach to determining the primary energy associated with non-combustible renewable energy (RE) sources such as wind energy and hydro power is to equate the electricity generated from these sources with the primary energy supply. This paper compares this with an approach that was formerly used by the IEA, in which the primary energy equivalent attributed to renewable energy was equated with the fossil fuel energy it displaces. Difficulties with implementing this approach in a meaningful way for international comparisons lead to most international organisations abandoning the primary energy equivalent methodology. It has recently re-emerged in prominence however, as efforts grow to develop baseline procedures for quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided by renewable energy within the context of the Kyoto Protocol credit trading mechanisms. This paper discusses the primary energy equivalent approach and in particular the distinctions between displacing fossil fuel energy in existing plant or in new plant. The approach is then extended provide insight into future primary energy displacement by renewable energy and to quantify the amount of CO2 emissions avoided by renewable energy. The usefulness of this approach in quantifying the benefits of renewable energy is also discussed in an energy policy context, with regard to increasing security of energy supply as well as reducing energy-related GHG (and other) emissions. The approach is applied in a national context and Ireland is case study country selected for this research. The choice of Ireland is interesting in two respects. The first relates to the high proportion of electricity only fossil fuel plants in Ireland resulting in a significant variation between primary energy and primary energy equivalent. The second concerns Ireland's poor performance to date in limiting GHG emissions in line with its Kyoto target and points to the need for techniques to quantify the potential

  13. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

  14. Comprehensive evaluation of global energy interconnection development index

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yi

    2018-04-01

    Under the background of building global energy interconnection and realizing green and low-carbon development, this article constructed the global energy interconnection development index system which based on the current situation of global energy interconnection development. Through using the entropy method for the weight analysis of global energy interconnection development index, and then using gray correlation method to analyze the selected countries, this article got the global energy interconnection development index ranking and level classification.

  15. Energy crisis? The likelihood of a global energy crisis

    Franssen, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper assess global energy problems and compares the energy crises of the 1970s with current US energy problems. The reaction of the OECD countries to the oil crises of 1973/4 and 1979/80, the perception of future oil supplies, and the difficulties faced by ordinary consumers in accepting that there is an energy crisis are discussed along with the Californian electricity crisis, the falling US natural gas supplies, and the low return on investment in the US refining industry. The prospect of another oil crisis, and the need for consumers to learn to live with price volatility are considered

  16. Recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software: An overview

    Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe paper presents an overview of recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software. We have interpreted "global" in the title of the Journal of Reviews on Global Economics to cover contributions that have a global impact on economics, thereby making it "global economics". In this sense, the paper is concerned with papers on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, as well as global software algorithms that have...

  17. Global net primary production and heterotrophic respiration for 1987

    Hunt, R.E. Jr.; Piper, S.C.; Nemani, R. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)]|[Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    An ecosystem process model, BIOME-BGC, was parameterized and used to simulate the actual net primary production and heterotrophic respiration using daily climatic data, land cover type, leaf area index gridded to 1{degree} latitude by 1{degree} longitude grid cells for the year 1987. Global net primary production was 52 Pg C. These estimates were validated directly by two different methods. First, the grid cells were aggregated and used as inputs to a 3D atmospheric transport model, to compare CO{sub 2} station data with predictions. We simulated the intra-annual variation of atmospheric CO{sub 2} well for the northern hemisphere, but not for the southern hemisphere. Second, we calculated the net {sup 13}C uptake of vegetation, which is a function of water use efficiency. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios agreed with measured data, indicating a strong limitation of global primary processes by the hydrologic cycle, especially precipitation. These are different from other global carbon models as we can simulate the year-to-year variation of climate, including El Nino, on the global carbon cycle.

  18. Energy globalization; La globalizacion de la energia

    Andres, Tierno

    1997-08-01

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum.

  19. Primary energy-transformations in biological systems

    Lehninger, A.L.

    1980-10-01

    In this paper I shall review the main outlines of current research on the molecular aspects of the primary energy-coupling mechanisms in cells, those carried out by energy-transducing membranes. They include the capture of solar energy by the chloroplast membranes of green plants, used to generate carbohydrates and molecular oxygen from carbon dioxide and water, and the counterpart of photosynthesis, the process of respiration in heterotrophic organisms, in which reduced organic products generated by photosynthesis are oxidized at the expense of dioxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. Although the cycling of dioxygen, carbon dioxide, and organic matter between the plant and animal worlds is well known, it is not generally appreciated that the magnitude of biological energy flux in these cycles is huge compared to the total energy flux in man-made devices. A major consequence is that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been increasing at a significant rate, at a time when there is also a decrease, at least in some parts of the world, in the counterbalancing utilization of CO/sub 2/ by green plants, due to deforestation. The greenhouse effect of increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ may not only change the earth's climate, but also may influence the rate of photosynthesis. It is also not generally appreciated that energy flow in the biosphere leads to production of enormous amounts of organic matter potentially useful in furnishing man's energy requirements.

  20. Globalization and pollution: tele-connecting local primary PM2.5 emissions to global consumption

    Meng, Jing; Liu, Junfeng; Xu, Yuan; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu; Huang, Ye; Tao, Shu

    2016-11-01

    Globalization pushes production and consumption to geographically diverse locations and generates a variety of sizeable opportunities and challenges. The distribution and associated effects of short-lived primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a representative of local pollution, are significantly affected by the consumption through global supply chain. Tele-connection is used here to represent the link between production and consumption activity at large distances. In this study, we develop a global consumption-based primary PM2.5 emission inventory to track primary PM2.5 emissions embodied in the supply chain and evaluate the extent to which local PM2.5 emissions are triggered by international trade. We further adopt consumption-based accounting and identify the global original source that produced the emissions. We find that anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions from industrial sectors accounted for 24 Tg globally in 2007; approximately 30% (7.2 Tg) of these emissions were embodied in export of products principally from Brazil, South Africa, India and China (3.8 Tg) to developed countries. Large differences (up to 10 times) in the embodied emissions intensity between net importers and exporters greatly increased total global PM2.5 emissions. Tele-connecting production and consumption activity provides valuable insights with respect to mitigating long-range transboundary air pollution and prompts concerted efforts aiming at more environmentally conscious globalization.

  1. Globalization and pollution: tele-connecting local primary PM2.5 emissions to global consumption

    Meng, Jing; Xu, Yuan; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu; Huang, Ye; Tao, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Globalization pushes production and consumption to geographically diverse locations and generates a variety of sizeable opportunities and challenges. The distribution and associated effects of short-lived primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a representative of local pollution, are significantly affected by the consumption through global supply chain. Tele-connection is used here to represent the link between production and consumption activity at large distances. In this study, we develop a global consumption-based primary PM2.5 emission inventory to track primary PM2.5 emissions embodied in the supply chain and evaluate the extent to which local PM2.5 emissions are triggered by international trade. We further adopt consumption-based accounting and identify the global original source that produced the emissions. We find that anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions from industrial sectors accounted for 24 Tg globally in 2007; approximately 30% (7.2 Tg) of these emissions were embodied in export of products principally from Brazil, South Africa, India and China (3.8 Tg) to developed countries. Large differences (up to 10 times) in the embodied emissions intensity between net importers and exporters greatly increased total global PM2.5 emissions. Tele-connecting production and consumption activity provides valuable insights with respect to mitigating long-range transboundary air pollution and prompts concerted efforts aiming at more environmentally conscious globalization. PMID:27956874

  2. Globalization and pollution: tele-connecting local primary PM2.5 emissions to global consumption.

    Meng, Jing; Liu, Junfeng; Xu, Yuan; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu; Huang, Ye; Tao, Shu

    2016-11-01

    Globalization pushes production and consumption to geographically diverse locations and generates a variety of sizeable opportunities and challenges. The distribution and associated effects of short-lived primary fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), a representative of local pollution, are significantly affected by the consumption through global supply chain. Tele-connection is used here to represent the link between production and consumption activity at large distances. In this study, we develop a global consumption-based primary PM 2.5 emission inventory to track primary PM 2.5 emissions embodied in the supply chain and evaluate the extent to which local PM 2.5 emissions are triggered by international trade. We further adopt consumption-based accounting and identify the global original source that produced the emissions. We find that anthropogenic PM 2.5 emissions from industrial sectors accounted for 24 Tg globally in 2007; approximately 30% (7.2 Tg) of these emissions were embodied in export of products principally from Brazil, South Africa, India and China (3.8 Tg) to developed countries. Large differences (up to 10 times) in the embodied emissions intensity between net importers and exporters greatly increased total global PM 2.5 emissions. Tele-connecting production and consumption activity provides valuable insights with respect to mitigating long-range transboundary air pollution and prompts concerted efforts aiming at more environmentally conscious globalization.

  3. Global perspectives on future nuclear energy utilisation

    Watts, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is presented as an overview of the nuclear sector from a global perspective. The aim is to show that nuclear power does have a future but that this will only be fully realised when the industry is able to demonstrate that it is part of the solution to the world's energy and environmental difficulties rather than part of the problem. The paper looks at the projected world energy demand as the population increases and countries develop, showing that nuclear power is required to meet this demand. In presenting nuclear power as a solution, the paper addresses the challenges facing us such as public confidence, environmental opposition, political issues and finance. It addresses the debate over reprocessing and direct disposal of irradiated nuclear fuel and looks at the competition from other fuels. The paper suggests how the industry might approach these issues such that nuclear power is indeed regarded globally as a solution to some of the worlds most pressing problems. (author)

  4. An etude on global vacuum energy sequester

    D' Amico, Guido [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Theoretical Physics Dept.; Kaloper, Nemanja [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Padilla, Antonio [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Stefanyszyn, David [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Van Swinderen Inst. for Particle Physics and Gravity; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Zahariade, George [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-05-24

    Recently two of the authors proposed a mechanism of vacuum energy sequester as a means of protecting the observable cosmological constant from quantum radiative corrections. The original proposal was based on using global Lagrange multipliers, but later a local formulation was provided. Subsequently other interesting claims of a different non-local approach to the cosmological constant problem were made, based again on global Lagrange multipliers. We examine some of these proposals and find their mutual relationship. We explain that the proposals which do not treat the cosmological constant counterterm as a dynamical variable require fine tunings to have acceptable solutions. Furthermore, the counterterm often needs to be retuned at every order in the loop expansion to cancel the radiative corrections to the cosmological constant, just like in standard GR. These observations are an important reminder of just how the proposal of vacuum energy sequester avoids such problems.

  5. An etude on global vacuum energy sequester

    D'Amico, Guido; Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio; Stefanyszyn, David; Westphal, Alexander; Zahariade, George

    2017-01-01

    Recently two of the authors proposed a mechanism of vacuum energy sequester as a means of protecting the observable cosmological constant from quantum radiative corrections. The original proposal was based on using global Lagrange multipliers, but later a local formulation was provided. Subsequently other interesting claims of a different non-local approach to the cosmological constant problem were made, based again on global Lagrange multipliers. We examine some of these proposals and find their mutual relationship. We explain that the proposals which do not treat the cosmological constant counterterm as a dynamical variable require fine tunings to have acceptable solutions. Furthermore, the counterterm often needs to be retuned at every order in the loop expansion to cancel the radiative corrections to the cosmological constant, just like in standard GR. These observations are an important reminder of just how the proposal of vacuum energy sequester avoids such problems.

  6. Biomass energy, forests and global warming

    Rosillo-Calle, Frank; Hall, D.O.

    1992-01-01

    Biomass in all its forms currently provides about 14% of the world's energy, equivalent to 25 million bbl oil/day; in developing countries where it is the major energy source, biomass supplies 35% of total energy use. Although biomass energy use affects the flux of carbon to the atmosphere, the main carbon emission problem is caused by fossil fuels and land clearance for agriculture. Biomass fuels make no net contribution to atmospheric CO 2 if used sustainably. A major global revegetation and reforestation effort is a possible strategy to reduce CO 2 emissions and to slow the pace of climatic change. However, a more attractive alternative strategy might be to substitute fossil fuels, especially coal, with biomass grown specifically for this purpose producing modern fuels such as electricity, liquids and gases. This paper examines biomass energy use, devegetation, biomass burning, the implications for global warming and the ability of biomass to sequester CO 2 and substitute for fossil fuels. It also discusses some socioeconomic and political issues. (author)

  7. Global warming from an energy perspective

    Edwards, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Global climate change and energy are integrally related. The majority of greenhouse gas emissions are the result of energy production and use; at the same time, warming will affect energy patterns in California through physical increases in energy demand, physical changes in energy supply, and changes in both energy end-use patterns and supplies resulting from climate-change policies. There seems to be a growing political consensus that the world (as well as the state) needs to act soon to minimize further commitment to future warming. While California is not likely to experience the physical changes resulting from a warmer climate for years or perhaps decades, policy responses to the warming issue may cause more immediate impacts. This chapter will discuss how policy response to potential warming may be the most significant early impact of the issue on California's energy system. Makers of energy policy face the dilemma of deciding how to respond to the climate warming issue in the face of scientific uncertainties about its timing and seriousness. The chapter will conclude by presenting a conceptual framework for dealing with this dilemma, along with general recommendations for action

  8. Recent Topical Research on Global, Energy, Health & Medical, and Tourism Economics, and Global Software

    Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe paper presents an overview of recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software. We have interpreted “global” in the title of the Journal of Reviews on Global Economics to cover contributions that have a global impact on economics, thereby making it “global economics”. In this sense, the paper is concerned with papers on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, as well as global software algorithms that have...

  9. Interactive Cosegmentation Using Global and Local Energy Optimization

    Xingping Dong,; Jianbing Shen,; Shao, Ling; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel interactive cosegmentation method using global and local energy optimization. The global energy includes two terms: 1) the global scribbled energy and 2) the interimage energy. The first one utilizes the user scribbles to build the Gaussian mixture model and improve the cosegmentation performance. The second one is a global constraint, which attempts to match the histograms of common objects. To minimize the local energy, we apply the spline regression to learn the smoothne...

  10. Global energy subsidies: An analytical taxonomy

    McKitrick, Ross

    2017-01-01

    Governments around the world have pledged to eliminate or sharply reduce subsidies to energy firms in order to increase economic efficiency and reduce environmental externalities. Yet definitions of subsidies vary widely and, as a result, estimates of their global magnitude vary by orders of magnitude. I review why energy subsidies are so difficult to define and measure. I show why some non-standard measures are very poor proxies for subsidy costs and in fact may vary inversely with them. In particular, recent attempts to treat unpriced externalities as subsidies yield especially misleading results. In general, energy subsidies as conventionally understood do exist but only comprise a small portion of some very large recently-reported estimates, the bulk of which are indirect measures that may have little connection with actual costs to governments or allocational inefficiencies. - Highlights: • Estimates of national and global energy subsidies vary widely. • Microeconomic tools help clarify the various definitions in use. • Some indirect measures are invalid as proxies for normal subsidy costs. • Distorting subsidies do exist but are likely on the low end of some recent reports.

  11. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    de Ia Rue du Can, Stephane; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Integrated assessment models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Results of these scenarios are typically presented for a number of world regions and end-use sectors, such as industry, transport, and buildings. Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, however, require more detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. This paper presents sectoral trend for two of the scenarios produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon dioxide emissions over the past 30 years are examined and contrasted with projections over the next 30 years. Macro-activity indicators are analyzed as well as trends in sectoral energy and carbon demand. This paper also describes a methodology to calculate primary energy and carbon dioxide emissions at the sector level, accounting for the full energy and emissions due to sectoral activities. (author)

  12. Primary energy: present status and future perspectives

    Thielheim, K O

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the base-load energy sources available to humans is presented, starting from the point of view that all energy used is ultimately derived from nuclear processes within the sun. Specific note is made of European energy options, noting the large dependence on imported oil. Detailed exploration of available nuclear fuel resources is carried out, with attention given to fission, fusion, and breeder reactor plants and to the state-of-the-art and technology for each. The problems of nuclear waste disposal are discussed, and long term burial in salt domes is outlined as a satisfactory method of containing the materials for acceptable periods of time. The CO/sub 2/ greenhouse effect hazards caused by increased usage of coal-derived fuels are considered and precautions to be taken on a global scale to ameliorate the warming effects are recommended. The limitations to hydropower are examined, as are those of tidal power. Solar cells are projected to be produced in GW quantities by the year 2000, while wind-derived electricity is predicted to provide a minimum of 5% of the world energy needs in the future.

  13. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  14. Role of biomass in global energy supply

    Best, G.; Christensen, R.; Christensen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Bioenergy is energy of biological and renewable origin, normally in the form of purpose-grown energy crops or by-products from agriculture, forestry or fisheries. Biomass provides approximately 11-14% of the world's energy, but there are significant differences between industrialised and developing countries. In many developing countries biomass is the most important energy source. As a global average, biomass provides approximately 35% of developing countries' energy, but there are large regional differences. Many sub-Saharan African countries depend on biomass for up to 90% of their energy indicating that they have little in the way of industry or other modern activities. In the last decade interest in bioenergy has increased in industrialised countries partly due to growing concern about climate change, technological advances in biomass conversion, increasing focus on security of energy supply, and increasing interest in renewable energy generally. Two trends emerge: The developing countries will in general aim to reduce their dependence on traditional bioenergy. The relative share of bioenergy in the energy balance will therefore go down, though the number of people depending on traditional bioenergy probably will remain constant, with corresponding consequences for health and resources. Industrialised countries, plus a number of developing countries, will aim to increase their use of modern bioenergy technologies. With the traditional association of bioenergy as old fashioned and for the poor, the recent interest in biomass resources has invented a new term 'modern bioenergy' which covers a number of technological areas from combustion at domestic, industrial or power plant scale, gasification, hydrolysis, pyrolysis, extraction, digestion etc. There are some barriers to the increased use of bioenergy, but they can be overcome through dedicated interventions by public and private sector entities. (BA)

  15. Global warming, energy use, and economic growth

    Khanna, Neha

    The dissertation comprises four papers that explore the interactions between global warming, energy use, and economic growth. While the papers are separate entities, they share the underlying theme of highlighting national differences in the growth experience and their implications for long-term energy use and climate change. The first paper provides an overview of some key economic issues in the climate change literature. In doing so, the paper critically appraises the 1995 draft report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The focus is the choice of a pure rate of time preference in the economic modeling of climate change, abatement costs differentials between developed and developing countries, and contrasting implications of standard discount rates and value of life estimates for these two country groups. The second paper develops a global model that takes account of the depletion of oil resources in the context of a geo-economic model for climate change. It is found that in the presence of non-decreasing carbon and energy intensities and declining petroleum availability, the carbon emissions trajectory is much higher than that typically projected by other models of this genre. Furthermore, by introducing price and income sensitive demand functions for fossil fuels, the model provides a framework to assess the effectiveness of fuel specific carbon taxes in reducing the COsb2 emissions trajectory. Cross-price substitution effects necessitate unrealistically high tax rates in order to lower the projected emissions trajectory to the optimal level. The economic structure of five integrated assessment models for climate change is reviewed in the third paper, with a special focus on the macroeconomic and damage assessment modules. The final paper undertakes an econometric estimation of the changing shares of capital, labour, energy, and technical change in explaining the growth patterns of 38 countries. Production elasticities vary by

  16. Global sensitivity analysis in wind energy assessment

    Tsvetkova, O.; Ouarda, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, it is not yet a common source of energy, although there is enough wind potential to supply world's energy demand. One of the most prominent obstacles on the way of employing wind energy is the uncertainty associated with wind energy assessment. Global sensitivity analysis (SA) studies how the variation of input parameters in an abstract model effects the variation of the variable of interest or the output variable. It also provides ways to calculate explicit measures of importance of input variables (first order and total effect sensitivity indices) in regard to influence on the variation of the output variable. Two methods of determining the above mentioned indices were applied and compared: the brute force method and the best practice estimation procedure In this study a methodology for conducting global SA of wind energy assessment at a planning stage is proposed. Three sampling strategies which are a part of SA procedure were compared: sampling based on Sobol' sequences (SBSS), Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) and pseudo-random sampling (PRS). A case study of Masdar City, a showcase of sustainable living in the UAE, is used to exemplify application of the proposed methodology. Sources of uncertainty in wind energy assessment are very diverse. In the case study the following were identified as uncertain input parameters: the Weibull shape parameter, the Weibull scale parameter, availability of a wind turbine, lifetime of a turbine, air density, electrical losses, blade losses, ineffective time losses. Ineffective time losses are defined as losses during the time when the actual wind speed is lower than the cut-in speed or higher than the cut-out speed. The output variable in the case study is the lifetime energy production. Most influential factors for lifetime energy production are identified with the ranking of the total effect sensitivity indices. The results of the present

  17. Recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software: An overview

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe paper presents an overview of recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software. We have interpreted "global" in the title of the Journal of Reviews on Global Economics to cover contributions that have a global impact on

  18. Nuclear energy - a green energy solution to global warming

    Malhotra, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    The manner in which the world has conducted itself in exploiting energy resources so far particularly in the post industrial revolution period, is now looming as one of the greatest challenges to the sustainability of development or even sustainability of life. Global climate change is no more a perceived threat, it is now a reality and we are not in a position to engage ourselves to debate on the issue. It is in fact a little late in taking the right corrective action if we have any concern for our future generations. The efforts of the scientists and engineers are to gradually replace the energy from burning of carbonaceous material to clean and intense source of energy i.e. nuclear fission and fusion

  19. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration

  20. G-8 leaders tackle global energy security

    Quevenco, R.

    2006-01-01

    Leaders of the Group of 8 countries backed the IAEA's work at their annual summit held 15-17 July 2006 in St. Petersburg, Russia. A concluding summary statement endorsed IAEA programmes and initiatives in areas of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards. The G8 nations adopted a St. Petersburg Plan of Action to increase transparency, predictability and stability of the global energy markets, improve the investment climate in the energy sector, promote energy efficiency and energy saving, diversify energy mix, ensure physical safety of critical energy infrastructure, reduce energy poverty and address climate change and sustainable development. In a statement on global energy security, the G8 said countries who have or are considering plans for nuclear energy believe it will contribute to global energy security while reducing air pollution and addressing climate change. The G8 said it acknowledged the efforts made in development by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). GIF and INPRO both bring together countries to develop next generation nuclear energy systems, including small reactors, very high temperature reactors and supercritical water-cooled reactors. The G8 reaffirmed its full commitment to all three pillars of the NPT and called on all States to comply with their NPT obligations, including IAEA safeguards as well as developing effective measures aimed at preventing trafficking in nuclear equipment, technology and materials. The G8 is seeking universal adherence to IAEA comprehensive safeguards agreements and is actively engaged in efforts to make comprehensive safeguards agreements together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard. The G8 noted that an expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy must be carried forward in a manner consistent with nuclear non-proliferation commitments and standards. It discussed concrete

  1. Renewable: A key component of our global energy future

    Hartley, D.

    1995-12-31

    Inclusion of renewable energy sources in national and international energy strategies is a key component of a viable global energy future. The global energy balance is going to shift radically in the near future brought about by significant increases in population in China and India, and increases in the energy intensity of developing countries. To better understand the consequences of such global shifts in energy requirements and to develop appropriate energy strategies to respond to these shifts, we need to look at the factors driving choices among supply options by geopolitical consumers and the impact these factors can have on the future energy mix.

  2. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John

    2008-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  3. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John [Idaho National laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  4. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  5. Modeling primary energy substitution in the Asia Pacific

    Aguilera, Roberto F.; Ripple, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We model the market shares (i.e. energy mix) of gases, liquids and solids in the Asia Pacific. • The model matches the historical energy mix and projects three scenarios of the future mix to 2030. • We then model the past and future hydrogen to carbon ratio (a proxy for environmental quality). • Importance of natural gas in the region could increase significantly, depending on policy and tech progress. - Abstract: A Global Energy Market model (GEM) is used to analyze the market shares (i.e. the primary energy mix) of gases, liquids and solids in the Asia Pacific. The model is successful in matching the historical energy mix from 1850 to 2009. The model also provides a good match of the hydrogen to carbon ratio, which is a proxy for environmental quality. Given these validations, the GEM is then used to present scenarios of the Asia Pacific energy mix and hydrogen to carbon ratio until the year 2030. Three energy mix scenarios are presented – reference case; alternative case 1; alternative case 2. The reference case assumes limited divergence from current policies and technologies. It indicates that Asia Pacific energy needs will be met by approximately 46% solids, 34% liquids, and 20% gases by 2030. Alternative cases 1 and 2 represent policies and technologies that either encourage or discourage the use of gases. The good matches observed for historical data suggest the GEM can be used cautiously for evaluating outcomes and opportunities in the region. Although the model can be used for projecting far into the future, it is currently calibrated to what we consider a reasonable time horizon – until the year 2030. Given appropriate energy policies and sufficient technological advancement, the importance of natural gas in the region could increase significantly

  6. Estimating Solar Energy Potential in Buildings on a Global Level

    Petrichenko, Ksenia

    2015-01-01

    This chapter contributes to the debate around net-zero energy concept from a global perspective. By means of comprehensive modelling, it analyses how much global building energy consumption could be reduced through utilisation of building-integrated solar energy technologies and energy......-efficiency improvements. Valuable insights on the locations and building types, in which it is feasible to achieve a net-zero level of energy performance through solar energy utilisation, are presented in world maps....

  7. Robert Aymar awarded Global Energy prize

    2006-01-01

    CERN Director-General Robert Aymar was recently named one of three laureates of the 2006 Global Energy International Prize for 'the development of scientific and engineering foundation for the ITER project.' ITER is an experiment planned to be built in Europe at Cadarache (South of France) and designed to show the scientific and technological feasibility of a full-scale fusion power reactor. The other two laureates, who worked with Aymar on the project, are former President of the ITER Council, Russian Academician Evgeny Velikhov, and Japan's Dr Masaji Yoshikawa, ITER's former Vice President. Aymar headed ITER from 1994 to 2003. 'This prize is not only a great honour for me and my friends and colleagues of many years at ITER, Evgeny Velikhov and Masaji Yoshikawa,' Aymar said. 'It is above all a recognition of the effort of all those who have been involved with the ITER project and worked over the years to ensure the first step in proving that fusion will provide a new sustainable energy source for the plane...

  8. A Comprehensive Plan for Global Energy Revolution

    Blees, T.

    2009-05-01

    There is no dearth of information regarding the grave crises faced by humanity in the 21st century. There is also growing consensus that the wholesale burning of fossil fuels must come to an end, either because of climate change or other still-salient reasons such as air pollution or major conflicts over dwindling reserves of cheaply recoverable oil and gas resources. At the same time, global demographics predict with disquieting certainty a world with up to 9 or 10 billion souls by mid-century. The vast expansion of energy consumption that this population represents, along with further increases in already-unacceptable levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, demands that we quickly develop almost limitless sources of clean, economical power. What is sorely lacking in the public debate are realistic solutions. Expanding wind and solar generating capacity is an important near-term goal, but neither of these technologies represents a viable solution for generating base load power at the vast scales that will be required. Energy efficiency measures are likewise well-directed, but the combination of rising population along with increasingly energy-intensive economic activity by the large fraction of Earth's current population residing in developing nations suggests that absolute energy demand will continue to rise even with radically improved energy efficiency. Fortunately we have the technologies available to provide virtually unlimited clean energy, and to utilize and recycle our resources so that everyone can improve their standard of living. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), developed at the Argonne National Laboratory in the 80's and 90's and currently championed by General Electric, is a technology that fills the bill on every count, and then some. IFRs are safe, environmentally clean, economical, and free of conflict over fuel supply. IFRs can safely consume as fuel the nuclear waste from the current installed base of light-water reactors

  9. Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production

    Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Smith, S. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Laine, M.

    2017-04-05

    Growth in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) may provide a feedback for climate change, but there is still strong disagreement on the extent to which biogeochemical processes may suppress this GPP growth at the ecosystem to continental scales. The consequent uncertainty in modeling of future carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere constitutes one of the largest unknowns in global climate projections for the next century. Here we provide a global, measurement-based estimate of historical GPP growth using long-term atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) records derived from ice core, firn, and ambient air samples. We interpret these records using a model that relates changes in the COS concentration to changes in its sources and sinks, the largest of which is proportional to GPP. The COS history was most consistent with simulations that assume a large historical GPP growth. Carbon-climate models that assume little to no GPP growth predicted trajectories of COS concentration over the anthropogenic era that differ from those observed. Continued COS monitoring may be useful for detecting ongoing changes in GPP while extending the ice core record to glacial cycles could provide further opportunities to evaluate earth system models.

  10. Recent Topical Research on Global, Energy, Health & Medical, and Tourism Economics, and Global Software

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe paper presents an overview of recent topical research on global, energy, health & medical, and tourism economics, and global software. We have interpreted “global” in the title of the Journal of Reviews on Global Economics to cover contributions that have a global impact on

  11. Wind energy. Energy technologies in national, European and global perspective

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Bjerregaard, E.T.D.

    2002-01-01

    According to a recent study, global wind generating capacity increased by some 6800 MW in 2001, an annual growth of just over half the corresponding figure for 2000. 2001 was the third consecutive year in which new wind power capacity exceeded new nuclear power capacity, showing the maturity of wind power technology. Total installed wind power worldwide by the end of 2001 was close to 25.000 MW. Germany, Spain and Denmark are the main players, accounting for 56% of the world's capacity increase in 2001 and a total cumulative installed capacity of 14.750 MW, or 59% of the global total. The USA and India are also significant users of wind power; in 2001 the USA added 1700 MW of new installed capacity to become the world's second-largest market for wind power. The report Wind Force 10 outlines a scenario in which wind power provides 10% of the world's electricity by 2020, corresponding to a total installed capacity of 1200 GW. Risoe's System Analysis Department has looked at the possible future costs of electricity produced by wind turbines compared to conventional power. A learning curve analysis of historical data results in a progress ratio of 0,85. This means that for every doubling of the installed capacity, the cost of wind-generated electricity is reduced by 15%. Until recently the main driver for wind power has been a concern for greenhouse gases. Security of energy supply has now become an important issue, however, especially in Europe and the USA. Wind power plants can be erected at short notice and in a modular fashion that allows capacity to be added as required. The European Commission has supported wind power by sponsoring international research co-operation between institutes, universities and equipment manufacturers. The IEA supports worldwide co-operation, and has recently issued a report on the longterm R and D needs of wind energy. Denmark has, mainly financed by the Danish Energy Agency, taken part in the IEA's R and D Wind international co

  12. Wind energy. Energy technologies in national, European and global perspective

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Bjerregaard, E.T.D. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-10-01

    According to a recent study, global wind generating capacity increased by some 6800 MW in 2001, an annual growth of just over half the corresponding figure for 2000. 2001 was the third consecutive year in which new wind power capacity exceeded new nuclear power capacity, showing the maturity of wind power technology. Total installed wind power worldwide by the end of 2001 was close to 25.000 MW. Germany, Spain and Denmark are the main players, accounting for 56% of the world's capacity increase in 2001 and a total cumulative installed capacity of 14.750 MW, or 59% of the global total. The USA and India are also significant users of wind power; in 2001 the USA added 1700 MW of new installed capacity to become the world's second-largest market for wind power. The report Wind Force 10 outlines a scenario in which wind power provides 10% of the world's electricity by 2020, corresponding to a total installed capacity of 1200 GW. Risoe's System Analysis Department has looked at the possible future costs of electricity produced by wind turbines compared to conventional power. A learning curve analysis of historical data results in a progress ratio of 0,85. This means that for every doubling of the installed capacity, the cost of wind-generated electricity is reduced by 15%. Until recently the main driver for wind power has been a concern for greenhouse gases. Security of energy supply has now become an important issue, however, especially in Europe and the USA. Wind power plants can be erected at short notice and in a modular fashion that allows capacity to be added as required. The European Commission has supported wind power by sponsoring international research co-operation between institutes, universities and equipment manufacturers. The IEA supports worldwide co-operation, and has recently issued a report on the longterm R and D needs of wind energy. Denmark has, mainly financed by the Danish Energy Agency, taken part in the IEA's R and D Wind

  13. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    Chinhao Chong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indicate that Malaysia’s energy use depends heavily on fossil fuels, including oil, gas and coal. In the past 30 years, Malaysia has successfully diversified its energy structure by introducing more natural gas and coal into its power generation. To sustainably feed the rapidly growing energy demand in end-use sectors with the challenge of global climate change, Malaysia must pay more attention to the development of renewable energy, green technology and energy conservation in the future.

  14. Effective Energy Methods for Global Optimization for Biopolymer Structure Prediction

    Shalloway, David

    1998-01-01

    .... Its main strength is that it uncovers and exploits the intrinsic "hidden structures" of biopolymer energy landscapes to efficiently perform global minimization using a hierarchical search procedure...

  15. Improving Global Gross Primary Productivity Estimates by Computing Optimum Light Use Efficiencies Using Flux Tower Data

    Madani, Nima; Kimball, John S.; Running, Steven W.

    2017-11-01

    In the light use efficiency (LUE) approach of estimating the gross primary productivity (GPP), plant productivity is linearly related to absorbed photosynthetically active radiation assuming that plants absorb and convert solar energy into biomass within a maximum LUE (LUEmax) rate, which is assumed to vary conservatively within a given biome type. However, it has been shown that photosynthetic efficiency can vary within biomes. In this study, we used 149 global CO2 flux towers to derive the optimum LUE (LUEopt) under prevailing climate conditions for each tower location, stratified according to model training and test sites. Unlike LUEmax, LUEopt varies according to heterogeneous landscape characteristics and species traits. The LUEopt data showed large spatial variability within and between biome types, so that a simple biome classification explained only 29% of LUEopt variability over 95 global tower training sites. The use of explanatory variables in a mixed effect regression model explained 62.2% of the spatial variability in tower LUEopt data. The resulting regression model was used for global extrapolation of the LUEopt data and GPP estimation. The GPP estimated using the new LUEopt map showed significant improvement relative to global tower data, including a 15% R2 increase and 34% root-mean-square error reduction relative to baseline GPP calculations derived from biome-specific LUEmax constants. The new global LUEopt map is expected to improve the performance of LUE-based GPP algorithms for better assessment and monitoring of global terrestrial productivity and carbon dynamics.

  16. The impacts of wind technology advancement on future global energy

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Ma, Chun; Song, Xia; Zhou, Yuyu; Chen, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated assessment model perform a series of scenarios of technology advances. • Explore the potential roles of wind energy technology advance in global energy. • Technology advance impacts on energy consumption and global low carbon market. • Technology advance influences on global energy security and stability. - Abstract: To avoid additional global warming and environmental damage, energy systems need to rely on the use of low carbon technologies like wind energy. However, supply uncertainties, production costs, and energy security are the main factors considered by the global economies when reshaping their energy systems. Here, we explore the potential roles of wind energy technology advancement in future global electricity generations, costs, and energy security. We use an integrated assessment model performing a series of technology advancement scenarios. The results show that double of the capital cost reduction causes 40% of generation increase and 10% of cost ​decrease on average in the long-term global wind electricity market. Today’s technology advancement could bring us the benefit of increasing electricity production in the future 40–50 years, and decreasing electricity cost in the future 90–100 years. The technology advancement of wind energy can help to keep global energy security and stability. An aggressive development and deployment of wind energy could in the long-term avoid 1/3 of gas and 1/28 of coal burned, and keep 1/2 biomass and 1/20 nuclear fuel saved from the global electricity system. The key is that wind resources are free and carbon-free. The results of this study are useful in broad coverage ranges from innovative technologies and systems of renewable energy to the economic industrial and domestic use of energy with no or minor impact on the environment.

  17. Integrating mental health into primary care: a global perspective

    Funk, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    ... for mental disorders is enormous 4. Primary care for mental health enhances access 5. Primary care for mental health promotes respect of human rights 6. Primary care for mental health is affordab...

  18. 76 FR 30325 - Application to Export Electric Energy; E-T Global Energy, LLC

    2011-05-25

    ... Export Electric Energy; E-T Global Energy, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202(e) of the... an application from E-T Global for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

  19. Transmutation and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    Bresee, James

    2007-01-01

    In the January 2006 State of the Union address, President Bush announced a new Advanced Energy Initiative, a significant part of which is the Global Nuclear Energy Initiative. Its details were described on February 6, 2006 by the U.S. Secretary of Energy. In summary, it has three parts: (1) a program to expand nuclear energy use domestically and in foreign countries to support economic growth while reducing the release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. (2) an expansion of the U.S. nuclear infrastructure that will lead to the recycling of spent fuel and a closed fuel cycle and, through transmutation, a reduction in the quantity and radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and its proliferation concerns, and (3) a partnership with other fuel cycle nations to support nuclear power in additional nations by providing small nuclear power plants and leased fuel with the provision that the resulting spent fuel would be returned by the lessee to the lessor. The final part would have the effect of stabilizing the number of fuel cycle countries with attendant non-proliferation value. Details will be given later in the paper. Commercial spent fuel recycling, pioneered in the U.S., has not been carried out since the nineteen seventies following a decision by President Carter to forego fuel reprocessing and to recommend similar practices by other countries. However, many nations have continued spent fuel reprocessing, generally using the U.S.-developed PUREX process. The latest to do so are Japan, which began operations of an 800 metric tons (tonnes) per year PUREX reprocessing plant at Rokkasho-mura in northern Honshu in 2006 and China, which recently began operations of a separations pilot plant, also using PUREX. Countries using the PUREX process, recycle the separated plutonium to light water reactors (LWRs) in a mixed plutonium/uranium oxide fuel called MOX. Plutonium recycling in LWRs, which are used for electricity production in all nuclear power nations, reduces

  20. Global estimates of evapotranspiration and gross primary production based on MODIS and global meteorology data

    Yuan, W.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Chen, J.; Davis, K.; Desai, A.R.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Gianelle, D.; Rossi, F.; Suyker, A.E.; Verma, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales remains a major challenge for quantifying the global carbon cycle. We developed a light use efficiency model, called EC-LUE, driven by only four variables: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature, and the Bowen ratio of sensible to latent heat flux. The EC-LUE model may have the most potential to adequately address the spatial and temporal dynamics of GPP because its parameters (i.e., the potential light use efficiency and optimal plant growth temperature) are invariant across the various land cover types. However, the application of the previous EC-LUE model was hampered by poor prediction of Bowen ratio at the large spatial scale. In this study, we substituted the Bowen ratio with the ratio of evapotranspiration (ET) to net radiation, and revised the RS-PM (Remote Sensing-Penman Monteith) model for quantifying ET. Fifty-four eddy covariance towers, including various ecosystem types, were selected to calibrate and validate the revised RS-PM and EC-LUE models. The revised RS-PM model explained 82% and 68% of the observed variations of ET for all the calibration and validation sites, respectively. Using estimated ET as input, the EC-LUE model performed well in calibration and validation sites, explaining 75% and 61% of the observed GPP variation for calibration and validation sites respectively.Global patterns of ET and GPP at a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 0.6° longitude during the years 2000–2003 were determined using the global MERRA dataset (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global estimates of ET and GPP agreed well with the other global models from the literature, with the highest ET and GPP over tropical forests and the lowest values in dry and high latitude areas. However, comparisons with observed

  1. Life cycle primary energy analysis of residential buildings

    Gustavsson, Leif; Joelsson, Anna [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The space heating demand of residential buildings can be decreased by improved insulation, reduced air leakage and by heat recovery from ventilation air. However, these measures result in an increased use of materials. As the energy for building operation decreases, the relative importance of the energy used in the production phase increases and influences optimization aimed at minimizing the life cycle energy use. The life cycle primary energy use of buildings also depends on the energy supply systems. In this work we analyse primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission for the production and operation of conventional and low-energy residential buildings. Different types of energy supply systems are included in the analysis. We show that for a conventional and a low-energy building the primary energy use for production can be up to 45% and 60%, respectively, of the total, depending on the energy supply system, and with larger variations for conventional buildings. The primary energy used and the CO{sub 2} emission resulting from production are lower for wood-framed constructions than for concrete-framed constructions. The primary energy use and the CO{sub 2} emission depend strongly on the energy supply, for both conventional and low-energy buildings. For example, a single-family house from the 1970s heated with biomass-based district heating with cogeneration has 70% lower operational primary energy use than if heated with fuel-based electricity. The specific primary energy use with district heating was 40% lower than that of an electrically heated passive row house. (author)

  2. INVESTING IN THE GLOBAL ENERGY: KEY TRENDS

    A. Stepanova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The questions of energy investments in the regions of the world, which allowed to carry out analysis of various types of energy production, focus on enerhozberezheni and renewable energy sources. Proved the importance of investing energy sector for the entire civilized world and defined the priorities of the process. Indicated that investment in the energy sector is based on public policy, to determine possible solutions to the energy dependence of Ukraine, taking into account the international experience.

  3. Global status report on energy efficiency 2008

    Blok, K.; van Breevoort, P.; Roes, A.L.; Coenraads, R.; Müller, N.

    2008-01-01

    There is wide agreement that energy efficiency improvement is one of the key strategies to achieve greater sustainability of the energy system. In the past, the contribution of energy efficiency has already been considerable.Without the energy efficiency improvements achieved since the 1970s,

  4. Hydrogen energy strategies and global stability and unrest

    Midilli, A.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on hydrogen energy strategies and global stability and unrest. In order to investigate the strategic relationship between these concepts, two empirical relations that describe the effects of fossil fuels on global stability and global unrest are developed. These relations incorporate predicted utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuels, and are used to investigate whether hydrogen utilization can reduce the negative global effects related to fossil fuel use, eliminate or reduce the possibilities of global energy conflicts, and contribute to achieving world stability. It is determined that, if utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels increases, for a fixed usage of petroleum, coal and natural gas, the level of global unrest decreases. However, if the utilization ratio of hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuels is lower than 100%, the level of global stability decreases as the symptoms of global unrest increase. It is suggested that, to reduce the causes of global unrest and increase the likelihood of global stability in the future, hydrogen energy should be widely and efficiently used, as one component of plans for sustainable development. (author)

  5. A GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY RESOURCES: NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M.; Westberg, D.; Whitlock, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's POWER project, or the Prediction of the Worldwide Energy Resources project, synthesizes and analyzes data on a global scale. The products of the project find valuable applications in the solar and wind energy sectors of the renewable energy industries. The primary source data for the POWER project are NASA's World Climate Research Project (WCRP)/Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project (Release 3.0) and the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) assimilation model (V 4.0.3). Users of the POWER products access the data through NASA's Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE, Version 6.0) website (http://power.larc.nasa.gov). Over 200 parameters are available to the users. The spatial resolution is 1 degree by 1 degree now and will be finer later. The data covers from July 1983 to December 2007, a time-span of 24.5 years, and are provided as 3-hourly, daily and monthly means. As of now, there have been over 18 million web hits and over 4 million data file downloads. The POWER products have been systematically validated against ground-based measurements, and in particular, data from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) archive, and also against the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). Parameters such as minimum, maximum, daily mean temperature and dew points, relative humidity and surface pressure are validated against the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) data. SSE feeds data directly into Decision Support Systems including RETScreen International clean energy project analysis software that is written in 36 languages and has greater than 260,000 users worldwide.

