WorldWideScience

Sample records for global power wealth

  1. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains (GWCs) are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in International Political Economy and Economic Geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance...... innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This article highlights how GWCs intersect with value chains, and provides brief case examples of wealth chains and how they interact.......This article offers a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains (GWCs) are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in International Political Economy and Economic Geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance...... capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of GWC governance – Market, Modular, Relational, Captive, and Hierarchy – which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous international tax laws to highly complex and flexible...

  2. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    ) innovation capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of global value chain governance - market, modular, relational, captive, and hierarchy - which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous international tax laws...... to highly complex and flexible innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This paper highlights how Global Wealth Chains intersect with value chains and real economies, and provides three brief case studies on offshore shell companies, family property trusts......This working paper creates a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in international political economy and economic geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance...

  3. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    liability and (3) innovation capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of global value chain governance - market, modular, relational, captive, an d hierarchy – which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous...... international tax laws to highly complex and flexible innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This article highlights how Global Wealth Cha ins intersect with value chains and real economies, and provides three brief case studies on offshore shell companies......This introduction to the Special Issue creates a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in international political economy and economic geography on Global Value Chains...

  4. More Opportunities than Wealth. A Network of Power and Frustration

    Mahault, Benoit Alexandre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Saxena, Avadh Behari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nisoli, Cristiano [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-17

    We introduce a minimal agent-based model to qualitatively conceptualize the allocation of limited wealth among more abundant opportunities. We study the interplay of power, satisfaction and frustration in the problem of wealth distribution, concentration, and inequality. This framework allows us to compare subjective measures of frustration and satisfaction to collective measures of fairness in wealth distribution, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index. We find that a completely libertarian, law-of-the-jungle setting, where every agent can acquire wealth from, or lose wealth to, anybody else invariably leads to a complete polarization of the distribution of wealth vs. opportunity, only minimally ameliorated by disorder in a non-optimized society. The picture is however dramatically modified when hard constraints are imposed over agents, and they are forced to share wealth with neighbors on a network. We discuss the case of random networks and scale free networks. We then propose an out of equilibrium dynamics of the networks, based on a competition of power and frustration in the decision-making of agents that leads to network evolution. We show that the ratio of power and frustration controls different dynamical regimes separated by kinetic transition and characterized by drastically different values of the indices of equality.

  5. Perceptions of national wealth and skill influence pay expectations: replicating global hierarchy on a microscale

    Maitner, Angela T.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    In highly multicultural societies, the economic status hierarchy may come to mimic the hierarchy of global wealth, reinforcing social inequality by tying pay scales to national wealth. We investigated how nationality influences expectations of payment in the UAE. Participants reported how much they expected people to be paid and how much skill they were perceived to have by nationality. They also reported their perceptions of the national wealth of different countries. Participants generally expected Westerners to be paid more than Arabs, who would be paid more than Sub-Saharan Africans and Asians. Expectations about payment in private sector employment were driven by both actual and stereotyped differences in national wealth and skill, with non-Gulf Cooperation Council Arabs most likely to see national wealth as a factor explaining the economic hierarchy. These results suggest that people expect payment to be tied to national wealth, reflecting the global hierarchy on a microscale. PMID:26074852

  6. Perceptions of national wealth and skill influence pay expectations: replicating global hierarchy on a microscale.

    Maitner, Angela T; DeCoster, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    In highly multicultural societies, the economic status hierarchy may come to mimic the hierarchy of global wealth, reinforcing social inequality by tying pay scales to national wealth. We investigated how nationality influences expectations of payment in the UAE. Participants reported how much they expected people to be paid and how much skill they were perceived to have by nationality. They also reported their perceptions of the national wealth of different countries. Participants generally expected Westerners to be paid more than Arabs, who would be paid more than Sub-Saharan Africans and Asians. Expectations about payment in private sector employment were driven by both actual and stereotyped differences in national wealth and skill, with non-Gulf Cooperation Council Arabs most likely to see national wealth as a factor explaining the economic hierarchy. These results suggest that people expect payment to be tied to national wealth, reflecting the global hierarchy on a microscale.

  7. Sovereign Wealth Funds as Global Economic and Political Actors: Defining of Notions

    Андрей Алексеевич Кинякин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article devoted to consideration of sovereign wealth funds (SWF as economic and political actors as well as analysis of different forms of their activity in the contemporary global economics and politics. The author comes to the conclusion, that sovereign wealth funds play not only the role of providers of interests of the national states, but being the special purpose vehicles (SPV, designated to fulfill the different tasks, turn out to be the new type of global actors.

  8. Who Owns the Wealth in Tax Havens? Macro Evidence and Implications for Global Inequality

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Johannesen, Niels; Zucman, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    , accounting for it increases the top 0.01% wealth share substantially in Europe, even in countries that do not use tax havens extensively. It has considerable effects in Russia, where the vast majority of wealth at the top is held offshore. These results highlight the importance of looking beyond tax......Drawing on newly published macroeconomic statistics, this paper estimates the amount of household wealth owned by each country in offshore tax havens. The equivalent of 10% of world GDP is held in tax havens globally, but this average masks a great deal of heterogeneity—from a few percent of GDP...... in Scandinavia, to about 15% in Continental Europe, and 60% in Gulf countries and some Latin American economies. We use these estimates to construct revised series of top wealth shares in ten countries, which account for close to half of world GDP. Because offshore wealth is very concentrated at the top...

  9. Scientific Wealth of Mongolia on a Global Scale

    Bazar tser en Boldgiv

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to objectively evaluate the scientific wealth of Mongolia as a nation, by analyzing journal publications by Mongolian scientists recorded in the ISI database. Publications by Mongolian authors for the period of 1979-2002 were included for analyses. Although the total number of publications has increased for the given period, there was no significant increase in the relative citation impact or RCI. Changes of publication quality as measured by RCI showed dif ferent trends for various scientific fields. Publications in clinical medicine and biology show most positive trend, whereas publications in mathematics and physics declined in quality. All the fields are well below the world’ s total publication quality for a comparable period. Additionally , percentage of papers by Mongolian senior authors has declined (though the trend is not significant. This is a rather disturbing trend given the fact that the number of researchers with a doctor ’s degree in the country has greatly increased during the same period of time. Quality of publications by Mongolian first authors and only Mongolian authors were significantly lower than collaborative ones. As far as we are aware, this is the first evaluation of scientific wealth of Mongolia as a whole and it is hoped that it would be helpful to policy-making and scientific communities in prioritizing and determining the direction of support and finance.

  10. Age differences in the understanding of wealth and power: the mediating role of future time perspective.

    Li, Tianyuan; Tsang, Vivian Hiu-Ling

    2016-12-01

    Individuals' understanding of wealth and power largely determines their use of resources. Moreover, the age range of wealth and power holders is increasing in modern societies. Thus, the current study examines how people of different ages understand wealth and power. As varying future time perspective is related to changes in prioritised life goals, it was tested as a potential mediator of the age differences. A total of 133 participants aged 18-78 years were asked 8 open-ended questions regarding their understanding of the possible use and desired use of wealth and power, after which they reported their future time perspective. Compared with possible use, the participants mentioned relatively more prosocial elements when they talked about their desired use of the resources, especially power. The older adults expressed more prosocial understanding in regard to the desired use of wealth and the possible use of power compared to their younger counterparts. The age differences were fully mediated by future time perspective. The results suggest that age is a critical factor that influences individuals' conceptualisation of wealth and power. Life-span developmental stage and future time perspective are important factors to consider for explaining individual differences in the exercise of wealth and power and for promoting their prosocial usage.

  11. A global comparison of the cost of patented cancer drugs in relation to global differences in wealth.

    Goldstein, Daniel A; Clark, Jonathon; Tu, Yifan; Zhang, Jie; Fang, Fenqi; Goldstein, Robert; Stemmer, Salomon M; Rosenbaum, Eli

    2017-09-22

    There are major differences in cancer drug prices around the world. However, the patterns of affordability of these drugs are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to compare patterns of affordability of cancer drugs in Australia, China, India, Israel, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Cancer drug prices are highest in the United States. Cancer drugs are the least affordable in India by a large margin. Despite lower prices than in the USA, cancer drugs are less affordable in middle-income countries than in high-income countries. We obtained the prices of a basket of cancer drugs in all 7 countries, and converted the prices to US$ using both foreign exchange rates and purchasing power parity. We assessed international differences in wealth by collecting values for gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in addition to average salaries. We compared patterns of affordability of cancer drugs by dividing the drug prices by the markers of wealth. Cancer drugs are less affordable in middle-income countries than in high-income countries. Differential pricing may be an acceptable policy to ensure global affordability and access to highly active anti-cancer therapies.

  12. A global comparison of the cost of patented cancer drugs in relation to global differences in wealth

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Clark, Jonathon; Tu, Yifan; Zhang, Jie; Fang, Fenqi; Goldstein, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There are major differences in cancer drug prices around the world. However, the patterns of affordability of these drugs are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to compare patterns of affordability of cancer drugs in Australia, China, India, Israel, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Results Cancer drug prices are highest in the United States. Cancer drugs are the least affordable in India by a large margin. Despite lower prices than in the USA, cancer drugs are less affordable in middle-income countries than in high-income countries. Materials and Methods We obtained the prices of a basket of cancer drugs in all 7 countries, and converted the prices to US$ using both foreign exchange rates and purchasing power parity. We assessed international differences in wealth by collecting values for gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in addition to average salaries. We compared patterns of affordability of cancer drugs by dividing the drug prices by the markers of wealth. Conclusions Cancer drugs are less affordable in middle-income countries than in high-income countries. Differential pricing may be an acceptable policy to ensure global affordability and access to highly active anti-cancer therapies. PMID:29069727

  13. Inherited Wealth

    Beckert, J.

    2008-01-01

    How to regulate the transfer of wealth from one generation to the next has been hotly debated among politicians, legal scholars, sociologists, economists, and philosophers for centuries. Bequeathing wealth is a vital ingredient of family solidarity. But does the reproduction of social inequality through inheritance square with the principle of equal opportunity? Does democracy suffer when family wealth becomes political power? The first in-depth, comparative study of the development of inheri...

  14. Do wealth distributions follow power laws? Evidence from ‘rich lists’

    Brzezinski, Michal

    2014-07-01

    We use data on the wealth of the richest persons taken from the 'rich lists' provided by business magazines like Forbes to verify if the upper tails of wealth distributions follow, as often claimed, a power-law behaviour. The data sets used cover the world's richest persons over 1996-2012, the richest Americans over 1988-2012, the richest Chinese over 2006-2012, and the richest Russians over 2004-2011. Using a recently introduced comprehensive empirical methodology for detecting power laws, which allows for testing the goodness of fit as well as for comparing the power-law model with rival distributions, we find that a power-law model is consistent with data only in 35% of the analysed data sets. Moreover, even if wealth data are consistent with the power-law model, they are usually also consistent with some rivals like the log-normal or stretched exponential distributions.

  15. More Opportunities than Wealth: Inequality and Emergent Social Classes in a Network of Power and Frustration

    Nisoli, Cristiano; Mahault, Benoit; Saxena, Avadh

    We introduce a minimal agent-based model to qualitatively conceptualize the allocation of limited wealth among more abundant opportunities. There the interplay of power, satisfaction and frustration determines the distribution, concentration, and inequality of wealth. Our framework allows us to compare subjective measures of frustration and satisfaction to collective measures of fairness in wealth distribution, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index. We find that a completely libertarian, law-of-the-jungle setting, where every agent can acquire wealth from, or lose wealth to, anybody else invariably leads to large inequality. The picture is however dramatically modified when hard constraints are imposed over agents, and they are limited to share wealth with neighbors on a network. We address dynamical societies via an out of equilibrium coevolution of the network, driven by a competition between power and frustration. The ratio between power and frustration controls different dynamical regimes separated by kinetic transitions and characterized by drastically different values of the indices of equality. In particular, it leads to the emergence of three self-organized social classes, lower, middle, and upper class, whose interactions drive a cyclical regime.

  16. Estimation of an effect of nuclear power use for mitigate an outflow of national wealth

    Odani, Yohei

    2013-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake, nuclear power stations have been suspended to restart except for 2 reactors, with a spreading nuclear crisis and related issues such as radiation fears. As a result, Japan's trade balance in FY 2011 hits record high loss of 4.4 trillion yen, because of increased demand for liquefied natural gas (LNG) and crude import. This paper presents how nuclear power generation has played an important role in holding down the outflow of national wealth in Japan. More precisely, I was calculated an additional fossil fuel requirement and its import cost to substitute the power generation from nuclear power plant since its first operation in 1965. With this estimation, I had figure out how much loss of national wealth was mitigated by utilizing nuclear energy. (author)

  17. Wealth, health and equity: convergence to divergence in late 20th century globalization.

    Taylor, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Debate over relationships between economic growth, wealth, health and health inequity is long-standing and ongoing. The main message of this paper is that economic growth, while necessary, is not a sufficient condition in itself for achieving equitable health. This review surveys and draws on research into principal factors commonly linked with improving health-income, health care, individual behavior-suggesting, using work from the Commission on Social Determinants of Health, that these are better understood in a broader social determinants of health framework. The paper acknowledges that post-war globalization has seen significant growth, poverty reduction and greater economic resources at individual and household levels all of which can contribute to better health. But it also highlights renewing inequity in global health during the period. It argues that over-reliance on market-driven growth, which fails to address deep-rooted social inequalities in economic resources key to accessing social determinants of health, and in the key determinants of health themselves have contributed to increasing inequity in health outcomes. Commitment to market-driven growth remains evident in national policy-making worldwide. With increasing health inequity, and calamitous global economic events in 2008-09, the centrality of this commitment needs urgently to be reviewed.

  18. The Real Wealth of Nations: From Global Warming to Global Partnership

    Riane Eisler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In a speech delivered September 16, 2009 in New York City, at the United Nations' special meeting on climate change hosted by the Caribbean island-country of Grenada, Riane Eisler proposed a new approach for prevention and mitigation of global warming. She placed our climate change crisis in its social and historical context. She highlighted the connection between high technology and an ethos of Domination in bringing on our current crises, and why successfully resolving them requires an understanding of the configurations of the Domination System and the Partnership System as two underlying social configurations. These social configurations transcend conventional categories such as right vs. left, religious vs. secular, or Eastern vs. Western, which fail to take into account the crucial interactions between the cultural construction of our basic childhood and gender relations and politics and economics. As a result, regressions to the Domination side of the Partnership/Domination continuum have punctuated our forward movement, including a disregard for both people and nature. She showed that going back to the old “normal” is not an option, and outlined how, together, we can build a new normal in which caring for people and nature is a top priority.

  19. Sovereign wealth funds as special international investors under global financial downfall

    N. Drozd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An overview of origin, functional orientation and characteristics of sovereign wealth funds is presented. Possibility and necessity of cooperation between Ukraine and such systemic investors is proven.

  20. The evolution of sovereign wealth funds and their influence in the global economy. The case of China

    Ioana-Iulica MIHAI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper, through the deductive analysis and the causal explanations, catches the positive and negative character of the Sovereign Wealth Funds development as a relatively new economic tool, but with a strong impact in the global economy, especially in the context of the current financial changes. The benefits brought by them to the global capital market, in terms of increasing liquidity and allotting financial resources, however cannot diminish the fears related to the states holding sovereign funds in the economy of other countries, and in order to give an example we present the case of China.

  1. National and International Inequalities in Income and Wealth in a Global Growth with Free Trade and National Inflation Policies

    WEI-BIN ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study global monetary economic growth with heterogeneous households under free trade. The paper examines dynamics of global and national wealth and income distribution in association with monetary economic growth within an integrated framework. Money is introduced via the cash-in-advance (CIA approach. We show that the dynamics of the world economy (with any number of countries is described by a set of differential equations. We simulate equilibrium of the global economy with three countries and two types of households in each country. We also demonstrate effects of changes in technology and inflation policy. Our model demonstrates, as Grier and Grier (2007 empirically show, that the global economy exhibits absolute divergence in output levels if some determinants of steady state income are different. The study shows that as one country increases its inflation policy, the equilibrium values of the global output, consumption level and physical wealth are enhanced, and the rate of interest is lowered. The country which raises its inflation policy benefits in every aspect, but the other countries suffer in some aspects and benefit in others.

  2. WEALTH TAXATION AND WEALTH ACCUMULATION

    Jakobsen, Katrine Marie Tofthøj; Jakobsen, Kristian Thor; Kleven, Henrik

    Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific d...... on wealth accumulation. Our simulations show that the long-run elasticity of wealth with respect to the net-of-tax return is sizeable at the top of distribution. Our paper provides the type of evidence needed to assess optimal capital taxation.......Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific...... design of the wealth tax, these changes provide a compelling quasi-experiment for understanding behavioral responses among the wealthiest segments of the population. We find clear reduced-form effects of wealth taxes in the short and medium run, with larger effects on the very wealthy than...

  3. Global power: Markets and strategies

    Poirer, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The author will first present an updated view of the global power market activity, including opportunities in power generation, transmission and distribution. This will include a review of the trends in closings and transaction flowed by type of activity and geographic area. Estimates will be based on Hagler Bailly's comprehensive database on global power transactions and project announcements. The firm has also worked with dozens of global power companies since 1990. Second, the author will review trends in terms of regulatory changes, project cost trends, developers' project experiences, and financing issues. This systematic review will be the foundation for projection of future market activity (e.g., number of closing by type of project through 2000). A forecast of future greenfield and privatization activity will be provided and the key markets will be highlighted. Third, the author will present an updated view of the competition in the global power market (including the various types of competitors and changes in their respective market posture). Finally, the author will discuss the various types of strategies and business models that are followed by key global power players

  4. Global outlook for nuclear power

    Southworth, F.H.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' The global nuclear power forecast, the North American outlook and the effect of nuclear power growth on greenhouse gas emissions in North America will be discussed. The construction of Generation III reactors will replace aging power plants and, further, add capacity that is environmentally sustainable. The outlook for Generation IV reactors also may significantly improve the environmental balance after 2030, both in electrical markets, waste reduction, and in non-traditional markets such as process heat. (author)

  5. Degree and wealth distribution in a network induced by wealth

    Lee, Gyemin; Kim, Gwang Il

    2007-09-01

    A network induced by wealth is a social network model in which wealth induces individuals to participate as nodes, and every node in the network produces and accumulates wealth utilizing its links. More specifically, at every time step a new node is added to the network, and a link is created between one of the existing nodes and the new node. Innate wealth-producing ability is randomly assigned to every new node, and the node to be connected to the new node is chosen randomly, with odds proportional to the accumulated wealth of each existing node. Analyzing this network using the mean value and continuous flow approaches, we derive a relation between the conditional expectations of the degree and the accumulated wealth of each node. From this relation, we show that the degree distribution of the network induced by wealth is scale-free. We also show that the wealth distribution has a power-law tail and satisfies the 80/20 rule. We also show that, over the whole range, the cumulative wealth distribution exhibits the same topological characteristics as the wealth distributions of several networks based on the Bouchaud-Mèzard model, even though the mechanism for producing wealth is quite different in our model. Further, we show that the cumulative wealth distribution for the poor and middle class seems likely to follow by a log-normal distribution, while for the richest, the cumulative wealth distribution has a power-law behavior.

  6. Global Trends in Adolescent Fertility, 1990-2012, in Relation to National Wealth, Income Inequalities, and Educational Expenditures.

    Santelli, John S; Song, Xiaoyu; Garbers, Samantha; Sharma, Vinit; Viner, Russell M

    2017-02-01

    National wealth, income inequalities, and expenditures on education can profoundly influence the health of a nation's women, children, and adolescents. We explored the association of trends in national socioeconomic status (SES) indicators with trends in adolescent birth rates (ABRs), by nation and region. An ecologic research design was employed using national-level data from the World Bank on birth rates per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years, national wealth (per capita gross domestic product or GDP), income inequality (Gini index), and expenditures on education as a percentage of GDP (EduExp). Data were available for 142 countries and seven regions for 1990-2012. Multiple linear regression for repeated measures with generalized estimating equations was used to examine independent associations. ABRs in 2012 varied >200-fold-with the highest rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and lowest rates in the Western Europe/Central Asia region. The median national ABR fell 40% from 72.4/1,000 in 1990 to 43.6/1,000 in 2012. The largest regional declines in ABR occurred in South Asia (70%), Europe/Central Asia (63%), and the Middle East/North Africa (53%)-regions with lower income inequality. In multivariable analyses considering change over time, ABRs were negatively associated with GDP and EduExp and positively associated with greater income inequality. ABRs have declined globally since 1990. Declines closely followed rising socioeconomic status and were greater where income inequalities were lower in 1990. Reducing poverty and income inequalities and increasing investments in education should be essential components of national policies to prevent adolescent childbearing. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Global Opioid Policy Initiative: a wealth of information, but what is next?

    Scholten, Willem

    2014-03-01

    Recently, the outcomes were published of the Global Opioid Policy Initiative, evaluating the availability, cost of opioid medicines and the regulatory barriers that are possibly impeding access for the management of cancer pain in developing countries. Other studies have shown that the vast majority of the world population has no access to opioid analgesics. This study shows by country which opioid medicines are available, what they cost to the patient, and investigates the presence of barriers for access to these medicines. Data from the project will be an important resource for those who advocate for improved access to opioid analgesics. Yet, like so often, many more aspects of inadequate opioid analgesic consumption require exploration and reporting, including legislative barriers. The last publication on the project is a "What's next?" that is over focusing on palliative care, forgetting that outside palliative care is also a huge need for opioid analgesics in moderate and severe pain. While promoting access to palliative care and pain management, their recognition as a human right by UN bodies would be of great help. Moreover, WHO's Access to Controlled Medicines Programme, could be an important programme to support the countries in making these improvements.

  8. Electric power globalization and reforming

    Soares Neto, Jose Lino

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to define the economic and political forces of the electric power sector regulation restructuring

  9. Wealth of the world's richest publicly traded companies per industry and per employee: Gamma, Log-normal and Pareto power-law as universal distributions?

    Soriano-Hernández, P.; del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Campirán-Chávez, I.; Montemayor-Aldrete, J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Forbes Magazine published its list of leading or strongest publicly-traded two thousand companies in the world (G-2000) based on four independent metrics: sales or revenues, profits, assets and market value. Every one of these wealth metrics yields particular information on the corporate size or wealth size of each firm. The G-2000 cumulative probability wealth distribution per employee (per capita) for all four metrics exhibits a two-class structure: quasi-exponential in the lower part, and a Pareto power-law in the higher part. These two-class structure per capita distributions are qualitatively similar to income and wealth distributions in many countries of the world, but the fraction of firms per employee within the high-class Pareto is about 49% in sales per employee, and 33% after averaging on the four metrics, whereas in countries the fraction of rich agents in the Pareto zone is less than 10%. The quasi-exponential zone can be adjusted by Gamma or Log-normal distributions. On the other hand, Forbes classifies the G-2000 firms in 82 different industries or economic activities. Within each industry, the wealth distribution per employee also follows a two-class structure, but when the aggregate wealth of firms in each industry for the four metrics is divided by the total number of employees in that industry, then the 82 points of the aggregate wealth distribution by industry per employee can be well adjusted by quasi-exponential curves for the four metrics.

  10. Sovereign Wealth Funds: Issue of transparency

    Petrović Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of the paper includes Sovereign Wealth Funds and the formation of the first regulatory framework for their investment activities. Sovereign Wealth Funds invested a significant amount of money in Western financial institutions during the global financial crisis and thus played a crucial role in the preservation and stabilization of the global financial system. However, at the same time, a large gap between the financial power of Sovereign Wealth Funds and the level of their transparency was noted. The need to improve the transparency of Sovereign Wealth Funds has been recognized by international institutions, the OECD and the IMF, which initiated the formulation of the first international regulatory framework regarding the operations of these types of funds. The current international regulatory framework represents a sufficient basis for the gradual improvement of transparency, but because of its non-binding and voluntary nature, certain issues such as the protection of national security interests remain open. Therefore, the solutions can be sought through a process of continuous improvement of international regulation as well as strengthening cooperation between Sovereign Wealth Funds and governments of countries in which they invest.

  11. Global warming and nuclear power

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two

  12. Global warming and nuclear power

    Hodgson, P.E. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

  13. Global warming and nuclear power

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

  14. Gamma-distribution and wealth inequality

    the higher end of the distribution of wealth f(x) follows a power-law ... involved; services like public health and education are also counted in, and often ... between wealth inequality and economic growth, and hence the study of wealth.

  15. Explaining the Gender Wealth Gap

    Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess and explain the United States’ gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family’s best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth accumulation. The status-attainment model shows the most power in explaining gender wealth gaps between these groups explaining about one-third to one-half of the gap, followed by the human-capital explanation. In other words, a lifetime of lower earnings for women translates into greatly reduced wealth accumulation. A gender wealth gap remains between married men and women after controlling for the full model that we speculate may be related to gender differences in investment strategies and selection effects. PMID:23264038

  16. Global warming and nuclear power

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The problems of pollution, global warming and renewable energy sources are not going to go away. Governments need to act with urgency if they are to produce a long-term energy policy. This paper looks at the current energy situation, and how this would project into the future without the instigation of radical changes. It concludes that nuclear is the best option available for averting a growing energy, pollution and global warming crisis. (author)

  17. The challenge of market power under globalization

    David Arie Mayer-Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    The legacy of Adam Smith leads to a false confidence on the optimality of laissez faire policies for the global market economy. Instead, the polarized character of current globalization deeply affects both developed and underdeveloped economies. Current globalization is characterized by factor exchange between economies of persistently unequal development. This implies the existence of persistent extraordinary market power in transnational corporations, reflected in their disproportionate par...

  18. Global Protest Against Nuclear Power

    Kirchhof, Astrid Mignon; Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Protest against nuclear power plants, uranium mining and nuclear testing played a pivotal role in the rise of a mass environmental movement around the globe in the 1970s and 1980s. Nevertheless, the history of anti-nuclear activism has largely been told from a strictly national perspective...... that anti-nuclear movements across the globe were transnationally connected. First, scientific expertise and protest practices were transferred between movements, and subsequently adapted to local requirements. Secondly, transnational cooperation and networks did indeed emerge, playing an important role...

  19. Knowledge, politics and power in global health

    Brown, Garrett Wallace

    2015-01-01

    This article agrees with recent arguments suggesting that normative and epistemic power is rife within global health policy and provides further examples of such. However, in doing so, it is argued that it is equally important to recognize that global health is, and always will be, deeply political and that some form of power is not only necessary for the system to advance, but also to try and control the ways in which power within that system operates. In this regard, a better focus on health politics can both expose illegitimate sources of power, but also provide better recommendations to facilitate deliberations that can, although imperfectly, help legitimate sources of influence and power. PMID:25674575

  20. Mental distress and perceived wealth, justice and freedom across eight countries: The invisible power of the macrosystem.

    Saskia Scholten

    Full Text Available Health and well-being have been related to macro-level factors such as income, income inequality or socioeconomic status. With regard to the increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders worldwide, the association between the macrosystem and mental distress should be further explored, too. In this context, the subjective evaluation of the macrosystem might play an important role. In the present exploratory study, we assessed symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress as well as perceived wealth, justice and freedom in population-based surveys in Spain, France, Germany, Poland, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America (n ≈ 1000 per country. The Swedish sample presented the lowest symptom ratings of depression, anxiety and stress and the highest self-rated health. The results also indicated that the subjective evaluation of the macrosystem matters in respect to mental distress. The complete model, including the control variables country, gender, age and education, and perceived wealth, justice and freedom predicted depression, anxiety and stress symptoms explained 8% of the variance of each symptom cluster. The present results encourage research to consider the macrosystem, and the subjective evaluation of macro-level factors, as a relevant component in biopsychosocial models of mental distress.

  1. Mental distress and perceived wealth, justice and freedom across eight countries: The invisible power of the macrosystem

    Velten, Julia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Health and well-being have been related to macro-level factors such as income, income inequality or socioeconomic status. With regard to the increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders worldwide, the association between the macrosystem and mental distress should be further explored, too. In this context, the subjective evaluation of the macrosystem might play an important role. In the present exploratory study, we assessed symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress as well as perceived wealth, justice and freedom in population-based surveys in Spain, France, Germany, Poland, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America (n ≈ 1000 per country). The Swedish sample presented the lowest symptom ratings of depression, anxiety and stress and the highest self-rated health. The results also indicated that the subjective evaluation of the macrosystem matters in respect to mental distress. The complete model, including the control variables country, gender, age and education, and perceived wealth, justice and freedom predicted depression, anxiety and stress symptoms explained 8% of the variance of each symptom cluster. The present results encourage research to consider the macrosystem, and the subjective evaluation of macro-level factors, as a relevant component in biopsychosocial models of mental distress. PMID:29718911

  2. This time it's different. An inevitable decline in world petroleum production will keep oil product prices high, causing military conflicts and shifting wealth and power from democracies to authoritarian regimes

    Leder, Frederic [2742 Sturges Highway, Westport, CT 06880 (United States); Shapiro, Judith N. [796 Sport Hill Road, Easton, CT 06612 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    There is virtual agreement among geologists that world production of conventional oil will peak at some point in the future. Oil, after all, is a finite resource, while demand will only grow over time. Geologists disagree, however, exactly when the peak will occur. Using data from the International Energy Agency, the US Department of Energy, the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, and petroleum industry sources, we argue that conventional oil production will reach a worldwide maximum within the next 5-10 years, earlier than generally estimated, thus leaving a very short time frame within which to plan for conversion to alternative sources of energy. Unless planning is initiated immediately, the United States and other Western democracies will see their positions in the global economy undercut as military conflicts over limited energy resources increase, and wealth and power are shifted to authoritarian regimes in Russia, Venezuela, Africa and the Middle East. (author)

  3. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Cornelis van Kooten, G.; Narbel, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO 2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO 2 . To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  4. Wind power: breakthrough to global dimensions

    Horrighs, W.

    1996-01-01

    The beginning of the 1980s saw the start of wind-turbine manufacture. Soon it had become a booming industrial sector, thanks mainly to the spirit of some young entrepreneurs and political support in many countries. But the wind-power market has assumed global dimensions and major structural changes have to be faced. (author)

  5. Can global warming save nuclear power?

    Pearce, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear powered electricity generation in the United Kingdom has an uncertain future. The relative costs of generating electricity by nuclear fission compared to other means and the need for a desirable mixture or ''portfolio'' of energy sources in the electricity industry are identified as the key to this uncertainty. The author argues that Government commitments to reducing Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions, and hence global warming, may strengthen arguments in favour of a firm commitment to nuclear power, as even modern fossil-fuelled power plants emit nearly 90 times as much CO as nuclear plants. (UK)

  6. Inequalities in Global Trade: A Cross-Country Comparison of Trade Network Position, Economic Wealth, Pollution and Mortality.

    Prell, Christina; Sun, Laixiang; Feng, Kuishuang; Myroniuk, Tyler W

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how structural patterns of international trade give rise to emissions inequalities across countries, and how such inequality in turn impact countries' mortality rates. We employ Multi-regional Input-Output analysis to distinguish between sulfur-dioxide (SO2) emissions produced within a country's boarders (production-based emissions) and emissions triggered by consumption in other countries (consumption-based emissions). We use social network analysis to capture countries' level of integration within the global trade network. We then apply the Prais-Winsten panel estimation technique to a panel data set across 172 countries over 20 years (1990-2010) to estimate the relationships between countries' level of integration and SO2 emissions, and the impact of trade integration and SO2 emission on mortality rates. Our findings suggest a positive, (log-) linear relationship between a country's level of integration and both kinds of emissions. In addition, although more integrated countries are mainly responsible for both forms of emissions, our findings indicate that they also tend to experience lower mortality rates. Our approach offers a unique combination of social network analysis with multiregional input-output analysis, which better operationalizes intuitive concepts about global trade and trade structure.

  7. Inequalities in Global Trade: A Cross-Country Comparison of Trade Network Position, Economic Wealth, Pollution and Mortality

    Prell, Christina; Sun, Laixiang; Feng, Kuishuang; Myroniuk, Tyler W.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how structural patterns of international trade give rise to emissions inequalities across countries, and how such inequality in turn impact countries’ mortality rates. We employ Multi-regional Input-Output analysis to distinguish between sulfur-dioxide (SO2) emissions produced within a country’s boarders (production-based emissions) and emissions triggered by consumption in other countries (consumption-based emissions). We use social network analysis to capture countries’ level of integration within the global trade network. We then apply the Prais-Winsten panel estimation technique to a panel data set across 172 countries over 20 years (1990–2010) to estimate the relationships between countries’ level of integration and SO2 emissions, and the impact of trade integration and SO2 emission on mortality rates. Our findings suggest a positive, (log-) linear relationship between a country’s level of integration and both kinds of emissions. In addition, although more integrated countries are mainly responsible for both forms of emissions, our findings indicate that they also tend to experience lower mortality rates. Our approach offers a unique combination of social network analysis with multiregional input-output analysis, which better operationalizes intuitive concepts about global trade and trade structure. PMID:26642202

  8. Household Wealth in China

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  9. Nuclear power generation and global heating

    Taboada, Horacio

    1999-01-01

    The Professionals Association and Nuclear Activity of National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) are following with great interest the worldwide discussions on global heating and the role that nuclear power is going to play. The Association has an active presence, as part of the WONUC (recognized by the United Nations as a Non-Governmental Organization) in the COP4, which was held in Buenos Aires in November 1998. The environmental problems are closely related to human development, the way of power production, the techniques for industrial production and exploitation fields. CO 2 is the most important gas with hothouse effects, responsible of progressive climatic changes, as floods, desertification, increase of average global temperature, thermal expansion in seas and even polar casks melting and ice falls. The consequences that global heating will have on the life and economy of human society cannot be sufficiently emphasized, great economical impact, destruction of ecosystems, loss of great coast areas and complete disappearance of islands owing to water level rise. The increase of power retained in the atmosphere generates more violent hurricanes and storms. In this work, the topics presented in the former AATN Meeting is analyzed in detail and different technological options and perspectives to mitigate CO 2 emission, as well as economical-financial aspects, are explored. (author)

  10. Nuclear power and the logic of globalization

    Weizsaecker, C.C. von

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses effects and results of globalization for nuclear power and other options of electricity generation. According to the present state of knowledge, it will not be possible to meet the growing worldwide energy requirement with fossil and renewable energy sources only - also because of the CO 2 problem. Consequently, nuclear power will remain an important alternative. On an international scale, this applies in particular to large countries, such as China and India, as large national economies particularly benefit from the economies of scale offered by nuclear power. This could well make Chinese nuclear technology a product for the world market. Thinking along these lines has not really gained ground in Germany, as nuclear power, being a technology requiring considerably capital outlay, is considered unsuitable for southern countries. It is an illusion to believe that Germany's opting out of the use of nuclear power could be a model to others. Instead, we are faced by the ethical question of how we can help to minimize the accident risks of nuclear facilities worldwide. We can do so only by maintaining the use of nuclear power and exporting our level of safety, for the risks will not become any smaller merely as a result of our opting out. (orig.) [de

  11. Brexit and Global Wealth Chains

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    One vision of a post Brexit Britain is of a political economy sustained by highly flexible labour markets, light touch regulation, and a hyper competitive low-tax regime. This article focuses on the tax element, evaluating the prospects of this vision’s realization on the basis of the attributes...

  12. An Analysis of Wealth Management Practices in Pakistan

    Jamil, Muhammad Salman

    2007-01-01

    The recent years have seen a great boom in the global wealth management industry. The emergence of the private banking and wealth management segments in banking in the region of Asia, such as Pakistan, China and India since the late 90s, has attained huge proportions and holds a lot of promise for banks and financial institutions today. Banks from all around the world has gradually moved from their aggressive retail banking focus to a higher level adopting wealth management practices. Wealth ...

  13. Prediction of National Wealth

    Whetzel, Deborah L.; McDaniel, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    In their book, IQ and the Wealth of Nations, Lynn and Vanhanen ([Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, CT: Praeger.]) proposed the hypothesis that "the intelligence of the populations has been a major factor responsible for the national differences in economic growth and for the gap in per capita income between…

  14. Wealth inequality: The physics basis

    Bejan, A.; Errera, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    "Inequality" is a common observation about us, as members of society. In this article, we unify physics with economics by showing that the distribution of wealth is related proportionally to the movement of all the streams of a live society. The hierarchical distribution of wealth on the earth happens naturally. Hierarchy is unavoidable, with staying power, and difficult to efface. We illustrate this with two architectures, river basins and the movement of freight. The physical flow architecture that emerges is hierarchical on the surface of the earth and in everything that flows inside the live human bodies, the movement of humans and their belongings, and the engines that drive the movement. The nonuniform distribution of wealth becomes more accentuated as the economy becomes more developed, i.e., as its flow architecture becomes more complex for the purpose of covering smaller and smaller interstices of the overall (fixed) territory. It takes a relatively modest complexity for the nonuniformity in the distribution of wealth to be evident. This theory also predicts the Lorenz-type distribution of income inequality, which was adopted empirically for a century.

  15. Problem free nuclear power and global change

    Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Nuckolls, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Hyde, R.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth's atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO 2 emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage

  16. Effects of network topology on wealth distributions

    Garlaschelli, Diego; Loffredo, Maria I

    2008-01-01

    We focus on the problem of how the wealth is distributed among the units of a networked economic system. We first review the empirical results documenting that in many economies the wealth distribution is described by a combination of the log-normal and power-law behaviours. We then focus on the Bouchaud-Mezard model of wealth exchange, describing an economy of interacting agents connected through an exchange network. We report analytical and numerical results showing that the system self-organizes towards a stationary state whose associated wealth distribution depends crucially on the underlying interaction network. In particular, we show that if the network displays a homogeneous density of links, the wealth distribution displays either the log-normal or the power-law form. This means that the first-order topological properties alone (such as the scale-free property) are not enough to explain the emergence of the empirically observed mixed form of the wealth distribution. In order to reproduce this nontrivial pattern, the network has to be heterogeneously divided into regions with a variable density of links. We show new results detailing how this effect is related to the higher-order correlation properties of the underlying network. In particular, we analyse assortativity by degree and the pairwise wealth correlations, and discuss the effects that these properties have on each other

  17. Souverinity Wealth Funds (Swfs): Kapitalisme Baru oleh Negara?

    -, Ambarwati

    2011-01-01

    A sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) is a state-owned investment fund composed of financial assets such as stocks, bonds, property, precious metals or other financial instruments. Its invest globally and have been around for decades but since 2000, the number of sovereign wealth funds has increased dramatically. This article try to understand what is SWFs, Why does a nation need SWFs, and try to understand the position of SWFs in the global financial market. Key words: sovereign wealth funds a...

  18. Climate policies under wealth inequality.

    Vasconcelos, Vítor V; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M; Levin, Simon A

    2014-02-11

    Taming the planet's climate requires cooperation. Previous failures to reach consensus in climate summits have been attributed, among other factors, to conflicting policies between rich and poor countries, which disagree on the implementation of mitigation measures. Here we implement wealth inequality in a threshold public goods dilemma of cooperation in which players also face the risk of potential future losses. We consider a population exhibiting an asymmetric distribution of rich and poor players that reflects the present-day status of nations and study the behavioral interplay between rich and poor in time, regarding their willingness to cooperate. Individuals are also allowed to exhibit a variable degree of homophily, which acts to limit those that constitute one's sphere of influence. Under the premises of our model, and in the absence of homophily, comparison between scenarios with wealth inequality and without wealth inequality shows that the former leads to more global cooperation than the latter. Furthermore, we find that the rich generally contribute more than the poor and will often compensate for the lower contribution of the latter. Contributions from the poor, which are crucial to overcome the climate change dilemma, are shown to be very sensitive to homophily, which, if prevalent, can lead to a collapse of their overall contribution. In such cases, however, we also find that obstinate cooperative behavior by a few poor may largely compensate for homophilic behavior.

  19. Powerful Concepts in Global Health Comment on “Knowledge, Moral Claims and the Exercise of Power in Global Health”

    Eivind Engebretsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we emphasize the importance of questioning the global validity of significant concepts underpinning global health policy. This implies questioning the concept of global health as such and accepting that there is no global definition of the global. Further, we draw attention to ‘quality’ and ‘empowerment’ as examples of world-forming concepts. These concepts are exemplary for the gentle and quiet forms of power that underpin our reasoning within global health.

  20. Kinetics of wealth and the Pareto law.

    Boghosian, Bruce M

    2014-04-01

    An important class of economic models involve agents whose wealth changes due to transactions with other agents. Several authors have pointed out an analogy with kinetic theory, which describes molecules whose momentum and energy change due to interactions with other molecules. We pursue this analogy and derive a Boltzmann equation for the time evolution of the wealth distribution of a population of agents for the so-called Yard-Sale Model of wealth exchange. We examine the solutions to this equation by a combination of analytical and numerical methods and investigate its long-time limit. We study an important limit of this equation for small transaction sizes and derive a partial integrodifferential equation governing the evolution of the wealth distribution in a closed economy. We then describe how this model can be extended to include features such as inflation, production, and taxation. In particular, we show that the model with taxation exhibits the basic features of the Pareto law, namely, a lower cutoff to the wealth density at small values of wealth, and approximate power-law behavior at large values of wealth.

  1. Waste to wealth

    Sivapalan Kathiravale; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2010-01-01

    We currently live in a world where depletion of resources is beyond control. The call for sustainable development both environmentally and economically is spelt out loud and clear. Hence, the current and future generations must ensure that all resources shall be preserved, fully utilized and well managed. Waste generation has been part and parcel of man kinds pursuit for development, be it in social or economic activities. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is an example of socio-economic activities that entails with waste generation. Generation rates of MSW vary according to the economic and social standing of a country. This in return will also affect the management style of the MSW generated. Generally, the higher income countries generated more waste, recycle more and have the money to employ new technology to treat their waste. As for the lower income countries, the waste generated is more organic in nature, which calls for lesser recycling, whereas disposal is by open dumping. The effects of this naturally would mean that in the lower income countries pollution to the water and air is huge as compare to the more developed countries. However on the other hand, does waste alone generate harmful gasses that pollute the world or does manufacturing, transportation and power production, which is rampant in the more industrialized countries contributing more towards pollution? This subject is argumentative and could be discussed at length. However, the environment cannot wait for the population to debate on the above matter. Action needs to be taken in a world where economic power determines the treatment method. Hence, the idea of recovering all 'wealth' in the waste is essential to ensure that even the poorest countries could benefit from all waste management technologies. For this to work, recycling, reuse and recovery of energy is essential in an integrated approach towards waste management. This would also mean that many environmental disasters could be avoided

  2. Wealth & Immigration in Denmark

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Wolffsen, Poul; Mortensen, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Applying newly developed methods this paper quantifies human capital in Denmark and analyzes highly qualified immigration as a potential source of wealth generation. In order to quantify human capital, we use the methodology of Lettau and Ludvigson (2001, 2004), Zhang (2006) and Dreyer et al. (2013...

  3. Global financial centers: shifting power balance

    Aalbers, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    London and New York are the most important global financial centers in the world. Tokyo used to be considered the third global financial center, but has lost its position in the last 20 years, partly as a result of a sustained recession and partly because both Japanese society and Japanese economy

  4. Transforming Power Systems Through Global Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Ambitious and integrated policy and regulatory frameworks are crucial to achieve power system transformation. The 21st Century Power Partnership -- a multilateral initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial -- serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with energy efficiency and grid modernization.

  5. Transforming Power Systems through Global Collaboration

    None, None

    2016-04-01

    Ambitious and integrated policy and regulatory frameworks are crucial to achieve power system transformation. The 21st Century Power Partnership -- a multilateral initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial -- serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with energy efficiency and grid modernization.

  6. Global implications of standby power use

    Lebot, Benoit; Meier, Alan; Anglade, Alain

    2000-05-01

    Separate studies indicate that standby power is responsible for 20-60 W per home in developed countries. Standby power is responsible for about 2% of OECD countries total electricity consumption and the related power generation generates almost 1% of their carbon emissions. Replacement of existing appliances with those appliances having the lowest standby would reduce total standby power consumption by over 70%. The resulting reductions in carbon emissions would meet over 3% of OECD's total Kyoto commitments. Other strategies may cut more carbon emissions, but standby power is unique in that the reductions are best accomplished through international collaboration and whose costs and large benefits would be spread over all countries.

  7. The global mission of nuclear power

    Neumann, J.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of nuclear power to satisfying the future energy needs of mankind and to alleviating the greenhouse effect problem is discussed. It is concluded that in addition to fossil fuels and the hydro-energy, nuclear power is the only macroeconomic source of energy for the majority of countries in this and the next centuries. In the first decade of the 21th century the production capacity of nuclear engineering shall roughly double, and high-temperature and fast-breeding reactors shall play an important role. It is expected that the research into nuclear fusion will progress. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 4 tabs., 8 refs

  8. Innovative global architecture for sustainable nuclear power

    Wheeler, John; Kagramanyan, Vladimir; Poplavskaya, Elena; Edwards, Geoffrey; Dixon, Brent; Usanov, Vladimir; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Beatty, Randall

    2011-01-01

    The INPRO collaborative project 'Global architecture of innovative nuclear energy systems based on thermal and fast reactors with the inclusion of a closed nuclear fuel cycle (GAINS)' was one of several scenario studies implemented in the IAEA in recent years. The objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems (NESs) taking into account sustainable development, and to validate the results through sample analyses. Belgium, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, France, India, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, Slovakia, Ukraine, USA, the European Commission and Argentina as an observer participated in the project. The results received are discussed in the paper, including: development of a heterogeneous multi-group model of a global NES, estimation of nuclear energy demand, identification of a representative set of reactors and fuel cycles, evaluation capability of available analytical and modelling tools, and quantitative analysis of the different options of the global architecture. It was shown that the approach used contributes to development of a coherent vision of driving forces for nuclear energy system development and deployment. (author)

  9. A Typology of Power in Global Value Chains

    Dallas, Mark; Ponte, Stefano; Sturgeon, Timothy

    ‘Power’ has been a foundational concept in examining global value chains and production networks for understanding patterns and dynamics in the global political economy. Yet, in most GVC scholarship, power is not explicitly defined and is applied as a unitary concept, rather than as having multiple...

  10. Private Institutions and Business Power in Global Governance

    Ougaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Review essay. This article reviews the books "Transnational Private Governance and its Limits" edited by Jean-Christophe Graz and Andreas Nölke, "Business Power in Global Governance" by Doris Fuchs, and Private Institutions and Global Governance. The New Politics of Environmental Sustainability...

  11. Nuclear Power: Global Trend and Outlook

    Holger Rogner, H.; Weisser, D.; )

    2006-01-01

    The increasing role of nuclear power in electricity production is described. Differences in countries and regions regarding their energy infrastructure, economic capacities, energy demand and supply patterns, energy market liberalization, environmental policy as well as socio-political aspects are taken into account

  12. Global movement in reviewing nuclear power generation

    Kimura, Yoshiyasu

    2007-01-01

    The price of crude oil, natural gas and coal has increased since 2004 with the rapid increase of primary energy demand in China, India and other developing countries. Moreover due to the political uncertainty in the Middle East, and the state control of energy resources in countries like Russia, the issue of energy security has become a critical issue. Nuclear power has been reconsidered in recent years in the US and European countries, because nuclear power is one of the cheapest sources of low carbon energy and also has relatively stable costs, and is thereby useful to energy security and to prevent climate change. Electricity demand is growing very rapidly in China and additional reactors are planned to give a fivefold increase in nuclear capacity to 40,000 MWe by 2020. India has a largely indigenous nuclear power program and expects to have 20,000 MWe nuclear capacity by 2020. Russia is moving steadily forward with plans for a much expanded role of nuclear energy, and the restructuring of nuclear industries has begun to strengthen competitiveness in international nuclear markets. (author)

  13. NATIONAL WEALTH ASSESSMENT AND UTILIZATION IN TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    J. Martinavičius

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The economy’s power and capacities could be measured using different methodologies and numerous macroindicators. The national wealth definition provides an opportunity to reveal not only accumulated resources, but also exposes a real potential of the country and the path for sustainable development. Wealth measurements for transition countries could show the long term development rationality, comparing national wealth structure and its components for different countries. The two methodologies – National Accounts System and World Bank Measuring of wealth, and the obtained comparison results are discussed in the paper.

