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Sample records for global posture strategy

  1. Effect of Global Posture Strategy on U.S. Influence in Europe

    McCormack, Daniel F

    2005-01-01

    .... interest in NATO and Europe. Will following this new strategy take the U.S. across an invisible threshold where its force presence in Europe no longer guaranties leadership and influence in NATO? How is U.S...

  2. Global Strategy

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  3. Effects of Levodopa on Postural Strategies in Parkinson's disease.

    Baston, Chiara; Mancini, Martina; Rocchi, Laura; Horak, Fay

    2016-05-01

    Altered postural control and balance are major disabling issues of Parkinson's disease (PD). Static and dynamic posturography have provided insight into PD's postural deficits; however, little is known about impairments in postural coordination. We hypothesized that subjects with PD would show more ankle strategy during quiet stance than healthy control subjects, who would include some hip strategy, and this stiffer postural strategy would increase with disease progression. We quantified postural strategy and sway dispersion with inertial sensors (one placed on the shank and one on the posterior trunk at L5 level) while subjects were standing still with their eyes open. A total of 70 subjects with PD, including a mild group (H&Y≤2, N=33) and a more severe group (H&Y≥3, N=37), were assessed while OFF and while ON levodopa medication. We also included a healthy control group (N=21). Results showed an overall preference of ankle strategy in all groups while maintaining balance. Postural strategy was significantly lower ON compared to OFF medication (indicating more hip strategy), but no effect of disease stage was found. Instead, sway dispersion was significantly larger in ON compared to OFF medication, and significantly larger in the more severe PD group compared to the mild. In addition, increased hip strategy during stance was associated with poorer self-perception of balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Design of strategies to assess lumbar posture during work.

    Burdorf, A.; Riel, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of postural load on the back should describe exposure patterns among workers and factors affecting these exposure patterns. This article presents general guidelines for designing appropriate measurement strategies; how to obtain detailed data with an applicable

  5. Global power: Markets and strategies

    Poirer, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The author will first present an updated view of the global power market activity, including opportunities in power generation, transmission and distribution. This will include a review of the trends in closings and transaction flowed by type of activity and geographic area. Estimates will be based on Hagler Bailly's comprehensive database on global power transactions and project announcements. The firm has also worked with dozens of global power companies since 1990. Second, the author will review trends in terms of regulatory changes, project cost trends, developers' project experiences, and financing issues. This systematic review will be the foundation for projection of future market activity (e.g., number of closing by type of project through 2000). A forecast of future greenfield and privatization activity will be provided and the key markets will be highlighted. Third, the author will present an updated view of the competition in the global power market (including the various types of competitors and changes in their respective market posture). Finally, the author will discuss the various types of strategies and business models that are followed by key global power players

  6. Role of brain hemispheric dominance in anticipatory postural control strategies.

    Cioncoloni, David; Rosignoli, Deborah; Feurra, Matteo; Rossi, Simone; Bonifazi, Marco; Rossi, Alessandro; Mazzocchio, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Most of the cerebral functions are asymmetrically represented in the two hemispheres. Moreover, dexterity and coordination of the distal segment of the dominant limbs depend on cortico-motor lateralization. In this study, we investigated whether postural control may be also considered a lateralized hemispheric brain function. To this aim, 15 young subjects were tested in standing position by measuring center of pressure (COP) shifts along the anteroposterior axis (COP-Y) during dynamic posturography before and after continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) intervention applied to the dominant or non-dominant M1 hand area as well as to the vertex. We show that when subjects were expecting a forward platform translation, the COP-Y was positioned significantly backward or forward after dominant or non-dominant M1 stimulation, respectively. We postulate that cTBS applied on M1 may have disrupted the functional connectivity between intra- and interhemispheric areas implicated in the anticipatory control of postural stability. This study suggests a functional asymmetry between the two homologous primary motor areas, with the dominant hemisphere playing a critical role in the selection of the appropriate postural control strategy.

  7. Locomotor circumvention strategies are altered by stroke: II. Postural Coordination.

    Darekar, Anuja; Lamontagne, Anouk; Fung, Joyce

    2017-06-15

    Locomotor strategies for obstacle circumvention require appropriate postural coordination that depends on sensorimotor integration within the central nervous system. It is not known how these strategies are affected by a stroke. The objective of this study was to contrast postural coordination strategies used for obstacle circumvention between post-stroke participants (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). Participants walked towards a target in a virtual environment (11 × 8 m room) with cylindrical obstacles that were stationary or approaching from head-on, or diagonally 30° left/right. Two stepping strategies for obstacle circumvention were identified: 1) side step: increase in step width by the foot ipsilateral to the side of circumvention; 2) cross step: decrease in step width by the foot contralateral to the side of circumvention. The side step strategy was favoured by post-stroke individuals in circumventing stationary and head-on approaching obstacles. In circumventing diagonally approaching obstacles, healthy controls generally veered opposite to obstacle approach (>60% trials), whereas the majority of post-stroke participants (7/12) veered to the same side of obstacle approach (V same ). Post-stroke participants who veered to the opposite side (V opp , 5/12) were more independent and faster ambulators who favoured the side step strategy in circumventing obstacles approaching from the paretic side and cross step strategy for obstacles approaching from the non-paretic side. V same participants generally favoured the side step strategy for both diagonal approaches. Segmental rotation amplitudes and latencies were largest in the V same group, and significantly greater in post-stroke participants than controls for all obstacle conditions. All participants initiated circumvention with the feet followed by the pelvis and thorax, demonstrating a caudal-rostral sequence of reorientation. Postural coordination strategies for obstacle circumvention