  6. The global anti-phospholipid syndrome score in primary APS.

    Sciascia, Savino; Sanna, Giovanni; Murru, Veronica; Roccatello, Dario; Khamashta, Munther A; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of the global APS score (GAPSS) in a cohort of primary APS patients. This study included 62 consecutive patients with primary APS. Data on clinical manifestations, conventional cardiovascular risk factors and aPL profile were collected. The GAPSS was calculated for each patient by adding together the points corresponding to the risk factors, based on a linear transformation derived from the β regression coefficient as follows: 3 for hyperlipidaemia, 1 for arterial hypertension, 5 for aCL IgG/IgM, 4 for anti-β2 glycoprotein I IgG/IgM, 3 for aPS-PT IgG/IgM and 4 for LA. Higher GAPSS values were seen in patients who experienced thrombosis alone when compared with those with pregnancy loss alone [11.5 (S.D. 4.6) and 8.7 (S.D. 3.2), P = 0.04]. Patients with both thrombosis and pregnancy loss showed higher GAPSS than those with pregnancy loss alone [12.5 (S.D. 4.6) vs 8.7 (S.D. 3.2), P = 0.02]. Higher GAPSS values were also shown after subgrouping for the site of thrombosis when compared with pregnancy loss alone [12.2 (S.D. 5.2) for arterial thrombosis, 12.0 (S.D. 4.0) for venous vs 8.7 (S.D. 3.2), P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively]. Patients with thrombotic recurrences showed higher GAPSS values when compared with those without recurrence [13.7 (S.D. 3.1) vs 9.4 (S.D. 3.9), P = 0.02]. This was also seen when comparing recurrences vs no recurrences independently of the site of the thrombotic event [13.9 (S.D. 3.6) vs 11.0 (S.D. 4.3), P = 0.01 for arterial and 13.6 (S.D. 2.18) vs 8.91 (S.D. 3.6), P APS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Global energy demand and its constraints

    Drenckhahn, Wolfgang; Pyc, Ireneusz; Riedle, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    This paper will address how the energy needs are covered today and will also present scenarios for tomorrow. Better technologies can stretch the limited energy resources, reduce the ecological impact and improve the security of supply for many countries depending on energy imports. Many of these efficient technologies are available today but need time and often financial support to penetrate the market, when not cost competitive. The other important lever is increasing the share of renewable and nuclear energy. (orig.)

  8. The global contribution of energy consumption by product exports from China.

    Tang, Erzi; Peng, Chong

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a model to analyze the mechanism of the global contribution of energy usage by product exports. The theoretical analysis is based on the perspective that contribution estimates should be in relatively smaller sectors in which the production characteristics could be considered, such as the productivity distribution for each sector. Then, we constructed a method to measure the global contribution of energy usage. The simple method to estimate the global contribution is the percentage of goods export volume compared to the GDP as a multiple of total energy consumption, but this method underestimates the global contribution because it ignores the structure of energy consumption and product export in China. According to our measurement method and based on the theoretical analysis, we calculated the global contribution of energy consumption only by industrial manufactured product exports in a smaller sector per industry or manufacturing sector. The results indicated that approximately 42% of the total energy usage in the whole economy for China in 2013 was contributed to foreign regions. Along with the primary products and service export in China, the global contribution of energy consumption for China in 2013 by export was larger than 42% of the total energy usage.

  9. Global Warming; Can Nuclear Energy Help?

    Knapp, V.

    1998-01-01

    Kyoto conference is setting the targets and limits for CO 2 emission. In the same time energy consumption is increasing, especially in developing world. If developing countries attain even a moderate fraction of energy consumption of developed countries, this will lead into large increase of total CO 2 emission, unless there is a strong increase of energy production by CO 2 non-emitting sources. Of two major candidates, solar and nuclear energy, the second is technically and economically much closer to ability to accomplish the task. The requirements for a large scale use of nuclear energy and the role of IAEA are discussed. (author)

  10. The Global Surge in Energy Innovation

    Aidan Rhodes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Policymakers are seeking a transformation of the energy system driven by concerns about climate change, energy security and affordability. At the same time, emerging developments in underpinning science and engineering are opening up new possibilities across the whole technology spectrum covering renewables and other supply side technologies, energy demand and energy infrastructure. This paper reviews both the “policy pull” for energy innovation activities and the “science and technology push”. It explores the expectations of a variety of organisations in both the public and private sector regarding these pressures and possibilities by assessing various scenarios and outlook exercises that have been published since 2013. It reveals a wide range of beliefs about the future development of the energy system. The paper then moves on to analyse private sector expenditure on energy research and development (R&D and public sector budgets for energy R&D and demonstration (RD&D. This analysis demonstrates significant divergences in patterns of innovation between the private and public sectors and leads to the hypothesis that the private sector is, broadly, taking measures to reinforce the existing energy paradigm while the public sector is focusing on new energy technologies that support wider policy objectives. This pattern is consistent with past technological transitions, with innovation efforts that would transform the energy system being counteracted by countervailing efforts that reinforce the existing fossil fuel-based paradigm.

  11. Energy Union: a global road-map

    Tourneur, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    This article presents and comments the strategy defined by the European Commission in its document entitled 'Energy Union: secure, sustainable, competitive, affordable energy for every European' which defines a framework and a road-map for the emergence and progress of a Europe of energy. Such an Energy Union means solidarity between members, a free circulation of energy across borders, a priority for energy efficiency, a transition towards a low carbon society, and competitive and affordable prices for the European citizen. The author outlines the present weaknesses of the Europe of energy: first world energy importer, twelve countries being under the required interconnection level (10 per cent of the installed production should be able to cross the borders), some countries depending on a unique provider for their energy imports, low energy performance for buildings and high oil-dependence for transports. On the other hand, good results have already been reached regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. To be successful, this new strategy thus requires high investments and the development of new standards

  12. Perspectives for a global energy supply

    Krafft, P.

    1987-01-01

    The economic development of the industrial world and the population explosion in the Third World will lead to a further increase in world energy consumption. Up to the year 2020 a doubling of today's consumption must be reckoned with. Further increases may be necessary in order to raise the per capita consumption of the population in the Third World. In order to meet this increasing demand it is necessary to consider all available energy sources. The nonrenewable energy sources oil, coal, gas and uranium will have to carry a greater proportion than the current 80 %. The resources suffice for that. However many obstacles must be surmounted in order to secure an essentially increasing energy production. Shortage symptoms with oil are to be expected within a foreseeable space of time. Only coal and nuclear energy can close the gap. In order to avert adverse effects on the climate, CO 2 emissions must be controlled. This can best be achieved by promoting water power, solar energy and nuclear energy as the principal sources. The postulates of the Swiss energy policy 'saving', 'substitution', 'research' and 'provision' seek to guarantee the energy supply. The promotion of hydro, solar and nuclear power must be added. The postulate of a withdrawal from nuclear energy is untenable considering its worldwide development. It would retard Switzerland in its pursuit of supply security and a better environment. 6 figs

  13. Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring.

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maeirsperger; Stith T. Gower; Al A. Kirschbaum; Steve W. Runnings; Maosheng Zhaos; Steven C. Wofsy; Allison L. Dunn; Beverly E. Law; John L. Campbell; Walter C. Oechel; Hyo Jung Kwon; Tilden P. Meyers; Eric E. Small; Shirley A. Kurc; John A. Gamon

    2005-01-01

    Operational monitoring of global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) is now underway using imagery from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Evaluation of MODIS GPP and NPP products will require site-level studies across a range of biomes, with close attention to numerous scaling...

  14. Nuclear Energy is the Answer to Cope with the Lack of Energy and Global Warming

    Wisnu Arya Wardhana

    2009-01-01

    This paper of nuclear energy is the answer to cope with the lack of energy and global warming based on the analysis of energy demand which is increasing rapidly, meanwhile the energy reserve is limited and decreased. Mostly world′s energy is generated by fossil fuel energy, mainly oil and coal. Fossil fuel energy and industrial activities produce green house gases (GHG) such as : COx, CH 4 , N 2 O, and CFC which cause of global warming. Global warming gives bad impact to environment and to human being. Every country in the world needs sufficient energy, but the energy resources is limited and decreased. The answer for this solution must be an energy source which does not produce green house gases. Why nuclear energy is chosen to cope with the lack of energy and global warming will be explained briefly in this paper. (author)

  15. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing: Summary of Findings

    2017-01-01

    The Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing will help policymakers and industry gain deeper understanding of global manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Increased knowledge of the product supply chains can inform decisions related to manufacturing facilities for extracting and processing raw materials, making the array of required subcomponents, and assembling and shipping the final product. This brochure summarized key findings from the analysis and includes important figures from the report. The report was prepared by the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) analysts at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  16. Global energy outlooks. State of the art

    Bobin, J.L.; Nifenecker, H.; Stephan, C.

    1999-01-01

    Since two year, the SFP (French Society of Physics) began a debate on the Energy of the 21 century, by the way of regional conferences. This debate allowed the publication of synthesis documents about elements discussed during these conference. This document presents the foreseeable evolution of the energy demand, taking into account the reserves; the selected production forms consequences in terms of nuisances; the part of the nuclear energy and the renewable energies. The costs are also discussed and many statistical data are provided. (A.L.B.)

  17. Our global energy future and the role of nuclear energy

    Foster, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    An extension in the use of energy, on even a fairly moderate basis, will, for several decades at least, require the use of all our present energy sources at rates that are a natural extension of historical rates, trending toward maximum practicable exploitation for all but nuclear energy. Regardless of what happens with the fossil hydrocarbons nuclear energy will play a major role in the supply of energy. When the fossil hydrocarbons have run their course nuclear and possibly some solar energy, through the media of electricity, hydrogen and synthetic hydrocarbons, will provide the bulk of the world's controlled energy and in sufficient quantity to provide ample energy for all. The burning question, however, is what will happen in the next few decades. There is a wonderful opportunity for nuclear energy, as the world requirement for energy, and particularly electrical energy, grows

  18. Local and global Casimir energies for a semitransparent cylindrical shell

    Cavero-Pelaez, Ines; Milton, Kimball A; Kirsten, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    The local Casimir energy density and the global Casimir energy for a massless scalar field associated with a λδ-function potential in a (3 + 1)-dimensional circular cylindrical geometry are considered. The global energy is examined for both weak and strong coupling, the latter being the well-studied Dirichlet cylinder case. For weak coupling, through O(λ 2 ), the total energy is shown to vanish by both analytic and numerical arguments, based both on Green's-function and zeta-function techniques. Divergences occurring in the calculation are shown to be absorbable by renormalization of physical parameters of the model. The global energy may be obtained by integrating the local energy density only when the latter is supplemented by an energy term residing precisely on the surface of the cylinder. The latter is identified as the integrated local energy density of the cylindrical shell when the latter is physically expanded to have finite thickness. Inside and outside the δ-function shell, the local energy density diverges as the surface of the shell is approached; the divergence is weakest when the conformal stress tensor is used to define the energy density. A real global divergence first occurs in O(λ 3 ), as anticipated, but the proof is supplied here for the first time; this divergence is entirely associated with the surface energy and does not reflect divergences in the local energy density as the surface is approached

  19. Energy efficiency: From regional to global cooperation

    Brendow, K.

    1994-01-01

    In developing, reforming and emerging countries in particular, institutional hurdles have hindered the introduction of energy efficient technology. The author develops the theme from two U.N. projects: A new institutional accessibility to supra-regional cooperation could provide an important stimulus for future worldwide cooperation in the field of energy efficiency. (orig.) [de

  20. Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 2. Potential Effectiveness of Education

    Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier paper (Skamp, Boyes, & Stanisstreet, 2009b), students' beliefs and willingness to act in relation to 16 specific actions related to global warming were compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those…

  1. Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 1. Students' Beliefs and Willingness to Act

    Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Using survey methodology, students' beliefs, and willingness to act, about 16 specific actions related to global warming are compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those actions. In general there was a disparity between…

  2. Tracing Uganda's global primary organic pineapple value chain ...

    The organic sector is one of the fastest growing sectors globally. ... opportunity for developing countries to export high value products in the global market. ... It is clear from the study that the chain is private- sector-driven, has relatively young ...

  3. Nuclear primary energy carriers. Pt. 2

    1978-04-01

    A very brief presentation of the elementary fusion reactions, the energies delivered by them and the most basic energy balances leading to Lawsontype diagrams are given. The reserves and cost of lithium and deuterium, gives estimates of the total available from DT fusion and comments on production technology, availability and handling of the fuels are outlined. A survey is given of the different concepts of magnetic confinement (stellarators, tokamaks, toroidal pinches, mirror machines, two-component plasmas), of confinement by walls, gas blankets and imploding liners and, finally, of the concepts of inertial confinement (laser fusion, beam fusion). The reactors designed or outlined on the basis of the tokamak, high-β, mirror, and laser fusion concepts are presented, which is followed by a discussion of the key problems of fusion power plants. The main reqirements on the superconducting magnet system for possible fusion reactors, particularly tokamak reactors, are discussed and compared with the present state of the superconducting magent technology. The present-day knowledge of the cost structure of fusion power plants and the sensitivity of this structure with respect to the physical and technical assumptions made is analysed. Finally the aspects of safety and environment are treated. The problems discussed include the hazard potentials of different designs (radiological, toxicological, and with respect to stored energies), release of radioactivity, possible kinds of malfunctioning, and the environmental impact of waste heat, radiation and radioactive waste. (orig.) [de

  4. Primary energy sources for hydrogen production

    Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The costs for hydrogen production through water electrolysis are estimated, assuming the electricity is produced from solar, hydro-, fossil, or nuclear power. The costs for hydrogen end-use in the power generation, heat and transportation sectors are also calculated, based on a state of the art technology and a more advanced technology expected to represent the state by the year 2010. The costs for hydrogen utilization (without energy taxes) are shown to be higher than current prices for fossil fuels (including taxes). Without restrictions imposed on fossil fuel consumption, hydrogen shall not gain a significant market share in either of the cases discussed. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 4 refs

  5. Primary energy sources for hydrogen production

    Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.-M.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of hydrogen from water electrolysis is estimated, assuming that the electricity was produced from solar, hydro-, fossil, or nuclear power. The costs for hydrogen end-use in the sectors of power generation, heat and transportation are calculated, based on a state-of-the-art technology and a more advanced technology expected to represent the state by the year 2010. The cost of hydrogen utilization (without energy taxes) is higher than the current price of fossil fuels (including taxes). Without restrictions imposed on fossil fuel consumption, hydrogen will not gain a significant market share in either of the cases discussed. (Author)

  6. Biomass energy and the global carbon balance

    Hall, D.O.; House, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    Studies on climate change and energy production increasingly recognise the crucial role of biological systems. Carbon sinks in forests (above and below ground), CO 2 emissions from deforestation, planting trees for carbon storage, and biomass as a substitute for fossil fuels are some of the key issues which arise. Halting deforestation is of paramount importance, but there is also great potential for reforestation of degraded lands, agroforestry and improved forest management. It is concluded that biomass energy plantations and other types of energy cropping could be a more effective strategy for carbon mitigation than simply growing trees as a carbon store, particularly on higher productivity lands. Use of the biomass produced as an energy source has the added advantage of a wide range of other environmental, social and economic benefits. (author)

  7. Wind's share in global energy markets

    Madsen, B.T.

    1997-01-01

    The question of how great of a contribution wind power can really make to the world's energy needs is discussed. Emphasis up until recently has been mainly on improving wind turbine technology and siting practices as it is these that will provide an answer. The International Energy Agency predicts that world energy demand will increase by 30-50% by 2010. More countries than ever are either using wind power now or are preparing for its use. Wind power continues to improve its price competitiveness. There is enough wind to cover our energy needs many times over, according to some reports twice the world's electricity supply could be met by utilizing just 5-10% of areas identified as having average wind speeds of 5 m/s or greater - ignoring population centers, forests and specially protected areas. But a major limiting factor to utilizing the available wind resource is the established grid systems, which can only base 20% of supply on wind power. It is concluded that wind can contribute significantly to the world's energy needs in the next century and beyond. If wind, which has taken giant leaps in improving its competitiveness over the past 20 hears, can be a major energy contributor by early next century, other renewables such as solar and biomass might also evolve to become major contributors too. If so, renewables, including hydro, could conceivably cover 50% of our energy needs by the middle of the next century. Much will depend on decision-makers at the centers of power. For Europe and certain other areas of the world, policies governing cross-border trade of electricity as well as the framework for environmental protection related to energy production will determine the final outcome

  8. Energy options and the global environment

    Colombo, U.

    1986-01-01

    First, a brief historical sketch of the progress of industrialized society and the change in the quantity and quality of energy system accompanying it is made. It is likely to see a very unstable oil market in future, and it is irresponsible to continue the use of oil simply by burning it to obtain heat and electricity. This time is the opportunity to complete a new energy transition, preserving oil for more effective utilization. There is no single energy source which is as versatile, easy to transport and to use, and cheap as oil, therefore, the relative merits and demerits of various available resources must be carefully assessed. Natural gas, the green-house effect caused by burning fossil fuel, hydroelectric power, nuclear fission power, solar, biomass, wind and geothermal energies are discussed. The important alternatives for the future are nuclear fission power, biomass, and by the middle of the next century, nuclear fusion energy. A pluralistic system is the best suitable to the complex society of the next century, having about 8 billion population. A scenario representing the contribution of nuclear energy in 2050 is illustrated, but the clouds on the nuclear horizon must be dispelled. (Kako, I.)

  9. GEWEX: The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment

    Chahine, M.; Vane, D.

    1994-01-01

    GEWEX is one of the world's largest global change research programs. Its purpose is to observe and understand the hydrological cycle and energy fluxes in the atmosphere, at land surfaces and in the upper oceans.

  10. Wind-energy harnessing - global, national and local considerations

    Price, T.; Bunn, J.

    1996-01-01

    A review of the global issues of wind-energy capture and use is given, along with a case for developing the wind-energy potential of part of the Rhymney Valley, South Wales. Such an energy-supply project should be incorporated into an integrated energy and environmental strategy for the region. This would not only yield benefits with respect to the local, national and global environments, but also aid in enhancing the quality of life for the Rhymney Valley region and its inhabitants. (UK)

  11. Experimental evaluation of the primary damage process: neutron energy effects

    Goland, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the neutron energy dependnece of the primary damage stage depends upon a number of theoretical concepts. This state can only be observed after low- or perhaps ambient-temperature, low-fluence irradiations. The primary recoil energy spectrum, which determines the character of the displacement cascades, can be calculated if dosimetry has provided an accurate neutron spectrum. A review of experimental results relating neutron-energy effects shows that damage energy or damage energy cross section has often been a reliable correlation parameter for primary damage state experiments. However, the forthcoming emphasis on higher irradiation temperatures, more complex alloys and microstructural evolution has fostered a search for additional meaningful correlation parameters.

  12. The core of the global warming problem: energy

    Hu, E.

    2005-01-01

    From the thermodynamic point of view, the global warming problem is an 'energy balance' problem. The heat (energy) accumulation in the earth and its atmosphere is the cause of global warming. This accumulation is mainly due to the imbalance of (solar) energy reaching and the energy leaving the earth, caused by 'greenhouse effect' in which the CO 2 and other greenhouse gases play a critical role; so that balance of the energy entering and leaving the earth should be the key to solve the problem. Currently in the battle of tackling the global warming, we mainly focus on the development of CO 2 -related measures, i.e., emission reduction, CO 2 sequestration, and CO 2 recycle technologies. It is right in technical aspect, because they are attempting to thin the CO 2 'blanket' around the earth. However, 'Energy' that is the core of the problem has been overlooked, at least in management/policy aspect. This paper is proposing an 'Energy Credit' i.e., the energy measure concept as an alternative to the 'CO 2 credit' that is currently in place in the proposed emission trading scheme. The proposed energy credit concept has the advantages such as covering broad activities related to the global warming and not just direct emissions. Three examples are given in the paper to demonstrate the concept of the energy measure and its advantages over the CO 2 credit concept. (Author)

  13. Energy and sustainability: a global view

    Goldemberg, J.

    1995-01-01

    A discussion is made of the conflicting concepts of sustainable development, focusing primarily on energy resources, as viewed by economists and environmentalists. According to the 'preservationist' view we 'borrow' the Earth from generations to come and have no right to use exhaustible resources. According to 'developmentalists' natural resources are either infinite or can be substituted by alternatives so there is no real problem of exhaustion of resources. It is shown that a compromise between such extreme positions is being forced by the heightened concerns for environmental protection. Outstanding among them are the problems of climate changes resulting from CO 2 (carbon dioxide) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The energy consumed at present by industrialized and developing countries, and their projections to the year 2020 will be presented as well as the serious environmental consequences of a 'business-as-usual' scenario. These consequences will be much harder to cope with in the developing countries. Carbon emissions will be shown to increase with population, GDP and the 'energy intensity' of the economy. The 'decarbonization' trends of the present economies will be related to the decrease in total fertility rate and 'energy intensity' which is linked to technological advances in energy conservation and structural changes. Mechanisms to accelerate such trends will be discussed as well as financial mechanisms to pay for it, such as carbon taxes. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  14. Wind energy global trends: Opportunities and challenges

    Ancona, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the least cost and environmentally attractive new electricity source options for many parts of the world. Because of new wind turbine technology, reduced costs, short installation time, and environmental benefits, countries all over the world are beginning to once again develop one of the world's oldest energy technologies. A unique set of opportunities and challenges now faces the wind industry and its proponents. This paper discusses the potential and challenges of wind power. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working closely with industry to develop new, improved wind turbine technology and to support both domestic and international deployment. The US DOE Wind Program is discussed within this context

  15. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26–141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture. - Highlights: ► Global energy crop potentials in 2050 are calculated with a biophysical biomass-balance model. ► The study is focused on dedicated energy crops, forestry and residues are excluded. ► Depending on food-system change, global energy crop potentials range from 26–141 EJ/yr. ► Exclusion of protected areas and failed states may reduce the potential up to 45%. ► The bioenergy potential may be 26% lower or 45% higher, depending on energy crop yields.

  16. Global energy for the next millennium

    Jacobs, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Public demand for cleaner air; an ever-growing need for electricity; rising standards of living; convenience of use and reliability of supply--these are the global forces that are accelerating the demand for natural gas today, from Thailand to Brazil, and the gas industry worldwide is moving fast to meet this growing need. Changes--in the regulatory environment, physical infrastructure, and technology--are coming at an unprecedented rate. These changes in turn are exerting a strong influence on the structuring of new gas industries, and the restructuring of existing ones, around the world. The most dramatic increase in gas use, in recent years, was in the Asia-Pacific region and South America, but the expansion is virtually universal. The widespread availability of more efficient gas-fired, combined-cycle power plants are playing a major role in this expansion, but changing trends in demand, regulatory policy, infrastructure development, and technology all contribute to structural change in the industry. In the broadest sense, these are all global issues, transcending national and even regional boundaries. When one looks more closely at exactly how demand growth or regulatory change, for example, is acting as a catalyst for industry restructuring, one can still see significant regional and national differences. A brief overview of these trends is presented

  17. Factors Influencing Energy Quantisation | Adelabu | Global Journal ...

    Department of Physics, College of Science & Agriculture, University of Abuja, P. M. B. 117, Abuja FCT, Nigeria. Investigations of energy quantisation in a range of multiple quantum well (MQW) systems using effective mass band structure calculations including non-parabolicity in both the well and barrier layers are reported.

  18. global health strategies versus local primary health care priorities

    CARE PRIORITIES - A CASE STUDY. OF NATIONAL ... development of comprehensive primary health care (pHC). The routine ..... on injection safety will be sustainable. On the negative side, ... This is mainly at management level, where time ...

  19. Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    1998-01-01

    The Institute for Global Change Research and Education (IGCRE) is a joint initiative of the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) for coordinating and facilitating research and education relevant to global environmental change. Created in 1992 with primary support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), IGCRE fosters participation by university, private sector and government scientists who seek to develop long-term collaborative research in global change science, focusing on the role of water and energy in the Earth's atmosphere and physical climate system. IGCRE is also chartered to address educational needs of Earth system and global change science, including the preparation of future scientists and training of primary and secondary education teachers.

  20. Technology Learning Ratios in Global Energy Models; Ratios de Aprendizaje Tecnologico en Modelos Energeticos Globales

    Varela, M.

    2001-07-01

    The process of introduction of a new technology supposes that while its production and utilisation increases, also its operation improves and its investment costs and production decreases. The accumulation of experience and learning of a new technology increase in parallel with the increase of its market share. This process is represented by the technological learning curves and the energy sector is not detached from this process of substitution of old technologies by new ones. The present paper carries out a brief revision of the main energy models that include the technology dynamics (learning). The energy scenarios, developed by global energy models, assume that the characteristics of the technologies are variables with time. But this tend is incorporated in a exogenous way in these energy models, that is to say, it is only a time function. This practice is applied to the cost indicators of the technology such as the specific investment costs or to the efficiency of the energy technologies. In the last years, the new concept of endogenous technological learning has been integrated within these global energy models. This paper examines the concept of technological learning in global energy models. It also analyses the technological dynamics of the energy systems including the endogenous modelling of the process of technological progress. Finally, it makes a comparison of several of the most used global energy models (MARKAL, MESSAGE and ERIS) and, more concretely, about the use these models make of the concept of technological learning. (Author) 17 refs.

  1. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    Mercure, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary material provides theoretical details and tables of data and parameters that enable this extensive database to be adapted to a variety of energy systems modelling frameworks. -- Highlights: ► Global energy potentials for all major energy resources are reported. ► Theory and methodology for calculating economic energy potentials is given. ► An uncertainty analysis for all energy economic potentials is carried out.

  2. Energy and ethics. Ethical aspects of a future global power generation; Energie und Ethik. Ethische Aspekte zukuenftiger globaler Stromerzeugung

    Gethmann, C.F. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Philosophie; Europaeische Akademie Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The article deals with ethical questions regarding a future global energy supply by considering the normative aspects of economic efficiency, long-term liabilities, environmental sustainability, social acceptability and distributive equity. Regarding the ethical issues dealt with in the debate on the global energy supply, in particular two postulates arise: Both an improvement in knowledge and an improvement in the categories and procedures of ethical reflection are required. (orig.)

  3. Integrating global energy and climate governance: The changing role of the International Energy Agency

    Heubaum, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Despite the long-recognized interlinkages between global energy consumption and climate change, there has historically been only limited policy interaction, let alone integration, between the two fields. This compartmentalization is mirrored in scholarship, where much research has focused on the fragmentation of, respectively, global energy and global climate governance, but only little has been said about how these fields might be integrated. Our analysis of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) changing activities in recent years shows that governance integration – both within global energy governance and between global energy and climate governance – is now happening. The IEA has broadened its portfolio to embrace the full spectrum of energy issues, including renewable energy and climate change; it has built and is expanding key partnerships with both the UN climate convention and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA); and it has become an authoritative advocate for the inter-related goals of a low-carbon transition and climate change mitigation. We show that these developments are not the result of a top-down plan, but have rather emerged through the Agency’s various efforts to pursue its energy-centric mandate in a fast-changing global policy environment. - Highlights: • Assesses integration between global energy and global climate governance. • Analyzes organizational change in the IEA and its impact on governance integration. • Discusses recent activities and advocacy by the IEA in relation to climate change.

  4. An overview of energy consumption of the globalized world economy

    Chen, Z.M.; Chen, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    For the globalized world economy with intensive international trade, an overview of energy consumption is presented by an embodied energy analysis to track both direct and indirect energy uses based on a systems input-output simulation. In 2004, the total amounts of energy embodied in household consumption, government consumption, and investment are 7749, 874, and 2009 Mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent), respectively. The United States is shown as the world's biggest embodied energy importer (683 Mtoe) and embodied energy surplus receiver (290 Mtoe), in contrast to China as the biggest exporter (662 Mtoe) and deficit receiver (274 Mtoe). Energy embodied in consumption per capita varies from 0.05 (Uganda) to 19.54 toe (Rest of North America). Based on a forecast for 2005-2035, China is to replace the United States as the world's leading embodied energy consumer in 2027, when its per capita energy consumption will be one quarter of that of the United States. - Highlights: → We present an overview of global energy profile in terms of embodied energy. → The US and China are top embodied energy consumers as well as traders in 2004. → Equality issue is studied by analyzing per capita embodied energy consumption. → The US remains to be the leading energy consumer until replaced by China in 2027.

  5. National Renewable Energy Policy in a Global World

    Jeong, Minji

    Increasing trade of renewable energy products has significantly contributed to reducing the costs of renewable energy sources, but at the same time, it has generated protectionist policies, which may negatively affect the trend of the cost reduction. Although a few recent studies examined the rise of renewable energy protectionism and trade disputes, they are limited in addressing the conflict between the original goal of traditional renewable energy policies and the new protectionist policies under the globalized renewable energy industry. To fill this gap, this dissertation explores how the globalized renewable energy industry has changed national renewable energy policies. Through three analyses, three aspects of the globalized renewable energy industry are examined: the rise of multinational corporations, international interactions among actors, and the changes of the global and domestic market conditions. First analysis investigates how multinational renewable energy corporations have affected national policies. A content analysis of the annual reports of 15 solar photovoltaic multinational corporation shows that solar multinationals have been influenced by national policies and have adapted to the changes rather than having attempted to change national policies. Second analysis examines how diverse actors have framed renewable energy trade issues through a network analysis of the Chinese solar panel issue in the United States. The result shows that the Chinese solar panel issue was framed differently from the traditional environmental frame of renewable energy, being dominated by multinational corporations headquartered in other countries. Third analysis explores what has caused the increasing diversity in national renewable energy policies through the case studies of the U.S. and South Korea. The result reveals that the globalization of solar industry has affected the diversification of solar policies in two countries by generating both challenges, which

  6. The legitimation of global energy governance: a normative exploration

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Global energy governance has very limited legitimacy in the eyes of mostgovernments. Although the concept has been starting to surface in academic papers it is still barely used in policy discussions. It is contested, almost taboo, to raise the need for international norms around energy production

  7. MODIS-based global terrestrial estimates of gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration

    Ryu, Y.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Kobayashi, H.; Li, J.; van Ingen, C.; Agarwal, D.; Jackson, K.; Humphrey, M.

    2010-12-01

    We propose a novel approach to quantify gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) at global scale (5 km resolution with 8-day interval). The MODIS-based, process-oriented approach couples photosynthesis, evaporation, two-leaf energy balance and nitrogen, which are different from the previous satellite-based approaches. We couple information from MODIS with flux towers to assess the drivers and parameters of GPP and ET. Incoming shortwave radiation components (direct and diffuse PAR, NIR) under all sky condition are modeled using a Monte-Carlo based atmospheric radiative transfer model. The MODIS Level 2 Atmospheric products are gridded and overlaid with MODIS Land products to produce spatially compatible forcing variables. GPP is modeled using a two-leaf model (sunlit and shaded leaf) and the maximum carboxylation rate is estimated using albedo-Nitrogen-leaf trait relations. The GPP is used to calculate canopy conductance via Ball-Berry model. Then, we apply Penman-Monteith equation to calculate evapotranspiration. The process-oriented approach allows us to investigate the main drivers of GPP and ET at global scale. Finally we explore the spatial and temporal variability of GPP and ET at global scale.

  8. Closing the Gap GEF Experiences in Global Energy Efficiency

    Yang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency plays and will continue to play an important role in the world to save energy and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, little is known on how much additional capital should be invested to ensure using energy efficiently as it should be, and very little is known which sub-areas, technologies, and countries shall achieve maximum greenhouse gas emissions mitigation per dollar of investment in energy efficiency worldwide. Analyzing completed and slowly moving energy efficiency projects by the Global Environment Facility during 1991-2010, Closing the Gap: GEF Experiences in Global Energy Efficiency evaluates impacts of multi-billion-dollar investments in the world energy efficiency. It covers the following areas: 1.       Reviewing the world energy efficiency investment and disclosing the global energy efficiency gap and market barriers that cause the gap; 2.       Leveraging private funds with public funds and other resources in energy efficiency investments; using...

  9. Global energy scenarios, climate change and sustainable development

    Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2003-01-01

    Energy scenarios provide a framework for exploring future energy perspectives, including various combinations of technology options and their implications. Many scenarios in the literature illustrate how energy system developments may affect global change. Examples are the new emissions scenarios by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the energy scenarios by the World Energy Assessment (WEA). Some of these scenarios describe energy futures that are compatible with sustainable development goals; such as improved energy efficiencies and the adoption of advanced energy supply technologies. Sustainable development scenarios are also characterized by low environmental impacts (at local, regional and global scales) and equitable allocation of resources and wealth. They can help explore different transitions toward sustainable development paths and alternative energy perspectives in general. The considerable differences in expected total energy requirements among the scenarios reflect the varying approaches used to address the need for energy services in the future and demonstrate effects of different policy frameworks, changes in human behavior and investments in the future, as well as alternative unfolding of the main scenario driving forces such as demographic transitions, economic development and technological change. Increases in research, development and deployment efforts for new energy technologies are a prerequisite for achieving further social and economic development in the world. Significant technological advances will be required, as well as incremental improvements in conventional energy technologies. In general, significant policy and behavioral changes will be needed during the next few decades to achieve more sustainable development paths and mitigate climate change toward the end of the century. (au)

  10. Geothermal Energy: Delivering on the Global Potential

    Paul L. Younger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy has been harnessed for recreational uses for millennia, but only for electricity generation for a little over a century. Although geothermal is unique amongst renewables for its baseload and renewable heat provision capabilities, uptake continues to lag far behind that of solar and wind. This is mainly attributable to (i uncertainties over resource availability in poorly-explored reservoirs and (ii the concentration of full-lifetime costs into early-stage capital expenditure (capex. Recent advances in reservoir characterization techniques are beginning to narrow the bounds of exploration uncertainty, both by improving estimates of reservoir geometry and properties, and by providing pre-drilling estimates of temperature at depth. Advances in drilling technologies and management have potential to significantly lower initial capex, while operating expenditure is being further reduced by more effective reservoir management—supported by robust models—and increasingly efficient energy conversion systems (flash, binary and combined-heat-and-power. Advances in characterization and modelling are also improving management of shallow low-enthalpy resources that can only be exploited using heat-pump technology. Taken together with increased public appreciation of the benefits of geothermal, the technology is finally ready to take its place as a mainstream renewable technology, exploited far beyond its traditional confines in the world’s volcanic regions.

  11. Status of global energy confinement studies

    Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.G.; DeBoo, J.C.; Waltz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Sigmar, D.

    1990-02-01

    Empirical scaling expressions, reflecting the parametric dependence of the L-mode energy confinement time, have been used not only as benchmarks for tokamak operation and theories of energy transport, but for predicting the performance of proposed tokamak devices. Several scaling expressions based on data from small-and medium-sized devices have done well in predicting performance in larger devices, although great uncertainty exists in extrapolating yet farther, into the ignition regime. Several approaches exist for developing higher confidence scaling expressions. These include reducing the statistical uncertainty by identifying and filling in gaps in the present database, making use of more sophisticated statistical techniques, and developing scalings for confinement regimes within which future devices will operate. Confidence in the scaling expressions will be increased still if the expressions can be more directly tied to transport physics theory. This can be done through the use of dimensionless parameters, better describing the edge and core confinement regimes separately, and by incorporating transport models directly into the scaling expressions. 50 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Nuclear fusion as new energy option in a global single-regional energy system model

    Eherer, C.; Baumann, M.; Dueweke, J.; Hamacher, T.

    2005-01-01

    Is there a window of opportunity for fusion on the electricity market under 'business as usual' conditions, and if not, how do the boundary conditions have to look like to open such a window? This question is addressed within a subtask of the Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) programme of the European Commission. The most advanced energy-modelling framework, the TIMES model generator developed by the Energy Technology System Analysis Project group of the IEA (ETSAP) has been used to implement a global single-regional partial equilibrium energy model. Within the current activities the potential role of fusion power in various future energy scenarios is studied. The final energy demand projections of the baseline of the investigations are based on IIASA-WEC Scenario B. Under the quite conservative baseline assumptions fusion only enters the model solution with 35 GW in 2100 and it can be observed that coal technologies dominate electricity production in 2100. Scenario variations show that the role of fusion power is strongly affected by the availability of GEN IV fission breeding technologies as energy option and by CO 2 emission caps. The former appear to be a major competitor of fusion power while the latter open a window of opportunity for fusion power on the electricity market. An interesting outcome is furthermore that the possible share of fusion electricity is more sensitive to the potential of primary resources like coal, gas and uranium, than to the share of solar and wind power in the system. This indicates that both kinds of technologies, renewables and fusion power, can coexist in future energy systems in case of CO 2 emission policies and/or resource scarcity scenarios. It is shown that Endogenous Technological Learning (ETL), a more consistent description of technological progress than mere time series, has an impact on the model results. (author)

  13. Nuclear energy as a contribution to the solution of energetic and environmental global problems

    Huttl, A.

    1993-01-01

    The sharp population growth has turned energy and environment problems into global problems. The yearly consumption of primary energy in the world is currently 11 billion TCE (Tons of Coal Equivalent). At the present time 88.1% of energy supply is produced by fossil fuels and nuclear only 5.2%. Fossil fuels are responsible for air pollutants like SO 2 , NO, NO 2 , CO 2 , and VOC. Most of them are responsible of the Greenhouse effect and global warming. Only two solutions may avoid this situation: Renewable energies (sun, water and wind) and Nuclear Energy. At the end of 1990 there were 424 nuclear power plants in the world with 1800 million Tu/year of CO 2 avoided (8% of the total emitted). New future scenarios of CO 2 avoided may only be reached with nuclear power contribution

  14. Global patterns of renewable energy innovation, 1990–2009

    Bayer, Patrick; Dolan, Lindsay; Urpelainen, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Cost-effective approaches to mitigating climate change depend on advances in clean energy technologies, such as solar and wind power. Given increased technology innovation in developing countries, led by China, we focus our attention on global patterns of renewable energy innovation. Utilizing highly valuable international patents as our indicator of innovation, we examine the economic and political determinants of energy innovation in 74 countries across the world, 1990–2009. We find that hi...

  15. Probabilistic energy forecasting: Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2014 and beyond

    Hong, Tao; Pinson, Pierre; Fan, Shu

    2016-01-01

    The energy industry has been going through a significant modernization process over the last decade. Its infrastructure is being upgraded rapidly. The supply, demand and prices are becoming more volatile and less predictable than ever before. Even its business model is being challenged fundamenta......The energy industry has been going through a significant modernization process over the last decade. Its infrastructure is being upgraded rapidly. The supply, demand and prices are becoming more volatile and less predictable than ever before. Even its business model is being challenged...... fundamentally. In this competitive and dynamic environment, many decision-making processes rely on probabilistic forecasts to quantify the uncertain future. Although most of the papers in the energy forecasting literature focus on point or singlevalued forecasts, the research interest in probabilistic energy...

  16. Energy and globalization: towards a new deal? File nr 29

    Meritet, Sophie; Lincot, Emmanuel; Pereyron, Gilles; Criqui, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    This document proposes large summaries of contributions presented at a meeting on globalization held in March 2013. These contributions addressed the following topics: future world perspectives for energy (market evolution, actors, trends and scenarios), China in front of the energy challenge (search for an always strong economic growth, severe environmental impacts due to energy over-consumption which resulted in a new governance, evolution of Chinese diplomacy and energy supply origins), levers in favour of a universal access to energy (demographic evolutions, energy availability, differences within countries and between geographical locations, fuel poverty in Africa and also in northern countries, proposition of an introduction of a right for energy and for water in European constitutions), and some elements of thoughts about energy transition at the world level (scenarios, different policies to face the energy challenge)

  17. GLOBAL IMPACT OF SOLAR ENERGY, CASE STUDY - GERMANY

    Gheorghe Caralicea Marculescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is a socially and politically defined category of energy sources. Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are continually replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat. About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewable resources, with 10% of all energy from traditional biomass, mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels accounted for another 3% and are growing rapidly. This paper seeks is aimed at presenting the impact solar energy could have on a world level given the finitude, reachability and ever increasing prices of fossil fuels. As a case study we will present the solar energy industry in Germany emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages this form of energy has in this country and worldwide.

  18. Global energy efficiency governance in the context of climate politics

    Gupta, J.; Ivanova, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that energy efficiency and conservation is a noncontroversial, critical, and equitable option for rich and poor alike. Although there is growing scientific and political consensus on its significance as an important option at global and national level, the political momentum for taking action is not commensurate with the potential in the sector or the urgency with which measures need to be taken to deal with climate change. The current global energy (efficiency) governance framework is diffuse. This paper submits that there are four substantive reasons why global governance should play a complementary role in promoting energy efficiency worldwide. Furthermore, given that market mechanisms are unable to rapidly mobilize energy efficiency projects and that there are no clear vested interests in this field which involves a large number of actors, there is need for a dedicated agency to promote energy efficiency and conservation. This paper provides an overview of energy efficiency options presented by IPCC, the current energy efficiency governance structure at global level, and efforts taken at supranational and national levels, and makes suggestions for a governance framework.

  19. Nuclear energy and global warming: a new economic view

    Rokhshad Hejazi

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to state energy situation and then energy policy globally in economic view and then offer the practical solution. Besides above questions, the most important questions that will be answered are: What is the energy position, in economic view? and what is the most important priority among environmental issues? According to present conditions and environmental challenges what is the way map for energy supply? Is the priority for environment and energy with an economic sight, in present and future, same as the past? (Author)

  20. Proceedings of the 10. Brazilian congress on energy. The global access to energy. v. 1

    2004-01-01

    This congress approaches the papers presenting the global utilization of the access to the energy, covering the following subjects: models for prediction the supply and demand of energy, energy and climatic changes, technological prospecting of the energy generation, and regulation and legislation of energetic projects

  1. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a digital map of human appropriation of net...

  2. Study on fusion energy conformity with global environmental issues

    Kurihara, Kenichi

    1998-01-01

    Global environmental conformity has been one of the most important issues discussed recently as being required for all human activities. From this point of view, this report investigates whether nuclear fusion can be a benign energy source for the global environment. First of all, we chose the following global environmental problems: (1) Global warming, (2) Acid rain, (3) Ozonosphere destruction, (4) Air pollution, (5) Environmental hormones, (6) Radiation and radioactive materials, (7) Electromagnetic waves, and (8) Heat drainage from an energy source. Secondly, these problems were fully surveyed in terms of their relationships with proposed nuclear fusion power plant. Finally, as a result of this discussion, it was confirmed that a fusion power plant would not produce any new problems, but would partially contribute to solving some of the environmental problems. (author)

  3. Energy Transition for Industry: India and the Global Context

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication further develops the analysis presented in the India chapter of Energy Technology Perspectives 2010 and provides insights on the implications of achieving deep energy and CO2 emission cuts in the industrial sector both for India and globally. It investigates the least-cost combination of options that can significantly reduce energy and CO2 emissions in India's industrial sector, while enabling the Indian economy to continue to grow and alleviate energy poverty. For India to play its part in helping to realise deep cuts in global CO2 emissions by the middle of the 21st century, it will need to achieve rapid economic development over the next 40 years with only a very small increase in emissions. Currently there is no precedent for such a low-CO2 development path. The challenge for India will be to achieve strong economic growth while improving energy security, but without locking in high emissions.

  4. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  5. Eduction and outreach for the global energy challenge

    Snieder, R.

    2008-12-01

    Energy is the life-blood of the modern world. According to the Energy Information Administration, global energy consumption is expected to grow by about 70% in the coming 25 years. Much of this growth is driven by developing countries, whose inhabitants seek a standard of living that more closely resembles that of the western world. Petroleum provides about 40% of the world-wide energy demand, and, although estimates vary, oil production is expected to peak in the relatively near-future. The combination of increased energy demand and declining petroleum supply can be a threat to political stability and is likely to lead to a shift towards coal and non-conventional oil. This will further increase CO2 emissions and thus accelerate global warming and life-altering regional climate changes. Many actions can be taken now to begin to reduce energy demand, diversify our energy portfolio, and reduce costs of energy supplies, with lower greenhouse gas emissions. This will not happen, however, without a plan and the willingness to implement such a plan. Public engagement and education in dealing with the pressing challenges and opportunities are the key to getting started now. In order to foster such engagement I have prepared the presentation "The Global Energy Challenge." This Powerpoint presentation is freely available and aims to be appealing and understandable for a broad audience. The comment-boxes in the Powerpoint presentation give ideas for a narrative. The presentation sketches the tension between increased energy demand, peak oil, the associated challenge in curbing climate change, and actions that we can take towards a sustainable energy system. The presentation gives ideas for positive action that teachers, students, businessmen, consumers, and citizens can take, and it conveys that the challenges related to our energy supply come with career opportunities, a point that is especially appealing to a young audience. I invite to help making a difference by

  6. Global energy security and the implications for the EU

    Umbach, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The following article will analyse the global and geopolitical dimensions of the future international energy security and its implications for Europe and the EU-27. In this context, I will discuss to which extent the EU's newly proclaimed 'Energy Action Plan' of the EU Spring summit of 2007 and its declared common energy (foreign) policy are a sufficient strategy to cope with the new global and geopolitical challenges. The article concludes the following: (1) The interlinkage between globally designed traditional energy security concepts - that rely just on economic factors and 'market-strategies' - and domestic as well as regional political stability demands new thinking with regard to both energy supply security and foreign and security policies. (2) Although after the Russian-Ukrainian gas conflict in January 2006, energy security has forced its way up the European energy and foreign policy agendas, the EU-27 member states have largely failed to forge a coherent European energy security and energy foreign policy strategy after their Spring summit of 2007 because its declared political solidarity has been still lacking. But the 2nd Strategic Energy Review of November 2008 has recommended new initiatives to overcome this lack by promoting concrete infrastructure and other projects for enhancing Europe's supply security and its political solidarity as part of a common energy (foreign) policy. If the EU is able to implement the March 2007 and November 2008 decisions, the EU oil and gas demand will drastically reduce and freeze at current levels. In this case, Putin's energy policies by using Russia's energy resources and pipeline monopolies as a political instrument to enforce its economic and geopolitical interests will be proved as self-defeating in Russia's long-term strategic interests. It will reduce Gazprom's gas exports to a much smaller EU gas market than originally forecasted as the result of a deliberate EU policy of decreasing its overall gas demand and

  7. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E 3 (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E 3 model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E 3 model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues

  8. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology and Safety Assessment Div.