  14. Health, wealth and IQ in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges facing the 'Savanna Principle' as an explanation for global inequalities in health.

    Ellison, George T H

    2007-05-01

    Kanazawa's (2006) national- and individual-level analyses seem to support his hypothesis that: IQ scores are better predictors of health than wealth or inequality, except in 'evolutionarily familiar' sub-Saharan Africa which offers limited selection for intelligence (British Journal of Health Psychology 11: 623-42). However, the present paper exposes the flawed assumptions, questionable data, inappropriate analyses and biased interpretations on which this thesis was based. It questions the assumptions that: IQ scores are markers of adaptive genetic differences in intelligence; humans evolved within a predictable 'environment of evolutionary adaptedness': and this environment characterizes contemporary sub-Saharan Africa, offering little selection for intelligence. It also demonstrates that the macro-level data on which these analyses were based were collected across a range of different years, using a range of different sources, and were significantly intercorrelated. While none of these analyses adjusted for study year or study type, all were susceptible to multicollinearity and the 'ecological fallacy'. These flaws were compounded by the selective presentation and partial interpretation of the analyses, which focused on the absence of an 'independent' relationship between 'national IQ' and health within sub-Saharan Africa, but ignored the fact that this is also true for every other region of the world. Likewise, the individual-level analyses did not explore the relationship between IQ scores, self-reported income and health by race, which would have demonstrated the impact of the ecological fallacy. Instead, Kanazawa (2006) mistook statistical associations for evidence of causality and falsely concluded that populations in sub-Saharan Africa are less healthy because they are unintelligent and not because they are poor.

  15. Nuclear power development: global challenges and strategies

    Mourogov, Victor M.; )

    1997-01-01

    This article highlights key factors that will determine today and tomorrow's optimal energy strategies. It addresses methods to utilize the high potential energy content of uranium. Plutonium used as fuel in a nuclear reactors is discussed as is the future potential of a thorium fuel cycle. Various strategies to increase the economic viability of nuclear power are brought out. Technological means to further minimize environmental impacts and to enhance safety are covered as they are a major factor in public acceptance. Also covered are advances anticipated by mid-century in nuclear reactor and fuel cycle technologies

  16. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  17. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Metri, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  18. Global implications of U.S. power deregulation

    Maschoff, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    With U.S. power deregulation remaining a topic that is dominating the entire North American energy marketplace, this paper provides an update of events occurring in U.S. electric power markets, offering some observations about changes due to increasing competition in electric power markets, and discusses some reasons why the events in U.S. electric power markets will soon transform global energy markets. How quickly is the move from local service territory to global markets proceeding? More than fifty U.S. utility companies with revenues of over $1 billion (U.S.) will soon be actively seeking and participating in global business opportunities. Using the same logic that led them to pursue utility initiatives nationally, U.S. utilities will use their core capabilities to compete in global energy services markets. In connection with these global initiatives, U.S. utilities will bring the same fuel-neutral, gas-electric perspective to international electric power and natural gas markets. (Author)

  19. The European Union’s normative power in global politics

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    comparison. Both political and scholarly assessments argue that ‘we are one of the most important, if not the most important, normative powers in the world’ (Barroso in Peterson, 2008: 69) and that ‘Europe has tremendous normative power’ (Moravcsik, 2010: 18). The normative power approach set out here makes...... it possible to explain, understand, and judge the EU in global politics by rethinking the nature of power and actorness in a globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era. The EU uses normative power in global politics but the question is whether it is more prone than other actors to do so? In areas...... which are core to the ‘European project’, it seems clear that the EU is more disposed to use normative power....

  20. Global wind power potential: Physical and technological limits

    Castro, Carlos de; Mediavilla, Margarita; Miguel, Luis Javier; Frechoso, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This paper is focused on a new methodology for the global assessment of wind power potential. Most of the previous works on the global assessment of the technological potential of wind power have used bottom-up methodologies (e.g. ). Economic, ecological and other assessments have been developed, based on these technological capacities. However, this paper tries to show that the reported regional and global technological potential are flawed because they do not conserve the energetic balance on Earth, violating the first principle of energy conservation (). We propose a top-down approach, such as that in , to evaluate the physical-geographical potential and, for the first time, to evaluate the global technological wind power potential, while acknowledging energy conservation. The results give roughly 1 TW for the top limit of the future electrical potential of wind energy. This value is much lower than previous estimates and even lower than economic and realizable potentials published for the mid-century (e.g. ). - Highlights: → Reported wind power potentials are flawed because they violate energy conservation. → For the first time, it is evaluated the technological wind power potential with a top-down approach. → Our results show 1 TWe for the limit of wind power energy, which is much lower than previous estimates.

  1. Power shift -- Cool solutions to global warming

    2000-11-01

    The argument advanced in this paper by the Suzuki Foundation is that Canada, a rich, industrialized nation that has often led the world in technological advances, including advances in the energy sector, is lagging behind Europe and Japan in utilizing new energy-efficient technologies and techniques, despite the fact that these new approaches could reduce energy costs, improve air quality and public health stimulate new industries and create jobs. The paper describes an analytical model created by Ralph Torrie, one of Canada's foremost sustainable energy experts, which shows that based on population and economic growth, Canada's emissions will continue to grow to 30 percent above today's levels by 2010, instead of being reduced to 94 per cent of 1990 levels as required by the Kyoto Protocol. The end-use model created by Torrie runs various scenarios regarding the level and mix of activity, technological efficiency and fuel shares showing their effect of GHG emissions levels. Beginning with 1995 as the base-year, and assuming population growth of 19 per cent and a growth in transportation of 38 per cent over the next 30 years, GHG emission reduction scenarios are produced for people and freight transportation, residential and commercial buildings, industrial energy use, power production and non-energy sources. The GHG savings described in the model show that a 50 per cent reduction by 2030 is conceivable even with technologies that are already available. To get there, however, will require wholehearted effort by both the public and private sectors. Regulation, public investment, innovative market mechanisms and behavioral changes will all have significant roles to play if GHG emission levels of this magnitude are to be achieved

  2. Green power and performance in global environmental governance

    Never, Babette

    2013-01-01

    From 10 to 11 June 2013, the Global Green Growth Summit will take place in Seoul. Policymakers, international organizations and experts from various fi elds will once again discuss how the transformation toward a green economy and more sustainable development paths can be managed. Global environmental governance is characterized by a high number of international activities, but actual environmental outcomes vary. The ability to develop green political and economic power that leads to bett er ...

  3. Nuclear power in the context of global warming

    Bodansky, D.

    1989-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which nuclear power could help ameliorate the greenhouse problem. Topics discussed include: (1) How serious is the environmental threat posed by the greenhouse effect? (2) How large a part do fossil fuels play in producing greenhouse gases? (3) Is it possible to prevent or abate the anticipated global warming? (4) Can nuclear power play a significant role? (5) What overall approached might best reduce greenhouse emissions? Global cooperativeness in addressing the problem will be essential. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Global analysis of a renewable micro hydro power generation plant

    Rahman, Md. Shad; Nabil, Imtiaz Muhammed; Alam, M. Mahbubul

    2017-12-01

    Hydroelectric power or Hydropower means the power generated by the help of flowing water with force. It is one the best source of renewable energy in the world. Water evaporates from the earth's surface, forms clouds, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean. Hydropower is considered a renewable energy resource because it uses the earth's water cycle to generate electricity. As far as Global is concerned, only a small fraction of electricity is generated by hydro-power. The aim of our analysis is to demonstrate and observe the hydropower of the Globe in micro-scale by our experimental setup which is completely new in concept. This paper consists of all the Global and National Scenario of Hydropower. And how we can more emphasize the generation of Hydroelectric power worldwide.

  5. Global Status of Nuclear Power: Prospects and Challenges

    Tayobeka, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    Global energy requirements and the share of electricity in total energy consumption are increasing rapidly, and the contribution of nuclear power is projected to increase significantly. Out of the 29 countries currently using nuclear power for electricity generation, 22 intend to allow new plants to be built, and, of those, the majority are actively supporting the increased use of nuclear power, some by providing incentives. Most of these countries are expected to build reactors with a generating capacity of over 1000 MW(e). Only three countries continue to have a policy to phase out the use of nuclear energy in the future by not replacing existing operating nuclear power plants and with no consideration of the option of new nuclear plants.In addition, a growing number of countries are expressing interest in introducing nuclear power. Of the more than 60 countries that have expressed such an interest in recent years, over 20 are actively considering nuclear power programmes to meet their energy needs and the others have expressed interest in understanding the issues associated with the introduction of nuclear power.The drivers for rising expectations for nuclear power include: growing energy demand, concern over national energy supply security, the increasingly volatile price of fossil fuels and global environmental concerns. The drivers appear to be the same for countries expanding existing nuclear programmes and those seeking to introduce programmes. The projections made by different international organizations indicate a significant growth in the use of nuclear power. The IAEA projections indicate a world total for nuclear electrical generating capacity of between 445 and 543 GW(e) by 2020 and between 511 and 807 GW(e) by 2030. This paper takes a detailed look into the global status of nuclear power, highlighting challenges and prospects of the technology going into the next century.(author).

  6. China’s impact on the global wind power industry

    Lema, Rasmus; Berger, Axel; Schmitz, Hubert

    China’s economic rise has transformed the global economy in a number of manufacturing industries. This paper investigates whether China’s transformative influence extends to the new green economy. Drawing on the debate about how China is driving major economic changes in the world – the ‘Asian...... firms. While the combined impact of Chinese market and production power is already visible, other influences are beginning to be felt – arising from China’s coordination, innovation and financing power....

  7. China’s Impact on the Global Wind Power Industry

    Lema, Rasmus; Berger, Axel; Schmitz, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    China’s economic rise has transformed the global economy in a number of manufacturing industries. This paper investigates whether China’s transformative influence extends to the new green economy. Drawing on the debate about how China is driving major economic changes in the world – the “Asian....... While the combined impact of Chinese market and production power is already visible, other influences are beginning to be felt – arising from China’s coordination, innovation and financing power....

  8. Wealth of Nations or Wealth of Persons: World Billionaires and Sector Concentration

    Harun YAKIŞIK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent global financial crisis, the number of billionaires in USA, Russia, China and Turkey has increased in the last five years, while it has remained at a constant scale in most developed European countries. The aim of the study is to explore whether wealth accumulation is closely related to the sector concentration in billionaire-generating countries. Unlike the previous studies on billionaires, this study examines the relationship between sectors and wealth accumulation of billionaires in some selected billionaire generating countries through secondary data from the Forbes list for the years from 2006 to 2011.

  9. Turnover activity in wealth portfolios

    Castaldi, C.; Milakovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    We examine several subsets of the wealthiest individuals in the US and the UK that are compiled by Forbes Magazine and the Sunday Times. Since these are named subsets, we can calculate the returns to wealth portfolios, and calibrate a statistical equilibrium model of wealth distribution that

  10. Turnover activity in wealth portfolios

    Castaldi, Carolina; Milakovic, Mishael

    We examine several subsets of the wealthiest individuals in the US and the UK that are compiled by Forbes Magazine and the Sunday Times. Since these are named subsets, we can calculate the returns to wealth portfolios, and calibrate a statistical equilibrium model of wealth distribution that

  11. Information as Wealth.

    Deruchie, Douglas M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the value of information-based services in today's global economy. The combination of information technology with library and information services at an international accounting and auditing firm is described; the Global Information Network is explained; and the importance of the appropriate use of information is discussed. (LRW)

  12. Measuring the wealth of nations.

    Hamilton, Kirk; Dixon, John A

    2003-01-01

    The sustainability of development is closely linked to changes in total per capita wealth. This paper presents estimates of the wealth of nations for nearly 100 countries, broken down into produced assets, natural resources and human resources. While the latter is the dominant form of wealth in virtually all countries, in low income natural resource exporters the share of natural resources in total wealth is equal to the share of produced assets. For low income countries in general, cropland forms the vast majority of natural wealth. The analysis suggests the process of development can be viewed as one of portfolio management: sustainable development entails saving the rents from exhaustible resources, managing renewable resources sustainably, and investing savings in both produced assets and human resources.

  13. Canada's global health role: supporting equity and global citizenship as a middle power.

    Nixon, Stephanie A; Lee, Kelley; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Blanchard, James; Haddad, Slim; Hoffman, Steven J; Tugwell, Peter

    2018-02-22

    Canada's history of nation building, combined with its status as a so-called middle power in international affairs, has been translated into an approach to global health that is focused on equity and global citizenship. Canada has often aspired to be a socially progressive force abroad, using alliance building and collective action to exert influence beyond that expected from a country with moderate financial and military resources. Conversely, when Canada has primarily used economic self-interest to define its global role, the country's perceived leadership in global health has diminished. Current Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's Liberal federal government has signalled a return to progressive values, driven by appreciation for diversity, equality, and Canada's responsibility to be a good global citizen. However, poor coordination of efforts, limited funding, and the unaddressed legacy of Canada's colonisation of Indigenous peoples weaken the potential for Canadians to make meaningful contributions to improvement of global health equity. Amid increased nationalism and uncertainty towards multilateral commitments by some major powers in the world, the Canadian federal government has a clear opportunity to convert its commitments to equity and global citizenship into stronger leadership on the global stage. Such leadership will require the translation of aspirational messages about health equity and inclusion into concrete action at home and internationally. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Global warming mitigation strategies and programs for power plant developers

    Holmes, N.R.

    1992-01-01

    Power plant developers are increasingly being surprised by regulatory agencies requiring them to mitigate the carbon dioxide(CO 2 ) emissions from their proposed power plants, as part of the plant's operating permit conditions. Since carbon dioxide is not a criteria pollutant with a National Ambient Air Quality Standard, power plant developers are often troubled by this additional regulatory requirement. This presentation will describe the contribution that CO 2 makes to global warming, the role of trees and forests as carbon sequesters or sinks, some non-forestry related and forestry related mitigation programs, including the advantages, disadvantages, and some cost estimates for the forestry related CO 2 mitigation programs. As public concern about global warming continues to escalate, it is almost certain that regulatory agencies will increase their focus on CO 2 mitigation

  15. Perspectives of the electric power industry amid the transforming global power generation markets

    Makarov, A. A.; Mitrova, T. A.; Veselov, F. V.; Galkina, A. A.; Kulagin, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    A scenario-based prognosis of the evolution of global power generation markets until 2040, which was developed using the Scaner model-and-information complex, was given. The perspective development of fuel markets, vital for the power generation industry, was considered, and an attempt to predict the demand, production, and prices of oil, gas, coal, and noncarbon resources across various regions of the world was made. The anticipated decline in the growth of the global demand for fossil fuels and their sufficiency with relatively low extraction expenses will maintain the fuel prices (the data hereinafter are given as per 2014 prices) lower than their peak values in 2012. The outrunning growth of demand for electric power is shown in comparison with other power resources by regions and large countries in the world. The conditions of interfuel competition in the electric power industry considering the changes in anticipated fuel prices and cost indicators for various power generation technologies were studied. For this purpose, the ratios of discounted costs of electric power production by new gas and coal TPPs and wind and solar power plants were estimated. It was proven that accounting the system effects (operation modes, necessary duplicating and reserving the power of electric power plants using renewable energy sources) notably reduces the competitiveness of the renewable power industry and is not always compensated by the expected lowering of its capital intensity and growth of fuel for TPPs. However, even with a moderate (in relation to other prognoses) growth of the role of power plants using renewable energy sources, they will triple electric power production. In this context, thermal power plants will preserve their leadership covering up to 60% of the global electric power production, approximately half using gas.

  16. Energy, complexity and wealth maximization

    Ayres, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This book is about the mechanisms of wealth creation, or what we like to think of as evolutionary “progress”. For the modern economy, natural wealth consists of complex physical structures of condensed (“frozen”) energy – mass - maintained in the earth’s crust far from thermodynamic equilibrium. However, we usually perceive wealth as created when mutation or “invention” – a change agent - introduces something different, and fitter, and usually after some part of the natural wealth of the planet has been exploited in an episode of “creative destruction”. Selection out of the resulting diversity is determined by survival in a competitive environment, whether a planet, a habitat, or a market. While human wealth is associated with money and what it can buy, it is ultimately based on natural wealth, both as materials transformed into useful artifacts, and how those artifacts, activated by energy, can create and transmit useful information. Humans have learned how to transform natural wealth i...

  17. Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames.

    Benatar, Solomon

    2016-08-06

    Striking disparities in access to healthcare and in health outcomes are major characteristics of health across the globe. This inequitable state of global health and how it could be improved has become a highly popularized field of academic study. In a series of articles in this journal the roles of power and politics in global health have been addressed in considerable detail. Three points are added here to this debate. The first is consideration of how the use of definitions and common terms, for example 'poverty eradication,' can mask full exposure of the extent of rectification required, with consequent failure to understand what poverty eradication should mean, how this could be achieved and that a new definition is called for. Secondly, a criticism is offered of how the term 'global health' is used in a restricted manner to describe activities that focus on an anthropocentric and biomedical conception of health across the world. It is proposed that the discourse on 'global health' should be extended beyond conventional boundaries towards an ecocentric conception of global/planetary health in an increasingly interdependent planet characterised by a multitude of interlinked crises. Finally, it is noted that the paucity of workable strategies towards achieving greater equity in sustainable global health is not so much due to lack of understanding of, or insight into, the invisible dimensions of power, but is rather the outcome of seeking solutions from within belief systems and cognitive biases that cannot offer solutions. Hence the need for a new framing perspective for global health that could reshape our thinking and actions. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  18. Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames

    Benatar, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Striking disparities in access to healthcare and in health outcomes are major characteristics of health across the globe. This inequitable state of global health and how it could be improved has become a highly popularized field of academic study. In a series of articles in this journal the roles of power and politics in global health have been addressed in considerable detail. Three points are added here to this debate. The first is consideration of how the use of definitions and common terms, for example ‘poverty eradication,’ can mask full exposure of the extent of rectification required, with consequent failure to understand what poverty eradication should mean, how this could be achieved and that a new definition is called for. Secondly, a criticism is offered of how the term ‘global health’ is used in a restricted manner to describe activities that focus on an anthropocentric and biomedical conception of health across the world. It is proposed that the discourse on ‘global health’ should be extended beyond conventional boundaries towards an ecocentric conception of global/planetary health in an increasingly interdependent planet characterised by a multitude of interlinked crises. Finally, it is noted that the paucity of workable strategies towards achieving greater equity in sustainable global health is not so much due to lack of understanding of, or insight into, the invisible dimensions of power, but is rather the outcome of seeking solutions from within belief systems and cognitive biases that cannot offer solutions. Hence the need for a new framing perspective for global health that could reshape our thinking and actions. PMID:27694651

  19. Global status of nuclear power and the needed human resources

    Bernido, Corazon C.

    2009-01-01

    According to projections of the OECD/IEA, the world energy demand will expand by 45% from now until 2030, with coal accounting for more than a third of the overall rise. To reduce greenhouse gases and mitigate climate change, many countries are resorting to renewables and nuclear power. Some statistics about nuclear energy in the global energy mix and about nuclear power plants worldwide, as well as the energy situation in the country are presented. According to sources from the Department of Energy on the Philippine Energy Plan, nuclear power is a long-term energy option and will likely enter the energy mix by 2025. Preparation of the infrastructure for nuclear power has to start ten to fifteen years before the first plant comes online. The needed human resources, the education and training required are present. (Author)

  20. On nuclear power, population and sustainable global civilization

    Ishiguro, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    Humanity is facing a multitude of difficult problems that threaten not only human development but the very continuity of civilization. The fundamental cause is the size of the human population but at present the subject is not discussed in international fora. It is not clear if it is wishfully avoided or if it is not recognized as the fundamental problem. Without limiting fertility and population globally, there will be no future for civilization as we know it and there will be no need for nuclear power as a source of energy. Instead, nuclear power will be the principal agent of the end. The nuclear community is in a position to point out the problem and propose a solution. Principles of sustainability and a path to a sustainable global civilization are shown. (author)

  1. WEALTH MANAGEMENT THROUGH ROBO ADVISORY

    Ishmeet Singh; Navjot Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Use of artificial intelligence is changing the working styles of human beings in almost every sphere. From Travel, health, education, communication and other related fields, it has now entered wealth management. A number of wealth management firms have adopted the artificial intelligence based services to the clients so that they are able to get investment advice any time as per their convenience. These services are quickly accessible, cheaper, transparent and unbiased. Since the advisory ser...

  2. On global environment problems in electric power business

    Sugi, Masashi

    1992-01-01

    The former environmental problems were atmospheric pollution, water quality contamination, noise and vibration nuisance, waste disposal and so on mainly at interior or district level, but now, the influence that the problems such as the global warming due to carbon dioxide emission, the ozone layer breaking due to freon gas, acid rain going over boundaries and so on exert to environment spreads to wide areas, therefore, various research and investigation have been carried out as the environmental problems on global scale at national and international levels. It has become an important subject to make the preservation of global environment and durable economical development compatible by effectively utilizing limited resources and energy. The electric power companies have advanced positively the prevention of pollution and the preservation of environment, and attained the environment preservation of top level in the world. The consciousness of people on environmental problems has heightened, therefore the construction and operation of power plants harmonized to districts are important. The countermeasures to environmental problems taken by electric power companies are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Global developments of controls of powered roof supports

    Das, S.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Centre of Longwall Mine Mechanisation

    1996-04-01

    The efficiency of hydraulic powered roof support systems mainly depends upon the efficient control and operation of hydraulic valves and their associated accessories. From 1961 to 1994 tremendous efforts had been made for the development of higher and higher efficient, reliable but simpler control systems starting from the manual hydraulic to electro-hydraulic and finally computer based electronic control system. A global survey of development of various types and design of control systems of powered roof supports has been made and many of them are highlighted in the paper for making this work a small emblem regarding the efforts of development of the controls of powered roof support systems by the global engineers of the 20th century. Many of the control systems are no longer in use and have totally vanished from this earth and many more control systems including their literatures may vanish from this world in the coming decades. This work may give a guideline regarding the selection of right type of control systems for the powered supports in future. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Global radioxenon emission inventory based on nuclear power reactor reports.

    Kalinowski, Martin B; Tuma, Matthias P

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric radioactivity is monitored for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, with xenon isotopes 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe and 135Xe serving as important indicators of nuclear explosions. The treaty-relevant interpretation of atmospheric concentrations of radioxenon is enhanced by quantifying radioxenon emissions released from civilian facilities. This paper presents the first global radioxenon emission inventory for nuclear power plants, based on North American and European emission reports for the years 1995-2005. Estimations were made for all power plant sites for which emission data were unavailable. According to this inventory, a total of 1.3PBq of radioxenon isotopes are released by nuclear power plants as continuous or pulsed emissions in a generic year.

  5. Wealth, intelligence, politics and global fertility differentials.

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2009-07-01

    Demographic trends in today's world are dominated by large fertility differentials between nations, with 'less developed' nations having higher fertility than the more advanced nations. The present study investigates whether these fertility differences are related primarily to indicators of economic development, the intellectual level of the population, or political modernity in the form of liberal democracy. Results obtained with multiple regression, path models and latent variable models are compared. Both log-transformed GDP and measures of intelligence independently reduce fertility across all methods, whereas the effects of liberal democracy are weak and inconsistent. At present rates of fertility and mortality and in the absence of changes within countries, the average IQ of the young world population would decline by 1.34 points per decade and the average per capita income would decline by 0.79% per year.

  6. Global warming---The role for nuclear power

    Jones, J.E. Jr.; Fulkerson, W.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power is currently making an important contribution to our energy requirements. It provides 17% of the world's electricity today --- almost 20% in the US. Reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide over the next 30 to 50 years sufficiently to address the issue of global warming can only be accomplished by a combination of much improved energy efficiency, substantial growth in use of nuclear power, and substantial growth in use of renewable energy. This paper discusses new initiatives in the major nuclear technologies (LWR, HTGR, LMR) which are emerging from a fundamental reexamination of nuclear power in response to the challenges and opportunities in the 21st century. To fulfill its role, nuclear power must gain worldwide acceptance as a viable energy option. The use of modern technology and ''passive'' safety features in next-generation nuclear power plants offers the potential to simplify their design and operation, enhance their safety, and reduce the cost of electricity. With such improvements, we believe nuclear power can regain public confidence and make a significant contribution to our energy future. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. Global Sustainable Development: The Role of Nuclear Power

    Hatcher, Stanley R.

    1990-01-01

    The inevitable growth in the world's population and the need for a reasonable standard of living for all nations will drive the demand for energy to much higher levels than the world has yet experienced. A radical improvement in energy efficiency and conservation could limit the global annual demand to 100 GJ per person. consumption of North America. With the developing nations achieving a standard of living commensurate with this level, the global energy demand would increase by a factor of 2.5 to 1000 EJ per year. Concern over the impact of CO 2 emissions on global warming will likely lead to an international consensus on some reduction in the use of fossil fuels. To maintain environmental sustainability, all nations of the world would need to limit their fossil fuel consumption, particularly those in North America and Europe. Other energy sources will play an important role in all regions. However, the main burden is likely to fall upon nuclear energy as an essential element of the total energy supply. The danger eliminated while sustaining global development if the governments of the world commit to the use of nuclear power on a global scale. The industrial intrastucture can be put in place for such a major international program. A more difficult question is the availability of the necessary financing. On a global scale the financial requirement is within the range of current military expenditures. However, it is clear that not all the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will be able to finance their own needs. A new international cooperative program will be necessary. The needed change in energy patterns is dramatic and will take time to implement. The change should be underway by the beginning of the next century. Otherwise the world faces the prospect of environmental disaster and social disruption as the nations struggle to improve their living standards through the increased use of fossil fuels. The role of nuclear power in providing the energy for

  8. Hydroelectric power and global environmental problems: benefits and environmental impacts

    Chabot, B.

    1992-01-01

    The risk of global warming is one of the most serious global environmental problems. It is due to the increase of greenhouse gases emissions, mainly because of the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector, particularly for electricity generation. At an international level, experts now agree that measures are to be taken to reduce this risk. In the energy sector, an improvement of energy efficiency and an increase of nuclear electricity generation are often presented as the best available solutions. Renewable energy sources are often presented as a solution with a negligible potential impact, and sometimes, hydro power is even forgotten, or its coasts and its potential impacts on local environment are presented as an obstacle to its positive contribution to the reduction of global warming risk. Without denying the positive impacts of other solutions, this paper explains the possibilities and the benefits of an increased use of hydroelectric power, when implemented with a minimum impact on local environment and with a synergistic effect with the rational use of generated energy, in order to have access to a sustainable development. 19 refs., 6 figs

  9. Globalization of fluid power industry; Fluid power sangyokai no global ka

    Ogasawara, F. [Kayaba Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-15

    This paper takes a view of hydraulic and pneumatic industry. The United States accounts for 33% of hydraulic and pneumatic device shipment, while Japan accounts for 16% and Germany 14%. Japan has recorded the highest shipment record in 1991, but the shipment decreased largely in 1992 as a result of the collapse of the bubble economy. Thereafter, pneumatic devices recovered production in 1995, and continuing smooth growth since then. However, hydraulic devices have not reached the level of 1989. Pneumatic devices have achieved great progress as a result of making them lighter, thinner, shorter and smaller to meet users` strong demands, development of energy saving, space saving and life extending technologies and control technologies, function combination, and diversification. International competition is so intense that, in order to survive this mega-competition age, efforts must be made in areas of noise, oil leakage, positioning control and energy conservation as substantial technological issues. Measures against global environmental problems may include prevention of pollution and disaster caused from working oils and development of hydraulic devices. Transferring the excellent Japanese technologies and know-hows to developing countries constitutes international contribution. Progress in hydraulic and pneumatic technologies combined with electronics technologies is also desired. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Historical construction costs of global nuclear power reactors

    Lovering, Jessica R.; Yip, Arthur; Nordhaus, Ted

    2016-01-01

    The existing literature on the construction costs of nuclear power reactors has focused almost exclusively on trends in construction costs in only two countries, the United States and France, and during two decades, the 1970s and 1980s. These analyses, Koomey and Hultman (2007); Grubler (2010), and Escobar-Rangel and Lévêque (2015), study only 26% of reactors built globally between 1960 and 2010, providing an incomplete picture of the economic evolution of nuclear power construction. This study curates historical reactor-specific overnight construction cost (OCC) data that broaden the scope of study substantially, covering the full cost history for 349 reactors in the US, France, Canada, West Germany, Japan, India, and South Korea, encompassing 58% of all reactors built globally. We find that trends in costs have varied significantly in magnitude and in structure by era, country, and experience. In contrast to the rapid cost escalation that characterized nuclear construction in the United States, we find evidence of much milder cost escalation in many countries, including absolute cost declines in some countries and specific eras. Our new findings suggest that there is no inherent cost escalation trend associated with nuclear technology. - Highlights: •Comprehensive analysis of nuclear power construction cost experience. •Coverage for early and recent reactors in seven countries. •International comparisons and re-evaluation of learning. •Cost trends vary by country and era; some experience cost stability or decline.

  11. Hydroclimatic risks and uncertainty in the global power sector

    Gidden, Matthew; Byers, Edward; Greve, Peter; Kahil, Taher; Parkinson, Simon; Raptis, Catherine; Rogelj, Joeri; Satoh, Yusuke; van Vliet, Michelle; Wada, Yoshide; Krey, Volker; Langan, Simon; Riahi, Keywan

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 80% of the world's electricity supply depends on reliable water resources. Thermoelectric and hydropower plants have been impacted by low flows and floods in recent years, notably in the US, Brazil, France, and China, amongst other countries. The dependence on reliable flows imputes a large vulnerability to the electricity supply system due to hydrological variability and the impacts of climate change. Using an updated dataset of global electricity capacity with global climate and hydrological data from the ISI-MIP project, we present an overview analysis of power sector vulnerability to hydroclimatic risks, including low river flows and peak flows. We show how electricity generation in individual countries and transboundary river basins can be impacted, helping decision-makers identify key at-risk geographical regions. Furthermore, our use of a multi-model ensemble of climate and hydrological models allows us to quantify the uncertainty of projected impacts, such that basin-level risks and uncertainty can be compared.

  12. Liquidity Constraints, Household Wealth, and Entrepreneurship.

    Hurst, Erik; Lusardi, Annamaria

    2004-01-01

    The propensity to become a business owner is a nonlinear function of wealth. The relationship between wealth and entry into entrepreneurship is essentially flat over the majority of the wealth distribution. It is only at the top of the wealth distribution--after the ninety-fifth percentile--that a positive relationship can be found. Segmenting…

  13. Seven Global Goals. 2013 annual report, Southwestern Power Administration

    none,

    2014-09-01

    For over 70 years, Southwestern has marketed and delivered reliable, renewable, and affordable hydropower, partnering with Federal power stakeholders and others in the industry to make sure the lights stay on. This kind of effective, efficient, and cost conscious operation is made possible only by hard work and dedication. Southwestern employees work individually and as a team to meet seven comprehensive agency goals that touch on all aspects of the agency’s operations. Dubbed the “Seven Global Goals” by Administrator Chris Turner, these objectives identify specific, measurable targets that support Southwestern’s mission and reinforce its responsibilities toward its customers and the Nation.

  14. Liquidity Constraints, Household Wealth, and Entrepreneurship

    Erik Hurst; Annamaria Lusardi

    2004-01-01

    The propensity to become a business owner is a nonlinear function of wealth. The relationship between wealth and entry into entrepreneurship is essentially flat over the majority of the wealth distribution. It is only at the top of the wealth distributionafter the ninety-fifth percentilethat a positive relationship can be found. Segmenting businesses into industries with high and lowstarting capital requirements, we find no evidence that wealth matters more for businesses requiring higher ini...

  15. Simulating the wealth distribution with a Richest-Following strategy on scale-free network

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Jiang, Rui; Wu, Qing-Song; Wu, Yong-Hong

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the wealth distribution with agents playing evolutionary games on a scale-free social network adopting the Richest-Following strategy. Pareto's power-law distribution (1897) of wealth is demonstrated with power factor in agreement with that of US or Japan. Moreover, the agent's personal wealth is proportional to its number of contacts (connectivity), and this leads to the phenomenon that the rich gets richer and the poor gets relatively poorer, which agrees with the Matthew Effect.

  16. Radiation losses and global power balance of JT-60 plasmas

    Nishitani, T.; Itami, K.; Nagashima, K.; Tsuji, S.; Hosogane, N.; Yoshida, H.; Ando, T.; Kubo, H.; Takeuchi, H.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation losses and the global power balance for Ohmic and neutral beam heated plasmas have been investigated in different JT-60 configurations. Discharges with a TiC coated molybdenum wall and with a graphite wall, with limiter, outer and lower X-point configurations have been studied by bolometric measurements, thermocouples and an infrared TV camera. In neutral beam heated outer X-point discharges with a TiC coated molybdenum first wall, the radiation loss of the main plasma was very low (10% of the absorbed power). The radiation loss due to oxygen was dominant in this case. On the contrary, in discharges with TiC coated molybdenum limiters the radiation loss was very high (>60% of the absorbed power). In the discharges with a graphite wall the radiated power from the main plasma was 20-25% for both limiter and lower X-point configurations. In lower X-point discharges the main contributor to the radiation loss was oxygen, whereas in limiter discharges the loss due to carbon was equal to the loss due to oxygen. The radiation loss from the lower X-point divertor increased with increasing electron density of the main plasma. (author). 33 refs, 14 figs, 1 tab

  17. Global warming and oil: Can nuclear power make a difference?

    Bodansky, D.

    1991-01-01

    A responsible energy policy, for the United States and the world, must address two needs: to restrain the rate of fossil fuel consumption, and to reduce the consumption of oil. Unless the first is accomplished, the world may experience major climate changes, some perhaps disastrous, from the buildup of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Unless the second is met, we face recurring threats of economic disruption and war, due to the dangerous concentration of the world's oil resources in the Persian Gulf region. Nuclear power has long been cited as a possible answer to these needs. Mr. Bodansky takes a fresh look at the contribution nuclear power could make, in the light of our increased awareness of global warming dangers and the renewed reminders of the instabilities of oil markets. He notes, however, that the basic objections to nuclear power remain. They are well-known, stemming from concerns about reactor safety, waste disposal, nuclear proliferation, and cost. These are old but continuing controversies, involving a tangle of technical, political, social, and economic issues. If nuclear power is to be revived, these concerns clearly must be addressed. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  18. Role of selective interaction in wealth distribution

    Gupta, A.K.

    2005-08-01

    In our simplified description 'money' is wealth. A kinetic theory model of money is investigated where two agents interact (trade) selectively and exchange random amount of money between them while keeping total money of all the agents constant. The probability distributions of individual money (P(m) vs. m) is seen to be influenced by certain modes of selective interactions. The distributions shift away from Boltzmann-Gibbs like exponential distribution and in some cases distributions emerge with power law tails known as Pareto's law (P(m) ∝ m -(1+α) ). (author)

  19. Marriage, Wealth, and Unemployment Duration:

    Lentz, Rasmus; Tranæs, Torben

    and the wealthier the woman is, the longer it takes for her to find a job. The contrary is the case for men, where spouse income affects job finding positively: the more the wife earns, the faster the husband finds a job. This is so despite the fact that greater own wealth also prolongs unemployment spells for men...

  20. Wealth and the nation's health.

    Blackburn, C

    1993-07-01

    Social and economic prosperity to a great extent depend on a healthy population; similarly good health depends on adequate income, writes Clare Blackburn. The government strategy for health promotion outlined most recently in The health of the nation, fails to acknowledge this. Nevertheless health visitors and school nurses cannot ignore the links between health and wealth.

  1. Corporate Restructuring and Bondholder Wealth

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Szilagyi, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of existing research on how corporate restructuring affects the wealth of creditors. Restructuring is defined as any transaction that affects the firm’s underlying capital structure. Thus, it reaches well beyond asset restructuring and includes transactions

  2. Gender Wealth Gap in Slovakia

    S.K. Trommlerová (Sofia Karina)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractNo data on wealth has been available in Slovakia prior to Household Finance and Consumption Survey. Therefore, only studies on labor market participation and wage gender gaps are available to date. These studies indicate that Slovak women earn on average 25% less than men.

  3. Corporate Restructuring and Bondholder Wealth

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Szilagyi, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of existing research on how corporate restructuring affects the wealth of creditors.Restructuring is defined as any transaction that affects the firm's underlying capital structure.Thus, it reaches well beyond asset restructuring and includes transactions such as

  4. Power Elites and Club-Model Governance in Global Finance

    Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Contribution to the Forum: Unpacking the Deep Structures of Global Governance: How Transnational Professionals Can Make Global Governance Intelligible.......Contribution to the Forum: Unpacking the Deep Structures of Global Governance: How Transnational Professionals Can Make Global Governance Intelligible....

  5. Global prospects for nuclear power development in the long term

    Semenov, Boris A.

    1994-01-01

    supply, in the world and by region. In the long term, up to 2100, the broad range of uncertainties with regard to population, economic growth and technology evolution prevent from any sound forecast in the field of energy and in particular of nuclear power. The scenario presented in the paper has been prepared for the Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in order to illustrate the potential role of nuclear power in alleviating greenhouse gas emissions. The global energy demand projections established by IPCC, which serve as a basis for the nuclear power scenario, assume high economic growth, drastic energy efficiency improvement and the implementation of voluntary policies for greenhouse gas reduction. Under these assumptions, it is estimated that the total primary energy consumption in the world will reach some 660 EJ per annum in 2100 as compared to 330 EJ per annum in 1985. Since the world population is expected to more than double during this time frame, it means that the average energy consumption per capita will a sustained deployment of nuclear power worldwide as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector. Although this scenario would require strong commitment to the development of nuclear energy, technical and industrial capabilities would enable its implementation. In view of the potential role of nuclear power in sustainable energy supply strategies, there is a need for continued research and development aiming towards the design and implementation of advanced reactors with enhanced safety, technical and economic performance. Natural nuclear fuel resources could support a broad deployment of nuclear energy production as a major part of the mix of options for sustainable supply in the long term. The challenge for the nuclear industry is to restore the confidence in nuclear energy and enhance its social acceptability through the design and implementation of sound technical solutions for nuclear power plants, fuel cycle

  6. Globalization and State Soverignty

    Islam, Mainul

    2003-01-01

    .... Globalized capital is reorganizing business firms and undermining national politics. Globalization creates vast new markets and gigantic new wealth, as well as widespread suffering, disorder and unrest...

  7. Power Watch - A global, open database of power plants that supports research on climate, water and air pollution impact of the global power sector.

    Friedrich, J.; Kressig, A.; Van Groenou, S.; McCormick, C.

    2017-12-01

    Challenge The lack of transparent, accessible, and centralized power sector data inhibits the ability to research the impact of the global power sector. information gaps for citizens, analysts, and decision makers worldwide create barriers to sustainable development efforts. The need for transparent, accessible, and centralized information is especially important to enhance the commitments outlined in the recently adopted Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals. Offer Power Watch will address this challenge by creating a comprehensive, open-source platform on the world's power systems. The platform hosts data on 85% of global installed electrical capacity and for each power plant will include data points on installed capacity, fuel type, annual generation, commissioning year, with more characteristics like emissions, particulate matter, annual water demand and more added over time. Most of the data is reported from national level sources, but annual generation and other operational characteristiscs are estimated via Machine Learning modeling and remotely sensed data when not officially reported. In addition, Power Watch plans to provide a suite of tools that address specific decision maker needs, such as water risk assessments and air pollution modeling. Impact Through open data, the platform and its tools will allow reserachers to do more analysis of power sector impacts and perform energy modeling. It will help catalyze accountability for policy makers, businesses, and investors and will inform and drive the transition to a clean energy future while reaching development targets.

  8. Global impact of carbon-14 from nuclear power reactors

    Moghissi, A.A.; Carter, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon-14 is produced by nuclear power reactors, predominently as a result of the interaction of a neutron and nitrogen-14 both in the fuel and in the coolant. Several other reactions also contribute to the production of carbon-14. Present operational procedures, in general, for reactors and fuel reprocessing plants result in the release of carbon-14 into the environment. Combustion of fossil fuels and certain industrial operations contribute to the supply of CO 2 in the atmosphere and this contribution is essentially free of carbon-14. Future carbon-14 burdens by assuming a thorough mixing of all CO 2 in the atmosphere is predicted. Available data on electric power generation, fossil fuel combustion and certain other information are used to calculate the projected specific activity of carbon-14 by the year 2000 and the twenty-first century. According to these calculations, the global population dose from carbon-14 can be substantial. Also, carbon-14 in the vicinity of nuclear power reactors is considered. Because of the chemistry of carbon-14, it is shown that local problems may be more significant around BWR's as compared to PWR's. Based on environmental considerations of carbon-14, its increasing production and discharge into the atmosphere, and available control technology, it is recommended that nitrogen use and its presence be minimized in pertinent reactor components and operations

  9. Current Trends in the Nuclear Power Global Market

    Mariya Mikhailovna Osetskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The review of the nuclear energy technologies market, namely the main processes of the initial and final stages of the nuclear fuel cycle (NTC was shown. The authors reveal key players in the markets of natural uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fabrication of nuclear fuel, direct disposal, and reprocessing as well as determine their market shares. The article shows the fundamental factors influencing the development trends of the global nuclear power market such as: units’ commissioning in China, India, the Republic of Korea and other countries, the restart of the Japanese nuclear power plants, growth of uranium supplies long-term contracting planned for the period up to 2025, volatility of world prices of the NFC initial and final stages, political, economic and environmental reasons for the nuclear power generation choice. The article presents the results of analyses of Russian and world prices on the NFC initial and final stages main processes’ allowing to draw a conclusion about the current competitiveness of Russian nuclear energy technologies

  10. Famílias, poder e riqueza: redes políticas no Paraná em 2007 Families, power, and wealth: political networks in the state of Paraná in 2007

    Ricardo Costa de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura de poder não é uma abstração, ela se materializa em situações objetivas de posse de riqueza, se reproduz e se consolida graças a redes políticas, sociais e de parentesco. As redes políticas de poder são definidas neste artigo como conexões de interesses envolvendo, basicamente, empresários e cargos políticos no aparelho de Estado, no executivo, legislativo e no judiciário e, também, em outros espaços de poder buscando assegurar vantagens e privilégios para os participantes. Além da ideologia que lhe reforça a legitimidade, as redes podem utilizar artifícios tais como o nepotismo, o clientelismo e a corrupção. O estado do Paraná é apresentado como exemplo de modernidade, de racionalidade, de adesão aos valores e às práticas de um capitalismo regido pelos princípios de impessoalidade e de eficiência. Neste artigo mostraremos que isso é um mito. Para tanto, procederemos à genealogia de famílias que detêm poder e riqueza na atualidade, mas que estão associadas aos interesses dominantes há quase 300 anos. Nomes ilustres da política e da economia compõem uma surpreendente e intricada rede de relações familiares, de parentesco e de privilegiamento que assegura a estrutura do poder nas mais diversas conjunturas econômicas e políticas.The structure of power is not an abstraction; it is materialised in objective situations of possession of wealth, and is reproduced and consolidated thanks to political, social, and kinship networks. Networks of political power are defined in this article as connections of interest which basically involve businesspeople and political offices within the apparatus of the State, in the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary, as well as the other places of power seeking to secure advantages and privileges for their members. In addition to the ideology reinforcing their legitimacy, networks may use artifices like nepotism, clientelism and corruption. The state of Paran

  11. The recent activities of nuclear power globalization. Our provision against global warming by global deployment of our own technologies as integrated nuclear power plant supply company'

    Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Shigemitsu

    2008-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) is striving to expand and spread nuclear power plants as an 'Integrated Nuclear Power Plant Supply Company' based on its engineering, manufacturing, and technological support capabilities. The company also has ample experience in the export of major components. MHI is accelerating its global deployment through the market introduction of large-sized strategic reactor US-APWR, the joint development of a mid-sized strategic reactor ATMEA1 with AREVA, and a small strategic reactor PBMR. The company also plans to internationally deploy technologies for the nuclear fuel cycle. We present here the leading-edge trends in the global deployment of these nuclear businesses, all of which help to solve the energy and environmental issues in the world. (author)

  12. Is nuclear power part of Australia's global warming solutions?

    Lowe, I.

    2007-01-01

    Forty years ago, I was preparing for my final exams. Having studied electrical engineering and science part-time for seven years at the University of New South Wales, I did well enough to spend the following year doing honours in physics. I then went to the United Kingdom for doctoral studies at the University of York, supported by the UK Atomic Energy Authority. At the time, like most young physicists, I saw nuclear power as the clean energy source of the future. Here, I want to tell you why my professional experience has led me to reject that view. There is no serious doubt that climate change is real, it is happening now and its effects are accelerating. It is already causing serious economic impacts: reduced agricultural production, increased costs of severe events like fires and storms, and the need to consider radical, energy-intensive and costly water supply measures such as desalination plants. The alarming consequences of climate change have driven distinguished scientists like James Lovelock to conclude that the situation is desperate enough to reconsider our attitude to nuclear power. I agree with Lovelock about the urgency of the situation, but not about the response. The science is very clear. We need to reduce global greenhouse pollution by about 60%, ideally by 2050. To achieve that global target, allowing for the legitimate material expectations of poorer countries, Australia's quota will need to be at least as strong as the UK's goal of 60% by 2050 and preferably stronger. Our eventual goal will probably be to reduce our greenhouse pollution by 80-90%. How can we reach this ambitious target?

  13. Rents, Power and Governance in Global Value Chains

    Dennis Davis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the  generation  of  rents  and  the  distribution  of  gains  in  the  global  operations  of  governed Global  Value  Chains  (GVCs  and  seeks  to  provide  an  architecture  for  analyzing  the  governance  of  GVCs.  It distinguishes between four sets of rent—gifts of nature; innovation rents; exogenously defined rents; and market power—and three spheres of governance—setting the rules -“legislative governance”; implementing the rules -“executive governance”; and monitoring rules and sanctioning malfeasance -“judicial governance.” The exercise of governance power in GVCs over the generation, protection and appropriation of rents is considered though the lens of four sets of key GVC stakeholders—the corporate sector, civil society organizations, the nation state and supranational institutions. This general analysis is given flesh through three case studies: food-safety standards in GVCs; taxation  policies  and  competition  policies.  In these  sectors,  the  corporate  sector  is  generally  much  more effective in governing rent generation and appropriation in the global operations of GVCs than are the three sets of  non-corporate  stakeholders.  From this  observation  we  offer  a  hypothesis  that  the  capacity  of  non-corporate stakeholders, including national states, to govern GVCs is contingent upon the extent to which this coincides with the interest of the corporate sector. However, as noted, this balance of power between private and non-corporate actors is a contested terrain and dynamic in nature.

  14. Financial Literacy, Retirement Planning and Household Wealth

    van Rooij, Maarten C. J.; Lusardi, Annamaria; Alessie, Rob J. M.

    Relying on comprehensive measures of financial knowledge, we provide evidence of a strong positive association between financial literacy and net worth, even after controlling for many determinants of wealth. We discuss two channels through which financial literacy might facilitate wealth

  15. Scientific wealth and inequality within nations

    Prathap, Gangan

    2017-01-01

    We show that the greater the scientific wealth of a nation, the more likely that it will tend to concentrate this excellence in a few premier institutions. That is, great wealth implies great inequality of distribution. The scientific wealth is interpreted in terms of citation data harvested by Google Scholar Citations for profiled institutions from all countries in the world.