  8. European strategy/global strategy

    Testore, R. [FIAT Auto S.p.A., Turin (Italy)

    1998-08-01

    In order to be `global`, a carmaker has to satisfy three main criteria: a global customer service, a global market presence, a global respect for the environment. Just in a word, the automotive industry needs to develop - and has indeed already launched - a process of global re-engineering of its: product, processes, and market. The product is not simply a `car`, but a global mobility service. This is what an increasingly diversified clientele is demanding in order to meet its particular mobility needs in terms of comfort and safety, in a way that does not damage the environment and at welldefined, competitive costs. The process is not just a matter of the way we design, manufacture and distribute our product. We have to re-design our entire corporate profile, redefine the parameters of our specific strategic mission, identifying the levels of control and our core business in a way that is consistent with our particular history, market positioning and growth targets. The market is no longer hard set, but is globally diversified, ready to expand into important niches and to meet the personalized needs of specific users: from VIPs to the elderly or the disables, and so on. (orig.)

  9. Athletes who train on unstable compared to stable surfaces exhibit unique postural control strategies in response to balance perturbations

    D.S. Blaise Williams, III

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: USA exhibit unique postural strategies compared to SSA. These unique strategies seemingly exhibit a direction-specific attribute and may be associated with divergent motor control strategies.

  10. Ergonomic strategies to improve radiographers' posture during mammography activities.

    Cernean, Nicolai; Serranheira, Florentino; Gonçalves, Pedro; Sá Dos Reis, Cláudia

    2017-08-01

    To identify alternatives for radiographers' postures while performing mammography that can contribute to reduce the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). Radiographers' postures to positioning craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated without any intervention for three scenarios: radiographer/patient with similar statures, radiographer smaller than patient and radiographer taller than patient. Actions were taken to modify the postures: seated radiographer; patient on a step; seated patient; radiographer on a step. All the postures were analysed using kinovea 0.8.15 software and the angles were measured twice and classified according to European standard EN1005-4: 2005. The non-acceptable angles were measured mainly during MLO positioning when radiographer was taller than the patient: 139° and 120° for arm-flexion and abduction, 72° for trunk and -24° for head/neck-flexion. The introduction of alternative postures (radiographer seated), allowed improvements in posture (60° and 99° for arm flexion and abduction, 14° for trunk and 0° for head/neck flexion), being classified as acceptable. The alternative postures simulated have the potential to reduce the risk of developing WRMSDs when radiographers and patients have different statures. • Radiographers' postures in mammography can contribute to work-related musculoskeletal disorders • Non-acceptable posture was identified for MLO breast positioning (radiographer taller than patient) • Adapting posture to patient biotype reduces the WRMSD risk for radiographers.

  11. Postural strategies assessed with inertial sensors in healthy and parkinsonian subjects.

    Baston, Chiara; Mancini, Martina; Schoneburg, Bernadette; Horak, Fay; Rocchi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The present study introduces a novel instrumented method to characterize postural movement strategies to maintain balance during stance (ankle and hip strategy), by means of inertial sensors, positioned on the legs and on the trunk. We evaluated postural strategies in subjects with 2 types of Parkinsonism: idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP), and in age-matched control subjects standing under perturbed conditions implemented by the Sensory Organization Test (SOT). Coordination between the upper and lower segments of the body during postural sway was measured using a covariance index over time, by a sliding-window algorithm. Afterwards, a postural strategy index was computed. We also measured the amount of postural sway, as adjunctive information to characterize balance, by the root mean square of the horizontal trunk acceleration signal (RMS). showed that control subjects were able to change their postural strategy, whilst PSP and PD subjects persisted in use of an ankle strategy in all conditions. PD subjects had RMS values similar to control subjects even without changing postural strategy appropriately, whereas PSP subjects showed much larger RMS values than controls, resulting in several falls during the most challenging SOT conditions (5 and 6). Results are in accordance with the corresponding clinical literature describing postural behavior in the same kind of subjects. The proposed strategy index, based on the use of inertial sensors on the upper and lower body segments, is a promising and unobtrusive tool to characterize postural strategies performed to attain balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Postural performance and strategy in the unipedal stance of soccer players at different levels of competition.