    1997-09-24

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E{sup 3} (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E{sup 3} model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E{sup 3} model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues.

  9. Global climate-oriented building energy use scenarios

    Harvey, L.D. Danny

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the extent to which global fuel use in buildings could be reduced, and the growth in global electricity use in buildings limited, by applying stringent (factor of 3–4) improvements to recent building codes for new buildings worldwide and large (factor of 2–3) reductions in the energy use of existing buildings through renovations. The analysis is carried out for 10 different socio-economic regions of the world, taking into account existing building stock and energy intensities in each region and projected changes in population and income, which in most parts of the world will drive large increases in building floor area. A stock turnover model is applied to project changes in heating, cooling, service hot water (SHW) and non-thermal electricity demand with various rates of improvement in standards for new and renovated buildings, and various rates of renovation and demolition of existing buildings. For a scenario in which population peaks at about 9 billion and global average per capita GDP increases to twice the 2010 value by 2100, the global fuel demand could be reduced by a factor of four while limiting maximum annual electricity demand to twice the 2010 value. - Highlights: • A detailed model for generating global scenarios of building energy use is presented. • Drivers of increasing energy use are population and per capita GDP in 10 regions. • Heating, cooling and ventilation energy uses are projected using a stock turnover model. • Global building fuel demand could decrease by 60–80% by 2100 relative to 2010. • Global building electricity demand could be limited to a 100–200% increase

  10. Global warming combat policies in energy sector of Iran

    Rahimi, N.; Karbassi, A. R.; Abbaspour, M.

    2002-01-01

    Among the efforts to slow the potential for climate change are measures to reduce emissions of CO 2 from energy use, and promote long-term storage of carbon in forests and soils. Important environmental changes due to climate change and global warming pose potentially significant risks to humans, social systems, and natural world. Many uncertainties remain regarding precise timing,magnitude, and regional patterns of climate change and the extent to which mankind and nature can adapt to any changes. Estimating technical / economical / environmental potentials for reducing CO 2 emission in energy sector and preventing of global warming is one of the main activities, which have been performed for the first time in Iran. By use of 26 factors, model on global warming combat policies in energy sector of Iran in long-medium and short term determine decreasing amount of CO 2 emission. The results and also method of providing this model will be described in this paper

  11. Global revolution: a status report on renewable energy worldwide

    Martinot, Eric

    2005-01-01

    With at least 48 countries around the world having some type of renewable energy promotion policy, and increasingly favourable economics, renewables are seeing strong growth and increasing significance. In 2004, global investment in renewables reached US$30 billion. More than 1.7 million people are directly employed by the industry and the 180 GW of installed renewables represents 4% of global capacity. The author discusses the state of renewables in 2005, based on the Just-released 'Renewables 2005 Global Status Report' which was sponsored by the REN21 Renewable Energy Policy Network and involved over 100 collaborators, under the headings: investment trends; industry and market trends; policies to promote renewable energy. (UK)

  12. Local and global dynamical effects of dark energy

    Chernin, A. D.

    Local expansion flows of galaxies were discovered by Lemaitre and Hubble in 1927-29 at distances of less than 25-30 Mpc. The global expansion of the Universe as a whole was predicted theoretically by Friedmann in 1922-24 and discovered in the 1990s in observations at truly cosmological distances of more than 1 000 Mpc. On all these spatial scales, the flows follow a (nearly) linear velocity-distance relation, known now as Hubble's law. This similarity of local and global phenomena is due to the universal dark energy antigravity which dominates the cosmic dynamics on both local and global spatial scales.

  13. Metaphors of Primary School Students Relating to the Concept of Global Warming

    Dogru, Mustafa; Sarac, Esra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the metaphors of primary school students (n = 362) relating to the concept of global warming. Data collected by completing the expression of "global warming is like..., because..." of the students were analysed by use of qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques. According to findings of…

  14. Asia's growing role in the global energy markets

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Three articles are drawn together in this special Petroleum Economist survey on the growing role played by Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian Pacific area; the second describes the growth of Asia's natural gas industry and the third item celebrates the product surplus produced due to recent refinery expansion programs. (UK)

  15. Neutrons for global energy solutions. Book of abstracts

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The book of abstracts of the conference on neutrons for global energy solutions include contributions to the following topics: Views from politics: What do we need in European energy research: cooperation, large facilities, more science? Fundamental research for energy supply. View from the United States. View from industry: Neutrons for nuclear reactor development in transition stage between generation III and generation IV. Toyotas's expectations for neutron analysis. Instrumentation and cross cutting issues. Energy sources. Waste management and environment. Li ion batteries. Photovoltaics. Savings and catalysis. Fuel cells. Hydrogen storage.

  16. From Extraction to Renewal: A Global Campaign for Healthy Energy.

    Wang, Jennifer S; Euripidou, Rico; Armstrong, Fiona; Jensen, Génon K; Karliner, Josh; Guinto, Renzo R; Zhao, Ang; Narayanan, Divya; Orris, Peter

    2016-02-01

    A global movement is emerging in the health sector to engage in discourse and advocacy on the health impacts and health costs of energy choices--specifically the health harms of extractive, climate-disrupting energy sources such as coal and gas. Individuals and organizations in the health sector have begun to address climate and energy issues at multiple levels of engagement, including with others in the health sector, with pollution-affected communities, with policy makers, and with the media. We present recent examples of health sector advocacy and leadership on the health impacts of energy choices and opportunities for broadening and deepening the movement. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Neutrons for global energy solutions. Book of abstracts

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The book of abstracts of the conference on neutrons for global energy solutions include contributions to the following topics: Views from politics: What do we need in European energy research: cooperation, large facilities, more science? Fundamental research for energy supply. View from the United States. View from industry: Neutrons for nuclear reactor development in transition stage between generation III and generation IV. Toyotas's expectations for neutron analysis. Instrumentation and cross cutting issues. Energy sources. Waste management and environment. Li ion batteries. Photovoltaics. Savings and catalysis. Fuel cells. Hydrogen storage.

  18. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability.

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26-141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture.

  19. Nuclear energy ranks first as primary energy source in Europe in 2012

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    According to the 2012 report of Eurostat, nuclear energy represents 30% of the production of primary energy in the member states of the E.U., renewable energies a little less than 20% and fossil energies a little more than 50%. In Europe the production of primary energy has been decreasing since 2001, from 940 million tonnes in 2001 to 794 million tonnes in 2012. In Europe the gross energy consumption has decreased in 24 member states to reach the level of 1995 year. In 2012 the E.U.'s dependence rate for energy was of 53% on average. Only Denmark was a net exporter of energy while the dependence rate for energy of the main E.U. energy consumers were: Germany (61%), Spain (73%), France (48%), United-Kingdom (42%) and Italy (81%). (A.C.)

  20. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can...... be stored in elastic hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non-trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...

  1. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...... hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic energy in global...... ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship-ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing is confined...

  2. Dynamic Modelling with "MLE-Energy Dynamic" for Primary School

    Giliberti, Enrico; Corni, Federico

    During the recent years simulation and modelling are growing instances in science education. In primary school, however, the main use of software is the simulation, due to the lack of modelling software tools specially designed to fit/accomplish the needs of primary education. In particular primary school teachers need to use simulation in a framework that is both consistent and simple enough to be understandable by children [2]. One of the possible area to approach modelling is about the construction of the concept of energy, in particular for what concerns the relations among substance, potential, power [3]. Following the previous initial research results with this approach [2], and with the static version of the software MLE Energy [1], we suggest the design and the experimentation of a dynamic modelling software—MLE dynamic-capable to represent dynamically the relations occurring when two substance-like quantities exchange energy, modifying their potential. By means of this software the user can graphically choose the dependent and independent variables and leave the other parameters fixed. The software has been initially evaluated, during a course of science education with a group of primary school teachers-to-be, to test the ability of the software to improve teachers' way of thinking in terms of substance-like quantities and their effects (graphical representation of the extensive, intensive variables and their mutual relations); moreover, the software has been tested with a group of primary school teachers, asking their opinion about the software didactical relevance in the class work.

  3. Solar energy and global heat balance of a city

    Roulet, Claude-Alain [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lab. d' Energie Solaire et de Physique du Batiment, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    The global energy balance of a city involves numerous energy flows and is rather complex. It includes, among others, the absorbed solar radiation and the energy fuels on one hand, and the heat loss to the environment --- by radiation, convection and evaporation --- on the other hand. This balance generally results in a temperature in the town that is slightly higher than in the surrounding country. Using solar energy saves imported fuels on one hand, but increases the absorption of solar radiation on the other hand. Simple, steady state models are used to assess the change of heat released to the environment when replacing the use of classical fuels by solar powered plants, on both the global and city scale. The conclusion is that, in most cases, this will reduce the heat released to the environment. The exception is cooling, for which a good solar alternative does not exist today. (Author)

  4. Nuclear energy role and potential for global sustainable development

    Ujita, H.; Matsui, K.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term energy supply simulation that optimizes the energy system cost until 2100 for the world is being performed, by using the energy module of GRAPE model, where energy demand under the C02 emission constraint etc. is assumed. The model has been taken up for the trial calculation in I PCC the third report . Role and potential of nuclear energy system in the energy options is discussed here from the viewpoint of sustainable development with protecting from global warming. Taking the effort for energy conservation as major premise, carbon-sequestration for fossil fuel, renewable energy and nuclear energy should be altogether developed under the C02 constraint. Especially, fast breeder reactor will be attached importance to, as the 22nd century is approaching, due to its carbon free and resource limitless features when the nuclear generation cost is cheap as a current light water reactor level. It takes time around 30 years in order for breeding of Pu, a fast breeder reactor will begin to be introduced from around 2030. If the period for the technology establish of nuclear fuel cycle is assumed to be 30 years, it is necessary to start technical development right now. If the Kyoto Protocol, the emission constraint on only the developed countries, is extended in 21st century, it will promote the growth of nuclear power in the developed countries in the first half of the century. After 2050, the developing countries will face the shortage of uranium and plutonium. Carbon emission constraint should be covered all countries in the World not only for the developed countries but also for the developing countries. Therefore, it is important that the developing countries will use nuclear power effectively from the viewpoint of harmonization of energy growth and global environment. The policy that nuclear power is considered as Clean Development Mechanism would mitigate such global warming problems

  5. Reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from global dairy processing facilities

    Xu Tengfang, E-mail: ttxu@lbl.go [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Flapper, Joris [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen, IVEM, Nijenborgh 4, 9747, AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Global butter, concentrated milk, and milk powder products use approximately 15% of annual raw milk production. Similar to cheese and fluid milk, dairy processing of these products can be energy intensive. In this paper, we analyzed production and energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on butter, concentrated milk, milk and whey powder processing across various countries and plants. Magnitudes of national final and primary specific energy consumption (SEC) exhibited large variations across dairy products; in addition, the final SEC of individual plants and products exhibited significant variations within a country and between countries. Furthermore, we quantified national energy intensity indicators (EIIs) accounting for dairy product mixes and technological advancement. The significant variations of SEC and EII values indicate a high degree of likelihood that there is significant potential for energy savings in the global dairy processing industry. Based upon the study samples, we estimate potential energy savings for dairy processing industry in selected countries, and estimates annual reduction of 9-14 million metric-ton carbon-equivalent could be achieved if measures are implemented to lower SEC values by 50-80% in half of global dairy plants. The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry. - Research highlights: {yields} The specific energy consumption exhibited large variations across dairy products, plants, and countries. {yields} National energy intensity indicators also exhibited significant variations. {yields} There is a large global potential for energy savings and carbon reduction in dairy processing plants. {yields} The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry.

  6. Access to primary energy sources - the basis of national energy security

    Szlązak, Jan; Szlązak, Rafał A.

    2017-11-01

    National energy security is of fundamental importance for economic development of a country. To ensure such safety energy raw material, also called primary energy sources, are necessary. Currently in Poland primary energy sources include mainly fossil fuels, such as hard coal, brown coal, natural gas and crude oil. Other sources, e.g. renewable energy sources account for c. 15% in the energy mix. Primary energy sources are used to produce mainly electricity, which is considered as the cleanest form of energy. Poland does not have, unfortunately, sufficient energy sources and is forced to import some of them, mainly natural gas and crude oil. The article presents an insightful analysis of energy raw material reserves possessed by Poland and their structure taking account of the requirements applicable in the European Union, in particular, those related to environmental protection. The article also describes demand for electricity now and in the perspective of 2030. Primary energy sources necessary for its production have also been given. The article also includes the possibilities for the use of renewable energy sources in Poland, however, climatic conditions there are not are not particularly favourable to it. All the issues addressed in the article are summed up and ended with conclusions.

  7. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y., Van der Meer, T.H., 2007. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers. In: proceedings ‘First World Water Sustainability-Renewable Energy Congress and Exhibition’. 25-28 November 2007, Maastricht, the

  8. Energy supply today and tomorrow, national and global

    Ott, G.

    2003-01-01

    A status report about 'Energy Supply Today and Tomorrow, National and Global' focuses mainly on global aspects. Today's world energy consumption is dominated by more than 80% of fossil sources of energy followed by so-called non-commercial energies, such as wood and plant and animal wastes, contributing 10%; nuclear power, 7%; and hydroelectric power, 2%. The development of energy consumption until the middle of this century will continue to be driven by the further growth of the world population, and by the need to meet the rising demand for energy in the developing countries. Because of their availability and flexible uses, oil, natural gas, and coal as fossil sources of energy will continue to meet a considerable share of the requirement. The use of nuclear power, a source meeting all criteria, such as safety, waste management, and competitiveness, is both justifiable and desirable. Restrictive decisions about nuclear power taken today must not impair the freedom of choice of future generations. Using renewable energies is just as desirable as increasing energy efficiency; however, the technical and physical potentials available for this purpose should not be overrated. This makes it imperative to protect the supply of energy 'in this difficult interim phase' with all the options available, and to open up prospects for the future, also by conducting the appropriate energy and environmental research. The balance between continuity of supply, environmental compatibility, and competitiveness must be taken into account in this effort. In the second half of the 21 st century, it is possible that energy consumption will stabilize when the world's population ceases to grow. New technologies, some of which may not even be known today or may still be under development, could then pave the way for an energy supply system which, in toto, would be less of a burden on the environment. (orig.)

  9. Global Gaps in Clean Energy RD and D

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report seeks to inform decision makers seeking to prioritise RD&D investments in a time of financial uncertainty. It is an update of the December 2009 IEA report Global Gaps in Clean Energy Research, Development and Demonstration, which examined whether rates of LCET investment were sufficient to achieve shared global energy and environmental goals (IEA,2009). It discusses the impact of the green stimulus spending announcements, and provides private sector perspectives on priorities for government RD&D spending. Finally, it includes a revised assessment of the gaps in public RD&D, together with suggestions for possible areas for expanded international collaboration on specific LCETs. The conclusion re-affirms the first Global Gaps study finding that governments and industry need to dramatically increase their spending on RD&D for LCETs.

  10. Global energy-momentum conservation in general relativity

    Nissani, N.; Leibowitz, E.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that there exists a family of coordinate systems in which the energy-momentum tensor is globally conserved. Furthermore, this preferred class of frames includes geodesic systems with respect to any arbitrary point or timelike geodesic line. This implies a physically satisfactory conservation law with no need to introduce an extraneous pseudotensor

  11. Global Status Report on Local Renewable Energy Policies

    Martinot, Eric; Yamashita, Noriaki; Tan, Vincent; Irie, Risa; Van Staden, Maryke; Zimmermann, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This report complements the REN21 Renewables Global Status Report by providing more detailed information at the city and local levels about policies and activities to promote renewable energy. It is intended to facilitate dialogue and illuminate pathways for future policies and actions at the local level. This 'working draft' version is intended to solicit comments and additional information

  12. Reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from global dairy processing facilities

    Xu, Tengfang [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Flapper, Joris [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen, IVEM, Nijenborgh 4, 9747, AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Global butter, concentrated milk, and milk powder products use approximately 15% of annual raw milk production. Similar to cheese and fluid milk, dairy processing of these products can be energy intensive. In this paper, we analyzed production and energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on butter, concentrated milk, milk and whey powder processing across various countries and plants. Magnitudes of national final and primary specific energy consumption (SEC) exhibited large variations across dairy products; in addition, the final SEC of individual plants and products exhibited significant variations within a country and between countries. Furthermore, we quantified national energy intensity indicators (EIIs) accounting for dairy product mixes and technological advancement. The significant variations of SEC and EII values indicate a high degree of likelihood that there is significant potential for energy savings in the global dairy processing industry. Based upon the study samples, we estimate potential energy savings for dairy processing industry in selected countries, and estimates annual reduction of 9-14 million metric-ton carbon-equivalent could be achieved if measures are implemented to lower SEC values by 50-80% in half of global dairy plants. The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry. (author)

  13. Evolution of the global energy system: technology and other factors

    de Leone, R.

    Future directions in government energy policies are assessed in light of the energy evolution following the 1973 oil crisis and the impacts created by technology transfer and other factors. In particular, the paper examines changes which are occurring in global marketing and commercialization trends, and in public opinion, especially in response to the techniques employed by planners in assessing new energy sources and technologies designed to lessen dependency on oil imports. It is noted that greater consideration must be given by scientists and engineers to the socio-economic impacts of their research efforts.

  14. Nuclear energy - the global solution for sustainable development in Romania

    Gorea, Valica; Popescu, Dan; Cristescu, Catalin

    2006-01-01

    The global population growth of the planet during the next 50 years will be accompanied by a dramatic increase in the demand for energy. Almost two-thirds of the world's population today has no access to electricity in developing countries. Without energy, the entire infrastructure would collapse: agriculture, transportation, waste collection. Developing and industrialized nations alike must address - both individually and collectively - how they can achieve sustainable growth. To date about 16 % of the world's electricity is produced by 443 reactors in 31 countries. They have a combined total capacity of 362 GW of electricity and produced a combined total of 2618 TWh in 2004, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency statistics. These reactors produce electricity for their respective countries safely, reliably and with the lowest environmental impact of any major energy source. Nuclear power provides steady energy at a consistent price without competing for resources from other countries. Some deficient in fossil fuels large countries (like France) rely on nuclear power up to about 80 % of their power necessities. United States (US) has the greatest number of commercial reactors in operation, but the share of nuclear power doesn't exceed 20 %, because of their abundant oil resources. On a percentage basis, Romania is one of the smaller users of nuclear energy. In Romania, according to the official data of the Romanian Ministry of Economy and Trade, nuclear energy share is only 10% of the gross power generation structure, with 5.560 GWh during the year 2004. Construction of the first unit of the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Cernavoda started in 1980 and of units 2-5 in 1982. Unit 1 was connected to the grid in mid of 1996 and entered commercial operation in December 1996. The state nuclear power corporation, Societatea Nationala Nuclearelectrica (SNN), established in 1998, operates Cernavoda NPP. Its capacity factor has averaged over 86 % so far and

  15. Global Energy Trends - 2016 report. Towards a Peak in Energy Demand and CO2 Emissions?

    2016-06-01

    Celebrating the 20. anniversary of this yearly publication, Enerdata has newly released its annual Global Energy Trends publication for 2016. The full report presents in-depth information on the energy markets as well as upcoming trends for all energies in the G20. With over 400 premium sources, Enerdata analysts highlight major developments in 2015 concerning global demand, supply and key indicators across the globe. The main trends outlined in the report are: - Economic slowdown: the lowest growth since 2002; - Almost no growth in energy consumption; - New decrease of energy intensity; - Stabilization of CO 2 -energy emissions; - INDC targets achievement requires a double breakthrough. The Global Energy Trends Analysis also provides additional graphs about trends by energy: - Coal: most consumed energy source in G20 countries; - Oil: fall in prices to around 40-50 US$/bbl; - Oil production: USA overtake Russia and catch up with Saudi Arabia; - Gas: Stabilisation of gas demand for the 2. consecutive year; - Electricity: Stagnation of electricity consumption; - Wind Power and Solar PV: Asia engine of development. Growth in energy consumption (%/year) for G20 countries: - Second consecutive year of decline: low growth and decrease in energy intensity; - India drives the energy consumption growth; - Near stagnation in China (after a first sharp slowdown in 2014); - Economic recession in Brazil and Russia; - USA: decrease primarily linked to the industrial sector (energy efficiency + less energy-intensive industry); - Rebound in Europe: economic growth + climate effect 2015/2014

  16. Concerned consumption. Global warming changing household domestication of energy

    Aune, Margrethe; Godbolt, Åsne Lund; Sørensen, Knut H.; Ryghaug, Marianne; Karlstrøm, Henrik; Næss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses possible effects of the growing focus on global warming on households’ domestication of energy and the dynamics of energy consumption by comparing data pertaining to the domestication of energy within Norwegian households from two time periods: first, 1991–1995, when climate change was given little public attention, and, second, 2006–2009, after climate change became a major public concern. In the first period, we observed that the domestication of energy resulted in an energy culture emphasizing comfort and convenience with respect to everyday life and the abundant supply of clean hydropower. In the second period, this culture seemed to have changed, making households more concerned about their energy consumption. Consumption of energy was linked to climate change, and many interviewees claimed to save energy. However, the dominant expectation was still to be able to manage everyday life in a convenient and comfortable way. Thus, climate change concerns produced some but not very radical changes in the practical domestication of energy, including energy saving. A main effect was feelings of guilt, tempered by arguments regarding why change is difficult and complaints about political inaction. Thus, public engagement with climate change issues may facilitate energy efficiency policy but to succeed, wider climate policy measures seem to be needed. - Highlights: • Increased climate change focus has affected household domestication of energy. • The changes produced concerns about energy consumption. • Some energy saving activities were reported. • Household energy cultures are less stable than anticipated. • Suggests wider climate policy measures to motivate for energy efficiency.

  17. Municipal Energy Planning under Conditions of Globalization: Imperatives and Objectives

    Horban Vasylyna B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the importance of energy planning for local authorities in the path of achieving the goals of sustainable development. The quintessence of energy planning in territorial communities of Ukraine and Europe has been outlined from the perspective of analyzing the infrastructure sectors of the municipal economy. The article is based on observing certain international methodologies related to local energy and climate planning. The evolution of Covenant of Mayors initiative is briefly described with a focus on its intensive expanding in terms of energy and climate issues. The experience in the development of municipal sustainable energy and climate action plans in European countries and Ukraine is studied. A survey of empirical data on the consumption of fuel and energy resources and greenhouse gas emissions in territorial communities of Ukraine and European countries is conducted. The European methodological guidelines on the subject under study are highlighted based on the key policy documents. A few practical examples of Ukrainian and European cities are presented in order to illustrate possible actions corresponding to the defined problem. A systematic framework is proposed to describe the various and complex aspects of energy planning in cities with regard to rational implementation of energy efficient measures. The innovative mechanisms, main barriers and opportunities for the effective implementation of energy efficient projects in territorial communities of Ukraine and European countries are revealed. It is substantiated that under the current conditions of globalization, using project-oriented paradigm, municipal energy planning instruments become key motivational factors for development sustainable energy policy.

  18. Energy demand and mix for global welfare and stable ecosystems

    Jess, A.; Kern, C.; Kaiser, P.

    2012-07-01

    Social indicators show that an annual energy consumption of 2 tonnes of oil equivalent per capita (toe pc) should be enough to ensure a sufficient global average level of welfare and happiness. Hence, rich countries with currently up to 8 toe pc should reduce and poor should legitimately increase their energy demand until 2 toe pc are reached. At today's global energy mix with 80% fossil fuels, even this optimistic scenario will inevitably lead to a conflict between welfare and stable ecosystems. The population will be 9 billion by 2050 and the ecological footprint would rise from today 1.5 to 2 planet Earths. The only option to reach the desired footprint of one planet Earth is a complete shift from fossil fuels to renewables. (orig.)

  19. Energy Provider: Delivered Energy Efficiency: A global stock-taking based on case studies

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    In 2011 the IEA and the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) took on a work programme focused on the role of energy providers in delivering energy efficiency to end-users. This work was part of the IEA’s contribution to the PEPDEE Task Group, which falls under the umbrella of the International Partnership on Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC). In addition to organizing regional dialogues between governments, regulators, and energy providers, the PEPDEE work stream conducted global stock-takings of regulatory mechanisms adopted by governments to obligate or encourage energy providers to delivery energy savings and the energy savings activities of energy providers. For its part the IEA conducted a global review of energy provider-delivered energy savings programmes. The IEA reached out to energy providers to identify the energy savings activities they engaged in. Some 250 energy saving activities were considered, and 41 detailed case studies spanning 18 countries were developed. Geographic balance was a major consideration, and much effort was expended identifying energy provider-delivered energy savings case studies from around the world. Taken together these case studies represent over USD 1 billion in annual spending, or about 8% of estimated energy provider spending on energy efficiency.

  20. Copolymer-homopolymer blends : global energy minimisation and global energy bounds

    Gennip, van Y.; Peletier, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We study a variational model for a diblock copolymer–homopolymer blend. The energy functional is a sharp-interface limit of a generalisation of the Ohta–Kawasaki energy. In one dimension, on the real line and on the torus, we prove existence of minimisers of this functional and we describe

  1. Forecast and analysis of the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy consumption for global energy internet

    Wang, Wei; Zhong, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Jin, Lu; Shen, Si

    2018-02-01

    In the background of building global energy internet, it has both theoretical and realistic significance for forecasting and analysing the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy consumption. This paper firstly analysed the influencing factors of the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy and then used combination method to forecast and analyse the global proportion of electric energy. And then, construct the cointegration model for the proportion of electric energy by using influence factor such as electricity price index, GDP, economic structure, energy use efficiency and total population level. At last, this paper got prediction map of the proportion of electric energy by using the combination-forecasting model based on multiple linear regression method, trend analysis method, and variance-covariance method. This map describes the development trend of the proportion of electric energy in 2017-2050 and the proportion of electric energy in 2050 was analysed in detail using scenario analysis.

  2. Summary the race to reinvent energy and stop global warming

    2013-01-01

    Complete summary of Fred Krupp and Miriam Horn's book: ""Earth: The Sequel: The Race to Reinvent Energy and Stop Global Warming"". This summary of the ideas from Fred Krupp and Miriam Horn's book ""Earth: The Sequel"" explains how capitalism, as the most powerful economic force in the world, is the only engine of change that has the strength to stop global warming. In their book, the authors demonstrate how this can be achieved by installing a cap-and-trade initiative, providing genuine economic incentives for companies and reducing their carbon footprint. This summary explains their theory in

  3. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-01-01

    The limited resource and environmental impacts of fossil fuels are becoming more and more serious problems in the world. Consequently, hydrogen is in the limelight as a future alternative energy due to its clean combustion and inexhaustibility and a transition from the traditional fossil fuel system to a hydrogen-based energy system is under considerations. Several countries are already gearing the industries to the hydrogen economy to cope with the limitations of the current fossil fuels. Unfortunately, hydrogen has to be chemically separated from the hydrogen compounds in nature such as water by using some energy sources. In this paper, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S

  4. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-11-01

    Many studies on the economical aspects of hydrogen energy technologies have been conducted with the increase of the technical and socioeconomic importance of the hydrogen energy. However, there is still no research which evaluates the economy of hydrogen production from the primary energy sources in consideration of Korean situations. In this study, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations such as feedstock price, electricity rate, and load factor. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S. The present study focuses on the possible future technology scenario defined by NAS. The scenario assumes technological improvement that may be achieved if present research and development (R and D) programs are successful. The production costs by the coal and natural gas are 1.1 $/kgH 2 and 1.36 $/kgH 2 , respectively. However, the fossil fuels are susceptible to the price variation depending on the oil and the raw material prices, and the hydrogen production cost also depends on the carbon tax. The economic competitiveness of the renewable energy sources such as the wind, solar, and biomass are relatively low when compared with that of the other energy sources. The estimated hydrogen production costs from the renewable energy sources range from 2.35 $/kgH 2 to 6.03 $/kgH 2 . On the other hand, the production cost by nuclear energy is lower than that of natural gas or coal when the prices of the oil and soft coal are above $50/barrel and 138 $/ton, respectively. Taking into consideration the recent rapid increase of the oil and soft coal prices and the limited fossil resource, the nuclear-hydrogen option appears to be the most economical way in the future

  5. Primary defect production by high energy displacement cascades in molybdenum

    Selby, Aaron P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Xu, Donghua, E-mail: xudh@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Juslin, Niklas; Capps, Nathan A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS6003, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of primary damage in molybdenum produced by high energy displacement cascades on the femto- to pico-second and Angstrom to nanometer scales. Clustering directly occurred for both interstitials and vacancies in the 1–50 keV cascade energy range explored. Point defect survival efficiency and partitioning probabilities into different sized clusters were quantified. The results will provide an important reference for kinetic models to describe the microstructural evolution in Mo under ion or neutron irradiations over much longer time and length scales.

  6. Carbon Capture Methods and Relative Competitiveness of Primary Energies

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Lafforgue, Gilles; Moreaux, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We characterise the optimal exploitation paths of two primary energies (coal and solar) that supply the energy needs of two sectors. Sector 1 can reduce its carbon emissions at a reasonable cost thanks to a CCS device. Sector 2 has access only to air capture technology, but at a significantly higher cost. We assume that the atmospheric carbon stock cannot exceed a given ceiling. We show that the optimal approach consists in, first, fully capturing sector-1 emissions before the ceiling is reached and, second, deploying air capture to partially abate sector-2 emissions. The optimal carbon tax should increase in the pre-ceiling phase then decline in stages to zero

  7. Energy Input Flux in the Global Quiet-Sun Corona

    Mac Cormack, Cecilia; Vásquez, Alberto M.; López Fuentes, Marcelo; Nuevo, Federico A. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), CONICET-UBA, CC 67—Suc 28, (C1428ZAA) Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Landi, Enrico; Frazin, Richard A. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering (CLaSP), University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We present first results of a novel technique that provides, for the first time, constraints on the energy input flux at the coronal base ( r ∼ 1.025 R {sub ⊙}) of the quiet Sun at a global scale. By combining differential emission measure tomography of EUV images, with global models of the coronal magnetic field, we estimate the energy input flux at the coronal base that is required to maintain thermodynamically stable structures. The technique is described in detail and first applied to data provided by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager instrument, on board the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory mission, and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument, on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, for two solar rotations with different levels of activity. Our analysis indicates that the typical energy input flux at the coronal base of magnetic loops in the quiet Sun is in the range ∼0.5–2.0 × 10{sup 5} (erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}), depending on the structure size and level of activity. A large fraction of this energy input, or even its totality, could be accounted for by Alfvén waves, as shown by recent independent observational estimates derived from determinations of the non-thermal broadening of spectral lines in the coronal base of quiet-Sun regions. This new tomography product will be useful for the validation of coronal heating models in magnetohydrodinamic simulations of the global corona.

  8. First-Annual Global Clean Energy Manufacturing Report Shows Strong Domestic Benefits for the United States

    EERE Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-02-01

    The Energy Department’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) commissioned the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center to conduct the first-ever annual assessment of the economic state of global clean energy manufacturing. The report, Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing, makes economic data on clean energy technology widely available.

  9. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Class-Specific Primary Production at a Global Scale

    Rousseaux, Cecile Severine; Gregg, Watson W.

    2014-01-01

    We used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of 4 phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. First we assessed the contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production at a global scale for the period 1998-2011. Globally, diatoms were the group that contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production (50, the equivalent of 20 PgC y-1. Coccolithophores and chlorophytes each contributed to 20 (7 PgC y-1 of the total primary production and cyanobacteria represented about 10 (4 PgC y(sub-1) of the total primary production. Primary production by diatoms was highest in high latitude (45) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We then assessed interannual variability of this group-specific primary production over the period 1998-2011. Globally the annual relative contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production varied by maximum 4 (1-2 PgC y-1. We assessed the effects of climate variability on the class-specific primary production using global (i.e. Multivariate El Nio Index, MEI) and regional climate indices (e.g. Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability as indicated by significant correlation (p 0.05) between the MEI and the class-specific primary production from all groups except coccolithophores. In the Atlantic, climate variability as indicated by NAO was significantly correlated to the primary production of 2 out of the 4 groups in the North Central Atlantic (diatomscyanobacteria) and in the North Atlantic (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). We found that climate variability as indicated by SAM had only a limited effect on the class-specific primary production in the Southern Ocean. These results provide a modeling and

  10. Springer An étude on global vacuum energy sequester

    D'Amico, Guido; Padilla, Antonio; Stefanyszyn, David; Westphal, Alexander; Zahariade, George

    2017-09-18

    Recently two of the authors proposed a mechanism of vacuum energy sequester as a means of protecting the observable cosmological constant from quantum radiative corrections. The original proposal was based on using global Lagrange multipliers, but later a local formulation was provided. Subsequently other interesting claims of a different non-local approach to the cosmological constant problem were made, based again on global Lagrange multipliers. We examine some of these proposals and find their mutual relationship. We explain that the proposals which do not treat the cosmological constant counterterm as a dynamical variable require fine tunings to have acceptable solutions. Furthermore, the counterterm often needs to be retuned at every order in the loop expansion to cancel the radiative corrections to the cosmological constant, just like in standard GR. These observations are an important reminder of just how the proposal of vacuum energy sequester avoids such problems.

  11. The global greenhouse effect and the advanced nuclear energy system

    Byong Whi Lee

    1998-01-01

    In spite of future uncertainty, Korea is very much committed to nuclear energy as a major source of electric power expansion, because of its lack of domestic energy resources. A long term nuclear power program has resulted in 11 nuclear power plants of 9.6 GWe in operation, 2 units under construction and 7 planned. This means that the share of nuclear power in Korean electricity production would be about 38% in 2006. Many other countries were faced with the problem of global warming which is related to carbondioxide emission from the use of fossil fuels. According to Korean experience, it could be concluded that substitution of fossil fuels would be the most efficient and economic means of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to nuclear and hydropower, the most promising other non-fossil sources are geothermal energy, biomass, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic systems, wind power, tidal power, wave power and ocean thermal electric conversion

  12. Energy conversion of biomass in coping with global warming

    Yokoyama, Shin-ya; Ogi, Tomoko; Minowa, Tomoaki [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The main purpose of the present paper is to propose energy conversion technologies of biomass in coping with global warming. Among thermochemical conversion, liquid fuel production by high pressure process is mainly introduced. Biomass is a term used to describe materials of biological origin, either purpose-grown or arising as by-products, residues or wastes from forestry, agriculture and food processing. Such biomass is a renewable energy sources dependent on solar energy. Through photosynthesis, plants converts carbon dioxide into organic materials used in their growth. Energy can be recovered from the plant materials by several processes, the simplest way is burning in air. As far as biomass is used in this way, there is no atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide making no effect on the Greenhouse Effect, provided that the cycle of regrowth and burning is sustained.

  13. Primary energy savings using heat storage for biomass heating systems

    Mitrović Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available District heating is an efficient way to provide heat to residential, tertiary and industrial users. The heat storage unit is an insulated water tank that absorbs surplus heat from the boiler. The stored heat in the heat storage unit makes it possible to heat even when the boiler is not working, thus increasing the heating efficiency. In order to save primary energy (fuel, the boiler operates on nominal load every time it is in operation (for the purpose of this research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the water temperature variation in the heat storage, depending on the heat load and the heat storage volume. Heat load is calculated for three reference days, with average daily temperatures from -5 to 5°C. The primary energy savings are also calculated for those days in the case of using heat storage in district heating.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  14. New primary energy source by thorium molten-salt reactor technology

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Kato, Yoshio; Furuhashi, Akira; Numata, Hiroo; Mitachi, Koushi; Yoshioka, Ritsuo; Sato, Yuzuru; Arakawa, Kazuto

    2005-01-01

    Among the next 30 years, we have to implement a practical measure in the global energy/environmental problems, solving the followings: (1) replacing the fossil fuels without CO 2 emission, (2) no severe accidents, (3) no concern on military, (4) minimizing wastes, (5) economical, (6) few R and D investment and (7) rapid/huge global application supplying about half of the total primary energy till 50 years later. For this purpose the following system was proposed: THORIMS-NES [Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System], which is composed of (A) simple fission Molten-Salt power stations (FUJI), and (B) fissile-producing Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder (AMSB). It has been internationally prepared a practical Developmental Program for its huge-size industrialization of Th breeding fuel cycle to produce a new rational primary energy. Here it is explained the social meaning, the conceptual system design and technological bases, especially, including the molten fluoride salt technology, which was developed as the triple-functional medium for nuclear-engineering, heat-transfer and chemical engineering. The complex function of this system is fully achieved by the simplified facility using a single phase molten-salt only. (author)

  15. A global survey of hydrogen energy research, development and policy

    Solomon, Barry D.; Banerjee, Abhijit

    2006-01-01

    Several factors have led to growing interest in a hydrogen energy economy, especially for transportation. A successful transition to a major role for hydrogen will require much greater cost-effectiveness, fueling infrastructure, consumer acceptance, and a strategy for its basis in renewable energy feedstocks. Despite modest attention to the need for a sustainable hydrogen energy system in several countries, in most cases in the short to mid term hydrogen will be produced from fossil fuels. This paper surveys the global status of hydrogen energy research and development (R and D) and public policy, along with the likely energy mix for making it. The current state of hydrogen energy R and D among auto, energy and fuel-cell companies is also briefly reviewed. Just two major auto companies and two nations have specific targets and timetables for hydrogen fuel cells or vehicle production, although the EU also has an aggressive, less specific strategy. Iceland and Brazil are the only nations where renewable energy feedstocks are envisioned as the major or sole future source of hydrogen. None of these plans, however, are very certain. Thus, serious questions about the sustainability of a hydrogen economy can be raised

  16. Greater future global warming inferred from Earth's recent energy budget.

    Brown, Patrick T; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-12-06

    Climate models provide the principal means of projecting global warming over the remainder of the twenty-first century but modelled estimates of warming vary by a factor of approximately two even under the same radiative forcing scenarios. Across-model relationships between currently observable attributes of the climate system and the simulated magnitude of future warming have the potential to inform projections. Here we show that robust across-model relationships exist between the global spatial patterns of several fundamental attributes of Earth's top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming. When we constrain the model projections with observations, we obtain greater means and narrower ranges of future global warming across the major radiative forcing scenarios, in general. In particular, we find that the observationally informed warming projection for the end of the twenty-first century for the steepest radiative forcing scenario is about 15 per cent warmer (+0.5 degrees Celsius) with a reduction of about a third in the two-standard-deviation spread (-1.2 degrees Celsius) relative to the raw model projections reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our results suggest that achieving any given global temperature stabilization target will require steeper greenhouse gas emissions reductions than previously calculated.

  17. Sustainable energy supply - a key to global growth

    Wright, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    From this overall concept of what constitutes sustainability, a range of considerations on equity of energy supply across regions, time scales over which fuel and energy source mixes and technology changes and the like, can be developed. Within the spatial dimension, considerations of sustainability that operate at the global scale need to be translated to the operations of large and small companies, national and local governments down to individual households. It is a complex mix in an increasingly complex world. But one thing is certain, the world's energy demand is going to continue to increase. This demand will be largely satisfied by fossil fuels and this use is not sustainable using current technology in the long term. Massive changes are required to turn the world around onto a more sustainable pathway that will probably take many decades even to make a significant start. The aim of this paper is to briefly explore some of the possible technological options that will guide us on the road to a more sustainable energy future. A genuinely sustainable energy system that also promotes sustainable growth with an improving standard of living for all is obviously a major challenge. At the same time the global demand for energy will continue to increase. On the global scale, the prospect of climate change imposes a major long-term constraint on the use of GHG emitting fuels and generating technologies. The long-term development of a sustainable energy system will require multiple interventions and a pluralistic approach to energy management. Ingredients within the mix are likely to require: 1. innovation in the way we currently generate and supply power 2. continued integration and greater penetration of renewables 3. greater use of embedded and distributed energy generation 4. aggressive end-use efficiency 5. development of technologies to enable continued use of fossil fuels until the transition to sustainability is completed. A combination of market and regulatory

  18. Global resistance and resilience of primary production following extreme drought are predicted by mean annual precipitation

    Stuart-Haëntjens, E. J.; De Boeck, H. J.; Lemoine, N. P.; Gough, C. M.; Kröel-Dulay, G.; Mänd, P.; Jentsch, A.; Schmidt, I. K.; Bahn, M.; Lloret, F.; Kreyling, J.; Wohlgemuth, T.; Stampfli, A.; Anderegg, W.; Classen, A. T.; Smith, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme drought is increasing globally in frequency and intensity, with uncertain consequences for the resistance and resilience of key ecosystem functions, including primary production. Primary production resistance, the capacity of an ecosystem to withstand change in primary production following extreme climate, and resilience, the degree to which primary production recovers, vary among and within ecosystem types, obscuring global patterns of resistance and resilience to extreme drought. Past syntheses on resistance have focused climatic gradients or individual ecosystem types, without assessing interactions between the two. Theory and many empirical studies suggest that forest production is more resistant but less resilient than grassland production to extreme drought, though some empirical studies reveal that these trends are not universal. Here, we conducted a global meta-analysis of sixty-four grassland and forest sites, finding that primary production resistance to extreme drought is predicted by a common continuum of mean annual precipitation (MAP). However, grasslands and forests exhibit divergent production resilience relationships with MAP. We discuss the likely mechanisms underlying the mixed production resistance and resilience patterns of forests and grasslands, including different plant species turnover times and drought adaptive strategies. These findings demonstrate the primary production responses of forests and grasslands to extreme drought are mixed, with far-reaching implications for Earth System Models, ecosystem management, and future studies of extreme drought resistance and resilience.

  19. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Class-specific Primary Production at a Global Scale

    Rousseaux, Cecile; Gregg, Watson

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton is responsible for over half of the net primary production on earth. The knowledge on the contribution of various phytoplankton groups to the total primary production is still poorly understood. Data from satellite observations suggest that for upwelling regions, photosynthetic rates by microplankton is higher than that of nanoplankton but that when the spatial extent is considered, the production by nanoplankton is comparable or even larger than microplankton. Here, we used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of 4 phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. Globally, diatoms were the group that contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production (approx. 50%) followed by coccolithophores and chlorophytes. Primary production by diatoms was highest in high latitude (>45 deg) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We assessed the effects of climate variability on the class-specific primary production using global (i.e. Multivariate El Nino Index, MEI) and 'regional' climate indices (e.g. Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability. These results provide a modeling and data assimilation perspective to phytoplankton partitioning of primary production and contribute to our understanding of the dynamics of the carbon cycle in the oceans at a global scale.