  16. Nuclear power a viable alternative in global warming context

    Cretu, Ileana; Balan, Iosif Bogdan; Ionila, Maria; Petra, Nicoleta Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    Energy sources available in the world include: coal, oil, gas, biomass, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, solar, refuse-based, and hydrogen. In addition, fusion had been originally proposed as the long-term source. Every form of energy generation has both advantages and disadvantages. Burning fuel for energy requirements represent about 88% from the total emission of NO x and CO 2 , and about 90% from SO 2 respectively, and about 72% from suspension powder evacuated into the atmosphere. Global warming represents a real threat and is the most visible sign of the climatic changes which take place all over the world. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), the 'Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations framework convention on climate change' has been adopted in 1997. According to this protocol European countries must reduce their overall emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 -- 2012. In this context, because the natural resources for power generation based on the fossil fuels are decreasing and their prices are rising, nuclear power has become a real alternative for classical energy sources. It is indicated by: - Fuel is inexpensive because uranium represents a very small part of nuclear power cost and uranium sediment is found on a large scale all over the world; - No greenhouse emission or acid rain effects occur during a normal operation. Nuclear power is also named 'clean energy'; - Wastes are more compact than those of any source of energy and are stored in underground and secured deposits; - Nuclear energy has a number of advantages which warrant its use as one of the many methods of fulfilling the energy-demand of the world. Even with conservation efforts, energy demand increased and will continue to increase. Using each and every one of these forms of energy

  17. Health, Wealth and the Price of Oil.

    Evans, Robert G

    2016-05-01

    The correlation between health and wealth is arguably a very solidly established relationship. Yet that relationship may be reversing. Falling oil prices have raised (average) per capita incomes, worldwide. But from a long-run perspective they are a public health disaster. The latter is easy to see: low oil reduces the incentive to develop alternative energy sources and "bend the curve" of global warming. Their principal impact on incomes has been redistributional - Alberta and Russia lose, Ontario and Germany gain, etc. Zero net gain. But the price has fallen because technical progress in extracting American shale oil has forced the Saudis' hand. These efficiencies have real benefits for (average) incomes, but costs for long-run health. A compensating carbon tax is an obvious response. Copyright © 2016 Longwoods Publishing.

  18. Classification of delocalization power of global unitary operations in terms of LOCC one-piece relocalization

    Akihito Soeda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We study how two pieces of localized quantum information can be delocalized across a composite Hilbert space when a global unitary operation is applied. We classify the delocalization power of global unitary operations on quantum information by investigating the possibility of relocalizing one piece of the quantum information without using any global quantum resource. We show that one-piece relocalization is possible if and only if the global unitary operation is local unitary equivalent of a controlled-unitary operation. The delocalization power turns out to reveal different aspect of the non-local properties of global unitary operations characterized by their entangling power.

  19. Global Health Warning: Definitions Wield Power Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Marten, Robert

    2015-12-25

    Gorik Ooms recently made a strong case for considering the centrality of normative premises to analyzing and understanding the underappreciated importance of the nexus of politics, power and process in global health. This critical commentary raises serious questions for the practice and study of global health and global health governance. First and foremost, this commentary underlines the importance of the question of what is global health, and why as well as how does this definition matter? This refocuses discussion on the importance of definitions and how they wield power. It also re-affirms the necessity of a deeper analysis and understanding of power and how it affects and shapes the practice of global health. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  20. Wealth distribution on complex networks

    Ichinomiya, Takashi

    2012-12-01

    We study the wealth distribution of the Bouchaud-Mézard model on complex networks. It is known from numerical simulations that this distribution depends on the topology of the network; however, no one has succeeded in explaining it. Using “adiabatic” and “independent” assumptions along with the central-limit theorem, we derive equations that determine the probability distribution function. The results are compared to those of simulations for various networks. We find good agreement between our theory and the simulations, except for the case of Watts-Strogatz networks with a low rewiring rate due to the breakdown of independent assumption.

  1. Wealth distribution of simple exchange models coupled with extremal dynamics

    Bagatella-Flores, N.; Rodríguez-Achach, M.; Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Hernández-Montoya, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Punctuated Equilibrium (PE) states that after long periods of evolutionary quiescence, species evolution can take place in short time intervals, where sudden differentiation makes new species emerge and some species extinct. In this paper, we introduce and study the effect of punctuated equilibrium on two different asset exchange models: the yard sale model (YS, winner gets a random fraction of a poorer player's wealth) and the theft and fraud model (TF, winner gets a random fraction of the loser's wealth). The resulting wealth distribution is characterized using the Gini index. In order to do this, we consider PE as a perturbation with probability ρ of being applied. We compare the resulting values of the Gini index at different increasing values of ρ in both models. We found that in the case of the TF model, the Gini index reduces as the perturbation ρ increases, not showing dependence with the agents number. While for YS we observe a phase transition which happens around ρc = 0.79. For perturbations ρ <ρc the Gini index reaches the value of one as time increases (an extreme wealth condensation state), whereas for perturbations greater than or equal to ρc the Gini index becomes different to one, avoiding the system reaches this extreme state. We show that both simple exchange models coupled with PE dynamics give more realistic results. In particular for YS, we observe a power low decay of wealth distribution.

  2. Power in global health agenda-setting: the role of private funding Comment on "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health".

    Levine, Ruth E

    2015-03-04

    The editorial by Jeremy Shiffman, "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health", highlights the influence on global health priority-setting of individuals and organizations that do not have a formal political mandate. This sheds light on the way key functions in global health depend on private funding, particularly from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  3. Knowledge and networks - key sources of power in global health: Comment on "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health".

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Walt, Gill

    2015-02-01

    Shiffman rightly raises questions about who exercises power in global health, suggesting power is a complex concept, and the way it is exercised is often opaque. Power that is not based on financial strength but on knowledge or experience, is difficult to estimate, and yet it may provide the legitimacy to make moral claims on what is, or ought to be, on global health agendas. Twenty years ago power was exercised in a much less complex health environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) was able to exert its authority as world health leader. The landscape today is very different. Financial resources for global health are being competed for by diverse organisations, and power is diffused and somewhat hidden in such a climate, where each organization has to establish and make its own moral claims loudly and publicly. We observe two ways which allow actors to capture moral authority in global health. One, through power based on scientific knowledge and two, through procedures in the policy process, most commonly associated with the notion of broad consultation and participation. We discuss these drawing on one particular framework provided by Bourdieu, who analyses the source of actor power by focusing on different sorts of capital. Different approaches or theories to understanding power will go some way to answering the challenge Shiffman throws to health policy analysts. We need to explore much more fully where power lies in global health, and how it is exercised in order to understand underlying health agendas and claims to legitimacy made by global health actors today.

  4. Recognition of people with an opinion that nuclear power generation causes global warming

    Fukue, Chiyokazu

    2004-01-01

    Almost a half of the people are thinking that nuclear power generation causes global warming. We conducted a survey in order to explore the recognition and background for the thinking of people. Consequently, the existence of the right knowledge ''nuclear power generation does not discharge carbon dioxide at the time of power generation'' influenced most the idea which nuclear power generation prevents global warming. On the other hand, the misunderstanding as ''the radioactive material produced from a nuclear power plant advances global warming'' has influenced the idea considered as a cause, and it is though that this misunderstanding depend on the negative image to nuclear power generation. Moreover, many people do not recognize the mechanism of global warming, and it is thought that they confuse global warming with the other global environment problems, such as acid rain or ozone layer destruction. Therefore, it is required to spread the knowledge that nuclear power generation does not discharge carbon dioxide, and to promote the understanding that a radioactive material is not related to global warming. Furthermore, it is required to distinguish global warming from the other global environment problems, and to explain them intelligibly. (author)

  5. Household wealth and child health in India.

    Chalasani, Satvika; Rutstein, Shea

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06), this study examined how the relationship between household wealth and child health evolved during a time of significant economic change in India. The main predictor was an innovative measure of household wealth that captures changes in wealth over time. Discrete-time logistic models (with community fixed effects) were used to examine mortality and malnutrition outcomes: infant, child, and under-5 mortality; stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Analysis was conducted at the national, urban/rural, and regional levels, separately for boys and girls. The results indicate that the relationship between household wealth and under-5 mortality weakened over time but this result was dominated by infant mortality. The relationship between wealth and child mortality stayed strong for girls. The relationship between household wealth and malnutrition became stronger over time for boys and particularly for girls, in urban and (especially) rural areas.

  6. Think global, act local—a power generation case study

    Dugdale, Pam

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an exercise completed by sixth form college students to compare the power output from a local coal fired power station with the potential power output from renewable sources including wind farms, solar farms, and the proposed Mersey Tidal Barrage scheme.

  7. Think Global, Act Local--A Power Generation Case Study

    Dugdale, Pam

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an exercise completed by sixth form college students to compare the power output from a local coal fired power station with the potential power output from renewable sources including wind farms, solar farms, and the proposed Mersey Tidal Barrage scheme. (Contains 1 figure, 1 table, and 3 photos.)

  8. Fusion power in a future low carbon global electricity system

    Cabal, H.; Lechón, Y.; Bustreo, C.

    2017-01-01

    Fusion is one of the technologies that may contribute to a future, low carbon, global energy supply system. In this article we investigate the role that it may play under different scenarios. The global energy model ETM (originally EFDA TIMES Model) has been used to analyse the participation...

  9. Property and wealth inequality as cultural niche construction.

    Shennan, Stephen

    2011-03-27

    In contrast to other approaches, evolutionary perspectives on understanding the power and wealth inequalities in human societies view wealth and power not as ends in themselves but as proximate goals that contribute to the ultimate Darwinian goal of achieving reproductive success. The most successful means of achieving it in specific times and places depend on local conditions and these have changed in the course of human history, to such an extent that strategies focused on the maintenance and increase of wealth can even be more successful in reproductive terms than strategies directed at maximizing reproductive success in the short term. This paper argues that a major factor leading to such changes is a shift in the nature of inter-generational wealth transfers from relatively intangible to material property resources and the opportunities these provided for massively increased inequality. This shift can be seen as a process of niche construction related to the increasing importance of fixed and defensible resources in many societies after the end of the last Ice Age. It is suggested that, despite problems of inference, the evidence of the archaeological record can be used to throw light on these processes in specific places and times.

  10. Nuclear Power Learning and Deployment Rates; Disruption and Global Benefits Forgone

    Peter A. Lang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of the disruption of a transition from fossil fuels to nuclear power, and finds the benefits forgone as a consequence are substantial. Learning rates are presented for nuclear power in seven countries, comprising 58% of all power reactors ever built globally. Learning rates and deployment rates changed in the late-1960s and 1970s from rapidly falling costs and accelerating deployment to rapidly rising costs and stalled deployment. Historical nuclear global capacit...

  11. Behavioral and network origins of wealth inequality: insights from a virtual world.

    Benedikt Fuchs

    Full Text Available Almost universally, wealth is not distributed uniformly within societies or economies. Even though wealth data have been collected in various forms for centuries, the origins for the observed wealth-disparity and social inequality are not yet fully understood. Especially the impact and connections of human behavior on wealth could so far not be inferred from data. Here we study wealth data from the virtual economy of the massive multiplayer online game (MMOG Pardus. This data not only contains every player's wealth at every point in time, but also all actions over a timespan of almost a decade. We find that wealth distributions in the virtual world are very similar to those in Western countries. In particular we find an approximate exponential distribution for low wealth levels and a power-law tail for high levels. The Gini index is found to be g = 0.65, which is close to the indices of many Western countries. We find that wealth-increase rates depend on the time when players entered the game. Players that entered the game early on tend to have remarkably higher wealth-increase rates than those who joined later. Studying the players' positions within their social networks, we find that the local position in the trade network is most relevant for wealth. Wealthy people have high in- and out-degrees in the trade network, relatively low nearest-neighbor degrees, and low clustering coefficients. Wealthy players have many mutual friendships and are socially well respected by others, but spend more time on business than on socializing. Wealthy players have few personal enemies, but show animosity towards players that behave as public enemies. We find that players that are not organized within social groups are significantly poorer on average. We observe that "political" status and wealth go hand in hand.

  12. Behavioral and network origins of wealth inequality: insights from a virtual world.

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Almost universally, wealth is not distributed uniformly within societies or economies. Even though wealth data have been collected in various forms for centuries, the origins for the observed wealth-disparity and social inequality are not yet fully understood. Especially the impact and connections of human behavior on wealth could so far not be inferred from data. Here we study wealth data from the virtual economy of the massive multiplayer online game (MMOG) Pardus. This data not only contains every player's wealth at every point in time, but also all actions over a timespan of almost a decade. We find that wealth distributions in the virtual world are very similar to those in Western countries. In particular we find an approximate exponential distribution for low wealth levels and a power-law tail for high levels. The Gini index is found to be g = 0.65, which is close to the indices of many Western countries. We find that wealth-increase rates depend on the time when players entered the game. Players that entered the game early on tend to have remarkably higher wealth-increase rates than those who joined later. Studying the players' positions within their social networks, we find that the local position in the trade network is most relevant for wealth. Wealthy people have high in- and out-degrees in the trade network, relatively low nearest-neighbor degrees, and low clustering coefficients. Wealthy players have many mutual friendships and are socially well respected by others, but spend more time on business than on socializing. Wealthy players have few personal enemies, but show animosity towards players that behave as public enemies. We find that players that are not organized within social groups are significantly poorer on average. We observe that "political" status and wealth go hand in hand.

  13. Taxing across Borders: Tracking Personal Wealth and Corporate Profits

    Gabriel Zucman

    2014-01-01

    This article attempts to estimate the magnitude of corporate tax avoidance and personal tax evasion through offshore tax havens. US corporations book 20 percent of their profits in tax havens, a tenfold increase since the 1980; their effective tax rate has declined from 30 to 20 percent over the last 15 years, and about two-thirds of this decline can be attributed to increased international tax avoidance. Globally, 8 percent of the world's personal financial wealth is held offshore, costing m...

  14. Nuclear power from a long term global perspective

    Davis, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The global problem with energy, now and into the longer term, is the same as the global problem with food. There is no absolute shortage of either and nor is there likely to be. But the pattern of availability is such that large numbers of people have inadequate supplies of one or the other, or of both. Thus, in considering global energy futures the problems are more about energy distribution than about its absolute availability: it is important that in arguing its case for expansion the nuclear industry bears that fact in mind. (Author)

  15. The future role of nuclear power in the global energy balance

    Semenov, B.A.; Guthrie, D.; Tatsuta, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A sound judgement on the role of nuclear power in the global energy balance within the time span of the next 30 years should logically be based on the consideration of at least a number of factors such as global trends in energy and electricity demand, practically available or estimated sources of supply, major requirements that these energy sources should meet, nuclear power's own potential, a realistic assessment of nuclear power's present status, and problems related to nuclear power. The conclusion of such an analysis is that nuclear power will retain, and may even enhance, its position as an important element in the world's energy supply mix

  16. Economic wealth related to use of watercourses

    Ollila, M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigations have been made in Finland to establish the level of the national wealth, which consists of different lands of capital items. The present investigation focuses on different types of water use and on the economic wealth which they represent. The types of water use chosen include water supply and sewerage, flood protection, water-borne traffic, timber floating, hydropower production, fishing, fish farming and recreation. Wealth has been defined, whenever possible, according to yearly profit or the increase in profit. Where this has not been possible, wealth has been defined on the basis of investment costs or according to the one-off increase in wealth achieved by the project. This method was first employed for certain types of water use in the Kalajoki watercourse. For this watercourse wealth was calculated by both the methods described above, using profits, wealth was calculated to be FIM 533 million and using investments FIM 557 million. Due to lack of adequate basic information the figures, however, cannot be compared. The estimation method was also extended to cover the whole country, whereby the total wealth was estimated to be approximately FIM 155 billion. Most of this wealth consisted of recreation, water supply, sewerage and hydropower production. Comparison of the results of this investigation with the values determined in other national wealth investigations is difficult due to the presence of different groupings and methods of determination. In this investigation, the wealth gained by recreational use of the Ostrobothnian reservoirs was also separately examined and estimated to be approximately FIM 200 million. Different kinds of estimation methods had to be used and developed in this work, because the types of water use are very different and because similar investigations have not previously been undertaken. (orig.) 42 refs

  17. Global Health Governance and Global Power: A Critical Commentary on the Lancet-University of Oslo Commission Report.

    Gill, Stephen; Benatar, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    The Lancet-University of Oslo Commission Report on Global Governance for Health provides an insightful analysis of the global health inequalities that result from transnational activities consequent on what the authors call contemporary "global social norms." Our critique is that the analysis and suggested reforms to prevailing institutions and practices are confined within the perspective of the dominant-although unsustainable and inequitable-market-oriented, neoliberal development model of global capitalism. Consequently, the report both elides critical discussion of many key forms of material and political power under conditions of neoliberal development and governance that shape the nature and priorities of the global governance for health, and fails to point to the extent of changes required to sustainably improve global health. We propose that an alternative concept of progress-one grounded in history, political economy, and ecologically responsible health ethics-is sorely needed to better address challenges of global health governance in the new millennium. This might be premised on global solidarity and the "development of sustainability." We argue that the prevailing market civilization model that lies at the heart of global capitalism is being, and will further need to be, contested to avoid contradictions and dislocations associated with the commodification and privatization of health. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Why do they think nuclear power is origin of global warming effect?

    Fukae, Chiyokazu

    2005-01-01

    A questionnaire on nuclear power was conducted on 1500 adults in Kansai area, Japan, from October 9 to November 9, 2003. The recovery ratio was 71.0%. The results showed that 34% of them thought the nuclear power was protection of the global warming effect and 35% it was origin of the effect. It was analyzed by the logistic regression analysis method on whether the nuclear power was protection of global warming effect or not. About 43% of them recognized the nuclear power contributed to control carbon dioxide emission, and the mechanism of global warming effect. However, 35% of them did not recognize the mechanism and thought radioactive materials emission gave bad effects on the global environment. To make recognize the nuclear power is a good power source for protection of the global warming effect, the amount of reduction of carbon dioxide emission by nuclear power had to be shown. It is the shortest way for solution of the global warming problem to prove worthy of nuclear power's trust by safety and stable operation. (S.Y.)

  19. Wealth, welfare and sustainable growth and development

    Moe, Thorvald

    2011-07-01

    This Policy Note discuses, based on modern development theory and wealth accounting, challenges for economic- and fiscal policies in resource-producing countries defined as countries - both developed and developing low income countries - which rely heavily on non-renewable or exhaustible natural wealth.(Author)

  20. Guidelines for exploiting natural resource wealth

    van der Ploeg, R.

    2014-01-01

    The principles of how best to manage the various components of national wealth are outlined, where the permanent income hypothesis, the Hotelling rule, and the Hartwick rule play a prominent role. As far as managing natural resource wealth is concerned, a case is made to use an intergenerational

  1. Gamma-distribution and wealth inequality

    This in turn allows one to quantify the inequalities observed in the wealth distributions and suggests that their origin should be traced back to very general underlying mechanisms, for instance, the fact that smaller the fraction of the relevant quantity (e.g. wealth) that agent can exchange during an interaction, the closer the ...

  2. The Role of Bequests in Shaping Wealth Inequality: Evidence from Danish Wealth Records

    Boserup, Simon Halphen; Kopczuk, Wojciech; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2016-01-01

    Using Danish administrative data, we estimate the impact of bequests on the level and inequality of wealth. We compare the distributions of wealth over time of people whose parent died and those whose parent did not. Bequests account for 26 percent of the average post-bequest wealth 1-3 years after...... parental death and significantly affect wealth throughout the distribution. Bequests increase absolute wealth inequality (variance of the distribution censored at the top/bottom 1% increases by 33 percent), but reduce relative inequality (the top 1% share declines by 6 percentage points from the base of 31...

  3. POWER-SHIFTS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY. TRANSITION TOWARDS A MULTIPOLAR WORLD ORDER

    Ion IGNAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the new realities and trends related to the new polarity of the global economy, and thus the reconfiguration of global power centers, a process characterized by two simultaneous trends: the rise of new powers and the relative decline of traditional powers. At the beginning of 21st century, global power is suffering two major changes: on the one hand it manifests a transition from West to East, from Atlantic to the Asia-Pacific, and on the other hand, a diffusion from state to non-state actors. Current global economic power has a multipolar distribution, shared between the United States, European Union, Japan and BRICs, with no balance of power between these poles, opposed by the strong ambition of rising countries, China especially, China that rivals the traditional powers represented by the developed countries. The evolution of the main macroeconomic indicators given by the most important global organizations, shows a gradual transition towards a multipolar world. Therefore, the United States is and will remain for a long period of time the global economic leader. However, as China, India and Brazil are growing rapidly, and Russia is looking for lost status, the world is becoming multipolar.

  4. WEALTH TAX WITHIN EUROPE IN THE CONTEXT OF A POSSIBLE IMPLEMENTATION IN ROMANIA– THE EXISTING WEALTH TAX AND ITS DECLINE IN EUROPE

    LUMINIŢA RISTEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to focus our attention on the conceptualbasis upon which the wealth tax system may be implemented in Romania taking intoconsideration former and actual presence of wealth tax within Europe. The idea of increasingthe taxable basis based on imposing the wealth constitutes one of the most important debatetopics on the agenda of the Romanian Parliament and Government and also within specialists’theoretical approaches. The vast range of such approaches and further solutions is to beanalysed in the global context of direct taxation in Europe and worldwide and particularlyrelevant for the complexity of the problem is the evolution of wealth tax during the last decadesand also the very important context of moving corporate main offices in countries with moreadvantageous systems of taxation.

  5. CCS Retrofit: Analysis of the Global Installed Power Plant Fleet

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electricity generation from coal is still growing rapidly and energy scenarios from the IEA expect a possible increase from today’s 1 600 GW of coal-fired power plants to over 2 600 GW until 2035. This trend will increase the lock-in of carbon intensive electricity sources, while IEA assessments show that two-thirds of total abatement from all sectors should come from the power sector alone to support a least-cost abatement strategy. Since coal-fired power plants have a fairly long lifetime, and in order to meet climate constraints, there is a need either to apply CCS retrofit to some of today’s installed coal-fired power plants once the technology becomes available. Another option would be to retire some plants before the end of their lifetime. This working paper discusses criteria relevant to differentiating between the technical, cost-effective and realistic potential for CCS retrofit. The paper then discusses today’s coal-fired power plant fleet from a statistical perspective, by looking at age, size and the expected performance of today’s plant across several countries. The working paper also highlights the growing demand for applying CCS retrofitting to the coal-fired power plant fleet of the future. In doing so this paper aims at emphasising the need for policy makers, innovators and power plant operators to quickly complete the development of the CCS technology and to identify key countries where retrofit applications will have the biggest extent and impact.

  6. Cost analysis of small hydroelectric power plants components and preliminary estimation of global cost

    Basta, C.; Olive, W.J.; Antunes, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of cost for each components of Small Hydroelectric Power Plant, taking into account the real costs of these projects is shown. It also presents a global equation which allows a preliminary estimation of cost for each construction. (author)

  7. Managing Earth's Future: Global Self-Restraint for the Common Good or Domination by Incentive and Power?

    Anbar, A. D.; Hartnett, H. E.; Rowan, L. R.; Caldeira, K.

    2016-12-01

    We are global in our impacts, yet local in our thoughts and feelings. The daunting challenge facing Homo sapiens is learning to cooperate at global scale for the common good. Since the invention of the steam engine, we have been developing ever more efficient ways of generating consumer products. Some of the wealth generated by these more efficient technologies was reinvested into additional capital infrastructure, such as factories and machines. We thus expanded capacity to offer goods and services to insatiable consumers, expanding the ability to extract and transform natural resources into both valuable goods and services and dangerous pollution. Improvements in medical technologies led to quasi-exponential population growth, mirroring and multiplying the quasi-exponential growth in per capita consumption. This quasi-exponential growth is starting to reach boundaries, but these boundaries are not sending signals to the market that would allow a laissez faire approach to work. The central question is: How can we continue improving well-being while diminishing material flows associated with environmental pollution? Globally, if we do not place constraints on ourselves, nature will impose constraints on us. We can impose constraints on ourselves to protect us from what nature would otherwise to do to us. To have a sustainable future, we would need to level off population at the lowest feasible levels. The difference between a future population of 6 billion and 16 billion is a half-child per family less-or-more than the central projection of demographers. Empowering women with education and technology has proven to be a most effective strategy at reducing population growth. To have a sustainable future, we would need strong disincentives on environmental damage, especially from long-lived wastes such as carbon dioxide. It is of course a huge political challenge to get such disincentives in place. If we fail to get these global self-protective guardrails established

  8. Rents, Power and Governance in Global Value Chains

    Dennis Davis; Raphael Kaplinsky; Mike Morris

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the  generation  of  rents  and  the  distribution  of  gains  in  the  global  operations  of  governed Global  Value  Chains  (GVCs)  and  seeks  to  provide  an  architecture  for  analyzing  the  governance  of  GVCs.  It distinguishes between four sets of rent—gifts of nature; innovation rents; exogenously defined rents; and market power—and three spheres of governance—setting the rules -“legislative governance”; implementing the rules -“executive governance”; and mo...

  9. Power and Networks in Worldwide Knowledge Coordination: The Case of Global Science

    King, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The article considers the global governance of knowledge systems, exploring concepts of power, networks, standards (defined as normative practices), and structuration. The focus is on science as a form of predominantly private global governance, particularly the self-regulatory and collaborative processes stretching across time and space. These…

  10. Awareness structure of the people with opinion that nuclear power is effective for preventing global warming

    Fukae, Chiyokazu

    2006-01-01

    Most of people think that nuclear power generation is not effective for preventing global warming. In this research, the reason why people think so was investigated with using questionnaire survey. As a result, the misunderstanding, the thermal effluent and radioactive substance etc. produced from a nuclear plant promotes global warming, has influenced on this issue. People have negative image against nuclear power in the background of this idea. This negative image is a factor to decrease the evaluation that nuclear power is useful for preventing global warming regardless of the presence of the misunderstanding. By the fear that the accident of the nuclear plant brings the environmental destruction, people evaluate that nuclear power doesn't have the capabilities for environmental preservation. Especially young people have such awareness. It is necessary to learn energy and environmental issues including the merits and demerits of nuclear power objectively in the academic training. (author)

  11. Framing Political Change: Can a Left Populism Disrupt the Rise of the Reactionary Right?; Comment on “Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames”

    Ronald Labonté

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Solomon Benatar offers an important critique of the limited frame that sets the boundaries of much of what is referred to as ‘global health.’ In placing his comments within a criticism of increasing poverty (or certainly income and wealth inequalities and the decline in our environmental commons, he locates our health inequities within the pathology of our present global economy. In that respect it is a companion piece to an editorial I published around the same time. Both Benatar’s and my paralleling arguments take on a new urgency in the wake of the US presidential election. Although not a uniquely American event (the xenophobic right has been making inroads in many parts of the world, the degree of vitriol expressed by the President-elect of the world’s (still most powerful and militarized country is being used to further legitimate the policies of right-extremist parties in Europe while providing additional justification for the increasingly autocratic politics of leaders (elected or otherwise in many other of the world’s nations. To challenge right-populism’s rejection of the predatory inequalities that 4 years of (neo-liberal globalization have created demands strong and sustained left populism built, in part, on the ecocentric frame advocated by Benatar.

  12. IRIS: A global approach to nuclear power renaissance

    Carelli, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Improved international reactor IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is discussed. IRIS is defined as a modular reactor with integral arrangement and water coolant. Industrial companies, research, scientific groups and electric power producers of different countries (USA, Great Britain, Italy, Spain, Brazil, Russia, Mexico, Japan, Croatia) take part in the realization of IRIS. Basic parameters of the reactor, construction characteristics, arrangement are presented [ru

  13. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation.

    Behrman, Jere R; Mitchell, Olivia S; Soo, Cindy K; Bravo, David

    2012-05-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs.

  14. The utility of health and wealth.

    Levy, Moshe; Nir, Adi Rizansky

    2012-03-01

    Tradeoffs between health and wealth are among the most important decisions individuals make, and are central to social and economic policy. Yet, only a few studies have investigated the utility of health and wealth empirically. This paper investigates this utility function both theoretically and empirically. We conduct detailed personal interviews with 180 cancer patients, and also obtain questionnaires from 132 diabetes patients. We find strong support for the utility function U(h, w)=h·log(w), where h denotes health and w denotes wealth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cellular Automata Simulation for Wealth Distribution

    Lo, Shih-Ching

    2009-08-01

    Wealth distribution of a country is a complicate system. A model, which is based on the Epstein & Axtell's "Sugars cape" model, is presented in Netlogo. The model considers the income, age, working opportunity and salary as control variables. There are still other variables should be considered while an artificial society is established. In this study, a more complicate cellular automata model for wealth distribution model is proposed. The effects of social welfare, tax, economical investment and inheritance are considered and simulated. According to the cellular automata simulation for wealth distribution, we will have a deep insight of financial policy of the government.

  16. Which model of capitalism best delivers both wealth and equality?

    William Q Judge; Stav Fainshmidt; J Lee Brown III

    2014-01-01

    Capitalism is the dominant economic system adopted throughout the global economy, but there are many different models of capitalism practiced depending on what the society decides “economic effectiveness” is. In this study, we assert that an effective economy simultaneously achieves two seemingly divergent outcomes: it (1) creates economic wealth efficiently, and (2) shares that wealth equitably. Employing insights from Whitley’s national business systems framework and fuzzy set analysis, we ...

  17. Emerging middle powers and global security challenges: the case of Brazil and Turkey - implications for Portugal

    Balla, Evanthia

    2012-01-01

    Today's global order fundamentally differs from the one of classic multipolarity, Cold War bipolarity or post Cold War unipolarity. There are many emerging powers and many no nation-states entities with powers. Yet, the world seems to slowly adjusting to these new realities.

  18. Knowledge and networks – key sources of power in global health

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Walt, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Shiffman rightly raises questions about who exercises power in global health, suggesting power is a complex concept, and the way it is exercised is often opaque. Power that is not based on financial strength but on knowledge or experience, is difficult to estimate, and yet it may provide the legitimacy to make moral claims on what is, or ought to be, on global health agendas. Twenty years ago power was exercised in a much less complex health environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) was able to exert its authority as world health leader. The landscape today is very different. Financial resources for global health are being competed for by diverse organisations, and power is diffused and somewhat hidden in such a climate, where each organization has to establish and make its own moral claims loudly and publicly. We observe two ways which allow actors to capture moral authority in global health. One, through power based on scientific knowledge and two, through procedures in the policy process, most commonly associated with the notion of broad consultation and participation. We discuss these drawing on one particular framework provided by Bourdieu, who analyses the source of actor power by focusing on different sorts of capital. Different approaches or theories to understanding power will go some way to answering the challenge Shiffman throws to health policy analysts. We need to explore much more fully where power lies in global health, and how it is exercised in order to understand underlying health agendas and claims to legitimacy made by global health actors today. PMID:25674577

  19. Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth.

    Painter, Matthew; Frech, Adrianne; Williams, Kristi

    2015-02-01

    We use more than 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to examine wealth trajectories among mothers following a nonmarital first birth. We compare wealth according to union type and union stability, and we distinguish partners by biological parentage of the firstborn child. Net of controls for education, race/ethnicity, and family background, single mothers who enter into stable marriages with either a biological father or stepfather experience significant wealth advantages over time (more than $2,500 per year) relative to those who marry and divorce, cohabit, or remain unpartnered. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for unequal selection into marriage support these findings and demonstrate that race (but not ethnicity) and age at first birth structure mothers' access to later marriage. We conclude that not all single mothers have equal access to marriage; however, marriage, union stability, and paternity have distinct roles for wealth accumulation following a nonmarital birth.

  20. The rise of Asian sovereign wealth funds

    Borst, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This Asia Focus provides an overview of sovereign wealth funds, evaluates the structure and activities of major funds in Asia, and compares the transparency of Asian funds relative to international best practices.

  1. Inheritance and wealth inequality: Evidence from population registers

    Elinder, Mikael; Erixson, Oscar; Waldenström, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We use new population-wide register data on inheritances and wealth in Sweden to estimate the causal impact of inheritances on wealth inequality. We find that inheritances reduce relative wealth inequality (e.g., the Gini coefficient falls by 5–10 percent) but that absolute dispersion increases. Examining different parts of the wealth distribution, we find that the top decile's wealth share decreases substantially, whereas the wealth share of the bottom half increases from a negative to a pos...

  2. Petro Rents, Political Institutions, and Hidden Wealth

    Andersen, Jørgen Juel; Johannesen, Niels; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    Do political institutions limit rent seeking by politicians? We study the transformation of petroleum rents, almost universally under direct government control, into hidden wealth using unique data on bank deposits in offshore financial centers that specialize in secrecy and asset protection. Our...... rulers is diverted to secret accounts. We find very limited evidence that shocks to other types of income not directly controlled by governments affect hidden wealth....

  3. Child Benefit Payments and Household Wealth Accumulation

    Melvin Stephens Jr.; Takashi Unayama

    2014-01-01

    Using the life-cycle/permanent income hypothesis, we theoretically and empirically assess the impact of child benefit payments on household wealth accumulation. Consistent with the predictions of the model, we find that higher cumulative benefits received increase current assets, higher future benefit payments lower asset holding, and that these effects systematically vary over the life-cycle. We find different wealth responses to child benefit payments for liquidity constrained and unconstra...

  4. Self-esteem and Individual Wealth

    Chatterjee, Swarn; Finke, Michael; Harness, Nathaniel

    2008-01-01

    Self-esteem measures confidence in one’s abilities. Prior literature has shown that higher self-esteem can also affect individual financial decision making through an increased willingness to invest in risky assets and motivation to enhance self image through wealth accumulation. However, self-esteem can also lead to wealth-destroying investment behaviors due to overconfidence and an unwillingness to accept inevitable losses. Using the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale included in the National Long...

  5. The status and prospects of the debate upon the global warming and nuclear power

    Yim, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Possible climate change caused by global warming becomes one of the most serious challenges that mankind shall tackle in 21 st century. Nuclear power, which doesn't emit any greenhouse gas during the generation of electricity, is a promising solution to mitigate the global warming. However, there are still debates about the role of nuclear power related to the subjects such as safety, radioactive waste management and nuclear proliferation risk in the international climate change talks. This paper introduces on-going negotiation focused on the nuclear power and then, gives some prospects on the future negotiations. Finally the brief analysis of their impacts on domestic nuclear industry is carried out

  6. Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater thermal pollution from global power generation in LCA.

    Raptis, Catherine E; Boucher, Justin M; Pfister, Stephan

    2017-02-15

    Freshwater heat emissions from power plants with once-through cooling systems constitute one of many environmental pressures related to the thermoelectric power industry. The objective of this work was to obtain high resolution, operational characterization factors (CF) for the impact of heat emissions on ecosystem quality, and carry out a comprehensive, spatially, temporally and technologically differentiated damage-based environmental assessment of global freshwater thermal pollution. The aggregation of CFs on a watershed level results in 12.5% lower annual impacts globally and even smaller differences for the most crucial watersheds and months, so watershed level CFs are recommended when the exact emission site within the basin is unknown. Long-range impacts account for almost 90% of the total global impacts. The Great Lakes, several Mississippi subbasins, the Danube, and the Yangtze are among the most thermally impacted watersheds globally, receiving heat emissions from predominantly coal-fuelled and nuclear power plants. Globally, over 80% of the global annual impacts come from power plants constructed during or before the 1980s. While the impact-weighted mean age of the power plants in the Mississippi ranges from 38 to 51years, in Chinese watersheds including the Yangtze, the equivalent range is only 15 to 22years, reflecting a stark contrast in thermal pollution mitigation approaches. With relatively high shares of total capacity from power plants with once-through freshwater cooling, and tracing a large part of the Danube, 1kWh of net electricity mix is the most impactful in Hungary, Bulgaria and Serbia. Monthly CFs are provided on a grid cell level and on a watershed level for use in Life Cycle Assessment. The impacts per generating unit are also provided, as part of our effort to make available a global dataset of thermoelectric power plant emissions and impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Introduction of nuclear power plant for mitigating the impact of global warming

    Ida Nuryatin Finahari

    2008-01-01

    Energy utilization for power plants in Indonesia is still highly depending on the burning of fossil fuel like coal, oil, and gas. From the combustion of fossil fuel, greenhouse gases such as CO 2 and N 2 O are produced. An increase of CO 2 gas emission to the atmosphere can block the heat loss from the earth surface and will increase the greenhouse effect that results in the temperature increase of the earth surface (global warming). Global warming can cause a very extreme climate change on earth. One of the solutions to reduce CO 2 gas emission produced by fossil fuel power plants is to utilize the plants with flue gas treatment facility. At such facility, CO 2 gas is reacted with certain mineral based substances thus can be used as base material in food-, pharmaceutical-, construction-, and cosmetic industry. Another alternative to reduce CO 2 gas emission is by replacing fossil fuel power plants with nuclear power plants. Considering the environmental and economic aspects, the nuclear power plant does not emit CO 2 gas, so that the use of nuclear power plant can mitigate the impact of global warming. Based on the operational experience of nuclear power plants in advanced countries, the cost of generating electricity from nuclear power plants is more competitive than that of fossil fuel power plant. (author)

  8. The role of nuclear power in the global electric power system

    Sidorenko, V.A.; Chernilin, Yu.F.

    1992-01-01

    Basic conclusions and recommendations developed in the process of preparing and conducting the symposium discussed are presented. All methods of electric power production, their prospects and effects on man and environment were discussed during the symposium. This paper is devoted mainly to nuclear power engineering only, its prospects and possible role in general electric power generation

  9. Nuclear power prospects up to 2020 in global energy context

    Naudet, G.; Capron, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Today nuclear energy is a significant component of the electricity generation in the world; its role in the future has to be estimated as an answer to the issues concerning both energy supply and atmosphere pollution. Taking into account the lead-times observed in the energy field, the year 2020 appears a convenient time horizon to appreciate the contrast of significant differences in nuclear power expansion. The approach consists in considering one by one all the countries which have already implemented a nuclear program or could be able to launch a program before this date. However, to be clear, the results are presented according to either the five regions defined in appendix or the World Energy Council regions for comparison with the WEC results. (author). 8 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Governing Global Health : Knowledge and power in the global tobacco epidemic

    Kenny, Katherine Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines the coproduction of epistemic and regulatory authority in the field of global health using the case of international tobacco control. In 2005, the world's first public health treaty -- the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) -- was brought into force by the World Health Organization (WHO). Unanimously adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2003, the FCTC has since become one of the most widely and rapidly adopted treaties in the history of the United Nat...

  11. Immigrants in the one percent: The national origin of top wealth owners.

    Keister, Lisa A; Aronson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    wealth ownership is more global than previous research suggests and that immigrant groups are likely to become more prevalent in top wealth positions in the U.S. As the representation of immigrants in top wealth positions grows, their economic, social, and political influence is likely to increase as well.

  12. Fission nuclear power prospects and its role in meeting global energy needs

    Golan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power currently makes an important contribution to world's energy requirements providing 17% of its electricity. But as global warming becomes of greater concern, many ask whether nuclear power can and should contribute more. The author, who is involved in the nuclear power enterprise for 35 years, tries to answer this question affirmative. He holds the view that: a) nuclear fission power is essential to meeting world's energy needs without unduly impairing the global environment; b) by possessing the required attributes discussed in this paper, nuclear fission power can be made societally acceptable; c) the industrialized world should accelerate LMFR deployment while fostering more convenient energy alternatives for the developing world; and d) the HTGR is unique in its ability to augment non-electricity energy needs and could become the technology choice of developing countries for nuclear electricity production. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  13. The global climate change and its effect on power generation in Bangladesh

    Khan, Iftekhar; Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul

    2013-01-01

    Frequent and intense natural calamities, sea level rises and salinity have been causing adverse impacts on economic, environmental and social aspects of hundreds of millions people across the world. Although a series of studies was undertaken on social and environment impacts, very little information is available on power generation affected by climate change. The power generation in developing countries, especially Bangladesh, whose existence is severely threatened by the rise of sea levels, salinity, the ambient temperature, drought and flood, is not well studied and reported. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to identify the risks imposed by global climate change on existing and projected power generation in Bangladesh. The climate effect parameters and their impacts on power generation capacity are studied and analysed. The findings indicate that all existing and future power plants and their generation across the country will be affected by global climate change. - Highlights: • Analysed the future climate change impact on power generation in Bangladesh. • Projected future power generation in Bangladesh up to 2100. • Power plant in coastal areas will experience threat of inundation and salinity. • Northwest region power generation in Bangladesh will face more drought threat. • Power generation in middle region of Bangladesh will be in high risk of flood

  14. Problems of globalization

    Telebaković Boško

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world has been going through the process of economical, political and cultural integration for a long time. At the end of the 20th century, the integration received a new meaning. In the world’s policy, sovereign countries were in conflict or collaborated earlier. A stricter hierarchy of economical and political power hubs is being established now. In such processes of globalization, differences in development, wealth and power arise, people are less safe, the sovereignity of national states is being violated. The story of equality remains in the sense of disappearance of cultural differences in floods of non-cultural culture. It is difficult to talk about democracy when the world’s power is getting stronger and stronger. Is it possible to have a globalization which would not affect human rights, and which would not prevent people from taking care of truth, freedom and happiness?

  15. Statistical Mechanics of Money, Income, and Wealth

    Yakovenko, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In Ref. [1], we proposed an analogy between the exponential Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution of energy in physics and the equilibrium probability distribution of money in a closed economic system. Analogously to energy, money is locally conserved in interactions between economic agents, so the thermal Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution function is expected for money. Since then, many researchers followed and expanded this idea [2]. Much work was done on the analysis of empirical data, mostly on income, for which a lot of tax and census data is available. We demonstrated [3] that income distribution in the USA has a well-defined two-class structure. The majority of population (97-99%) belongs to the lower class characterized by the exponential Boltzmann-Gibbs (``thermal'') distribution. The upper class (1-3% of population) has a Pareto power-law (``superthermal'') distribution, whose parameters change in time with the rise and fall of stock market. We proposed a concept of equilibrium inequality in a society, based on the principle of maximal entropy, and quantitatively demonstrated that it applies to the majority of population. Income distribution in other countries shows similar patterns. For more references, see http://www2.physics.umd.edu/˜yakovenk/econophysics.html. References: [1] A. A. Dragulescu and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Statistical mechanics of money'', Eur. Phys. J. B 17, 723 (2000). [2] ``Econophysics of Wealth Distributions'', edited by A. Chatterjee, S. Yarlagadda, and B. K. Chakrabarti, Springer, 2005. [3] A. C. Silva and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Temporal evolution of the `thermal' and `superthermal' income classes in the USA during 1983-2001'', Europhys. Lett. 69, 304 (2005).

  16. The necessity of nuclear power: a global human and environmental imperative

    Ritch, J.

    2008-01-01

    Humankind cannot conceivably achieve a global clean-energy revolution without a huge expansion of nuclear power to generate electricity; to produce battery power and possibly hydrogen for tomorrow's vehicles; to desalinate seawater in response to the worlds rapidly emerging fresh-water crisis. Factors for accelerating the nuclear renaissance are: comprehensive post-Kyoto agreement all major nations, with appropriate obligations, strong political and economic incentives and goal to achieve 60% cut in global emissions by 2050; harness UN system to one clean-energy vision nuclear power at centre of global strategy; national incentive policies not for subsidy but for acceleration; education policies public's better understanding of nuclear energy new generation of nuclear professionals

  17. GLOBALIZATION AND THE DECLINE OF THE UNITED STATES ECONOMIC INSTRUMENT OF POWER

    2017-06-01

    of global trade relations. Whereas forty years ago, 90 percent of international trade consisted of mercantilist goods; today , 90 percent of... GLOBALIZATION AND THE DECLINE OF THE UNITED STATES ECONOMIC INSTRUMENT OF POWER BY MAJOR JOSH WATKINS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE...bachelor of business administration degree from Old Dominion University in 2001. He was commissioned through Officer Training School in 2002 and his

  18. Global freshwater thermal emissions from steam-electric power plants with once-through cooling systems

    Raptis, Catherine E.; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of heat are rejected into freshwater bodies from power plants employing once-through cooling systems, often leading to temperature increases that disturb aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this work was to produce a high resolution global picture of power-related freshwater thermal emissions and to analyse the technological, geographical and chronological patterns behind them. The Rankine cycle was systematically solved for ∼2400 generating units with once-through cooling systems, distinguishing between simple and cogenerative cycles, giving the rejected heat as a direct output. With large unit sizes, low efficiencies, and high capacity factors, nuclear power plants reject 3.7 GW heat into freshwater on average, contrasting with 480 MW rejected from coal and gas power plants. Together, nuclear and coal-fuelled power plants from the 1970s and 1980s account for almost 50% of the rejected heat worldwide, offering motivation for their phasing out in the future. Globally, 56% of the emissions are rejected into rivers, pointing to potential areas of high thermal pollution, with the rest entering lakes and reservoirs. The outcome of this work can be used to further investigate the identified thermal emission hotspots, and to calculate regionalized water temperature increase and related impacts in environmental, energy-water nexus studies and beyond. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic cycles of ∼2400 power units with once-through cooling were solved. • Global freshwater heat emissions depend on technology, geography & chronology. • Half the global emissions come from nuclear and coal plants from the 70s & 80s. • Hotspots of freshwater thermal emissions were identified globally. • Global georeferenced emissions are available for use in water temperature models.

  19. Tracking the global maximum power point of PV arrays under partial shading conditions

    Fennich, Meryem

    This thesis presents the theoretical and simulation studies of the global maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems under partial shading. The main goal is to track the maximum power point of the photovoltaic module so that the maximum possible power can be extracted from the photovoltaic panels. When several panels are connected in series with some of them shaded partially either due to clouds or shadows from neighboring buildings, several local maxima appear in the power vs. voltage curve. A power increment based MPPT algorithm is effective in identifying the global maximum from the several local maxima. Several existing MPPT algorithms are explored and the state-of-the-art power increment method is simulated and tested for various partial shading conditions. The current-voltage and power-voltage characteristics of the PV model are studied under different partial shading conditions, along with five different cases demonstrating how the MPPT algorithm performs when shading switches from one state to another. Each case is supplemented with simulation results. The method of tracking the Global MPP is based on controlling the DC-DC converter connected to the output of the PV array. A complete system simulation including the PV array, the direct current to direct current (DC-DC) converter and the MPPT is presented and tested using MATLAB software. The simulation results show that the MPPT algorithm works very well with the buck converter, while the boost converter needs further changes and implementation.

  20. The Antieconomy Hypothesis (Part 1): From Wealth Creation to Wealth Extraction

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to make some sense of what is happening to the role of money and the economy in our lives and in our communities. It shows that the picture provided by the discipline of economics makes no sense at all. Corporations and national economies have become wealth extractors as opposed to wealth creators. Only about 3% of daily…

  1. Legal Pluralism, Private Power, and the Impact of the Financial Crisis on the Global Political Economy

    Edward S. Cohen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Private corporate actors have played a central role in the construction of the legal rules of globalized capitalism over the past four decades. In no sector has this been more true than in global finance, where private agents have reshaped the norms and practices of credit creation and allocation. The global financial crisis, however, has led many states to challenge aspects of this power and raised broader questions about the legitimacy and future of private power in the global legal order(s. In this paper, I argue that –while state actors have clawed back significant power in global finance– the specific powers of credit creation and allocation combined with the structural pull of transnational legal pluralism will enable major private financial institutions to retain substantial power in the face of these challenges and questions. In the process, I present some broad suggestion about how we can think about private power in the making of global commercial law. Durante las últimas cuatro décadas, actores corporativos privados han desempeñado un papel decisivo en la construcción de las normas legales del capitalismo globalizado. En ningún sector ha sido esto más cierto que en las finanzas globales, donde los agentes privados han reformado las normas y prácticas de la creación de crédito y asignación. La crisis financiera global, sin embargo, ha llevado a muchos estados a cuestionar aspectos de este poder y planteado cuestiones más amplias acerca de la legitimidad y el futuro del poder privado en el/los ordenamiento/s jurídico/s global/es. En este trabajo se sostiene que –mientras que los actores estatales han recuperado un poder significativo en las finanzas globales– los poderes específicos de la creación de crédito y asignación combinados con la fuerza estructural del pluralismo jurídico transnacional permitirán a las principales instituciones financieras privadas retener poder sustancial ante estos retos y preguntas

  2. Mapping the impacts of thermoelectric power generation: a global, spatially explicit database

    Raptis, Catherine; Pfister, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric power generation is associated with environmental pressures resulting from emissions to air and water, as well as water consumption. The need to achieve global coverage in related studies has become pressing in view of climate change. At the same time, the ability to quantify impacts from power production on a high resolution remains pertinent, given their highly regionalized nature, particularly when it comes to water-related impacts. Efforts towards global coverage have increased in recent years, but most work on the impacts of global electricity production presents a coarse geographical differentiation. Over the past few years we have begun a concerted effort to create and make available a global georeferenced inventory of thermoelectric power plant operational characteristics and emissions, by modelling the relevant processes on the highest possible level: that of a generating unit. Our work extends and enhances a commercially available global power plant database, and so far includes: - Georeferencing the generating units and populating the gaps in their steam properties. - Identifying the cooling system for 92% of the global installed thermoelectric power capacity. - Using the completed steam property data, along with local environmental temperature data, to systematically solve the Rankine cycle for each generating unit, involving: i) distinguishing between simple, reheat, and cogenerative cycles, and accounting for particularities in nuclear power cycles; ii) accounting for the effect of different cooling systems (once-through, recirculating (wet tower), dry cooling) on the thermodynamic cycle. One of the direct outcomes of solving the Rankine cycle is the cycle efficiency, an indispensable parameter in any study related to power production, including the quantification of air emissions and water consumption. Another direct output, for those units employing once-through cooling, is the rate of heat rejection to water, which can lead to

  3. Effects of introduction of new resources and fragmentation of existing resources on limiting wealth distribution in asset exchange models

    Ali Saif, M.; Gade, Prashant M.