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric; Rivière, Terence; Marion, Vincent; Montoya, Richard; Dupui, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Sport training enhances the ability to use somatosensory and otolithic information, which improves postural capabilities. Postural changes are different according to the sport practiced, but few authors have analyzed subjects' postural performances to discriminate the expertise level among highly skilled athletes within a specific discipline. To compare the postural performance and the postural strategy between soccer players at different levels of competition (national and regional). Repeated measures with 1 between-groups factor (level of competition: national or regional) and 1 within-groups factor (vision: eyes open or eyes closed). Dependent variables were center-of-pressure surface area and velocity; total spectral energy; and percentage of low-, medium-, and high-frequency band. Sports performance laboratory. Fifteen national male soccer players (age = 24 +/- 3 years, height = 179 +/- 5 cm, mass = 72 +/- 3 kg) and 15 regional male soccer players (age = 23 +/- 3 years, height = 174 +/- 4 cm, mass = 68 +/- 5 kg) participated in the study. The subjects performed posturographic tests with eyes open and closed. While subjects performed static and dynamic posturographic tests, we measured the center of foot pressure on a force platform. Spatiotemporal center-of-pressure measurements were used to evaluate the postural performance, and a frequency analysis of the center-of-pressure excursions (fast Fourier transform) was conducted to estimate the postural strategy. Within a laboratory task, national soccer players produced better postural performances than regional players and had a different postural strategy. The national players were more stable than the regional players and used proprioception and vision information differently. In the test conditions specific to playing soccer, level of playing experience influenced postural control performance measures and strategies.

  13. Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    Zabel, Sarah E

    2007-01-01

    .... The 9/11 attacks set this plan in motion. In the years leading up to and following the 9/11 attacks, global jihadis have written copiously on their military strategy for creating an Islamic state...

  14. STEADFAST: Psychotherapeutic Intervention Improves Postural Strategy of Somatoform Vertigo and Dizziness

    Best, Christoph; Tschan, Regine; Stieber, Nikola; Beutel, Manfred E.; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret; Dieterich, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) disorders often report instability of stance or gait and fear of falling. Posturographic measurements indeed indicated a pathological postural strategy. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational short-term intervention (PTI) using static posturography and psychometric examination. Seventeen SVD patients took part in the study. The effects of PTI on SVD were evaluated with quantitative static posturography. As primary endpoint a quotient characterizing the relation between horizontal and vertical sway was calculated (Q H/V), reflecting the individual postural strategy. Results of static posturography were compared to those of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n = 28); baseline measurements were compared to results after PTI. The secondary endpoint was the participation-limiting consequences of SVD as measured by the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ). Compared to the healthy volunteers, the patients with SVD showed a postural strategy characterized by stiffening-up that resulted in a significantly reduced body sway quotient before PTI (patients: Q H/V = 0.31 versus controls: Q H/V = 0.38; p = 0.022). After PTI the postural behavior normalized, and psychological distress was reduced. PTI therefore appears to modify pathological balance behaviour. The postural strategy of patients with SVD possibly results from anxious anticipatory cocontraction of the antigravity muscles. PMID:26843786

  15. STEADFAST: Psychotherapeutic Intervention Improves Postural Strategy of Somatoform Vertigo and Dizziness

    Christoph Best

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD disorders often report instability of stance or gait and fear of falling. Posturographic measurements indeed indicated a pathological postural strategy. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational short-term intervention (PTI using static posturography and psychometric examination. Seventeen SVD patients took part in the study. The effects of PTI on SVD were evaluated with quantitative static posturography. As primary endpoint a quotient characterizing the relation between horizontal and vertical sway was calculated (QH/V, reflecting the individual postural strategy. Results of static posturography were compared to those of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n=28; baseline measurements were compared to results after PTI. The secondary endpoint was the participation-limiting consequences of SVD as measured by the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ. Compared to the healthy volunteers, the patients with SVD showed a postural strategy characterized by stiffening-up that resulted in a significantly reduced body sway quotient before PTI (patients: QH/V=0.31 versus controls: QH/V=0.38; p=0.022. After PTI the postural behavior normalized, and psychological distress was reduced. PTI therefore appears to modify pathological balance behaviour. The postural strategy of patients with SVD possibly results from anxious anticipatory cocontraction of the antigravity muscles.