  20. Sustainable global energy development: The case of coal

    Brendow, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Market-driven scenarios anticipate world coal demand to increase during the entire 21st century. The increase during 2000-2030 would range from 53 % to 100 %. Developing countries would take the lead in world coal demand growth. In western Europe, demand, and more so production, would decline, in central and eastern Europe increase. Carbon abatement policies would not impact on coal demand before 2020 - 2030. By 2050 however, under such constraints, coal demand would have declined by one third (only), - less in developing, more in developed countries. Under market conditions, the share of coal in world primary energy supplies, at 26 % in 2000, would decline to 24 % in 2020 and 22 % 2050. Carbon constraints would reduce the share of coal to 11 % in 2050, which (nevertheless) corresponds to 2.1 bill. tce (2000: 3.4 bill. tce). The major short-term competitor of coal would be gas, particularly under CO 2 emission constraints, although marginal gas is hardly better in terms of life cycle GHG emissions than marginal oil or coal. During 2001-2025, the increase of CO 2 emissions from coal (+1.1 bill. t of carbon) would be lower than for gas (+1.3 bill. t) and oil (+1.5 bill. t). In the longer term, new nuclear could emerge as a serious competitor. Electricity generators would remain the predominant customer for coal. By 2030, coal would cover 45 % of world electricity generation compared with 37 % in 2000. By 2020, coal-based methanol and hydrogen would cover 3 % of the world's transportation fuel demand (100 Mtoe), by 2050 14 % (660 Mtoe). Cumulative investments in coal mining, shipping and combustion during 2001-2030 would amount to USD 1900 billion, - 12 % of world investments in energy supply. International prices of coal relative to oil and gas would continue evolving in favour of coal enhancing its competitiveness. Almost nil in 2000, advanced coal combustion technologies would cover 33 % of world power generation in 2030, and 72 % of coal-based power generation

  1. The development of global energy supply as a succession of energy-related innovation processes. A qualitative model approach to assess the use of nuclear power

    Herrmann, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Often, the development of the world energy supply is adopted as a painful sequence of the exhaustible and polluting use of primary energy sources. Therefore the expectations in practically inexhaustible and environmentally neutral renewable energy sources are high. However, in fact, it depends on the available production, conversion, and utilization technology, which sources of energy are suitable to meet given demands and requirements. In particular, the development of the energy demand requires energy technology innovations to use new energy sources, to use known energy sources more efficient and to replace exhaustible energy sources at an early stage by others. The historical development of the global energy supply is a sequence of interrelated energy technology innovation processes. This makes it also possible, to analyse the historical development of nuclear power and to derive a model on the future role of nuclear power worldwide.

  2. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Wigeland, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President's Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle - in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository - to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  3. New energy technology cope with global environmental problems

    Tsuchimoto, Tatsuya

    1991-01-01

    At present, the national and private storage of oil is the quantity for about 140 days in total, and it can cope with the temporary fear of oil supply, but if the Gulf War was prolonged, the large effect should be exerted to the energy supply. The reduction of the degree of oil dependence and the increase of the dependence on nonfossil fuel are taken up as the basic idea of the long term energy demand and supply in Japan. Also in the action plan for preventing global warming, the further promotion of energy conservation and the adoption of clean energy were decided to be carried out for decreasing carbon dioxide. In this report, among clean energies, the technology of electric power generation by sun beam, wind force and geotherm is described. The power generation by sun beam has many features, but the energy density is low, and the area for installation becomes large. The cost of power generation is relatively high. The power generation by wind force is superior in its environmental characteristics, and has been already put in practical use in USA and Europe. The problem is the reliability of the system. The geothermal power generation is available also in Japan, and is important for the energy security. The plants of about 270 MW are installed in Japan. (K.I.)

  4. Sustainable energy consumption and production - a global view

    Hernes, H.

    1995-12-31

    The paper gives a global view of sustainable energy consumption and production both in developed and developing countries. There is a need of replacing fossil fuel sources with renewable energy at a speed parallel to the depletion of the oil and gas sources. According to the author, the actual growth in developing countries` use of oil, coal and other sources of energy has almost tripled since 1970. Future population growth alone will spur a further 70% jump in energy use in 30 years, even if per capita consumption remains at current levels. For the OECD countries, energy use rose one fifth as much as economic growth between 1973 and 1989. Countries like China and India, and other developing countries, have huge coal reserves and energy needs. Policy makers have to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels, energy technologies and stricter environmental standards. Life cycle analyses can contribute to the development of overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies. According to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced by more than 60% in order to stabilize the CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere. 8 refs.

  5. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    R.A. Wigeland

    2008-10-01

    Abstract: The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President’s Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle—in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository—to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  6. Determinants of the pace of global innovation in energy technologies.

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Trancik, Jessika E; Kaur, Jasleen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970-2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time.

  7. Determinants of the Pace of Global Innovation in Energy Technologies

    Kaur, Jasleen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970–2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time. PMID:24155867

  8. Turkish Primary Science Teacher Candidates' Understandings of Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion

    Yalcin, Fatma Aggul; Yalcin, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore Turkish primary science teacher candidates' understanding of global warming and ozone layer depletion. In the study, as the research approach the survey method was used. The sample consisted of one hundred eighty nine third grade science teacher candidates. Data was collected using the tool developed by the…

  9. Combined constraints on global ocean primary production using observations and models

    Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Hashioka, Taketo; Quéré, Corinne Le

    2013-09-01

    production is at the base of the marine food web and plays a central role for global biogeochemical cycles. Yet global ocean primary production is known to only a factor of 2, with previous estimates ranging from 38 to 65 Pg C yr-1 and no formal uncertainty analysis. Here, we present an improved global ocean biogeochemistry model that includes a mechanistic representation of photosynthesis and a new observational database of net primary production (NPP) in the ocean. We combine the model and observations to constrain particulate NPP in the ocean with statistical metrics. The PlankTOM5.3 model includes a new photosynthesis formulation with a dynamic representation of iron-light colimitation, which leads to a considerable improvement of the interannual variability of surface chlorophyll. The database includes a consistent set of 50,050 measurements of 14C primary production. The model best reproduces observations when global NPP is 58 ± 7 Pg C yr-1, with a most probable value of 56 Pg C yr-1. The most probable value is robust to the model used. The uncertainty represents 95% confidence intervals. It considers all random errors in the model and observations, but not potential biases in the observations. We show that tropical regions (23°S-23°N) contribute half of the global NPP, while NPPs in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are approximately equal in spite of the larger ocean area in the South.

  10. Rev-Changes in Primary Energy Use and CO2 Emissions—An Impact Assessment for a Building with Focus on the Swedish Proposal for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings

    Mattias Gustafsson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union’s Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, the energy efficiency goal for buildings is set in terms of primary energy use. In the proposal from the National Board of Housing, Building, and Planning, for nearly zero energy buildings in Sweden, the use of primary energy is expressed as a primary energy number calculated with given primary energy factors. In this article, a multi-dwelling building is simulated and the difference in the primary energy number is investigated when the building uses heat from district heating systems or from heat pumps, alone or combined with solar thermal or solar photovoltaic systems. It is also investigated how the global CO2 emissions are influenced by the different energy system combinations and with different fuels used. It is concluded that the calculated primary energy number is lower for heat pump systems, but the global CO2 emissions are lowest when district heating uses mostly biofuels and is combined with solar PV systems. The difference is up to 140 tonnes/year. If the aim with the Swedish building code is to decrease the global CO2 emissions then the ratio between the primary energy factors for electricity and heat should be larger than three and considerably higher than today.

  11. Analysis on long-term perspectives of sustainable nuclear energy towards global warming protection

    Yamazawa, M.; Ichimura, E.; Shibata, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Wajima, T.

    1998-01-01

    Study of long-term perspectives of the nuclear power generation was made from the point of views of both CO 2 emission constraints and sustainability of nuclear energy. To this end, STREAM (Semi-empirical TRiple E Analysis Model) program, as a social model, has been developed by Tokyo Electric Power Co. and Hitachi, Ltd. Using this program, long-term world demands of primary and nuclear energy were deduced, in view of the protection against the global warming due to the CO 2 gas accumulation. The inevitable conclusion has been drawn that nuclear energy plays an indispensable role in the reduction of green house effect. Evaluations were then made on conditions that the nuclear power system would be the long-term major sustainable energy source. (author)

  12. Global Energy Transitions and the Challenge of Climate Change

    Riahi, K.

    2008-01-01

    Global emissions of greenhouse-gases have increased markedly as a result of human activities since pre-industrial times. This increase in emissions has lead to unequivocal global warming, which is evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level. Reducing the risk of irreversible climate impacts requires thus the mitigation of global GHG emissions aiming at the long-term stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations. Achieving this goal translates into the need of reducing emissions to virtually zero over long time-frames. Yet international agreement on a long-term climate policy target remains a distant prospect, due to both scientific uncertainty and political disagreement on the appropriate balance between mitigation costs and reduced risks of dangerous impacts. At the same time, growing emissions of greenhouse gases continue to increase the amount of climate change we are committed to over the long term. Over the next few decades, these growing emissions may make some potentially desirable long term goals unattainable. Recent analysis conducted at IIASA indicates the need of major energy transitions over the next few decades. For example, staying below the target suggested by the European Union of 2 C warming (with just a 50% likelihood) will require the massive deployment of zero-carbon energy by 2050, and a tippling of the contribution of zero-carbon energy globally to more than 60% by that time. Although there are large uncertainties with respect to the deployment of individual future technologies, there is strong evidence that no single mitigation measure alone would be sufficient for achieving the stabilization of GHG concentrations at low levels. A wide portfolio of technologies across all GHG-intensive sectors is needed for cost-effective emissions reductions. The bulk of these emissions reductions would need to come from the energy sector, with

  13. Global flow of glasma in high energy nuclear collisions

    Chen, Guangyao; Fries, Rainer J., E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.edu

    2013-06-25

    We discuss the energy flow of the classical gluon fields created in collisions of heavy nuclei at collider energies. We show how the Yang–Mills analog of Faraday's Law and Gauss' Law predicts the initial gluon flux tubes to expand or bend. The resulting transverse and longitudinal structure of the Poynting vector field has a rich phenomenology. Besides the well-known radial and elliptic flow in transverse direction, classical quantum chromodynamics predicts a rapidity-odd transverse flow that tilts the fireball for non-central collisions, and it implies a characteristic flow pattern for collisions of non-symmetric systems A+B. The rapidity-odd transverse flow translates into a directed particle flow v{sub 1} which has been observed at RHIC and LHC. The global flow fields in heavy ion collisions could be a powerful check for the validity of classical Yang–Mills dynamics in high energy collisions.

  14. Leading global energy and environmental transformation: Unified ASEAN biomass-based bio-energy system incorporating the clean development mechanism

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the ten member countries in the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) have experienced high economic growth and, in tandem, a substantial increment in energy usage and demand. Consequently, they are now under intense pressure to secure reliable energy supplies to keep up with their growth rate. Fossil fuels remain the primary source of energy for the ASEAN countries, due to economic and physical considerations. This situation has led to unrestrained emissions of greenhouse gases to the environment and thus effectively contributes to global climate change. The abundant supply of biomass from their tropical environmental conditions offers great potential for ASEAN countries to achieve self-reliance in energy supplies. This fact can simultaneously transform into the main driving force behind combating global climate change, which is associated with the usage of fossil fuels. This research article explores the potential and advantages for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy supply, processing and distribution network with an emphasis on regional collaborations. It also investigates the implementation and operational challenges in terms of political, economic and technical factors for the cross-border energy scheme. Reliance of ASEAN countries on the clean development mechanism (CDM) to address most of the impediments in developing the project is also under scrutiny. Unified co-operation among ASEAN countries in integrating biomass-based bio-energy systems and utilising the clean development mechanism (CDM) as the common effort could serve as the prime example for regional partnerships in achieving sustainable development for the energy and environmental sector in the future. -- Highlights: →A study that explores feasibility for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy. →Focus is given on regional supply, processing and distribution network. →Cross-border implementation and operational challenges are discussed thoroughly.

  15. Assessment of Global Wind Energy Resource Utilization Potential

    Ma, M.; He, B.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, H.; Song, S.

    2017-09-01

    Development of wind energy resource (WER) is a key to deal with climate change and energy structure adjustment. A crucial issue is to obtain the distribution and variability of WER, and mine the suitable location to exploit it. In this paper, a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) model is constructed by integrating resource richness and stability, utilization value and trend of resource, natural environment with weights. The global resource richness is assessed through wind power density (WPD) and multi-level wind speed. The utilizable value of resource is assessed by the frequency of effective wind. The resource stability is assessed by the coefficient of variation of WPD and the frequency of prevailing wind direction. Regression slope of long time series WPD is used to assess the trend of WER. All of the resource evaluation indicators are derived from the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim with spatial resolution 0.125°. The natural environment factors mainly refer to slope and land-use suitability, which are derived from multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED 2010) and GlobalCover2009. Besides, the global WER utilization potential map is produced, which shows most high potential regions are located in north of Africa. Additionally, by verifying that 22.22 % and 48.8 9% operational wind farms fall on medium-high and high potential regions respectively, the result can provide a basis for the macroscopic siting of wind farm.

  16. Global climate change, energy subsidies and national carbon taxes

    Larsen, B.; Shah, A.

    1995-01-01

    In the previous chapter of the book it is indicated that fossil-fuel burning is one of the main environmental culprits. Nevertheless, many countries continue to subsidize fossil fuels. In this chapter estimates of subsidies to energy and energy complements in OECD and non-OECD countries are provided. The authors conclude that the removal of energy subsidies in OECD countries on the order of US$30 billion annually (primarily in the US and Germany) and subsidies to complements on the order of US$50-90 (United States) are likely to have only little impact on CO-emissions. In contrast, the removal of energy subsidies of US$270-330 billion in non-OECD countries could substantially curb the growth of global CO 2 emissions, equivalent to the impact of a carbon tax on the order of US$60-70 per ton in the OECD countries. Nonetheless, even with the removal of energy subsidies, the growth in CO 2 emissions in non-OECD countries is projected to increase by 80% from the year 1990 to 2010. Furthermore, it is shown that the introduction of a revenue-neutral national carbon tax, in addition to energy subsidy removal, can yield significant health benefits from the reduction in local pollution. The authors note that carbon taxes are considerably less regressive relative to lifetime income or annual consumption expenditures than to annual income. 7 tabs., 23 refs

  17. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    Chinhao Chong; Weidou Ni; Linwei Ma; Pei Liu; Zheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indicate t...

  18. KEYNOTE: Simulation, computation, and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    Reis, Victor, Dr.

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Victor Reis delivered the keynote talk at the closing session of the conference. The talk was forward looking and focused on the importance of advanced computing for large-scale nuclear energy goals such as Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). Dr. Reis discussed the important connections of GNEP to the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program and the SciDAC research portfolio. In the context of GNEP, Dr. Reis talked about possible fuel leasing configurations, strategies for their implementation, and typical fuel cycle flow sheets. A major portion of the talk addressed lessons learnt from ‘Science Based Stockpile Stewardship’ and the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) initiative and how they can provide guidance for advancing GNEP and SciDAC goals. Dr. Reis’s colorful and informative presentation included international proverbs, quotes and comments, in tune with the international flavor that is part of the GNEP philosophy and plan. He concluded with a positive and motivating outlook for peaceful nuclear energy and its potential to solve global problems. An interview with Dr. Reis, addressing some of the above issues, is the cover story of Issue 2 of the SciDAC Review and available at http://www.scidacreview.org This summary of Dr. Reis’s PowerPoint presentation was prepared by Institute of Physics Publishing, the complete PowerPoint version of Dr. Reis’s talk at SciDAC 2006 is given as a multimedia attachment to this summary.

  19. Sustainable global energy development: the case of coal

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The report aims at developing an internationally consistent reply to the question whether and to what extent coal use could be economic and sustainable in meeting global energy demand to 2030 and beyond. It covers markets, trade and demand, mining and combustion technologies, restructuring and international policies, and perspectives. It considers both the contribution that coal could make to economic development as well as the need for coal to adapt to the exigencies of security of supply, local environmental protection and mitigation of climate change. The conclusion suggests that coal will continue to be an expanding, a cheap foundation for economic and social development. Backed by its vast and well-distributed resource base, coal will make a significant contribution to eradicating energy poverty and coal can be and will be increasingly clean, at a bearable cost in terms of technological sophistication and at little cost in terms of international technology transfer and RD & D in CO{sub 2} sequestration. For this to happen, even-handed energy and environmental policies are needed, not ideologies. Moreover, a more pro-active involvement of the coal and power industries is needed in 'globalizing' best technical and managerial practices and advocating coal's credentials.

  20. Global Trends of International Mergers and Acquisitions in the Energy Sector

    Liubov Galperina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explores conditions, factors and results of mergers and acquisitions in international business with the example of the energy industry. The directions of world energy market transformation in the framework of PESTLE analysis have been determined by the factors influencing the efficiency and future of the companies that have effected mergers and acquisitions. The transformation of the global energy market is associated with changes in the main market parameters that affect the sectoral and regional structure of international mergers and acquisitions. Including: growing demand for energy from the growing population of the planet, including due to an increase in the middle class share; fluctuation of world oil market prices; the growth of supply of shale oil changing the transnational flows of trade in primary petroleum products; rising demand for renewable energy as a result of cheapening technologies and diversification policies; the growth of renewable energy sources supply; increase in demand for atomic energy; improvement of energy infrastructure; introduction of energy efficient and low carbon technologies; introduction of safe technologies by energy companies; reduction of transaction costs in power grids due to optimization of modes at application of Smart Grid at all levels (local, on-site, regional, national, international; the expansion of the world-leading countries in the primary energy markets; demonopolization of national energy markets and liberalization of energy markets of the EU, USA, Japan, South Korea, Australia, etc. The world market of mergers and acquisitions has been characterized with the definition of key features of its development. International mergers and acquisitions in the energy sector are analysed on the basis of regional and industry characteristics. The international mergers and acquisitions in the energy sector has been analysed, taking into account the main scenarios for the development of the

  1. The globalization of energy activities: what are the issues?

    Percebois, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globalization in many sectors such as information, research and development, finance, technology, etc. led to the implementation of transnational networks to facilitate decision-making. The result is that governments are left to regulation functions. This globalization also led to a larger gap between North and South. Developing countries represent 80 per cent of world population, yet only produce less than 33 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). In the energy sector, developing countries have limited access to energy and use it less efficiently, since they do not master the latest technologies. States must retain their power to regulate this sector to ensure competition takes place in a fair environment within specified guidelines. Licenses must be issued through bidding or auctioned off, but in every case the State must ensure that commitments are met. It must also ensure that pricing is fair. Access for third parties to the power distribution system must be adequate, especially when the company operates in a monopoly environment. The State ends up managing a new category of risks (called major risks) that the private sector is not willing to consider, for example global warming or the management of nuclear waste. Confidence in market mechanisms is limited. Energy exchanges and others represent an economic growth factor and a potential guarantee for world peace. Who is responsible for the social costs associated with economic growth, and what are the solutions? A major issue left to decision-makers is the sharing of wealth within humankind and nations, and the State has a vital role to play. 5 refs., 5 tabs

  2. Nuclear energy: The need for responsible global management

    Hill, C.; Mechelynck, A.

    1999-01-01

    The problems posed by nuclear power generation have been discussed in earlier Pugwash meetings and, more recently, participants in at least one working group (Hiroshima, 1995) have urged that the issue should be taken up again in a specially convened workshop. Subsequently, at Lahti in 1996, Working Group 6 (Global action on the energy/climate interaction) asked the present authors to follow up this recommendation. The present paper reports on the modest progress that has been made in this direction. It is intended to form the basis for discussion, in Lillehammer Working Group 6, on whether further Pugwash action should be taken and, if so, how?

  3. A review and future prospects of renewable energy in the global energy system

    D Yogi GOSWAMI; John & Naida Ramil Professor; Co-Director

    2008-01-01

    Global energy consumption in the last half century has rapidly increased and is expected to continue to grow over the next 50 years, however, with significant differences. The past increase was stimulated by relatively "cheap" fossil fuels and increased rates of industrialization in North America, Europe and Japan; yet while energy consumption in these countries continues to increase, additional factors make the picture for the next 50 years more complex. These additional complicating factors include China and India's rapid increase in energy use as they represent about a third of the world's population; the expected depletion of oil resources in the near future; and, the effect of human activities on global climate change. On the positive side, the renewable energy (RE) technologies of wind, bio-fuels, solar thermal and photovoltaics (PV) are finally showing maturity and the ultimate promise of cost competitiveness.

  4. Apollo 2: Solar energy meets the new global challenge

    Swenson, R. B [Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Humanity faces imminent and serious global oil shortages. It is urgent that the solar energy community respond aggressively to fulfill its central role in the transition from a transitory fossil-fuel economy to a sustainable solar future. The intention here is to explain and quantify the oil shortfall, to validate the renewable option, and to calculate the rate at which the capacity of the renewable energy industry must accelerate to counteract the predictable oil deficit. [Spanish] La humanidad se enfrenta a una seria e inminente escasez mundial de petroleo. Es urgente que la comunidad de energia solar responda agresivamente para satisfacer su rol central en la transicion de una economia transitoria de combustibles fosiles a un futuro solar sustentable. La intencion aqui es la de explicar y cuantificar el deficit de petroleo para validar esta opcion renovable y para calcular la velocidad a la que la industria de la energia renovable debe acelerar para contrarrestar el predecible deficit del petroleo.

  5. Modelling of the Global Geopotential Energy & Stress Field

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    Lateral density and topography variations yield in and important contribution to the lithospheric stress field. The leading quantity is the Geopotential Energy, the integrated lithostatic pressure in a rock column. The horizontal gradient of this quantity is related to horizontal stresses through...... the Equations of equilibrium of stresses. The Geopotential Energy furthermore can be linearly related to the Geoid under assumption of local isostasy. Satellite Geoid measurements contain, however, also non-isostatic deeper mantle responses of long wavelength. Unfortunately, high-pass filtering of the Geoid...... flow in the presence of local isostasy and a steady state geotherm. Subsequently we use a FEM code to solve the Equations of equilibrium of stresses for a three dimensional elastic shell. The modelled results are shown and compared with the global stress field and other publications....

  6. Renewables Global Futures Report: Great debates towards 100% renewable energy

    Teske, Sven; Fattal, Alex; Lins, Christine; Hullin, Martin; Williamson, Laura E.

    2017-01-01

    The first version of REN21's Renewables Global Futures Report (GFR) published in January 2013 identified a panorama of likely future debates related to the renewable energy transition. As a reflection of the wide range of contemporary thinking by the many experts interviewed for the report, it did not present just one vision of the future but rather a 'mosaic' of insights. Given the positive feedback in response to the first edition, a new edition has been prepared, continuing where the last one left off. The objective of this report is to gather opinions about the feasibility of a 100% renewable energy future, and the macro-economic impacts it would entail. In so doing, the report reflects on the debates of 2013, and tracks their evolution to the present time. Some remain, some have changed, some have been overtaken by progress, and new ones have arisen. They are summarised here as the Great Debates in renewable energy. The questionnaire for the survey was developed in close cooperation between the REN21 Secretariat, the Institute for Sustainable Future (ISF) of the University of Technology Sydney/Australia (UTS) and the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) in Potsdam/Germany. It covered the following topics: 1. How much renewables?; 2. Power sector; 3. Heating and cooling; 4. Transport; 5. Storage; 6. Demand-side management and energy efficiency; 7. Integration of sectors; 8. Macro-economic considerations; 9. Technology and costs; 10. Policy; 11. Cities; 12. Distributed renewable energy/energy access; 13. Barriers/challenges/enablers. 114 experts were interviewed in total; the average interview time was approximately one hour. The interviews were conducted between May and October 2016. The questionnaire was also mirrored in an online version and used both by interviewers and interviewees to record the interview process. Interviewees were selected from the following regions: Africa, Australia and Oceania, China, Europe, India, Japan, Latin America

  7. Nuclear energy the best alternative in alleviating global warming

    Malaki Khoshkbijari, M.; Moghadam, M. Kh.

    2008-01-01

    During the last century, the average temperature of the earth has abnormally increased by 0.74 c, causing concern among scientists. Some experts believe that the earth has experienced the warmest years during the last decades of 20 century, to the extent that the last 400 years have been the warmest years. The reports 2007 suggest that the hottest periods recorded occur a 1990 - 2007 which was a record high during the past 150 years. It seems that industrialization has contributed significantly to the global warming. The measurement of earth temperature dates hack to 1880 which has continued up to the present time. It is also predicted that the year 2014 would witness an unprecedented high air temperature. Moreover, scientists have expressed grave concern about the occurrence of severe droughts, scorching heat and formidable storms which are yet to strike the earth in the year 2100. According to the I nternational atomic agency , nuclear energy is by far, the best and safest production source of electricity in the future due to it's low emission rate of carbon dioxide. However , prior to making any commitment, it seem imperative to increase public awareness about the dire consequences of the continued utilization of fossil fuels. Based on research carried out by International atomic agency, nuclear energy is superior to other sources of energy in two major respects: lack of any so-called greenhouse gas emission and the utilization of uranium as the single source the energy production. The study aims at first; probing into the causes of global warming, the outcomes and ultimately provision of a way out of the problem and identifying the means to seriously cope with the problem. 5

  8. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    Fischer, S.K.; Fairchild, P.D.; Hughes, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used in a number of applications, and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s. However, in the mid-1980s, it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFSs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of these alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects in the form of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential heating and cooling, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air-conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. The discussion in this paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to refrigeration and air-conditioning. In general the use of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reduction in total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), lifetime equivalent CO 2 emission. Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Projection of primary energy in electricity generation with evaluation of demand and supply of energy in the medium-term horizon (2020), long-term (2035) and very long term (2060)

    Mafra, Olga Y.; Alvim, Carlos Feu; Eidelman, Frida; Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    The Global Energy demand and the participation of electricity in scenarios of medium (2020), long (2035) and very long (2060) terms are estimated. It is also evaluated the share of different primary energies in electricity generation and their availability in the country. Three economic scenarios were considered and different hypothesis regarding the participation of nuclear energy were analyzed. (author)

  10. Double or quits?: The global future of civil nuclear energy

    Beck, Peter; Grimston, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    Among the many disputes in the field of energy, in many countries none appear to be as acrimonious as those surrounding nuclear power. Its supporters are confident that nuclear power will have an important long-term future on the global energy scene, while its critics are equally confident that its days are numbered and that it was only developed to provide a political fig-leaf for a nuclear weapons programme. Both sides believe the other to be thoroughly biased or stupid and there is little constructive debate between them. As the disputes rage, especially over such issues as the management of nuclear waste, the economics and safety of nuclear power compared with other sources of electricity, the possible links with nuclear weapons and the attitude of the public towards the industry, decision-making is either paralysed or dominated by those who shout loudest. As a result, governments, industry and the financial sector have in recent years found it increasingly difficult to develop policy in this field. Deciding about future energy developments requires balanced and trustworthy information about issues such as the relative environmental effects of different options, the safety of installations, economics and the availability of resources. This is of particular importance now because world energy use is expected to continue to grow significantly during this century, particularly in less developed countries. In the same period, global emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, will have to be severely curbed. To meet both these requirements may well involve a step change away from being able to meet growing energy needs by depending on an ever increasing supply of carboniferous fossil fuel. To address this situation, the Royal Institute of International Affairs undertook a two-year research project, aimed at providing information from the standpoint of an organization with no vested interest in either the pro or the anti camp, but close connections to

  11. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  12. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

  13. Global energetics of solar flares. I. Magnetic energies

    Aschwanden, Markus J. [Lockheed Martin, Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Org. A021S, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju, E-mail: aschwanden@lmsal.com, E-mail: yan.xu@njit.edu, E-mail: ju.jing@njit.edu [Space Weather Research Laboratory, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    We present the first part of a project on the global energetics of solar flares and coronal mass ejections that includes about 400 M- and X-class flares observed with Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We calculate the potential (E{sub p} ), the nonpotential (E {sub np}) or free energies (E {sub free} = E {sub np} – E{sub p} ), and the flare-dissipated magnetic energies (E {sub diss}). We calculate these magnetic parameters using two different NLFFF codes: the COR-NLFFF code uses the line-of-sight magnetic field component B{sub z} from HMI to define the potential field, and the two-dimensional (2D) coordinates of automatically detected coronal loops in six coronal wavelengths from AIA to measure the helical twist of coronal loops caused by vertical currents, while the PHOT-NLFFF code extrapolates the photospheric three-dimensional (3D) vector fields. We find agreement between the two codes in the measurement of free energies and dissipated energies within a factor of ≲ 3. The size distributions of magnetic parameters exhibit powerlaw slopes that are approximately consistent with the fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality model. The magnetic parameters exhibit scaling laws for the nonpotential energy, E{sub np}∝E{sub p}{sup 1.02}, for the free energy, E{sub free}∝E{sub p}{sup 1.7} and E{sub free}∝B{sub φ}{sup 1.0}L{sup 1.5}, for the dissipated energy, E{sub diss}∝E{sub p}{sup 1.6} and E{sub diss}∝E{sub free}{sup 0.9}, and the energy dissipation volume, V∝E{sub diss}{sup 1.2}. The potential energies vary in the range of E{sub p} = 1 × 10{sup 31}-4 × 10{sup 33} erg, while the free energy has a ratio of E {sub free}/E{sub p} ≈ 1%-25%. The Poynting flux amounts to F {sub flare} ≈ 5 × 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} during flares, which averages to F {sub AR} ≈ 6 × 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} during the entire observation

  14. Nuclear energy and global governance to 2030 : an action plan

    Frechette, L.; Findlay, T.; Brem, M.; Hanson, J.; Bunch, M.; McCausland, T.

    2010-01-01

    This document presented the key findings of the Nuclear Energy Futures project that was initiated in May 2006 to consider global governance of nuclear energy. The five-point action plan presented in this document included: (1) nuclear safety whereby all nuclear states are committed to and capable of implementing the highest nuclear safety standards, (2) nuclear security whereby all nuclear material and facilities are secure from unauthorized access or terrorist seizure or attack, (3) nuclear nonproliferation whereby a nuclear revival does not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons, (4) the re-enforcement of the International Atomic Energy Agency's centrality through increased funding, modernization and reform, and (5) stakeholder involvement whereby all partners, especially industry, participate in judiciously managing a nuclear revival. This document suggested that despite some powerful drivers, the revival of nuclear energy faces too many barriers compared to other means of electricity production. These barriers include high costs; fewer subsidies; too slow for meeting the threat of climate change; inadequate power grids; unresolved nuclear waste issue; and fears about safety, security and nuclear weapons.

  15. Nuclear energy and global governance to 2030 : an action plan

    Frechette, L.; Findlay, T. (comps.); Brem, M.; Hanson, J.; Bunch, M.; McCausland, T. (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    This document presented the key findings of the Nuclear Energy Futures project that was initiated in May 2006 to consider global governance of nuclear energy. The five-point action plan presented in this document included: (1) nuclear safety whereby all nuclear states are committed to and capable of implementing the highest nuclear safety standards, (2) nuclear security whereby all nuclear material and facilities are secure from unauthorized access or terrorist seizure or attack, (3) nuclear nonproliferation whereby a nuclear revival does not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons, (4) the re-enforcement of the International Atomic Energy Agency's centrality through increased funding, modernization and reform, and (5) stakeholder involvement whereby all partners, especially industry, participate in judiciously managing a nuclear revival. This document suggested that despite some powerful drivers, the revival of nuclear energy faces too many barriers compared to other means of electricity production. These barriers include high costs; fewer subsidies; too slow for meeting the threat of climate change; inadequate power grids; unresolved nuclear waste issue; and fears about safety, security and nuclear weapons.

  16. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA): A database for the worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Schär, Christoph; Müller, Guido; Hakuba, Maria Z.; Mystakidis, Stefanos; Arsenovic, Pavle; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-02-01

    The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface. GEBA is maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland) and has been founded in the 1980s by Prof. Atsumu Ohmura. It has continuously been updated and currently contains around 2500 stations with 500`000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components. Many of the records extend over several decades. The most widely measured quantity available in GEBA is the solar radiation incident at the Earth's surface ("global radiation"). The data sources include, in addition to the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) in St. Petersburg, data reports from National Weather Services, data from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD), data published in peer-reviewed publications and data obtained through personal communications. Different quality checks are applied to check for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA is used in various research applications, such as for the quantification of the global energy balance and its spatiotemporal variation, or for the estimation of long-term trends in the surface fluxes, which enabled the detection of multi-decadal variations in surface solar radiation, known as "global dimming" and "brightening". GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible over the internet via www.geba.ethz.ch.

  17. Identify: Improving industrial energy efficiency and mitigating global climate change

    Lazarus, M.; Hill, D.; Cornland, D.W.; Heaps, C.; Hippel, D. von; Williams, R.

    1997-07-01

    The use of energy in the industrial sectors of nations with both industrialized and developing economies will continue to be, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The patterns of industrial-sector energy use--energy provided primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels-have shifted both within the between countries in recent decades. Projections of future energy use and carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions suggest continued shifts in these patterns, as industrial production in developed countries stabilizes and declines, while industrial output in the developing world continues to expand. This expansion of industrial-sector activity and CO{sub 2} emissions in developing countries presents both a challenge and an opportunity. To seize this opportunity and contribute to international efforts to mitigate global climate change, the United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) recently initiated a two-phase effort to help improve the efficiency of energy-intensive industries (iron and steel, chemicals, refining, paper and pulp, and cement) in developing countries. As part of the Phase I, the authors reviewed industrial sector scenarios and to initiated development of a software-based toolkit for identifying and assessing GHG mitigating technologies. This toolkit, called IDENTIFY, is comprised of a technology inventory and a companion economic analysis tool. In addition, UNIDO commissioned institutions in India, South Africa, and Argentina to review energy use patterns and savings opportunities in selected industries across nine developing countries, and contribute to the development of the IDENTIFY toolkit. UNIDO is now preparing to launch Phase 2, which will focus on full development and dissemination of the IDENTIFY toolkit through seminars and case studies around the world. This paper describes Phase 1 of the UNIDO project.

  18. Identify: Improving industrial energy efficiency and mitigating global climate change

    Lazarus, M.; Hill, D.; Cornland, D.W.; Heaps, C.; Hippel, D. von; Williams, R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of energy in the industrial sectors of nations with both industrialized and developing economies will continue to be, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The patterns of industrial-sector energy use--energy provided primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels-have shifted both within the between countries in recent decades. Projections of future energy use and carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions suggest continued shifts in these patterns, as industrial production in developed countries stabilizes and declines, while industrial output in the developing world continues to expand. This expansion of industrial-sector activity and CO 2 emissions in developing countries presents both a challenge and an opportunity. To seize this opportunity and contribute to international efforts to mitigate global climate change, the United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) recently initiated a two-phase effort to help improve the efficiency of energy-intensive industries (iron and steel, chemicals, refining, paper and pulp, and cement) in developing countries. As part of the Phase I, the authors reviewed industrial sector scenarios and to initiated development of a software-based toolkit for identifying and assessing GHG mitigating technologies. This toolkit, called IDENTIFY, is comprised of a technology inventory and a companion economic analysis tool. In addition, UNIDO commissioned institutions in India, South Africa, and Argentina to review energy use patterns and savings opportunities in selected industries across nine developing countries, and contribute to the development of the IDENTIFY toolkit. UNIDO is now preparing to launch Phase 2, which will focus on full development and dissemination of the IDENTIFY toolkit through seminars and case studies around the world. This paper describes Phase 1 of the UNIDO project

  19. Global investigation of interleukin-1β signaling in primary β-cells using quantitative phosphoproteomics

    Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Størling, Joachim; Pociot, Flemming

    in β-cells by which this cytokine can modulate cell-matrix interactions during inflammation, a regulation shown in other cell types. Further data analysis is currently ongoing, and the collective results of the experiments will hopefully facilitate additional insights into the effect of IL-1β......Novel Aspect: Global phosphoproteomic analysis of cytokine signaling in primary β-cells Introduction The insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are targeted by aberrant immune system responses in diabetes mellitus involving cytokines, especially interleukin-1β (IL-1 β......), which initiate apoptosis of the β-cells. As only limited amounts of primary β-cells can be isolated from model organisms like mouse and rat, global phosphoproteomic analysis of these signaling events by mass spectrometry has generally been unfeasible. We have therefore developed a strategy...

  20. German energy transition at the crossroad: global pressures or green energy island

    Umbach, Frank

    2015-05-01

    In reaction to the March 2011 nuclear disaster that occurred in Fukushima/Japan, Germany has unilaterally decided to launch an energy transition of hitherto unseen dimensions. Berlin set extremely ambitious objectives such as phasing out nuclear energy by 2020, as well as, in the long run, the creation of a sustainable and autarkic energy system. Reactions to this decision differed. Within her own country, Angela Merkel's energy transition was largely acclaimed, although it represented a total u-turn with respect to the previous policy which consisted of prolonging nuclear reactors' lifespan. Abroad and notably among Germany's European partners, it has, in turn, been heavily criticized. These partners had not been consulted prior to decisions being taken, despite the huge impact these decisions had and continue to have on their own energy security. Four years after Angela Merkel announced the German energy transition, it is obvious that a lot of effort still needs to be put into it and that the objectives defined are far from having been reached. German energy policy has failed to adapt to its global context, notably characterized by the U.S. shale gas revolution, geopolitical upheaval, the great polluters' absent willingness to commit to climate protection, etc. At the time being, it has also failed to find a sustainable equilibrium between environmental protection, energy security and economic competitiveness. Moreover, Germany needs to act in accordance with its European partners, without whom it will not be able to tackle the global challenge of climate change and attain to European energy security. If Germany fails to reach these objectives, it may see its competitiveness and geopolitical influence decline at the global level, which would also have repercussions on the EU's standing in the world. (author)

  1. The logic of the primary energy prices evolution

    Giraud, P.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals, very briefly, with the basis factors determining the prices levels of the primary energies and the logic of their evolution both in the short and in the long term. It first gives definitions: of the limits of mineral commodities prices fluctuations and of the long term equilibrium prices. Then, it tries to demonstrate three points: (1) Coal and nuclear electricity prices are driven in the long term only by their own production and environmental costs. Moreover, coal prices fluctuations are surrounded by factors which are basically independent from oil prices. (2) There is no such thing as one single equilibrium price for oil, but several ones, depending on political factors, and among them, on the degree of consensus between the 'Five' of the Gulf (Saudi Arabia, Iran, Irak, Koweit, The Emirates). (3) Natural gas prices are in an intermediate situation, but tend to get closer to the case of coal and nuclear prices. 4 figs

  2. Understanding primary school science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge: The case of teaching global warming

    Chordnork, Boonliang; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This aim of this research was to investigate primary school science teachers understanding and teaching practice as well as the influence on teaching and learning a topic like global warming. The participants were four primary science teachers, who were not graduated in science education. Methodology was the case study method, which was under the qualitative research regarded from interpretive paradigm. Data were collected by openended questionnaire, semi-structure interview, and document colleting. The questionnaire examined teachers' background, teachers' understanding of problems and threats of science teaching, desiring of development their PCK, sharing the teaching approaches, and their ideas of strength and weakness. a semi-structured interview was conducted based on the approach for capturing PCK of Loughran [23] content representation (CoRe). And, the document was collected to clarify what evidence which was invented to effect on students' learning. These document included lesson plan, students' task, and painting about global warming, science projects, the picture of activities of science learning, the exercise and test. Data analysis employed multiple approach of evidence looking an issue from each primary science teachers and used triangulation method to analyze the data with aiming to make meaning of teachers' representation of teaching practice. These included descriptive statistics, CoRe interpretation, and document analysis. The results show that teachers had misunderstanding of science teaching practice and they has articulated the pedagogical content knowledge in terms of assessment, goal of teaching and linking to the context of socio cultural. In contrast, knowledge and belief of curriculum, students' understanding of content global warming, and strategies of teaching were articulated indistinct by non-graduate science teacher. Constructing opportunities for personal development, the curiosity of the student learning center, and linking context

  3. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) version 2017: a database for worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Schär, Christoph; Müller, Guido; Folini, Doris; Schwarz, Matthias; Zyta Hakuba, Maria; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-08-01

    The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the central storage of the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface, maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland). This paper documents the status of the GEBA version 2017 dataset, presents the new web interface and user access, and reviews the scientific impact that GEBA data had in various applications. GEBA has continuously been expanded and updated and contains in its 2017 version around 500 000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components measured at 2500 locations. The database contains observations from 15 surface energy flux components, with the most widely measured quantity available in GEBA being the shortwave radiation incident at the Earth's surface (global radiation). Many of the historic records extend over several decades. GEBA contains monthly data from a variety of sources, namely from the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) in St. Petersburg, from national weather services, from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD), from peer-reviewed publications, project and data reports, and from personal communications. Quality checks are applied to test for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA has played a key role in various research applications, such as in the quantification of the global energy balance, in the discussion of the anomalous atmospheric shortwave absorption, and in the detection of multi-decadal variations in global radiation, known as global dimming and brightening. GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible through the internet via http://www.geba.ethz.ch. Supplementary data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873078.

  4. A simple global carbon and energy coupled cycle model for global warming simulation: sensitivity to the light saturation effect

    Ichii, Kazuhito; Murakami, Kazutaka; Mukai, Toshikazu; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Ogawa, Katsuro

    2003-01-01

    A simple Earth system model, the Four-Spheres Cycle of Energy and Mass (4-SCEM) model, has been developed to simulate global warming due to anthropogenic CO 2 emission. The model consists of the Atmosphere-Earth Heat Cycle (AEHC) model, the Four Spheres Carbon Cycle (4-SCC) model, and their feedback processes. The AEHC model is a one-dimensional radiative convective model, which includes the greenhouse effect of CO 2 and H 2 O, and one cloud layer. The 4-SCC model is a box-type carbon cycle model, which includes biospheric CO 2 fertilization, vegetation area variation, the vegetation light saturation effect and the HILDA oceanic carbon cycle model. The feedback processes between carbon cycle and climate considered in the model are temperature dependencies of water vapor content, soil decomposition and ocean surface chemistry. The future status of the global carbon cycle and climate was simulated up to the year 2100 based on the 'business as usual' (IS92a) emission scenario, followed by a linear decline in emissions to zero in the year 2200. The atmospheric CO 2 concentration reaches 645 ppmv in 2100 and a peak of 760 ppmv approximately in the year 2170, and becomes a steady state with 600 ppmv. The projected CO 2 concentration was lower than those of the past carbon cycle studies, because we included the light saturation effect of vegetation. The sensitivity analysis showed that uncertainties derived from the light saturation effect of vegetation and land use CO 2 emissions were the primary cause of uncertainties in projecting future CO 2 concentrations. The climate feedback effects showed rather small sensitivities compared with the impacts of those two effects. Satellite-based net primary production trends analyses can somewhat decrease the uncertainty in quantifying CO 2 emissions due to land use changes. On the other hand, as the estimated parameter in vegetation light saturation was poorly constrained, we have to quantify and constrain the effect more

  5. A global perspective on energy: health effects and injustices.

    Wilkinson, Paul; Smith, Kirk R; Joffe, Michael; Haines, Andrew

    2007-09-15

    The exploitation of fossil fuels is integral to modern living and has been a key element of the rapid technological, social, and cultural changes of the past 250 years. Although such changes have brought undeniable benefits, this exploitation has contributed to a burden of illness through pollution of local and regional environments, and is the dominant cause of climate change. This pattern of development is therefore unsustainable at a global level. At the same time, about 2.4 billion of the world's population, disadvantaged by lack of access to clean energy, are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollutants from the inefficient burning of biomass fuels. Even in high-income countries, many people live in fuel poverty, and throughout the world, increasingly sedentary lifestyles (to which fossil-fuel-dependent transport systems contribute) are leading to chronic disease and injuries. Energy security is also an issue of growing concern to many governments in both the developed and developing world, and a potential source of international tension and conflict. In this Series, we examine the opportunities to improve health, reduce climate effects, and promote development through realistic adjustments in the way energy and food are produced and consumed.