    2009-03-01

    Pareto law, which states that wealth distribution in societies has a power-law tail, has been the subject of intensive investigations in the statistical physics community. Several models have been employed to explain this behavior. However, most of the agent based models assume the conservation of number of agents and wealth. Both these assumptions are unrealistic. In this paper, we study the limiting wealth distribution when one or both of these assumptions are not valid. Given the universality of the law, we have tried to study the wealth distribution from the asset exchange models point of view. We consider models in which (a) new agents enter the market at a constant rate (b) richer agents fragment with higher probability introducing newer agents in the system (c) both fragmentation and entry of new agents is taking place. While models (a) and (c) do not conserve total wealth or number of agents, model (b) conserves total wealth. All these models lead to a power-law tail in the wealth distribution pointing to the possibility that more generalized asset exchange models could help us to explain the emergence of a power-law tail in wealth distribution.

  4. The taxation of wealth transfers in Thailand

    Rodthong, Ratichai

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This thesis examines the case for a wealth transfer tax in Thailand, against the background, inter alia, of the failure of Thailand’s defunct tax law on estate and inheritance (the Estate and Inheritance Tax Act, 1933). Thailand has a significant problem with income and wealth distribution, with an increasing gulf between the rich and the poor—a root cause of the nation’s ongoing pol...

  5. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K.; Fenichel, Eli P.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems store vast quantities of wealth, but difficulties measuring wealth held in ecosystems prevent its inclusion in accounting systems. Ecosystem-based management endeavors to manage ecosystems holistically. However, ecosystem-based management lacks headline indicators to evaluate performance. We unify the inclusive wealth and ecosystem-based management paradigms, allowing apples-to-apples comparisons between the wealth of the ecosystem and other forms of wealth, while providing a headl...

  6. Student Power in a Global Perspective and Contemporary Trends in Student Organising

    Klemencic, Manja

    2014-01-01

    Students, if organised into representative student governments or movements, can be a highly influential agency shaping higher education policy. This article introduces the Special Issue on student power in a global perspective, which addresses the question of how students are organised in different world regions and what role they play in higher…

  7. Bahrain and the global balance of power after the Arab spring

    Andersen, Lars Erslev

    2012-01-01

    The global balance of power is changing, and the role of the US as the only superpower is being challenged by emerging new powers and a still more powerful China. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the Persian Gulf. Two wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and continually rising debt have meant that the position of the US has declined. At the same time, Asian states are increasing their economic expansion in the Persian Gulf. Increasing political influence, including a bigger role in hard security...

  8. IQ and the Wealth of States

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    In "IQ and the Wealth of Nations" (2002), Lynn and Vanhanen estimate the mean IQs of 185 nations and demonstrate that national IQs strongly correlate with the macroeconomic performance of the nations, explaining about half of the variance in GDP per capita. I seek to replicate Lynn and Vanhanen's results across states within the United…

  9. Econophysics of Income and Wealth Distributions

    Chakrabarti, Bikas K.; Chakraborti, Anirban; Chakravarty, Satya R.; Chatterjee, Arnab

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Income and wealth distribution data for different countries; 3. Major socio-economic modellings; 4. Market exchanges and scattering process; 5. Analytic structure of the kinetic exchange market models; 6. Microeconomic foundation of the kinetic exchange models; 7. Dynamics: generation of income, inequality and development; 8. Outlook; References; Index.

  10. Avoiding poverty: distributing wealth in fisheries

    Eide, A.; Bavinck, M.; Raakjær, J.; Jentoft, S.; Eide, A.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic resources contribute to economic growth, food security, and the livelihoods of millions of fishers around the world. This is evidenced by the industrialization of capture fisheries in the twentieth century, which has generated enormous wealth. Rather than supporting a policy aimed at

  11. The relationship among biodiversity, governance, wealth, and scientific capacity at a country level: Disaggregation and prioritization.

    Lira-Noriega, Andrés; Soberón, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    At a global level, the relationship between biodiversity importance and capacity to manage it is often assumed to be negative, without much differentiation among the more than 200 countries and territories of the world. We examine this relationship using a database including terrestrial biodiversity, wealth and governance indicators for most countries. From these, principal components analysis was used to construct aggregated indicators at global and regional scales. Wealth, governance, and scientific capacity represent different skills and abilities in relation to biodiversity importance. Our results show that the relationship between biodiversity and the different factors is not simple: in most regions wealth and capacity varies positively with biodiversity, while governance vary negatively with biodiversity. However, these trends, to a certain extent, are concentrated in certain groups of nations and outlier countries. We discuss our results in the context of collaboration and joint efforts among biodiversity-rich countries and foreign agencies.

  12. The future of nuclear power worldwide and the role of the global nuclear energy partnership

    Spurgeon, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation is entitled, 'The Future of Nuclear Power Worldwide and the Role of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership', and the core message in one sentence is: When we look at the challenges of meeting our growing energy demands, providing for energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, we must conclude that nuclear power has to play a significant and growing role in meeting these challenges. Similarly, the mission of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership is to foster the safe and secure worldwide expansion of nuclear energy. GNEP comes at a crucial time in the burgeoning expansion of nuclear power. It is the only comprehensive proposal to close the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States, and engage the international community to minimize proliferation risks as well as provide and benefit from cooperation in policy formation, technical support, and technology and infrastructure development. Nuclear power's poised renaissance is encouraging, but it will require public support, expanded R and D activities and facilities, and increases in human capital needed for wide-scale construction and operation of new nuclear plants. Despite recent political currents, Germany can, too, become a part of this renaissance and become a full partner in the global partnership that shares a common vision for nuclear power's expansion. (orig.)

  13. The EU as a global ecological power: The logics of market integration

    Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we try to show how the EU became a global ecological power, i.e. a power that influences environmental policies throughout the world. While the existing literature stresses the significance of normative power, regulatory politics and multi-level governance in this process, we highlight the importance of what we call the logics of market integration. By that we mean the decisive role of Single market integration in fostering convergence of environmental policies at the European level as well as in extending European influence at the global level. We illustrate our approach with the case of climate policy, detailing the EU's influence on economic instruments developed worldwide to mitigate climate change. (authors)

  14. The rise of sovereign wealth funds: the new geography of wealth

    Du Granrut, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    For some time now states have been 'making a comeback' in the management of certain strategic areas of the economy, such as energy, as in the case of Russia that was covered in the January 2008 issue of Futuribles. Some emergent countries or countries whose main source of income is their oil revenues are also moving into strategic sectors through the financial markets, using so-called 'sovereign' investment funds. Charles du Granrut describes what sovereign funds are, what they represent in terms of international economic relations and the investment strategies they apply etc. He first recalls the substantial accumulation of trading surpluses that underlies these funds in the Asian countries and the oil-exporting nations. An accumulation of currency reserves ensues, conferring substantial power on these countries with regard to the management of exchange rates and the possibility of managing a part of these reserves dynamically through sovereign funds (funds for the international investment of national savings that come under the authority of the states or central banks of these countries). After giving an account of the main existing sovereign funds, their scope and their strategy, Charles du Granrut shows what the consequences of their development might be, particularly for the international monetary system: among other things, a lasting rise in exchange rates against the US dollar, generating a transfer of wealth from the United States to its creditor countries, foremost among them the emerging Asian nations and the oil exporting states. (author)

  15. Sovereign wealth funds: Investment objectives and asset allocation strategies

    Daniil Wagner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs have steadily increased their importance in the global financial system in the last decade and especially during the financial crisis period. Although the objectives and investment strategies of SWFs are quite diverse, I propose to sort them into three main groups, depending on their sponsor countries’ endowment with resources and investment objectives. I present case studies and empirical analyses that reflect SWF investment activities and try to elaborate on the special role of each SWF group. Special emphasis is given to the recent financial crisis, where SWFs also acted as bailout investors by injecting substantial capital into global financial institutions, filling a financing gap that other institutional investors could not close

  16. Framing Political Change: Can a Left Populism Disrupt the Rise of the Reactionary Right? Comment on "Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames".

    Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-17

    Solomon Benatar offers an important critique of the limited frame that sets the boundaries of much of what is referred to as 'global health.' In placing his comments within a criticism of increasing poverty (or certainly income and wealth inequalities) and the decline in our environmental commons, he locates our health inequities within the pathology of our present global economy. In that respect it is a companion piece to an editorial I published around the same time. Both Benatar's and my paralleling arguments take on a new urgency in the wake of the US presidential election. Although not a uniquely American event (the xenophobic right has been making inroads in many parts of the world), the degree of vitriol expressed by the President-elect of the world's (still) most powerful and militarized country is being used to further legitimate the policies of right-extremist parties in Europe while providing additional justification for the increasingly autocratic politics of leaders (elected or otherwise) in many other of the world's nations. To challenge right-populism's rejection of the predatory inequalities that 4 years of (neo)-liberal globalization have created demands strong and sustained left populism built, in part, on the ecocentric frame advocated by Benatar. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  17. Global Public Goods and The Role of Emerging Power: Considering the Concept of Impure Public Goods

    Liu Rieshøj Yi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing analysis of global public goods over-emphasizes the significance of public. Great power as a main provider has played an active role in these strategic initiatives, which may be ignored. In fact, main power has thought about the possible free-riders when providing public goods and making its foreign strategic plan. China’s announcement to “welcome the neighbouring countries to be a free-rider and benefit from China’s rise” is a good example. It is necessary to think about the theory of public goods and take another look at the free-riding phenomenon. The concept of impure public goods may be useful and effective when we understand the reason why global public goods are being provided and are relatively efficient. As an emerging power, China should have a clear strategy on global public goods with a possible “marketing” viewpoint, including more initiatives and specific measures, so that the global public goods provision may be more diverse and well-planned.

  18. A Global Civilian Power? The Future Role of the European Union in International Politics

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Questions about the future of the European Union as an international actor continue to puzzle students of international relations and particularly students of EU foreign policy. What kind of predictions can we make about the future role of the EU in international politics? While the question is often framed in terms of military versus normative and/or global civilian power Europe, there are indications that ambitions in both directions may very well coincide. However, despite the EU’s development towards deepened defense integration since the 1990s, such developments are by far outweighed by developments pointing in the direction of the EU consolidating its role as a global civilian power. In this article, we analyze the union’s civilian policies and contrast the findings of our analysis with developments in the field of Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP. Based on our analysis of EU enlargement policy, external aid, global environmental policy and the union’s commitment to multilateralism, our conclusion is that the EU’s international role in the next decades will continue to be best described in terms of a global civilian power.

  19. Does wealth inequality matter for growth? The effect of billionaire wealth, income distribution, and poverty

    Bagchi, S.; Švejnar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2015), s. 505-530 ISSN 0147-5967 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : economic growth * wealth inequality * income inequality Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2015

  20. Developmental changes of BOLD signal correlations with global human EEG power and synchronization during working memory.

    Lars Michels

    Full Text Available In humans, theta band (5-7 Hz power typically increases when performing cognitively demanding working memory (WM tasks, and simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings have revealed an inverse relationship between theta power and the BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent signal in the default mode network during WM. However, synchronization also plays a fundamental role in cognitive processing, and the level of theta and higher frequency band synchronization is modulated during WM. Yet, little is known about the link between BOLD, EEG power, and EEG synchronization during WM, and how these measures develop with human brain maturation or relate to behavioral changes. We examined EEG-BOLD signal correlations from 18 young adults and 15 school-aged children for age-dependent effects during a load-modulated Sternberg WM task. Frontal load (in-dependent EEG theta power was significantly enhanced in children compared to adults, while adults showed stronger fMRI load effects. Children demonstrated a stronger negative correlation between global theta power and the BOLD signal in the default mode network relative to adults. Therefore, we conclude that theta power mediates the suppression of a task-irrelevant network. We further conclude that children suppress this network even more than adults, probably from an increased level of task-preparedness to compensate for not fully mature cognitive functions, reflected in lower response accuracy and increased reaction time. In contrast to power, correlations between instantaneous theta global field synchronization and the BOLD signal were exclusively positive in both age groups but only significant in adults in the frontal-parietal and posterior cingulate cortices. Furthermore, theta synchronization was weaker in children and was--in contrast to EEG power--positively correlated with response accuracy in both age groups. In summary we conclude that theta EEG-BOLD signal correlations differ between spectral power and

  1. The Marriage Wealth Premium Revisited: Gender Disparities and Within-Individual Changes in Personal Wealth in Germany.

    Lersch, Philipp M

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the association between marriage and economic wealth of women and men. Going beyond previous research that focused on household wealth, I examine personal wealth, which allows identifying gender disparities in the association between marriage and wealth. Using unique data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (2002, 2007, and 2012), I apply random-effects and fixed-effects regression models to test my expectations. I find that both women and men experience substantial marriage wealth premiums not only in household wealth but also in personal wealth. However, I do not find consistent evidence for gender disparities in these general marriage premiums. Additional analyses indicate, however, that women's marriage premiums are substantially lower than men's premiums in older cohorts and when only nonhousing wealth is considered. Overall, this study provides new evidence that women and men gain unequally in their wealth attainment through marriage.

  2. China's Sovereign Wealth Fund Investments in overseas energy: The energy security perspective

    Sun, Xiaolei; Li, Jianping; Wang, Yongfeng; Clark, Woodrow W.

    2014-01-01

    Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) are state-owned investment funds that invest in real and financial assets. Since the global financial crisis in 2008, SWFs' investments have resulted in national security concerns of host countries because SWFs continue to expand rapidly and have become increasingly active in real-time strategic transactions. Given this background, China, which has the biggest SWF in the world, is facing severe challenges of energy resources shortages while its plan is to accomplish social and economic development goals. Energy security is a key driving force of the energy investment policy of China's SWFs. This makes the SWF investments more complicated and more politically sensitive. The combination of sovereign rights and the strategic importance of energy also makes geopolitics more complicated and brings more uncertainty to SWF investments. This article explores the relationship between energy security and energy investments of China's SWFs. It is recognised that the energy investment of SWFs must follow a sustainable path to coordinate energy security, economic growth, return on investment and national security concerns. Government policymakers are urged to balance the financial and political returns on SWFs against potential negative effects. The conclusion presents insights for policymakers, energy scholars and SWF researchers. - Highlights: • Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) are government-owned and may pursue geopolitical power. • SWF investment in energy is necessary for commercial and strategic interests. • China's SWFs are active in energy investment to support a “going global” strategy. • Sovereign rights are inevitable to integrate the strategic property of energy. • SWF investments in energy suffer negative impacts due to sovereign rights

  3. A Power Efficient Exaflop Computer Design for Global Cloud System Resolving Climate Models.

    Wehner, M. F.; Oliker, L.; Shalf, J.

    2008-12-01

    Exascale computers would allow routine ensemble modeling of the global climate system at the cloud system resolving scale. Power and cost requirements of traditional architecture systems are likely to delay such capability for many years. We present an alternative route to the exascale using embedded processor technology to design a system optimized for ultra high resolution climate modeling. These power efficient processors, used in consumer electronic devices such as mobile phones, portable music players, cameras, etc., can be tailored to the specific needs of scientific computing. We project that a system capable of integrating a kilometer scale climate model a thousand times faster than real time could be designed and built in a five year time scale for US$75M with a power consumption of 3MW. This is cheaper, more power efficient and sooner than any other existing technology.

  4. The Emergence of `Power with': The Case of a Born Global Organization

    Yan, Lin; Panteli, Niki

    Thanks to the advancement of Information and Communications Technologies, the past decade has seen the rise of Born Global organizations (Rennie, 1993; Oviatt and McDougall, 1994; Karra and Philips, 2004; Zahra, 2005). Broadly defined as ‘business organizations that, right from inception, seek to derive significant competitive advantages from the use of resources and the sales of outputs in multiple countries’ (Oviatt and McDougall, 1994: 49), Born Global organizations are small, young, and internationally dispersed. While sharing the characteristics of ‘smallness’ and ‘newness’ of Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), Born Global organizations also bear ‘foreignness’, similar to that of Multinational Corporations (Zahra, 2005). Born Globals therefore need to strike a balance between ‘global reach’ and ‘local touch’ as in Multinational Corporations (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1989); yet they have to do so with scare resources and organizational uncertainty similar to SMEs, and with ‘lean’ and ‘mean’ communications afforded by ICT (e.g. Sproull and Kiesler, 1986). This study is an initial attempt to untangle the combined challenges in Born Globals’ innovative way of management. Through a longitudinal case study, we aim to explore the issue of power in a Born Global’s endeavour to manage its global knowledge via technology mediation.

  5. Dynamics of global supply chain and electric power networks: Models, pricing analysis, and computations

    Matsypura, Dmytro

    In this dissertation, I develop a new theoretical framework for the modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of solutions to electric power supply chains with power generators, suppliers, transmission service providers, and the inclusion of consumer demands. In particular, I advocate the application of finite-dimensional variational inequality theory, projected dynamical systems theory, game theory, network theory, and other tools that have been recently proposed for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks (cf. Nagurney (2006)) to electric power markets. This dissertation contributes to the extant literature on the modeling, analysis, and solution of supply chain networks, including global supply chains, in general, and electric power supply chains, in particular, in the following ways. It develops a theoretical framework for modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of electric power flows/transactions in electric power systems using the rationale for supply chain analysis. The models developed include both static and dynamic ones. The dissertation also adds a new dimension to the methodology of the theory of projected dynamical systems by proving that, irrespective of the speeds of adjustment, the equilibrium of the system remains the same. Finally, I include alternative fuel suppliers, along with their behavior into the supply chain modeling and analysis framework. This dissertation has strong practical implications. In an era in which technology and globalization, coupled with increasing risk and uncertainty, complicate electricity demand and supply within and between nations, the successful management of electric power systems and pricing become increasingly pressing topics with relevance not only for economic prosperity but also national security. This dissertation addresses such related topics by providing models, pricing tools, and algorithms for decentralized electric power supply chains. This dissertation is based heavily on the following

  6. Farmers’ Education and Farmers’ Wealth in Bangladesh

    Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of farmers’ education is examined with a view to evaluate the actual situation of farmers’ education in Bangladesh. Fifty samples were collected from two sub districts of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. The selection of the study sites and collection of the samples such as the years of schooling of the farm household head, total income, farm size, number of earners of farm families, family size, years of farming experience of farm household head, number of times extension contacts and rice yield were done purposively. It is cleared from the study that education is necessary for farmers to raise their wealth. Results were derived through regression analysis. The study has also shown that size of family and years of farming experience contributed significantly to the wealth accumulation of farmers.

  7. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2010 Annual Review

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    The global power deal market is finally seeing an upward trend in momentum from the lows reached in 2009, with the total deal value in the non-renewable electricity and gas sectors up 19% year on year from USD 97.6bn to USD 116bn in 2010 - a year which also saw an end to the deal stalemate in the US with a renewed deal flow that looks set to continue this year. Compared to the heady mountain of power deals transacted between 2005-2008, deal values remain low but conditions are in place for a return at least to the foothills of these peaks, according to PwC's annual Power Deals review. Globalisation of the power sector is moving forward on a number of fronts with, for example, companies looking at gaining a larger presence in growth markets, acquisitions of global network asset portfolios with strong international interest in infrastructure assets and signs of greater Chinese involvement, not just from grid companies but also independent power producers.

  8. Japan and the changing global balance of power: The view from the summit

    Dobson, H.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores Japan's relative decline and its responses to the changing global balance of power through a case study of one symptom of this shift: the rise of the G20 as the 'premier forum for international economic co-operation' at the expense of the G8. The G8 has traditionally held a significant position in Japan's international relations that appears to be undermined by the rise of the G20. Japan's responses to these developments reveal it to be a status quo power that is still c...

  9. Wealth Accumulation and Factors Accounting for Success.

    Pawasutipaisit, Anan; Townsend, Robert M

    2011-03-01

    We use detailed income, balance sheet, and cash flow statements constructed for households in a long monthly panel in an emerging market economy, and some recent contributions in economic theory, to document and better understand the factors underlying success in achieving upward mobility in the distribution of net worth. Wealth inequality is decreasing over time, and many households work their way out of poverty and lower wealth over the seven year period. The accounts establish that, mechanically, this is largely due to savings rather than incoming gifts and remittances. In turn, the growth of net worth can be decomposed household by household into the savings rate and how productively that savings is used, the return on assets (ROA). The latter plays the larger role. ROA is, in turn, positively correlated with higher education of household members, younger age of the head, and with a higher debt/asset ratio and lower initial wealth, so it seems from cross-sections that the financial system is imperfectly channeling resources to productive and poor households. Household fixed effects account for the larger part of ROA, and this success is largely persistent, undercutting the story that successful entrepreneurs are those that simply get lucky. Persistence does vary across households, and in at least one province with much change and increasing opportunities, ROA changes as households move over time to higher-return occupations. But for those households with high and persistent ROA, the savings rate is higher, consistent with some micro founded macro models with imperfect credit markets. Indeed, high ROA households save by investing in their own enterprises and adopt consistent financial strategies for smoothing fluctuations. More generally growth of wealth, savings levels and/or rates are correlated with TFP and the household fixed effects that are the larger part of ROA.

  10. Control of Shareholders’ Wealth Maximization in Nigeria

    A. O. Oladipupo; C. O. Okafor

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on who controls shareholder’s wealth maximization and how does this affect firm’s performance in publicly quoted non-financial companies in Nigeria. The shareholder fund was the dependent while explanatory variables were firm size (proxied by log of turnover), retained earning (representing management control) and dividend payment (representing measure of shareholders control). The data used for this study were obtained from the Nigerian Stock Exchange [NSE] fact book an...

  11. Wealth Management Untuk Pensiun Yang Sejahtera

    Sina, Peter Garlans

    2015-01-01

    Abstrak: Wealth Management untuk Pensiun yang Sejahtera. Pensiun yang sejahtera menjadi impian semua orang. Oleh sebab itu, untuk mewujudkan pensiun yang sejahtera membutuhkan manajemen kekayaan yang benar. Hasil analisis menemukan bahwa manajemen kekayaan yang benar mampu meningkatkan peluang mengalami pensiun yang sejahtera. Salah satu cara yang dapat diaplikasikan adalah melalui mengelola arus kas dengan benar. Oleh sebab itu, pada bagian akhir diberikan cara yang dapat ditempuh untuk meng...

  12. Outlook for Global Nuclear Power: Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period up to 2050

    Gritsevskyi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear power's global expansion is projected to continue in the coming decades - albeit at a slowing pace - amid challenges including low fossil fuel prices, a sluggish world economy and the legacy of Japan's Fukushima Daiichi accident. Each year, the IAEA publishes projections of the world's nuclear power generating capacity in Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period up to 2050, now in its 35th edition.The latest projections point to slower growth in nuclear power, in keeping with the trend since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident. The world's nuclear power generating capacity is projected to expand by 2.4 percent by 2030, according to the low projections, compared with 7.7 percent estimated in 2014. In the high case, generating capacity is estimated to grow by 68 percent by 2030, versus 88 percent forecast last year. Uncertainty related to energy policy, license renewals, shutdowns and future constructions accounts for the wide range.The estimates also factor in the likely future retirement of many of the world's 438 nuclear reactors currently in operation, more than half of which are over 30 years old. Despite the need to replace scores of retiring reactors, nuclear power is still set to maintain - and possibly increase - its role in the world's low-carbon energy mix. It's important to understand that these projections, while carefully derived, are not predictions.The estimates should be viewed as very general growth trends, whose validity must be constantly subjected to critical review.(author).

  13. Powering China: reforming the power industry in China

    Xu Yi Chong

    2002-06-01

    This, the first text to study the Chinese electric power industry in great detail, examines the ownership and the restructuring of the industry. The reform of the electric power industry is also seen as part of the wider economic development that has been taking place in China, thus providing fresh perspectives on the changes taking place in both the economy and society more generally. Presenting a wealth of extensive research on the subject, the book elucidates the power struggle between political and bureaucratic elite and explains the sensitive and volatile relationship between the central and provincial government against an increasingly complex global background. (Author)

  14. The cost and benefit of energy technology in the global context - the case of fusion power

    Clarke, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to evaluate the economical and environmental consequences of fusion power for the next century. For this evaluation, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory global energy/economy model is used. In applying the model to analyse costs and benefits of fusion energy, the author compares the projections of the model for a world with and without fusion. (TEC). 5 tabs., 7 figs., 18 refs

  15. The Shifting Global Power Balance Equations and the Emerging Real ‘New World Order’

    Ovie-D’Leone, Alex Igho

    2010-01-01

    Expansion in globalization arising from increased interconnectivity and interdependence across the worldis causing a shift both in the focus of what now could determine the principal international powervariables and the criteria for power balancing calculus. One direct challenge to the status quo is theemergence on one hand of new state actors which are becoming more assertive, as well as some other newkey non-state actors now matching states seemingly one-on-one on the world stage in many sp...

  16. Electric power globalization and reforming; Globalizacao e reforma do setor eletrico

    Soares Neto, Jose Lino [PETROBRAS Distribuidora, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to define the economic and political forces of the electric power sector regulation restructuring.

  17. The European Union in International Politics: Acting as a Global Civilian Power (GCP

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Cold War the European Community lacking common military instruments was perceived as the example of a civilian power. However, in the early 1990s, under the framework of CFSP, the first concrete defence initiatives have been launched. By the end of the 1990s and after the agreement on the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP the first Rapid Reaction Forces were on the European military agenda. Such defence and military capabilities challenged the idea of the EU as a civil or civilian power. Thus, a main concern in the paper has been to assess the character and identity of the EU`s activities in the context of international relations. For this purpose, this study has explored the EU policy instruments such as the enlargement policy, external aid, environmental policy at the global level, multilateralism, and the EU armed forces. The study concludes that the enlargement policy accounts for an important EU strategy to shape the international environment through civilian means. Furthermore, the international aid policy of the EU states has primarily been based on the sense of duty to other countries as constructivists point out. The EU has also been vocal and has used environmental foreign policy as an instrument to demonstrate its global leadership role which is a clear indication of its commitment to global welfare. Thanks to its presence in the major multilateral interventions of the last decade, the EU has qualified itself as great supporter of multilateralism. Lastly, the EU military capabilities are not achieved by creating permanent European armed forces but are still based on the voluntary contributions of its member states. Therefore, the EU still can be portrayed as a global civilian power (GCP or civilian power Europe (CPE.

  18. Benchmarking global supply chains: the power of the ‘ethical audit’ regime

    LeBaron, G.; Lister, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article critically investigates the growing power and effectiveness of the ‘ethical’ compliance audit regime. Over the last decade, audits have evolved from a tool for companies to track internal organisational performance into a transnational governing mechanism to measure and strengthen corporate accountability globally and shape corporate responsibility norms. Drawing on original interviews, we assess the effectiveness of supply chain benchmarks and audits in promoting environmental a...

  19. Health, Wealth and Happiness: Why pursue a Higher Education?

    Hartog, Joop; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    1997-01-01

    We explore the effect of schooling on health, wealth and happiness for a cohort of Dutch individuals born around 1940. We also use observations on childhood IQ and family background. The most fortunate group is the group with a non-vocational intermediate level education: they score highest on health, wealth and happiness. We find that IQ affects health, but not wealth or happiness. Family background level increases wealth, but neither health nor happiness. With a father who worked independen...

  20. Traditional wealth, modern goods, and demographic behavior in rural Senegal

    Garenne, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationships of demographic indicators (fertility, mortality, marriage, education) with modern and traditional wealth in rural Senegal. Data were based on rural households interviewed in the 2011 DHS survey. An Absolute Wealth Index was computed from a list of 15 modern goods. A Traditional Wealth Index was computed from data on land and livestock per capita. Modern wealth was always associated with modern demographic behavior (lower fertility, lower mortality, hig...

  1. Global map of solar power production efficiency, considering micro climate factors

    Hassanpour Adeh, E.; Higgins, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Natural resources degradation and greenhouse gas emissions are creating a global crisis. Renewable energy is the most reliable option to mitigate this environmental dilemma. Abundancy of solar energy makes it highly attractive source of electricity. The existing global spatial maps of available solar energy are created with various models which consider the irradiation, latitude, cloud cover, elevation, shading and aerosols, and neglect the influence of local meteorological conditions. In this research, the influences of microclimatological variables on solar energy productivity were investigated with an in-field study at the Rabbit Hills solar arrays near Oregon State University. The local studies were extended to a global level, where global maps of solar power were produced, taking the micro climate variables into account. These variables included: temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation. The energy balance approach was used to synthesize the data and compute the efficiencies. The results confirmed that the solar power efficiency can be directly affected by the air temperature and wind speed.

  2. Global Health as a Field of Power Relations: A Response to Recent Commentaries.

    Shiffman, Jeremy

    2015-05-22

    Actors working in global health often portray it as an enterprise grounded in principled concerns, advanced by individuals and organizations who draw on scientific evidence to pursue health equity. This portrait is incomplete. It is also a field of power relations-a social arena in which actors claim and draw on expertise and moral authority to gain influence and pursue career, organizational and national interests. A clear understanding of how power operates in this field is necessary to ensure that it is used productively to serve the aims of health equity and improved population health. Responding to commentaries on an editorial published in this journal, I offer 3 ideas toward this end: (1) be skeptical of the global health rationality project-the effort to rescue the field from the alleged indignities of politics through the application of scientific methods; (2) analyze global health as a field of power relations, a concept developed by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu; and (3) elevate the place of input legitimacy-inclusive deliberation, fair process and transparency-to address legitimacy and knowledge deficits in this field. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  3. Global Health as a Field of Power Relations: A Response to Recent Commentaries

    Shiffman, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Actors working in global health often portray it as an enterprise grounded in principled concerns, advanced by individuals and organizations who draw on scientific evidence to pursue health equity. This portrait is incomplete. It is also a field of power relations—a social arena in which actors claim and draw on expertise and moral authority to gain influence and pursue career, organizational and national interests. A clear understanding of how power operates in this field is necessary to ensure that it is used productively to serve the aims of health equity and improved population health. Responding to commentaries on an editorial published in this journal, I offer 3 ideas toward this end: (1) be skeptical of the global health rationality project—the effort to rescue the field from the alleged indignities of politics through the application of scientific methods; (2) analyze global health as a field of power relations, a concept developed by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu; and (3) elevate the place of input legitimacy—inclusive deliberation, fair process and transparency—to address legitimacy and knowledge deficits in this field. PMID:26188819

  4. Roles of nuclear power system in the presence of uncertainties from global warming

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Iwata, Shuichi

    2005-01-01

    Environmental 'bads' like carbon dioxide are not simply incorporated in the market system. The costs involved, however, do not really reflect the inherent value of the environment, or what it is worth to them. This study focuses on the uncertainty of CO 2 emission credits. Assigning economic values to environmental goods and services is complex, but it is an area that is receiving considerable attention from environmental economists. The purpose of this study is to analyze the value of an investment in power generation assets that do not emit CO 2 . To deal with the CO 2 emission credit, we built new models based on the real option model by Pindyck (2000). In the modern, market-based financial systems that dominate the global economy, the value of a resource is represented by the price that an individual or a group is willing to pay for it. Managing CO 2 emission limitations will be a critical aspect of power generation systems. And it will be increasingly so as the emphasis on global environmental issues continues to rise. In order to secure the effectiveness of measures against global warming, we should reconsider the role of nuclear power systems. (author)

  5. A GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY RESOURCES: NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M.; Westberg, D.; Whitlock, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's POWER project, or the Prediction of the Worldwide Energy Resources project, synthesizes and analyzes data on a global scale. The products of the project find valuable applications in the solar and wind energy sectors of the renewable energy industries. The primary source data for the POWER project are NASA's World Climate Research Project (WCRP)/Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project (Release 3.0) and the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) assimilation model (V 4.0.3). Users of the POWER products access the data through NASA's Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE, Version 6.0) website (http://power.larc.nasa.gov). Over 200 parameters are available to the users. The spatial resolution is 1 degree by 1 degree now and will be finer later. The data covers from July 1983 to December 2007, a time-span of 24.5 years, and are provided as 3-hourly, daily and monthly means. As of now, there have been over 18 million web hits and over 4 million data file downloads. The POWER products have been systematically validated against ground-based measurements, and in particular, data from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) archive, and also against the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). Parameters such as minimum, maximum, daily mean temperature and dew points, relative humidity and surface pressure are validated against the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) data. SSE feeds data directly into Decision Support Systems including RETScreen International clean energy project analysis software that is written in 36 languages and has greater than 260,000 users worldwide.

  6. Health, Wealth and Happiness: Why Pursue a Higher Education?

    Hartog, Joop; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    1998-01-01

    Explores schooling's effect on health, wealth, and happiness for a cohort of Dutch individuals born around 1940. Uses observations on childhood IQ and family background. The group with a nonvocational, intermediate-level education scored highest on all three factors. IQ affects health, not wealth or happiness. Family background increases wealth,…

  7. Reduced order models inertial manifold and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of an analytic or numerical model of a BWR power plant, this could imply first to find an suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behaviour of this nonlinear system, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant, by distributing the different solution types in relation with the exclusion region of the power-flow map. Then the goal is to obtain the best attainable qualitative and quantitative global picture of plant dynamics. To do this, the construction and the analysis of the so called reduced order models (Rom) seems a necessary step. A reduced order model results after the full system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations of the plant is reduced to a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations

  8. The Role of Cultural Power and Its Influence on Global Developments

    Gholamreza Mortazavi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the culture power in international politics is very complicated and difficult matter because it has been less explicitly used in the analyses and theorizing of cultural elements, hence the role of culture like political, security and economic factors, is not apparent in the theory of international relations. Many researchers have found that it is not possible to achieve the depth of the relations between nations only by relying on the pure political and economic factors. They prescribe to focus on cultural issues and special attention to the field of culture in order to achieve a realistic cognition of international relations. What doubles the importance of the issue, is the design of some new theories and new intellectual schools, and its effect on global politics. Including, the theory of the clash of civilizations, the dialogue of civilizations, cultural fluidity and postmodernist attitude towards the category of identity and culture, that each of them in some way recommends a particular action framework, according to its noetic framework. Hence, the fundamental question is that: What is the role of culture (soft power in foreign policy and what impact does it have on global changes and developments trend? In response to this, the hypothesis is raised in such a way (trying to produce, procure and persuade values, attitudes, and trends and common attitudes lead to achieve cultural power and, as a result, facilitate the achievement of the national goals and interests of the countries, and promote the foreign policy of the countries and, on the other hand, the use of cultural power, creates a culture of resistance in the field of global politics.

  9. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  10. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  11. Global Health Warning: Definitions Wield Power; Comment on “Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health”

    Robert Marten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gorik Ooms recently made a strong case for considering the centrality of normative premises to analyzing and understanding the underappreciated importance of the nexus of politics, power and process in global health. This critical commentary raises serious questions for the practice and study of global health and global health governance. First and foremost, this commentary underlines the importance of the question of what is global health, and why as well as how does this definition matter? This refocuses discussion on the importance of definitions and how they wield power. It also re-affirms the necessity of a deeper analysis and understanding of power and how it affects and shapes the practice of global health.

  12. Wealth Transmission and Inequality Among Hunter-Gatherers

    Hill, Kim; Marlowe, Frank; Nolin, David; Wiessner, Polly; Gurven, Michael; Bowles, Samuel; Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Hertz, Tom; Bell, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    We report quantitative estimates of intergenerational transmission and population-wide inequality for wealth measures in a set of hunter-gatherer populations. Wealth is defined broadly as factors that contribute to individual or household well-being, ranging from embodied forms such as weight and hunting success to material forms such household goods, as well as relational wealth in exchange partners. Intergenerational wealth transmission is low to moderate in these populations, but is still expected to have measurable influence on an individual’s life chances. Wealth inequality (measured with Gini coefficients) is moderate for most wealth types, matching what qualitative ethnographic research has generally indicated (if not the stereotype of hunter-gatherers as extreme egalitarians). We discuss some plausible mechanisms for these patterns, and suggest ways in which future research could resolve questions about the role of wealth in hunter-gatherer social and economic life. PMID:21151711

  13. Financial Wealth Distribution in Revised Financial Accounts

    Václav Rybáček

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial statistics undergo dynamic evolution as apparent consequence of their rising importance. Structureof assets, source of fi nancing, price changes or net fi nancial position, all these indicators can detect oncomingfi nancial instability. Financial statistics as a logical extension of the national accounts provide such information.Th e aim of the following text is to present fi nancial statistics, relation between particular accounts, the impact of extraordinary revision carried out in 2011, and also to analyse current wealth distribution as described by fi nancial statistics.

  14. Revisiting the child health-wealth nexus.

    Fakir, Adnan M S

    2016-12-01

    The causal link between a household's economic standing and child health is known to suffer from endogeneity. While past studies have exemplified the causal link to be small, albeit statistically significant, this paper aims to estimate the causal effect to investigate whether the effect of income after controlling for the endogeneity remains small in the long run. By correcting for the bias, and knowing the bias direction, one can also infer about the underlying backward effect. This paper uses an instrument variables two-stage-least-squares estimation on the Young Lives 2009 cross-sectional dataset from Andhra Pradesh, India, to understand the aforementioned relationship. The selected measure of household economic standing differentially affects the estimation. There is significant positive effect of both short-run household expenditure and long-run household wealth on child stunting, with the latter having a larger impact. The backward link running from child health to household income is likely an inverse association in our sample with lower child health inducing higher earnings. While higher average community education improved child health, increased community entertainment expenditure is found to have a negative effect. While policies catered towards improving household wealth will decrease child stunting in the long run, maternal education and the community play an equally reinforcing role in improving child health and are perhaps faster routes to achieving the goal of better child health in the short run.

  15. Fractal Markets Hypothesis and the Global Financial Crisis: Wavelet Power Evidence

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2013-10-01

    We analyze whether the prediction of the fractal markets hypothesis about a dominance of specific investment horizons during turbulent times holds. To do so, we utilize the continuous wavelet transform analysis and obtained wavelet power spectra which give the crucial information about the variance distribution across scales and its evolution in time. We show that the most turbulent times of the Global Financial Crisis can be very well characterized by the dominance of short investment horizons which is in hand with the assertions of the fractal markets hypothesis.

  16. Upgrading to lead firm position via international acquisition: learning from the global biomass power plant industry

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Fold, Niels; Hansen, Teis

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the case of a Chinese firm that has upgraded to lead firm position in the global biomass power plant industry mainly through acquisitions of technological frontier firms in Denmark. Sustaining the lead firm position was, however, challenged by difficulties in developing...... innovative capability. Drawing on the literature on (i) firm-level technological capability and (ii) knowledge transfer in international acquisitions, we explain the reasons for insufficient innovative capability building. Based on these empirical findings, we suggest maintaining the existing upgrading...

  17. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  18. Does wealth inequality matter for growth? The effect of billionaire wealth, income distribution, and poverty

    Bagchi, S.; Švejnar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2015), s. 505-530 ISSN 0147-5967 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-24642S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : economic growth * wealth inequality * income inequality Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2015

  19. Where wealth matters more for health: the wealth-health gradient in 16 countries.

    Semyonov, Moshe; Lewin-Epstein, Noah; Maskileyson, Dina

    2013-03-01

    Researchers have long demonstrated that persons of high economic status are likely to be healthier than persons of low socioeconomic standing. Cross-national studies have also demonstrated that health of the population tends to increase with country's level of economic development and to decline with level of economic inequality. The present research utilizes data for 16 national samples (of populations fifty years of age and over) to examine whether the relationship between wealth and health at the individual-level is systematically associated with country's level of economic development and country's level of income inequality. The analysis reveals that in all countries rich persons tend to be healthier than poor persons. Furthermore, in all countries the positive association between wealth and health holds even after controlling for socio-demographic attributes and household income. Hierarchical regression analysis leads to two major conclusions: first, country's economic resources increase average health of the population but do not weaken the tie between wealth and health; second, a more equal distribution of economic resources (greater egalitarianism) does not raise health levels of the population but weakens the tie between wealth and health. The latter findings can be mostly attributed to the uniqueness of the US case. The findings and their significance are discussed in light of previous research and theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. IAEA’s Perspectives on Global Nuclear Power – Opportunities and Challenges

    Park, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Status of global nuclear power: 437 reactors in operation (374.5 GWe); 2 reactors in long-term shutdown; 149 reactors in permanent shutdown; 70 reactors under construction. [As of Sep. 2014] Latest connections to the grid: - Ningde-2, 1000 MW(e), PWR, China; - Atucha-2, 692 MW(e), PHWR, Argentina; - Fuqing-1, 1000 MW(e), PWR, China). [Website: http://www.iaea.org/pris/]. IAEA projections of nuclear power: • Sep. 2014: 374.5 GWe; • 2030 - low 400.6 GWe: 7.0% increase; - high 699.2 GWe: 86.7% increase; • 2050 - low 412.9 GWe: 10.3% increase; - high 1091.7 GWe: 191.5% increase

  1. Global assessment of onshore wind power resources considering the distance to urban areas

    Silva Herran, Diego; Dai, Hancheng; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed global onshore wind power resources considering the distance to urban areas in terms of transmission losses and costs, and visibility (landscape impact) restrictions. Including this factor decreased the economic potential considerably depending on the level of supply cost considered (at least 37% and 16% for an economic potential below 10 and 14 US cents/kWh, respectively). Its importance compared to other factors was secondary below 15 US cents/kWh. At higher costs it was secondary only to land use, and was more important than economic and technical factors. The impact of this factor was mixed across all regions of the world, given the heterogeneity of wind resources in remote and proximal areas. Regions where available resources decreased the most included the European Union, Japan, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. The supply cost chosen to evaluate the economic potential and uncertainties influencing the estimation of distance to the closest urban area are critical for the assessment. Neglecting the restrictions associated with integration into energy systems and social acceptability resulted in an overestimation of global onshore wind resources. These outcomes are fundamental for global climate policies because they help to clarify the limits of wind energy resource availability. - Highlights: • Global onshore wind resources were assessed including the distance to urban areas. • We evaluate the impact of transmission losses and cost, and visibility restrictions. • The distance to urban areas' impact was considerable, depending on the supply cost. • This factor's importance was secondary to economic, land use, and technical factors. • Neglecting this factor resulted in an overestimation of global wind resources.

  2. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2008 Annual Review

    2009-01-01

    2008 was the year in which power deal values came down from their record-breaking highs of the two preceding years as the financial crisis and a number of market uncertainties had a negative impact on deal activity. Nonetheless, total deal numbers leapt by 24% as companies concentrated on smaller deals and took advantage of new opportunities that arose in the changed market conditions. Europe was least affected by the downturn in deal values and accounted for over half of all bidder and target power deal value. In contrast, power deals in Australia, which had previously been a main motor of growing M and A activity in the Asia Pacific region, virtually stalled as uncertainty over new carbon emission policies combined with the financial crisis to deter deal flow. In North America, like Europe, big deals were fewer but underlying deal activity was comparable with previous years. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector, drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key electricity and gas utilities markets. Looking to the future, the easing of the financial crisis will be key to deal flow but the near-term outlook looks less robust than the recent past, especially as debt markets will be further constrained by calls from the public financing required to support government bail-out programmes. Set against this, the underlying imperatives of consolidation, supply security and capitalisation remain in place and will create increasing pent-up deal demand. A lower energy price environment will change the metrics for more expensive cleaner power assets, placing an even higher importance on the outcome of global climate talks and the run-up to the December 2009 UN Climate Summit in Copenhagen

  3. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2008 Annual Review

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    2008 was the year in which power deal values came down from their record-breaking highs of the two preceding years as the financial crisis and a number of market uncertainties had a negative impact on deal activity. Nonetheless, total deal numbers leapt by 24% as companies concentrated on smaller deals and took advantage of new opportunities that arose in the changed market conditions. Europe was least affected by the downturn in deal values and accounted for over half of all bidder and target power deal value. In contrast, power deals in Australia, which had previously been a main motor of growing M and A activity in the Asia Pacific region, virtually stalled as uncertainty over new carbon emission policies combined with the financial crisis to deter deal flow. In North America, like Europe, big deals were fewer but underlying deal activity was comparable with previous years. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector, drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key electricity and gas utilities markets. Looking to the future, the easing of the financial crisis will be key to deal flow but the near-term outlook looks less robust than the recent past, especially as debt markets will be further constrained by calls from the public financing required to support government bail-out programmes. Set against this, the underlying imperatives of consolidation, supply security and capitalisation remain in place and will create increasing pent-up deal demand. A lower energy price environment will change the metrics for more expensive cleaner power assets, placing an even higher importance on the outcome of global climate talks and the run-up to the December 2009 UN Climate Summit in Copenhagen.

  4. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Spacecraft Power System Design and Orbital Performance

    Dakermanji, George; Burns, Michael; Lee, Leonine; Lyons, John; Kim, David; Spitzer, Thomas; Kercheval, Bradford

    2016-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft was jointly developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). It is a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft launched on February 27, 2014. The spacecraft is in a circular 400 Km altitude, 65 degrees inclination nadir pointing orbit with a three year basic mission life. The solar array consists of two sun tracking wings with cable wraps. The panels are populated with triple junction cells of nominal 29.5% efficiency. One axis is canted by 52 degrees to provide power to the spacecraft at high beta angles. The power system is a Direct Energy Transfer (DET) system designed to support 1950 Watts orbit average power. The batteries use SONY 18650HC cells and consist of three 8s x 84p batteries operated in parallel as a single battery. The paper describes the power system design details, its performance to date and the lithium ion battery model that was developed for use in the energy balance analysis and is being used to predict the on-orbit health of the battery.

  5. Uniform decrease of alpha-global field power induced by intermittent photic stimulation of healthy subjects

    Rau R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen-channel EEGs were recorded from the scalp surface of 30 healthy subjects (16 males and 14 females, mean age: 34 years, SD: 11.7 years at rest and under trains of intermittent photic stimulation (IPS at rates of 5, 10 and 20 Hz. Digitalized data were submitted to spectral analysis with fast fourier transformation providing the basis for the computation of global field power (GFP. For quantification, GFP values in the frequency ranges of 5, 10 and 20 Hz at rest were divided by the corresponding data obtained under IPS. All subjects showed a photic driving effect at each rate of stimulation. GFP data were normally distributed, whereas ratios from photic driving effect data showed no uniform behavior due to high interindividual variability. Suppression of alpha-power after IPS with 10 Hz was observed in about 70% of the volunteers. In contrast, ratios of alpha-power were unequivocal in all subjects: IPS at 20 Hz always led to a suppression of alpha-power. Dividing alpha-GFP with 20-Hz IPS by alpha-GFP at rest (R = alpha-GFP IPS/alpha-GFPrest thus resulted in ratios lower than 1. We conclude that ratios from GFP data with 20-Hz IPS may provide a suitable paradigm for further investigations.