  16. Efeitos da Reeducação Postural Global em escolares com escoliose Global Posture Reeducation effects in students with scoliosis

    Pollyana Coelho Vieira Toledo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o efeito do método da Reeducação Postural Global (RPG em escolares com diagnóstico de escoliose torácica não estrutural (ETNE. Os escolares com indicativo de ETNE ao exame postural e teste de Adams negativo foram encaminhados ao exame radiográfico para comprovação diagnóstica. Foram selecionados 20 participantes (11 meninos e 9 meninas, com 10±3 anos, divididos randomicamente em dois grupos homogêneos: o que realizou o RPG (GRPG durante 12 semanas com duração de 25 a 30 minutos cada sessão, de acordo com o que aguentou permanecer na postura; e o grupo controle (GC, sem intervenção. Após três meses, os dois grupos repetiram a avaliação postural e o exame radiográfico. Para avaliação das estatísticas, foi utilizada análise de variância (ANOVA univariada, com medidas repetidas, seguida do Post Hoc de Tukey para identificar as possíveis diferenças intra e intergrupos. O valor de α foi de 0,05. O GRPG apresentou redução significativa no ângulo de Cobb na comparação intragrupo (Δ%=-35,100; p=0,009, mas o GC não (Δ%=9,520; p=0,789. Pode-se concluir que escolares submetidos ao método da RPG apresentaram melhora do quadro de escoliose torácica não estrutural.The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of Global Reeducation Postural (RPG method in scholars diagnosed with thoracic nonstructural scoliosis (ETNE. Scholars with indicative of ETNE to postural exam and Adams test negative were directed to radiographic exam to diagnostic. Twenty participants were selected (11 boys and 9 girls, 10±3 years old and randomly divided in two homogeneous groups: group treated by RPG (GRPG and control group (CG. The GRPG was submitted a RPG treatment during 12 weeks in sessions from 25 to 30 minutes in agreement with each student tolerance at posture. The CG didn't suffer intervention. After three months, both groups repeated the postural and radiographic exam. For statistics, it was used

  17. Effect of Global Postural Reeducation on cardiovascular system of healthy subjects

    Elizângela Márcia de Carvalho Abreu

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effect of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR on cardiovascular system by heart rate variability (HRV, blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR. Materials and methods Seventeen healthy men (22.47 ± 3.02 years were submitted to the postures frog on the floor, frog on the air, sitting, standing against the wall and inclined standing, two postures per session. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP and HR were recorded. The intervals between heartbeats were collected during the whole session (Polar S810i. The frequency domain was analyzed (Wavelet Transform, the low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF were obtained. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey (p < 0.05. Results Increased LF/HF ratio was observed in the frog on the floor (1 ± 0.1 vs. 2 ± 0.3 p < 0.05 and on the air postures (1 ± 0.1 vs. 2 ± 0.2 p < 0.01. There was an increase in SBP in the postures frog on the floor (123 ± 2 vs. 136 ± 4 p < 0.05, frog on the air (122 ± 2 vs. 133 ± 3 p < 0.05, standing against the wall (123 ± 2 vs. 136 ± 4 p < 0.05, inclined standing (124 ± 3 vs. 146 ± 5 p < 0.05. There was increase of DBP in the postures frog on the floor (69 ± 2 vs. 81 ± 2 p < 0.01, frog on the air (72 ± 2 vs. 83 ± 3 p < 0.05, sitting (85 ± 2 vs. 102 ± 3 p < 0.01. There was increase in HR in the postures frog on the air (67 ± 2 vs. 77 ± 3 p < 0.05 and inclined standing (88 ± 3.5 vs. 101 ± 3 p < 0.05. Conclusion The increase in LF/HF ratio and also the BP and HR indicates high sympathetic activity, possibly related to the work isometric developed during GPR method. [P

  18. Postural strategies and sensory integration: no turning point between childhood and adolescence.

    Sophie Mallau

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the sensory integration to postural control in children and adolescents from 5 to 15 years of age. We adopted the working hypothesis that considerable body changes occurring during these periods may lead subjects to under-use the information provided by the proprioceptive pathway and over-use other sensory systems such as vision to control their orientation and stabilize their body. It was proposed to determine which maturational differences may exist between the sensory integration used by children and adolescents in order to test the hypothesis that adolescence may constitute a specific phase in the development of postural control. This hypothesis was tested by applying an original protocol of slow oscillations below the detection threshold of the vestibular canal system, which mainly serves to mediate proprioceptive information, to the platform on which the subjects were standing. We highlighted the process of acquiring an accurate sensory and anatomical reference frame for functional movement. We asked children and adolescents to maintain a vertical stance while slow sinusoidal oscillations in the frontal plane were applied to the support at 0.01 Hz (below the detection threshold of the semicircular canal system and at 0.06 Hz (above the detection threshold of the semicircular canal system with their eyes either open or closed. This developmental study provided evidence that there are mild differences in the quality of sensory integration relative to postural control in children and adolescents. The results reported here confirmed the predominance of vision and the gradual mastery of somatosensory integration in postural control during a large period of ontogenesis including childhood and adolescence. The youngest as well as the oldest subjects adopted similar qualitative damping and segmental stabilization strategies that gradually improved with age without reaching an adult's level. Lastly, sensory