  6. Regulatory challenges facing the global nuclear energy partnership

    Lyman, Edwin S.

    2007-01-01

    In January 2006 the Department of Energy (DOE) announced the creation of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), an ambitious plan to reshape the nuclear energy production sector both in the United States and worldwide. If fully realized in the United States, GNEP would entail the construction of a large number of sodium-cooled fast reactors utilizing actinide-based fuels, multiple commercial-scale reprocessing plants for both light-water and fast reactors, and fast reactor fuel fabrication plants. It appears likely that the first commercial-scale GNEP facilities, as well as a future full-scale GNEP complex, would fall under the licensing jurisdiction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This will be a challenging endeavor for the NRC, primarily because the proposed GNEP facilities will in large part be based on novel and untested designs and processes that have not been developed on a commercial scale. In order to effectively regulate the GNEP complex, the NRC will have to quickly address the many technical and policy questions that will arise in any GNEP licensing scheme. This paper identifies some difficult issues that will be encountered in GNEP licensing by examining the potential implications of NRC's current policies and regulatory requirements, and analyzing the impacts of some emerging post-9/11 security issues. (author)

  7. Trigeneration primary energy saving evaluation for energy planning and policy development

    Chicco, Gianfranco; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2007-01-01

    Trigeneration or combined heat, cooling and power (CHCP) is becoming an increasingly important energy option, particularly on a small-scale basis (below 1 MW e ), with several alternatives nowadays available for the cooling power production and the coupling to cogeneration systems. This paper deals with the introduction of a suitable framework for assessing the energy saving performance of trigeneration alternatives, orientated towards energy planning studies and the development of regulatory policies. In particular, a new generalized performance indicator-the trigeneration primary energy saving (TPES)-is introduced and discussed, with the aim of effectively evaluating the primary energy savings from different CHCP alternatives. The potential of the TPES indicator is illustrated through specific analyses run over different combinations of trigeneration equipment, providing numerical examples based on time-domain simulations to illustrate the dependence of the energy saving characteristics on the CHCP system configurations and equipment, as well as on the loading levels. In addition, the key aspect of adequately establishing the reference efficiencies for the conventional separate production of electrical, thermal and cooling power is addressed in detail. This aspect affects both equipment selection and potential profitability of the considered solutions under the outlook of receiving financial incentives

  8. Global economics/energy/environmental (E3) modeling of long-term nuclear energy futures

    Krakowski, R.A.; Davidson, J.W.; Bathke, C.G.; Arthur, E.D.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A global energy, economics, environment (E 3 ) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Using this model, consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed. A spectrum of future is examined at two levels in a hierarchy of scenario attributes in which drivers are either external or internal to nuclear energy. Impacts of a range of nuclear fuel-cycle scenarios are reflected back to the higher-level scenario attributes. An emphasis is placed on nuclear materials inventories (in magnitude, location, and form) and their contribution to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy and the future competitiveness of both conventional and advanced nuclear reactors

  9. The Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford University: Fundamental Research Towards Future Energy Technologies

    Milne, Jennifer L.; Sassoon, Richard E.; Hung, Emilie; Bosshard, Paolo; Benson, Sally M.

    The Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP), at Stanford University, invests in research with the potential to lead to energy technologies with lower greenhouse gas emissions than current energy technologies. GCEP is sponsored by four international companies, ExxonMobil, GE, Schlumberger, and Toyota and supports research programs in academic institutions worldwide. Research falls into the broad areas of carbon based energy systems, renewables, electrochemistry, and the electric grid. Within these areas research efforts are underway that are aimed at achieving break-throughs and innovations that greatly improve efficiency, performance, functionality and cost of many potential energy technologies of the future including solar, batteries, fuel cells, biofuels, hydrogen storage and carbon capture and storage. This paper presents a summary of some of GCEP's activities over the past 7 years with current research areas of interest and potential research directions in the near future.

  10. The global mean energy balance under cloud-free conditions

    Wild, Martin; Hakuba, Maria; Folini, Dois; Ott, Patricia; Long, Charles

    2017-04-01

    är, C., Loeb, N., Dutton, E.G., and König-Langlo, G., 2013: The global energy balance from a surface perspective. Climate Dynamics, 40, 3107-3134. Wild, M., Folini, D., Hakuba, M., Schär, C., Seneviratne, S.I., Kato, S., Rutan, D., Ammann, C., Wood, E.F., and König-Langlo, G., 2015: The energy balance over land and oceans: An assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models, Climate Dynamics, 3393-3429, 44, DOI 10.1007/s00382-014-2430-z.

  11. Global Energy Market Trends and Learnings from German's Energiewende

    Kluesener, P.

    2016-01-01

    COP21 is the cornerstone for the decarbonization of energy markets globally: for the first time a commitment for the reduction of GHG emissions was reached on a global level. Although the national emission reduction contributions (INDC) don't yet fulfill a 2 degree of C path, they mark a big move in mind set for the need of emission reduction to limit climate change. But how can this goal be reached while sustaining energy supply security and affordability of energy. Germany is a pioneer in terms of a radical change of national energy system, but is the German 'Energiewende' a blue-line print for energy transition in general? Germany has made big progress in the installation of renewables esp. Wind and Solar PV. Installed capacity for Wind and Solar power reached more than 80 GW in 2015, but new installations esp. for Solar PV have significantly slowed down in the recent past after some years of record installation of 7-8 GW per year in 2010-2012. With the growing share of fluctuating renewables such and wind and solar PV the system integration became an issue. There are huge differences in Wind and Solar PV installations between the North and South of Germany. Peaks in power generation either from Wind or Solar can't be operated within the regions anymore. While the transmission line from North to South are missing and construction is substantially delayed, the temporary regional oversupply is managed more or less by power flows into neighbouring countries. Beside the technical aspects there are also economic issues. Despite significant cost reduction for renewables the EEG levy is continuously growing. Due to the regional imbalances the efforts for redispatch of conventional power plants are increasing and thereby the cost for system balance. The share of levies and taxes on retail electricity prices is above 50 percent since some years. So far the policy failed to limit the increase of retail electricity prices but affordability of energy became a greater

  12. Effects of foliage clumping on the estimation of global terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Chen, Jing M.; Mo, Gang; Pisek, Jan; Liu, Jane; Deng, Feng; Ishizawa, Misa; Chan, Douglas

    2012-03-01

    Sunlit and shaded leaf separation proposed by Norman (1982) is an effective way to upscale from leaf to canopy in modeling vegetation photosynthesis. The Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) makes use of this methodology, and has been shown to be reliable in modeling the gross primary productivity (GPP) derived from CO2flux and tree ring measurements. In this study, we use BEPS to investigate the effect of canopy architecture on the global distribution of GPP. For this purpose, we use not only leaf area index (LAI) but also the first ever global map of the foliage clumping index derived from the multiangle satellite sensor POLDER at 6 km resolution. The clumping index, which characterizes the degree of the deviation of 3-dimensional leaf spatial distributions from the random case, is used to separate sunlit and shaded LAI values for a given LAI. Our model results show that global GPP in 2003 was 132 ± 22 Pg C. Relative to this baseline case, our results also show: (1) global GPP is overestimated by 12% when accurate LAI is available but clumping is ignored, and (2) global GPP is underestimated by 9% when the effective LAI is available and clumping is ignored. The clumping effects in both cases are statistically significant (p < 0.001). The effective LAI is often derived from remote sensing by inverting the measured canopy gap fraction to LAI without considering the clumping. Global GPP would therefore be generally underestimated when remotely sensed LAI (actually effective LAI by our definition) is used. This is due to the underestimation of the shaded LAI and therefore the contribution of shaded leaves to GPP. We found that shaded leaves contribute 50%, 38%, 37%, 39%, 26%, 29% and 21% to the total GPP for broadleaf evergreen forest, broadleaf deciduous forest, evergreen conifer forest, deciduous conifer forest, shrub, C4 vegetation, and other vegetation, respectively. The global average of this ratio is 35%.

  13. Towards a sustainable global energy supply infrastructure: Net energy balance and density considerations

    Kessides, Ioannis N.; Wade, David C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs a framework of dynamic energy analysis to model the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures as constrained by innate physical energy balance and dynamic response limits. Coal-fired generation meets the criteria of longevity (abundance of energy source) and scalability (ability to expand to the multi-terawatt level) which are critical for a sustainable energy supply chain, but carries a very heavy carbon footprint. Renewables and nuclear power, on the other hand, meet both the longevity and environmental friendliness criteria. However, due to their substantially different energy densities and load factors, they vary in terms of their ability to deliver net excess energy and attain the scale needed for meeting the huge global energy demand. The low power density of renewable energy extraction and the intermittency of renewable flows limit their ability to achieve high rates of indigenous infrastructure growth. A significant global nuclear power deployment, on the other hand, could engender serious risks related to proliferation, safety, and waste disposal. Unlike renewable sources of energy, nuclear power is an unforgiving technology because human lapses and errors can have ecological and social impacts that are catastrophic and irreversible. Thus, the transition to a low carbon economy is likely to prove much more challenging than early optimists have claimed. - Highlights: → We model the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures. → Coal is scalable and abundant but carries a heavy carbon footprint. → Renewables and nuclear meet the longevity and environmental friendliness criteria. → The low power density and intermittency of renewables limit their growth potential. → Nuclear power continues to raise concerns about proliferation, safety, and waste.

  14. A global renewable energy system: A modelling exercise in ETSAP/TIAM

    Føyn, Tullik Helene Ystanes; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Balyk, Olexandr

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to test the ETSAP2-TIAM global energy system model and to try out how far it can go towards a global 100% renewable energy system with the existing model database. This will show where limits in global resources are met and where limits in the data fed to the model until now are met...

  15. Development of Pathways to Achieve the SE4ALL Energy Efficiency Objective: Global and Regional Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Gregg, Jay Sterling; Balyk, Olexandr; Pérez, Cristian Hernán Cabrera

    This study examines the three objectives of the UN Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative: 1. Ensure universal access to modern energy services by 2030. 2. Double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency (from 1.3% to 2.6% annual reduction in energy intensity of GDP) by 2030. 3....... Double the share of renewable energy in global final energy from 18% to 36% by 2030. The integrated assessment model, ETSAP-TIAM, was used in this study to compare, from an economic optimization point of view, different scenarios for the development of the energy system between 2010 and 2030....... This analysis is conducted on a global and regional scale. The scenarios were constructed to analyze the effect of achieving the SE4ALL energy efficiency objective, the SE4ALL renewable energy objective, both together, and all three SE4ALL objectives. Synergies exist between renewable energy and energy...

  16. Primary sources of selected POPs: regional and global scale emission inventories

    Breivik, Knut; Alcock, Ruth; Li Yifan; Bailey, Robert E.; Fiedler, Heidelore; Pacyna, Jozef M

    2004-03-01

    During the last decade, a number of studies have been devoted to the sources and emissions of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) at regional and global scales. While significant improvements in knowledge have been achieved for some pesticides, the quantitative understanding of the emission processes and emission patterns for 'non-pesticide' POPs are still considered limited. The key issues remaining for the non-pesticide POPs are in part determined by their general source classification. For industrial chemicals, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), there is considerable uncertainty with respect to the relative importance of atmospheric emissions from various source categories. For PCBs, temperature is discussed as a potential key factor influencing atmospheric emission levels and patterns. When it comes to the unintentional by-products of combustion and industrial processes (PCDD/Fs), there is still a large uncertainty with respect to the relative contribution of emissions from unregulated sources such as backyard barrel burning that requires further consideration and characterisation. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the relative importance of primary and secondary atmospheric emissions in controlling current atmospheric concentrations remains one of the key uncertainties. While these and other issues may remain unresolved, knowledge concerning the emissions of POPs is a prerequisite for any attempt to understand and predict the distribution and fate of these chemicals on a regional and global scale as well as to efficiently minimise future environmental burdens. - Knowledge of primary emissions is a prerequisite for understanding and predicting POPs on a regional/global scale.

  17. Primary sources of selected POPs: regional and global scale emission inventories

    Breivik, Knut; Alcock, Ruth; Li Yifan; Bailey, Robert E.; Fiedler, Heidelore; Pacyna, Jozef M.

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade, a number of studies have been devoted to the sources and emissions of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) at regional and global scales. While significant improvements in knowledge have been achieved for some pesticides, the quantitative understanding of the emission processes and emission patterns for 'non-pesticide' POPs are still considered limited. The key issues remaining for the non-pesticide POPs are in part determined by their general source classification. For industrial chemicals, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), there is considerable uncertainty with respect to the relative importance of atmospheric emissions from various source categories. For PCBs, temperature is discussed as a potential key factor influencing atmospheric emission levels and patterns. When it comes to the unintentional by-products of combustion and industrial processes (PCDD/Fs), there is still a large uncertainty with respect to the relative contribution of emissions from unregulated sources such as backyard barrel burning that requires further consideration and characterisation. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the relative importance of primary and secondary atmospheric emissions in controlling current atmospheric concentrations remains one of the key uncertainties. While these and other issues may remain unresolved, knowledge concerning the emissions of POPs is a prerequisite for any attempt to understand and predict the distribution and fate of these chemicals on a regional and global scale as well as to efficiently minimise future environmental burdens. - Knowledge of primary emissions is a prerequisite for understanding and predicting POPs on a regional/global scale

  18. Going nuclear. Some implications of the introduction of nuclear energy as the basic primary energy supply of a developped society

    Haefele, W.; Sassin, W.

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of nuclear energy as primary energy source, the future development potentialities of secondary energies are considered; these energy forms are coal gaseification, process heat for industrial uses and district heating, and mainly hydrogen production which represents 60% of the future secondary energy demands. By using decision tree method, the eventuality of using nuclear energy as unique energy source is examined, and the successive options implied in this approach are analyzed [fr

  19. Feasibility study on energy conservation at Sao Paulo state primary schools in the Federative Republic of Brazil

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A feasibility study has been performed on the energy conservation project aimed at the future CDM in relation with energy consumption in the lighting equipment at the Sao Paulo state primary schools in the Federative Republic of Brazil. Out of about 5,500 primary schools existing in Sao Paulo, 3,414 schools were selected as the objects of the surveys and discussions. The present program intends to introduce energy saving facilities such as high-efficiency fluorescent lamps and controls for illuminating the primary schools to save the energies and reduce emission of the global warming gases. In this economy project, the owners do not need to make initial investments, wherein the required funds are taken care by conservation of electric power during the service contract period. If about 3,000 schools are selected as the object, a fund of about 2.3 billion yen will be required in total. Total energy conservation quantity during 15 years from 2002 to 2016 as achieved by this project will be 532,740 MWh, corresponding to 114,540 tons of crude oil. The effect of reducing the emission of global warming gases will be 110,949 t-CO2 during the same period of time. (NEDO)

  20. Evaluation of high-energy lithium thionyl chloride primary cells

    Frank, H. A.

    1980-02-01

    An advanced commercial primary lithium cell (LiSoCl2) was evaluated in order to establish baseline data for improved lithium batteries for aerospace applications. The cell tested had nominal capacity of 6 Ah. Maximum energy density at low rates (less than C/30, where C is the cell capacity in amp-hrs and 30 corresponds to a 30 hr discharge time) was found to be near 300 Wh/kg. An equation which predicts the operating voltage of these cells as a function of current and state of charge is presented. Heat generation rates of these cells were determined as a function of current in a calorimeter. It was found that heat rates could be theoretically predicted with some degree of accuracy at currents less than 1 amp or the C/6 rate. No explosions were observed in the cells during the condition of overdischarge or reversal nor during high rate discharge. It was found, however, that the cells can vent when overdischarge currents are greater than C/30 and when discharge rates are greater than 1.5C.

  1. 21st Century Coal: Advanced Technology and Global Energy Solution

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Coal currently supplies with more than 40% of the world electricity consumption and it essential input of around 70% of world steel production, representing around 30% of the world primary energy supply. This is because coal is cheap, abundant, accessible, widely distributed and easy energy to transport, store and use. For these features, coal is projected to be intensively used in the future. Production and use of coal present a series of issues throughout the whole value chain. While existing technology allows addressing most of them (safety at work, land restoration, mercury, NOx and sulphur emissions avoidance, etc.), CO2 emissions continues to be the biggest challenge for coal use in the future. This report focuses on the technology path to near-zero emissions including useful insights in advanced coal power generation technologies and Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage, a promising technology with a large potential which can push Carbon Capture and Storage competitiveness. In addition, the report shows the features of the new generation of coal-fired power plants in terms of flexibility for dynamic operation and grid stability, requirements increasingly needed to operate on grids with significant wind and solar generation.

  2. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    Scott, Robert B.; Arbic, Brian K.; Chassignet, Eric P.; Coward, Andrew C.; Maltrud, Mathew; Merryfield, William J.; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Varghese, Anson

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between

  3. Revitalising primary healthcare requires an equitable global economic system - now more than ever.

    Sanders, David; Baum, Fran E; Benos, Alexis; Legge, David

    2011-08-01

    The promised revitalisation of primary healthcare (PHC) is happening at a time when the contradictions and unfairness of the global economic system have become clear, suggesting that the current system is unsustainable. In the past two decades, one of the most significant impediments to the implementation of comprehensive PHC has been neoliberal economic policies and their imposition globally. This article questions what will be required for PHC to flourish. PHC incorporates five key principles: equitable provision of services, comprehensive care, intersectoral action, community involvement and appropriate technology. This article considers intersectoral action and comprehensiveness and their potential to be implemented in the current global environment. It highlights the constraints to intersectoral action through a case study of nutrition in the context of globalisation of the food chain. It also explores the challenges to implementing a comprehensive approach to health that are posed by neoliberal health sector reforms and donor practices. The paper concludes that even well-designed health systems based on PHC have little influence over the broader economic forces that shape their operation and their ability to improve health. Reforming these economic forces will require greater regulation of the national and global economic environment to emphasise people's health rather than private profit, and action to address climate change. Revitalisation of PHC and progress towards health equity are unlikely without strong regulation of the market. The further development and strengthening of social movements for health will be key to successful advocacy action.

  4. Primary energy and greenhouse gases embodied in Australian final consumption: an input-output analysis

    Lenzen, M.

    1998-01-01

    Input-output modeling of primary energy and greenhouse gas embodiments in goods and services is a useful technique for designing greenhouse gas abatement policies. The present paper describes direct and indirect primary energy and greenhouse gas requirements for a given set of Australian final consumption. It considers sectoral disparities in energy prices, capital formation and international trade flows and it accounts for embodiments in the Gross National Expenditure as well as the Gross Domestic Product. Primary energy and greenhouse gas intensities in terms of MJ/$ and kg CO 2 -e/$ are reported, as well as national balance of primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  5. Role of nuclear energy to a future society of shortage of energy resources and global warming

    Saito, Shinzo, E-mail: saito.shinzo@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Human society entered into the society of large energy consumption since the industrial revolution and consumes more than 10 billion tons of oil equivalent energy a year in the world in the present time, in which over 80% is provided by fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Total energy consumption is foreseen to increase year by year from now on due to significant economical and population growth in the developing countries such as China and India. However, fossil fuel resources are limited with conventional crude oil estimated to last about 40 years, and it is said that the peak oil production time has come now. On the other hand, global warming due to green house gases (GHG) emissions, especially carbon dioxide, has become a serious issue. Nuclear energy plays an important role as means to resolve energy security and global warming issues. Four hundred twenty-nine nuclear power plants are operating world widely producing 16% of the total electric power with total plant capacity of 386 GWe without emission of CO{sub 2} as of 2006. It is estimated that another 250 GWe nuclear power is needed to keep the same level contribution of electricity generation in 2030. On the other hand, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) developed the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) named high temperature gas-cooled engineering test reactor (HTTR) and carbon free hydrogen production process (IS process). Nuclear energy utilization will surely widen in, not only electricity generation, but also various industries such as steel making, chemical industries, together with hydrogen production for transportation by introduction of HTGRs. The details of development of the HTTR and IS process are also described.

  6. Thinking Globally: How ISO 50001 - Energy Management can make industrial energy efficiency standard practice

    McKane, Aimee; Desai, Deann; Matteini, Marco; Meffert, William; Williams, Robert; Risser, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Industry utilizes very complex systems, consisting of equipment and their human interface, which are organized to meet the production needs of the business. Effective and sustainable energy efficiency programs in an industrial setting require a systems approach to optimize the integrated whole while meeting primary business requirements. Companies that treat energy as a manageable resource and integrate their energy program into their management practices have an organizational context to continually seek opportunities for optimizing their energy use. The purpose of an energy management system standard is to provide guidance for industrial and commercial facilities to integrate energy efficiency into their management practices, including fine-tuning production processes and improving the energy efficiency of industrial systems. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has identified energy management as one of its top five priorities for standards development. The new ISO 50001 will establish an international framework for industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities, or entire companies, to manage their energy, including procurement and use. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20percent or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.This paper describes the impetus for the international standard, its purpose, scope and significance, and development progress to date. A comparative overview of existing energy management standards is provided, as well as a discussion of capacity-building needs for skilled individuals to assist organizations in adopting the standard. Finally, opportunities and challenges are presented for implementing ISO 50001 in emerging economies and developing countries.

  7. Structural Uncertainty in Model-Simulated Trends of Global Gross Primary Production

    Zaichun Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Projected changes in the frequency and severity of droughts as a result of increase in greenhouse gases have a significant impact on the role of vegetation in regulating the global carbon cycle. Drought effect on vegetation Gross Primary Production (GPP is usually modeled as a function of Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD and/or soil moisture. Climate projections suggest a strong likelihood of increasing trend in VPD, while regional changes in precipitation are less certain. This difference in projections between VPD and precipitation can cause considerable discrepancies in the predictions of vegetation behavior depending on how ecosystem models represent the drought effect. In this study, we scrutinized the model responses to drought using the 30-year record of Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS 3g Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset. A diagnostic ecosystem model, Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS, was used to estimate global GPP from 1982 to 2009 under nine different experimental simulations. The control run of global GPP increased until 2000, but stayed constant after 2000. Among the simulations with single climate constraint (temperature, VPD, rainfall and solar radiation, only the VPD-driven simulation showed a decrease in 2000s, while the other scenarios simulated an increase in GPP. The diverging responses in 2000s can be attributed to the difference in the representation of the impact of water stress on vegetation in models, i.e., using VPD and/or precipitation. Spatial map of trend in simulated GPP using GIMMS 3g data is consistent with the GPP driven by soil moisture than the GPP driven by VPD, confirming the need for a soil moisture constraint in modeling global GPP.

  8. Relating Nimbus-7 37 GHz data to global land-surface evaporation, primary productivity and the atmospheric CO2 concentration

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    Global observations at 37 GHz by the Nimbus-7 SMMR are related to zonal variations of land surface evaporation and primary productivity, as well as to temporal variations of atmospheric CO2 concentration. The temporal variation of CO2 concentration and the zonal variations of evaporation and primary productivity are shown to be highly correlated with the satellite sensor data. The potential usefulness of the 37-GHz data for global biospheric and climate studies is noted.

  9. Assessing the Primary Data Hosted by the Spanish Node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)

    Otegui, Javier; Ariño, Arturo H.; Encinas, María A.; Pando, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    In order to effectively understand and cope with the current ‘biodiversity crisis’, having large-enough sets of qualified data is necessary. Information facilitators such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) are ensuring increasing availability of primary biodiversity records by linking data collections spread over several institutions that have agreed to publish their data in a common access schema. We have assessed the primary records that one such publisher, the Spanish node of GBIF (GBIF.ES), hosts on behalf of a number of institutions, considered to be a highly representative sample of the total mass of available data for a country in order to know the quantity and quality of the information made available. Our results may provide an indication of the overall fitness-for-use in these data. We have found a number of patterns in the availability and accrual of data that seem to arise naturally from the digitization processes. Knowing these patterns and features may help deciding when and how these data can be used. Broadly, the error level seems low. The available data may be of capital importance for the development of biodiversity research, both locally and globally. However, wide swaths of records lack data elements such as georeferencing or taxonomical levels. Although the remaining information is ample and fit for many uses, improving the completeness of the records would likely increase the usability span for these data. PMID:23372828

  10. Commercialization of the global nuclear energy partnership (GNEP)

    Loewen Eric P.; Boaz, Jeffery; Saito, Earl; Boardman, Chuck

    2007-01-01

    In February 2006 President Bush announced the Advanced Energy Initiative, which included the Department of Energy's (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). GNEP has seven broad goals, one of the major elements being to develop and deploy advanced nuclear fuel recycling technology. DOE is contemplating accelerating the deployment of these technologies to achieve the construction of a commercial scale application of these technologies. DOE now defines this approach as 'two simultaneous tracks: (1) deployment of commercial scale facilities for which advanced technologies are available now or in the near future, and (2) further research and development of transmutation fuels technologies'. GE believes an integrated technical solution, using existing reactor and fuel reprocessing technologies, is achievable in the near term to accelerate the commercial demonstration of GNEP infrastructure. The concept involves a single, integrated, commercial scale, recycling facility consisting of the Consolidated Fuel Treatment Center (CFTC), capable of processing LWR and fast reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and fabricating Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) actinide fuel. The integrated facility would include a fast reactor that uses actinide-bearing fuel to produce electricity. For optimal performance, GE believes this integrated facility should be co-located to eliminate transportation between the CFTC and ARR, and enhance proliferation resistance. This Advanced Recycling Center takes advantage of previous investments by government and industry in fast reactor technology research and development. To allow for commercial acceptance, a prototypical demonstration reactor and associated fuel cycle facility will be constructed, tested, and licensed. Taking advantage of GE's NRC-reviewed modular sodium-cooled PRISM reactor, only a single reactor will be needed and the cost and risk minimized in the initial phase of the program. This paper outlines a process and a schedule to

  11. Directional and Spectral Irradiance in Ocean Models: Effects on Simulated Global Phytoplankton, Nutrients, and Primary Production

    Gregg, Watson W.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of including directional and spectral light in simulations of ocean radiative transfer was investigated using a coupled biogeochemical-circulation-radiative model of the global oceans. The effort focused on phytoplankton abundances, nutrient concentrations and vertically-integrated net primary production. The importance was approached by sequentially removing directional (i.e., direct vs. diffuse) and spectral irradiance and comparing results of the above variables to a fully directionally and spectrally-resolved model. In each case the total irradiance was kept constant; it was only the pathways and spectral nature that were changed. Assuming all irradiance was diffuse had negligible effect on global ocean primary production. Global nitrate and total chlorophyll concentrations declined by about 20% each. The largest changes occurred in the tropics and sub-tropics rather than the high latitudes, where most of the irradiance is already diffuse. Disregarding spectral irradiance had effects that depended upon the choice of attenuation wavelength. The wavelength closest to the spectrally-resolved model, 500 nm, produced lower nitrate (19%) and chlorophyll (8%) and higher primary production (2%) than the spectral model. Phytoplankton relative abundances were very sensitive to the choice of non-spectral wavelength transmittance. The combined effects of neglecting both directional and spectral irradiance exacerbated the differences, despite using attenuation at 500 nm. Global nitrate decreased 33% and chlorophyll decreased 24%. Changes in phytoplankton community structure were considerable, representing a change from chlorophytes to cyanobacteria and coccolithophores. This suggested a shift in community function, from light-limitation to nutrient limitation: lower demands for nutrients from cyanobacteria and coccolithophores favored them over the more nutrient-demanding chlorophytes. Although diatoms have the highest nutrient demands in the model, their

  12. Illusions, weak points and realism in global energy policy

    Kleinpeter, M.; Heierle, M.

    2005-01-01

    This article asks the question if renewable forms of energy are a viable option for future energy supplies. The energy-supply situation is discussed on the basis of the results of a comprehensive study made by the World Energy Council and the IAASA in Vienna in 1998. This study produced six scenarios for energy supply with reference to the years 2050 and 2100. The situation concerning various energy carriers such as oil, gas, coal and hydropower is reviewed. Questions concerning atomic energy are looked at. The chances for renewable forms of energy such as solar and wind energy, biomass, geothermal energy and hydropower are also reviewed

  13. Global Energy Scenarios to 2040. Understanding our energy future - 2016 Edition

    2016-01-01

    The energy world is in rapid evolution, driven in particular by policy developments (like the INDCs agreed at COP-21) but also economic, geopolitical, technological as well as social considerations. Enerdata regularly produces scenario based energy outlooks to analyze and forecast the supply and demand of energy commodities, energy prices, as well as the impact of climate change and energy policies on energy markets and their consequences for the energy industry. After the COP-21 in Paris, Enerdata has again done such an exercise. The Ener-Blue scenario provides an outlook of energy systems up to 2040 based on the achievement of the 2030 targets defined in the INDCs as announced at the COP-21. Ener-Green explores the implications of more stringent energy and climate policies to limit the global temperature increase at around 1.5-2 deg. C by the end of the century. Finally, Ener-Brown describes a world with abundant fossil fuel resource and durably low energy prices, affecting the entire energy system over a long period. These different scenarios explore the consequences on energy supply and demand, energy mix, energy prices by fuel and region, as well as the implications on climate issues. In the Ener-Blue scenario, the future energy mix remains dominated by fossil fuels, but INDCs planned policies regarding climate mitigation, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources lead to a diversification towards other sources of energy. Among others, the EU successfully achieves its triple objective of its climate and energy package, while China and India expand their renewable capacities to achieve their renewable targets. Within this international context of climate coordinated policies, CO_2 emission growth slows down. However, the efforts defined in INDCs are not ambitious enough to limit the increase of the average global temperature to 2 deg. C in 2050, but these efforts are compatible with 3-4 deg. C objective. In the Ener-Green scenario, there is a clear

  14. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gasemissions

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell, Ernst; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2006-07-24

    In 2000, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a new set of baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). The SRES team defined four narrative storylines (A1, A2, B1 and B2) describing the relationships between the forces driving GHG and aerosol emissions and their evolution during the 21st century. The SRES reports emissions for each of these storylines by type of GHG and by fuel type to 2100 globally and for four world regions (OECD countries as of 1990, countries undergoing economic reform, developing countries in Asia, rest of world). Specific assumptions about the quantification of scenario drivers, such as population and economic growth, technological change, resource availability, land-use changes, and local and regional environmental policies, are also provided. End-use sector-level results for buildings, industry, or transportation or information regarding adoption of particular technologies and policies are not provided in the SRES. The goal of this report is to provide more detailed information on the SRES scenarios at the end use level including historical time series data and a decomposition of energy consumption to understand the forecast implications in terms of end use efficiency to 2030. This report focuses on the A1 (A1B) and B2 marker scenarios since they represent distinctly contrasting futures. The A1 storyline describes a future of very rapid economic growth, low population growth, and the rapid introduction of new and more efficient technologies. Major underlying themes are convergence among regions, capacity building, and increased cultural and social interactions, with a substantial reduction in regional differences in per capita income. The B2 storyline describes a world with an emphasis on economic, social, and environmental sustainability, especially at the local and regional levels. It is a world with moderate population growth

  15. Primary energy implications of different design strategies for an apartment building

    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe; Dodoo, Ambrose; Gustavsson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of different design strategies on final and primary energy use for production and operation of a newly constructed apartment building. We analysed alternatives of the building “As built” as well as to energy efficiency levels of the Swedish building code and passive house criteria. Our approach is based on achieving improved versions of the building alternatives from combination of design strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demand and primary energy use, respectively. We found that the combination of design strategies resulting in the improved building alternatives varies depending on the approach. The improved building alternatives gave up to 19–34% reduction in operation primary energy use compared to the initial alternatives. The share of production primary energy use of the improved building alternatives was 39–54% of the total primary energy use for production, space heating, space cooling and ventilation over 50-year lifespan, compared to 31–42% for the initial alternatives. This study emphasises the importance of incorporating appropriate design strategies to reduce primary energy use for building operation and suggests that combining such strategies with careful choice of building frame materials could result in significant primary energy savings in the built environment. - Highlights: • Primary energy implications of different design strategies were analysed. • The improved building alternatives had 19–34% lower operation primary energy use. • The improved building alternatives had higher production primary energy use. • Still, the improved building alternatives had lower overall primary energy use. • Design strategies should be combined with careful building frame material choice.

  16. ENERGI NUKLIR SEBAGAI SOLUSI UNTUK MENGHAMBAT PEMANASAN GLOBAL

    Finahari, Ida Nuryatin

    2018-01-01

    Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the earth surface, atmosphere and oceans.The global warming in recent years has been international issues. The issues come to the surfacebecause global warming has the very big impact to the world and the lives of animal, plant and human,such as world climate change. The main cause of global warming is the combustion of fossil fuel suchas coal, oil and natural gas, that released carbon dioxide and other gases to atmosphere as greenh...

  17. Introducing technology learning for energy technologies in a national CGE model through soft links to global and national energy models

    Martinsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a method to model the influence by global policy scenarios, particularly spillover of technology learning, on the energy service demand of the non-energy sectors of the national economy. It is exemplified by Norway. Spillover is obtained from the technology-rich global Energy Technology Perspective model operated by the International Energy Agency. It is provided to a national hybrid model where a national bottom-up Markal model carries forward spillover into a national top-down CGE model at a disaggregated demand category level. Spillover of technology learning from the global energy technology market will reduce national generation costs of energy carriers. This may in turn increase demand in the non-energy sectors of the economy because of the rebound effect. The influence of spillover on the Norwegian economy is most pronounced for the production level of industrial chemicals and for the demand for electricity for residential energy services. The influence is modest, however, because all existing electricity generating capacity is hydroelectric and thus compatible with the low emission policy scenario. In countries where most of the existing generating capacity must be replaced by nascent energy technologies or carbon captured and storage the influence on demand is expected to be more significant. - Highlights: → Spillover of global technology learning may be forwarded into a macroeconomic model. → The national electricity price differs significantly between the different global scenarios. → Soft-linking global and national models facilitate transparency in the technology learning effect chain.

  18. The global energy challenge: new challenges and threats, the ways to overcome them

    Alexandr N. Zakharov

    2017-01-01

    The article describes key aspects of global energy issues, with an emphasis on energy security. The Russian Federation is to face three inter-related challenges: provide energy security, stimulate economic growth and protect the environment, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases that will reduce the level of air pollution and contribute to the global improvement of the atmosphere. The author analyzes the status and prospects of world energy markets and the forecast of their development for t...

  19. Technological Changes as the Development Factor of the Global and Russian Energy Sector

    Dudin, Mihail Nikolaevich; Lyasnikov, Nikolai Vasil’evich; Sekerin, Vladimir Dmitrievich; Gorokhova, Anna Evgen’evna; Danko, Tamara Petrovna; Bank, Olga Anatol’evna

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to study the real and hidden technological changes that will shape the strategic contours of the world energy civilization development, as well as the development of the Russian energy sector. The paper presents the following main conclusions: i) global energy development and nation states energy sector development are determined by a set of issues, foremost of which is innovation and technological aspect that determines the local and global changes that are likely to lead t...

  20. Sensible use of primary energy in organic greenhouse production

    Stanghellini, C.; Baptista, F.; Eriksson, Evert; Gilli, Celine; Giuffrida, F.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Munoz, P.; Stepowska, Agnieszka; Montero, J.I.

    2016-01-01

    Review of the major sources for energy consumption in organic greenhouse horticulture and analyse of the options available to reduce energy consumption or, at least, increase the energy use efficiency of organic production in greenhouses. At the moment, the best way to match demand and availability

  1. Forward Global Photometric Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    Burke, D. L.; Rykoff, E. S.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Bernstein, G. M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Finley, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lasker, J.; Li, T. S.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, J.; Tucker, D. L.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Many scientific goals for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) require the calibration of optical/NIR broadband b = grizY photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the celestial sky to one percent or better. It is also necessary to limit to similar accuracy systematic uncertainty in the calibrated broadband magnitudes due to uncertainty in the spectrum of the source. Here we present a “Forward Global Calibration Method (FGCM)” for photometric calibration of the DES, and we present results of its application to the first three years of the survey (Y3A1). The FGCM combines data taken with auxiliary instrumentation at the observatory with data from the broadband survey imaging itself and models of the instrument and atmosphere to estimate the spatial and time dependences of the passbands of individual DES survey exposures. “Standard” passbands that are typical of the passbands encountered during the survey are chosen. The passband of any individual observation is combined with an estimate of the source spectral shape to yield a magnitude {m}b{std} in the standard system. This “chromatic correction” to the standard system is necessary to achieve subpercent calibrations and in particular, to resolve ambiguity between the broadband brightness of a source and the shape of its SED. The FGCM achieves a reproducible and stable photometric calibration of standard magnitudes {m}b{std} of stellar sources over the multiyear Y3A1 data sample with residual random calibration errors of σ =6{--}7 {mmag} per exposure. The accuracy of the calibration is uniform across the 5000 {\\deg }2 DES footprint to within σ =7 {mmag}. The systematic uncertainties of magnitudes in the standard system due to the spectra of sources are less than 5 {mmag} for main-sequence stars with 0.5< g-i< 3.0.

  2. Forward Global Photometric Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    Burke, D. L.; Rykoff, E. S.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Bernstein, G. M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Finley, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lasker, J.; Li, T. S.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, J.; Tucker, D. L.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.

    2017-12-28

    Many scientific goals for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) require calibration of optical/NIR broadband $b = grizY$ photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the celestial sky to one percent or better. It is also necessary to limit to similar accuracy systematic uncertainty in the calibrated broadband magnitudes due to uncertainty in the spectrum of the source. Here we present a "Forward Global Calibration Method (FGCM)" for photometric calibration of the DES, and we present results of its application to the first three years of the survey (Y3A1). The FGCM combines data taken with auxiliary instrumentation at the observatory with data from the broad-band survey imaging itself and models of the instrument and atmosphere to estimate the spatial- and time-dependence of the passbands of individual DES survey exposures. "Standard" passbands are chosen that are typical of the passbands encountered during the survey. The passband of any individual observation is combined with an estimate of the source spectral shape to yield a magnitude $m_b^{\\mathrm{std}}$ in the standard system. This "chromatic correction" to the standard system is necessary to achieve sub-percent calibrations. The FGCM achieves reproducible and stable photometric calibration of standard magnitudes $m_b^{\\mathrm{std}}$ of stellar sources over the multi-year Y3A1 data sample with residual random calibration errors of $\\sigma=5-6\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$ per exposure. The accuracy of the calibration is uniform across the $5000\\,\\mathrm{deg}^2$ DES footprint to within $\\sigma=7\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$. The systematic uncertainties of magnitudes in the standard system due to the spectra of sources are less than $5\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$ for main sequence stars with $0.5

  3. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies for foam building insulations

    Fischer, S.K.; Fairchild, P.D.; Hughes, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) have been used as blowing agents in foam insulation, as the working fluids in cooling and refrigeration equipment, and as solvents in general and precision cleaning applications since their introduction in the 1930s. The number of applications and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s, but in the mid-1980s it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric zone and that they are the primary cause of the CFCs have also been found to be second only to carbon dioxide as a factor causing increased greenhouse warming. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFCs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of those alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential building insulation, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. This paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to building insulation. In general the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reductions in total equivalent warming impact, lifetime equivalent C0 2 emissions (TEWI). Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use

  4. Global measure for energy + environmental problems by thorium molten-salt nuclear energy synergetics

    Furukawa, K.; Lecocq, A.; Mitachi, K.; Kato, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The new global fission industry as a measure for energy and environmental problems of the next century should keep a strong public acceptance, which means to ensure an enough rational safety feature not only in the engineering issue but also in the all issues of integral fuel-cycle system. In these sense, the rational characteristics of the Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System (THORIMS-NES) is widely explained relating with a) resources and environmental problems, b) safety, c) nuclear-proliferation and -terrorism, d) breeding fuel-cycle, chemical processing and radio-wastes, and e) social acceptability and economy, including 'North-South' problems. The basic technology of Molten-Salt Reactor system has been established, and the practical and economical development program of THORIMS-NES is also proposed. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs

  5. Global energy balance - 2009 - Gerdau Acominas - Presidente Arthur Bernardes plant; Balanco energetico global - 2009 - Gerdau Acominas - Usina Presidente Arthur Bernardes

    Coelho, Almir de Freitas Pinto; Moura, Cassio Melo

    2010-07-01

    The global energy balance of Gerdau Acominas 2009, with the main energetic consumption indicators of the producer areas is presented. Besides the global energetic indicators, the balance presents the physical specific insums of the diverse areas, allowing the analysis of each plant sector in independent way. During the year 2009 it his highlighted the following points: production reduction due to the word economic crisis; 25 years revision of the boilers; stop of de blast-furnace 1 and the coke plant 2.

  6. A global conversation about energy from biomass: the continental conventions of the global sustainable bioenergy project

    Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Aziz, Ramlan Abdul; de Brito Cruz, Carlos Henrique; Chimphango, Annie Fabian Abel; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa; Faaij, Andre; Greene, Nathanael; Keller, Martin; Osseweijer, Patricia; Richard, Tom L.; Sheehan, John; Chugh, Archana; van der Wielen, Luuk; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem Heber

    2011-01-01

    The global sustainable bioenergy (GSB) project was formed in 2009 with the goal of providing guidance with respect to the feasibility and desirability of sustainable, bioenergy-intensive futures. Stage 1 of this project held conventions with a largely common format on each of the world's continents, was completed in 2010, and is described in this paper. Attended by over 400 persons, the five continental conventions featured presentations, breakout sessions, and drafting of resolutions that were unanimously passed by attendees. The resolutions highlight the potential of bioenergy to make a large energy supply contribution while honouring other priorities, acknowledge the breadth and complexity of bioenergy applications as well as the need to take a systemic approach, and attest to substantial intra- and inter-continental diversity with respect to needs, opportunities, constraints and current practice relevant to bioenergy. The following interim recommendations based on stage 1 GSB activities are offered: — Realize that it may be more productive, and also more correct, to view the seemingly divergent assessments of bioenergy as answers to two different questions rather than the same question. Viewed in this light, there is considerably more scope for reconciliation than might first be apparent, and it is possible to be informed rather than paralysed by divergent assessments.— Develop established and advanced bioenergy technologies such that each contributes to the other's success. That is, support and deploy in the near-term meritorious, established technologies in ways that enhance rather than impede deployment of advanced technologies, and support and deploy advanced technologies in ways that expand rather than contract opportunities for early adopters and investors.— Be clear in formulating policies what mix of objectives are being targeted, measure the results of these policies against these objectives and beware of unintended consequences

  7. Countervailing inequality effects of globalization and renewable energy generation in Argentina

    Andrea Vaona

    2013-01-01

    The present paper assesses the impacts of renewable energy generation and globalization on income inequality in Argentina. We make use of vector autoregression models. We find that globalization and hydroelectric power increase inequality, while the opposite holds true for other renewable energy sources. Several robustness checks are considered. Policy implications are discussed keeping into account the specific Argentinean context.

  8. Analysis on long-term perspective of nuclear energy in the global energy system in terms of CO2 mitigation

    Sugiyama, T.; Uotani, M.