  6. The Ghost Is the Machine: How Can We Visibilize the Unseen Norms and Power of Global Health? Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Forman, Lisa

    2015-12-03

    In his recent commentary, Gorik Ooms argues that "denying that researchers, like all humans, have personal opinions ... drives researchers' personal opinion underground, turning global health science into unconscious dogmatism or stealth advocacy, avoiding the crucial debate about the politics and underlying normative premises of global health." These 'unconscious' dimensions of global health are as Ooms and others suggest, rooted in its unacknowledged normative, political and power aspects. But why would these aspects be either unconscious or unacknowledged? In this commentary, I argue that the 'unconscious' and 'unacknowledged' nature of the norms, politics and power that drive global health is a direct byproduct of the processes through which power operates, and a primary mechanism by which power sustains and reinforces itself. To identify what is unconscious and unacknowledged requires more than broadening the disciplinary base of global health research to those social sciences with deep traditions of thought in the domains of power, politics and norms, albeit that doing so is a fundamental first step. I argue that it also requires individual and institutional commitments to adopt reflexive, humble and above all else, equitable practices within global health research. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  7. Power Watch: Increasing Transparency and Accessibility of Data in the Global Power Sector to Accelerate the Transition to a Lower Carbon Economy

    Hennig, R. J.; Friedrich, J.; Malaguzzi Valeri, L.; McCormick, C.; Lebling, K.; Kressig, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Power Watch project will offer open data on the global electricity sector starting with power plants and their impacts on climate and water systems; it will also offer visualizations and decision making tools. Power Watch will create the first comprehensive, open database of power plants globally by compiling data from national governments, public and private utilities, transmission grid operators, and other data providers to create a core dataset that has information on over 80% of global installed capacity for electrical generation. Power plant data will at a minimum include latitude and longitude, capacity, fuel type, emissions, water usage, ownership, and annual generation. By providing data that is both comprehensive, as well as making it publically available, this project will support decision making and analysis by actors across the economy and in the research community. The Power Watch research effort focuses on creating a global standard for power plant information, gathering and standardizing data from multiple sources, matching information from multiple sources on a plant level, testing cross-validation approaches (regional statistics, crowdsourcing, satellite data, and others) and developing estimation methodologies for generation, emissions, and water usage. When not available from official reports, emissions, annual generation, and water usage will be estimated. Water use estimates of power plants will be based on capacity, fuel type and satellite imagery to identify cooling types. This analysis is being piloted in several states in India and will then be scaled up to a global level. Other planned applications of of the Power Watch data include improving understanding of energy access, air pollution, emissions estimation, stranded asset analysis, life cycle analysis, tracking of proposed plants and curtailment analysis.

  8. Electric power and the global economy: Advances in database construction and sector representation

    Peters, Jeffrey C.

    The electricity sector plays a crucial role in the global economy. The sector is a major consumer of fossil fuel resources, producer of greenhouse gas emissions, and an important indicator and correlate of economic development. As such, the sector is a primary target for policy-makers seeking to address these issues. The sector is also experiencing rapid technological change in generation (e.g. renewables), primary inputs (e.g. horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing), and end-use efficiency. This dissertation seeks to further our understanding of the role of the electricity sector as part of the dynamic global energy-economy, which requires significant research advances in both database construction and modeling techniques. Chapter 2 identifies useful engineering-level data and presents a novel matrix balancing method for integrating these data in global economic databases. Chapter 3 demonstrates the relationship between matrix balancing method and modeling results, and Chapter 4 presents the full construction methodology for GTAP-Power, the foremost, publicly-available global computable general equilibrium database. Chapter 5 presents an electricity-detailed computational equilibrium model that explicitly and endogenously captures capacity utilization, capacity expansion, and their interdependency - important aspects of technological substitution in the electricity sector. The individual, but interrelated, research contributions to database construction and electricity modeling in computational equilibrium are placed in the context of analyzing the US EPA Clean Power Plan (CPP) CO 2 target of 32 percent reduction of CO2 emissions in the US electricity sector from a 2005 baseline by 2030. Assuming current fuel prices, the model predicts an almost 28 percent CO2 reduction without further policy intervention. Next, a carbon tax and investment subsidies for renewable technologies to meet the CPP full targets are imposed and compared (Chapter 6). The carbon tax

  9. Globalization, Inequality, Say’s Law, and Fiscal Globalism

    Gerasimos T. Soldatos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief note maintaining that financial globalization has been faster than the integration of the remaining sectors of the world economy, thus encouraging wealth inequality, under-production, and under-consumption in line with Say’s Law. Financial investment has become more profitable than real investment, discouraging production ventures, and weakening labor’s relative income position and purchasing power. Moreover, this article works out a model of international government indirect tax competition as a policy means against increasing inequality. The mentality under which this tax policy paradigm is put forward is that the competition of nation states in a fiscal globalism fashion crystallizes the optimal level of centralization under globalism; optimal, that is, from the viewpoint of safeguarding against the manipulation of world markets by financiers.

  10. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation

    Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability. PMID:27977737

  11. Human Capital, Wealth, and Renewable Resources

    Wei-Bin ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies dynamic interdependence among physical capital, resource and human capital. We integrate the Solow one-sector growth, Uzawa-Lucas two-sector and some neoclassical growth models with renewable resource models. The economic system consists of the households, production sector, resource sector and education sector. We take account of three ways of improving human capital: Arrow’s learning by producing (Arrow, 1962, Uzawa’s learning by education (Uzawa, 1965, and Zhang’s learning by consuming (Zhang, 2007. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among wealth accumulation, human capital accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. We simulate the model to demonstrate existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. We also examine effects of changes in the productivity of the resource sector, the utilization efficiency of human capital, the propensity to receive education, and the propensity to save upon dynamic paths of the system.

  12. Impact of bank mergers on shareholders’ wealth

    Odero Naor Juma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mergers and acquisitions (M&As perform a vital role in corporate finance in enabling firms achieve varied objectives and financial strategies. This study sought to comprehend the impacts that previous bank mergers have had on the shareholders’ wealth. The study location was in Kenya and it adopted the descriptive survey and correlation design in which the success of mergers was measured based on the objective oriented model using the annual accounts. The study computed the return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE and the efficiency ratio (EFF as indicators of shareholder value. The results of the commercial banks were analysed for a five-year period (2006-2010. The study reveals that mergers significantly influence shareholder value with banks that have undertaken mergers creating more value than those that have not. Such banks were ascertained to have posted better results than the overall sector.

  13. Constrained Dynamic Optimality and Binomial Terminal Wealth

    Pedersen, J. L.; Peskir, G.

    2018-01-01

    with interest rate $r \\in {R}$). Letting $P_{t,x}$ denote a probability measure under which $X^u$ takes value $x$ at time $t,$ we study the dynamic version of the nonlinear optimal control problem $\\inf_u\\, Var{t,X_t^u}(X_T^u)$ where the infimum is taken over admissible controls $u$ subject to $X_t^u \\ge e...... a martingale method combined with Lagrange multipliers, we derive the dynamically optimal control $u_*^d$ in closed form and prove that the dynamically optimal terminal wealth $X_T^d$ can only take two values $g$ and $\\beta$. This binomial nature of the dynamically optimal strategy stands in sharp contrast...... with other known portfolio selection strategies encountered in the literature. A direct comparison shows that the dynamically optimal (time-consistent) strategy outperforms the statically optimal (time-inconsistent) strategy in the problem....

  14. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation.

    Keister, Lisa A; Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability.

  15. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation.

    Lisa A Keister

    Full Text Available Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability.

  16. A New Technique for Tracking the Global Maximum Power Point of PV Arrays Operating Under Partial-Shading Conditions

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The power-voltage characteristic of photovoltaic (PV) arrays operating under partial-shading conditions exhibits multiple local maximum power points (MPPs). In this paper, a new method to track the global MPP is presented, which is based on controlling a dc/dc converter connected at the PV array...

  17. The Rise and Fall of Swedish Wealth Taxation

    Henrekson Magnus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the evolution of modern Swedish wealth taxation from its introduction in**1911 until it was abolished in 2007. The rules concerning valuation of assets, deductions/exemptions and tax schedules to characterize effective wealth tax schedules are described. These rules and schedules are used to calculate marginal and average wealth tax rates for three differently endowed owners of family firms and individual fortunes corresponding to a large, medium-sized and small firm. The overall trend in the direct wealth tax was rising until 1971 for owners of large and medium-sized firms and for individuals of equally-sized wealth consisting of non-corporate assets. Average direct wealth tax rates were low until 1934, except for 1913 when a progressive defense tax was levied. There were three major tax hikes: in 1934, when the wealth tax was more than doubled, in 1948 when tax rates were doubled again and in 1971 for owners of large firms and similarly sized non-corporate fortunes. Effective tax rates peaked in 1973 for owners of large firms and in 1983 for individuals with large non-corporate wealth. Reduction rules limited the wealth tax rates from 1934 for fortunes with high wealth/income ratios. The wealth tax on unlisted net business equity was abolished in 1991. Tax rates for wealthy individuals were decreased in 1991 and in 1992 and then remained at 0.5-1 percent through 2006, depending on whether the reduction rule was applicable. Tax rates for small-firm owners and small individual fortunes were substantially lower. Aggregate wealth tax revenues were rela-tively small; they never exceeded 0.4 percent of GDP in the postwar period and amounted to 0.16 percent of GDP in 2006.

  18. The Middle Eastern Wealth Management Industry: Boon or Bust?

    Michael, Bryane; Apostoloski, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    The wealth management industry in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) represents a roughly $800 billion opportunity. Yet, tapping this opportunity will require new strategies by the wirehouses looking to penetrate into this market. In this paper, we argue that Middle-Eastern policymakers and bankers will need to develop an indigenous wealth management industry which keeps the super-wealthy’s investments at home. Developing a local national wealth management industry requires letting in fo...

  19. The future of personal wealth and inheritance taxation in Norway

    Pekala, Maciek

    2013-01-01

    Many countries have recently abandoned or experienced significant reduction in tax rates and revenues from personal wealth and inheritance taxation. Today, Norway remains one of the few countries that still tax annual wealth and intergenerational wealth transfers. Both taxes however face a substantial opposition and their future remains uncertain. In this paper, a dynamic microsimulation model MOSART developed by Statistics Norway is used to project and discuss future revenues and distributio...

  20. Financial Service of Wealth Management Banking: Balanced Scorecard Approach

    Cheng-Ru Wu; Chin-Tsai Lin; Pei-Hsuan Tsai

    2008-01-01

    Problem Statement: There are four main banking business sectors in Taiwan, involving the areas of consumer, corporate, wealth management, and investment banking. The wealth management banking sector is actively promoted for reaping a risk-free premium. In the proposed model, the dimensions of financial services for wealth management banks have been taken from four perspectives derived from balanced scorecard approach, viz. finance, customer, internal business, learning and growth. Approach: T...

  1. Wealth distribution, Pareto law, and stretched exponential decay of money: Computer simulations analysis of agent-based models

    Aydiner, Ekrem; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Metzler, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    We study by Monte Carlo simulations a kinetic exchange trading model for both fixed and distributed saving propensities of the agents and rationalize the person and wealth distributions. We show that the newly introduced wealth distribution - that may be more amenable in certain situations - features a different power-law exponent, particularly for distributed saving propensities of the agents. For open agent-based systems, we analyze the person and wealth distributions and find that the presence of trap agents alters their amplitude, leaving however the scaling exponents nearly unaffected. For an open system, we show that the total wealth - for different trap agent densities and saving propensities of the agents - decreases in time according to the classical Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts stretched exponential law. Interestingly, this decay does not depend on the trap agent density, but rather on saving propensities. The system relaxation for fixed and distributed saving schemes are found to be different.

  2. Wealth Distribution and Mobility in Denmark: a Longitudinal Study

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Schmidt-Sørensen, Jan Beyer

    1994-01-01

    We describe and analyse wealth mobility in a national sample of 32,675 individuals from the Danish Longitudinal Database over the period from 1983 to 1990. A transition matrix, the Shorrocks measure, average decile position for various subgroups, and wealth in 1990 compared with wealth in 1983...... are used to describe patterns of wealth mobility. These results and regression models of change in percentile position identify winners and losers. The losers include students, singles with children, those who changed residence and those who experienced unemployment, while the winners were the houseowners...

  3. Entrepreneurs, Chance, and the Deterministic Concentration of Wealth

    Fargione, Joseph E.; Lehman, Clarence; Polasky, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In many economies, wealth is strikingly concentrated. Entrepreneurs–individuals with ownership in for-profit enterprises–comprise a large portion of the wealthiest individuals, and their behavior may help explain patterns in the national distribution of wealth. Entrepreneurs are less diversified and more heavily invested in their own companies than is commonly assumed in economic models. We present an intentionally simplified individual-based model of wealth generation among entrepreneurs to assess the role of chance and determinism in the distribution of wealth. We demonstrate that chance alone, combined with the deterministic effects of compounding returns, can lead to unlimited concentration of wealth, such that the percentage of all wealth owned by a few entrepreneurs eventually approaches 100%. Specifically, concentration of wealth results when the rate of return on investment varies by entrepreneur and by time. This result is robust to inclusion of realities such as differing skill among entrepreneurs. The most likely overall growth rate of the economy decreases as businesses become less diverse, suggesting that high concentrations of wealth may adversely affect a country's economic growth. We show that a tax on large inherited fortunes, applied to a small portion of the most fortunate in the population, can efficiently arrest the concentration of wealth at intermediate levels. PMID:21814540

  4. WEALTH MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN THE ERA OF E-COMMERCE

    Mohammed Shahedul QUADER

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the key strategies being applied by wealth management and their competitive position.Each approach has merits, although the multi-channel ‘single brand’ approach seems to be gathering momentum. Ecommercefacilitates differentiation and requires focus, whilst making cost leadership more difficult Choices betweenbeing a traditional or extended wealth manager, or simply a wealth product provider, are increasingly being made.Moreover need for strategic choice in the wealth management market is presented, before looking in more detail at thewealth management strategies commonly adopted. The relative success of each is considered, together with thecompetitive advantages to be gained.

  5. Revisiting r > g-The asymptotic dynamics of wealth inequality

    Berman, Yonatan; Shapira, Yoash

    2017-02-01

    Studying the underlying mechanisms of wealth inequality dynamics is essential for its understanding and for policy aiming to regulate its level. We apply a heterogeneous non-interacting agent-based modeling approach, solved using iterated maps to model the dynamics of wealth inequality based on 3 parameters-the economic output growth rate g, the capital value change rate a and the personal savings rate s and show that for a income distribution. If a > g, the wealth distribution constantly becomes more and more inegalitarian. We also show that when a economic output, which also implies that the wealth-disposable income ratio asymptotically converges to s /(g - a) .

  6. Law, Contestation, and Power in the Global Political Economy: An Introduction.

    Edward S. Cohen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers included in this collection are part of concerted project to develop a political economy of law in the contemporary global system. Over the past two decades, scholars have noted the expanding role of law, legal institutions, and legal agents that have been part of the process of “globalization,” and have employed a number of frameworks to make sense of this process of legalization. A central theme of our project is that none of these frameworks has provided an adequate political economic analysis of the creation, diffusion, and use of law, and we present an alternative approach to advance the understanding of the turn to law across the many dimensions and sectors of the global system. The papers advance the analysis behind this approach and explore the various ways in which law matters in a variety of areas, including global finance, corporate governance, copyright, diplomacy, and the provision of security. Their goal is to advance our understanding of how law intersects with the mobilization of power in the construction of the contemporary political economy. Los trabajos incluidos en esta colección son parte de un proyecto conjunto para desarrollar una economía política de la ley en el sistema mundial contemporáneo. En las últimas dos décadas, los expertos han señalado el creciente papel de la ley, las instituciones legales, y los agentes judiciales que han sido parte del proceso de "globalización", y han empleado una serie de marcos para dar sentido a este proceso de legalización. Un tema central de nuestro proyecto es que ninguno de estos marcos ha proporcionado un adecuado análisis económico político de la creación, difusión y uso de la ley, y se presenta un enfoque alternativo para avanzar en la comprensión de la vuelta a la ley a través de las muchas dimensiones y sectores del sistema global. Los trabajos avanzan el análisis de este enfoque y exploran las diversas formas en que la ley importa en una variedad

  7. Power spectral density and scaling exponent of high frequency global solar radiation sequences

    Calif, Rudy; Schmitt, François G.; Huang, Yongxiang

    2013-04-01

    The part of the solar power production from photovlotaïcs systems is constantly increasing in the electric grids. Solar energy converter devices such as photovoltaic cells are very sensitive to instantaneous solar radiation fluctuations. Thus rapid variation of solar radiation due to changes in the local meteorological condition can induce large amplitude fluctuations of the produced electrical power and reduce the overall efficiency of the system. When large amount of photovoltaic electricity is send into a weak or small electricity network such as island network, the electric grid security can be in jeopardy due to these power fluctuations. The integration of this energy in the electrical network remains a major challenge, due to the high variability of solar radiation in time and space. To palliate these difficulties, it is essential to identify the characteristic of these fluctuations in order to anticipate the eventuality of power shortage or power surge. The objective of this study is to present an approach based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to highlight the scaling properties of global solar irradiance data G(t). The scale of invariance is detected on this dataset using the Empirical Mode Decomposition in association with arbitrary-order Hilbert spectral analysis, a generalization of (HHT) or Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA). The first step is the EMD, consists in decomposing the normalized global solar radiation data G'(t) into several Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) Ci(t) without giving an a priori basis. Consequently, the normalized original solar radiation sequence G'(t) can be written as a sum of Ci(t) with a residual rn. From all IMF modes, a joint PDF P(f,A) of locally and instantaneous frequency f and amplitude A, is estimated. To characterize the scaling behavior in amplitude-frequency space, an arbitrary-order Hilbert marginal spectrum is defined to: Iq(f) = 0 P (f,A)A dA (1) with q × 0 In case of scale

  8. A fault diagnosis system for PV power station based on global partitioned gradually approximation method

    Wang, S.; Zhang, X. N.; Gao, D. D.; Liu, H. X.; Ye, J.; Li, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    As the solar photovoltaic (PV) power is applied extensively, more attentions are paid to the maintenance and fault diagnosis of PV power plants. Based on analysis of the structure of PV power station, the global partitioned gradually approximation method is proposed as a fault diagnosis algorithm to determine and locate the fault of PV panels. The PV array is divided into 16x16 blocks and numbered. On the basis of modularly processing of the PV array, the current values of each block are analyzed. The mean current value of each block is used for calculating the fault weigh factor. The fault threshold is defined to determine the fault, and the shade is considered to reduce the probability of misjudgments. A fault diagnosis system is designed and implemented with LabVIEW. And it has some functions including the data realtime display, online check, statistics, real-time prediction and fault diagnosis. Through the data from PV plants, the algorithm is verified. The results show that the fault diagnosis results are accurate, and the system works well. The validity and the possibility of the system are verified by the results as well. The developed system will be benefit for the maintenance and management of large scale PV array.

  9. The impact of diminished housing wealth on health in the United States: evidence from the Great Recession.

    Yilmazer, Tansel; Babiarz, Patryk; Liu, Fen

    2015-04-01

    The sharp decline in home values in many industrialized and developing countries was one of the most evident facets of the global economic recession of 2008. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) for 2007-2011, this study examines how the decline in housing wealth affected the psychological and physical health and health-related behaviors of 4007 U.S. households who were homeowners in 2007. We focus on two mechanisms that could account for how the drop in housing wealth affects health: increase in stress and negative changes in health-related behaviors. Controlling for the changes in non-housing wealth and employment status during the recession, the decline in housing wealth is associated with a small but statistically significant increase in psychological distress. Psychological health deteriorates more as the housing wealth relative to total wealth decreases. Finally, homeowners who have difficulties with mortgage payments report substantial increases in psychological distress and have higher rates of depression. These findings, combined with limited evidence of the change in health-related behaviors, suggest that the increase in stress is the main cause of the adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Globally Stable Microresonator Turing Pattern Formation for Coherent High-Power THz Radiation On-Chip

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Jinghui; Yang, Shang-Hua; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Zelevinsky, T.; Jarrahi, Mona; Wong, Chee Wei

    2017-10-01

    In nonlinear microresonators driven by continuous-wave (cw) lasers, Turing patterns have been studied in the formalism of the Lugiato-Lefever equation with emphasis on their high coherence and exceptional robustness against perturbations. Destabilization of Turing patterns and the transition to spatiotemporal chaos, however, limit the available energy carried in the Turing rolls and prevent further harvest of their high coherence and robustness to noise. Here, we report a novel scheme to circumvent such destabilization, by incorporating the effect of local mode hybridizations, and we attain globally stable Turing pattern formation in chip-scale nonlinear oscillators with significantly enlarged parameter space, achieving a record-high power-conversion efficiency of 45% and an elevated peak-to-valley contrast of 100. The stationary Turing pattern is discretely tunable across 430 GHz on a THz carrier, with a fractional frequency sideband nonuniformity measured at 7.3 ×10-14 . We demonstrate the simultaneous microwave and optical coherence of the Turing rolls at different evolution stages through ultrafast optical correlation techniques. The free-running Turing-roll coherence, 9 kHz in 200 ms and 160 kHz in 20 minutes, is transferred onto a plasmonic photomixer for one of the highest-power THz coherent generations at room temperature, with 1.1% optical-to-THz power conversion. Its long-term stability can be further improved by more than 2 orders of magnitude, reaching an Allan deviation of 6 ×10-10 at 100 s, with a simple computer-aided slow feedback control. The demonstrated on-chip coherent high-power Turing-THz system is promising to find applications in astrophysics, medical imaging, and wireless communications.

  11. Global development of advanced nuclear power plants, and related IAEA activities

    2006-09-01

    Renewed interest in the potential of nuclear energy to contribute to a sustainable worldwide energy mix is underlining the IAEA's statutory role in fostering the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, in particular the need for effective exchanges of information and collaborative research and technology development among Member States on advanced nuclear power technologies deployable in the near term as well as in the longer term. For applications in the medium to longer term, with rising expectations for the role of nuclear energy in the future, technological innovation has become a strong focus of nuclear power technology developments by many Member States. To meet Member States' needs, the IAEA conducts activities to foster information exchange and collaborative research and development in the area of advanced nuclear reactor technologies. These activities include coordination of collaborative research, organization of international information exchange, and analyses of globally available technical data and results, with a focus on reducing nuclear power plant capital costs and construction periods while further improving performance, safety and proliferation resistance. In other activities, evolutionary and innovative advances are catalyzed for all reactor lines such as advanced water cooled reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, liquid metal cooled reactors and accelerator driven systems, including small and medium sized reactors. In addition, there are activities related to other applications of nuclear energy such as seawater desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications. This brochure summarizes the worldwide status and the activities related to advanced nuclear power technology development and related IAEA activities. It includes a list of the collaborative research and development projects conducted by the IAEA, as well as of the status reports and other publications produced

  12. A High Performance PSO-Based Global MPP Tracker for a PV Power Generation System

    Kuei-Hsiang Chao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present an improved version of a typical particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, such that the global maximum power point (MPP on a P-V characteristic curve with multiple peaks can be located in an efficient and precise manner for a photovoltaic module array. A series of instrumental measurements are conducted on variously configured arrays built with SANYO HIP2717 PV modules, either unshaded, partially shaded, or malfunctioning, as the building blocks. There appear two, triple and quadruple peaks on the corresponding P-V characteristic curves. Subsequently, the tracking performance comparisons, made by some practical experiments, indicate the superiority of this improved MPP tracking algorithm over the typical one.

  13. Nuclear power planning in the context of global climate change - the Malaysian perspective

    Alawiah Musa; Fairuz Suzana Mohd Chachuli; Nik Arlina Nik Ali

    2007-01-01

    The global warming effect due to ?greenhouse gases? is a hot topic discussed by world climate scientists today. This effect causes sea levels to rise, countries experiencing extreme weather conditions, violent storms and long dry spells. In centuries to come, these catastrophic effects can cause the spread of diseases and destroy food production and human habitat. Over one-third of the greenhouse gases come from the burning of fossil fuel to generate electricity. Nuclear power plants do not generate these gases. This paper presents the results obtained from a case study using MESSAGE, an analytical tool developed by the IAEA, which was used to evaluate Malaysia future energy requirements and strategies in addressing climate change issues. (Author)

  14. Energy and ethics. Ethical aspects of a future global power generation; Energie und Ethik. Ethische Aspekte zukuenftiger globaler Stromerzeugung

    Gethmann, C.F. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Philosophie; Europaeische Akademie Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The article deals with ethical questions regarding a future global energy supply by considering the normative aspects of economic efficiency, long-term liabilities, environmental sustainability, social acceptability and distributive equity. Regarding the ethical issues dealt with in the debate on the global energy supply, in particular two postulates arise: Both an improvement in knowledge and an improvement in the categories and procedures of ethical reflection are required. (orig.)

  15. Turkey's role as a regional and global player and its power capacity: Turkey's engagement with other emerging states

    Aylin Gürzel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey's role as a regional power has increased since Justice and Development Party (AKP came to power. AKP leadership not only aspired to become a regional power but also a global player. Turkey has, therefore, assumed different roles: the "natural leader" of the region; a historical "big brother;" and the "protector" of the Muslim minorities. Turkey has also assumed a "mediator" and a "facilitator" role by trying to negotiate a deal with an emerging power such as Brazil in order to attempt to resolve the controversial Iranian nuclear issue. By making use of recent developments, Turkey tried to solidify its long desired role as a "rising power" by increasing its influence in its neighborhood and engaging with other emerging powers. The concept "regional power" is a context-based notion. In other words, the location and geography are contesting and disputed approaches. Notwithstanding the fact that concepts such as "region" and "power" are social constructed reality, this paper analyzes the notion of 'regional power' as a subcategory of 'power'. In this context, this paper will make use of Stefan Schim's criteria while analyzing Turkey's power capacity in the region. Schim posits that the "regional power" needs to have a "role definition," and it should possess material power (hard power. It should also have economic as well as diplomatic and organizational capacity. Its power whether it is 'soft power' (attraction of ones idea's and or the ability to set the political agenda in a way that shapes the preferences of other actors or 'hard power' (material power that can be measured-economic and military power needs to be acknowledged by other actors in the region. It should also be accepted by great powers and emerging powers that are determinant in the international system. dditionally, the regional power (and/ or global power needs to have leverage, thus its power projection needs to yield results. Kalevi Holsti's role theory will be used as

  16. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  17. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  18. Nuclear power and the logic of globalization; Politisierung der Wirtschaft, Rueckfall in den alten Nationalstaat

    Weizsaecker, C.C. von [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.

    2000-02-01

    The article discusses effects and results of globalization for nuclear power and other options of electricity generation. According to the present state of knowledge, it will not be possible to meet the growing worldwide energy requirement with fossil and renewable energy sources only - also because of the CO{sub 2} problem. Consequently, nuclear power will remain an important alternative. On an international scale, this applies in particular to large countries, such as China and India, as large national economies particularly benefit from the economies of scale offered by nuclear power. This could well make Chinese nuclear technology a product for the world market. Thinking along these lines has not really gained ground in Germany, as nuclear power, being a technology requiring considerably capital outlay, is considered unsuitable for southern countries. It is an illusion to believe that Germany's opting out of the use of nuclear power could be a model to others. Instead, we are faced by the ethical question of how we can help to minimize the accident risks of nuclear facilities worldwide. We can do so only by maintaining the use of nuclear power and exporting our level of safety, for the risks will not become any smaller merely as a result of our opting out. (orig.) [German] Der Artikel diskutiert Effekte und Resultate der Globalisierung in Bezug auf die Kernenergie und andere Stromerzeugungs-Alternativen. Nach heutigem Kenntnisstand wird es nicht moeglich sein, den weltweit wachsenden Energiebedarf ausschliesslich mit fossilen und regenerativen Energietraegern zu decken - auch wegen der CO{sub 2}-Problematik. Die Kernenergie wird daher eine wichtige Alternative bleiben. Im internationalen Kontext sind vor allem grosse Laender wie China und Indien relevant, da in grossen Volkswirtschaften die Groessenvorteile der Kernenergie (economies of scale) besonders stark durchschlagen. Chinesische Kerntechnik koennte dann ein Weltmarktprodukt werden. Dieser

  19. The 'International' and the 'Global' as Complementary Power Strategies within Corporate Roman Catholicism

    Kenneth Houston

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The putative resurgence of religious belief and its reinvigorated socio-political importance – or at least prominence – has prompted critical reflection on religion, broadly defined, as a new force in politics. This paper examines the ‘global’ and ‘international’ role of Roman Catholicism. Roman Catholicism has manifested itself as an actor on the international stage and as a trans-national and global ‘community’. Frequently the conceptual dividing line between these is ambiguous. Vatican City and the Holy See have both been accorded international status, the former since the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty by Italy’s fascist leader, Benito Mussolini, in 1929, the latter since the mid nineteenth century following the absorption of the Papal States into the newly unified Italian Republic. The Holy See also enjoys a special status position within the United Nations system as a non-member observer state. Following revelations of clerical child abuse the Holy See was put on the defensive in several national contexts in a public controversy that resonated much more widely. This trans-nationally organised religion has mobilised both nationally and internationally to defend its institutional interests. Through an examination of empirical instances the study sidesteps the question of whether religions are ‘global’ or ‘international’ phenomena, and draws attention to the distinct power modalities operative at the level of both international politics and in transnational or global organisation.

  20. Nuclear power and global warming: a first cost-benefit calculation

    Hope, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper investigates the costs and benefits of a modest nuclear power programme in the European Union to combat the threat of global warming. The nuclear programme is found to bring a double benefit. The first and more obvious benefit is that the economic impacts of global warming are reduced. The second benefit is counter-intuitive; most people would expect it to be a cost. It comes from the stimulus to the economy from the construction of the nuclear plant, which, with the recycling of carbon tax revenues, offsets its construction and operating costs, and may even cause consumers' expenditure to rise. Calculations in this paper show that over the period to 2100 the mean net present value of the first benefit is 6 billion European Currency Units (ECU; 1 ECU is about Dollars 1), while the second benefit has a mean net present value of 159 billion ECU. However both benefits, particularly the second, are still very uncertain, to the extent that even their sign is not yet definitely established. (author)

  1. "Power quality system," a new system of quality management for globalization: towards innovation and competitive advantages.

    Abdul-Rahman, H; Berawi, M A

    Knowledge Management (KM) addresses the critical issues of organizational adoption, survival and competence in the face of an increasingly changing environment. KM embodies organizational processes that seek a synergistic combination of the data and information processing capabilities of information and communication technologies (ICT), and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings to improve ICT In that role, knowledge management will improve quality management and avoid or minimize losses and weakness that usually come from poor performance as well as increase the competitive level of the company and its ability to survive in the global marketplace. To achieve quality, all parties including the clients, company consultants, contractors, entrepreneurs, suppliers, and the governing bodies (i.e., all involved stake-holders) need to collaborate and commit to achieving quality. The design based organizations in major business and construction companies have to be quality driven to support healthy growth in today's competitive market. In the march towards vision 2020 and globalization (i.e., the one world community) of many companies, their design based organizations need to have superior quality management and knowledge management to anticipate changes. The implementation of a quality system such as the ISO 9000 Standards, Total Quality Management, or Quality Function Deployment (QFD) focuses the company's resources towards achieving faster and better results in the global market with less cost. To anticipate the needs of the marketplace and clients as the world and technology change, a new system, which we call Power Quality System (PQS), has been designed. PQS is a combination of information and communication technologies (ICT) and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings to meet the challenges of the new world business and to develop high quality products.

  2. Population Pressure, Global Living Standards, and the Promise of Space Solar Power

    Strickland, John K., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    uses of electricity and fuels currently covered by fossil fuels. This is a global replacement load of about 9000 gigawatts. Green theorists are divided on this issue. Some claim that ground based solar, wind, and other renewable sources will supply all the energy we need, ignoring economic costs that severely limit their use. Others would (unrealistically) require the developed countries to reduce their energy consumption per capita to a level closer to that of the developing world, thereby admitting the limitations of the "appropriate" systems they espouse. Both sides in the past have rejected as "non-appropriate" and/or "dangerous" all the chemically clean energy sources of high capacity that have been previously proposed, such as safer nuclear fission, fusion power, and space solar power. If ground based "appropriate" energy sources are not sufficient, the economic and social effects of sudden forced curtailments of fossil energy use could be drastic. This paper supports the thesis that Space Solar Power does have the potential to provide such a clean, abundant, and economical energy source. It will cover both the limitations and promise of ground based energy sources, including the difficulties of using intermittent energy sources. It will discuss whether specified levels of energy cost increases would be damaging to the world economy and whether economical ground based sources alone would have sufficient capacity. It will show how the one major problem of launch costs, (currently preventing economical implementation of Space Solar Power), has a number of quite reasonable solutions. Finally, it will consider whether Space Solar Power, along with the other major space goals of Science &Exploration, Mars Colonization, Non- terrestrial Materials Recovery and Space Tourism, could be another space "killer app" which, by creating a high demand for launch services, could force large reductions in launch costs.

  3. Grand Advantage: Family Wealth and Grandchildren's Educational Achievement in Sweden.

    Hällsten, Martin; Pfeffer, Fabian T

    2017-04-01

    We study the role of family wealth for children's educational achievement using novel and unique Swedish register data. In particular, we focus on the relationship between grandparents' wealth and their grandchildren's educational achievement. Doing so allows us to reliably establish the independent role of wealth in contributing to long-term inequalities in opportunity. We use regression models with rich controls to account for observed socioeconomic characteristics of families, cousin fixed effects to net out potentially unobserved grandparental effects, and marginal structural models to account for endogenous selection. We find substantial associations between grandparents' wealth and their grandchildren's grade point averages (GPA) in the 9th grade that are only partly mediated by the socioeconomic characteristics and wealth of parents. Our findings indicate that family wealth inequality - even in a comparatively egalitarian context like Sweden - has profound consequences for the distribution of opportunity across multiple generations. We posit that our estimates of the long-term consequences of wealth inequality may be conservative for nations other than Sweden, like the United States, where family wealth - in addition to its insurance and normative functions - allows the direct purchase of educational quality and access.

  4. Wealth Inequality in the Netherlands, c. 1950-2015

    Bavel, van Bas; Frankema, Ewout

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the available evidence on post-war trends in Dutch private wealth inequality using a range of scattered sources. Wealth tax records suggest a substantial decline in inequality to the 1970s and, more tentatively, a gradual rise thereafter. In the post-1990 years,

  5. Elements of Property Wealth and Educational Expenditures in Illinois.

    Lows, Raymond L.; Ho, Fanny

    This study examines the relationships between various elements of property wealth and operating expenditures per pupil by types of school district--elementary (K-8), high (9-12), and unit (K-12). Elements of property wealth were defined as the equalized assessed valuation per pupil for each of the following property tax classifications:…

  6. Housing wealth and US money demand : A panel estimation

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Roelands, S.

    2011-01-01

    This article estimates a panel model for U.S. money demand using annual state-level data for the period from 1977 to 2008. We incorporate housing wealth in the demand-for-money function and find strong evidence of a relationship between a broad monetary aggregate and housing wealth. This finding is

  7. Assessing alternative measures of wealth in health research.

    Cubbin, Catherine; Pollack, Craig; Flaherty, Brian; Hayward, Mark; Sania, Ayesha; Vallone, Donna; Braveman, Paula

    2011-05-01

    We assessed whether it would be feasible to replace the standard measure of net worth with simpler measures of wealth in population-based studies examining associations between wealth and health. We used data from the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (respondents aged 25-64 years) and the 2004 Health and Retirement Survey (respondents aged 50 years or older) to construct logistic regression models relating wealth to health status and smoking. For our wealth measure, we used the standard measure of net worth as well as 9 simpler measures of wealth, and we compared results among the 10 models. In both data sets and for both health indicators, models using simpler wealth measures generated conclusions about the association between wealth and health that were similar to the conclusions generated by models using net worth. The magnitude and significance of the odds ratios were similar for the covariates in multivariate models, and the model-fit statistics for models using these simpler measures were similar to those for models using net worth. Our findings suggest that simpler measures of wealth may be acceptable in population-based studies of health.

  8. Livelihood Activities And Wealth Ranking Among Rural Households ...

    Livelihood Activities And Wealth Ranking Among Rural Households In The Farming Systems Of Western Kenya. ... African Journal of Livestock Extension ... The study examined the relationship between the livelihood activities of rural households in the farming systems of Western Kenya in relation to their wealth. A stratified ...

  9. Constraints on credit, consumer behavior and the dynamics of wealth

    Gomes Costa Orlando

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a simple macroeconomic model where the pattern of wealth accumulation is determined by a credit multiplier and the way households react to short-term fluctuations. Given this setup, long term wealth dynamics are eventually characterized by the presence of endogenous cycles.

  10. Mineral wealth and the economic transition: Kazakhstan

    Auty, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The exploitation of mineral wealth can amplify the problems of the transition economies in three basic ways. First, the rebound of the real exchange rate that characterises a successful transition may be augmented by the capital inflow required to expand mineral production. This can cause both recession in the short-run and lower growth in the medium-term. Second, when the mineral revenues expand, the Dutch Disease effects may intensify the transition-related shrinkage of the non-mining tradable sector, thereby retarding economic diversification and rendering the economy vulnerable to external shocks. Third, a mineral boom tends to concentrate revenue on the government, which may use it to postpone difficult decisions on economic reform and/or dissipate the revenue due to weak financial markets and inadequate public accountability. Kazakhstan, like oil-rich Azerbaijan, is a late reformer and displays evidence of a faster transition rebound than other less resource-rich countries in the CIS do. However, Kazakhstan has two advantages over Azerbaijan. First, Kazakhstan has a more diversified mineral endowment with which to counter any trend towards single commodity specialization. Second, Kazakhstan is making a later start on oil expansion so that it can learn from the experience of Azerbaijan. Priorities for Kazakhstan are the continuation of prudent economic policies, the creation of institutions to enhance the transparency of the revenue flows, and the use of environmental accounting to provide a rationale for the deployment of the oil rents. (author)

  11. A power law global error model for the identification of differentially expressed genes in microarray data

    Granucci Francesca

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-density oligonucleotide microarray technology enables the discovery of genes that are transcriptionally modulated in different biological samples due to physiology, disease or intervention. Methods for the identification of these so-called "differentially expressed genes" (DEG would largely benefit from a deeper knowledge of the intrinsic measurement variability. Though it is clear that variance of repeated measures is highly dependent on the average expression level of a given gene, there is still a lack of consensus on how signal reproducibility is linked to signal intensity. The aim of this study was to empirically model the variance versus mean dependence in microarray data to improve the performance of existing methods for identifying DEG. Results In the present work we used data generated by our lab as well as publicly available data sets to show that dispersion of repeated measures depends on location of the measures themselves following a power law. This enables us to construct a power law global error model (PLGEM that is applicable to various Affymetrix GeneChip data sets. A new DEG identification method is therefore proposed, consisting of a statistic designed to make explicit use of model-derived measurement spread estimates and a resampling-based hypothesis testing algorithm. Conclusions The new method provides a control of the false positive rate, a good sensitivity vs. specificity trade-off and consistent results with varying number of replicates and even using single samples.

  12. Redefining the Indirect Approach, Defining Special Operations Forces (SOF Power, and the Global Networking of SOF

    Scott Morrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current Defense Strategy assigns Special Operations Forces (SOF to play a central role in countering terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, and irregular warfare. However, there has been little published that defines the role of Special Operations alongside air, land, and sea domains. The U.S. Special Operations Community struggles to define its own theoretical concepts such as direct approach and indirect approach. The U.S. SOF circles typically define direct approach with direct action and the indirect approach with foreign internal defense or security force assistance. Military theorist Liddell Hart viewed the indirect approach as a method to orient upon, target, and upset an adversary’s equilibrium in order to plan for and direct decisive blows. Today, the SOF indirect approach is arguable more applicable due to the prevalence of non-state threats and internal conflicts. Following Hart’s definition, precision raids are among the integral components of a broader application of the indirect approach. The approach also networks U.S. government power as a force when used in concert with allies and local partners. Global networking along with balanced precision raids will exponentially increase the utility of SOF power and position it to appropriately complement all domains to tackle 21st century challenges.

  13. Local and global particle and power balance in large area capacitive discharges

    Cho, Suwon; Lieberman, M A

    2003-01-01

    Large area radio frequency (rf) capacitive discharges have attracted recent interest for materials etching and deposition on large area substrates. A distinguishing feature is that the radial distribution of the absorbed rf power in these discharges depends on the rf voltage across the plates, independent of the radial variation of the plasma density n(r). A reduced set of steady-state fluid equations has been used to investigate the radial variation of n and electron temperature T e . The derived equations are shown to be invariant with respect to pL and pR, where p is the pressure, L is the plate separation and R is the discharge radius, and can be further reduced to the equations of the usual global balance model when R ε , the energy relaxation length. In this limit, the ionization frequency and T e are essentially independent of radius and n can be approximately described by the usual radial profile of a zeroth-order Bessel function. When R≥λ ε , n and T e are predominantly determined by local particle and power balance, and the n and T e radial profiles are flat over most of the volume except near the radial boundary, where n falls and T e rises to account for the increased losses at the boundary. The scale length of the edge density variation in the local balance regime is shown to be proportional to the energy relaxation length

  14. Wealth and Its Associations with Enteric Parasitic Infections in a Low-Income Community in Peru: Use of Principal Component Analysis

    Nundy, Shantanu; Gilman, Robert H.; Xiao, Lihua; Cabrera, Lilia; Cama, Rosa; Ortega, Ynes R.; Kahn, Geoffrey; Cama, Vitaliano A.

    2011-01-01

    The association of wealth and infections with Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and microsporidia were examined in a longitudinal cohort conducted in Peru from 2001 to 2006. Data from 492 participants were daily clinical manifestations, weekly copro-parasitological diagnosis, and housing characteristics and assets owned (48 variables), and these data were used to construct a global wealth index using principal component analysis. Data were analyzed using continuous and categorical (wealth tertiles) models. Participant's mean age was 3.43 years (range = 0–12 years), with average follow-up of 993 days. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified significant associations between wealth and infections with Giardia and microsporidia. Participants with greater wealth indexes were associated with protection against Giardia (P 14 days). For microsporidia, greater wealth was protective (P = 0.066 continuous and P = 0.042 by tertiles). Contrarily, infections with Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora were independent of wealth. Thus, subtle differences in wealth may affect the frequency of specific parasitic infections within low-income communities. PMID:21212198

  15. Multiple chronic health conditions and their link with wealth assets.

    Schofield, Deborah J; Callander, Emily J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Passey, Megan E; Kelly, Simon J; Percival, Richard

    2015-04-01

    There has been little research on the economic status of those with multiple health conditions, particularly on the relationship between multiple health conditions and wealth. This paper will assess the difference in the value and type of wealth assets held by Australians who have multiple chronic health conditions. Using Health&WealthMOD, a microsimulation model of the 45-64-year-old Australian population in 2009, a counterfactual analysis was undertaken. The actual proportion of people with different numbers of chronic health conditions with any wealth, and the value of this wealth was estimated. This was compared with the counterfactual values had the individuals had no chronic health conditions. There was no change in the proportion of people with one health condition who actually had any wealth, compared to the counterfactual proportion had they had no chronic health conditions. Ninety-four percent of those with four or more health conditions had some accumulated wealth; however, under the counterfactual, 100% would have had some accumulated wealth. There was little change in the value of non-income-producing assets under the counterfactual, regardless of number of health conditions. Those with four or more chronic health conditions had a mean value of $17 000 in income-producing assets; under the counterfactual, the average would have been $78 000. This study has highlighted the variation in the value of wealth according to number of chronic health conditions, and hence the importance of considering multiple morbidities when discussing the relationship between health and wealth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Global Value Chain and Manufacturing Analysis on Geothermal Power Plant Turbines: Preprint

    Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-03

    The global geothermal electricity market has significantly grown over the last decade and is expected to reach a total installed capacity of 18.4 GWe in 2021 (GEA, 2016). Currently, geothermal project developers customize the size of the power plant to fit the resource being developed. In particular, the turbine is designed and sized to optimize efficiency and resource utilization for electricity production; most often, other power plant components are then chosen to complement the turbine design. These custom turbine designs demand one-off manufacturing processes, which result in higher manufacturing setup costs, longer lead-times, and higher capital costs overall in comparison to larger-volume line manufacturing processes. In contrast, turbines produced in standard increments, manufactured in larger volumes, could result in lower costs per turbine. This study focuses on analysis of the global supply chain and manufacturing costs for Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) turboexpanders and steam turbines used in geothermal power plants. In this study, we developed a manufacturing cost model to identify requirements for equipment, facilities, raw materials, and labor. We analyzed three different cases 1) 1 MWe geothermal ORC turboexpander 2) 5 MWe ORC turboexpander and 3) 20 MWe geothermal steam turbine, and calculated the cost of manufacturing the major components, such as the impellers/blades, shaft/rotor, nozzles, inlet guide lanes, disks, and casings. Then we used discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis to calculate the minimum sustainable price (MSP). MSP is the minimum price that a company must sell its product for in order to pay back the capital and operating expenses during the plant lifetime (CEMAC, 2017). The results showed that MSP could highly vary between 893 dollar/kW and 30 dollar/kW based on turbine size, standardization and volume of manufacturing. The analysis also showed that the economy of scale applies both to the size of the turbine and the number

  17. Global Value Chain and Manufacturing Analysis on Geothermal Power Plant Turbines

    Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    The global geothermal electricity market has significantly grown over the last decade and is expected to reach a total installed capacity of 18.4 GWe in 2021 (GEA, 2016). Currently, geothermal project developers customize the size of the power plant to fit the resource being developed. In particular, the turbine is designed and sized to optimize efficiency and resource utilization for electricity production; most often, other power plant components are then chosen to complement the turbine design. These custom turbine designs demand one-off manufacturing processes, which result in higher manufacturing setup costs, longer lead-times, and higher capital costs overall in comparison to larger-volume line manufacturing processes. In contrast, turbines produced in standard increments, manufactured in larger volumes, could result in lower costs per turbine. This study focuses on analysis of the global supply chain and manufacturing costs for Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) turboexpanders and steam turbines used in geothermal power plants. In this study, we developed a manufacturing cost model to identify requirements for equipment, facilities, raw materials, and labor. We analyzed three different cases 1) 1 MWe geothermal ORC turboexpander 2) 5 MWe ORC turboexpander and 3) 20 MWe geothermal steam turbine, and calculated the cost of manufacturing the major components, such as the impellers/blades, shaft/rotor, nozzles, inlet guide lanes, disks, and casings. Then we used discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis to calculate the minimum sustainable price (MSP). MSP is the minimum price that a company must sell its product for in order to pay back the capital and operating expenses during the plant lifetime (CEMAC, 2017). The results showed that MSP could highly vary between 893 dollar/kW and 30 dollar/kW based on turbine size, standardization and volume of manufacturing. The analysis also showed that the economy of scale applies both to the size of the turbine and the number

  18. Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health

    Ooms, Gorik

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Global health research is essentially a normative undertaking: we use it to propose policies that ought to be implemented. To arrive at a normative conclusion in a logical way requires at least one normative premise, one that cannot be derived from empirical evidence alone. But there is no widely accepted normative premise for global health, and the actors with the power to set policies may use a different normative premise than the scholars that propose policies - which may explain...

  19. Potential wealth creation via nuclear energy in Malaysia

    Sabar Md Hashim; Dol Malek Md Sap

    2009-01-01

    Like any other developing nation, Malaysia aspires to be an economic force to be reckoned with. A strong opportunity may be in the form of nuclear energy as can be seen from the success stories of France and South Korea. Although nuclear is not the only common parameter that make developed nations tick, the multiplier spin-off impacts of nuclear as sources of wealth creation are deliberated. Foreseeable benefits include job creation (especially highly-skilled knowledge workers), spin-off technologies and vendor development as well as the opportunity to assume regional leadership in carefully-selected sectors. Categorically in Malaysian context, introduction of nuclear energy would yield numerous benefits, i.e. as a strong catalyst to enhance country's competitiveness by raising capacity for knowledge, cutting-edge technology, and eventually, innovation (National Mission Thrust 2) beside ensuring stable electricity generation price; as an element to move up value chain by creating high-skilled knowledge workers who could help to raise country's economic profile and plant the seed for a strong post-2020 Malaysia (National Mission Thrust 1); and as an agent to enhance sustainability and quality of life through clean energy (National Mission Thrust 4) by being environmentally benign due to its low greenhouse gas emissions with very minimal impact to global warming. Our point us that, being synergistic with national aspiration, nuclear energy is a genuine national agenda. (Author)

  20. The international implications of the Chinese model of development in the Global South: Asian Consensus as a network power

    Javier Vadell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes People's Republic of China (PRC economic and political ascendance in the 21st century focusing on the evolution of the sui generis economic development model and its significances of the evolution of relationship between China and the developing countries in the peripheral "Global South." The objective of this article is to analyze the relationship between China and the Global South (Africa and South America in the 21st century, characterized as a new Center-periphery global network power based on trade and investment that we call as "Asian Consensus."