  19. Reeducação Postural Global: uma revisão da literatura Global Postural Re-education: a literature review

    Rosana M. Teodori

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O método de Reeducação Postural Global (RPG tem sido utilizado na clínica com relatos de benefícios para a prevenção e recuperação de disfunções musculoesqueléticas. Após duas décadas de aplicação, estudos têm verificado sua eficácia no tratamento de diferentes condições clínicas e ele tem sido comparado com outros recursos fisioterapêuticos. Entretanto, são poucos os estudos voltados à comprovação dos princípios defendidos pelo autor do método, o que torna frágeis as argumentações em favor dele. OBJETIVO: Realizar, com base na literatura científica, uma análise crítica dos efeitos da intervenção fisioterapêutica utilizando o método RPG. MÉTODOS: Pesquisaram-se as bases de dados Medline, SciELO, LILACS e PeDRO, de 2000 a 2010, considerando os unitermos: RPG, alongamento global e alongamento ativo. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 25 estudos, sendo 13 relacionados ao método RPG e oito aos alongamentos global e ativo, além de três livros e uma tese. Após análise, 20 referências foram utilizadas. CONCLUSÕES: Parte dos estudos aponta que o método RPG é mais efetivo, enquanto outros mostram resultados similares a outros métodos de intervenção fisioterapêutica. Estudos indicam benefícios do método na melhora da força muscular respiratória, expansibilidade torácica, mobilidade toracoabdominal e da pressão respiratória máxima, além de reduzir a dor, a perda de urina em mulheres incontinentes, melhorar a flexibilidade, a atividade eletromiográfica nas disfunções temporomandibulares e a estabilidade postural em alterações ortopédicas de membros inferiores. Limitações metodológicas observadas sugerem a necessidade de maior rigor em futuras pesquisas.BACKGROUND: The Global Postural Re-education (GPR method has been widely used in clinical practice, with reported benefits for prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal dysfunctions. In parallel with almost two decades

  20. Knee posture during gait and global functioning post-stroke: a theoretical ICF framework using current measures in stroke rehabilitation

    Neves Rosa, Marlene Cristina; Marques, Alda; Demain, Sara; Metcalf, Cheryl D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To characterise the global functioning post-stroke in patients with normal knee posture (NKP) and abnormal knee posture (AKP) during loading-response. Methods: 35 people, 6 months post-stroke. with NKP and AKP were identified and assessed using clinical measures classified into the corresponding International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domains: weight function (body mass index); muscle power (knee isometric strength); muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Sca...

  1. Arm dominance affects feedforward strategy more than feedback sensitivity during a postural task.

    Walker, Elise H E; Perreault, Eric J

    2015-07-01

    Handedness is a feature of human motor control that is still not fully understood. Recent work has demonstrated that the dominant and nondominant arm each excel at different behaviors and has proposed that this behavioral asymmetry arises from lateralization in the cerebral cortex: the dominant side specializes in predictive trajectory control, while the nondominant side is specialized for impedance control. Long-latency stretch reflexes are an automatic mechanism for regulating posture and have been shown to contribute to limb impedance. To determine whether long-latency reflexes also contribute to asymmetric motor behavior in the upper limbs, we investigated the effect of arm dominance on stretch reflexes during a postural task that required varying degrees of impedance control. Our results demonstrated slightly but significantly larger reflex responses in the biarticular muscles of the nondominant arm, as would be consistent with increased impedance control. These differences were attributed solely to higher levels of voluntary background activity in the nondominant biarticular muscles, indicating that feedforward strategies for postural stability may differ between arms. Reflex sensitivity, which was defined as the magnitude of the reflex response for matched levels of background activity, was not significantly different between arms for a broad subject population ranging from 23 to 51 years of age. These results indicate that inter-arm differences in feedforward strategies are more influential during posture than differences in feedback sensitivity, in a broad subject population. Interestingly, restricting our analysis to subjects under 40 years of age revealed a small increase in long-latency reflex sensitivity in the nondominant arm relative to the dominant arm. Though our subject numbers were small for this secondary analysis, it suggests that further studies may be required to assess the influence of reflex lateralization throughout development.

  2. The Strategy - Ending Globalization Disorders

    Yunus Lubega Butanaziba

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientifically, globalization is a pure-form or model that refers to a condition whereby a dominant state unilaterally or multilaterally maintains a balance of power to fail member states in the international system it dominates. Globalization can be implemented exclusively or inclusively under blocs (regional or International Governmental Organizations (IGOs as means of the balance of power for the failure of states. This is the theme that this article pursues to objectively examine the current globalization regime as the function of two arms of the balance of power applied to fail states in the international system. One arm of the current globalization regime applies interest-lending of the Bretton Woods institutions namely, International Bank for Reconstruction (IBRD/World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF. The other arm uses the strategy of resource wars. The problem is that interest charges of the World Bank and IMF have failed to cause real domestic growth in 185 states since the initial Ten/Five-year Development Plans, 1946/51-56. This is seen in the domestic and foreign debt burdens arising out of loan interests of the IBRD/World Bank and IMF. There have been more than 136 resource wars that have caused over250 million deaths (market value loss of over USD 500 trillion in the period 1946 to date. The unit of analysis of the paper is that the previous and current strategies of globalization have been illegitimate, severely violated fundamental human right, contravened business ethics and caused the failure states. Thus, the Bretton Woods system has not, and will not as it stands, benefit USA and her allied member states and the Third World inclusive.Legally and morally, Latin American states who signed the Bretton Woods Agreements in 1944 were not in-due-form: African, Asian and Eastern European states were not represented; and given the most compelling fact that others from Europe (e.g. Germany and Japan agreed in the unique