    2001-01-01

    The value of nuclear energy is analyzed for prevention of global warming and climate change by means of a global energy model, which finds the cost minimum energy system over the time range of 2000 - 2100. Six scenarios are examined in this analysis, considering two scenarios of economic growth rate, two scenarios of electrification rate, and FBR introduction or not. The results indicate that progress of electricity generation is the key to reduce the global CO 2 emission, and the role of FBRs with its nuclear fuel cycle is very robust against any economic conditions. (author)

  9. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the

  10. Energy transition within an alter-globalization perspective

    Combes, Maxime; Azam, Genevieve; Balvet, Jacqueline; Planche, Jeanne; Sabatier, Gilles

    2013-05-01

    This publication proposes a discussion of the present and general energy transition according to seven principles: 1) to stop the current energy transition is an imperious necessity; 2) energy sobriety to meet climatic requirements; 3) to avoid the technical-scientific trap in order to re-politicise energy transition; 4) to disconnect finance and energy in order to take back the control of it; 5) to de-merchandise energy to build up equality; 6) to build up the resilience of territories and of people; 7) energy as a common good, beyond State and market

  11. A global vision for energy forestry: concluding comments

    Dupont-Roc, Georges

    1997-01-01

    Two energy visions, aimed at predicting future energy demand and consumption, are contrasted to explore the likely future blend of energy resources utilized. In the ''sustained growth'' model both supply and demand grow, reaching 150 GJ yr -1 per capita by 2060. In the ''dematerialisation'' model lower energy input technologies allow an energy use per capita of 90 GJ yr -1 by the same year. Fossil fuel use peaks at different times and renewable energy sources penetrate the market more thoroughly leading to a more diverse and robust world energy system. (UK)

  12. New Zealand among global social media initiative leaders for primary care advocacy.

    Hoedebecke, Kyle; Scott-Jones, Joseph; Pinho-Costa, Luís

    2016-06-01

    The international '#1WordforFamilyMedicine' initiative explores the identity of General Practitioners (GPs) and Family Physicians (FPs) by allowing the international Family Medicine community to collaborate on advocating for the discipline via social media. The New Zealand version attracted 83 responses on social media. Thematic analysis was performed on the responses and a 'word cloud' image was created based on an image identifying the country around the world - that of the silver fern. The '#1WorldforFamilyMedicine' project was promoted by WONCA (World Organisation of Family Doctors) globally to help celebrate World Family Doctor Day on 19 May 2015. To date, over 80 images have been created in 60 different countries on six continents. The images represent GPs' love for their profession and the community they serve. We hope that this initiative will help inspire current and future Family Medicine and Primary Care providers.

  13. Drought-induced reduction in global terrestrial net primary production from 2000 through 2009.

    Zhao, Maosheng; Running, Steven W

    2010-08-20

    Terrestrial net primary production (NPP) quantifies the amount of atmospheric carbon fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. Previous studies have shown that climate constraints were relaxing with increasing temperature and solar radiation, allowing an upward trend in NPP from 1982 through 1999. The past decade (2000 to 2009) has been the warmest since instrumental measurements began, which could imply continued increases in NPP; however, our estimates suggest a reduction in the global NPP of 0.55 petagrams of carbon. Large-scale droughts have reduced regional NPP, and a drying trend in the Southern Hemisphere has decreased NPP in that area, counteracting the increased NPP over the Northern Hemisphere. A continued decline in NPP would not only weaken the terrestrial carbon sink, but it would also intensify future competition between food demand and proposed biofuel production.

  14. Global dynamics of selective attention and its lapses in primary auditory cortex.

    Lakatos, Peter; Barczak, Annamaria; Neymotin, Samuel A; McGinnis, Tammy; Ross, Deborah; Javitt, Daniel C; O'Connell, Monica Noelle

    2016-12-01

    Previous research demonstrated that while selectively attending to relevant aspects of the external world, the brain extracts pertinent information by aligning its neuronal oscillations to key time points of stimuli or their sampling by sensory organs. This alignment mechanism is termed oscillatory entrainment. We investigated the global, long-timescale dynamics of this mechanism in the primary auditory cortex of nonhuman primates, and hypothesized that lapses of entrainment would correspond to lapses of attention. By examining electrophysiological and behavioral measures, we observed that besides the lack of entrainment by external stimuli, attentional lapses were also characterized by high-amplitude alpha oscillations, with alpha frequency structuring of neuronal ensemble and single-unit operations. Entrainment and alpha-oscillation-dominated periods were strongly anticorrelated and fluctuated rhythmically at an ultra-slow rate. Our results indicate that these two distinct brain states represent externally versus internally oriented computational resources engaged by large-scale task-positive and task-negative functional networks.

  15. Heterogeneous world model and collaborative scenarios of transition to globally sustainable nuclear energy systems

    Kuznetsov Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO is to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to meeting global energy needs of the 21st century in a sustainable manner. The INPRO task titled “Global scenarios” is to develop global and regional nuclear energy scenarios that lead to a global vision of sustainable nuclear energy in the 21st century. Results of multiple studies show that the criteria for developing sustainable nuclear energy cannot be met without innovations in reactor and nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Combining different reactor types and associated fuel chains creates a multiplicity of nuclear energy system arrangements potentially contributing to global sustainability of nuclear energy. In this, cooperation among countries having different policy regarding fuel cycle back end would be essential to bring sustainability benefits from innovations in technology to all interested users. INPRO has developed heterogeneous global model to capture countries’ different policies regarding the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in regional and global scenarios of nuclear energy evolution and applied in a number of studies performed by participants of the project. This paper will highlight the model and major conclusions obtained in the studies.

  16. Heterogeneous world model and collaborative scenarios of transition to globally sustainable nuclear energy systems - 15483

    Kuznetsov, V.; Fesenko, G.

    2015-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to meeting global energy needs of the 21. century in a sustainable manner. The INPRO task titled 'Global scenarios' is to develop global and regional nuclear energy scenarios that lead to a global vision of sustainable nuclear energy in the 21. century. Results of multiple studies show that the criteria for developing sustainable nuclear energy cannot be met without innovations in reactor and nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Combining different reactor types and associated fuel chains creates a multiplicity of nuclear energy system arrangements potentially contributing to global sustainability of nuclear energy. In this, cooperation among countries having different policy regarding fuel cycle back end would be essential to bring sustainability benefits from innovations in technology to all interested users. INPRO has developed heterogeneous global model to capture countries' different policies regarding the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in regional and global scenarios of nuclear energy evolution and applied in a number of studies performed by participants of the project. This paper will highlight the model and major conclusions obtained in the studies. (authors)

  17. Global climate impacts of country-level primary carbonaceous aerosol from solid-fuel cookstove emissions

    Lacey, Forrest; Henze, Daven

    2015-01-01

    Cookstove use is globally one of the largest unregulated anthropogenic sources of primary carbonaceous aerosol. While reducing cookstove emissions through national-scale mitigation efforts has clear benefits for improving indoor and ambient air quality, and significant climate benefits from reduced green-house gas emissions, climate impacts associated with reductions to co-emitted black (BC) and organic carbonaceous aerosol are not well characterized. Here we attribute direct, indirect, semi-direct, and snow/ice albedo radiative forcing (RF) and associated global surface temperature changes to national-scale carbonaceous aerosol cookstove emissions. These results are made possible through the use of adjoint sensitivity modeling to relate direct RF and BC deposition to emissions. Semi- and indirect effects are included via global scaling factors, and bounds on these estimates are drawn from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. Absolute regional temperature potentials are used to estimate global surface temperature changes. Bounds are placed on these estimates, drawing from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. We estimate a range of 0.16 K warming to 0.28 K cooling with a central estimate of 0.06 K cooling from the removal of cookstove aerosol emissions. At the national emissions scale, countries’ impacts on global climate range from net warming (e.g., Mexico and Brazil) to net cooling, although the range of estimated impacts for all countries span zero given uncertainties in RF estimates and fuel characterization. We identify similarities and differences in the sets of countries with the highest emissions and largest cookstove temperature impacts (China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal), those with the largest temperature impact per carbon emitted (Kazakhstan, Estonia, and Mongolia), and those that would provide the

  18. Global climate impacts of country-level primary carbonaceous aerosol from solid-fuel cookstove emissions

    Lacey, Forrest; Henze, Daven

    2015-11-01

    Cookstove use is globally one of the largest unregulated anthropogenic sources of primary carbonaceous aerosol. While reducing cookstove emissions through national-scale mitigation efforts has clear benefits for improving indoor and ambient air quality, and significant climate benefits from reduced green-house gas emissions, climate impacts associated with reductions to co-emitted black (BC) and organic carbonaceous aerosol are not well characterized. Here we attribute direct, indirect, semi-direct, and snow/ice albedo radiative forcing (RF) and associated global surface temperature changes to national-scale carbonaceous aerosol cookstove emissions. These results are made possible through the use of adjoint sensitivity modeling to relate direct RF and BC deposition to emissions. Semi- and indirect effects are included via global scaling factors, and bounds on these estimates are drawn from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. Absolute regional temperature potentials are used to estimate global surface temperature changes. Bounds are placed on these estimates, drawing from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. We estimate a range of 0.16 K warming to 0.28 K cooling with a central estimate of 0.06 K cooling from the removal of cookstove aerosol emissions. At the national emissions scale, countries’ impacts on global climate range from net warming (e.g., Mexico and Brazil) to net cooling, although the range of estimated impacts for all countries span zero given uncertainties in RF estimates and fuel characterization. We identify similarities and differences in the sets of countries with the highest emissions and largest cookstove temperature impacts (China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal), those with the largest temperature impact per carbon emitted (Kazakhstan, Estonia, and Mongolia), and those that would provide the

  19. Global Insights Based on the Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index (MEPI

    Mark Howells

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy access metrics are needed to track the progress towards providing sustainable energy for all. This paper presents advancements in the development of the Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index (MEPI, as well as results and analysis for a number of developing countries. The MEPI is a composite index designed to shed light on energy poverty by assessing the services that modern energy provides. The index captures both the incidence and intensity of energy poverty. It provides valuable insights–allowing the analysis of determinants of energy poverty–and, subsequently insights into policy efficacy. Building on previous work, this paper presents results obtained as a result of both increased data availability and enhanced methodology. Specifically, this analysis (i includes an increased number of countries, and (ii tracks the evolution of energy poverty over time of energy poverty in selected countries is reported.

  20. Energy and the environment. A global view and strategies

    Pasztor, J.

    1988-01-01

    It should be recognized that the key to the future is in the rational use of energy, that is, a more efficient use of energy rather than a continuous increase in the supply of energy. Every unit of energy saved is a unit of energy which does not have to be produced, and whose environmental impacts do not have to be dealt with. Massive reductions in the growth rates, and, where possible, in the absolute use of energy will help us to gain time to better understand and develop response strategies to problems like climate change on the acidification of the environment. In this sense the rational use of energy, including intensified energy efficiency measures is the most environmentally sound energy option with which we should move into the next century. 25 refs., 4 figs

  1. Global Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production and Associated Resource Decoupling: 2010-2050.

    Zhou, Chuanbin; Elshkaki, Ayman; Graedel, T E

    2018-02-06

    Human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) methodology has previously been developed to assess the intensity of anthropogenic extraction of biomass resources. However, there is limited analysis concerning future trends of HANPP. Here we present four scenarios for global biomass demand and HANPP harv (the most key component of HANPP) from 2010 to 2050 by incorporating data on expanded historical drivers and disaggregated biomass demand (food, wood material, and fuelwood). The results show that the biomass demand has the lowest value in the equitability world scenario (an egalitarian vision) and the highest value in the security foremost scenario (an isolationist vision). The biomass demand for food and materials increases over time, while fuelwood demand decreases over time. Global HANPP harv rises to between 8.5 and 10.1 Pg C/yr in 2050 in the four scenarios, 14-35% above its value in 2010, and some 50% of HANPP harv is calculated to be crop residues, wood residues, and food losses in the future. HANPP harv in developing regions (Asia, Africa, and Latin America) increases faster than that in more-developed regions (North America and Europe), due to urbanization, population growth, and increasing income. Decoupling of HANPP harv and socioeconomic development is also discussed in this work.

  2. A hybrid energy-economy model for global integrated assessment of climate change, carbon mitigation and energy transformation

    Cai, Yiyong; Newth, David; Finnigan, John; Gunasekera, Don

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper introduces the design of a hybrid energy-economy model, GTEM-C. • The model offers a unified tool to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. • Results are presented on global energy transformation due to carbon mitigation. • Electrification with renewable energies can contain the spiking of carbon prices. - Abstract: This paper introduces the design of the CSIRO variant of the Global Trade and Environment model (GTEM-C). GTEM-C is a hybrid model that combines the top-down macroeconomic representation of a computable general equilibrium model with the bottom-up engineering details of energy production. The model features detailed accounting for global energy flows that are embedded in traded energy goods, and it offers a unified framework to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. As an illustrative example, we present simulation results on global energy transformation under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative carbon pathways 4.5 and 8.5. By testing the model’s sensitivity to the relevant parameter, we find that the pace of electrification will significantly contain the spiking of carbon prices because electricity can be produced from carbon-free or less carbon-intensive technologies. The decoupling of energy use and carbon footprint, due to the uptake of clean electricity technologies, such as nuclear, wind, solar, and carbon capture and storage, allows the world to maintain high level of energy consumption, which is essential to economic growth

  3. Characterizing uncertainties in recent trends of global terrestrial net primary production through ensemble modeling

    Wang, W.; Hashimoto, H.; Ganguly, S.; Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.; Myneni, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Large uncertainties exist in our understanding of the trends and variability in global net primary production (NPP) and its controls. This study attempts to address this question through a multi-model ensemble experiment. In particular, we drive ecosystem models including CASA, LPJ, Biome-BGC, TOPS-BGC, and BEAMS with a long-term climate dataset (i.e., CRU-NCEP) to estimate global NPP from 1901 to 2009 at a spatial resolution of 0.5 x 0.5 degree. We calculate the trends of simulated NPP during different time periods and test their sensitivities to climate variables of solar radiation, air temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and atmospheric CO2 levels. The results indicate a large diversity among the simulated NPP trends over the past 50 years, ranging from nearly no trend to an increasing trend of ~0.1 PgC/yr. Spatial patterns of the NPP generally show positive trends in boreal forests, induced mainly by increasing temperatures in these regions; they also show negative trends in the tropics, although the spatial patterns are more diverse. These diverse trends result from different climatic sensitivities of NPP among the tested models. Depending the ecological processes (e.g., photosynthesis or respiration) a model emphasizes, it can be more or less responsive to changes in solar radiation, temperatures, water, or atmospheric CO2 levels. Overall, these results highlight the limit of current ecosystem models in simulating NPP, which cannot be easily observed. They suggest that the traditional single-model approach is not ideal for characterizing trends and variability in global carbon cycling.

  4. Impacts of climate extremes on gross primary production under global warming

    Williams, I N; Torn, M S; Riley, W J; Wehner, M F

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of historical droughts and heat-waves on ecosystems are often considered indicative of future global warming impacts, under the assumption that water stress sets in above a fixed high temperature threshold. Historical and future (RCP8.5) Earth system model (ESM) climate projections were analyzed in this study to illustrate changes in the temperatures for onset of water stress under global warming. The ESMs examined here predict sharp declines in gross primary production (GPP) at warm temperature extremes in historical climates, similar to the observed correlations between GPP and temperature during historical heat-waves and droughts. However, soil moisture increases at the warm end of the temperature range, and the temperature at which soil moisture declines with temperature shifts to a higher temperature. The temperature for onset of water stress thus increases under global warming and is associated with a shift in the temperature for maximum GPP to warmer temperatures. Despite the shift in this local temperature optimum, the impacts of warm extremes on GPP are approximately invariant when extremes are defined relative to the optimal temperature within each climate period. The GPP sensitivity to these relative temperature extremes therefore remains similar between future and present climates, suggesting that the heat- and drought-induced GPP reductions seen recently can be expected to be similar in the future, and may be underestimates of future impacts given model projections of increased frequency and persistence of heat-waves and droughts. The local temperature optimum can be understood as the temperature at which the combination of water stress and light limitations is minimized, and this concept gives insights into how GPP responds to climate extremes in both historical and future climate periods. Both cold (temperature and light-limited) and warm (water-limited) relative temperature extremes become more persistent in future climate projections

  5. Assessment of SMAP soil moisture for global simulation of gross primary production

    He, Liming; Chen, Jing M.; Liu, Jane; Bélair, Stéphane; Luo, Xiangzhong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, high-quality soil moisture data derived from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite measurements are evaluated from a perspective of improving the estimation of the global gross primary production (GPP) using a process-based ecosystem model, namely, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). The SMAP soil moisture data are assimilated into BEPS using an ensemble Kalman filter. The correlation coefficient (r) between simulated GPP from the sunlit leaves and Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) measured by Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 is used as an indicator to evaluate the performance of the GPP simulation. Areas with SMAP data in low quality (i.e., forests), or with SIF in low magnitude (e.g., deserts), or both are excluded from the analysis. With the assimilated SMAP data, the r value is enhanced for Africa, Asia, and North America by 0.016, 0.013, and 0.013, respectively (p r appears in single-cropping agricultural land where the irrigation is not considered in the model but well captured by SMAP (e.g., 0.09 in North America, p < 0.05). With the assimilation of SMAP, areas with weak model performances are identified in double or triple cropping cropland (e.g., part of North China Plain) and/or mountainous area (e.g., Spain and Turkey). The correlation coefficient is enhanced by 0.01 in global average for shrub, grass, and cropland. This enhancement is small and insignificant because nonwater-stressed areas are included.

  6. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW{sub th}) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW{sub th}) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are

  7. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E.

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW th ) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW th ) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are the main

  8. Role of fluctuations in the primary energy estimation of cosmic rays

    Kempa, J.; Malecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    Energy spectrum and chemical composition of primary cosmic ray for energies higher than 1 PeV are obtained mainly from research on the intensity and properties of extensive air showers (EAS). Similar additional information is obtained from research on properties of gamma ray families. A common characteristic of these researches is the fact that we are working in the range of high fluctuation parameters serving us to obtain primary energy spectrum. In this research different probability distributions have been used as well as their convolutions with the power spectrum. The role of the influence of different parameters on measurements of the primary energy spectrum

  9. World Energy Balance Outlook and OPEC Production Capacity: Implications for Global Oil Security

    Azadeh M. Rouhani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The imbalance between energy resource availability, demand, and production capacity, coupled with inherent economic and environmental uncertainties make strategic energy resources planning, management, and decision-making a challenging process. In this paper, a descriptive approach has been taken to synthesize the world’s energy portfolio and the global energy balance outlook in order to provide insights into the role of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC in maintaining “stability” and “balance” of the world’s energy market. This synthesis illustrates that in the absence of stringent policies, i.e., if historical trends of the global energy production and consumption hold into the future, it is unlikely that non-conventional liquid fuels and renewable energy sources will play a dominant role in meeting global energy demand by 2030. This should be a source of major global concern as the world may be unprepared for an ultimate shift to other energy sources when the imminent peak oil production is reached. OPEC’s potential to impact the supply and price of oil could enable this organization to act as a facilitator or a barrier for energy transition policies, and to play a key role in the global energy security through cooperative or non-cooperative strategies. It is argued that, as the global energy portfolio becomes more balanced in the long run, OPEC may change its typical high oil price strategies to drive the market prices to lower equilibria, making alternative energy sources less competitive. Alternatively, OPEC can contribute to a cooperative portfolio management approach to help mitigate the gradually emerging energy crisis and global warming, facilitating a less turbulent energy transition path while there is time.

  10. RESEARCH OF GLOBAL NEW INVESTMENT IN RENEWABLE ENERGY

    О. Chernyak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contains results of studying experiences of the leading countries in renewable energy technologies’ development. The classification of renewable energy was presented. In this article we investigated modern trends and prospects of wind power, solar energy, hydropower, bioenergy and geothermal energy. Authors analyzed different national strategies for attracting investments in “green” energy. Rating of the 10 countries with the largest investments in alternative energy was presented. Authors researched investments in developed countries and developing countries, depending on the type of renewable energy. A model for research and forecasting of investment in renewable energy based on annual data for the period 1990-2012 years was built. In addition, authors used methods such as moving average, exponential smoothing, Holt- Winters method and different types of trends based on quarterly data for 2004-2014 years.

  11. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  12. The energy industries reorganization in the economic globalization

    Amouroux, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The author wonders on the energy supply evolution since thirty years and more specially the fossil fuels industries reconstruction. The energy panorama has been completely modified by a serial of processes which stopped the nuclear energy expansion and replaced the fossil fuels in the front of the energy scene. The processes are examined to evaluate the consequences of theses transformations on the model of economic development developed by the capitalism. (A.L.B)

  13. The role of energy-service demand reduction in global climate change mitigation: Combining energy modelling and decomposition analysis

    Kesicki, Fabian; Anandarajah, Gabrial

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce energy-related CO 2 emissions different options have been considered: energy efficiency improvements, structural changes to low carbon or zero carbon fuel/technologies, carbon sequestration, and reduction in energy-service demands (useful energy). While efficiency and technology options have been extensively studied within the context of climate change mitigation, this paper addresses the possible role of price-related energy-service demand reduction. For this analysis, the elastic demand version of the TIAM-UCL global energy system model is used in combination with decomposition analysis. The results of the CO 2 emission decomposition indicate that a reduction in energy-service demand can play a limited role, contributing around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. A look at the sectoral level reveals that the demand reduction can play a greater role in selected sectors like transport contributing around 16% at a global level. The societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. - Highlights: → A reduction in global energy-service demand can contribute around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. → The role of demand is a lot higher in transport than in the residential sector. → Contribution of demand reduction is higher in early periods of the 21st century. → Societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. → Regional shares in residual emissions vary under different elasticity scenarios.

  14. The role of energy-service demand reduction in global climate change mitigation: Combining energy modelling and decomposition analysis

    Kesicki, Fabian, E-mail: fabian.kesicki.09@ucl.ac.uk [UCL Energy Institute, University College London, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London, WC1H 0NN (United Kingdom); Anandarajah, Gabrial [UCL Energy Institute, University College London, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London, WC1H 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    In order to reduce energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions different options have been considered: energy efficiency improvements, structural changes to low carbon or zero carbon fuel/technologies, carbon sequestration, and reduction in energy-service demands (useful energy). While efficiency and technology options have been extensively studied within the context of climate change mitigation, this paper addresses the possible role of price-related energy-service demand reduction. For this analysis, the elastic demand version of the TIAM-UCL global energy system model is used in combination with decomposition analysis. The results of the CO{sub 2} emission decomposition indicate that a reduction in energy-service demand can play a limited role, contributing around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. A look at the sectoral level reveals that the demand reduction can play a greater role in selected sectors like transport contributing around 16% at a global level. The societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. - Highlights: > A reduction in global energy-service demand can contribute around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. > The role of demand is a lot higher in transport than in the residential sector. > Contribution of demand reduction is higher in early periods of the 21st century. > Societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. > Regional shares in residual emissions vary under different elasticity scenarios.

  15. Search for ultra high energy primary photons at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Colalillo Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Argentina, provides an unprecedented integrated aperture in the search for primary photons with energy above 1017 eV over a large portion of the southern sky. Such photons can be detected in principle via the air showers they initiate at such energies, using the complement of Auger Observatory detectors. We discuss the results obtained in diffuse and directional searches for primary photons in the EeV energy range.

  16. Statistical Analysis of Development Trends in Global Renewable Energy

    Marina D. Simonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the economic and statistical analysis of industries associated with the use of renewable energy sources in several countries. The dynamic development and implementation of technologies based on renewable energy sources (hereinafter RES is the defining trend of world energy development. The uneven distribution of hydrocarbon reserves, increasing demand of developing countries and environmental risks associated with the production and consumption of fossil resources has led to an increasing interest of many states to this field. Creating low-carbon economies involves the implementation of plans to increase the proportion of clean energy through renewable energy sources, energy efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The priority of this sector is a characteristic feature of modern development of developed (USA, EU, Japan and emerging economies (China, India, Brazil, etc., as evidenced by the inclusion of the development of this segment in the state energy strategies and the revision of existing approaches to energy security. The analysis of the use of renewable energy, its contribution to value added of countries-producers is of a particular interest. Over the last decade, the share of energy produced from renewable sources in the energy balances of the world's largest economies increased significantly. Every year the number of power generating capacity based on renewable energy is growing, especially, this trend is apparent in China, USA and European Union countries. There is a significant increase in direct investment in renewable energy. The total investment over the past ten years increased by 5.6 times. The most rapidly developing kinds are solar energy and wind power.

  17. Modeling and Monitoring Terrestrial Primary Production in a Changing Global Environment: Toward a Multiscale Synthesis of Observation and Simulation

    Shufen Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to monitor and predict terrestrial primary production, the key indicator of ecosystem functioning, in a changing global environment. Here we provide a brief review of three major approaches to monitoring and predicting terrestrial primary production: (1 ground-based field measurements, (2 satellite-based observations, and (3 process-based ecosystem modelling. Much uncertainty exists in the multi-approach estimations of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP and net primary production (NPP. To improve the capacity of model simulation and prediction, it is essential to evaluate ecosystem models against ground and satellite-based measurements and observations. As a case, we have shown the performance of the dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM at various scales from site to region to global. We also discuss how terrestrial primary production might respond to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 and uncertainties associated with model and data. Further progress in monitoring and predicting terrestrial primary production requires a multiscale synthesis of observations and model simulations. In the Anthropocene era in which human activity has indeed changed the Earth’s biosphere, therefore, it is essential to incorporate the socioeconomic component into terrestrial ecosystem models for accurately estimating and predicting terrestrial primary production in a changing global environment.

  18. The global energy industry: is competition among suppliers ensured?

    Regibeau, P.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, many factors have affected the effective degree of competition in coal, electricity, gas and oil. This paper concentrates on the effects of globalization, regulatory reform, privatization and inter-fuel mergers. While demand side globalization has led to increased competition, greater supply side globalization might lead to more collusive behaviour in sectors such as coal and electricity. Regulatory reform has helped foster competition in the US gas market and in several electricity markets. Still, regulators have imposed insufficient vertical separation and the regulation of international electricity transmission remains problematic. Privatization is very useful in enforcing initial changes in industry structure. Inter-fuel mergers might entail efficiency gains but they also raise significant issues for competition policy authorities. (orig.)

  19. Data Center Energy Efficiency Standards in India: Preliminary Findings from Global Practices

    Raje, Sanyukta; Maan, Hermant; Ganguly, Suprotim; Singh, Tanvin; Jayaram, Nisha; Ghatikar, Girish; Greenberg, Steve; Kumar, Satish; Sartor, Dale

    2015-06-01

    Global data center energy consumption is growing rapidly. In India, information technology industry growth, fossil-fuel generation, and rising energy prices add significant operational costs and carbon emissions from energy-intensive data centers. Adoption of energy-efficient practices can improve the global competitiveness and sustainability of data centers in India. Previous studies have concluded that advancement of energy efficiency standards through policy and regulatory mechanisms is the fastest path to accelerate the adoption of energy-efficient practices in the Indian data centers. In this study, we reviewed data center energy efficiency practices in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Using evaluation metrics, we identified an initial set of energy efficiency standards applicable to the Indian context using the existing policy mechanisms. These preliminary findings support next steps to recommend energy efficiency standards and inform policy makers on strategies to adopt energy-efficient technologies and practices in Indian data centers.

  20. Explaining global surface aerosol number concentrations in terms of primary emissions and particle formation

    D. V. Spracklen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We synthesised observations of total particle number (CN concentration from 36 sites around the world. We found that annual mean CN concentrations are typically 300–2000 cm−3 in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere (FT and 1000–10 000 cm−3 in the continental boundary layer (BL. Many sites exhibit pronounced seasonality with summer time concentrations a factor of 2–10 greater than wintertime concentrations. We used these CN observations to evaluate primary and secondary sources of particle number in a global aerosol microphysics model. We found that emissions of primary particles can reasonably reproduce the spatial pattern of observed CN concentration (R2=0.46 but fail to explain the observed seasonal cycle (R2=0.1. The modeled CN concentration in the FT was biased low (normalised mean bias, NMB=−88% unless a secondary source of particles was included, for example from binary homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid and water (NMB=−25%. Simulated CN concentrations in the continental BL were also biased low (NMB=−74% unless the number emission of anthropogenic primary particles was increased or a mechanism that results in particle formation in the BL was included. We ran a number of simulations where we included an empirical BL nucleation mechanism either using the activation-type mechanism (nucleation rate, J, proportional to gas-phase sulfuric acid concentration to the power one or kinetic-type mechanism (J proportional to sulfuric acid to the power two with a range of nucleation coefficients. We found that the seasonal CN cycle observed at continental BL sites was better simulated by BL particle formation (R2=0.3 than by increasing the number emission from primary anthropogenic sources (R2=0.18. The nucleation constants that resulted in best overall match between model and observed CN concentrations were

  1. Explaining global surface aerosol number concentrations in terms of primary emissions and particle formation

    Spracklen, D. V.; Carslaw, K. S.; Merikanto, J.; Mann, G. W.; Reddington, C. L.; Pickering, S.; Ogren, J. A.; Andrews, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.; Boy, M.; Kulmala, M.; Laakso, L.; Lihavainen, H.; Kivekäs, N.; Komppula, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kouvarakis, G.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.; Weller, R.; Gras, J.; Laj, P.; Sellegri, K.; Bonn, B.; Krejci, R.; Laaksonen, A.; Hamed, A.; Minikin, A.; Harrison, R. M.; Talbot, R.; Sun, J.

    2010-05-01

    We synthesised observations of total particle number (CN) concentration from 36 sites around the world. We found that annual mean CN concentrations are typically 300-2000 cm-3 in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere (FT) and 1000-10 000 cm-3 in the continental boundary layer (BL). Many sites exhibit pronounced seasonality with summer time concentrations a factor of 2-10 greater than wintertime concentrations. We used these CN observations to evaluate primary and secondary sources of particle number in a global aerosol microphysics model. We found that emissions of primary particles can reasonably reproduce the spatial pattern of observed CN concentration (R2=0.46) but fail to explain the observed seasonal cycle (R2=0.1). The modeled CN concentration in the FT was biased low (normalised mean bias, NMB=-88%) unless a secondary source of particles was included, for example from binary homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid and water (NMB=-25%). Simulated CN concentrations in the continental BL were also biased low (NMB=-74%) unless the number emission of anthropogenic primary particles was increased or a mechanism that results in particle formation in the BL was included. We ran a number of simulations where we included an empirical BL nucleation mechanism either using the activation-type mechanism (nucleation rate, J, proportional to gas-phase sulfuric acid concentration to the power one) or kinetic-type mechanism (J proportional to sulfuric acid to the power two) with a range of nucleation coefficients. We found that the seasonal CN cycle observed at continental BL sites was better simulated by BL particle formation (R2=0.3) than by increasing the number emission from primary anthropogenic sources (R2=0.18). The nucleation constants that resulted in best overall match between model and observed CN concentrations were consistent with values derived in previous studies from detailed case studies at individual sites. In our model, kinetic and activation

  2. Future prospects for renewable energy sources in a global frame

    Lund, P.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this study has been to evaluate the possibilities of some new energy sources (solar, wind) in the future world energy supply. We intend to prepare future projections accounting for limitations in infrastructure, time and material inputs. One underlying assumption in the analyses is that new technologies will see an early market introduction in the near future which would continue up to year 2020. During these 30 years, there will still be technological developments leading to a much better manufacturability, mass production, and hence reduced costs. In year 2020, the industrial and economic infrastructure of new energy sources would be mature for a major penetration into the world energy market starting to substitute existing energy sources mainly for environmental reasons. This scenario will be suported by more factual information and data in the following chapters. Each new energy technology will be handled separately. (Quittner)

  3. Key role for nuclear energy in global biodiversity conservation.

    Brook, Barry W; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2015-06-01

    Modern society uses massive amounts of energy. Usage rises as population and affluence increase, and energy production and use often have an impact on biodiversity or natural areas. To avoid a business-as-usual dependence on coal, oil, and gas over the coming decades, society must map out a future energy mix that incorporates alternative sources. This exercise can lead to radically different opinions on what a sustainable energy portfolio might entail, so an objective assessment of the relative costs and benefits of different energy sources is required. We evaluated the land use, emissions, climate, and cost implications of 3 published but divergent storylines for future energy production, none of which was optimal for all environmental and economic indicators. Using multicriteria decision-making analysis, we ranked 7 major electricity-generation sources (coal, gas, nuclear, biomass, hydro, wind, and solar) based on costs and benefits and tested the sensitivity of the rankings to biases stemming from contrasting philosophical ideals. Irrespective of weightings, nuclear and wind energy had the highest benefit-to-cost ratio. Although the environmental movement has historically rejected the nuclear energy option, new-generation reactor technologies that fully recycle waste and incorporate passive safety systems might resolve their concerns and ought to be more widely understood. Because there is no perfect energy source however, conservation professionals ultimately need to take an evidence-based approach to consider carefully the integrated effects of energy mixes on biodiversity conservation. Trade-offs and compromises are inevitable and require advocating energy mixes that minimize net environmental damage. Society cannot afford to risk wholesale failure to address energy-related biodiversity impacts because of preconceived notions and ideals. © 2014 The Authors Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Changes in the Global Energy System: Implications for China's International Strategic Environment

    Zhang Chi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly discusses major reasons for the slump of international oil prices and provides a prediction for the future development of international oil prices, before analyzing the three factors leading to significant changes of the global energy system, namely the eastward shift of the world energy consumption centre, the emergence of the United States as a major oil producer and the dramatic waning of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries’ (OPEC influence. These factors and developments are shaping a new order of the global energy strategic landscape and exerting profound influence on China’s international strategic environment. In the foreseeable future, these changes of the global energy system would bring China more uncertainties regarding the country’s oil imports from the Middle East, more strategic pressure from the United States, while promoting China’s leverage on the global energy system and international relations.

  5. Renewable resources and renewable energy a global challenge

    Fornasiero, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    As energy demands continue to surge worldwide, the need for efficient and environmentally neutral energy production becomes increasingly apparent. In its first edition, this book presented a well-rounded perspective on the development of bio-based feedstocks, biodegradable plastics, hydrogen energy, fuel cells, and other aspects related to renewable resources and sustainable energy production. The new second edition builds upon this foundation to explore new trends and technologies. The authors pay particular attention to hydrogen-based and fuel cell-based technologies and provide real-world c

  6. Thermodynamics of greenhouse systems for the northern latitudes: analysis, evaluation and prospects for primary energy saving.

    Bronchart, Filip; De Paepe, Michel; Dewulf, Jo; Schrevens, Eddie; Demeyer, Peter

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders and the Netherlands greenhouse production systems produce economically important quantities of vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. Indoor environmental control has resulted in high primary energy use. Until now, the research on saving primary energy in greenhouse systems has been mainly based on analysis of energy balances. However, according to the thermodynamic theory, an analysis based on the concept of exergy (free energy) and energy can result in new insights and primary energy savings. Therefore in this paper, we analyse the exergy and energy of various processes, inputs and outputs of a general greenhouse system. Also a total system analysis is then performed by linking the exergy analysis with a dynamic greenhouse climate growth simulation model. The exergy analysis indicates that some processes ("Sources") lie at the origin of several other processes, both destroying the exergy of primary energy inputs. The exergy destruction of these Sources is caused primarily by heat and vapour loss. Their impact can be compensated by exergy input from heating, solar radiation, or both. If the exergy destruction of these Sources is reduced, the necessary compensation can also be reduced. This can be accomplished through insulating the greenhouse and making the building more airtight. Other necessary Sources, namely transpiration and loss of CO2, have a low exergy destruction compared to the other Sources. They are therefore the best candidate for "pump" technologies ("vapour heat pump" and "CO2 pump") designed to have a low primary energy use. The combination of these proposed technologies results in an exergy efficient greenhouse with the highest primary energy savings. It can be concluded that exergy analyses add additional information compared to only energy analyses and it supports the development of primary energy efficient greenhouse systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy demand futures by global models : Projections of a complex system

    Edelenbosch, O.Y.

    2018-01-01

    The energy demand sectors industry, transport and buildings are together directly responsible for around 51 % of the global energy-related CO2 emissions and indirectly drive the emissions in the energy supply sectors. The demand sectors are characterized by many subsectors, technologies,

  8. Global energy efficiency improvement in the log term: a demand- and supply-side perspective

    Graus, W.H.J.; Blomen, E.; Worrell, E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed technical potentials for energy efficiency improvement in 2050 in a global context. The reference scenario is based on the World Energy Outlook of the International Energy Agency 2007 edition and assumptions regarding gross domestic product developments after 2030. In the

  9. Global Energy Security and Its Geopolitical Impediments: The Case of the Caspian Region

    Amineh, M.P.; Houweling, H.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the global geopolitics of energy security in the post-Cold War environment. Energy companies headquartered in western countries have long history of accessing energy resources beyond borders through invasion of the host by their home state, followed by domination and the

  10. Estimating Net Primary Productivity Beneath Snowpack Using Snowpack Radiative Transfer Modeling and Global Satellite Data

    Barber, D. E.; Peterson, M. C.

    2002-05-01

    Sufficient photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) penetrates snow for plants to grow beneath snowpack during late winter or early spring in tundra ecosystems. During the spring in this ecosystem, the snowpack creates an environment with higher humidity and less variable and milder temperatures than on the snow-free land. Under these conditions, the amount of PAR available is likely to be the limiting factor for plant growth. Current methods for determining net primary productivity (NPP) of tundra ecosystems do not account for this plant growth beneath snowpack, apparently resulting in underestimating plant production there. We are currently in the process of estimating the magnitude of this early growth beneath snow for tundra ecosystems. Our method includes a radiative transfer model that simulates diffuse and direct PAR penetrating snowpack based on downwelling PAR values and snow depth data from global satellite databases. These PAR levels are convolved with plant growth for vegetation that thrives beneath snowpacks, such as lichen. We expect to present the net primary production for Cladonia species (a common Arctic lichen) that has the capability of photosynthesizing at low temperatures beneath snowpack. This method may also be used to study photosynthesis beneath snowpacks in other hardy plants. Lichens are used here as they are common in snow-covered regions, flourish under snowpack, and provide an important food source for tundra herbivores (e.g. caribou). In addition, lichens are common in arctic-alpine environments and our results can be applied to these ecosystems as well. Finally, the NPP of lichen beneath snowpack is relatively well understood compared to other plants, making it ideal vegetation for this first effort at estimating the potential importance of photosynthesis at large scales. We are examining other candidate plants for their photosynthetic potential beneath snowpack at this time; however, little research has been done on this topic. We

  11. Determinants of renewable energy growth: A global sample analysis

    Aguirre, Mariana; Ibikunle, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    We investigate factors influencing country-level renewable energy growth by applying FEVD and PCSE estimation methods in a unique sample analysis. With a longer time series (1990–2010) and a broader sample size of countries (including Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) than previous studies, our results reveal new insights. The results suggest that certain government-backed energy policies impede renewable energy investments, thus implying significant failures in policy design. These policies may be failing mainly because of uncertainty and the likelihood of discontinuity. Weak voluntary approaches are introduced in order to satisfy public demand for more sustainable investments and programmes; we find that these may have negative influences on the growth of renewables as well. The insight gained is consistent over the estimation methods employed. - Highlights: • Some public energy policies are shown to impede renewable energy investments; this implies failure in policy design. • Environmental concern is shown to drive renewables investment but energy security concerns do not seem to influence renewables investment. • Results suggest that countries are likely to reduce renewables commitments when under pressure to ensure energy supply. • Results seem to underscore the policy lobbying strength of the traditional energy mix industries

  12. Caspian energy: Oil and gas resources and the global market

    Amineh, M.P.; Houweling, H.

    2003-01-01

    his article develops several concepts of critical geopolitics and relates them to the energy resources of the Caspian Region. Energy resources beyond borders may be accessed by trade, respectively by conquest, domination and changing property rights. These are the survival strategies of human groups

  13. Aedes aegypti Global Suitability Maps Using a Water Container Energy Balance Model for Dengue Risk Applications

    Steinhoff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Dengue infections are estimated to total nearly 400 million per year worldwide, with both the geographic range and the magnitude of infections having increased in the past 50 years. The primary dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is closely associated with humans. It lives exclusively in urban and semi-urban areas, preferentially bites humans, and spends its developmental stages in artificial water containers. Climate regulates the development of Ae. aegypti immature mosquitoes in artificial containers. Potential containers for Ae. aegypti immature development include, but are not limited to, small sundry items (e.g., bottles, cans, plastic containers), buckets, tires, barrels, tanks, and cisterns. Successful development of immature mosquitoes from eggs to larvae, pupae, and eventually adults is largely dependent on the availability of water and the thermal properties of the water in the containers. Recent work has shown that physics-based approaches toward modeling container water properties are promising for resolving the complexities of container water dynamics and the effects on immature mosquito development. An energy balance container model developed by the author, termed the Water Height And Temperature in Container Habitats Energy Model (WHATCH'EM), solves for water temperature and height for user-specified containers with readily available weather data. Here we use WHATCH'EM with NASA Earth Science products used as input to construct global suitability maps based on established water temperature ranges for immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. A proxy for dengue risk is provided from habitat suitability, but also population estimates, as Ae. aegypti is closely associated with human activity. NASA gridded Global Population of the World data is used to mask out rural areas with low dengue risk. Suitability maps are illustrated for a variety of containers (size, material, color) and shading scenarios.

  14. Global energy supply the day before yesterday, the day after tomorrow, today, tomorrow - a qualitative modeling approach

    Herrmann, D.

    2004-01-01

    Current developments, and peak world market price levels, of oil, which add to the prices also of natural gas and other energy resources, give rise to the question whether there is any reason to expect fundamental changes and trend reversals in energy prices and on energy markets on a medium to long term basis. Attempts to find answers to such questions about the future can be helped by looking back into the more than three hundred years of global history of the development of modern industrial-sale power supply. Over that period of time, there have always been changes of boundary conditions and reversals of trends, respectively; step by step, by trial and error, a structural change has evolved from the use mainly of renewable energy resources to the primary use of fossil fuels supplemented by nuclear power. A model is presented which is able not only to describe and explain in a consistent and plausible way the global qualitative development of industrial-scale energy supply over the three different development periods, as far as contents go, between 1700 and 2100, but also allows higher resolution to be achieved in terms both of contents and time. The modeling approach is applied to the entire era of energy supply on an industrial scale, and should be seen as a representation of the specific perspective in this approach for further discussion. (orig.)

  15. Global energy outlooks. State of the art; Perspectives energetiques globales. Etat des lieux

    Bobin, J.L.; Nifenecker, H.; Stephan, C

    1999-07-01

    Since two year, the SFP (French Society of Physics) began a debate on the Energy of the 21 century, by the way of regional conferences. This debate allowed the publication of synthesis documents about elements discussed during these conference. This document presents the foreseeable evolution of the energy demand, taking into account the reserves; the selected production forms consequences in terms of nuisances; the part of the nuclear energy and the renewable energies. The costs are also discussed and many statistical data are provided. (A.L.B.)

  16. Nuclear power prospects up to 2020 in global energy context

    Naudet, G.; Capron, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Today nuclear energy is a significant component of the electricity generation in the world; its role in the future has to be estimated as an answer to the issues concerning both energy supply and atmosphere pollution. Taking into account the lead-times observed in the energy field, the year 2020 appears a convenient time horizon to appreciate the contrast of significant differences in nuclear power expansion. The approach consists in considering one by one all the countries which have already implemented a nuclear program or could be able to launch a program before this date. However, to be clear, the results are presented according to either the five regions defined in appendix or the World Energy Council regions for comparison with the WEC results. (author). 8 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Global warming and the energy efficiency of Spanish industry

    Feijoo, Maria L.; Hernandez, Jose M.; Franco, Juan F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses a stochastic frontier production function model to analyze the energy efficiency of Spanish industry. We used minimum cost input demand equations as the reference in order to calculate the demand for electricity, gas and other fuels. On this basis, we found that there is no inherent conflict between the objectives of achieving productive efficiency and reducing energy consumption. Indeed, it is possible to reduce the industrial emissions of CO 2 by up to 29.4% by means of a bottom-up energy efficiency policy. However, if the government wants firms to reduce their emissions even further, then it would be necessary to implement some form of energy regulatory policy. In this respect, we estimate the cost of reducing CO 2 emissions by 20%

  18. Energy policy: the challenges of a global vision

    Plumejeaud, D.

    2000-01-01

    On 14 October 1999, the second parliamentary meeting on energy, organized and chaired by Michel Destot, member of Parliament for Isere and special industry budget recorder for the National Assembly, was held in The National Assembly building. With discussions now under way for transposition of the European electricity and gas directives into French law and the imminent merger of Total Fina and Elf, this meeting was held at a crucial time for the French energy sector

  19. The long-term global prospects for energy

    Ion, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: coal (accessible coal in significant coalfields in the 10 major producing countries, 1983; major coal production and exports, 1980 and estimates 1990 and 2000); crude oil (proved reserves and production, 1950 to present); resources for the future; possible future availability; economic growth, energy and oil demand; competition between coal and oil; stability of oil supplies; oil prices; natural gas (proved reserves; production); hydroelectricity; nuclear power; the renewable or inexhaustible energy sources; conclusions. (U.K.)