  1. Inequality and visibility of wealth in experimental social networks.

    Nishi, Akihiro; Shirado, Hirokazu; Rand, David G; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2015-10-15

    Humans prefer relatively equal distributions of resources, yet societies have varying degrees of economic inequality. To investigate some of the possible determinants and consequences of inequality, here we perform experiments involving a networked public goods game in which subjects interact and gain or lose wealth. Subjects (n = 1,462) were randomly assigned to have higher or lower initial endowments, and were embedded within social networks with three levels of economic inequality (Gini coefficient = 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4). In addition, we manipulated the visibility of the wealth of network neighbours. We show that wealth visibility facilitates the downstream consequences of initial inequality-in initially more unequal situations, wealth visibility leads to greater inequality than when wealth is invisible. This result reflects a heterogeneous response to visibility in richer versus poorer subjects. We also find that making wealth visible has adverse welfare consequences, yielding lower levels of overall cooperation, inter-connectedness, and wealth. High initial levels of economic inequality alone, however, have relatively few deleterious welfare effects.

  2. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K.; Fenichel, Eli P.

    2017-01-01

    We merge inclusive wealth theory with ecosystem-based management (EBM) to address two challenges in the science of sustainable management of ecosystems. First, we generalize natural capital theory to approximate realized shadow prices for multiple interacting natural capital stocks (species) making up an ecosystem. These prices enable ecosystem components to be better included in wealth-based sustainability measures. We show that ecosystems are best envisioned as portfolios of assets, where the portfolio’s performance depends on the performance of the underlying assets influenced by their interactions. Second, changes in ecosystem wealth provide an attractive headline index for EBM, regardless of whether ecosystem wealth is ultimately included in a broader wealth index. We apply our approach to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, focusing on the interacting community of three commercially important fish species: cod, herring, and sprat. Our results incorporate supporting services embodied in the shadow price of a species through its trophic interactions. Prey fish have greater shadow prices than expected based on market value, and predatory fish have lower shadow prices than expected based on market value. These results are because correctly measured shadow prices reflect interdependence and limits to substitution. We project that ecosystem wealth in the Baltic Sea fishery ecosystem generally increases conditional on the EBM-inspired multispecies maximum sustainable yield management beginning in 2017, whereas continuing the current single-species management generally results in declining wealth. PMID:28588145

  3. Wealth, fertility and adaptive behaviour in industrial populations

    2016-01-01

    The lack of association between wealth and fertility in contemporary industrialized populations has often been used to question the value of an evolutionary perspective on human behaviour. Here, we first present the history of this debate, and the evolutionary explanations for why wealth and fertility (the number of children) are decoupled in modern industrial settings. We suggest that the nature of the relationship between wealth and fertility remains an open question because of the multi-faceted nature of wealth, and because existing cross-sectional studies are ambiguous with respect to how material wealth and fertility are linked. A literature review of longitudinal studies on wealth and fertility shows that the majority of these report positive effects of wealth, although levels of fertility seem to fall below those that would maximize fitness. We emphasize that reproductive decision-making reflects a complex interplay between individual and societal factors that resists simple evolutionary interpretation, and highlight the role of economic insecurity in fertility decisions. We conclude by discussing whether the wealth–fertility relationship can inform us about the adaptiveness of modern fertility behaviour, and argue against simplistic claims regarding maladaptive behaviour in humans. PMID:27022080

  4. Wealth inequality and health: a political economy perspective.

    Nowatzki, Nadine R

    2012-01-01

    Despite a plethora of studies on income inequality and health, researchers have been unable to make any firm conclusions as a result of methodological and theoretical limitations. Within this body of research, there has been a call for studies of wealth inequality and health. Wealth is far more unequally distributed than income and is conceptually unique from income. This paper discusses the results of bivariate cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between wealth inequality (Gini coefficient) and population health (life expectancy and infant mortality) in 14 wealthy countries. The results confirm that wealth inequality is associated with poor population health. Both unweighted and weighted correlations between wealth inequality and health are strong and significant, even after controlling for a variety of potential aggregate-level confounders, including gross domestic product per capita, and after excluding the United States, the most unequal country. The results are strongest for female life expectancy and infant mortality. The author outlines potential pathways through which wealth inequality might affect health, using specific countries to illustrate. The article concludes with policy recommendations that could contribute to a more equitable distribution of wealth and, ultimately, decreased health disparities.

  5. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems.

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K; Fenichel, Eli P

    2017-06-20

    We merge inclusive wealth theory with ecosystem-based management (EBM) to address two challenges in the science of sustainable management of ecosystems. First, we generalize natural capital theory to approximate realized shadow prices for multiple interacting natural capital stocks (species) making up an ecosystem. These prices enable ecosystem components to be better included in wealth-based sustainability measures. We show that ecosystems are best envisioned as portfolios of assets, where the portfolio's performance depends on the performance of the underlying assets influenced by their interactions. Second, changes in ecosystem wealth provide an attractive headline index for EBM, regardless of whether ecosystem wealth is ultimately included in a broader wealth index. We apply our approach to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, focusing on the interacting community of three commercially important fish species: cod, herring, and sprat. Our results incorporate supporting services embodied in the shadow price of a species through its trophic interactions. Prey fish have greater shadow prices than expected based on market value, and predatory fish have lower shadow prices than expected based on market value. These results are because correctly measured shadow prices reflect interdependence and limits to substitution. We project that ecosystem wealth in the Baltic Sea fishery ecosystem generally increases conditional on the EBM-inspired multispecies maximum sustainable yield management beginning in 2017, whereas continuing the current single-species management generally results in declining wealth.

  6. Children and the Elderly: Wealth Inequality Among America's Dependents.

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M; Percheski, Christine

    2018-05-07

    Life cycle theory predicts that elderly households have higher levels of wealth than households with children, but these wealth gaps are likely dynamic, responding to changes in labor market conditions, patterns of debt accumulation, and the overall economic context. Using Survey of Consumer Finances data from 1989 through 2013, we compare wealth levels between and within the two groups that make up America's dependents: the elderly and child households (households with a resident child aged 18 or younger). Over the observed period, the absolute wealth gap between elderly and child households in the United States increased substantially, and diverging trends in wealth accumulation exacerbated preexisting between-group disparities. Widening gaps were particularly pronounced among the least-wealthy elderly and child households. Differential demographic change in marital status and racial composition by subgroup do not explain the widening gap. We also find increasing wealth inequality within child households and the rise of a "parental 1 %." During a time of overall economic growth, the elderly have been able to maintain or increase their wealth, whereas many of the least-wealthy child households saw precipitous declines. Our findings suggest that many child households may lack sufficient assets to promote the successful flourishing of the next generation.

  7. Wealth, income, and health before and after retirement.

    Geyer, Siegfried; Spreckelsen, Ove; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2014-11-01

    It was supposed that associations of wealth and health might be higher after retirement than in the economically active periods of life, but no comparisons were available. Most studies on wealth were based on net worth, a measure combining several elements of wealth into an index. We examined associations between different elements of wealth and health by comparing retired women and men with economically active ones. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel, a nationwide longitudinal survey project. Two waves (2002 and 2007) included indicators of wealth in addition to household income and education. Wealth was not depicted by an index. Instead, debts, property of life insurances, home ownership and assets were considered separately with their associations with self-rated health. Two data sets were used to examine whether the results were occasional, or whether they can be replicated. Associations of income and education emerged in respondents in their active periods of life. In most cases indicators of wealth were associated with subjective health. In retired respondents home ownership was the only indicator yielding consistent associations with health, but their sizes turned out as rather moderate. Contrary to expectation, the associations of wealth and health were inconsistent in the retired study population. These results were obtained in a country with national pension schemes, and it has to be examined whether the findings can be generalised to other countries. The inconsistent findings of indicators of wealth are calling the utility of net worth into question. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. From technology transfer to local manufacturing: China's emergence in the global wind power industry

    Lewis, Joanna Ingram

    This dissertation examines the development of China's large wind turbine industry, including the players, the status of the technology, and the strategies used to develop turbines for the Chinese market. The primary goals of this research project are to identify the models of international technology transfer that have been used among firms in China's wind power industry; examine to what extent these technology transfers have contributed to China's ability to locally manufacture large wind turbine technology; and evaluate China's ability to become a major player in the global wind industry. China is a particularly important place to study the opportunities for and dynamics of clean energy development due to its role in global energy consumption. China is the largest coal consuming and producing nation in the world, and consequently the second largest national emitter of carbon dioxide after only the United States. Energy consumption and carbon emissions are growing rapidly, and China is expected to surpass the US and become the largest energy consuming nation and carbon dioxide emitter in coming decades. The central finding of this dissertation is that even though each firm involved in the large wind turbine manufacturing industry in China has followed a very different pathway of technology procurement for the Chinese market, all of the firms are increasing the utilization of locally-manufactured components, and many are doing so without transferring turbine technology or the associated intellectual property. Only one fully Chinese-owned firm, Goldwind, has succeeded in developing a commercially available large wind turbine for the Chinese market. No Chinese firms or foreign firms are manufacturing turbines in China for export overseas, though many have stated plans to do so. There already exists a possible niche market for the smaller turbines that are currently being made in China, particularly in less developed countries that are looking for less expensive

  9. SMEs’ Wealth Creation Model of an Emerging Economy

    Olalekan Usiobaifo ASIKHIA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article synthesizes the evidence on SMEs’ wealth creation in an emerging economy, paying particular attention to human resource/expertise, technology adoption, innovation and creativity, unit economies, organizational infrastructure and strategy as determinants of SMEs’ wealth creation. A survey of 581 Nigerian SMEs was conducted and the data was analysed and tested using multiple regression and structural equation modelling. The findings revealed Human resource/CEOs expertise as the highest contributory factor to wealth creation within the firm in the industrial and the commercial sectors. The relevant domains were modelled and relevant policy adjustments were suggested.

  10. Income and Wealth Inequality in America, 1949-2013

    Kuhn, Moritz; Schularick, Moritz; Steins, Ulrike I.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the distribution of U.S. household income and wealth over the past seven decades. We introduce a newly compiled household-level dataset based on archival data from historical waves of the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). Complementing recent work on top income and wealth shares, the long-run survey data give a granular picture of trends in the bottom 90% of the population. The new data confirm a substantial widening of income and wealth disparities since the 1970s. We sho...

  11. Top wealth shares in Australia 1915-2012

    Katic, Pamela; Leigh, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Combining data from surveys, inheritance tax records, and rich lists, we estimate top wealth shares for Australia from World War I until the present day. We find that the top 1 percent share declined by two-thirds from 1915 until the late 1960s, and rose from the late 1970s to 2010. The recent increase is sharpest at the top of the distribution, with the top 0.001 percent wealth share tripling from 1984 to 2012. The trend in top wealth shares is similar to that in Australian top income shares...

  12. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2006 Annual Review

    2007-01-01

    2006 was another recordbreaking year in the electricity and gas utilities sector. Total deal values shot through the record level set in 2005 to reach a dizzying USD 298.8bn. This is nearly seven times the USD 43bn level of transactions recorded in the sector only three years earlier in 2003. The rise is all the more astonishing as it comes in a year when deal activity from corporate US utility players plummeted. The sharp downturn in North America came as companies took stock of aggressive regulatory stances from some state regulators during a US midterm election year that coincided with the ending of rate freezes and reaction to the repeal of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act. North American electricity deal values by bidder fell 64% to USD 20.7bn, not far above the USD 16.7bn level of 2003. The picture in Europe and the Asia Pacific region was very different. Both regions recorded record levels of power deal activities as utility companies continued to strive for super regional'' scale. Deal activity in Europe was given extra momentum by the countdown to the July 2007 implementation of full retail market liberalisation. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key power and gas markets. Looking to the future, the regulatory environment will play a key role in determining the course of deal activity. Companies entering into big deals need to be ready more than ever for the long haul. However, the underpinning momentum in the sector remains strong and this is likely to create continued buoyancy in the period ahead

  13. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2006 Annual Review

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    2006 was another recordbreaking year in the electricity and gas utilities sector. Total deal values shot through the record level set in 2005 to reach a dizzying USD 298.8bn. This is nearly seven times the USD 43bn level of transactions recorded in the sector only three years earlier in 2003. The rise is all the more astonishing as it comes in a year when deal activity from corporate US utility players plummeted. The sharp downturn in North America came as companies took stock of aggressive regulatory stances from some state regulators during a US midterm election year that coincided with the ending of rate freezes and reaction to the repeal of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act. North American electricity deal values by bidder fell 64% to USD 20.7bn, not far above the USD 16.7bn level of 2003. The picture in Europe and the Asia Pacific region was very different. Both regions recorded record levels of power deal activities as utility companies continued to strive for super regional'' scale. Deal activity in Europe was given extra momentum by the countdown to the July 2007 implementation of full retail market liberalisation. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key power and gas markets. Looking to the future, the regulatory environment will play a key role in determining the course of deal activity. Companies entering into big deals need to be ready more than ever for the long haul. However, the underpinning momentum in the sector remains strong and this is likely to create continued buoyancy in the period ahead.

  14. Energy and the Wealth of Nations Understanding the Biophysical Economy

    Hall, Charles A S

    2012-01-01

    For the past 150 years, economics has been treated as a social science in which economies are modeled as a circular flow of income between producers and consumers.  In this “perpetual motion” of interactions between firms that produce and households that consume, little or no accounting is given of the flow of energy and materials from the environment and back again.  In the standard economic model, energy and matter are completely recycled in these transactions, and economic activity is seemingly exempt from the Second Law of Thermodynamics.  As we enter the second half of the age of oil, and as energy supplies and the environmental impacts of energy production and consumption become major issues on the world stage, this exemption appears illusory at best. In Energy and the Wealth of Nations, concepts such as energy return on investment (EROI) provide powerful insights into the real balance sheets that drive our “petroleum economy.” Hall and Klitgaard explore the relation between energy and the we...

  15. Global Discourses and Power/Knowledge: Theoretical Reflections on Futures of Higher Education during the Rise of Asia

    Geerlings, L. R. C.; Lundberg, A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper re-reads a selection of critical interdisciplinary theories in an attempt to open a space in higher education for cross-cultural dialogue during the rise of Asia. Theories of globalization, deterritorialization, power/knowledge and postcolonialism indicate that students and academics have the ability to re-imagine and influence…

  16. Nuclear power: renaissance or relapse? Global climate change and long-term Three Mile Island activists' narratives.

    Culley, Marci R; Angelique, Holly

    2010-06-01

    Community narratives are increasingly important as people move towards an ecologically sustainable society. Global climate change is a multi-faceted problem with multiple stakeholders. The voices of affected communities must be heard as we make decisions of global significance. We document the narratives of long-term anti-nuclear activists near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant who speak out in the dawn of a nuclear renaissance/relapse. While nuclear power is marketed as a "green" solution to global warming, their narratives reveal three areas for consideration; (1) significant problems with nuclear technology, (2) lessons "not" learned from the TMI disaster, and (3) hopes for a sustainable future. Nuclear waste, untrustworthy officials and economic issues were among the problems cited. Deceptive shaping of public opinion, nuclear illiteracy, and an aging anti-nuclear movement were reasons cited for the lessons not learned. However, many remain optimistic and envision increased participation to create an ecologically-balanced world.

  17. The Spectacle of Wealth and Its Costs

    Zaloom, Caitlin

    2009-01-01

    Over the three decades between the urban crisis and the credit crisis, New York City revived its economy by making itself the preeminent center for global finance. Manhattan's streetscape and public places rose with the fortunes of the banks and their employees. Wall Street's mood came to define New York City's outlook. In the 1990s and early…

  18. Physics for future Presidents - nuclear power, terrorism, global warming; La physique expliquee a notre futur president - Nucleaire, terrorisme, rechauffement climatique

    Muller, Richard A.

    2011-04-26

    This book explains the science behind the concerns that our nation faces in the immediate future. It outlines the tools of terrorists, the dangers of nuclear power, and the reality of global warming. As citizens who will elect future presidents of the most powerful and influential countries in the world, we need to know-truly understand if Iran's nascent nuclear capability is a genuine threat to the West, if biochemical weapons are likely to be developed by terrorists, if there are viable alternatives to fossil fuels that should be nurtured and supported by the government, if nuclear power should be encouraged, and if global warming is actually happening. This book is written in everyday, nontechnical language on the science behind the concerns that our nations faces in the immediate future. This book is translated from 'Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines', published by W. W. Norton and Company in August 2008. Contents: 1 - Terrorism: Nine-eleven, Terrorist nukes, The next terrorist attack, Biological terrorism; 2 - Energy: Key energy surprises, Solar Power, The end of oil; 3 - Nukes: Radioactivity and death, Radioactive decay, Nuclear weapons, Nuclear madness, Nuclear power, Nuclear waste, Controlled fusion; 4 - Space: Space and satellites, Gravity applications, Humans in space, Spying with invisible light; 5 - Global Warming: A brief history of climate, The greenhouse effect, A very likely cause, Evidence, Non-solutions, The fruit on the ground, New technologies

  19. The Treatment of Wealth Distribution by High School Economics Textbooks

    Neumann, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from an investigation of the treatment of wealth distribution by high school economics textbooks. The eight leading high school economics texts in the United States were examined.

  20. Wealth and Inequality in the Stability of Romantic Relationships

    Alicia Eads

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The family is a key institution that transmits inequality, and racial and socioeconomic inequalities in family life have grown markedly. We use data from the 1996 to 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to offer a comprehensive account of how wealth relates to family stability and how that relationship varies by union type, age cohort, and both type and amount of wealth. We find that liquid and illiquid assets and secured debts are associated with a decrease in the likelihood of dissolution, and that large unsecured debts are associated with an increase. These associations do not differ significantly for married and cohabiting couples. We find evidence of both the material and the symbolic importance of wealth for stability. We also find that wealth explains a significant degree of the racial inequality in family stability.

  1. Inequality measures for wealth distribution: Population vs individuals perspective

    Pascoal, R.; Rocha, H.

    2018-02-01

    Economic inequality is, nowadays, frequently perceived as following a growing trend with impact on political and religious agendas. However, there is a wide range of inequality measures, each of which pointing to a possibly different degree of inequality. Furthermore, regardless of the measure used, it only acknowledges the momentary population inequality, failing to capture the individuals evolution over time. In this paper, several inequality measures were analyzed in order to compare the typical single time instant degree of wealth inequality (population perspective) to the one obtained from the individuals' wealth mean over several time instants (individuals perspective). The proposed generalization of a simple addictive model, for limited time average of individual's wealth, allows us to verify that the typically used inequality measures for a given snapshot instant of the population significantly overestimate the individuals' wealth inequality over time. Moreover, that is more extreme for the ratios than for the indices analyzed.

  2. Gender differences in pension wealth: estimates using provider data.

    Johnson, R W; Sambamoorthi, U; Crystal, S

    1999-06-01

    Information from pension providers was examined to investigate gender differences in pension wealth at midlife. For full-time wage and salary workers approaching retirement age who had pension coverage, median pension wealth on the current job was 76% greater for men than women. Differences in wages, years of job tenure, and industry between men and women accounted for most of the gender gap in pension wealth on the current job. Less than one third of the wealth difference could not be explained by gender differences in education, demographics, or job characteristics. The less-advantaged employment situation of working women currently in midlife carries over into worse retirement income prospects. However, the gender gap in pensions is likely to narrow in the future as married women's employment experiences increasingly resemble those of men.

  3. Macroeconomic Considerations and Motives of Sovereign Wealth Funds Activity

    Dariusz Urban

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign wealth funds are entities regarded as an institutional innovation in the international financial market. Due to the nature of the ownership rights, the investment activity of such entities is still highly controversial. Objections against sovereign wealth funds included the alleged extraeconomic goals of their activity. This article attempts to show that the establishment development and operation of sovereign wealth funds are determined by economic factors. The study presents a description of the international monetary system and the motives for building foreign exchange reserves by countries. It has been evidenced on the basis of the most recent data that some countries have reserves considerably exceeding the level regarded as optimal for the economy. The article presents benefits for the economy from the use of sovereign wealth funds to manage excessive foreign exchange reserves.

  4. Flexible mechanisms in the corporate greenhouse: implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the globalization of the electric power industry

    Schreuder, Y.; Sherry, C. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Policy

    2001-07-01

    The contradictions and unresolved tensions between economic globalization and climate change negotiations have added urgency to the climate change debate. The paper argues that the declining role of the nation state in the global economy and the increasing reach of transnational corporations throughout the world present a serious challenge to the environmental integrity and success of international environmental treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. In particular efficacy and equity of the flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol are questioned as illustrated by the patterns of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) of the US electric power industry in the developing world. US FDI in the electric power sectors of developing countries supports continued carbon-intensive development patterns which will make the long-term goals of the Kyoto Protocol more difficult to achieve. Consequently, FDI raises questions about justifiability of giving credit to Annex I countries through CDM projects undertaken by transnational electric power corporations. 13 refs.

  5. Social Software: A Powerful Paradigm for Building Technology for Global Learning

    Wooding, Amy; Wooding, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    It is not difficult to imagine a world where internet-connected mobile devices are accessible to everyone. Can these technologies be used to help solve the challenges of global education? This was the challenge posed by the Global Learning XPRIZE--a $15 million grand challenge competition aimed at addressing this global teaching shortfall. In…

  6. Economic opportunities resulting from a global deployment of concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies-The example of German technology providers

    Vallentin, Daniel; Viebahn, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Several energy scenario studies consider concentrated solar power (CSP) plants as an important technology option to reduce the world's CO 2 emissions to a level required for not letting the global average temperature exceed a threshold of 2-2.4 o C. A global ramp up of CSP technologies offers great economic opportunities for technology providers as CSP technologies include highly specialised components. This paper analyses possible value creation effects resulting from a global deployment of CSP until 2050 as projected in scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and Greenpeace International. The analysis focuses on the economic opportunities of German technology providers since companies such as Schott Solar, Flabeg or Solar Millennium are among the leading suppliers of CSP technologies on the global market.

  7. The Dynamics of Market Insurance, Insurable Assets, and Wealth Accumulation

    Koeniger, Winfried

    2002-01-01

    We analyze dynamic interactions between market insurance, the stock of insurable assets and liquid wealth accumulation in a model with non-durable and durable consumption. The stock of the durable is exposed to risk against which households can insure. Since the model does not have a closed form solution we first provide an analytical approximation for the case in which households own abundant liquid wealth. It turns out that precautionary motives still matter because of fluctuations of the p...

  8. Nuclear position in power generation sector - under the pressure of anti-global warming and power market reform

    Hayashi, Taizo

    2005-01-01

    The future structure surrounding fuel choice in power generation sector should be understood how to evaluate actual and potential merit and demerit both in economic and environmental aspects on nuclear power generation. That is i.e. nuclear can be understood as superior power source without GHGs and on the other hand, as unfavorable power source which might cause some critical dangers due to its hazardous radioactive nuclear waste. On this specific characteristic, this theme on fuel choice surrounding nuclear in power generation sector could be understood as a highly cultural problem as much as economic and political one. For instance, we can observe quite opposite direction with each other on nuclear power development in European countries like France and Finland on one hand and Germany and Sweden on the other hand. Looking at Asian countries, we also observe the very reality of high economic growth with rapid growth of electricity demand like China. What on earth, is it really possible without nuclear power source for such gigantic countries. I will develop my personal idea on nuclear power source based on Japanese experience towards successfully managing nuclear power technologies in the world, consisting of developing countries with growing economies and of advanced ones with rather matured nuclear technology under the pressure of environmentally restricted world order. My basic view point to discuss nuclear power problem has, conclusionally speaking, several aspects; The first one is in the relation with deregulation or liberalization of electricity market, which has been undergoing among such developed countries as OECD member countries i.e. USA, EU, Japan and other countries. Deregulation or liberalization of electricity market seems to be the inevitable process towards more matured market economy among developed countries group, and that process inevitably forces management of power companies towards more near sighted attitude if those companies are

  9. Multistage and multiobjective formulations of globally optimal upgradable expansions for electric power distribution systems

    Vaziri Yazdi Pin, Mohammad

    Electric power distribution systems are the last high voltage link in the chain of production, transport, and delivery of the electric energy, the fundamental goals of which are to supply the users' demand safely, reliably, and economically. The number circuit miles traversed by distribution feeders in the form of visible overhead or imbedded underground lines, far exceed those of all other bulk transport circuitry in the transmission system. Development and expansion of the distribution systems, similar to other systems, is directly proportional to the growth in demand and requires careful planning. While growth of electric demand has recently slowed through efforts in the area of energy management, the need for a continued expansion seems inevitable for the near future. Distribution system and expansions are also independent of current issues facing both the suppliers and the consumers of electrical energy. For example, deregulation, as an attempt to promote competition by giving more choices to the consumers, while it will impact the suppliers' planning strategies, it cannot limit the demand growth or the system expansion in the global sense. Curiously, despite presence of technological advancements and a 40-year history of contributions in the area, many of the major utilities still relay on experience and resort to rudimentary techniques when planning expansions. A comprehensive literature review of the contributions and careful analyses of the proposed algorithms for distribution expansion, confirmed that the problem is a complex, multistage and multiobjective problem for which a practical solution remains to be developed. In this research, based on the 15-year experience of a utility engineer, the practical expansion problem has been clearly defined and the existing deficiencies in the previous work identified and analyzed. The expansion problem has been formulated as a multistage planning problem in line with a natural course of development and industry

  10. Global nuclear survey: Public support for new power plants remains tentative

    2005-01-01

    14 of the 18 countries - and pluralities in the remaining four countries - believes that the risk of terrorist acts involving radioactive materials and nuclear facilities is high because of insufficient protection. A majority of 54 percent across all countries surveyed believe the risk of nuclear terrorism to be high, while three in ten (28%) say that the risk is low; 3) People appreciate the value of nuclear technology. When asked to consider the peaceful uses of nuclear technology, people in all but three countries are most supportive, by far, of medical applications, followed by electricity generation. Across the 18 countries surveyed, respondents are most likely to choose the use of nuclear technology to treat human diseases as their preferred application (39%). This is followed by electricity generation (26%); 4) Stressing the climate benefits of nuclear energy positively influences one in ten people to be more supportive of expanding the role of nuclear power in the world, but there is still a general reluctance to build more nuclear plants; 5) Awareness of the IAEA among the general population is generally low. However, one in four citizens across the 18 countries surveyed say that they have heard or read 'a lot' or 'some' about the agency, with higher awareness in Asia and the Middle East. The full report, Global Public Opinion on Nuclear Issues and the IAEA - Final Report from 18 Countries, is being released today by the IAEA in Vienna. The countries surveyed included: Argentina, Australia, Cameroon, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Japan, Jordan, Mexico, Morocco, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and the United States. (IAEA)

  11. Modelling Hegemonic Power Transition in Cyberspace

    Dmitry Brizhinev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyberspace is the newest domain of conflict and cooperation between states. In cyberspace, as in all other domains, land, sea, air, and space, these interactions often lead to the emergence of hegemons which are characterised by their predominant influence over global world order and all other states. We examined the emergence and collapse of hegemons in a modelled cyberspace world through the notions of power transition and power diffusion. We used Repast Simphony to construct a simple agent-based model (ABM of a system of states interacting both competitively and cooperatively in this world. Our simple model parsimoniously captures the character of the real international system of states through simple parameters of wealth and power determining the outcome of attack or cooperation amongst pairwise interacting states. We found hegemons of global world order emerged in cyberspace as they do in the other traditional domains from models with these few parameters. And we found that hegemons, contrary to traditional understanding, are not exceptional states but merely occupy the tail of a continuous distribution of power and lifetimes. We also found that hegemony in the system depends on two perhaps unexpected parameters: the difficulty of acquiring power as wealth increases and the amount of cooperation between states. And as a consequence, we argue that cyberspace, as a power-diffuse domain where cooperation is easier than elsewhere, is less suited to the kind of hegemony we see in the traditional domains of state interaction.

  12. Simulations research of the global predictive control with self-adaptive in the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant

    Su Jie; Xia Guoqing; Zhang Wei

    2007-01-01

    For further improving the dynamic control capabilities of the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant, this paper puts forward to apply the algorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive in the rotate speed control of the gas turbine, including control structure and the design of controller in the base of expounding the math model of the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant. the simulation results show that the respond of the change of the gas turbine speed under the control algorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive is ten second faster than that under the PID control algorithm, and the output value of the gas turbine speed under the PID control algorithm is 1%-2% higher than that under the control slgorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive. It shows that the algorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive can better control the output of the speed of the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant and get the better control effect. (authors)

  13. Incorporating global warming risks in power sector planning: A case study of the New England region

    Krause, F.; Busch, J.; Koomey, J.

    1992-11-01

    Growing international concern over the threat of global climate change has led to proposals to buy insurance against this threat by reducing emissions of carbon (short for carbon dioxide) and other greenhouse gases below current levels. Concern over these and other, non-climatic environmental effects of electricity generation has led a number of states to adopt or explore new mechanisms for incorporating environmental externalities in utility resource planning. For example, the New York and Massachusetts utility commissions have adopted monetized surcharges (or adders) to induce emission reductions of federally regulated air pollutants (notably, SO 2 , NO x , and particulates) beyond federally mandated levels. These regulations also include preliminary estimates of the cost of reducing carbon emissions, for which no federal regulations exist at this time. Within New England, regulators and utilities have also held several workshops and meetings to discuss alternative methods of incorporating externalities as well as the feasibility of regional approaches. This study examines the potential for reduced carbon emissions in the New England power sector as well as the cost and rate impacts of two policy approaches: environmental externality surcharges and a target- based approach. We analyze the following questions: Does New England have sufficient low-carbon resources to achieve significant reductions (10% to 20% below current levels) in fossil carbon emissions in its utility sector? What reductions could be achieved at a maximum? What is the expected cost of carbon reductions as a function of the reduction goal? How would carbon reduction strategies affect electricity rates? How effective are environmental externality cost surcharges as an instrument in bringing about carbon reductions? To what extent could the minimization of total electricity costs alone result in carbon reductions relative to conventional resource plans?

  14. The influence of economic development level, household wealth and maternal education on child health in the developing world.

    Boyle, Michael H; Racine, Yvonne; Georgiades, Katholiki; Snelling, Dana; Hong, Sungjin; Omariba, Walter; Hurley, Patricia; Rao-Melacini, Purnima

    2006-10-01

    This study estimates the relative importance to child health (indicated by weight and height for age) of economic development level [gross domestic product (GDP) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity (PPP) rates: GDP-PPP], household wealth and maternal education and examines the modifying influence of national contexts on these estimates. It uses information collected from mothers aged 15-49-years participating in Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 42 developing countries. In multilevel regression models, the three study variables exhibited strong independent associations with child health: GDP-PPP accounted for the largest amount of unique variation, followed by maternal education and household wealth. There was also substantial overlap (shared variance) between maternal education and the other two study variables. The regressions of child health on household wealth and maternal education exhibited substantial cross-national variation in both strength and form of association. Although higher education levels were associated with disproportionately greater returns to child health, the pattern for household wealth was erratic: in many countries there were diminishing returns to child health at higher levels of household wealth. We conclude that there are inextricable links among different strategies for improving child health and that policy planners, associating benefits with these strategies, must take into account the strong moderating impact of national context.

  15. Precipitation and total power consumption in the ionosphere: Global MHD simulation results compared with Polar and SNOE observations

    M. Palmroth

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We compare the ionospheric electron precipitation morphology and power from a global MHD simulation (GUMICS-4 with direct measurements of auroral energy flux during a pair of substorms on 28-29 March 1998. The electron precipitation power is computed directly from global images of auroral light observed by the Polar satellite ultraviolet imager (UVI. Independent of the Polar UVI measurements, the electron precipitation energy is determined from SNOE satellite observations on the thermospheric nitric oxide (NO density. We find that the GUMICS-4 simulation reproduces the spatial variation of the global aurora rather reliably in the sense that the onset of the substorm is shown in GUMICS-4 simulation as enhanced precipitation in the right location at the right time. The total integrated precipitation power in the GUMICS-4 simulation is in quantitative agreement with the observations during quiet times, i.e., before the two substorm intensifications. We find that during active times the GUMICS-4 integrated precipitation is a factor of 5 lower than the observations indicate. However, we also find factor of 2-3 differences in the precipitation power among the three different UVI processing methods tested here. The findings of this paper are used to complete an earlier objective, in which the total ionospheric power deposition in the simulation is forecasted from a mathematical expression, which is a function of solar wind density, velocity and magnetic field. We find that during this event, the correlation coefficient between the outcome of the forecasting expression and the simulation results is 0.83. During the event, the simulation result on the total ionospheric power deposition agrees with observations (correlation coefficient 0.8 and the AE index (0.85.

  16. Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health.

    Ooms, Gorik

    2015-06-16

    Global health research is essentially a normative undertaking: we use it to propose policies that ought to be implemented. To arrive at a normative conclusion in a logical way requires at least one normative premise, one that cannot be derived from empirical evidence alone. But there is no widely accepted normative premise for global health, and the actors with the power to set policies may use a different normative premise than the scholars that propose policies - which may explain the 'implementation gap' in global health. If global health scholars shy away from the normative debate - because it requires normative premises that cannot be derived from empirical evidence alone - they not only mislead each other, they also prevent and stymie debate on the role of the powerhouses of global health, their normative premises, and the rights and wrongs of these premises. The humanities and social sciences are better equipped - and less reluctant - to approach the normative debate in a scientifically valid manner, and ought to be better integrated in the interdisciplinary research that global health research is, or should be. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  17. The rise of smart customers. How consumer power will change the global power and utilities business. What the sector thinks

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This report is the second in a two-part study, geared to helping power and utilities companies adapt their business strategies and customer handling in a new smart world. It explores the views of power and utilities leaders across 12 countries on how smart might change consumers' needs and behaviors, what new services they plan to offer and where they see the strongest new opportunities and competitors. We also compare these results with those of the first study, which examined the views of consumers and their appetite for new smart services.

  18. Zivilmacht Europa: a critical geopolitics of the European Union as a global power

    Bachmann, V.; Sidaway, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The EU's global role is the focus of much media, political and scholarly commentary. This paper explores how ideas associated with the term ‘civilian power’ became an enduring geopolitical conception for an integrated Europe as a significant global actor. It traces their evolution from the early

  19. Setting the rules: Private power, political underpinnings, and legitimacy in global monetary and financial governance

    Underhill, G.R.D.; Zhang, X.

    2008-01-01

    The role of private market agents in global monetary and financial governance has increased as globalization has proceeded. This shift in both markets and patterns of governance has often been encouraged by states themselves in pursuit of liberalization policies. Much of the literature views these

  20. The rise of smart customers. How consumer power will change the global power and utilities business. What consumers think

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    Smart technology puts unprecedented power in the hands of consumers to manage and control their energy use. In time, this will fundamentally shift the balance of customer relations. It seems the era of a one-way relationship - where a utility delivers energy to domestic consumers, end of story - is over. Most power and utility businesses are currently treating the smart transition as an infrastructure upgrade, focusing chiefly on the technology and on fulfilling regulatory obligations. So far, the customer perspective and need for consumer education have not figured prominently in smart implementation programs. But following customer resistance to implementations in the US and Australia, the sector has been alerted to further challenges. Consumers' newfound power to say 'no' is one that the industry is not used to dealing with. Power and utility businesses must learn from the mistakes made so far. They need customer buy-in before they can exploit the host of new business opportunities that smart technology could provide. To explore the sector's readiness to respond to the present cycle of change, we asked domestic energy consumers how they viewed their relationship with energy providers. We wanted to know if they understood the benefits of smart metering, as well as their appetite for smart energy services.

  1. Premises and solutions regarding a global approach of gaseous pollutants emissions from the fossil fuel power plants in Romania

    Tutuianu, O.; Fulger, E.D.; Vieru, A.; Feher, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the present state of RENEL (Romanian Electricity Authority) - controlled thermal power plants from the point of view of technical aspects, utilized fuels and pollutant emissions. National and international regulations are also analyzed as well as their implications concerning the management of pollutant atmospheric emissions of the plants of RENEL. Starting from these premises the paper points out the advantage of global approach of pollution problems and offers solutions already implemented by RENEL. This global approach will result in an optimization of costs implied in pollutant emission limitations as the most efficient solution were found and applied. Having in view this treatment of the pollution problems, RENEL has submitted to the Ministry of the Industries and to the Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection a 'Convention on the limitation of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions produced in the thermal power plants of RENEL'. (author)

  2. Global power production scenarios to 2100 and the dual role of forests: accelerated climate damage or regulating and provisioning ecosystem services?

    Callesen, Ingeborg

    The worlds' electrical power production is depending on the current energy infrastructure, and future investments in new power supply facilities using renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Continued growth in power production in the 21st century will cause global environmental change (GEC......). GEC with climate change as an important driver will affect the environment and the economy in multiple ways that can be summarized as losses of biodiversity and changing ecosystem services (ES), but with very diverse temporal and spatial impacts. In a simple global growth model for power production......, including non-renewable and renewable energy sources, the potential role of forest biomass is investigated. The demands for forest ecosystem services imposed by the global power production are assessed in the present study. Three global power supply scenarios to 2050 with different emphasis...

  3. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process.

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-01-30

    Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier's Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink) and of productive power (Shiffman). The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semi-structured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) advocacy coalitions. The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions of advantage. Global health policy-making is an arena of

  4. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Background: Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. Methods: This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier’s Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink) and of productive power (Shiffman). The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semi-structured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) advocacy coalitions. Results: The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. Conclusion: As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions of

  5. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process

    Lori McDougall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. Methods This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier’s Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink and of productive power (Shiffman. The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semistructured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG era, the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR advocacy coalitions. Results The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. Conclusion As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions

  6. Wealth Share Analysis with “Fundamentalist/Chartist” Heterogeneous Agents

    Hai-Chuan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We build a multiassets heterogeneous agents model with fundamentalists and chartists, who make investment decisions by maximizing the constant relative risk aversion utility function. We verify that the model can reproduce the main stylized facts in real markets, such as fat-tailed return distribution and long-term memory in volatility. Based on the calibrated model, we study the impacts of the key strategies’ parameters on investors’ wealth shares. We find that, as chartists’ exponential moving average periods increase, their wealth shares also show an increasing trend. This means that higher memory length can help to improve their wealth shares. This effect saturates when the exponential moving average periods are sufficiently long. On the other hand, the mean reversion parameter has no obvious impacts on wealth shares of either type of traders. It suggests that no matter whether fundamentalists take moderate strategy or aggressive strategy on the mistake of stock prices, it will have no different impact on their wealth shares in the long run.

  7. Enhancement of the REMix energy system model. Global renewable energy potentials, optimized power plant siting and scenario validation

    Stetter, Daniel

    2014-04-10

    As electricity generation based on volatile renewable resources is subject to fluctuations, data with high temporal and spatial resolution on their availability is indispensable for integrating large shares of renewable capacities into energy infrastructures. The scope of the present doctoral thesis is to enhance the existing energy modelling environment REMix in terms of (i.) extending the geographic coverage of the potential assessment tool REMix-EnDaT from a European to a global scale, (ii.) adding a new plant siting optimization module REMix-PlaSMo, capable of assessing siting effects of renewable power plants on the portfolio output and (iii.) adding a new alternating current power transmission model between 30 European countries and CSP electricity imports from power plants located in North Africa and the Middle East via high voltage direct current links into the module REMix-OptiMo. With respect to the global potential assessment tool, a thorough investigation is carried out creating an hourly global inventory of the theoretical potentials of the major renewable resources solar irradiance, wind speed and river discharge at a spatial resolution of 0.45°x0.45°. A detailed global land use analysis determines eligible sites for the installation of renewable power plants. Detailed power plant models for PV, CSP, wind and hydro power allow for the assessment of power output, cost per kWh and respective full load hours taking into account the theoretical potentials, technological as well as economic data. The so-obtined tool REMix-EnDaT can be used as follows: First, as an assessment tool for arbitrary geographic locations, countries or world regions, deriving either site-specific or aggregated installable capacities, cost as well as full load hour potentials. Second, as a tool providing input data such as installable capacities and hourly renewable electricity generation for further assessments using the modules REMix-PlasMo and OptiMo. The plant siting tool

  8. Enhancement of the REMix energy system model. Global renewable energy potentials, optimized power plant siting and scenario validation

    Stetter, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    As electricity generation based on volatile renewable resources is subject to fluctuations, data with high temporal and spatial resolution on their availability is indispensable for integrating large shares of renewable capacities into energy infrastructures. The scope of the present doctoral thesis is to enhance the existing energy modelling environment REMix in terms of (i.) extending the geographic coverage of the potential assessment tool REMix-EnDaT from a European to a global scale, (ii.) adding a new plant siting optimization module REMix-PlaSMo, capable of assessing siting effects of renewable power plants on the portfolio output and (iii.) adding a new alternating current power transmission model between 30 European countries and CSP electricity imports from power plants located in North Africa and the Middle East via high voltage direct current links into the module REMix-OptiMo. With respect to the global potential assessment tool, a thorough investigation is carried out creating an hourly global inventory of the theoretical potentials of the major renewable resources solar irradiance, wind speed and river discharge at a spatial resolution of 0.45°x0.45°. A detailed global land use analysis determines eligible sites for the installation of renewable power plants. Detailed power plant models for PV, CSP, wind and hydro power allow for the assessment of power output, cost per kWh and respective full load hours taking into account the theoretical potentials, technological as well as economic data. The so-obtined tool REMix-EnDaT can be used as follows: First, as an assessment tool for arbitrary geographic locations, countries or world regions, deriving either site-specific or aggregated installable capacities, cost as well as full load hour potentials. Second, as a tool providing input data such as installable capacities and hourly renewable electricity generation for further assessments using the modules REMix-PlasMo and OptiMo. The plant siting tool

  9. Globalization, Transnational Crime and State Power: The Need for a New Criminology

    Viano Emilio C.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on globalization as it relates to transnational crime. It attempts to show how the very patterns and dynamics that make globalization possible and effective as a positive force in the world also give rise to “collateral” negative, that is criminal, consequences and facilitate the spawning and rapid growth of transnational crimes. Moreover, there are also crimes committed opposing globalization. And globalization also makes it easier to fight crime since it facilitates cooperation and coordination of anti-crime efforts. Thus it has a complex relationship with crime: positive, negative and preventative. The paper also addresses how criminologists should review and revise their research and intervention models to take into account how globalization has changed the way we can and should approach crime. It addresses the lack of criminological interest in the “crimes” of globalization. It challenges the essentialist assumption of mainstream criminology that the legal definitions of crime are sacrosanct and frozen. We need a broader conceptualization of crime which goes beyond the prescriptions of criminal law and draws on different intellectual traditions (crimes of globalization, structural violence and the critique of neo-liberalism which emphasize the contingent influence of social harm in people's life choices. New and bold ways of thinking and modeling are needed. Examples are provided.

  10. A generalized statistical model for the size distribution of wealth

    Clementi, F; Gallegati, M; Kaniadakis, G

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper in this journal (Clementi et al 2009 J. Stat. Mech. P02037), we proposed a new, physically motivated, distribution function for modeling individual incomes, having its roots in the framework of the κ-generalized statistical mechanics. The performance of the κ-generalized distribution was checked against real data on personal income for the United States in 2003. In this paper we extend our previous model so as to be able to account for the distribution of wealth. Probabilistic functions and inequality measures of this generalized model for wealth distribution are obtained in closed form. In order to check the validity of the proposed model, we analyze the US household wealth distributions from 1984 to 2009 and conclude an excellent agreement with the data that is superior to any other model already known in the literature. (paper)

  11. A generalized statistical model for the size distribution of wealth

    Clementi, F.; Gallegati, M.; Kaniadakis, G.

    2012-12-01

    In a recent paper in this journal (Clementi et al 2009 J. Stat. Mech. P02037), we proposed a new, physically motivated, distribution function for modeling individual incomes, having its roots in the framework of the κ-generalized statistical mechanics. The performance of the κ-generalized distribution was checked against real data on personal income for the United States in 2003. In this paper we extend our previous model so as to be able to account for the distribution of wealth. Probabilistic functions and inequality measures of this generalized model for wealth distribution are obtained in closed form. In order to check the validity of the proposed model, we analyze the US household wealth distributions from 1984 to 2009 and conclude an excellent agreement with the data that is superior to any other model already known in the literature.

  12. Preterm Birth and Adult Wealth: Mathematics Skills Count.

    Basten, Maartje; Jaekel, Julia; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Each year, 15 million babies worldwide are born preterm. Preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes across the life span. Recent registry-based studies suggest that preterm birth is associated with decreased wealth in adulthood, but the mediating mechanisms are unknown. This study investigated whether the relationship between preterm birth and low adult wealth is mediated by poor academic abilities and educational qualifications. Participants were members of two British population-based birth cohorts born in 1958 and 1970, respectively. Results showed that preterm birth was associated with decreased wealth at 42 years of age. This association was mediated by decreased intelligence, reading, and, in particular, mathematics attainment in middle childhood, as well as decreased educational qualifications in young adulthood. Findings were similar in both cohorts, which suggests that these mechanisms may be time invariant. Special educational support in childhood may prevent preterm children from becoming less wealthy as adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. When imagining future wealth influences risky decision making

    Adam Eric Greenberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The body of literature on the relationship between risk aversion and wealth is extensive. However, little attention has been given to examining how future realizations of wealth might affect (current risk decisions. Using paired lottery choice experiments and exposing subjects experimentally to imagined future wealth frames, I find that individuals are more risk-seeking if they are asked to imagine that they will be wealthy in the future. Yet I find that individuals are not significantly more risk-averse if they are asked to imagine that they will be poor in the future. I discuss theoretical and policy implications of these findings, including why savings rates are so low in the United States.

  14. Perspectives at the East European engineering companies in the field of power industry in the power-plant construction globalization conditions

    Ganchev, R.

    2001-01-01

    A large group of companies, institutes, boiler and power engineering work ect. from East European countries, currently in process of reorganization or already transformed into new-established private companies and corporations possess significant intellectual property in the field of thermal power technologies and equipment and broad experience in the design and the erection of thermal power plants. In many cases this know-how is not only competitive to that of the large companies of the West and of the Far East, but frequently it also proves to have a number of advantages. However, in the years of transition in these countries and simultaneous globalization, the owners of this potentials meet with difficulties and restrictions to realize it fully. Large investment projects - for new or replacement capacities or comprehensive rehabilitation or refurbishment of TPPs - are accessible only for the financially powerful EPC-contractors and key equipment suppliers, for which large bank credits are accessible. The near future perspective, for the scientists and experts that have accumulated this capital, is in the opportunity to employ the extensive experience and know-how of this firms in the forthcoming large-scale rehabilitation projects in these countries, and primarily, in the solution of specific problems, that have not been solved so far, provided that the projects are awarded not on the basis of the financial power of the contractors but on the basis of the efficiency of the proposed original solutions

  15. Water-controlled wealth of nations.

    Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-03-12

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations on the basis of calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-term sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water-rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects through (i) cooperative interactions among nations whereby water-rich countries maintain a tiny fraction of their food production available for export, (ii) changes in consumption patterns, and (iii) a positive feedback between demographic growth and technological innovations. We find that these strategies may indeed reduce the vulnerability of water-controlled societies.