  3. Strategi Pemasaran Global di Pasar Indonesia

    Freddy Simbolon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a new challenge for companies in the implementation of marketing strategy. Due to globalization, companies are required to compete with world class companies that have large capital and higher quality products. Indonesia currently becomes the market target for global companies to enjoy huge profits, while the Indonesian companies lost the competition. This study aims to obtain global marketing strategy for Indonesian companies in Indonesian market. Research method used is descriptive analisys. Merger between adaptation of marketing strategies and standard marketing strategy is appropriate strategy in Indonesian market.

  4. Global strategies to prevent chronic diseases1

    Nicky

    leading global causes of death and disability, are ... global strategies for the prevention and control of chronic ... Preventing Chronic Diseases: A Vital Investment, will ..... Millennium Development Goals for Health In Europe and Central Asia.

  5. The effects of a global postural exercise program on temporomandibular disorder

    Alexandre Fiorelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes in the suboccipital muscles and the hamstrings may interfere with head posture and the biomechanics of the temporomandibular joint, both of which contribute to the severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of a global postural exercise program (GPEP on pain intensity and mouth-opening range of motion (ROM in women with TMD. The participants were comprised of 30 women with TMD who were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG and a control group (CG. A pressure algometer was used for pain assessment and a paquimeter was used to measure ROM. The duration of the GPEP was six weeks. In the EG, there was a reduction in pain intensity and an increase in mouth-opening ROM compared to the CG. Therefore, we concluded that the GPEP was effective in relieving pain in all of the evaluated muscles and regions, and in increasing mouth-opening ROM in women with TMD.

  6. Effectiveness of global postural reeducation in the treatment of temporomandibular disorder: case report.

    Monteiro, Wagner; Francisco de Oliveira Dantas da Gama, Thomaz; dos Santos, Robiana Maria; Collange Grecco, Luanda André; Pasini Neto, Hugo; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of global postural reeducation in the treatment of temporomandibular disorder through bilateral surface electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the masseter muscle in a 23-year-old volunteer. EMG values for the masseter were collected at rest (baseline) and during a maximal occlusion. There was a change in EMG activity both at rest and during maximal occlusion following the intervention, evidencing neuromuscular rebalancing between both sides after treatment as well as an increase in EMG activity during maximal occlusion, with direct improvement in the recruitment of motor units during contractile activity and a decrease in muscle tension between sides at rest. The improvement in postural patterns of the cervical spine provided an improvement in aspects of the EMG signal of the masseter muscle in this patient. However, a multidisciplinary study is needed in order to determine the effect of different forms of treatment on this condition and compare benefits between interventions. Therefore, this study can provide a direction regarding the application of this technique in patients with temporomandibular disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants of sport-specific postural control strategy and balance performance of amateur rugby players.

    Chow, Gary C C; Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Joanne W Y; Chung, Louisa M Y; Ma, Ada W W; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-11-01

    Postural control strategy and balance performance of rugby players are important yet under-examined issues. This study aimed to examine the differences in balance strategy and balance performance between amateur rugby players and non-players, and to explore training- and injury-related factors that may affect rugby players' balance outcomes. Cross-sectional and exploratory study. Forty-five amateur rugby players and 41 healthy active individuals participated in the study. Balance performance and balance strategies were assessed using the sensory organization test (SOT) of the Smart Equitest computerized dynamic posturography machine. Rugby training history and injury history were solicited from the participants. The SOT strategy scores were 1.99-54.90% lower in the rugby group than in the control group (prugby group than in the control group (prugby training (in years) was independently associated with the SOT condition 6 strategy score, explaining 15.7% of its variance (p=0.006). There was no association between SOT condition 6 strategy/equilibrium scores and injury history among the rugby players (p>0.05). Amateur rugby players demonstrated inferior balance strategy and balance performance compared to their non-training counterparts. Their suboptimal balance strategy was associated with insufficient training experience but not with history of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of commercial-grade carpet on postural sway and balance strategy among older adults.

    Dickinson, Joan I; Shroyer, JoAnn L; Elias, Jeffrey W

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the effect of a selected commercial-grade carpet on the static balance of healthy, older adults who had not fallen more than twice in the last 6 months. We tested a total of 45 participants. Each participant stood on a computerized balance machine and was subjected to a carpeted versus a noncarpeted condition while exposed to various sensory limitations. We measured both postural sway and balance strategy. The selected commercial-grade carpet did not affect postural sway. The participants were able to adapt to the sensory limitations regardless of whether they were standing on the carpet. Although balance strategy scores were significantly lower during the carpeted conditions, the clinical significance was questionable as the difference between the means was small for practical purposes. Healthy, older adults did not have difficulty maintaining static balance on the carpeted surface; however, the results could be different if participants who had a history of falling had been included. The results from this study are important and provide a basis of comparison for those individuals who have experienced more than two falls in the last 6 months or who have a history of falling.