  20. Role of nuclear produced hydrogen for global environment and energy

    Tashimo, M.; Kurosawa, A.; Ikeda, K.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability on economical growth, energy supply and environment are major issues for the 21. century. Within this context, one of the promising concepts is the possibility of nuclear-produced hydrogen. In this study, the effect of nuclear-produced hydrogen on the environment is discussed, based on the output of the computer code 'Grape', which simulates the effects of the energy, environment and economy in 21. century. Five cases are assumed in this study. The first case is 'Business as usual by Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)', the second 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by ICE', the third 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Hybrid Car', the fourth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) with Hydrogen produced by conventional Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)' and the fifth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by FCV with Nuclear Produced-Hydrogen'. The energy used for transportation is at present about 25% of the total energy consumption in the world and is expected to be the same in the future, if there is no improvement of energy efficiency for transportation. On this point, the hybrid car shows the much better efficiency, about 2 times better than traditional internal combustion engines. Fuel Cell powered Vehicles are expected to be a key to resolving the combined issue of the environment and energy in this century. The nuclear-produced hydrogen is a better solution than conventional hydrogen production method using steam methane reforming. (author)

  1. China's "energy revolution": measuring the status quo, modelling regional dynamics and assessing global impacts

    Mischke, Peggy

    As the world's largest economy in transition, China plays a growing role in global energy markets, clean technology deployment and climate change negotiations. The Chinese president Xi Jinping called in June 2014 for an “energy revolution” of the country’s “energy production and consumption habits......, expanded and applied in this regard. The theories underlying this research are stemming from various scientific disciplines, such as energy and power engineering, macro- and energy-economics, and power project finance. Cross-cutting aspects are the harmonization of Chinese and international energy...... top-down and bottom-up global energy planning tools to model future regional dynamics of China's energy sector; and (v) an assessment of electricity generation costs of the first operational concentrated solar power technologies in China. The results of this thesis are relevant for a broad scientific...

  2. Globally sustainable and stable nuclear energy resources for the next millennium

    Duffey, Romney B.

    2010-09-15

    We address the issues of future resource unsustainability, energy demand uncertainty and supply unpredictability. Inexorably growing global energy demand increases the costs of energy sources, and raises concerns about security of energy supply and environmental emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). Taking the viewpoint of developing a sustainable global fuel cycle, we propose alternate paths outside the present rather traditional thinking. Nevertheless, they still represent existing and known technology opportunities that may run counter to many current national positions, and today's commercial and technical interests, while still presenting very large opportunities.

  3. The future role of nuclear power in the global energy balance

    Semenov, B.A.; Guthrie, D.; Tatsuta, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A sound judgement on the role of nuclear power in the global energy balance within the time span of the next 30 years should logically be based on the consideration of at least a number of factors such as global trends in energy and electricity demand, practically available or estimated sources of supply, major requirements that these energy sources should meet, nuclear power's own potential, a realistic assessment of nuclear power's present status, and problems related to nuclear power. The conclusion of such an analysis is that nuclear power will retain, and may even enhance, its position as an important element in the world's energy supply mix

  4. Global climate change: a synopsis of current activities in the Office of Fossil Energy

    South, D.W.; Kane, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the US DOE Office of Fossil Energy investigation and monitoring of several aspects of global climate change as it relates to fossil fuels. The paper consists of the overheads from the presentation. The topics of this paper include greenhouse gases from fossil fuels, scientific uncertainties, legislation and protocols, mitigation strategies and policies, energy and economic impacts, and the role of clean coal technologies and fossil fuels in global climate change

  5. The use of energy in China: Tracing the flow of energy from primary source to demand drivers

    Ma, Linwei; Allwood, Julian M.; Cullen, Jonathan M.; Li, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    We present a map of the transformation of energy in China as a Sankey diagram. After a review of previous work, and a statement of methodology, our main work has been the identification, evaluation, and treatment of appropriate data sources. This data is used to construct the Sankey diagram, in which flows of energy are traced from energy sources through end-use conversion devices, passive systems and final services to demand drivers. The resulting diagram provides a convenient and clear snapshot of existing energy transformations in China which can usefully be compared with a similar global analysis and which emphasises the potential for improvements in energy efficiency in ‘passive systems’. More broadly, it gives a basis for examining and communicating future energy scenarios, including changes to demand, changes to the supply mix, changes in efficiency and alternative provision of existing services. -- Highlights: ► A Sankey Diagram has been created to show the complete picture of energy transformation in China. ► The Diagram traces energy transformations from source to final service. ► The diagram is organised by technologies, enabling prioritisation and allowing future calculation of efficiencies. ► The diagram is contrasted with an equivalent diagram for global energy use. ► Armed with the diagram we can now examine the system-wide consequences of future changes to China's energy system.

  6. Primary energy consumption of the dwelling with solar hot water system and biomass boiler

    Berković-Šubić, Mihaela; Rauch, Martina; Dović, Damir; Andrassy, Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Methodology for determing delivered and primary energy is developed. • Conventional and solar hot water system are analyzed. • Influence of system components, heat losses and energy consumption is explored. • Savings when using solar system in delivered energy is 30% and in primary 75%. • Dwelling with higher Q H,nd has 60% shorter payback period. - Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology, based on the energy performance of buildings Directive related European norms. It is developed to overcome ambiguities and incompleteness of these standards in determining the delivered and primary energy. The available procedures from the present “Algorithm for determining the energy demands and efficiency of technical systems in buildings”, normally used for energy performance certification of buildings, also allow detailed analyzes of the influence of particular system components on the overall system energy efficiency. The calculation example is given for a Croatian reference dwelling, equipped with a solar hot water system, backed up with a biomass boiler for space heating and domestic hot water purposes as a part of the dwelling energy performance certification. Calculations were performed for two cases corresponding to different levels of the dwelling thermal insulation with an appropriate heating system capacity, in order to investigate the influence of the building heat losses on the system design and energy consumption. The results are compared against those obtained for the conventional system with a gas boiler in terms of the primary energy consumption as well as of investment and operating costs. These results indicate great reduction in both delivered and primary energy consumption when a solar system with biomass boiler is used instead of the conventional one. Higher savings are obtained in the case of the dwelling with higher energy need for space heating. Such dwellings also have a shorter payback period than the ones with

  7. Estimation of the energy ratio between primary and ambience components in stereo audio data

    Harma, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Stereo audio signal is often modeled as a mixture of instantaneously mixed primary components and uncorrelated ambience components. This paper focuses on the estimation of the primary-to-ambience energy ratio, PAR. This measure is useful for signal decomposition in stereo and multichannel audio

  8. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  9. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  10. Population growth, energy consumption, pollution abatement - looking for the global consensus

    Czakainski, M.

    1993-01-01

    A new system of the world for solutions to the energy supply problem was damanded by the representatives of China and India at the Madrid congress of the World Energy Council. Drastic energy conservation measures were requested from the Western World. It is still a long way to go to a global consensus about energy consumption, pollution abatement and the protection of the climate. (DG) [de

  11. Energy Security and Economics of Indian Biofuel Strategy in a Global Context

    Gunatilake, Herath; Roland-Holst, David; Sugiyarto, Guntur; Baka, Jenn

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for climate change mitigation and greater energy security for many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks - global warming pollution and negative economic impacts of oil price hikes. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk ...

  12. GEWEX - The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment

    Chahine, Moustafa T.

    1992-01-01

    GEWEX, which is part of the World Climate Research Program, has as its goal an order-of-magnitude improvement in the ability to model global precipitation and evaporation and furnish an accurate assessment of the sensitivity of atmospheric radiation and clouds. Attention will also be given to the response of the hydrological cycle and water resources to climate change. GEWEX employs a single program to coordinate all aspects of climatology from model development to the deployment and operation of observational systems. GEWEX will operate over the next two decades.

  13. Primary energy and greenhouse gas implications of increasing biomass production through forest fertilization

    Sathre, Roger [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Ostersund (Sweden); Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Ostersund (Sweden); Bergh, Johan [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Ostersund (Sweden); Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    In this study we analyze the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing biomass production by fertilizing 10% of Swedish forest land. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net primary energy and GHG benefits of using biomaterials and biofuels obtained from the increased forest biomass production. The results show an increased annual biomass harvest of 7.4 million t dry matter, of which 41% is large-diameter stemwood. About 6.9 PJ/year of additional primary energy input is needed for fertilizer production and forest management. Using the additional biomass for fuel and material substitution can reduce fossil primary energy use by 150 or 164 PJ/year if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively. About 22% of the reduced fossil energy use is due to material substitution and the remainder is due to fuel substitution. The net annual primary energy benefit corresponds to about 7% of Sweden's total primary energy use. The resulting annual net GHG emission reduction is 11.9 million or 18.1 million tCO{sub 2equiv} if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively, corresponding to 18% or 28% of the total Swedish GHG emissions in 2007. A significant one-time carbon stock increase also occurs in wood products and forest tree biomass. These results suggest that forest fertilization is an attractive option for increasing energy security and reducing net GHG emission.

  14. Primary energy and greenhouse gas implications of increasing biomass production through forest fertilization

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif; Bergh, Johan

    2010-01-01

    In this study we analyze the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing biomass production by fertilizing 10% of Swedish forest land. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net primary energy and GHG benefits of using biomaterials and biofuels obtained from the increased forest biomass production. The results show an increased annual biomass harvest of 7.4 million t dry matter, of which 41% is large-diameter stemwood. About 6.9 PJ/year of additional primary energy input is needed for fertilizer production and forest management. Using the additional biomass for fuel and material substitution can reduce fossil primary energy use by 150 or 164 PJ/year if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively. About 22% of the reduced fossil energy use is due to material substitution and the remainder is due to fuel substitution. The net annual primary energy benefit corresponds to about 7% of Sweden's total primary energy use. The resulting annual net GHG emission reduction is 11.9 million or 18.1 million tCO 2equiv if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively, corresponding to 18% or 28% of the total Swedish GHG emissions in 2007. A significant one-time carbon stock increase also occurs in wood products and forest tree biomass. These results suggest that forest fertilization is an attractive option for increasing energy security and reducing net GHG emission.

  15. Primary energy and greenhouse gas implications of increasing biomass production through forest fertilization

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Oestersund (Sweden); Bergh, Johan [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Oestersund (Sweden); Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    In this study we analyze the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing biomass production by fertilizing 10% of Swedish forest land. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net primary energy and GHG benefits of using biomaterials and biofuels obtained from the increased forest biomass production. The results show an increased annual biomass harvest of 7.4 million t dry matter, of which 41% is large-diameter stemwood. About 6.9 PJ/year of additional primary energy input is needed for fertilizer production and forest management. Using the additional biomass for fuel and material substitution can reduce fossil primary energy use by 150 or 164 PJ/year if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively. About 22% of the reduced fossil energy use is due to material substitution and the remainder is due to fuel substitution. The net annual primary energy benefit corresponds to about 7% of Sweden's total primary energy use. The resulting annual net GHG emission reduction is 11.9 million or 18.1 million tCO{sub 2equiv} if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively, corresponding to 18% or 28% of the total Swedish GHG emissions in 2007. A significant one-time carbon stock increase also occurs in wood products and forest tree biomass. These results suggest that forest fertilization is an attractive option for increasing energy security and reducing net GHG emission. (author)

  16. Energy Choices. Global Energy Trends and Problems to Supply the Energy Demand; Vaegval Energi. Globala energitrender och problem att tillgodose energibehoven

    Radetzki, Marian (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Although the use of renewable fuels is increasing, oil and other fossil fuels still dominate the global energy supply the next decades, as shown by a review of energy sector development from 1990 to today and projections up to 2030. Nothing indicates that the supplies of oil or any other fossil fuel will be depleted during the coming decades. Resource Nationalism has long characterized the oil market. OPEC has since 1970 successfully controlled the supply and price of oil for its producing member countries. The cartel's grip on the oil market has been strengthened in the 2000s commodity boom, not least as a result of improved production discipline among member countries. At the same time, the long-term trend in the world's great centers of consumption is towards a lower degree of self-sufficiency in energy. The EU dependence on import of oil is expected to rise to over ninety per cent by year 2030. In order to secure a stable energy supply, clear strategies in the oil-importing countries are needed. Tools include diversified import, storage and securing supplies through futures trading on commodity exchanges. Energy policy has long been focused on supply. But the environmental aspects of energy production and use has grown in importance and now the climate issue dominates the energy policy. So far, however, the policy measures to curb the effects of climate change has been both limited and cost-ineffective. The cost to seriously limit emissions of greenhouse gases will be high. To carry out serious climate measures will annually take at least one percent of global GDP, according to an estimate by the British economist Nicholas Stern. This can be compared to the additional cost of approximately five percent of global GDP as energy consumers had to absorb between 2005 and 2008 because of rising prices for fossil fuels

  17. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  18. Lifestyle and global energy consumption. Analyss and strategy approaches on a sustainable energy structure; Lebensstile und globaler Energieverbrauch. Analyse und Strategieansaetze zu einer nachhaltigen Energiestruktur

    Gerstengarbe, F.W. (ed.); Reusswig, F.; Gerlinger, K.; Edenhofer, O.

    2004-07-01

    Lifestyle and consumption have emerged as research issues in energy and climate change related research in recent years for obvious reasons: with the emergence and the global spread of the modern 'consumer society' lifestyle induced consumption decisions by private households more and more influence total energy consumption and related carbon dioxide emissions. The paper discusses the use of the lifestyle concept derived from sociology and market research for household energy consumption and the potential for more sustainable changes. A main section is dedicated to a new way of decomposing country statistics on energy consumption, economic growth, CO{sub 2} emissions, and energy mix. We detect five distinct patterns of national energy systems via a cluster analysis of country data and their change over time. These clusters represent distinct trajectories of the recent energy economic history of the country groups and define some path dependencies for energy policy options in the nearer future which are discussed briefly. The environmental kuznets curve (EKC) debate is discussed critically in the light of the more flexible and regionally adapted way of conceiving the worlds' energy system. The paper offers a quantitative the estimation of private households' contribution to total energy related CO{sub 2} emissions, thus contributing to the assessment of lifestyle-related emissions. The final section discusses practical consequences for energy policy and lifestyle related environmental communication. (orig.)

  19. Total-energy global optimizations using nonorthogonal localized orbitals

    Kim, J.; Mauri, F.; Galli, G.

    1995-01-01

    An energy functional for orbital-based O(N) calculations is proposed, which depends on a number of nonorthogonal, localized orbitals larger than the number of occupied states in the system, and on a parameter, the electronic chemical potential, determining the number of electrons. We show that the minimization of the functional with respect to overlapping localized orbitals can be performed so as to attain directly the ground-state energy, without being trapped at local minima. The present approach overcomes the multiple-minima problem present within the original formulation of orbital-based O(N) methods; it therefore makes it possible to perform O(N) calculations for an arbitrary system, without including any information about the system bonding properties in the construction of the input wave functions. Furthermore, while retaining the same computational cost as the original approach, our formulation allows one to improve the variational estimate of the ground-state energy, and the energy conservation during a molecular dynamics run. Several numerical examples for surfaces, bulk systems, and clusters are presented and discussed

  20. Nuclear weapons and nuclear energy - A study in global governance

    Imai, R.

    1999-01-01

    The projects of the two superpowers concerning the nuclear armament and intercontinental ballistic missiles, the policy of the two governments in monopoly of these armaments and prohibiting other countries from owning them, treaties signed by the governments, and the role of the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency were presented

  1. The role of solar energy in resolving global problems

    Kendall, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    Solar energy, and other alternate energy sources, including improved energy efficiency, can play a significant role in the solution of the cluster of ''great problems'' that face the present generation. These problems are related to, first, environmental damage, second, management of critical resources, and lastly, spiraling population growth. Some aspects of these linked difficulties are not yet well comprehended, even within the environmental community, though their neglect could prove to be very serious. It was the principal purpose of the paper to address those hidden risks. Seeking prompt and effective solutions to these problems is now a most urgent matter. On November 18, 1992, the Union of Concerned Scientists released a document called ''World Scientists'' ''Warning to Humanity''. The document outlined the most important challenges and set out the principal elements required to deal with them. It was signed by some 1,600 scientists from around the world, including the leaders of a substantial number of national honorary, scientific societies. In what follows, relevant elements of that statement are reviewed to set the stage for a description of solar energy's role in dealing with the situation that the world faces

  2. Global energy outlook. Key issue paper no. 1

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The objectives of this key issue paper are to outline the expected trends in energy and electricity demand and supply that will impact the future of nuclear power and to highlight new realities that are likely to affect the assessment and implementation of alternative reactor and fuel cycle strategies in the next five to six decades. 14 refs, figs, tabs.

  3. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Katja Buss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  4. China's energy statistics in a global context: A methodology to develop regional energy balances for East, Central and West China

    Mischke, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    for research and policy analysis. An improved understanding of the quality and reliability of Chinese economic and energy data is becoming more important to to understanding global energy markets and future greenhouse gas emissions. China’s national statistical system to track such changes is however still...... developing and, in some instances, energy data remain unavailable in the public domain. This working paper discusses China’s energy and economic statistics in view of identifying suitable indicators to develop a simplified regional energy systems for China from a variety of publicly available data. As China......’s national statistical system continuous to be debated and criticised in terms of data quality, comparability and reliability, an overview of the milestones, status and main issues of China’s energy statistics is given. In a next step, the energy balance format of the International Energy Agency is used...

  5. Canada's role in the global energy picture: making the case for a more coherent national energy approach

    Gass, Philip; Drexhage, John [International Institute for Sustainable Development (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Given Canada's position in the present global energy dynamic, there are opportunities for private sector economic actors to make large-scale investments in traditional energy resources such as oil, natural gas, hydropower and uranium. Canada, with so much to offer in terms of resources and potential for private investment, could play a leadership role in the push to develop clean energy. There is a need to articulate an overarching, coherent vision, not only in terms of Canada's stance on energy development but also in terms of national strategy. This is a critical moment, not only for Canada but for the whole world, when an effective, sustainable blueprint needs to be drawn up. If we can make a coherent case for a clean energy vision of the future, then Canada will make global progress in the energy field. Moreover, it seems clear that global governance with respect to energy issues will continue to be a topic of growing interest. Canada needs to give serious thought to what its position and its contribution will be with respect to a clean energy future.

  6. Nuclear energy, a solution in the struggle against global warming in quest of recognition

    Faudon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author first comments assessments of the continuous increase of greenhouse gas emissions as they appear in the IPCC report of September 2013 and in the results published by the Global Carbon Project. She also evokes the commitments in emission reductions in compliance with the Kyoto Protocol and some dramatic consequences global warming may have according to the IPCC scenarios. Then, she addresses the share of nuclear energy in energy production and outlines its stakes and benefits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. She notices that international bodies (European Commission, World Bank) do not mention nuclear energy in their plan for energy production development, but mainly rely on the development of renewable energies. The author then outlines the reasons why the development of renewable energies does not necessarily goes with the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. She also notices that a new generation of ecologists considers nuclear energy as a tool to struggle against climate warming

  7. Study of primary energy transfer process in ultrafast plastic scintillators

    Bengtson, B.; Moszynski, M.

    1978-01-01

    The study of the light-pulse shape, the initial delay of light pulses and the light yield of plastics prepared by a modification of the NE111 scintillator were performed. The NE111 scintillator doped with several quench agents, the plastics prepared as a solution of butyl PBD in PVT of different concentration and PVT alone were studied. The study confirmed that the light pulse shape from fast binary plastics is well described analytically by the convolution of the clipped Gaussian and exponential functions. The investigation of the PVT-butyl PBD plastics shows that even more than three times larger concentration of butyl PBD compared to that of PBD in the NE111 solution does not improve the rise of the light pulse. Thus the rise time seems to be not controlled by the intermolecular energy transfer process. Finally, the observed rise time of the light pulse from the PVT sample was also approximated well by the Gaussian function. Altogether it brought a strong support for the earlier hypothesis that the initial slow rise of light pulses from plastic scintillators may come from the deexcitation of several higher levels of the solvent molecules excited by nuclear particles. (Auth.)

  8. 18 CFR 2.400 - Statement of interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...

    2010-04-01

    ... interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production... concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production facilities. For purposes of deciding whether natural gas may be considered as waste as the primary energy source pursuant...

  9. The impact of global warming on seasonality of ocean primary production

    S. Henson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal cycle (i.e. phenology of oceanic primary production (PP is expected to change in response to climate warming. Here, we use output from 6 global biogeochemical models to examine the response in the seasonal amplitude of PP and timing of peak PP to the IPCC AR5 warming scenario. We also investigate whether trends in PP phenology may be more rapidly detectable than trends in annual mean PP. The seasonal amplitude of PP decreases by an average of 1–2% per year by 2100 in most biomes, with the exception of the Arctic which sees an increase of ~1% per year. This is accompanied by an advance in the timing of peak PP by ~0.5–1 months by 2100 over much of the globe, and particularly pronounced in the Arctic. These changes are driven by an increase in seasonal amplitude of sea surface temperature (where the maxima get hotter faster than the minima and a decrease in the seasonal amplitude of the mixed layer depth and surface nitrate concentration. Our results indicate a transformation of currently strongly seasonal (bloom forming regions, typically found at high latitudes, into weakly seasonal (non-bloom regions, characteristic of contemporary subtropical conditions. On average, 36 yr of data are needed to detect a climate-change-driven trend in the seasonal amplitude of PP, compared to 32 yr for mean annual PP. Monthly resolution model output is found to be inadequate for resolving phenological changes. We conclude that analysis of phytoplankton seasonality is not necessarily a shortcut to detecting climate change impacts on ocean productivity.

  10. Energy policy: challenges of a global vision; Politique energetique: les enjeux d'une vision globale

    Destot, Michel [ed.] [Depute de l' Isere, Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    2000-02-18

    This is the proceedings of the 2. parliamentary gathering on energy held on 14 October 1999. The document presents the talks by Mr Michel Destot (as special rapporteur of the Industry's budget in National Assembly) and Laurent Fabius, President of National Assembly, and Jean-Claude Gayssot, Minister of Equipment, Transport and Dwelling, at the opening session, three round tables, the colloquium synthesis and the closing session. The round tables addressed the following issues: - 1. International and long-term approach guided predominantly by energy demand; - 2. Energy solutions in the struggle against greenhouse effect; - 3. Challenges of opening the European energy market (internationalization and decentralization). At the first round table, Yves Martin, President of the technical section of General Council of Mines, structured his introductory report emphasizing the specific issues of three time horizons: the present, characterized by abundant energy offer; the horizon of 10 to 20 years, that of the energy suppliers which is orienting their investments; the horizon of more than half a century, corresponding to responses of far-reaching actions imposed by energy demand and which must be the object of governments' policies. Jean-Yves Le Deaut, deputy of Meurthe-et-Moselle discussed the risks of climate change, resources' exhaustion, nuclear power and the issue of developing the renewable energies. The problems raised by energy demand by the year 2050 to met the needs of an earth population of 9 billions were mentioned by Philippe Trepant, the president of French Union of oil industries. Energy problems from a globalization standpoint were discussed also by Benjamin Dessus, Director of Ecodev program of CNRS. Policy in the field of mastering greenhouse gas releases was mentioned in the talk by Michel Mousel, president of Inter-ministerial Mission for greenhouse effect. In the frame of 2. round table questions relating to energy management, renewable

  11. Global warning policy, energy, and the Chinese economy

    Rose, A.; Benavides, J.; Lim, D.; Frias, O.

    1996-01-01

    China is the world's largest user of coal and a major generator of greenhouse gases. This paper addresses whether the country can reconfigure its energy structure without hindering its future economic development. The authors construct a dynamic linear programming model of the Chinese economy and use it to simulate five alternative strategies to stabilize CO 2 emissions at 20% of projected year 2000 baseline levels. The results, under more optimistic assumptions, indicate this goal can be achieved with no growth penalty. However, if major technological changes relating to energy conservation and coal displacement, as well as vastly increasing availabilities of clean fuels, are not forthcoming, China could suffer a significant decline in its rate of economic growth. 38 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  12. Clean Economy, Living Planet. The Race to the Top of Global Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing

    Van der Slot, A.; Van den Berg, W. [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants RBSC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    For four years, WWF and Roland Berger have tracked developments in the global clean energy technology (cleantech) sector and ranked countries according to their cleantech sales. The 3rd annual 'Clean Economy, Living Planet' report ranks 40 countries based on the 2011 sales value of the clean energy technology products they manufacture. The report shows that the EU has lost its position to China as the leader in the fast growing global cleantech energy manufacturing sector. However, when cleantech sales are weighted as a percentage of GDP, Denmark and Germany occupied the first and third position globally. Last year the sector's global sales value rose by 10% to almost 200 billion euros, close to the scale of consumer electronics manufacturing. It is projected to overtake oil and gas equipment in the next three years.

  13. Field Experience from Li-Ion BESS Delivering Primary Frequency Regulation in the Danish Energy Market

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Lærke, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    In this paper it is presented the practical experience from operating a 1.6 MW/ 0.4 MWh lithium ion battery energy storage system, which is providing primary frequency regulation service on the Danish energy market. Aspects of the battery system requirements and the used control strategy...

  14. Nuclear energy industry in Russia promoting global strategy

    Kobayashi, Masaharu

    2001-01-01

    Since former USSR disintegrated to birth new Russia on December, 1991, it already passed ten years. As Russian economic hardship affected its nuclear energy development, No.1 reactor of the Rostov nuclear power station (VVER-1000) established its full power operation on September, 2001 after passing eight years of pausing period as a Russian nuclear power station, at dull development of nuclear energy in the world. When beginning of its commercial operation, scale of nuclear power generation under operation in Russia will reach to the fourth one in the world by getting over the one in Germany. Russia also begins international business on reprocessing of spent fuel and intermittent storage. And, Russia positively develops export business of concentrated uranium and nuclear fuel, too. Furthermore, Russia shows some positive initiatives on export of nuclear power station to China, Iran and India, and development on advanced nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle forecast to future. Here was introduced on international developmental development of nuclear energy industry activated recently at delayed time for this ten years. (G.K.)

  15. Sustainable supply of global energy needs and greenhouse gas reductions

    Miller, A.I.; Duffey, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear plants emit virtually no greenhouse gases over their full life-cycle. Consequently, continued operation of existing nuclear plants is recognized as essential to meeting even the modest greenhouse gas reduction targets of the Kyoto Accord. However, much expanded nuclear deployment will be needed as developing economies aggressively grow GDP with its associated growth in electrical power. Projecting to 2040 and based on the scenarios of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC), we have examined deploying increased non-carbon energy sources for electricity production, including further conversion of electricity to hydrogen using conventional low-temperature water electrolysis. Our NuWind model has been used to calculate the production costs for hydrogen in typical potential markets, using the actual prices of electricity paid by the Alberta Power Pool and by the Ontario Grid. The analysis shows clearly that by optimizing the co-production of hydrogen and electricity (referred to as the H2/e process) the cost for hydrogen produced can comfortably meet the US Department of Energy's target for realistic nuclear investment costs, hydrogen generation systems, and wind capacity factors. The synergy of nuclear plus wind power for hydrogen generation plus co-production of electricity improves the economics of harnessing wind energy to produce hydrogen. (author)

  16. Detailed assessment of global transport-energy models’ structures and projections

    Yeh, Sonia; Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Fulton, Lew; Kyle, Page; McCollum, David L.; Miller, Joshua; Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Teter, Jacob

    2017-08-01

    This paper focuses on comparing the frameworks and projections from four major global transportation models with considerable transportation technology and behavioral detail. We analyze and compare the modeling frameworks, underlying data, assumptions, intermediate parameters, and projections to identify the sources of divergence or consistency, as well as key knowledge gaps. We find that there are significant differences in the base-year data and key parameters for future projections, especially for developing countries. These include passenger and freight activity, mode shares, vehicle ownership rates, and even energy consumption by mode, particularly for shipping, aviation and trucking. This may be due in part to a lack of previous efforts to do such consistency-checking and “bench-marking.” We find that the four models differ in terms of the relative roles of various mitigation strategies to achieve a 2°C / 450 ppm CO2e target: the economics-based integrated assessment models favor the use of low carbon fuels as the primary mitigation option followed by efficiency improvements, whereas transport-only and expert-based models favor efficiency improvements of vehicles followed by mode shifts. We offer recommendations for future modeling improvements focusing on (1) reducing data gaps; (2) translating the findings from this study into relevant policy implications such as feasibility of current policy goals, additional policy targets needed, regional vs. global reductions, etc.; (3) modeling strata of demographic groups to improve understanding of vehicle ownership levels, travel behavior, and urban vs. rural considerations; and (4) conducting coordinated efforts in aligning input assumptions and historical data, policy analysis, and modeling insights.

  17. Global financial strategies for economic growth and energy in a charged world

    Wappenhans, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    The need for environment and financing for the economical and technical development of the energy sector is referred to from a global view. On the understanding of a transition to a privatised supply industry, the measure of financing the fixed energy industry investments is not seen as the greatest problem of the future. (UA) [de

  18. The hybridization of the state-capital nexus in the global energy order

    de Graaff, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    This article theorizes the broader rearticulation of state power within the global energy order-signified by the resurgence of resource nationalism and the expansion abroad of state-owned non-Western energy corporations-alongside the persistently widening and deepening transnationalization of the

  19. Global well-posedness for nonlinear Schrodinger equations with energy-critical damping

    Binhua Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Cauchy problem for the nonlinear Schrodinger equations with energy-critical damping. We prove the existence of global in-time solutions for general initial data in the energy space. Our results extend some results from [1,2].

  20. A global energy network? The expansion and integration of non-triad national oil companies

    de Graaff, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely perceived that the rising influence of state-owned energy companies from outside the traditional triad (USA, EU, Japan) is transforming the structure of the global energy market and generating a new wave of resource-nationalism. There is, however, little empirical analysis of how this

  1. The assessment of global thermo-energy performances of existing district heating systems optimized by harnessing renewable energy sources

    Şoimoşan, Teodora M.; Danku, Gelu; Felseghi, Raluca A.

    2017-12-01

    Within the thermo-energy optimization process of an existing heating system, the increase of the system's energy efficiency and speeding-up the transition to green energy use are pursued. The concept of multi-energy district heating system, with high harnessing levels of the renewable energy sources (RES) in order to produce heat, is expected to be the key-element in the future urban energy infrastructure, due to the important role it can have in the strategies of optimizing and decarbonizing the existing district heating systems. The issues that arise are related to the efficient integration of different technologies of harnessing renewable energy sources in the energy mix and to the increase of the participation levels of RES, respectively. For the holistic modeling of the district heating system, the concept of the energy hub was used, where the synergy of different primary forms of entered energy provides the system a high degree energy security and flexibility in operation. The optimization of energy flows within the energy hub allows the optimization of the thermo-energy district system in order to approach the dual concept of smart city & smart energy.

  2. Comparative study of various methods of primary energy estimation in nucleon-nucleon interactions

    Goyal, D.P.; Yugindro Singh, K.; Singh, S.

    1986-01-01

    The various available methods for the estimation of primary energy in nucleon-nucleon interactions have been examined by using the experimental data on angular distributions of shower particles from p-N interactions at two accelerator energies, 67 and 400 GeV. Three different groups of shower particle multiplicities have been considered for interactions at both energies. It is found that the different methods give quite different estimates of primary energy. Moreover, each method is found to give different values of energy according to the choice of multiplicity groups. It is concluded that the E ch method is relatively the better method among all the methods available, and that within this method, the consideration of the group of small multiplicities gives a much better result. The method also yields plausible estimates of inelasticity in high energy nucleon-nucleon interactions. (orig.)

  3. Primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store

    Chen Jun; Yang Jianhua; Shu Ting; Zhang Jiande; Zhou Xiang; Wen Jianchun

    2008-01-01

    The primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store is studied. The principle of primary power supply circuit and its time diagram of switches are presented. The circuit is analyzed and some expressions are got, especially, the usable voltage scope of capacitance of energy store, and the correlation between the parameters of circuit and time delay, which is between the turn-on of the charging circuit of capacitance of energy store and the circuit of recuperation. The time delay of 256 x 256 lookup table is made with the instruction of theory and the simulation of the actual parameters of circuits. The table is used by the control program to control the repetitive operating of the actual pulsed intense current accelerator. Finally, some conclusions of the primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store are got. (authors)

  4. Energy policy in China: implications for global climate change

    ZhongXiang Zhang [University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    This is the first systematic and comprehensive analysis of the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy. It evaluates the economics of climate change and provides national, cost-effective policies for climate change. The book consists of three main parts, firstly, an analysis of the Chinese energy system to increase awareness of the implications of this sector for China`s future carbon dioxide emissions, secondly, a macroeconomic analysis of carbon dioxide emissions limits using a newly-developed computable general equilibrium model of the Chinese economy; and finally, a cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options by means of a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model.

  5. Study on generation investment decision-making considering multi-agent benefit for global energy internet

    Li, Pai; Huang, Yuehui; Jia, Yanbing; Liu, Jichun; Niu, Yi

    2018-02-01

    Abstract . This article has studies on the generation investment decision in the background of global energy interconnection. Generation investment decision model considering the multiagent benefit is proposed. Under the back-ground of global energy Interconnection, generation investors in different clean energy base not only compete with other investors, but also facing being chosen by the power of the central area, therefor, constructing generation investment decision model considering multiagent benefit can be close to meet the interests demands. Using game theory, the complete information game model is adopted to solve the strategies of different subjects in equilibrium state.

  6. Limiting Global Warming to Well Below 2 °C: Energy System Modelling and Policy Development

    This book presents the energy system roadmaps necessary to limit global temperature increase to below 2°C, in order to avoid the catastrophic impacts of climate change. It provides a unique perspective on and critical understanding of the feasibility of a well-below-2°C world by exploring energy...... and at a global scale to offer scientific evidence to underpin complex policy decisions relating to climate change mitigation and interrelated issues like energy security and the energy–water nexus. It includes several chapters directly related to the Nationally Determined Contributions proposed in the context...

  7. Avoidance of singularity and global non-conservation of energy in general relativity

    Verma, M.M.

    2009-06-01

    We show that the singularity in the General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is the expression of a non-Machian feature. It can be avoided with a scale-invariant dynamical theory, a property lacking in GTR. It is further argued that the global non-conservation of energy in GTR also results from the lack of scale-invariance, and the field formulation presented by several authors can only partly resolve the problem. Assuming the global energy conservation, we propose a negative energy density component with a positive equation of state that can drive the late-time acceleration in the universe, while the positive component confines to smaller scales. (author)

  8. Energy efficiency improvement potentials and a low energy demand scenario for the global industrial sector

    Kermeli, Katerina; Graus, Wina H J; Worrell, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of energy efficiency measures can significantly reduce industrial energy use. This study estimates the future industrial energy consumption under two energy demand scenarios: (1) a reference scenario that follows business as usual trends and (2) a low energy demand scenario that takes

  9. Global energy confinement in JT-60 neutral beam heated L-mode discharges

    Naito, O.; Hosogane, N.; Tsuji, S.; Ushigusa, K.; Yoshida, H.

    1990-01-01

    The global energy confinement characteristics of neutral beam heated JT-60 discharges are presented. There is a difference in the dependence of the energy confinement time on the plasma current between limiter and divertor discharges. For limiter discharges, the energy confinement increases with plasma current up to 3.2 MA, whereas for divertor discharges this improvement saturates when the safety factor drops below 3, independent of the location of the X-point. The JT-60 L-mode results indicate that the deterioration in energy confinement for q < 3, which is also found in H-mode regimes of other devices, may be a universal characteristic of divertor discharges. Regarding the scaling with plasma size, it is shown that the global/incremental confinement time increases with plasma minor radius. For sufficiently large plasmas, however, the global/incremental confinement time is no longer a function of minor radius. (author). 13 refs, 14 figs

  10. Nuclear energy development in the 21st century: Global scenarios and regional trends

    2010-01-01

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was launched in 2000, on the basis of a resolution of the IAEA General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21). INPRO helps ensure that sustainable nuclear energy is available in the twenty-first century and seeks to bring together all interested Member States - both technology holders and technology users - to consider joint actions to achieve desired innovations. As of July 2010, 30 countries and the European Commission are members of INPRO. Programme Area B of INPRO, Global Vision - Scenarios and Pathways to Sustainable Nuclear Power Development, is aimed at providing a better understanding of the role of nuclear energy in the context of long term sustainable development. Its objective is to develop global and regional nuclear energy scenarios on the basis of a scientific-technical pathway analysis that lead to a global vision on sustainable nuclear energy development in the twenty-first century, and to support Member States in working towards that vision. This report presents the results of a study undertaken under Programme Area B in INPRO on Nuclear Energy Development in the Twenty-first Century: Global Scenarios and Regional Trends Studies on Nuclear Capacity Growth and Material Flow between Regions. The report does not develop a global vision for nuclear deployment per se, but presents a limited set of technical scenarios of nuclear deployment and considers their implications. It considers a global energy supply system composed of several reactor and fuel cycle types available today and of fast reactors that may be developed in the future to illustrate a possible modelling approach to identify the potential role of interregional transfer of nuclear fuel resources in supporting the global growth of nuclear energy. The study was performed with the participation of sixteen experts from nine INPRO Member States and included a dynamic simulation of material flows in nuclear energy systems using

  11. Globally optimal, minimum stored energy, double-doughnut superconducting magnets.

    Tieng, Quang M; Vegh, Viktor; Brereton, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    The use of the minimum stored energy current density map-based methodology of designing closed-bore symmetric superconducting magnets was described recently. The technique is further developed to cater for the design of interventional-type MRI systems, and in particular open symmetric magnets of the double-doughnut configuration. This extends the work to multiple magnet domain configurations. The use of double-doughnut magnets in MRI scanners has previously been hindered by the ability to deliver strong magnetic fields over a sufficiently large volume appropriate for imaging, essentially limiting spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and field of view. The requirement of dedicated interventional space restricts the manner in which the coils can be arranged and placed. The minimum stored energy optimal coil arrangement ensures that the field strength is maximized over a specific region of imaging. The design method yields open, dual-domain magnets capable of delivering greater field strengths than those used prior to this work, and at the same time it provides an increase in the field-of-view volume. Simulation results are provided for 1-T double-doughnut magnets with at least a 50-cm 1-ppm (parts per million) field of view and 0.7-m gap between the two doughnuts. Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Nuclear energy and global warning - looking ahead to the 21st century

    Ion, M.

    1994-01-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use of energy. These include the fossil fuels consumption and nuclear energy proliferation, local and original environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect. Having in view the world population dynamics the future of energy use, and supply is less clear and predictable. Energy scenarios assuming explicit contributions from nuclear power to energy supply clearly show that global emissions of CO 2 - one of the most important gases linked to the greenhouse effect - can be substantially reduced if nuclear energy can further penetrate the electricity market. (Author)

  13. The development of global energy supply as a succession of energy-related innovation processes. A qualitative model approach to assess the use of nuclear power; Die Entwicklung globaler Energieversorgung als Abfolge energietechnischer Innovationsprozesse. Ein qualitativer Modellansatz zur historischen Einordnung der Kernenergie

    Herrmann, Dieter

    2017-04-15

    Often, the development of the world energy supply is adopted as a painful sequence of the exhaustible and polluting use of primary energy sources. Therefore the expectations in practically inexhaustible and environmentally neutral renewable energy sources are high. However, in fact, it depends on the available production, conversion, and utilization technology, which sources of energy are suitable to meet given demands and requirements. In particular, the development of the energy demand requires energy technology innovations to use new energy sources, to use known energy sources more efficient and to replace exhaustible energy sources at an early stage by others. The historical development of the global energy supply is a sequence of interrelated energy technology innovation processes. This makes it also possible, to analyse the historical development of nuclear power and to derive a model on the future role of nuclear power worldwide.

  14. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for fu...

  15. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  16. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  17. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-02-01

    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Global Trends of International Mergers and Acquisitions in the Energy Sector

    Liubov Galperina; Yuliia Klen

    2017-01-01

    The article explores conditions, factors and results of mergers and acquisitions in international business with the example of the energy industry. The directions of world energy market transformation in the framework of PESTLE analysis have been determined by the factors influencing the efficiency and future of the companies that have effected mergers and acquisitions. The transformation of the global energy market is associated with changes in the main market parameters that ...

  19. Swiss energy statistics 2002; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2002/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2002

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  20. Swiss energy statistics 2004; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2004/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2004

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2004 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  1. Swiss energy statistics 2005; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2005/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2005

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2005. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2005 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  2. Swiss energy statistics 2003; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2003/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2003

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  3. Swiss energy statistics 2006; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2006/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2006

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2006. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2006 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  4. Long-term scenarios for global energy demand and supply. Four global greenhouse mitigation scenarios. Final report

    Soerensen, B.; Meibom, P.; Kuemmel, B.

    1999-01-01

    The scenario method is used to investigate energy demand and supply systems for the 21st century. A geographical information system (GIS) is employed to assess the spatial match between supply and demand, and the robustness of the scenario against changes in assumptions is discussed, for scenarios using fossil fuels without carbon dioxide emissions, nuclear fuels with reduced accident and proliferation risks, and renewable energy from local and from more centralised installations: The year 2050 demand scenario is based on a very high goal satisfaction in all regions of the world, for the middle UN population projection. All energy efficiency measures that are technically ready and economic today are assumed in effect by year 2050. An increased fraction of total activities are assumed to occur in non-material sectors. Technical, economic and implementation issues are discussed, including the resilience to changes in particularly demand assumptions and the type of framework that would allow energy policy to employ any of (or a mix of) the scenario options. Results are presented as average energy flows per unit of land area. This geographically based presentation method gives additional insights, particularly for the dispersed renewable energy systems, but in all cases it allows to identify the need for energy transmission and trade between regions, and to display it in a visually suggestive fashion. The scenarios are examples of greenhouse mitigation scenarios, all characterised by near-zero emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. All are more expensive than the present system, but only if the cost of the negative impacts from the current system is neglected. As options for global energy policy during the next decades, the clean fossil and the renewable energy options (possibly in combination) are the only realistic ones, because the safe nuclear option requires research and development that most likely will take longer time, if it can at all be carried

  5. Long-term scenarios for global energy demand and supply. Four global greenhouse mitigation scenarios. Final report

    Soerensen, B; Meibom, P [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Kuemmel, B [Royal Agricultural and Veterinary Univ., Tastrup (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The scenario method is used to investigate energy demand and supply systems for the 21st century. A geographical information system (GIS) is employed to assess the spatial match between supply and demand, and the robustness of the scenario against changes in assumptions is discussed, for scenarios using fossil fuels without carbon dioxide emissions, nuclear fuels with reduced accident and proliferation risks, and renewable energy from local and from more centralised installations: The year 2050 demand scenario is based on a very high goal satisfaction in all regions of the world, for the middle UN population projection. All energy efficiency measures that are technically ready and economic today are assumed in effect by year 2050. An increased fraction of total activities are assumed to occur in non-material sectors. Technical, economic and implementation issues are discussed, including the resilience to changes in particularly demand assumptions and the type of framework that would allow energy policy to employ any of (or a mix of) the scenario options. Results are presented as average energy flows per unit of land area. This geographically based presentation method gives additional insights, particularly for the dispersed renewable energy systems, but in all cases it allows to identify the need for energy transmission and trade between regions, and to display it in a visually suggestive fashion. The scenarios are examples of greenhouse mitigation scenarios, all characterised by near-zero emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. All are more expensive than the present system, but only if the cost of the negative impacts from the current system is neglected. As options for global energy policy during the next decades, the clean fossil and the renewable energy options (possibly in combination) are the only realistic ones, because the safe nuclear option requires research and development that most likely will take longer time, if it can at all be carried

  6. Respiration of new and old carbon in the surface ocean: Implications for estimates of global oceanic gross primary productivity

    Carvalho, Matheus C.; Schulz, Kai G.; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2017-06-01

    New respiration (Rnew, of freshly fixated carbon) and old respiration (Rold, of storage carbon) were estimated for different regions of the global surface ocean using published data on simultaneous measurements of the following: (1) primary productivity using 14C (14PP); (2) gross primary productivity (GPP) based on 18O or O2; and (3) net community productivity (NCP) using O2. The ratio Rnew/GPP in 24 h incubations was typically between 0.1 and 0.3 regardless of depth and geographical area, demonstrating that values were almost constant regardless of large variations in temperature (0 to 27°C), irradiance (surface to 100 m deep), nutrients (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor waters), and community composition (diatoms, flagellates, etc,). As such, between 10 and 30% of primary production in the surface ocean is respired in less than 24 h, and most respiration (between 55 and 75%) was of older carbon. Rnew was most likely associated with autotrophs, with minor contribution from heterotrophic bacteria. Patterns were less clear for Rold. Short 14C incubations are less affected by respiratory losses. Global oceanic GPP is estimated to be between 70 and 145 Gt C yr-1.Plain Language SummaryHere we present a comprehensive coverage of ocean new and old respiration. Our results show that nearly 20% of oceanic gross primary production is consumed in the first 24 h. However, most (about 60%) respiration is of older carbon fixed at least 24 h before its consumption. Rates of new respiration relative to gross primary production were remarkably constant for the entire ocean, which allowed a preliminary estimation of global primary productivity as between 70 and 145 gt C yr-1.