  16. Worldwide market forces threaten North Sea wealth

    Booth, D

    1977-01-01

    The challenges that the petroleum industry faces in winning all the oil resources in the North Sea are reviewed. All these hydrocarbons that will soon sustain governments, bolster the standard of living, and bring profits to investors will one day be gone, perhaps. The author says, ''if demand for oil continues to rise by a few percent each year for the next 25 years the prospect of the North Sea drained of its riches is real. Even if Britain makes no more demands on it than those needs of today, the global concept of the oil business will mean that other markets will place the North Sea reserves at risk of exhaustion. Two major factors affect this assumption: market forces and government-implemented depletion rates.'' After explaining these two assumptions, the author graphically portrays what life will be like when petrol becomes a luxury item. It is forgotten that the hydrocarbons are being consumed in a lifetime, when it took several millions of years to put them together. (MCW)

  17. Risk Assessment of Diabetes Mellitus by Chaotic Globals to Heart Rate Variability via Six Power Spectra

    Garner David M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The priniciple objective here is to analyze cardiovascular dynamics in diabetic subjects by actions related to heart rate variability (HRV. The correlation of chaotic globals is vital to evaluate the probability of dynamical diseases.

  18. Duality in an asset exchange model for wealth distribution

    Li, Jie; Boghosian, Bruce M.

    2018-05-01

    Asset exchange models are agent-based economic models with binary transactions. Previous investigations have augmented these models with mechanisms for wealth redistribution, quantified by a parameter χ, and for trading bias favoring wealthier agents, quantified by a parameter ζ. By deriving and analyzing a Fokker-Planck equation for a particular asset exchange model thus augmented, it has been shown that it exhibits a second-order phase transition at ζ / χ = 1, between regimes with and without partial wealth condensation. In the "subcritical" regime with ζ / χ 1, a fraction 1 - χ / ζ of the wealth is condensed. Intuitively, one may associate the supercritical, wealth-condensed regime as reflecting the presence of "oligarchy," by which we mean that an infinitesimal fraction of the total agents hold a finite fraction of the total wealth in the continuum limit. In this paper, we further elucidate the phase behavior of this model - and hence of the generalized solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation that describes it - by demonstrating the existence of a remarkable symmetry between its supercritical and subcritical regimes in the steady-state. Noting that the replacement { ζ → χ , χ → ζ } , which clearly has the effect of inverting the order parameter ζ / χ, provides a one-to-one correspondence between the subcritical and supercritical states, we demonstrate that the wealth distribution of the subcritical state is identical to that of the corresponding supercritical state when the oligarchy is removed from the latter. We demonstrate this result analytically, both from the microscopic agent-level model and from its macroscopic Fokker-Planck description, as well as numerically. We argue that this symmetry is a kind of duality, analogous to the famous Kramers-Wannier duality between the subcritical and supercritical states of the Ising model, and to the Maldacena duality that underlies AdS/CFT theory.

  19. Wealth index and maternal health care: Revisiting NFHS-3.

    Goel, Manish Kr; Roy, Pritam; Rasania, Sanjeev Kumar; Roy, Sakhi; Kumar, Yogesh; Kumar, Arun

    2015-01-01

    The third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) is a large dataset on indicators of family welfare, maternal and child health, and nutrition in India. This article using NFHS-3 data is an attempt to bring out the impact of economic status, i.e., the wealth index on maternal health. The study was based on an analysis of the NFHS-3 data. Independent variables taken were the wealth index, literacy, and age at first child birth. Effects of these variables on the maternal health care services were investigated. Out of the total 124,385 women aged 15-49 years included in the NFHS-3 dataset, 36,850 (29.6%) had one or more childbirth during the past 5 years. The number of antenatal care (ANC) visits increased as the wealth index increased and there was a pattern for choice of place of delivery (for all deliveries during the last 5 years) according to the wealth index. Logistic regression analysis of the abovementioned variables were sought to find out the independent role of key determinants of the different aspects of maternal health care. It showed that the wealth index is the leading key independent determinant for three or more ANC received: Tetanus toxoid (TT) received before delivery, iron tablet/syrup taken for more than 100 days, and institutional delivery. Mother's literacy was the leading independent key determinant for early antenatal registration. The study suggested that along with the mother's literacy, the wealth index that is an important predictor of maternal health care can be added for categorization of the districts for providing differential approach for maternal health care services.

  20. Internalisation of external cost in the power generation sector: Analysis with Global Multi-regional MARKAL model

    Rafaj, Peter; Kypreos, Socrates

    2007-01-01

    The Global MARKAL-Model (GMM), a multi-regional 'bottom-up' partial equilibrium model of the global energy system with endogenous technological learning, is used to address impacts of internalisation of external costs from power production. This modelling approach imposes additional charges on electricity generation, which reflect the costs of environmental and health damages from local pollutants (SO 2 , NO x ) and climate change, wastes, occupational health, risk of accidents, noise and other burdens. Technologies allowing abatement of pollutants emitted from power plants are rapidly introduced into the energy system, for example, desulphurisation, NO x removal, and CO 2 scrubbers. The modelling results indicate substantial changes in the electricity production system in favour of natural gas combined cycle, nuclear power and renewables induced by internalisation of external costs and also efficiency loss due to the use of scrubbers. Structural changes and fuel switching in the electricity sector result in significant reduction of emissions of both local pollution and CO 2 over the modelled time period. Strong decarbonisation impact of internalising local externalities suggests that ancillary benefits can be expected from policies directly addressing other issues then CO 2 mitigation. Finally, the detailed analysis of the total generation cost of different technologies points out that inclusion of external cost in the price of electricity increases competitiveness of non-fossil generation sources and fossil power plants with emission control

  1. WOMEN LEADERSHIP AND GLOBAL POWER: EVIDENCE FROM THE UNITED STATES AND LATIN AMERICA

    Arup K.Sen; Jessica E. Metzger

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines leadership theories along with the advancement of women within the United States as well as in Latin America. Data from an exploratory survey of 19 women executives in Latin America and 19 women executives in the United States suggest that globalization has transformed the way in which organizations perceive and carry out leadership today. Globalization has paved the way for a new type of leadership style that is more collaborative and less hierarchal, in which relationshi...

  2. 75 FR 33343 - Application Nos. and Proposed Exemptions; D-11573, Citigroup Global Markets, Inc. and Its...

    2010-06-11

    ... wealth management (retail brokerage) and private wealth management businesses. According to the... programs previously sponsored by Morgan Stanley's Global Wealth Management Group (the MS Channel). As... management fee) which contains investments attributable to the Plan investor. (l) With respect to its...

  3. The Power Reconfiguration and Global Governance with and Without Government: A View on The New Actors

    Giovanni Olsson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to address the reconfiguration of the exercise of power and governance by new international actors. Initially, the power is identified in both conflictual relations as in consensual, presenting him with a bifronte categorization: power on and power to. Still, it is the conceptual shift that involves governance, showing that the authority may be exercised independently of the will of States, presenting it as governance with and without government. Finally, it is shown that the new players, especially non-governmental organizations and transnational corporations exert significant role in the political landscape of contemporary international society, whose national borders have every day lost importance.

  4. Doing More with Less The New Way to Wealth

    Piasecki, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    "Bruce Piasecki redefines what winning looks like for all of us."-GERALD BRESNICK, Vice President of Environment, Health & Safety and Social Responsibility, Hess "Bruce Piasecki has created a book about discovering and maintaining wealth that, in fact, redefines wealth itself to include much more than mere numbers in a bank account." -JAY PARINI, bestselling author of The Last Station and The Passages of H.M. "Bruce Piasecki is one of the few thinkers really upping the ante for leaders in business and society."-JAMES HOWARD KUNSTLER, bestselling author of The Long Emergency and The Geograph

  5. Saving and Social Security Wealth: A Case of Turkey

    H. Yigit Aydede

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the first attempt in the literature to investigate the effects of public social security on aggregate consumption in a time-series setting for a developing country, Turkey that has one of the most generous social security systems in the OECD region. In order to quantify the social security variable, the paper uses the social security wealth (SSW) series calculated for the first time for Turkey and shows that SSW is the largest part of the household wealth in Turkey and therefore...

  6. Housing Wealth and Consumption: A Micro Panel Study

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    find little evidence of a housing wealth effect on consumption: unexpected innovations to house prices are uncorrelated with changes in total expenditure at the household level. A reform in 1992 allowed – for the first time - house owners to use their housing equity as collateral for consumption loans....... We find that young house owners likely to be affected by credit constraints react to house price changes after 1993. Our findings suggest that house prices impact total expenditure through improved collateral rather than directly through wealth....

  7. Nuclear power and the global challenges of energy security, 6 September 2007, London, England, World Nuclear Association Annual Symposium

    ElBaradei, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Atoms for Peace speech given by US President Eisenhower in 1953 - the speech that paved the way for the creation of the IAEA - he declared that a special purpose of Atoms for Peace would be 'to provide abundant electrical energy in the power-starved areas of the world'. That vision has yet to be realized. And it should not be taken to mean that nuclear power is the solution for all countries, or for all developing countries. But I would reiterate what I said at the outset - that the global challenges of security and development are interlinked, and that addressing the energy security needs of all countries will be a key to progress on both fronts. It is incumbent upon us to see to it that nuclear power will fulfil its potential in addressing these challenges

  8. Intermittent 20-HZ-photic stimulation leads to a uniform reduction of alpha-global field power in healthy volunteers.

    Rau, R; Raschka, C; Koch, H J

    2001-01-01

    19-channel-EEGs were recorded from scalp surface of 30 healthy subjects (16m, 14f, mean age: 34 ys, SD: 11.7 ys) at rest and under IPS (Intermittent Photic Stimulation) at rates of 5, 10 and 20 Hertz (Hz). Digitalized data underwent spectral analysis with fast fourier transfomation (FFT) yielding the basis for the computation of global field power (GFP). For quantification GFP values in the frequency ranges of 5, 10 and 20 Hz at rest were divided by the corresponding data gained under IPS. While ratios from PDE data showed no stable parameter due to high interindividual variability, ratios of alpha-power turned out to be uniform in all subjects: IPS at 20 Hz always led to a suppression of alpha-power. Dividing alpha-GFP at rest by alpha-GFP under 20-Hz IPS thus resulted in a ratio paradigma.

  9. The evolution of wealth transmission in human populations: a stochastic model

    Augustins, G; Etienne, L; Ferrer, R; Godelle, B; Rousset, F; Ferdy, J-B; Pitard, E

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive success and survival are influenced by wealth in human populations. Wealth is transmitted to offsprings and strategies of transmission vary over time and among populations, the main variation being how equally wealth is transmitted to children. Here we propose a model where we simulate both the dynamics of wealth in a population and the evolution of a trait that determines how wealth is transmitted from parents to offspring, in a darwinian context

  10. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies

    Delucchi, Mark A.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2011-01-01

    This is Part II of two papers evaluating the feasibility of providing all energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, and heating/cooling), everywhere in the world, from wind, water, and the sun (WWS). In Part I, we described the prominent renewable energy plans that have been proposed and discussed the characteristics of WWS energy systems, the global demand for and availability of WWS energy, quantities and areas required for WWS infrastructure, and supplies of critical materials. Here, we discuss methods of addressing the variability of WWS energy to ensure that power supply reliably matches demand (including interconnecting geographically dispersed resources, using hydroelectricity, using demand-response management, storing electric power on site, over-sizing peak generation capacity and producing hydrogen with the excess, storing electric power in vehicle batteries, and forecasting weather to project energy supplies), the economics of WWS generation and transmission, the economics of WWS use in transportation, and policy measures needed to enhance the viability of a WWS system. We find that the cost of energy in a 100% WWS will be similar to the cost today. We conclude that barriers to a 100% conversion to WWS power worldwide are primarily social and political, not technological or even economic. - Research highlights: → We evaluate the feasibility of global energy supply from wind, water, and solar energy. → WWS energy can be supplied reliably and economically to all energy-use sectors. → The social cost of WWS energy generally is less than the cost of fossil-fuel energy. → Barriers to 100% WWS power worldwide are socio-political, not techno-economic.

  11. The Arab genome: Health and wealth.

    Zayed, Hatem

    2016-11-05

    The 22 Arab nations have a unique genetic structure, which reflects both conserved and diverse gene pools due to the prevalent endogamous and consanguineous marriage culture and the long history of admixture among different ethnic subcultures descended from the Asian, European, and African continents. Human genome sequencing has enabled large-scale genomic studies of different populations and has become a powerful tool for studying disease predictions and diagnosis. Despite the importance of the Arab genome for better understanding the dynamics of the human genome, discovering rare genetic variations, and studying early human migration out of Africa, it is poorly represented in human genome databases, such as HapMap and the 1000 Genomes Project. In this review, I demonstrate the significance of sequencing the Arab genome and setting an Arab genome reference(s) for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of genetic diseases, discovering novel/rare variants, and identifying a meaningful genotype-phenotype correlation for complex diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Commanding Heights? The Strength of Fragility of Business Power in Global Politics

    Fuchs, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    International relations urgently needs theoretical development that takes into the account the power of non-state actors, in particular business. The present paper aims to prepare the ground for such theoretical development by analysing the political power of business along three dimensions: its

  13. Incorporating global warming risks in power sector planning: A case study of the New England region

    Krause, F.; Busch, J.; Koomey, J.

    1992-11-01

    The following topics are described in reference to electric power production in New England: Fuel Prices; Emission Factors and Externality Surcharges; Cost and Potential of Demand-Site Efficiency Improvements; Fuel Switching; Conventional Utility Generation; Gas Supply Constraints; Cogeneration Potential; Biomass Resources; Potential Power Production from Municipal Solid Waste; and Wind Resource Potential

  14. Effects of the financial crisis on the wealth distribution of Korea's companies

    Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Swanson, Todd; Kim, Jooyun

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the distribution functions of Korea's top-rated companies during two financial crises. A power-law scaling for rank distribution, as well as cumulative probability distribution, was found and observed as a general pattern. Similar distributions can be shown in other studies of wealth and income distributions. In our study, the Pareto exponents designating the distribution differed before and after the crisis. The companies covered in this research are divided into two subgroups during a period when the subprime mortgage crisis occurred. Various industrial sectors of Korea's companies were found to respond differently during the two financial crises, especially the construction sector, financial sectors, and insurance groups.

  15. The future role of nuclear power in addressing global environmental problems

    Stumpf, W.

    1995-01-01

    Decision makers have to increasingly balance the costs versus benefits of various energy choices against a background of global environmental deterioration. This is particularly so in the choice of long term electricity production strategies where these have to be balanced against the potential of a very severe disruption of the world's climate due to global warming. In this presentation, the threat of global warming is quantified and scenarios are developed of future predicted energy consumption patterns and their impact on international policies to curb global warming, are analyzed. The conclusion is reached that the threat of global warming is so severe that, on the macro level, an international accepted strategy of utilising a proper balance between all forms of electricity production, is a matter of priority and that all national energy choices should be taken against this framework. Such strategic decisions on the macro level must, however, also translate into the micro level of energy production on topics which include: - more efficient plant utilisation; - more effective risk management; correct choice and application of technology; and - better understanding of issues concerning safety, quality and environmental impact. (author)

  16. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    Faulkner Alex

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co

  17. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    2011-01-01

    Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co-producing' each other in a multi

  18. Politics and Power in Global Health: The Constituting Role of Conflicts

    Askheim, Clemet; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2016-01-01

    In a recent article, Gorik Ooms has drawn attention to the normative underpinnings of the politics of global health. We claim that Ooms is indirectly submitting to a liberal conception of politics by framing the politics of global health as a question of individual morality. Drawing on the theoretical works of Chantal Mouffe, we introduce a conflictual concept of the political as an alternative to Ooms’ conception. Using controversies surrounding medical treatment of AIDS patients in developing countries as a case we underline the opportunity for political changes, through political articulation of an issue, and collective mobilization based on such an articulation. PMID:26927399

  19. Wealth distribution across communities of adaptive financial agents

    DeLellis, Pietro; Garofalo, Franco; Lo Iudice, Francesco; Napoletano, Elena

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies the trading volumes and wealth distribution of a novel agent-based model of an artificial financial market. In this model, heterogeneous agents, behaving according to the Von Neumann and Morgenstern utility theory, may mutually interact. A Tobin-like tax (TT) on successful investments and a flat tax are compared to assess the effects on the agents’ wealth distribution. We carry out extensive numerical simulations in two alternative scenarios: (i) a reference scenario, where the agents keep their utility function fixed, and (ii) a focal scenario, where the agents are adaptive and self-organize in communities, emulating their neighbours by updating their own utility function. Specifically, the interactions among the agents are modelled through a directed scale-free network to account for the presence of community leaders, and the herding-like effect is tested against the reference scenario. We observe that our model is capable of replicating the benefits and drawbacks of the two taxation systems and that the interactions among the agents strongly affect the wealth distribution across the communities. Remarkably, the communities benefit from the presence of leaders with successful trading strategies, and are more likely to increase their average wealth. Moreover, this emulation mechanism mitigates the decrease in trading volumes, which is a typical drawback of TTs.

  20. The Relation Between Financial and Housing Wealth of Dutch Households

    Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze households' joint investment decisions for financial wealth and homes.In our bivariate censored regression model with endogenous switching, fixed costs or transaction costs are captured by a threshold that has to be passed before the purchase.The model allows for spill-over effects of a

  1. Housing wealth and household portfolios in an aging society

    Rouwendal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Housing is one of the most important consumption goods, also for the elderly. For owner-occupiers, housing equity is moreover usually the most important asset in their investment portfolio, and hence, household wealth of the elderly is extremely sensitive to developments on the housing market. This

  2. What is freedom--and does wealth cause it?

    Iyer, Ravi; Motyl, Matt; Graham, Jesse

    2013-10-01

    The target article's climato-economic theory will benefit by allowing for bidirectional effects and the heterogeneity of types of freedom, in order to more fully capture the coevolution of societal wealth and freedom. We also suggest alternative methods of testing climato-economic theory, such as longitudinal analyses of these countries' histories and micro-level experiments of each of the theory's hypotheses.

  3. Sovereign Wealth Funds – the New Challenge for Corporate Governance

    Dariusz Urban

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Sovereign Wealth Funds with reference do the process of corporate governance. In the first part the paper presents the rise, growth and current investment activity of those funds. In the second section the author consider reasons for implementation of corporate governance best practices. The last part of the paper compares Santiago Principles with OECD principles of corporate governance.

  4. The Sacred Lotus - An Incredible Wealth of Wetlands

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 8. The Sacred Lotus - An Incredible Wealth of Wetlands. R N Mandal R Bar. General Article Volume 18 Issue 8 August 2013 pp 732-737. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Chemical Education: A Tool for Wealth Creation from Waste ...

    This paper focuses on exposing the indispensible role of chemical education in wealth creation from waste. Every settlement of people has one type of waste or the other to dispose. The challenge of waste management has in recent time occupied researchers such that innovations are geared towards reducing wastes that ...

  6. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N = 84) in South Africa associate higher status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher…

  7. Job Search and Savings: Wealth Effects and Duration Dependence

    Lentz, Rasmus; Tranæs, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This article studies a risk‐averse worker’s optimal savings and job search behavior as she moves back and forth between employment and unemployment. We show that job search effort is negatively related to wealth under the assumption of additively separable utility. Consequently, job search exhibi...

  8. Corruption and inequality of wealth amongst the very rich

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); E.A. de Groot (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCorruption may lead to tax evasion and unbalanced favors and this may lead to extraordinary wealth amongst a few. We study for 13 countries 6 years of Forbes rankings data and we examine whether corruption leads to more inequality amongst the wealthiest. When we correct in our panel

  9. Wealth, wages and wedlock : Explaining the college gender gap reversal

    Reijnders, Laurie

    2018-01-01

    We study the role of changes in the wage structure and expectations about marriage in explaining the college gender gap reversal. With strongly diminishing marginal utility of wealth and in the presence of a gender wage gap, single women have a greater incentive than single men to invest in

  10. Wealth Creation and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: The Role of ...

    The study investigated the Role of Information Technology (IT) in thecreation of wealth and poverty alleviation in Nigeria. The design of the studywas a descriptive survey, carried out at Nwafor Orizu College of Education,Nsugbe in Anambra State of Nigeria. One hundred and ninety three (193)respondents formed the ...

  11. Housing as Social Right or Means to Wealth?

    Mortensen, Jens Ladefoged; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    This book demonstrates how housing systems are built from political struggles over the distribution of welfare and wealth. The contributors analyze varieties of residential capitalism through a range of international case studies, as well as investigating the links between housing finance...

  12. Health, wealth and happiness: Why pursue a higher education?

    Oosterbeek, H.; Hartog, J.

    1998-01-01

    We explore the effect of schooling on health, wealth and happiness for a cohort of Dutch individuals born around 1940. We also use observations on childhood IQ and family background. The most fortunate group is the group with a non-vocational intermediate level education: they score highest on

  13. Beyond Health and Wealth: Predictors of Women's Retirement Satisfaction

    Price, Christine A.; Balaswamy, Shantha

    2009-01-01

    Despite empirical support for the positive effects of health and wealth on retirement satisfaction, alternative variables also play a key role in helping to shape women's assessment of retirement. In the present study, we explore personal and psychosocial predictors of women's retirement satisfaction while controlling for financial security and…

  14. Five essays on fiscal policy, intergenerational welfare and petroleum wealth

    Thoegersen, Oe

    1994-12-01

    Motivated by current macro economic problems facing the Norwegian economy, this thesis deals with fiscal policy and the management of petroleum wealth in a small open resource economy. The thesis highlights the fact that considerable parts of the petroleum revenues are collected by the government and studies in particular the interaction between fiscal policy, uncertain petroleum revenues and welfare between generations. Essay 1 is a paper on the calculation of the Norwegian petroleum wealth and surveys economic effects of the development of the petroleum sector and the spending of the petroleum revenues. Essay 2 deals with the effects of uncertain government petroleum revenues on fiscal policy, wealth accumulation and inter generational welfare. In Essay 3 a discussion is given of the effects of oil price risk on international risk sharing. Petroleum importing and exporting countries are considered within OECD-Europe. A possible wealth consumption policy is found to have serious and long-lasting negative effects on the welfare of coming generations, as described in Essay 4. Finally, Essay 5 considers a dynamic dependent economy model extended to incorporate finite horizons of the households and structural adjustment costs in production. 121 refs., 19 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Co-investments of sovereign wealth funds in private equity

    Mc Cahery, Joseph; de Roode, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Direct investments are the preferred vehicle for large institutional investors to have control over their portfolio investments. We study the deal structure of direct investments by sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) in private equity transactions. We find that SWFs shift from investing in private equity

  16. The Elephant in The Ground: Managing Oil and Sovereign Wealth

    van den Bremer, T.; van der Ploeg, F.; Wills, S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important developments in international finance and resource economics in the past twenty years is the rapid and widespread emergence of the $6 trillion sovereign wealth fund industry. Oil exporters typically ignore below-ground assets when allocating these funds, and ignore

  17. Determinants of sovereign wealth fund investment in private equity

    Johan, S.A.; Knill, A.M.; Mauck, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines investment patterns of 50 sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) in nations around the world. We study investment by SWFs in 903 public and private firms over the period 1984-2009. As expected, we observe SWFs investments are more often in private firms when the market returns of target

  18. PECULIARITIES OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT IN SOVEREIGN WEALTH FUNDS

    M. Onopko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign wealth funds as the subjects of economic relations are analyzed and the main approaches to the assessment of their activities are discussed. The dependence of the performance measurement system and the strategic objectives of the funds and economic policy objectives of the government is indicated.

  19. Role of Waste Management in Wealth Creation in Nigeria ...

    The concept of entrepreneurship as it relates to waste to wealth by private sector participation (PSP) franchise is considered to have assisted the government create jobs and new businesses for many in contemporary economies, This study essentially try to access whether PSP franchise operators aid in the creation of jobs ...

  20. The Global Reach of Chinese Soft Power: China's Rise and America's Decline?

    Hoey, James H

    2007-01-01

    .... consulate building in Songkhla is now the Chinese consulate. Clearly, this charm offensive utilizing soft power has potentially forced the United States into a situation in which another country's appeal outstrips its own...

  1. Developing Countries and Global Climate Change: Electric Power Options for Growth

    Bernstein, Mark

    1999-01-01

    .... If these investments are made according to business-as-usual (BAU) investment trends, CO(2) emissions from developing country power generation will nearly triple their 1995 levels within 20 years...

  2. Dynamic modelling of water demand, water availability and adaptation strategies for power plants to global change

    Koch, Hagen; Voegele, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    According to the latest IPCC reports, the frequency of hot and dry periods will increase in many regions of the world in the future. For power plant operators, the increasing possibility of water shortages is an important challenge that they have to face. Shortages of electricity due to water shortages could have an influence on industries as well as on private households. Climate change impact analyses must analyse the climate effects on power plants and possible adaptation strategies for the power generation sector. Power plants have lifetimes of several decades. Their water demand changes with climate parameters in the short- and medium-term. In the long-term, the water demand will change as old units are phased out and new generating units appear in their place. In this paper, we describe the integration of functions for the calculation of the water demand of power plants into a water resources management model. Also included are both short-term reactive and long-term planned adaptation. This integration allows us to simulate the interconnection between the water demand of power plants and water resources management, i.e. water availability. Economic evaluation functions for water shortages are also integrated into the water resources management model. This coupled model enables us to analyse scenarios of socio-economic and climate change, as well as the effects of water management actions. (author)

  3. Policy Internationalization, National Variety and Governance: Global Models and Network Power in Higher Education States

    King, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes policy convergence and the adoption of globalizing models by higher education states, a process we describe, following Thatcher (2007), as policy internationalization. This refers to processes found in many policy domains and which increasingly are exemplified in tertiary education systems too. The focus is on governmental…

  4. US elite power and the rise of ‘statist’ Chinese elites in global markets

    de Graaff, Naná; van Apeldoorn, Bastiaan

    The rise of Chinese ‘state capitalism’ such as expressed by the global expansion of Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) has been met with substantial suspicion on the part of the Western corporate and political establishment—including among Washington’s policy-making elite. The underpinning claim

  5. India and China in Comparative Perspective- Emerging Asian and Global Powers

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2011-01-01

    in climate change policy, world trade and to a certain extent in security and energy matters. However disagreement persists on unresolved problems in terms of attracting FDI and other economic issues such as resources and energy. When it comes to the regional Asia settings, the global alignment and foreign...

  6. Rising Power Clusters and the Challenges of Local and Global Standards

    P. Knorringa (Peter); K. Nadvi (Khalid)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explores the intersection between three processes associated with globalisation. First, the rise of emerging economies like China, Brazil and India, the so-called ‘Rising Powers’, and their potential to define the contours of globalisation, global production arrangements and

  7. Rising Power Clusters and the Challenges of Local and Global Standards

    P. Knorringa (Peter); K. Nadvi (Khalid)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper explores the intersection between three processes associated with globalisation. First, the rise of emerging economies like China, Brazil and India, the so-called ‘Rising Powers’, and their potential to define the contours of globalisation, global

  8. IMBALANCE FACTORS IN THE ARAB WORLD: CONFLICTS AND NATURAL WEALTH DEVALUATION

    RALUCA IOANA OPREA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In an international context characterized by globalization, the analysis of the Arab world is all the more relevant as the particularities of this space are more stringent. To analyse the economy of this region properly, one should consider matters of natural resources that are wealth generators in this area (oil and natural gas, addressed in a global and regional context. Post conflict situation, generated after the Arab Spring (2011, affects the entire region, including GCC countries, where all the members are dealing with decline in their balance of payments. Intra-regional integration stays difficult due to the gap between the development status of the countries. Arab states face the highest unemployment rate for youth and about one third of the population deal with moderate poverty. The geopolitical tensions in the region and the decline of oil prices are the two factors which can lead to a major decline of the area.

  9. What is the association between wealth and mental health?

    Carter, K N; Blakely, T; Collings, S; Imlach Gunasekara, F; Richardson, K

    2009-03-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in mental health have been shown in a number of populations. This study aims to investigate the association between asset wealth and psychological distress in New Zealand and whether it is independent of other socioeconomic measures and baseline health status. Data for this study were from the first three waves of the Survey of Families, Income and Employment (SoFIE) conducted in New Zealand (2002-2004/05) (n = 15 340). The Kessler-10 was used as a measure of psychological distress. The association of quintiles of wealth with psychological distress was investigated using logistic regression, controlling for confounders, socioeconomic variables and prior health status. The odds ratio (OR) of reporting high psychological distress were greater in the lowest wealth quintile compared with the highest (OR 3.06, 95% CI 2.68 to 3.50). Adjusting for age and sex did not alter the relationship; however, adjusting for income and area deprivation attenuated the OR to 1.73 (95% CI 1.48 to 2.04). Further controlling for baseline health status reduced the OR to 1.45 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.71), although the confidence interval still excluded the null. Inequalities in wealth are strongly associated with psychological distress, over and above other confounding demographic variables and baseline health status. Much, but not all, of that association is confounded by adult socioeconomic position. This suggests that policy measures to improve asset wealth, through savings and home ownership, may have positive health implications and help to reduce health inequalities.

  10. Steady-state global optimization of metabolic non-linear dynamic models through recasting into power-law canonical models.

    Pozo, Carlos; Marín-Sanguino, Alberto; Alves, Rui; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo; Jiménez, Laureano; Sorribas, Albert

    2011-08-25

    Design of newly engineered microbial strains for biotechnological purposes would greatly benefit from the development of realistic mathematical models for the processes to be optimized. Such models can then be analyzed and, with the development and application of appropriate optimization techniques, one could identify the modifications that need to be made to the organism in order to achieve the desired biotechnological goal. As appropriate models to perform such an analysis are necessarily non-linear and typically non-convex, finding their global optimum is a challenging task. Canonical modeling techniques, such as Generalized Mass Action (GMA) models based on the power-law formalism, offer a possible solution to this problem because they have a mathematical structure that enables the development of specific algorithms for global optimization. Based on the GMA canonical representation, we have developed in previous works a highly efficient optimization algorithm and a set of related strategies for understanding the evolution of adaptive responses in cellular metabolism. Here, we explore the possibility of recasting kinetic non-linear models into an equivalent GMA model, so that global optimization on the recast GMA model can be performed. With this technique, optimization is greatly facilitated and the results are transposable to the original non-linear problem. This procedure is straightforward for a particular class of non-linear models known as Saturable and Cooperative (SC) models that extend the power-law formalism to deal with saturation and cooperativity. Our results show that recasting non-linear kinetic models into GMA models is indeed an appropriate strategy that helps overcoming some of the numerical difficulties that arise during the global optimization task.

  11. Steady-state global optimization of metabolic non-linear dynamic models through recasting into power-law canonical models

    Sorribas Albert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Design of newly engineered microbial strains for biotechnological purposes would greatly benefit from the development of realistic mathematical models for the processes to be optimized. Such models can then be analyzed and, with the development and application of appropriate optimization techniques, one could identify the modifications that need to be made to the organism in order to achieve the desired biotechnological goal. As appropriate models to perform such an analysis are necessarily non-linear and typically non-convex, finding their global optimum is a challenging task. Canonical modeling techniques, such as Generalized Mass Action (GMA models based on the power-law formalism, offer a possible solution to this problem because they have a mathematical structure that enables the development of specific algorithms for global optimization. Results Based on the GMA canonical representation, we have developed in previous works a highly efficient optimization algorithm and a set of related strategies for understanding the evolution of adaptive responses in cellular metabolism. Here, we explore the possibility of recasting kinetic non-linear models into an equivalent GMA model, so that global optimization on the recast GMA model can be performed. With this technique, optimization is greatly facilitated and the results are transposable to the original non-linear problem. This procedure is straightforward for a particular class of non-linear models known as Saturable and Cooperative (SC models that extend the power-law formalism to deal with saturation and cooperativity. Conclusions Our results show that recasting non-linear kinetic models into GMA models is indeed an appropriate strategy that helps overcoming some of the numerical difficulties that arise during the global optimization task.

  12. Biomass energy technologies for rural infrastructure and village power - opportunities and challenges in the context of global climate change concerns

    Kishore, V.V.N.; Bhandari, P.M.; Gupta, P.

    2004-01-01

    The potential and role of biomass resources in developing countries for addressing global climate change concerns are highlighted using India as a case study. Promotion of technologies, which use biomass more efficiently, is seen as a key strategy to integrate the concerns of both developing countries and developed countries. The role of various biomass technologies for improving rural infrastructure and village power is discussed in detail. A vision of establishing and running a chain of rural energy service companies, operating with a basket of devices and technologies, under the general provisions of CDM, is examined for commercialization and mainstreaming of biomass technologies which have achieved reasonable levels of maturity. (author)

  13. Reduced order models, inertial manifolds, and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of nuclear power systems design and operation is to restrict the possible states of certain critical subsystems, during steady operation and during transients, to remain inside a certain bounded set of admissible states and state variations. Also, during transients, certain restrictions must be imposed on the time scale of evolution of the critical subsystem's state. A classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant is done by distributing the different solution types in relation with the exclusion region of the power-flow map. In the framework of an analytic or numerical modeling process of a boiling water reactor (BWR) power plant, this could imply first to find an suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behavior of this nonlinear system, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant, by distributing the different solution types in relation with the exclusion region of the power-flow map. Inertial manifold theory gives a foundation for the construction and use of reduced order models (ROM's) of reactor dynamics to discover and characterize meaningful bifurcations that may pass unnoticed during digital simulations done with full scale computer codes of the nuclear power plant. The March-Leuba's BWR ROM is used to exemplify the analytical approach developed here. The equation for excess void reactivity of this ROM is generalized. A nonlinear integral-differential equation in the logarithmic power is derived, including the generalized thermal-hydraulics feedback on the reactivity. Introducing a Krilov- Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky (KBM) ansatz with both amplitude and phase being slowly varying functions of time relative to the center period of oscillation, a coupled set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for amplitude and phase

  14. A reply to “Historical construction costs of global nuclear power reactors”

    Koomey, Jonathan; Hultman, Nathan E.; Grubler, Arnulf

    2017-01-01

    present data on the overnight costs of more than half of nuclear reactors built worldwide since the beginning of the nuclear age. The authors claim that this consolidated data set offers more accurate insights than previous country-level assessments. Unfortunately, the authors make analytical choices that mask nuclear power's real construction costs, cherry pick data, and include misleading data on early experimental and demonstration reactors. For those reasons, serious students of such issues should look elsewhere for guidance about understanding the true costs of nuclear power. - Highlights: • claim to accurately assess nuclear plant costs over time. • The authors err by relying on overnight costs, which exclude interest. • The authors cherry pick data (e.g, ignoring problems with French nuclear data). • The article's cherry picked data don’t even support the article's own conclusions. • Lovering et al. is not a reliable source for costs of nuclear power.

  15. Reduced order models, inertial manifolds, and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.suarez@miem.gub.u, E-mail: rsuarez@ucu.edu.u [Universidad Catolica del Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay). Fac. de Ingenieria y Tecnologias. Dept. de Matematica; Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria, Montevideo (Uruguay). Direccion General de Secretaria

    2011-07-01

    One of the goals of nuclear power systems design and operation is to restrict the possible states of certain critical subsystems to remain inside a certain bounded set of admissible states and state variations. In the framework of an analytic or numerical modeling process of a BWR power plant, this could imply first to find a suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behavior, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant. Inertial manifold theory gives a foundation for the construction and use of reduced order models (ROM's) of reactor dynamics to discover and characterize meaningful bifurcations that may pass unnoticed during digital simulations done with full scale computer codes of the nuclear power plant. The March-Leuba's BWR ROM is generalized and used to exemplify the analytical approach developed here. A nonlinear integral-differential equation in the logarithmic power is derived. Introducing a KBM Ansatz, a coupled set of two nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained. Analytical formulae are derived for the frequency of oscillation and the parameters that determine the stability of the steady states, including sub- and supercritical PAH bifurcations. A Bautin's bifurcation scenario seems possible on the power-flow plane: near the boundary of stability, a region where stable steady states are surrounded by unstable limit cycles surrounded at their turn by stable limit cycles. The analytical results are compared with recent digital simulations and applications of semi-analytical bifurcation theory done with reduced order models of BWR. (author)

  16. Reduced order models, inertial manifolds, and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto; Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria, Montevideo

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of nuclear power systems design and operation is to restrict the possible states of certain critical subsystems to remain inside a certain bounded set of admissible states and state variations. In the framework of an analytic or numerical modeling process of a BWR power plant, this could imply first to find a suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behavior, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant. Inertial manifold theory gives a foundation for the construction and use of reduced order models (ROM's) of reactor dynamics to discover and characterize meaningful bifurcations that may pass unnoticed during digital simulations done with full scale computer codes of the nuclear power plant. The March-Leuba's BWR ROM is generalized and used to exemplify the analytical approach developed here. A nonlinear integral-differential equation in the logarithmic power is derived. Introducing a KBM Ansatz, a coupled set of two nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained. Analytical formulae are derived for the frequency of oscillation and the parameters that determine the stability of the steady states, including sub- and supercritical PAH bifurcations. A Bautin's bifurcation scenario seems possible on the power-flow plane: near the boundary of stability, a region where stable steady states are surrounded by unstable limit cycles surrounded at their turn by stable limit cycles. The analytical results are compared with recent digital simulations and applications of semi-analytical bifurcation theory done with reduced order models of BWR. (author)

  17. Global environmental issues and electric power in the twenty-first century

    Hidy, G.M.; Spencer, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Development of the electric utility industry in the 21st Century will be central to the well-being of mankind. Electricity worldwide is still likely to be produced mainly from fossil fuel combustion for the foreseeable future. On a global scale, this energy sector will contribute to growing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions through most of the next century. A potential for global climate alteration has been identified with accumulation of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the Earth's atmosphere. If climate changes, adverse environmental effects are possible, acting on human systems, as well as on managed and natural ecosystems. Projected rates of increase in atmospheric CO 2 levels for the next century have motivated decision makers to consider early strategies for beginning to aggressively manage GHG emissions. The objective of this paper is to review the global issues associated with expected increases in gaseous emissions, particularly carbon dioxide from increased energy use, indicating the nature and significance of the issue. The authors emphasize a methodology integrating information on environmental issues with social and economic factors to develop informed international policies. The paper summarizes the technological choices available worldwide that could minimize the environmental impact of increasing energy use, particularly with respect to enhanced electricity production

  18. Life cycle analysis of distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power: economics, global warming potential and water

    Norwood, Zack; Kammen, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    We report on life cycle assessment (LCA) of the economics, global warming potential and water (both for desalination and water use in operation) for a distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power (DCS-CHP) system. Detailed simulation of system performance across 1020 sites in the US combined with a sensible cost allocation scheme informs this LCA. We forecast a levelized cost of 0.25 kWh-1 electricity and 0.03 kWh-1 thermal, for a system with a life cycle global warming potential of ˜80 gCO2eq kWh-1 of electricity and ˜10 gCO2eq kWh-1 thermal, sited in Oakland, California. On the basis of the economics shown for air cooling, and the fact that any combined heat and power system reduces the need for cooling while at the same time boosting the overall solar efficiency of the system, DCS-CHP compares favorably to other electric power generation systems in terms of minimization of water use in the maintenance and operation of the plant. The outlook for water desalination coupled with distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power is less favorable. At a projected cost of 1.40 m-3, water desalination with DCS-CHP would be economical and practical only in areas where water is very scarce or moderately expensive, primarily available through the informal sector, and where contaminated or salt water is easily available as feed-water. It is also interesting to note that 0.40-1.90 m-3 is the range of water prices in the developed world, so DCS-CHP desalination systems could also be an economical solution there under some conditions.

  19. Life cycle analysis of distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power: economics, global warming potential and water

    Norwood, Zack; Kammen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We report on life cycle assessment (LCA) of the economics, global warming potential and water (both for desalination and water use in operation) for a distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power (DCS-CHP) system. Detailed simulation of system performance across 1020 sites in the US combined with a sensible cost allocation scheme informs this LCA. We forecast a levelized cost of $0.25 kWh −1 electricity and $0.03 kWh −1 thermal, for a system with a life cycle global warming potential of ∼80 gCO 2 eq kWh −1 of electricity and ∼10 gCO 2 eq kWh −1 thermal, sited in Oakland, California. On the basis of the economics shown for air cooling, and the fact that any combined heat and power system reduces the need for cooling while at the same time boosting the overall solar efficiency of the system, DCS-CHP compares favorably to other electric power generation systems in terms of minimization of water use in the maintenance and operation of the plant. The outlook for water desalination coupled with distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power is less favorable. At a projected cost of $1.40 m −3 , water desalination with DCS-CHP would be economical and practical only in areas where water is very scarce or moderately expensive, primarily available through the informal sector, and where contaminated or salt water is easily available as feed-water. It is also interesting to note that $0.40–$1.90 m −3 is the range of water prices in the developed world, so DCS-CHP desalination systems could also be an economical solution there under some conditions. (letter)

  20. Techno-Economic Evaluation of a Stand-Alone Power System Based on Solar Power/Batteries for Global System for Mobile Communications Base Stations

    Mohammed H. Alsharif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in cellular networks is receiving significant attention from academia and the industry due to its significant potential economic and ecological influence. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the main pillars of sustainability and environmental compatibility. Technological advancements and cost reduction for photovoltaics are making cellular base stations (BSs; a key source of energy consumption in cellular networks powered by solar energy sources a long-term promising solution for the mobile cellular network industry. This paper addresses issues of deployment and operation of two solar-powered global system for mobile communications (GSM BSs that are being deployed at present (GSM BS 2/2/2 and GSM BS 4/4/4. The study is based on the characteristics of South Korean solar radiation exposure. The optimum criteria as well as economic and technical feasibility for various BSs are analyzed using a hybrid optimization model for electric renewables. In addition, initial capital, replacement, operations, maintenance, and total net present costs for various solar-powered BSs are discussed. Furthermore, the economic feasibility of the proposed solar system is compared with conventional energy sources in urban and remote areas.

  1. Power, Discourse, and Learning Global Citizenship: A Case Study of International NGOs and a Grassroots Movement in the Narmada Valley, India

    Shukla, Natasha

    2009-01-01

    The field of transnational contestation conceptualized as global civil society (GCS) is gaining academic interest as a political "counter-force" against the exigencies of globalization. However, social actors within GCS occupy unequal positions of power in relation to each other. This article examines how the discourses of transnational action…

  2. Thinking out of the box : a green and social climate fund comment on "Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames"

    Ooms, Gorik; van de Pas, Remco; Decoster, Kristof; Hammonds, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Solomon Benatar's paper "Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames" examines the inequitable state of global health challenging readers to extend the discourse on global health beyond conventional boundaries by addressing the interconnectedness of planetary life. Our response explores existing models of international cooperation, assessing how modifying them may achieve the twin goals of ensuring healthy people and planet. First, we address why the inequality re...

  3. Smart Global Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller of Photovoltaic Module Arrays

    Long-Yi Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study first explored the effect of shading on the output characteristics of modules in a photovoltaic module array. Next, a modified particle swarm optimization (PSO method was employed to track the maximum power point of the multiple-peak characteristic curve of the array. Through the optimization method, the weighting value and cognition learning factor decreased with an increasing number of iterations, whereas the social learning factor increased, thereby enhancing the tracking capability of a maximum power point tracker. In addition, the weighting value was slightly modified on the basis of the changes in the slope and power of the characteristic curve to increase the tracking speed and stability of the tracker. Finally, a PIC18F8720 microcontroller was coordinated with peripheral hardware circuits to realize the proposed PSO method, which was then adopted to track the maximum power point of the power–voltage (P–V output characteristic curve of the photovoltaic module array under shading. Subsequently, tests were conducted to verify that the modified PSO method exhibited favorable tracking speed and accuracy.

  4. Mathematical analysis of the global dynamics of a power law model ...

    We analyze a mathematical power law model that describes HIV infection of CD4+ T cells. We report that the number of critical points depends on , where is a positive integer. We show that for any positive integer the infection – free equilibrium is asymptotically stable if the reproduction number R0 1.

  5. Non-State Actors in Global Governance. Three Faces of Power

    Arts, B.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The political power of non-state actors (NSAs) remains a contested issue, as the continuing debates between neo-realists and transnationalists within the Study of International Relations (SIR) show. This paper builds on as well as tries to transcend this debate. Its objective is to bring more

  6. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2007 Annual Review

    2007-01-01

    The year 2007 saw a continued remarkable expansion in the total number and value of deals in the power utilities sector (electricity and gas) worldwide. A 25% increase put the total power deal value of USD 372.5bn nearly nine times above the US$43bn recorded just four years earlier in 2003. Records continue to be set in the sector for the total number and value of deals and for the size of individual deals. There was little sign of the sector pausing for breath in 2007. There were fewer mega-deals, reflecting the complexity of getting really huge deals over the political and regulatory hurdles, but this was more than compensated by a rise in mid-size deal numbers. There was no clear evidence of a fall-off in deal activity in the second half of the year as the credit crisis broke. Indeed, 57% of all power sector deals, 441 of the total 768 deals, came in the second half. Strong deal momentum characterised all the major markets and, with the restructuring of the Russian electricity sector, 2007 marked the year when deals in the Russian Federation made a significant impact on the worldwide totals. Thus, for the first time, Power Deals 2007 includes a specific section on the Russian deals and we separate them out from the wider Asia Pacific totals where they featured in previous editions

  7. Utilization of tidal power in Russia in overcoming the global energy and ecological crisis

    Bernshtein, L.B.; Usachev, I.N.

    1997-01-01

    The 30 years of the exploitation of the TPP Rance in France and Kyslogubskaya TPP in Russia had proved the energy expedience economical and ecological effectiveness and a high performance of the tidal energy. The possibility of such utilizing could be proved thanks to the application of the theoretical cycles of Gibrat, of the bulb units and the russian model of the tidal utilizing and application of the floating methods of creating the TPP. The investigations at TPP Kislaya Guba helped to solve the row of problems of marine power building with the high exploitation performance and ecological safety. Thus the TPP of Mezen with a capacity of 17 million kW can transfer to the united power system of Europe 50 TWh/year and the Tugur TPP with a capacity 8 million kW can produce 20 TWh/year of energy for the power system of seaside of Russian and Japan. Penzinskaya TPP with the capacity of 87 million kW can be promoted in 21. century in connection to the advanced in USA proposition of construction of the combining transport-power tunnel across the Bering Strait. (authors)

  8. The Geopolitics of Power Projection in US Foreign Policy: From Colonization to Globalization

    Houweling, H.; Amineh, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    This Chapter studies continuity and innovation in the geopolitics of America in projecting power beyond legally recognized borders. Exporting cultural symbols expressing what America has on offer plays as crucial a role in the opening of societies beyond borders as commodity exports and the

  9. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2007 Annual Review

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The year 2007 saw a continued remarkable expansion in the total number and value of deals in the power utilities sector (electricity and gas) worldwide. A 25% increase put the total power deal value of USD 372.5bn nearly nine times above the US$43bn recorded just four years earlier in 2003. Records continue to be set in the sector for the total number and value of deals and for the size of individual deals. There was little sign of the sector pausing for breath in 2007. There were fewer mega-deals, reflecting the complexity of getting really huge deals over the political and regulatory hurdles, but this was more than compensated by a rise in mid-size deal numbers. There was no clear evidence of a fall-off in deal activity in the second half of the year as the credit crisis broke. Indeed, 57% of all power sector deals, 441 of the total 768 deals, came in the second half. Strong deal momentum characterised all the major markets and, with the restructuring of the Russian electricity sector, 2007 marked the year when deals in the Russian Federation made a significant impact on the worldwide totals. Thus, for the first time, Power Deals 2007 includes a specific section on the Russian deals and we separate them out from the wider Asia Pacific totals where they featured in previous editions.

  10. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM Spacecraft Power System Design and Orbital Performance

    Dakermanji George

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes the power system design details, its performance to date and the lithium ion battery model that was developed for use in the energy balance analysis and is being used to predict the on-orbit health of the battery.