  9. Corporate Strategies in Global Investment Business

    Tetiana Frolova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues of the development of corporate strategies for businesses. We proposed the classification and defined the ways to implement corporate strategies. We also analysed the current trends in the development of global corporate strategies mainly implemented through mergers and acquisitions.

  10. Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    Zabel, Sarah E

    2007-01-01

    .... Global jihadis have spent more than 40 years refining their philosophy, gaining experience, building their organization, and developing plans to re-establish what they see as the only true Islamic state on earth...

  11. A global strategy for labor.

    Faux, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    The rules of the global market were established to protect the interests of investors at the expense of workers and they shift benefits to investors, costs to workers. Globalization is measured by the interests of investors. But 20 years of investor protectionism show that growth has slowed and equality has gotten worse. The purpose of neo-liberal policies has been to discipline labor to free capital from having to bargain with workers over gains from rising productivity. But such bargaining is the essence of a democratic market. Uncontrolled globalization puts government's domestic policies on the side of capital. In an economy whose growth depends on foreign markets, rising domestic wages make it harder to compete internationally. There has been a general deterioration of labor's position relative to capital's. A global marketplace implies a global politics, and the real work happens when representatives of multi-national business privately negotiate the rules. Labor must change the framework in which the investor class pursues its interest across borders, while workers are constricted by borders. Labor unions are critical; they can deny the human resource necessary for profits. The strike is the ultimate threat to investors. One solution: a "grand bargain" linking development with broadly increased living standards connected to planning for sustainable development to create a global social contract. Workers have advantages: they are the majority and they are indispensable.

  12. Global body posture and plantar pressure distribution in individuals with and without temporomandibular disorder: a preliminary study.

    Souza, Juliana A; Pasinato, Fernanda; Corrêa, Eliane C R; da Silva, Ana Maria T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate body posture and the distribution of plantar pressure at physiologic rest of the mandible and during maximal intercuspal positions in subjects with and without temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Fifty-one subjects were assessed by the Diagnostic Criteria for Research on Temporomandibular Disorders and divided into a symptomatic group (21) and an asymptomatic group (30). Postural analysis for both groups was conducted using photogrammetry (SAPo version 0.68; University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil). The distribution of plantar pressures was evaluated by means of baropodometry (Footwork software), at physiologic rest and maximal intercuspal positions. Of 18 angular measurements, 3 (17%) were statistically different between the groups in photogrammetric evaluation. The symptomatic group showed more pronounced cervical distance (P = .0002), valgus of the right calcaneus (P = .0122), and lower pelvic tilt (P = .0124). The baropodometry results showed the TMD subjects presented significantly higher rearfoot and lower forefoot distribution than those in the asymptomatic group. No differences were verified in maximal intercuspal position in the between-group analysis and between the 2 mandibular positions in the within-group analysis. Subjects with and without TMD presented with global body posture misalignment. Postural changes were more pronounced in the subjects with TMD. In addition, symptomatic subjects presented with abnormal plantar pressure distribution, suggesting that TMD may have an influence on the postural system. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation?A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Woo, Mei Teng; Davids, Keith; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Orth, Dominic; Chow, Jia Yi; Jaakkola, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of balance control have tended to only focus on the effects of single lower-limb stimulation strategies, and a current limitation is the lack of comparison between different relevant stimulation strategies. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine evidence of effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation and stability. Moderate- to high- pooled effect sizes (Unbiased (Hedges’ g) standardized mean differences ...

  14. Altered postural control strategies in quiet standing more than 20 years after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Tengman, Eva; Häger, Charlotte

    2016-05-01

    To explore long-term consequences of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture on postural sway and control strategies during bilateral quiet standing, in subjects treated with or without reconstructive surgery compared to uninjured controls. 70 individuals who had unilateral ACL rupture 23±2.4 years ago (33 received ACL reconstructive surgery, ACLR, and 37 had physiotherapy only, ACLPT) and 33 uninjured matched controls (CTRL) (mean age 46±5.3) stood quietly with eyes closed for 3min on a firm and on a compliant surface, respectively. Center of pressure (CoP) was registered with a force plate and postural sway was calculated from center of mass (CoM) derived from 3D kinematics. Sway density (SD) analyses of CoP assessed distance and duration of stable phases. The torque controlling postural sway was estimated from CoP-CoM. Comparisons across conditions to CTRL revealed larger CoP-CoM-area in ACLR (p=0.017, CI: 10.95, 143.10), but not in ACLPT. Mean distance between SD-peaks was greater for ACLR (ppostural control efforts than CTRL but without significant differences in postural sway. Control efforts were thus not directly associated with sway and further research should be focused on variance in postural control strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. two strategies to be integrated into globalization

    Alvarado, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The present thesis work intends to investigate internal and external factors determining the type of strategy of foreign policy used by Argentina and Chile in order to be part of globalization. In both cases, it is a strategy where the emphasis on the management of foreign policy, more economic than political, prevails. However, under the same external context and similar formal institutional frameworks, the main difference of both strategies may be found in the conceptual approach, which is ...