  7. Projection of primary energy in electricity generation with evaluation of demand and supply of energy in the medium-term horizon (2020), long-term (2035) and very long term (2060); Projecao das energias primarias na geracao de eletricidade com avaliacao da demanda e oferta de energia, em horizonte de medio prazo (2020), longo prazo (2035) e muito longo prazo (2060)

    Mafra, Olga Y.; Alvim, Carlos Feu; Eidelman, Frida [Brasil e Economia (Brazil); Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos [Eletrobras Eletronuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The Global Energy demand and the participation of electricity in scenarios of medium (2020), long (2035) and very long (2060) terms are estimated. It is also evaluated the share of different primary energies in electricity generation and their availability in the country. Three economic scenarios were considered and different hypothesis regarding the participation of nuclear energy were analyzed. (author)

  8. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  9. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  10. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  11. Global impacts of energy demand on the freshwater resources of nations.

    Holland, Robert Alan; Scott, Kate A; Flörke, Martina; Brown, Gareth; Ewers, Robert M; Farmer, Elizabeth; Kapos, Valerie; Muggeridge, Ann; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Taylor, Gail; Barrett, John; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2015-12-01

    The growing geographic disconnect between consumption of goods, the extraction and processing of resources, and the environmental impacts associated with production activities makes it crucial to factor global trade into sustainability assessments. Using an empirically validated environmentally extended global trade model, we examine the relationship between two key resources underpinning economies and human well--being-energy and freshwater. A comparison of three energy sectors (petroleum, gas, and electricity) reveals that freshwater consumption associated with gas and electricity production is largely confined within the territorial boundaries where demand originates. This finding contrasts with petroleum, which exhibits a varying ratio of territorial to international freshwater consumption, depending on the origin of demand. For example, although the United States and China have similar demand associated with the petroleum sector, international freshwater consumption is three times higher for the former than the latter. Based on mapping patterns of freshwater consumption associated with energy sectors at subnational scales, our analysis also reveals concordance between pressure on freshwater resources associated with energy production and freshwater scarcity in a number of river basins globally. These energy-driven pressures on freshwater resources in areas distant from the origin of energy demand complicate the design of policy to ensure security of fresh water and energy supply. Although much of the debate around energy is focused on greenhouse gas emissions, our findings highlight the need to consider the full range of consequences of energy production when designing policy.

  12. Global nuclear waste repository proposal highlights Australia's nuclear energy vacuum

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The Pangea proposal is disscused and considered relevant to Australia. A five-year research program by the company has identified Australia and Argentina as having the appropriate geological, economic and democratic credentials for such a deep repository, with Australia being favoured. A deep repository would be located where the geology has been stable for several hundred million years, so that there need not be total reliance on a robust engineered barrier system to keep the waste securely isolated for thousands of years. It would be a commercial undertaking and would have dedicated port and rail infrastructure. It would take spent fuel and other wastes from commercial reactors, and possibly also waste from weapons disposal programs. Clearly, while the primary ethical and legal principle is that each country is entirely responsible for its own waste, including nuclear waste (polluter pays etc), the big question is whether the concept of an international waste repository is acceptable ethically. Political and economic questions are secondary to this. By taking a fresh look at the reasons for the difficulties which have faced most national repository programs, and discarding the preconception that each country must develop its own disposal facilities, it is possible to define a class of simple, superior high isolation sites which may provide a multi-national basis for solving the nuclear waste disposal problem. The relatively small volumes of high-level wastes or spent fuel which arise from nuclear power production make shared repositories a feasible proposition. For small countries, the economies of scale which can be achieved make the concept attractive. For all countries, objective consideration of the relative merits of national and multi-national solutions is a prudent part of planning the management of long-lived radioactive wastes

  13. Swiss energy statistics 2001; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2001/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2001

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2001 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  14. Swiss energy statistics 2000; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2000/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2000

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2000 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  15. Swiss energy statistics 2007; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2007/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2007

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2007. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2007 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  16. The solar energy based global economy. A policy leading to the ecological era

    Scheer, H.

    1999-01-01

    Bound in its fossil energy and raw materials supply chains, the global economy is heading for a global ecological crisis and dramatically aggravating conflicts. Moreover, this exclusive dependence on fossil energy and materials resources forces a global concentration process increasingly undermining democratic and free market systems. But the will to survive is not the only reason to consider a new industrial revolution to be imperative. Such a sweeping change, from a fossil energy based regime to a system relying exclusively on renewable energy sources and raw materials, would open up unique opportunities for the evolution of a peaceful and democratic global economy fostering the development of superior technologies and sustainable regional economic systems. The author of the book elaborates the scenario permitting such a radical change, and explains the necessary basic approaches and appropriate policies relating to technology, the economy, ecology, and the social system. The ultimate goal is that the evolution of the solar energy based global economy will be accompanied by an intrinsic economic driving force eventually leading to an ecological era. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Using Sankey diagrams to map energy flow from primary fuel to end use

    Subramanyam, Veena; Paramshivan, Deepak; Kumar, Amit; Mondal, Md. Alam Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy flows from both supply and demand sides shown through Sankey diagrams. • Energy flows from reserves to energy end uses for primary and secondary fuels shown. • Five main energy demand sectors in Alberta are analyzed. • In residential/commercial sectors, highest energy consumption is in space heating. • In the industrial sector, highest energy use is in the mining subsector. - Abstract: The energy sector is the largest contributor to gross domestic product (GDP), income, employment, and government revenue in both developing and developed nations. But the energy sector has a significant environmental footprint due to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Efficient production, conversion, and use of energy resources are key factors for reducing the environmental footprint. Hence it is necessary to understand energy flows from both the supply and the demand sides. Most energy analyses focus on improving energy efficiency broadly without considering the aggregate energy flow. We developed Sankey diagrams that map energy flow for both the demand and supply sides for the province of Alberta, Canada. The diagrams will help policy/decision makers, researchers, and others to understand energy flow from reserves through to final energy end uses for primary and secondary fuels in the five main energy demand sectors in Alberta: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation. The Sankey diagrams created for this study show total energy consumption, useful energy, and energy intensities of various end-use devices. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model is used in this study. The model showed that Alberta’s total input energy in the five demand sectors was 189 PJ, 186 PJ, 828.5PJ, 398 PJ, and 50.83 PJ, respectively. On the supply side, the total energy input and output were found to be 644.84 PJ and 239 PJ, respectively. These results, along with the associated energy flows were depicted pictorially using

  18. Performance of primary repair on colon injuries sustained from low-versus high-energy projectiles.

    Lazovic, Ranko; Radojevic, Nemanja; Curovic, Ivana

    2016-04-01

    Among various reasons, colon injuries may be caused by low- or high-energy firearm bullets, with the latter producing a temporary cavitation phenomenon. The available treatment options include primary repair and two-stage management, but recent studies have shown that primary repair can be widely used with a high success rate. This paper investigates the differences in performance of primary repair on these two types of colon injuries. Two groups of patients who sustained colon injuries due to single gunshot wounds, were retrospectively categorized based on the type of bullet. Primary colon repair was performed in all patients selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria (Stone and Fabian's criteria). An almost absolute homogeneity was attained among the groups in terms of age, latent time before surgery, and four trauma indexes. Only one patient from the low-energy firearm projectile group (4%) developed a postsurgical complication versus nine patients (25.8%) from the high-energy group, showing statistically significant difference (p = 0.03). These nine patients experienced the following postsurgical complications: pneumonia, abscess, fistula, suture leakage, and one multiorgan failure with sepsis. Previous studies concluded that one-stage primary repair is the best treatment option for colon injuries. However, terminal ballistics testing determined the projectile's path through the body and revealed that low-energy projectiles caused considerably lesser damage than their high-energy counterparts. Primary colon repair must be performed definitely for low-energy short firearm injuries but very carefully for high-energy injuries. Given these findings, we suggest that the treatment option should be determined based not only on the bullet type alone but also on other clinical findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Interactive seismic interpretation with piecewise global energy minimization

    Hollt, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Increasing demands in world-wide energy consumption and oil depletion of large reservoirs have resulted in the need for exploring smaller and more complex oil reservoirs. Planning of the reservoir valorization usually starts with creating a model of the subsurface structures, including seismic faults and horizons. However, seismic interpretation and horizon tracing is a difficult and error-prone task, often resulting in hours of work needing to be manually repeated. In this paper, we propose a novel, interactive workflow for horizon interpretation based on well positions, which include additional geological and geophysical data captured by actual drillings. Instead of interpreting the volume slice-by-slice in 2D, we propose 3D seismic interpretation based on well positions. We introduce a combination of 2D and 3D minimal cost path and minimal cost surface tracing for extracting horizons with very little user input. By processing the volume based on well positions rather than slice-based, we are able to create a piecewise optimal horizon surface at interactive rates. We have integrated our system into a visual analysis platform which supports multiple linked views for fast verification, exploration and analysis of the extracted horizons. The system is currently being evaluated by our collaborating domain experts. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Interactive seismic interpretation with piecewise global energy minimization

    Hollt, Thomas; Beyer, Johanna; Gschwantner, Fritz M.; Muigg, Philipp; Doleisch, Helmut; Heinemann, Gabor F.; Hadwiger, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Increasing demands in world-wide energy consumption and oil depletion of large reservoirs have resulted in the need for exploring smaller and more complex oil reservoirs. Planning of the reservoir valorization usually starts with creating a model of the subsurface structures, including seismic faults and horizons. However, seismic interpretation and horizon tracing is a difficult and error-prone task, often resulting in hours of work needing to be manually repeated. In this paper, we propose a novel, interactive workflow for horizon interpretation based on well positions, which include additional geological and geophysical data captured by actual drillings. Instead of interpreting the volume slice-by-slice in 2D, we propose 3D seismic interpretation based on well positions. We introduce a combination of 2D and 3D minimal cost path and minimal cost surface tracing for extracting horizons with very little user input. By processing the volume based on well positions rather than slice-based, we are able to create a piecewise optimal horizon surface at interactive rates. We have integrated our system into a visual analysis platform which supports multiple linked views for fast verification, exploration and analysis of the extracted horizons. The system is currently being evaluated by our collaborating domain experts. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Composition of cosmic rays in the knee region of the primary energy spectrum

    Das Gupta, U.

    1989-01-01

    The Soudan Surface-Underground Cosmic Ray Telescope is located at the Soudan iron mine in northern Minnesota. It consists of a coincidence arrangement of two detectors-one installed at the surface of the mine and the other located underground, at a vertical depth of 600 meters. Using such an arrangement, the energy and composition of a primary cosmic ray particle can be determined independently of one another. When a high energy cosmic ray enters the Earth's atmosphere, secondary particles are produced in successive interactions, creating an extensive air shower. Using the surface detector, the number of particles in the shower at the surface of the Earth can be counted and the energy of the primary particle estimated. Of all the particles that are created in a cosmic ray air shower, only the energetic muons are able to penetrate underground. The separations of the muons below ground are measured by the Soudan 1 detector and this serves as an indicator of the type of nucleus that initiated the shower. The Soudan surface-underground detector is sensitive to primary cosmic rays of energies between 10 14 and 10 18 eV. The data from the experiment were compared to the predictions of various cosmic ray composition models, within this energy range. The data supported a composition model that was proton dominated up to the highest energies measured. There was no indication of a shift in the composition towards heavier primaries as would be expected on the basis of some models

  2. Classification and performance analysis of primary energy consumers during 1980-1999

    Ediger, Volkan S.

    2003-01-01

    Five primary energy consumer classes, namely Super, Major, Big, Medium and Small, are proposed, depending on the polymodal characteristics of the frequency distribution curve of their share of the total. The total primary energy consumption and its annual additions decrease, whereas the rates increase steadily from the Super to the Medium consumers. Since the frequency distribution histogram of additional primary energy consumptions of the Medium and above consumers during 1980-1999 is a typical bell shaped curve, the additional amounts and rates are used together to evaluate the performance levels of the countries in both parameters. The most successful countries are the USA, China, South Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Turkey and Iran. The reason why the Super consumer USA and the Major consumer China are the biggest energy markets is because they are the first two biggest economies in the world. The success of the developing Asian countries is mostly related to their economic ties with the Super consumer USA. Among the other emerging markets, Turkey's primary energy demand has grown more rapidly than that of Iran and is expected to continue growing in the future. The emerging Medium and Big consumer markets will continue to play a significant role in the world's energy sector during the first two decades of the 21st century

  3. Utilizing primary energy savings and exergy destruction to compare centralized thermal plants and cogeneration/trigeneration systems

    Espirito Santo, Denilson Boschiero do; Gallo, Waldyr Luiz Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Rising energy conversion processes efficiencies reduces CO_2 emissions and global warming implications. Decentralized electricity production through cogeneration/trigeneration systems can save primary energy if it operates with high efficiency. High efficiency is obtained when the system produces electricity and a substantial amount of the energy rejected by the prime mover is used to meet site thermal demands. Environmental concerns and international agreements are directing governments of different countries to incentive high efficiency solutions. Centralized thermal plants and cogeneration/trigeneration efficiency are compared through efficiency indicators using the first law of thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics. This paper proposes the use of the primary energy savings analysis and the exergy destruction analysis to compare decentralized power production through cogeneration/trigeneration systems and centralized thermal plants. The analysis concluded that both methods achieve the same results if the thermal efficiency indicator is used to compare the methods. The analysis also revealed that trigeneration systems with the same energy input are comparable with quite different thermal efficiency centralized thermal plants. Case 1 is comparable to a 53% thermal efficiency power plant and case 2 is comparable to a 77% thermal efficiency power plant. - Highlights: • Trigeneration and thermal plants are compared using PES and exergy destruction. • The thermal efficiency indicator is used to compare both methods. • The same equivalent thermal efficiency is achieved by both methods. • Same energy input trigeneration is similar to different thermal efficiency plants. • Evaluated trigeneration are comparable to a 53–77% thermal efficiency power plant.

  4. Energy Globalization: Oil Geopolitics in Central Asia Big Race for the Caspian Oil

    VOLKOVA, JANINA

    2007-01-01

    The research aims to show causal relations between recent global change in geopolitics towards energy resources, its effect on foreign policies of Russia, the USA and China; as well as the role of oil factor in their rivalry, development of the newly formed Central Asian (the Caspian region) states-donors and international relations in general . Globalization, geopolitics, oil factor, Russia, the USA, China, the Caspian Sea, international relations, Asia

  5. Memo to US energy executives: Don't forget global warming

    Howes, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This article warns executives of energy related companies and government policy makers to not be complacent regarding the impact of future global warming legislation. The author feels that those companies that take a minimum approach to meeting the requirements of the Clean Air Act may find themselves having to revise their approach in midstream to meet tougher global warming legislation requirements. The author approaches the issue as a challenge to the industry to compete in an increasingly environmentally-conscious worldwide market

  6. The Global Trend of Energy Saving and Carbon Reducing in Post-Kyoto Protocol Era

    Chih-Lun Chen

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, with increased focus on extreme global climates, the drastic population growth, and the exhaustion of resources, humanity has a greater need for and reliance on intelligent, technology-enhanced living, as well as more effective means of production. Being sustainable, green, and environmentally friendly is becoming more and more a global priority. Energy saving and carbon reduction are the keys to achieving intelligent living, clean production, and environmental responsibility...

  7. Renewable energy from wind and sun. Status quo and development perspectives at the global level

    Graichen, Patrick; Grotewold, Lars; Kordowski, Klaus; Wesemann, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    The global market for renewable energy technologies has experienced strong growth since the year 2000. In 2013 newly installed electricity production plants based on renewable energy for the first time outnumbered the aggregate of newly installed plants based on coal, gas or nuclear energy. In more and more parts of the world, wind and solar energy plants are becoming the most cost-effective means of electricity production. As renewable energy resources begin to claim significant shares in the energy mix they also become more system-relevant, resulting in a need for more investment as well as regulatory changes. Due to their specific features (high capital intensity, low incremental costs, fluctuating electricity production), and in spite of the marked decline in costs, wind and solar energy are still dependent on proactive policies in support of renewable energy.

  8. A Data Analysis Toolbox for Modeling the Global Food-Energy-Water Nexus

    AghaKouchak, A.; Sadegh, M.; Mallakpour, I.

    2017-12-01

    Water, Food and energy systems are highly interconnected. More than seventy percent of global water resource is used for food production. Water withdrawal, purification, and transfer systems are energy intensive. Furthermore, energy generation strongly depends on water availability. Therefore, considering the interactions in the nexus of water, food and energy is crucial for sustainable management of available resources. In this presentation, we introduce a user-friendly data analysis toolbox that mines the available global data on food, energy and water, and analyzes their interactions. This toolbox provides estimates of water footprint for a wide range of food types in different countries and also approximates the required energy and water resources. The toolbox also provides estimates of the corresponding emissions and biofuel production of different crops. In summary, this toolbox allows evaluating dependencies of the food, energy, and water systems at the country scale. We present global analysis of the interactions between water, food and energy from different perspectives including efficiency and diversity of resources use.

  9. Global resources and energy trade. An overview for coal, natural gas, oil and uranium

    Remme, U.; Blesl, M.; Fahl, U.

    2007-07-15

    Despite efforts to improve energy effi-ciency and increase the usage of renewable energy carriers, fossil fuels and nuclear energy will continue to be important sources of global energy supply for the coming decades. Present global oil and gas supply is characterized by a concentration of production in a few world areas, mainly the Middle East and the Former Soviet Union, and a transport from these regions to the industrialized countries. Depletion of conventional reserves, especially oil, in combination with a surge for energy in emerging economies, as China and India, how-ever, is expected to change this picture in the future: unconventional resources in other world regions may be exploited to cover the surge energy demand, infrastructure for energy transport along new routes may have to be established. To provide a data base for such ques-tions, this report gives an overview of the current global resource situation for coal, natural gas, oil and uranium. In the first part, an assessment of the con-ventional and unconventional reserves and resources as well as their supply costs is given for the different regions of the world. The second part describes the current energy trade infrastructure between world regions and estimates the costs for existing and new trade links between these regions. (orig.)

  10. China's coal price disturbances: Observations, explanations, and implications for global energy economies

    Yang, Chi-Jen; Xuan, Xiaowei; Jackson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Since China decontrolled coal prices, its coal price has risen steadily and been unusually volatile. In 2011 in particular, high coal prices and capped electricity prices in China discouraged coal-fired power generation, triggering widespread power shortages. We suggest that these coal-price disturbances could be symptomatic of a major change in pricing dynamics of global fossil-fuel markets, with increasing correspondence between coal and oil prices globally. Historically, global coal prices have been more stable and lower than oil and natural gas prices on a per-heat basis. In recent years, however, coal prices have been increasingly volatile worldwide and have tracked other fossil fuel prices more closely. Meanwhile, the recent development of unconventional gas has substantially decoupled US natural gas and oil prices. Technically, low US natural gas prices, with potential fuel switching, could drive US domestic coal prices lower. However, this effect is unlikely to counteract the overall trend in increasing coal consumption globally. China's market size and unique, partially-controlled energy system make its reform agenda a key force in the global economy. Policymakers in the US, E.U. and elsewhere should monitor China's economic reform agenda to anticipate and respond to changes accompanying China's increasing importance in the global energy economy. - Highlights: ► Since China decontrolled its coal prices, the price of coal has risen steadily in China, accompanied by unusual volatility. ► Relatively high and volatile coal prices have triggered widespread power shortages in China. ► Coal and oil prices have already become, and continue to become, more closely linked globally. ► China's demand will likely drive up global coal prices and make them as volatile as that of other fossil fuels. ► Policymakers should monitor China's economic reform agenda to anticipate and respond to changes in the global energy economy.

  11. Progress in the development of global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus optical model potentials

    Madland, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    Two existing global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus phenomenological optical model potentials are described and compared with experiment and with each other. The first of these employs a Dirac approach (second-order reduction) that is global in projectile energy and projectile isospin and applies to the target nucleus 208 Pb. The second of these employs a relativistic equivalent to the Schroedinger equation (including relativistic kinematics) that is global in projectile energy, projectile isospin, and target (Z,A). Finally, current work is described and the influence of the nuclear bound state problem (treated in relativistic mean field theory) on the Dirac scattering problem is mentioned. Spherical target nuclei are treated in the present work and strongly-collective target nuclei (rotational and vibrational) requiring coupled-channels approaches will be treated in a future paper. (author)

  12. Monte-Carlo study on primary knock-on atom energy spectrum produced by neutron radiation

    Zhou Wei; Liu Yongkang; Deng Yongjun; Ma Jimin

    2012-01-01

    Computational method on energy distribution of primary knock-on atom (PKA) produced by neutron radiation was built in the paper. Based on the DBCN card in MCNP, reaction position, reaction type and energy transfer between neutrons and atoms were recorded. According to statistic of these data, energy and space distributions of PKAs were obtained. The method resolves preferably randomicity of random number and efficiency of random sampling computation. The results show small statistical fluctuation and well statistical. Three-dimensional figure of energy and space distribution of PKAs were obtained, which would be important to evaluate radiation capability of materials and study radiation damage by neutrons. (authors)

  13. (Un)certainty in climate change impacts on global energy consumption

    van Ruijven, B. J.; De Cian, E.; Sue Wing, I.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have an influence on the energy sector, especially on energy demand. For many locations, this change in energy demand is a balance between increase of demand for space cooling and a decrease of space heating demand. We perform a large-scale uncertainty analysis to characterize climate change risk on energy consumption as driven by climate and socioeconomic uncertainty. We combine a dynamic econometric model1 with multiple realizations of temperature projections from all 21 CMIP5 models (from the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections2) under moderate (RCP4.5) and vigorous (RCP8.5) warming. Global spatial population projections for five SSPs are combined with GDP projections to construct scenarios for future energy demand driven by socioeconomic change. Between the climate models, we find a median global increase in climate-related energy demand of around 24% by 2050 under RCP8.5 with an interquartile range of 18-38%. Most climate models agree on increases in energy demand of more than 25% or 50% in tropical regions, the Southern USA and Southern China (see Figure). With respect to socioeconomic scenarios, we find wide variations between the SSPs for the number of people in low-income countries who are exposed to increases in energy demand. Figure attached: Number of models that agree on total climate-related energy consumption to increase or decrease by more than 0, 10, 25 or 50% by 2050 under RCP8.5 and SSP5 as result of the CMIP5 ensemble of temperature projections. References1. De Cian, E. & Sue Wing, I. Global Energy Demand in a Warming Climate. (FEEM, 2016). 2. Thrasher, B., Maurer, E. P., McKellar, C. & Duffy, P. B. Technical Note: Bias correcting climate model simulated daily temperature extremes with quantile mapping. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 16, 3309-3314 (2012).

  14. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  15. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  16. Traveling-wave reactors: A truly sustainable and full-scale resource for global energy needs

    Ellis, T.; Petroski, R.; Hejzlar, P.; Zimmerman, G.; McAlees, D.; Whitmer, C.; Touran, N.; Hejzlar, J.; Weave, K.; Walter, J. C.; McWhirter, J.; Ahlfeld, C.; Burke, T.; Odedra, A.; Hyde, R.; Gilleland, J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Wood, L.; Myhrvold, N.; Gates Iii, W. H.

    2010-01-01

    Rising environmental and economic concerns have signaled a desire to reduce dependence on hydrocarbon fuels. These concerns have brought the world to an inflection point and decisions made today will dictate what the global energy landscape will look like for the next half century or more. An optimal energy technology for the future must meet stricter standards than in the past; in addition to being economically attractive, it now must also be environmentally benign, sustainable and scalable to global use. For stationary energy, only one existing resource comes close to fitting all of the societal requirements for an optimal energy source: nuclear energy. Its demonstrated economic performance, power density, and emissions-free benefits significantly elevate nuclear electricity generation above other energy sources. However, the current nuclear fuel cycle has some attributes that make it challenging to expand on a global scale. Traveling-wave reactor (TWR) technology, being developed by TerraPower, LLC, represents a potential solution to these limitations by offering a nuclear energy resource which is truly sustainable at full global scale for the indefinite future and is deployable in the near-term. TWRs are capable of offering a ∼40-fold gain in fuel utilization efficiency compared to conventional light-water reactors burning enriched fuel. Such high fuel efficiency, combined with an ability to use uranium recovered from river water or sea-water (which has been recently demonstrated to be technically and economically feasible) suggests that enough fuel is readily available for TWRs to generate electricity for 10 billion people at United States per capita levels for million-year time-scales. Interestingly, the Earth's rivers carry into the ocean a flux of uranium several times greater than that required to replace the implied rate-of-consumption, so that the Earth's slowly-eroding crust will provide a readily-accessible flow of uranium sufficient for all of

  17. Algal photosynthesis as the primary driver for a sustainable development in energy, feed, and food production

    Anemaet, I.G.; Bekker, M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    High oil prices and global warming that accompany the use of fossil fuels are an incentive to find alternative forms of energy supply. Photosynthetic biofuel production represents one of these since for this, one uses renewable resources. Sunlight is used for the conversion of water and CO2 into

  18. Comparison of biomolecule desorption yields for low and high energy primary ions

    Kamensky, I.; Hakansson, P.; Sundqvist, B.; McNeal, C.J.; MacFarlane, R.

    1982-01-01

    Ion induced desorption yields of molecular ions from samples of cesium iodide, glycylglycine, ergosterol, bleomycin and a trinucleoside diphosphate have been studied using primary beams of 54 MeV 63 Cu 9+ and 3 keV 133 Cs + . Mass analysis was performed with a time-of-flight technique. Each sample was studied with the same spectrometer for both low and high energy primary ions and without opening of the vacuum chamber in between the measurements. The results show that fast heavy ions give larger yields for all samples studied and that the yield ratios for high to low energy desorption increase with the mass of the sample molecule. (orig.)

  19. Globalization of energy issues and Japan`s correspondance to it; Energy mondai no gurobaru ka to Nihon no taio

    Toichi, T. [Japan Energy Economic Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-20

    There are three energy issues in the 21st century, i.e., energy security, global warming, and improvement in efficiency of energy supply. The correspondence to these issues was described. Topics in the energy security issue are the present situation of Middle East, the trend of energy demand in the rapidly developing countries such as China, ASEAN countries, Korea, and Taiwan, and the nuclear fuel and peaceful utilization of plutonium. For the global warming, the Frame Work Convention on Climate Change, which has became officially effective, and the attitude of developed countries to it, the establishment of responsibility to reducing the emission after 2000, and the increasing expectation to co-operation and discrepancy among Japan, U.S.A., EU, and developing countries. Concerning the improvement in efficiency of energy supply system and the relaxation of regulation, the progress of regulation relaxation in the U.S.A. and necessity of promoting the flexibility and efficiency improvement in energy demand and supply system in Japan were explained. 3 tabs.

  20. Energy use and implications for efficiency strategies in global fluid-milk processing industry

    Xu Tengfang; Flapper, Joris

    2009-01-01

    The fluid-milk processing industry around the world processes approximately 60% of total raw milk production to create diverse fresh fluid-milk products. This paper reviews energy usage in existing global fluid-milk markets to identify baseline information that allows comparisons of energy performance of individual plants and systems. In this paper, we analyzed energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on fluid-milk processing across a number of countries and regions. The study has found that the average final energy intensity of individual plants exhibited significant large variations, ranging from 0.2 to 12.6 MJ per kg fluid-milk product across various plants in different countries and regions. In addition, it is observed that while the majority of larger plants tended to exhibit higher energy efficiency, some exceptions existed for smaller plants with higher efficiency. These significant differences have indicated large potential energy-savings opportunities in the sector across many countries. Furthermore, this paper illustrates a positive correlation between implementing energy-monitoring programs and curbing the increasing trend in energy demand per equivalent fluid-milk product over time in the fluid-milk sector, and suggests that developing an energy-benchmarking framework, along with promulgating new policy options should be pursued for improving energy efficiency in global fluid-milk processing industry.

  1. Finding synergy between local competitiveness and global sustainability to provide a future to nuclear energy

    Van Den Durpel, Luc; Yacout, Abdellatif; Wade, Dave

    2008-01-01

    The world's future energy needs will require a mix of energy conversion technologies matched to the local energy market needs while also responding to both local and global socio-political concerns, e.g. energy security, environmental impact, safety and non-proliferation. There is growing recognition worldwide that nuclear energy should not only be part of the solution but maybe as well play a larger share in future's energy supply. The sustainability of future nuclear energy systems is hereby important and a variety of studies have already shown that sustainability of nuclear energy from a resource perspective is achievable via the nuclear fuel cycle though where economic sustainability is essentially defined by the nuclear power plants. The main challenge in deploying sustainable nuclear energy systems will be to find synergies between this local competitiveness of nuclear power plants and the global resource sustainability defined via the nuclear fuel cycle. Both may go hand-in-hand in the long-term but may need government guidance in starting the transition towards such future sustainable nuclear energy systems. (authors)

  2. Changing Strategies in Global Wind Energy Shipping, Logistics, and Supply Chain Management

    Poulsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Within the global wind energy market, a number of derived industries support the continued expansion of the ever larger onshore and offshore wind farms. One such derived industry is that of shipping, logistics, and supply chain management. Based on extensive case study work performed since 2009......, the paper reviews different wind energy markets globally. Subsequently, a number of supply chain set-ups serviced by the shipping, logistics, and supply chain management industry are reviewed. Finally, winning business models and strategies of current as well as emerging supply chain constituencies...

  3. DTU International Energy Report 2016: The Energy-Water-Food Nexus - from local to global aspects

    Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil or...

  4. Introduction: corporate restructuring of the global energy industry, driving forces and implications

    Radetzki, M.

    2000-01-01

    The introductory note briefly summarizes the major aspects discussed in the following individual contributions to this issue of the International Journal of Global Energy Issues which comprises the proceedings of the 1999 SNS Energy Day. The main theme is the dramatic changes in the corporate structure of the energy industries worldwide, i.e the liberalization of investment flows and international trade in the energy sector, the explosive development of information technology, providing novel market opportunities, and the novel structures that have emerged since the deregulation of power industries. (orig./CB)

  5. Global solar energy radiation in relation with electricity supply in Romania

    Zoran, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the most viable source of renewable energy being both clean and nonpolluting. Spiraling energy use and other human activities have led to measurable effects upon the global environment and climatic changes. There is increasing international concern particularly in the areas of global warming owing to the increase of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere and of other greenhouse gases as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrogen sulfide H 2 S, diethyl sulfide (DMS), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane CH 4 , as well in the effect of depletion of ozone (O 3 ) layer in the stratosphere. Climatological and global solar radiation analysis for some Romanian zones with great solar energy potential are presented. Remote sensing data provided by satellites are used for radiative fluxes monitoring and solar energy mapping as well as for solar energy use assessment. The realistic technical potential for solar energy applications in Romania is substantial, over 40000 TJyear -1 . As average energy global solar radiation in horizontal plane lies between 1100 and 1300 kWhm -2 year -1 , solar energy using for electrical power supply being a reliable alternative. More than one half of Romania's area has a range of insolation period between 1200 and 1500 hours year -1 , at an overall average daily irradiation of 1000 - 1200 kWh m -2 . The most favorable area in Romania is the North - Western part of Black Sea coast with an insolation period above 2300 hours year -1 . A small part 140 TJyear -1 are used profitably and almost 10% of the installed 10 6 m 2 of collector area, is still in operation. (author)

  6. Declining primary energy consumption in nine countries of the European Community in 1980

    Gabel, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Statistical Office of the European Communities has published preliminary figures for energy consumption in the Community (of the Nine) for the year 1980. These show a primary energy consumption for the EEC in 1980 of approx. 1344 mtce. That is 63 mtce or 4.5% less than in the previous year. Primary energy consumption in 1980 still bore comparison, to some extent, with the previous record figures for 1973, the last 'normal year' before the first crisis. The figures for all the Community countries show that the energy policy measures introduced in recent years are becoming more effective, particularly the attempts to restrict oil consumption. There is also the effect of oil prices, which again rose dramatically in 1979/80. Whether this decline in consumption will continue in the future will only become clear when the promised economic upturn arrives. (orig./UA) [de

  7. Correlation of high energy muons with primary composition in extensive air shower

    Chou, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Ozaki, S.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahasi, T.; Umeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of high energy muons above 200 GeV in extensive air showers has been made for studying high energy interaction and primary composition of cosmic rays of energies in the range 10 to the 14th power approx. 10 to the 15th power eV. The muon energies are estimated from the burst sizes initiated by the muons in the rock, which are measured by four layers of proportional counters, each of area 5 x 2.6 sq m, placed at 30 m.w.e. deep, Funasaka tunnel vertically below the air shower array. These results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations based on the scaling model and the fireball model for two primary compositions, all proton and mixed.

  8. Role of primary sedimentation on plant-wide energy recovery and carbon footprint.

    Gori, Riccardo; Giaccherini, Francesca; Jiang, Lu-Man; Sobhani, Reza; Rosso, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to show the effect of primary sedimentation on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and solids fractionation and consequently on the carbonaceous and energy footprints of wastewater treatment processes. Using a simple rational procedure for COD and solids fraction quantification, we quantify the effects of varying fractions on CO2 and CO2-equivalent mass flows, process energy demand and energy recovery. Then we analysed two treatment plants with similar biological nutrient removal processes in two different climatic regions and quantified the net benefit of gravity separation before biological treatment. In the cases analysed, primary settling increases the solid fraction of COD that is processed in anaerobic digestion, with an associated increase in biogas production and energy recovery, and a reduction in overall emissions of CO2 and CO2-equivalent from power importation.

  9. Radiation damage in materials. Primary knock-on atom energy analyses of cascade damage

    Sekimura, Naoto

    1995-01-01

    To understand cascade damage formation as a function of primary recoil energy, thin foils of gold were irradiated with 20 - 400 keV self-ions to 1.0 x 10 14 ions/m 2 at 300 K. Yield of groups of vacancy clusters saturated at ion energy higher than 100 keV. Number of clusters in a group had variation even from the same energy ions. Size distribution of the clusters was not strongly dependent on number of clusters in a group and ion energy. Density of vacancy clusters in a group formed near the specimen surface was calibrated to estimate vacancy cluster formation in neutron-irradiated material. A model was proposed to predict distribution of defect clusters in the irradiated materials based on a primary recoil spectrum. Examples of recomposed distribution of vacancy clusters in a group in irradiated gold were compared with the measured data. (author)

  10. Global economics/energy/environmental (E{sup 3}) modeling of long-term nuclear energy futures

    Krakowski, R.A.; Davidson, J.W.; Bathke, C.G.; Arthur, E.D.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.

    1997-09-01

    A global energy, economics, environment (E{sup 3}) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Using this model, consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed. A spectrum of future is examined at two levels in a hierarchy of scenario attributes in which drivers are either external or internal to nuclear energy. Impacts of a range of nuclear fuel-cycle scenarios are reflected back to the higher-level scenario attributes. An emphasis is placed on nuclear materials inventories (in magnitude, location, and form) and their contribution to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy and the future competitiveness of both conventional and advanced nuclear reactors.

  11. A comparison of regional and global catastrophic hazards associated with energy technologies

    Heising, C.D.; Inhaber, H.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews some of what is known about the relative catastrophic hazards, on both a regional and global level, of energy technologies, and proposes a logical framework for their comparison. A review of the Inhaber study results is made indicating the relative position of overall nuclear power related risks. Then, concentration is placed on describing the catastrophic and global hazards of energy technologies. Regionally catastrophic hazards include sabotage and other malicious human activities, in addition to severe accidents caused inadvertantly by man, such as fires, reactor core damage events, chemical and poisonous gas releases, fuel storage fires and explosions, in addition to others. Global risks include such hazards as nuclear proliferation, CO 2 , build-up, oil shortages and possible national conflicts over dwindling energy fuels. The conclusion is drawn that consideration of both regional and global catastrophic risks must be made in making energy decisions, and that further study is necessary to better quantify and compare these risks. A simple decision analytic framework for making energy decisions inclusive of catastrophic risk is proposed

  12. Scatter correction method with primary modulator for dual energy digital radiography: a preliminary study

    Jo, Byung-Du; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Dae-Hong; Jeon, Pil-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2014-03-01

    In conventional digital radiography (DR) using a dual energy subtraction technique, a significant fraction of the detected photons are scattered within the body, resulting in the scatter component. Scattered radiation can significantly deteriorate image quality in diagnostic X-ray imaging systems. Various methods of scatter correction, including both measurement and non-measurement-based methods have been proposed in the past. Both methods can reduce scatter artifacts in images. However, non-measurement-based methods require a homogeneous object and have insufficient scatter component correction. Therefore, we employed a measurement-based method to correct for the scatter component of inhomogeneous objects from dual energy DR (DEDR) images. We performed a simulation study using a Monte Carlo simulation with a primary modulator, which is a measurement-based method for the DEDR system. The primary modulator, which has a checkerboard pattern, was used to modulate primary radiation. Cylindrical phantoms of variable size were used to quantify imaging performance. For scatter estimation, we used Discrete Fourier Transform filtering. The primary modulation method was evaluated using a cylindrical phantom in the DEDR system. The scatter components were accurately removed using a primary modulator. When the results acquired with scatter correction and without correction were compared, the average contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) with the correction was 1.35 times higher than that obtained without correction, and the average root mean square error (RMSE) with the correction was 38.00% better than that without correction. In the subtraction study, the average CNR with correction was 2.04 (aluminum subtraction) and 1.38 (polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subtraction) times higher than that obtained without the correction. The analysis demonstrated the accuracy of scatter correction and the improvement of image quality using a primary modulator and showed the feasibility of

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Renewable Energy Use and Policies: Global and Turkish Perspectives

    Mahmure Övül Arıoğlu Akan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of renewable energy sources (RES has become inevitable, not only due to the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels, but also to sustain life on Earth. Consequently, countries have started developing renewable energy policies individually and as part of global organizations and networks, such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, the European Union (EU and the International Energy Agency (IEA. Turkey is a developing OECD member country and in the accession process to the EU. Thus, the renewable energy policies should be aligned with those of the EU. Moreover, despite the substantial amount and wide range of RES, it is still in a position to import more than half of its energy demand. In the light of these facts, this study aims to analyze and compare the renewable energy policies in Turkey with those adopted worldwide to lay out possible solutions regarding its energy problems.

  14. Energy for tomorrow. The World Energy Council calls for global action

    Doucet, G.

    2000-01-01

    In April 2000, the World Energy Council (WEC) issued a statement that reexamined the world energy situation, revising its Energy for Tomorrow report published in 1993. The WEC Statement 2000 critically reviews the earlier scenarios and proposes a new set of goals and policy actions. The objective was to draw on actual experience during the last eight years, both in terms of analysis and clearer set of policy actions. The WEC dedicated its statement to help overcome energy poverty wherever it occurs; enhance the quality and reliability of delivered energy; and minimize negative environmental and health impacts of energy development. The WEC Statement sets the energy goals and defines the policy actions which, if taken now, would provide grounds for reasonable optimism in facing the task ahead. This article is based on the Statement's executive summary and highlights the main points in the context of major developments over past eight years

  15. Swiss energy statistics 2008; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2008 / Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2008

    NONE

    2009-08-15

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on total energy production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2008. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's energy consumption in 2008 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions of consumption of oil-fuels for heating, oil products for mobility, electricity, gas and various other fuels. The development of consumption over the years 1910 to 2008 is illustrated graphically. A second chapter takes a look at energy flow from production (and import) to the consumer and export. An extensive collection of illustrative flow diagrams, tables and graphical representations of energy flows, statistics for various energy carriers and of the various uses of energy in Switzerland is presented.

  16. Nuclear Power and Resource Efficiency—A Proposal for a Revised Primary Energy Factor

    Ola Eriksson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Measuring resource efficiency can be achieved using different methods, of which primary energy demand is commonly used. The primary energy factor (PEF is a figure describing how much energy from primary resources is being used per unit of energy delivered. The PEF for nuclear power is typically 3, which refers to thermal energy released from fission in relation to electricity generated. Fuel losses are not accounted for. However; nuclear waste represents an energy loss, as current plans for nuclear waste management mostly include final disposal. Based on a literature review and mathematical calculations of the power-to-fuel ratio for nuclear power, PEF values for the open nuclear fuel cycle (NFC option of nuclear power and different power mixes are calculated. These calculations indicate that a more correct PEF for nuclear power would be 60 (range 32–88; for electricity in Sweden (41% nuclear power PEF would change from 1.8 to 25.5, and the average PEF for electricity in the European Union (EU would change from 2.5 to 18. The results illustrate the poor resource efficiency of nuclear power, which paves the way for the fourth generation of nuclear power and illustrates the policy implication of using PEFs which are inconsistent with current waste management plans.

  17. Fission nuclear power prospects and its role in meeting global energy needs

    Golan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power currently makes an important contribution to world's energy requirements providing 17% of its electricity. But as global warming becomes of greater concern, many ask whether nuclear power can and should contribute more. The author, who is involved in the nuclear power enterprise for 35 years, tries to answer this question affirmative. He holds the view that: a) nuclear fission power is essential to meeting world's energy needs without unduly impairing the global environment; b) by possessing the required attributes discussed in this paper, nuclear fission power can be made societally acceptable; c) the industrialized world should accelerate LMFR deployment while fostering more convenient energy alternatives for the developing world; and d) the HTGR is unique in its ability to augment non-electricity energy needs and could become the technology choice of developing countries for nuclear electricity production. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  18. External costs in the global energy optimization models. A tool in favour of sustain ability

    Cabal Cuesta, H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is the analysis of the effects of the GHG external costs internalization in the energy systems. This may provide a useful tool to support decision makers to help reaching the energy systems sustain ability. External costs internalization has been carried out using two methods. First, CO 2 externalities of different power generation technologies have been internalized to evaluate their effects on the economic competitiveness of these present and future technologies. The other method consisted of analysing and optimizing the global energy system, from an economic and environmental point of view, using the global energy optimization model generator, TIMES, with a time horizon of 50 years. Finally, some scenarios regarding environmental and economic strategic measures have been analysed. (Author)

  19. Primary Productivity, NASA Aqua MODIS and GOES Imager, 0.1 degrees, Global, EXPERIMENTAL

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primary Productivity is calculated from NASA Aqua MODIS Chl a and NOAA GOES Imager SST data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for scientific...

  20. Primary Productivity, SeaWiFS and Pathfinder, 0.1 degrees, Global, EXPERIMENTAL

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primary Productivity is calculated from SeaWiFS Chl a, Pathfinder SST, and SeaWiFS PAR data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for scientific...