  11. The impact of household wealth on child survival in Ghana.

    Lartey, Stella T; Khanam, Rasheda; Takahashi, Shingo

    2016-11-22

    Improving child health is one of the major policy agendas for most of the governments, especially in the developing countries. These governments have been implementing various strategies such as improving healthcare financing, improving access to health, increasing educational level, and income level of the household to improve child health. Despite all these efforts, under-five and infant mortality rates remain high in many developing nations. Some previous studies examined how economic development or household's economic condition contributes to child survival in developing countries. In Ghana, the question as to what extent does economic circumstances of households reduces infant and child mortality still remain largely unanswered. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which wealth affects the survival of under-five children, using data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Ghana. In this study, we use four waves of data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ghana from 1993 to 2008. The DHS is a detailed data set that provides comprehensive information on households and their demographic characteristics in Ghana. Data was obtained by distributing questionnaires to women (from 6000 households) of reproductive age between 15 and 49 years, which asked, among other things, their birth history information. The Weibull hazard model with gamma frailty was used to estimate wealth effect, as well as the trend of wealth effect on child's survival probability. We find that household wealth status has a significant effect on the child survival in Ghana. A child is more likely to survive when he/she is from a household with high wealth status. Among other factors, birth spacing and parental education were found to be highly significant to increase a child's survival probability. Our findings offer plausible mechanisms for the association of household wealth and child survival. We therefore suggest that the Government of Ghana

  12. Gender and globalization. A century in retrospect.

    Chinkin, C

    2000-01-01

    In the past, power structures of the nation-State have been organized around patriarchal assumptions, granting men monopoly over power, authority, and wealth. A number of structures have been erected to achieve this imbalance, which have disguised its inequity by making it appear as natural and universal. However, with globalization, this centralization of power within the Sovereign State has been fragmented. Although globalization opens up new spaces by weakening the nation-State, subsequently making possible the undermining of traditional gender hierarchies and devising new bases for gender relations, the reality that the State is no longer the sole institution that can define identity and belonging within it has denied women the space to assert their own claims to gendered self-determination. In this regard, globalization has impacted upon gender relations in complex and contradictory ways. This paper discusses such impacts of globalization on gender relations. Overall, it has become apparent that forms of inequality still exist regardless of a State's prevailing political ideology. Their manifestations may differ, but the reality of women's subordination remains constant.

  13. Global risk from the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides by nuclear power plant accidents in the coming decades

    Christoudias, T.; Proestos, Y. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Lelieveld, J. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We estimate the global risk from the release and atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides from nuclear power plant accidents using the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model. We included all nuclear reactors that are currently operational, under construction and planned or proposed. We implemented constant continuous emissions from each location in the model and simulated atmospheric transport and removal via dry and wet deposition processes over 20 years (2010-2030), driven by boundary conditions based on the IPCC A2 future emissions scenario. We present global overall and seasonal risk maps for potential surface layer concentrations and ground deposition of radionuclides, and estimate potential doses to humans from inhalation and ground-deposition exposures to radionuclides. We find that the risk of harmful doses due to inhalation is typically highest in the Northern Hemisphere during boreal winter, due to relatively shallow boundary layer development and limited mixing. Based on the continued operation of the current nuclear power plants, we calculate that the risk of radioactive contamination to the citizens of the USA will remain to be highest worldwide, followed by India and France. By including stations under construction and those that are planned and proposed, our results suggest that the risk will become highest in China, followed by India and the USA.

  14. Energy choices and risk beliefs: is it just global warming and fear of a nuclear power plant accident?

    Greenberg, Michael; Truelove, Heather Barnes

    2011-05-01

    A survey of 3,200 U.S. residents focused on two issues associated with the use of nuclear and coal fuels to produce electrical energy. The first was the association between risk beliefs and preferences for coal and nuclear energy. As expected, concern about nuclear power plant accidents led to decreased support for nuclear power, and those who believed that coal causes global warming preferred less coal use. Yet other risk beliefs about the coal and nuclear energy fuel cycles were stronger or equal correlates of public preferences. The second issue is the existence of what we call acknowledged risk takers, respondents who favored increased reliance on nuclear energy, although also noting that there could be a serious nuclear plant accident, and those who favored greater coal use, despite acknowledging a link to global warming. The pro-nuclear group disproportionately was affluent educated white males, and the pro-coal group was relatively poor less educated African-American and Latino females. Yet both shared four similarities: older age, trust in management, belief that the energy facilities help the local economy, and individualistic personal values. These findings show that there is no single public with regard to energy preferences and risk beliefs. Rather, there are multiple populations with different viewpoints that surely would benefit by hearing a clear and comprehensive national energy life cycle policy from the national government. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Global Ordo-Liberalism, Private Power and the Transfiguration of Diplomatic Law

    Noe Cornago

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diplomatic law is commonly depicted as a field of law particularly differentiated and stable, and apparently at least not particularly vulnerable to the tensions associated to the restructuring of the global political economy which are so easily observable in other fields of international law. For centuries its formative process was customary. Later, early diplomatic practices, institutions, and norms were tailored to measure the functional and normative needs of a world of nation States. However, it was not until the signing in 1961 of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations that its basic rules were formally codified. But, as the preamble in this Convention affirms, the rules of customary law continue to govern all questions not expressly regulated by its contents. Custom however is not always the residue of the past that some practitioners and scholars use to imagine. Moreover, its formative processes are also embedded in wider historical transformations of global capitalism. Through the examination of current transformations affecting diplomatic settlement of disputes, diplomatic protection, diplomatic immunity and diplomatic reciprocity, this article contends that diplomatic law is becoming another field of struggle, both particularly unexpected and revealing, in the current transition from embedded liberalism towards a new era of global ordo-liberalism. El derecho diplomático se representa comúnmente como una rama del derecho especialmente diferenciada y estable, y aparentemente al menos no particularmente vulnerable a las tensiones asociadas a la reestructuración de la economía política global, que son tan fácilmente observables en otros ámbitos del derecho internacional. Su proceso formativo era habitual durante siglos. Más tarde , las tempranas prácticas diplomáticas, instituciones y normas se adaptaban para medir las necesidades funcionales y normativas de un mundo de estados naciones. Sin embargo, no fue hasta la firma

  16. Individual wealth rank, community wealth inequality, and self-reported adult poor health: a test of hypotheses with panel data (2002-2006) from native Amazonians, Bolivia.

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Nyberg, Colleen; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg; Reyes-García, Victoria; Huanca, Tomás; Leonard, William R; McDade, Thomas W; Tanner, Susan; Vadez, Vincent; Godoy, Ricardo

    2010-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that economic inequality in a community harms the health of a person. Using panel data from a small-scale, preindustrial rural society, we test whether individual wealth rank and village wealth inequality affects self-reported poor health in a foraging-farming native Amazonian society. A person's wealth rank was negatively but weakly associated with self-reported morbidity. Each step up/year in the village wealth hierarchy reduced total self-reported days ill by 0.4 percent. The Gini coefficient of village wealth inequality bore a positive association with self-reported poor health that was large in size, but not statistically significant. We found small village wealth inequality, and evidence that individual economic rank did not change. The modest effects may have to do with having used subjective rather than objective measures of health, having small village wealth inequality, and with the possibly true modest effect of a person's wealth rank on health in a small-scale, kin-based society. Finally, we also found that an increase in mean individual wealth by village was related to worse self-reported health. As the Tsimane' integrate into the market economy, their possibilities of wealth accumulation rise, which may affect their well-being. Our work contributes to recent efforts in biocultural anthropology to link the study of social inequalities, human biology, and human-environment interactions.

  17. Dynamic Interactions Between Health, Human Capital and Wealth

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with health, human capital and wealth accumulation with elastic labor supply. The economic system consists of one industrial, one health, and one education sector. Our model is a synthesis of four main models in economic theory: Solow’s one-sector neoclassical growth mode, the Uzawa-Lucas two sector model, Arrow’s learning by doing model, and Grossman’s growth model with health. The model also includes Zhang’s idea about creative leisure or learning by consuming. Demand and supply of health service and education are determined by market mechanism. The model describes dynamic interdependence among wealth, health, human capital, economic structure, and time distribution among work, health caring, and education under perfect competition. We simulate the model and examine effects of changes in the propensity to consume health caring, the efficiency of producing health caring, the propensity to receive education, and the propensity to save.

  18. Low-wealth Entrepreneurs and Access to External Financing

    Frid, Casey J.; Wyman, David M.; Gartner, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: -The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between low-wealth business founders in the USA and external startup funding. Specifically, the authors test whether a founders’ low personal net worth is correlated with a lower probability of acquiring funding from outside sources...... demonstrates the importance of personal wealth as a factor in acquiring external startup financing compared to human capital, industry, or personal characteristics. Social implications: -If the ability to acquire external funding is significantly constrained, the quality of the opportunity and the skill...... endowments at the outset. Originality/value: -Unlike prior studies, the data used are not subject to survivor bias or an underrepresentation of self-employment. The statistical model jointly estimates acquisition of financing and the amount received. This resolves selection and censoring problems. Finally...

  19. The Global Reach of Chinese Soft Power: China’s Rise and America’s Decline?

    2007-09-01

    Chinese-language television, music , and film are appealing to more developing nations. The Philippines hosts its own Chinese film festival and even... tourism , promoting the Chinese-culture and language by osmosis. As Beijing has relaxed its policies and encouraged outward investment, Chinese...Chinese Migrants and the Power of Guanxi,” Asia Times, 30 July 2004. 21 Beijing’s relaxation of tourism limits has also allowed more Chinese to

  20. Prospects and strategies for nuclear power: global boon or dangerous diversion?

    Beck, P.

    1994-01-01

    The complex arguments surrounding the future of nuclear energy are examined. The probability of growth in electricity demand in the next century and the possibility of climate change due to the greenhouse effect support the retention of nuclear energy as an option for strong world-wide expansion. Three important concerns are associated with present nuclear technology, however, which makes expansion politically unlikely. These are the possibility of accidental radioactive releases, safe disposal of long-lived waste and the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons and terrorism that might accompany an expansion of nuclear power. Furthermore, as competition increases in the power generation market, it is unlikely that private investment in nuclear power will be forthcoming without government support. Technological developments over the past decade have demonstrated new ways of improving the safety and security of fuel cycles by reducing the waste disposal problem and proliferation damages, and simpler, safer reactor designs have emerged. There are, nevertheless grave doubts as to whether funds will be found to bring a new generation of reactors to the stage where they are commercially available. A far greater understanding of, and consensus about, whether the new developments could lead to a safe, economic and acceptable nuclear industry is needed. (UK)

  1. Climate change and the role of nuclear power - contributions to a global solution

    McKechnie, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The threat of global climate change is a challenge to those who decide on energy policy. If we are complacent and the worst case scenario materializes, our descendants could be faced with unprecedented problems that would impose massive costs. On the other hand, it is our generation which would suffer if substantial resources were devoted to addressing a problem that did not turn out to be serious. Fortunately, the choice is not a stark as this. There are options such as increased energy efficiency and clean fuels that are economically justified before their environmental benefits are considered. These options are the first priority for addressing climate change. What will be the contribution of nuclear energy? In developing countries it is likely to be small. In the industrialized world, where the cost of capital is lower, the role of nuclear will depend on construction and operating performance of the industry, and the level of public confidence. New nuclear technologies that are inherently safe and small modular designs could transform the nuclear option if costs are competitive with other energy sources. The nuclear option is one that should be kept alive in case a global environmental crisis is forced upon us. (orig.)

  2. Race, Wealth, and Solid Waste Facilities in North Carolina

    Norton, Jennifer M.; Wing, Steve; Lipscomb, Hester J.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Cravey, Altha J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Concern has been expressed in North Carolina that solid waste facilities may be disproportionately located in poor communities and in communities of color, that this represents an environmental injustice, and that solid waste facilities negatively impact the health of host communities. Objective Our goal in this study was to conduct a statewide analysis of the location of solid waste facilities in relation to community race and wealth. Methods We used census block groups to obtain ...

  3. Corruption and inequality of wealth amongst the very rich.

    Franses, Philip Hans; de Groot, Bert

    Corruption may lead to tax evasion and unbalanced favors and this may lead to extraordinary wealth amongst a few. We study for 13 countries 6 years of Forbes rankings data and we examine whether corruption leads to more inequality amongst the wealthiest. When we correct in our panel model for current and one-year lagged competitiveness and GDP growth rates, we find no such effect. In fact, we find that more competitiveness decreases inequality amongst the wealthiest.

  4. PRIVATE BANKING AND WEALTH MANAGEMENT SERVICES OFFERED BY BANKS

    IMOLA DRIGĂ; DORINA NIŢĂ; IOAN CUCU

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the features of private banking business focusing on the substantial growth in private banking over the last decade as commercial banks have targeted upmarket high net worth individuals. The accumulation of wealth has prompted the development of private banking services for high net worth individuals, offering special relationships and investment services. Private banking is about much more than traditional banking services of deposits and loans. It's about providing a one-...

  5. Stochastic processes in the social sciences: Markets, prices and wealth distributions

    Romero, Natalia E.

    The present work uses statistical mechanics tools to investigate the dynamics of markets, prices, trades and wealth distribution. We studied the evolution of market dynamics in different stages of historical development by analyzing commodity prices from two distinct periods ancient Babylon, and medieval and early modern England. We find that the first-digit distributions of both Babylon and England commodity prices follow Benfords law, indicating that the data represent empirical observations typically arising from a free market. Further, we find that the normalized prices of both Babylon and England agricultural commodities are characterized by stretched exponential distributions, and exhibit persistent correlations of a power law type over long periods of up to several centuries, in contrast to contemporary markets. Our findings suggest that similar market interactions may underlie the dynamics of ancient agricultural commodity prices, and that these interactions may remain stable across centuries. To further investigate the dynamics of markets we present the analogy between transfers of money between individuals and the transfer of energy through particle collisions by means of the kinetic theory of gases. We introduce a theoretical framework of how the micro rules of trading lead to the emergence of income and wealth distribution. Particularly, we study the effects of different types of distribution of savings/investments among individuals in a society and different welfare/subsidies redistribution policies. Results show that while considering savings propensities the models approach empirical distributions of wealth quite well the effect of redistribution better captures specific features of the distributions which earlier models failed to do; moreover the models still preserve the exponential decay observed in empirical income distributions reported by tax data and surveys.

  6. From Dearth to El Dorado: Andean Nature, Plate Tectonics, and the Ontologies of Ecuadorian Resource Wealth

    David Kneas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the Ecuadorian government has pledged to convert the nation into a “mining country” of global standing. Contemporary claims of mineral wealth, however, stand in stark contrast to previous assessments. Indeed, through much of the 20th century, geologists described Ecuador as a country of mineral dearth. Exploring the process through which Ecuador seemingly transitioned from a nation of resource scarcity to one of mineral plenty, I demonstrate how assessments of Ecuador’s resource potential relate to ideas of Andean nature. Promoters of resource abundance have emphasized Andean uniformity and equivalence—the notion that Ecuador’s mineral wealth is inevitable by virtue of the resource richness of its Andean neighbors. Geologists who have questioned Ecuador’s mineral content, on the other hand, have emphasized Andean heterogeneity. In the recent promotion of Ecuador’s resource potential, notions of Andean uniformity have been bolstered by models of subsoil copper that emerged in the in 1970s in the context of plate-tectonic theory. In highlighting the linkage between ideas of Andean nature and appraisals of Ecuadorian resource potential since the late 19th century, I outline the dialectics between nature and natural resources that underpin processes of resource becoming.

  7. Sovereign Wealth and Pension Funds Controlling Canadian Businesses: Tax-Policy Implications

    Vijay Jog

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In a world without taxes, investors that take over companies would do so because they expect to be able to operate the business efficiently and at a high rate of return. But in Canada today, some acquirers enjoy tax advantages over others. And that could mean that certain buyers, who may not be best suited to owning a particular company, are able to outbid those who are better positioned to run that company at optimal efficiency. That is a problem not just for investors who end up outbid, due to Canada’s uneven tax policy, but for the Canadian economy, which suffers from the resulting economic inefficiency. With respect to registered pension plans, the so-called 30-per-cent rule puts a cap on the amount of voting equity in a company that they are permitted to own. Meanwhile, however, sovereign wealth funds — whether controlled by China or Australia — face no such limit when purchasing stakes in Canadian firms. The number and size of sovereign wealth funds, globally, is only growing — and rapidly. But as Canada increasingly attracts foreign capital, with foreign-controlled government-affiliated funds seeking out Canadian takeover targets, much of the discussion around public policy has focused primarily on the Investment Canada Act and the “net benefit test” for foreign direct investment. Another component in ensuring that Canadian interests are preserved, however, is the question of whether Canadian institutional investors can operate on a level playing field with foreign sovereign wealth funds. With the 30-per-cent rule limiting equity purchases for one but not the other, it would appear that they are not. The most appealing remedy to this imbalance is a tax solution: limiting the corporate deductions on interest, fees, royalties, rents, and the like, that so often factor in to the takeover calculation, as part of a tax-minimization strategy. This would not only put pension funds and sovereign wealth funds on equal footing, but it

  8. Algeria: the illusions of oil wealth - CERI Studies No. 168

    Martinez, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Thirty years after the nationalisation of hydrocarbons Algeria's oil wealth seems to have disappeared judging by its absence in the country's indicators of well-being. In Algeria oil led to happiness for a few and sadness for many. The absence of controls over oil revenue led to the industries downfall. Since 2002 Algeria is again seeing oil wealth. The increase in the price per barrel from 30 to 147 dollars between 2002 and 2008 provided the country with unexpected revenue permitting it to accumulate funds estimated, in 2009, at 150 billion dollars. Abdelaziz Bouteflika, returned to a devastated Algeria to restore civil order, unexpectedly benefited from this price increase. Thus, in addition to national reconciliation he was able to offer Algeria renewed economic growth. However, given that the wounds of the 1990's are not entirely healed and the illusions of oil wealth have evaporated this unexpected return of financial abundance raises concerns. To what ends will this manna be put? Who will control it? Will it provoke new violence and conflict? (author)

  9. Comparing Wealth – Data quality of the HFCS

    Anita Tiefensee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS provides information about house-hold wealth (real and financial assets as well as liabilities from 15 Euro-countries around the year 2010 (first wave. The survey will be the central dataset in this topic in the future. However, several aspects point to potential methodological constraints regarding cross-country comparability. Therefore the aim of this paper is to get a better insight in the data quality of this important data source. The framework for our analysis is the “Guidelines for Micro Statistics on Household Wealth” from the OECD (2013. We have two main focuses: First, we present a synopsis of cross-country differences, which is the core of the paper. We compare the sampling processes, the interview modes, the oversampling techniques, the unit and item non-response rates and how it is dealt with them via weighting and imputation as well as further points which might restrict cross-country comparability of net wealth. We classify the individual country behavior and evaluate the impact on net wealth. Second, we give a first insight in the selectivity of item non-response in a cross-national setting. We make use of logit models to identify differences in characteristics as well as item non-response patterns across countries.

  10. Governing Global Capital

    Harrington, Brooke

    in helping elites avoid taxes and other forms of regulation. The study documents how the means through which they achieve this objective - shifting billions in private capital wealth between Asia, Africa, India and Europe - and how this affects the balance of regional economic power. Drawing from...

  11. Neo-Mercantilist Policy and China’s Rise as a Global Power

    Fu-Lai Tony Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that China is adopting Neo-mercantilist policies in its national development and global expansion. China’s Neo-mercantilist strategies include promoting nationalism and patriotism, stockpiling gold and foreign reserves, striving for favorable balance of payment via exchange rate manipulation, tariff, export subsidies and other trade protections. The Chinese government also controls population growth for national development and social control, initiates “Belt and Road” project and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank to counter American and Western influences, and deploys strategic expansion in Africa, South Asia and Latin American countries. China’s economic success through Neo-mercantilist strategies may provide an incentive for other Asian developing nations such as the Philippines to follow.

  12. Climate Change and China as a Global Emerging Regulatory Sea Power in the Arctic Ocean

    Cassotta Pertoldi-Bianchi, Sandra; Hossain, Kamrul; Ren, Jingzheng

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate change in the Arctic Ocean such as ice melting and ice retreat facilitates natural resources extraction. Arctic fossil fuel becomes the drivers of geopolitical changes in the Arctic Ocean. Climate change facilitates natural resource extractions and increases competition...... on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Arctic Council (AC) are taken into consideration under climate change effects, to assess how global legal frameworks and institutions can deal with China’s strategy in the Arctic Ocean. China’s is moving away from its role as “humble power” to one of “informal...... imperialistic” resulting in substantial impact on the Arctic and Antartic dynamism. Due to ice-melting, an easy access to natural resources, China’s Arctic strategy in the Arctic Ocean has reinforced its military martitime strategy and has profoundly changed its maritime military doctrine shifting from regional...

  13. South Africa’s BRICS Presidency: Regional Power at the Helm of a Global Governance Forum

    Marina V Larionova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of South Africa’s BRICS Presidency which formally started with the summit in Durban on March 15-17, 2013 and finished in June 2014 with the BRICS leaders’ Fortaleza meeting. To assess the Presidency effectiveness the author applies “supply-demand” model fine-tuned to achieve a balance of external conditions and national priorities of the country chairing informal summitry institutions, such as BRICS, G20 or G7/8. This analytical paradigm allows reveal to what extent the Presidency has managed to ensure: 1 a high level of response to the key global governance challenges in the summit agenda and decisions; 2 a balance between internal demand (domestic priorities and external demand (other members’ interests and global governance challenges in the Presidency priorities; 3 maximal use of the institution’s capabilities. Conformity of the role chosen by the Presidency (organizer, mediator, political leader, national representative to the combination of external and internal conditions is also considered as it is a major factor of the presidency success. Content analysis, comparative analysis and functional approach were used in the study. The primary sources of the research included the BRICS documents, national documents of the member states, the leaders’ addresses. The study reveals that the major factors of the South African BRICS presidency success were commitment to implementation of the Durban decisions and action plan as well as the will to utilize the BRICS capabilities for African countries development and South African regional leadership. In the former case the foundation of success was reinforced the chair’ choice of the organizer role, whereas in the latter a combination of the political leader and national representative roles proved to be the most productive for the presidency.

  14. Global Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT of a Photovoltaic Module Array Constructed through Improved Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization

    Kuei-Hsiang Chao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes a maximum power point tracking (MPPT method in which improved teaching-learning-based optimization (I-TLBO is applied to perform global MPPT of photovoltaic (PV module arrays under dissimilar shading situations to ensure the maximum power output of the module arrays. The proposed I-TLBO enables the automatic adjustment of teaching factors according to the self-learning ability of students. Incorporating smart-tracking and self-study strategies can effectively improve the tracking response speed and steady-state tracking performance. To evaluate the feasibility of the proposed I-TLBO, a HIP-2717 PV module array from Sanyo Electric was employed to compose various arrays with different serial and parallel configurations. The arrays were operated under different shading conditions to test the MPPT with double, triple, or quadruple peaks of power-voltage characteristic curves. Boost converters were employed with TMS320F2808 digital signal processors to test the proposed MPPT method. Empirical results confirm that the proposed method exhibits more favorable dynamic and static-state response tracking performance compared with that of conventional TLBO.

  15. Youth in a Global World: Attitudes towards Globalization and Global Citizenship among University Students in Hong Kong

    Chui, Wing Hong; Leung, Elliot W. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wealth of theoretical literature on globalization and global citizenship, empirical studies on the topic are lacking, especially in the context of pedagogical needs in relation to global citizenship education. In order to address this gap, a study was conducted in Hong Kong to investigate the attitudes of university students towards…

  16. 78 FR 12358 - UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased...

    2013-02-22

    ..., Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Leafstone... Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations (UBS), Weehawken, New Jersey. The workers are engaged... to include all leased workers on-site at UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas...

  17. Agenda setting for maternal survival: the power of global health networks and norms.

    Smith, Stephanie L; Rodriguez, Mariela A

    2016-04-01

    Nearly 300,000 women--almost all poor women in low-income countries--died from pregnancy-related complications in 2010. This represents a decline since the 1980s, when an estimated half million women died each year, but is still far higher than the aims set in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) at the turn of the century. The 1970s, 1980s and 1990 s witnessed a shift from near complete neglect of the issue to emergence of a network of individuals and organizations with a shared concern for reducing maternal deaths and growth in the number of organizations and governments with maternal health strategies and programmes. Maternal health experienced a marked change in agenda status in the 2000s, attracting significantly higher level attention (e.g. from world leaders) and greater resource commitments (e.g. as one issue addressed by US$40 billion in pledges to the 2010 Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health) than ever before. Several differences between network and actor features, issue characteristics and the policy environment pre- and post-2000 help to explain the change in agenda status for global maternal mortality reduction. Significantly, a strong poverty reduction norm emerged at the turn of the century; represented by the United Nations MDGs framework, the norm set unusually strong expectations for international development actors to advance included issues. As the norm grew, it drew policy attention to the maternal health goal (MDG 5). Seeking to advance the goals agenda, world leaders launched initiatives addressing maternal and child health. New network governance and framing strategies that closely linked maternal, newborn and child health shaped the initiatives. Diverse network composition--expanding beyond a relatively narrowly focused and technically oriented group to encompass allies and leaders that brought additional resources to bear on the problem--was crucial to maternal health's rise on the agenda in the 2000s

  18. Local Power -- Global Connections: linking the world to a sustainable future through decentralized energy technology

    Brent, Richard; Sweet, David

    2007-07-01

    Various international dynamics are converging to increase the attractiveness of decentralized energy as a complement to existing centralized energy infrastructures. Decentralized energy (DE) technologies, including onsite renewables, high efficiency cogeneration and industrial energy recycling, offer considerable benefits to those seeking working alternatives to emerging challenges in the energy sector. DE is ideally suited to provide clean affordable energy to areas where modern energy services are currently lacking. Having smaller generators close to where energy is required ensures a safe, reliable and secure energy supply when the energy is required. Furthermore, because DE is a much cleaner alternative than conventional central power plants and the energy provided comes at a much smaller price tag DE is an increasingly acceptable alternative both in the developed and developing world. DE is sure to play a key role in any plan to build a sustainable energy future. (auth)

  19. The Second Law of Economics Energy, Entropy, and the Origins of Wealth

    Kümmel, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    Nothing happens in the world without energy conversion and entropy production.  These fundamental natural laws are familiar to most of us when applied to the evolution of stars, biological processes, or the working of an internal combustion engine, but what about industrial economies and wealth production, or their constant companion, pollution?  Does economics conform to the First and the Second  Law of Thermodynamics?  In this important book, Reiner Kümmel takes us on a fascinating tour of these laws and their influence on natural, technological, and social evolution.  Analyzing economic growth in Germany, Japan, and the United States in light of technological constraints on capital, labor, and energy, Professor Kümmel upends conventional economic wisdom by showing that the  productive power of energy far outweighs its small share of costs, while for labor just the opposite is true.  Wealth creation by energy conversion is accompanied and limited by polluting emissions that are coupled to entropy p...

  20. Overlapping consensus versus discourse in climate change policy: The case of Norway's Sovereign Wealth Fund

    Nilsen, Heidi Rapp

    2010-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the mismatch between emission of greenhouse gases and effective mitigation policies. Science now calls for every tool to be considered in order for radical changes to mitigate the situation more effectively. This paper considers Norway's huge Sovereign Wealth Fund which, although withdrawing investment from firms causing severe environmental damage, does not categorize climate change as 'severe environmental damage'. The main reason is a basis of overlapping consensus, which also hinders argumentation for this practice. Overlapping consensus is part of the broader theory 'Justice as Fairness' as conceived by John Rawls. The consensus is with regard to having a socially just system. The word 'overlapping' refers to people having different reasons for supporting the system. However using overlapping consensus for investment-strategies represents an extension beyond its original intention, and moreover, removes mitigating climate change from the agenda. Removing the basis of overlapping consensus opens up scope for value-based discourse conceived by Habermas' communicative action and discourse ethics. The immense severity of climate change demands value-based and substantial arguments from powerful sovereign wealth funds, to consider the acceptability of their practice.

  1. The Impact of Hedge Fund Activism on Target Firm Performance, Executive Compensation and Executive Wealth

    Andrew Carrothers

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between hedge fund activism and target firm performance, executive compensation, and executive wealth. It introduces a theoretical framework that describes the activism process as a sequence of discrete decisions. The methodology uses regression analysis on a matched sample based on firm size, industry, and market-to-book ratio. All regressions control for industry and year fixed effects. Schedule 13D Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC filings are the source for the statistical sample of hedge fund target firms. I supplement that data with target firm financial, operating, and share price information from the CRSP-COMPUSTAT merged database. Activist hedge funds target undervalued or underperforming firms with high profitability and cash flows. They do not avoid firms with powerful CEOs. Leverage, executive compensation, pay for performance and CEO turnover increase at target firms after the arrival of the activist hedge fund. Target firm executives’ wealth is more sensitive to changes in share price after hedge fund activism events suggesting that the executive team experiences changes to their compensation structure that provides incentive to take action to improve returns to shareholders. The top executives reap rewards for increasing firm value but not for increased risk taking.

  2. Globalization challenges in a globalized world

    Dr.Sc. Gjon Boriçi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is an ongoing phenomenon trying to redefine the economic, social, cultural and political dynamics of contemporary societies. The communication among countries and not only them, has been increased expanding political ties, making possible greater economic integration and wider cultural relations combined with augmented global wealth across the world. But, the process of globalization is in wider terms considered a beneficial one, but also viewed by some countries as a menace to national sovereignty and national culture. This paper tries to explain the obstacles to the process of globalization and its attendant benefits. Although globalization has arisen as a result of a more stable world, the factors that had contributed to its rise also help the factions interested to bring destabilization. In an academic approach in this article, between the research and comparative methods, I have been trying to get the maxims between economy, politics and diplomacy in their efforts of affecting the global era.

  3. Powerful agent of change? The global insurance industry as a driver for greenhouse mitigation and adaptation

    Phelan, Liam; Taplin, Ros

    2007-01-01

    Full text: This paper explores the potential for the gloPal insurance industry to play a powerful and constructive role towards significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions as well as in climate change adaptation. Climate change presents a formidable public policy challenge (IPCC 2001) and one to which sections of the insurance industry have been responsive (Mills 2005). The industry can be expected to play a further constructive role for three reasons: the industry has core capacities in risk management and loss prevention; the industry is the world's largest with annual income in the order of US$3.4 trillion derived from premiums and US$1 trillion derived from investments; and anthropogenic climate change is constricting limits to insurability, with implications for the ongoing functioning of the insurance sector (Mills and Lecomte 2006). Insurance understood as a social institution is both a crucial component of contemporary socio-economic systems and a powerful agent of socio-economic change (Pfeffer and Klock 1974, Denenberg et al. 1964). The ability to transfer risk historically has played a major facilitative role in economic and social development at the broadest scales of human socio-economic systems (Supple 1984; Clark 1999). Governments historically and currently explicitly harness the potential of insurance in support of specific public policy outcomes. The creation of the modern welfare state is a public policy objective on a grand scale achieved in part through application of insurance, in the form of universal health care and pensions (Lengwiler2003). The insurance industry itself also initiates significant socioeconomic change in three ways: direct engagement, for example by establishing the first fire brigades (Kline 1964a); loss prevention research, for example by conducting and financing research into building and vehicle safety (Mills and Lecomte 2006; Kline 1964b); and engaging in lobbying for implementation of safety standards (Kline

  4. MARRIAGE AND MEN’S WEALTH ACCUMULATION IN THE UNITED STATES, 1860-1870

    HONG, SOK CHUL

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how changes in marital status affected men’s wealth accumulation in mid-nineteenth-century America, using a longitudinal sample of Union Army veterans linked to the 1860 and 1870 census manuscript schedules. Controlling for the endogeneity of wealth and marital selection, this paper provides strong evidence that marriage had positive effects on men’s wealth accumulation, whereas ending a marriage had negative effects. The estimated wealth premium on married men is about 60 percent per marital year. This substantial wealth premium is closely related to wives’ specializing in household production, and farmers and craftsmen economically benefited from the unpaid labor of their wives. PMID:24058226

  5. Electric power generated by fossil fuels: Impact and environmental administration at global and local level

    Moscarella, John Paul

    1999-01-01

    An analysis is presented on the derived environmental implications of the current and future structure in the electric power market at international level. The reduced prices of the hydrocarbons determine that the fossil electricity is imposed on other generation forms, that which generates serious challenges to the companies and the governments as regards control and handling of gases emissions. By means of a comparative sample of eight electric companies of developed countries and in development, the tendencies are evaluated in the local and regional markets, as well as the environmental effects of different generating systems of electricity. The mechanism of well-known market is analyzed as activities implemented jointly (AIJ) referred to activities to be implemented jointly to combat the greenhouse gases effect. It concludes that in the short and medium term the conditions of the market will continue favoring the generation of fossil energy, reason why they should strengthen mechanisms of the climatic change control and to impel toward the long term the development of renewable and alternative energy

  6. Global outlook of nuclear power in the LDC's in the 1980's

    Malu wa Kalenga

    1981-01-01

    A programme is outlined which is sufficiently complex and capital intensive to warrant or to necessitate an international effort combining the resources and expertise of organizations such as the IAEA, the World Bank, OECD, OPEC fund, national organizations and firms, in order to tackle simultaneously: 1) the problem of education and manpower development, which is the main task of IAEA; 2) building a stronger international commitment to international financing of third world nuclear programmes, which will be the main task of World Bank, OECD, OPEC special funds; 3) devising buildings and testing the prototype of a small nuclear power reactor. This has to be done in a developed nation so that prospective buyers can see one in operation. To oversome the technical constraint related to such a project it will be necessary to help organize an international consortium which will first determine with the help of the IAEA the potential market for small reactor in the 200-400 MWe range, then select the best design and finally carry out the building and testing of the prototype. 4) to create and manage an international fuel bank in order to relieve developing countries of the considerable concerns about quaranted sources of supply. (author)

  7. Global Thermal Power Plants Database: Unit-Based CO2, SO2, NOX and PM2.5 Emissions in 2010

    Tong, D.; Qiang, Z.; Davis, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    There are more than 30,000 thermal power plants now operating worldwide, reflecting a tremendously diverse infrastructure that includes units burning oil, natural gas, coal and biomass and ranging in capacity from 1GW. Although the electricity generated by this infrastructure is vital to economic activities across the world, it also produces more CO2 and air pollution emissions than any other industry sector. Here we present a new database of global thermal power-generating units and their emissions as of 2010, GPED (Global Power Emissions Database), including the detailed unit information of installed capacity, operation year, geographic location, fuel type and control measures for more than 70000 units. In this study, we have compiled, combined, and harmonized the available underlying data related to thermal power-generating units (e.g. eGRID of USA, CPED of China and published Indian power plants database), and then analyzed the generating capacity, capacity factor, fuel type, age, location, and installed pollution-control technology in order to determine those units with disproportionately high levels of emissions. In total, this work is of great importance for improving spatial distribution of global thermal power plants emissions and exploring their environmental impacts at global scale.

  8. Quantitative Evaluation of MODIS Fire Radiative Power Measurement for Global Smoke Emissions Assessment

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) from open biomass burning, which affects many vegetated regions of the world on a seasonal basis. Knowledge of the biomass burning characteristics and emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) smoke constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the assessment, modeling, and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. This knowledge can be gained through accurate measurement of FRP, which has been shown to have a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. Over the last decade or so, FRP has been routinely measured from space by both the MODIS sensors aboard the polar orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites, and the SEVIRI sensor aboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite. During the last few years, FRP has steadily gained increasing recognition as an important parameter for facilitating the development of various scientific studies and applications relating to the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and their emissions. To establish the scientific integrity of the FRP as a stable quantity that can be measured consistently across a variety of sensors and platforms, with the potential of being utilized to develop a unified long-term climate data record of fire activity and impacts, it needs to be thoroughly evaluated, calibrated, and validated. Therefore, we are conducting a detailed analysis of the FRP products from MODIS to evaluate the uncertainties associated with them, such as those due to the effects of satellite variable observation geometry and other factors, in order to establish their error budget for use in diverse scientific research and applications. In this presentation, we will show recent results of the MODIS FRP uncertainty analysis and error mitigation solutions, and demonstrate

  9. Is the U.S. Retirement System Contributing to Rising Wealth Inequality?

    Sebastian Devlin-Foltz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances for 1989 through 2013 reveal five broad findings. First, overall retirement plan participation was stable or rising through 2007, though overall participation fell noticeably in the wake of the Great Recession and has remained lower. Second, cohort-based analysis of life-cycle trajectories shows that participation in retirement plans is strongly correlated with income, and that the recent decline in participation is concentrated among younger and low- to middle-income families. Third, the shift in the type of pension coverage from defined benefit (DB to defined contribution (DC occurred within—not just across—income groups. Fourth, retirement wealth is less concentrated than nonretirement wealth, so the growth of retirement wealth relative to nonretirement wealth helped offset the increasing concentration in nonretirement wealth. Fifth, the shift from DB to DC had only a modest effect in the other direction because DC wealth is more concentrated than DB wealth.

  10. Wealth dynamics in a sentiment-driven market

    Goykhman, Mikhail

    2017-12-01

    We study dynamics of a simulated world with stock and money, driven by the externally given processes which we refer to as sentiments. The considered sentiments influence the buy/sell stock trading attitude, the perceived price uncertainty, and the trading intensity of all or a part of the market participants. We study how the wealth of market participants evolves in time in such an environment. We discuss the opposite perspective in which the parameters of the sentiment processes can be inferred a posteriori from the observed market behavior.

  11. Sources of income, wealth and the length of life

    Sabel, Clive E.; Dorling, Danny; Hiscock, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    for this type of study, in terms of size and completeness of population coverage and death registration. The results suggest that inequalities in mortality are marked even in Sweden, one of the affluent countries where the effects of health inequalities are assumed to be lowest worldwide. The only income source...... that was associated with beneficial outcomes for all population groups was earnings. Welfare payments, often associated with illness, are associated with higher mortality, particularly for men. Capital income (our 'wealth' indicator) generally reduces the risk of mortality but increases the risk for some younger...

  12. A global plasma model for reactive deposition of compound films by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering discharges

    Zheng, B. C.; Wu, Z. L.; Wu, B.; Li, Y. G.; Lei, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    A spatially averaged, time-dependent global plasma model has been developed to describe the reactive deposition of a TiAlSiN thin film by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) discharges in Ar/N2 mixture gas, based on the particle balance and the energy balance in the ionization region, and considering the formation and erosion of the compound at the target surface. The modeling results show that, with increasing the N2 partial pressure from 0% to 40% at a constant working pressure of 0.3 Pa, the electron temperature during the strongly ionized period increases from 4 to 7 eV and the effective power transfer coefficient, which represents the power fraction that effectively heats the electrons and maintains the discharge, increases from about 4% to 7%; with increasing the working pressure from 0.1 to 0.7 Pa at a constant N2 partial pressure of 25%, the electron temperature decreases from 10 to 4 eV and the effective power transfer coefficient decreases from 8% to 5%. Using the modeled plasma parameters to evaluate the kinetic energy of arriving ions, the ion-to-neutral flux ratio of deposited species, and the substrate heating, the variations of process parameters that increase these values lead to an enhanced adatom mobility at the target surface and an increased input energy to the substrate, corresponding to the experimental observation of surface roughness reduction, the microstructure transition from the columnar structure to the dense featureless structure, and the enhancement of phase separation. At higher N2 partial pressure or lower working pressure, the modeling results demonstrate an increase in electron temperature, which shifts the discharge balance of Ti species from Ti+ to Ti2+ and results in a higher return fraction of Ti species, corresponding to the higher Al/Ti ratio of deposited films at these conditions. The modeling results are well correlated with the experimental observation of the composition variation and the microstructure

  13. Complex association between rural/urban residence, household wealth and women's overweight: evidence from 30 cross-sectional national household surveys in Africa.

    Madise, Nyovani Janet; Letamo, Gobopamang

    2017-01-01

    We sought to demonstrate that the relationship between urban or rural residence and overweight status among women in Sub-Saharan Africa is complex and confounded by wealth status. We applied multilevel logistic regression to data from 30 sub-Saharan African countries which were collected between 2006 and 2012 to examine the association between women's overweight status (body mass index ≥ 25) and household wealth, rural or urban place of residence, and their interaction. Macro-level statistics from United Nations agencies were used as contextual variables to assess the link between progress in globalization and patterns of overweight. Household wealth was associated with increased odds of being overweight in nearly all of the countries. Urban/rural living and household wealth had a complex association with women's overweight status, shown by 3 patterns. In one group of countries, characterised by low national wealth (median per capita gross national income (GNI) = $660 in 2012) and lower overall prevalence of female overweight (median = 24 per cent in 2010), high household wealth and urban living had independent associations with increased risks of being overweight. In the second group of less poor countries (median per capita GNI = $870) and higher national levels of female overweight (median = 29), there was a cross-over association where rural women had lower risks of overweight than urban women at lower levels of household wealth, but in wealthier households, rural women had higher risks of overweight than urban women. In the final group of countries, household wealth was an important predictor of overweight status, but the association between urban or rural place of residence and overweight status was not statistically significant. The median per capita GNI for this third group was $800 and national prevalence of female overweight was high (median = 32% in 2010). As nations develop and household wealth increases, rural African women

  14. Race, wealth, and solid waste facilities in North Carolina.

    Norton, Jennifer M; Wing, Steve; Lipscomb, Hester J; Kaufman, Jay S; Marshall, Stephen W; Cravey, Altha J

    2007-09-01

    Concern has been expressed in North Carolina that solid waste facilities may be disproportionately located in poor communities and in communities of color, that this represents an environmental injustice, and that solid waste facilities negatively impact the health of host communities. Our goal in this study was to conduct a statewide analysis of the location of solid waste facilities in relation to community race and wealth. We used census block groups to obtain racial and economic characteristics, and information on solid waste facilities was abstracted from solid waste facility permit records. We used logistic regression to compute prevalence odds ratios for 2003, and Cox regression to compute hazard ratios of facilities issued permits between 1990 and 2003. The adjusted prevalence odds of a solid waste facility was 2.8 times greater in block groups with > or = 50% people of color compared with block groups with or = 100,000 dollars. Among block groups that did not have a previously permitted solid waste facility, the adjusted hazard of a new permitted facility was 2.7 times higher in block groups with > or = 50% people of color compared with block groups with waste facilities present numerous public health concerns. In North Carolina solid waste facilities are disproportionately located in communities of color and low wealth. In the absence of action to promote environmental justice, the continued need for new facilities could exacerbate this environmental injustice.

  15. Social Wealth Economic Indicators for a Caring Economy

    Indradeep Ghosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay introduces the reader to an entirely new set of measures that are urgently needed by policymakers and business leaders to foster personal, business, and national economic success. Social Wealth Economic Indicators are measures suggested by a partnership model of society, and they inform us that care work matters tremendously but is grossly undervalued. In our contemporary knowledge-service economy, the essential ingredient for social and economic progress is high-quality human capital, and the way to build such human capital is to support the work of caring and caregiving, traditionally considered “women’s work.” The data presented in this essay clearly show that early childhood care and education, family-friendly workplace practices, and the status of women are key determinants of economic success. But they are also necessary for healthy, creative, and cohesive societies in which members work in partnership with each other and with the natural environment to improve living conditions for all. This is the true meaning of social wealth.

  16. The new challenges for oil-based sovereign wealth funds

    Aoun, Marie-Claire; Boulanger, Quentin

    2015-02-01

    Sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) are often presented as an effective instrument for managing hydrocarbon rents, reducing the impact of the volatility of oil or gas revenues on the economy, separating expenditure from income, and promoting a more transparent management of the rent. The asset allocation strategy has become more complex with the rapid rise in oil prices between 2007 and 2014, and the substantial financial reserves accumulated in hydrocarbon-producing countries, switching from an approach of wealth management to an approach of investment and financial optimisation. Hence, these funds have become major players on the international financial and industrial scene. Moreover, with the discovery of new hydrocarbon resources in recent years, particularly in Africa, the strategies of new funds appear to be moving towards a new goal of local economic development. But the unforeseen collapse of crude oil prices in recent months poses a new risk for some SWFs based on hydrocarbon revenues, which has to come to the aid of their economies and focus on their main principle of macro-economic stabilisation. (author)

  17. Wealth, Health Expenditure, and Cancer: A National Perspective.

    Chahoud, Jad; Semaan, Adele; Rieber, Alyssa

    2016-08-01

    The US health care system is characterized by high health expenditures with penultimate outcomes. This ecological study evaluates the associations between wealth, health expenditure, and cancer outcomes at the state level. We extracted gross domestic product (GDP) and health expenditure per capita from the 2009 Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, respectively. Using data from the NCI, we retrieved colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer, and all-cancer age-adjusted rates and computed mortality/incidence (M/I) ratios. We used the Spearman's rank correlation to determine the association between the financial indicators and cancer outcomes, and we constructed geographic distribution maps to describe these associations. GDP per capita significantly correlated with lower M/I ratios for all cancers, breast cancer, and CRC. As for health expenditure per capita, preliminary analysis highlighted a rift between the Northeastern and Southern states, which translated into worse breast and all-cancer outcomes in Southern states. Further analysis showed that higher health expenditure significantly correlated with decreased breast cancer M/I ratio. However, CRC outcomes were not significantly affected by health expenditure, nor were all-cancer outcomes. All cancers, breast cancer, and CRC outcomes significantly correlated with wealth, whereas only breast cancer correlated with higher health expenditure. Future research is needed to evaluate the potential role of policies in optimizing resource allocation in the states' efforts against CRC and minimizing disparities in interstate cancer outcomes. Copyright © 2016 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  18. Income, Wealth and Health Inequalities - A Scottish Social Justice Perspective.

    Molony, Elspeth; Duncan, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers health inequalities through a social justice perspective. The authors draw on a variety of existing sources of evidence, including experiential, scientific and contextual knowledge. The authors work with NHS Health Scotland, a national Health Board working to reduce health inequalities and improve health. Working closely with the Scottish Government and with a variety of stakeholders across different sectors, NHS Health Scotland's vision for a fairer, healthier Scotland is founded on the principles of social justice. The paper takes social justice as the starting point and explores what it means for two interlinked paradigms of social injustice-health inequality and income inequality. Utilising the wealth of evidence synthesised by NHS Health Scotland as well as drawing on the writings and evidence of philosophers, epidemiologists, the Scottish Government and international bodies, the authors explore the links between income and wealth inequality, social justice, the right to health and health inequalities. The paper ends by considering the extent to which there is appetite for social change in Scotland by considering the attitudes of the people of Scotland and of Britain to poverty, inequality and welfare.

  19. Thinking Out of the Box: A Green and Social Climate Fund; Comment on “Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames”

    Gorik Ooms

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Solomon Benatar’s paper “Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames” examines the inequitable state of global health challenging readers to extend the discourse on global health beyond conventional boundaries by addressing the interconnectedness of planetary life. Our response explores existing models of international cooperation, assessing how modifying them may achieve the twin goals of ensuring healthy people and planet. First, we address why the inequality reducing post World War II European welfare model, if implemented stateby-state, is unfit for reducing global inequality and respecting environmental boundaries. Second, we argue that to advance beyond the ‘Westphalian,’ human centric thinking integral to global inequality and climate change requires challenging the logic of global economic integration and exploring the politically infeasible. In conclusion, we propose social policy focused changes to the World Trade Organisation (WTO and a Green and Social Climate Fund, financed by new global greenhouse gas charges, both of which could advance human and planetary health. Recent global political developments may offer a small window of opportunity for out of the box proposals that could be advanced by concerted and united advocacy by global health activists, environmental activists, human rights activists, and trade unions.

  20. INTERPRETING GLOBAL EARTH

    Shahrokh W. Dalpour

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s constantly changing world it is often times difficult to understand thechanges happening around us every second. Some of these changes may be, inthe aggregate,for good, while others may have unappreciated and heavy costs.What isGlobalization? Globalization is “an elimination of barriers to trade,communication, and cultural exchange. The theory behind globalization is thatworldwide openness will promote the inherent wealth of all nations.”(Jones,2012All this encompasses global cultures, international economics and other growingsocial networks such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. Throughout thisanalysis the pros and cons of globalization will be discussed and also whetherornot globalization is in fact as much of a benefit for today’s global economy─as somany think─will be determined. First,identification of the various types ofglobalization is necessary.