  16. Effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Mei Teng Woo

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews of balance control have tended to only focus on the effects of single lower-limb stimulation strategies, and a current limitation is the lack of comparison between different relevant stimulation strategies. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine evidence of effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation and stability. Moderate- to high- pooled effect sizes (Unbiased (Hedges' g standardized mean differences (SMD = 0.31-0.66 were observed with the addition of noise in a Stochastic Resonance Stimulation Strategy (SRSS, in three populations (i.e., healthy young adults, older adults, and individuals with lower-limb injuries, and under different task constraints (i.e., unipedal, bipedal, and eyes open. A Textured Material Stimulation Strategy (TMSS enhanced postural control in the most challenging condition-eyes-closed on a stable surface (SMD = 0.61, and in older adults (SMD = 0.30. The Wearable Garments Stimulation Strategy (WGSS showed no or adverse effects (SMD = -0.68-0.05 under all task constraints and in all populations, except in individuals with lower-limb injuries (SMD = 0.20. Results of our systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that future research could consider combining two or more stimulation strategies in intervention treatments for postural regulation and balance problems, depending on individual needs.

  17. Effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Woo, Mei Teng; Davids, Keith; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Orth, Dominic; Chow, Jia Yi; Jaakkola, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of balance control have tended to only focus on the effects of single lower-limb stimulation strategies, and a current limitation is the lack of comparison between different relevant stimulation strategies. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine evidence of effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation and stability. Moderate- to high- pooled effect sizes (Unbiased (Hedges' g) standardized mean differences (SMD) = 0.31-0.66) were observed with the addition of noise in a Stochastic Resonance Stimulation Strategy (SRSS), in three populations (i.e., healthy young adults, older adults, and individuals with lower-limb injuries), and under different task constraints (i.e., unipedal, bipedal, and eyes open). A Textured Material Stimulation Strategy (TMSS) enhanced postural control in the most challenging condition-eyes-closed on a stable surface (SMD = 0.61), and in older adults (SMD = 0.30). The Wearable Garments Stimulation Strategy (WGSS) showed no or adverse effects (SMD = -0.68-0.05) under all task constraints and in all populations, except in individuals with lower-limb injuries (SMD = 0.20). Results of our systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that future research could consider combining two or more stimulation strategies in intervention treatments for postural regulation and balance problems, depending on individual needs.

  18. Postural control strategies during single limb stance following acute lateral ankle sprain.

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-06-01

    Single-limb stance is maintained via the integration of visual, vestibular and somatosensory afferents. Musculoskeletal injury challenges the somatosensory system to reweight distorted sensory afferents. This investigation supplements kinetic analysis of eyes-open and eyes-closed single-limb stance tasks with a kinematic profile of lower limb postural orientation in an acute lateral ankle sprain group to assess the adaptive capacity of the sensorimotor system to injury. Sixty-six participants with first-time acute lateral ankle sprain completed a 20-second eyes-open single-limb stance task on their injured and non-injured limbs (task 1). Twenty-three of these participants successfully completed the same 20-second single-limb stance task with their eyes closed (task 2). A non-injured control group of 19 participants completed task 1, with 16 completing task 2. 3-dimensional kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle joints, as well as associated fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path were determined for each limb during these tasks. Between trial analyses revealed significant differences in stance limb kinematics and fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path for task 2 only. The control group bilaterally assumed a position of greater hip flexion compared to injured participants on their side-matched "involved"(7.41 [6.1°] vs 1.44 [4.8]°; η(2)=.34) and "uninvolved" (9.59 [8.5°] vs 2.16 [5.6°]; η(2)=.31) limbs, with a greater fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path (involved limb=1.39 [0.16°] vs 1.25 [0.14°]; uninvolved limb=1.37 [0.21°] vs 1.23 [0.14°]). Bilateral impairment in postural control strategies present following a first time acute lateral ankle sprain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of the postural control strategies used to play two Wii Fit™ videogames.

    Michalski, A; Glazebrook, C M; Martin, A J; Wong, W W N; Kim, A J W; Moody, K D; Salbach, N M; Steinnagel, B; Andrysek, J; Torres-Moreno, R; Zabjek, K F

    2012-07-01

    The Nintendo Wii Fit™ may provide an affordable alternative to traditional biofeedback or virtual reality systems for retraining or improving motor function in populations with impaired balance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate postural control strategies healthy individuals use to play Wii Fit™ videogames. Sixteen young adults played 10 trials of Ski Slalom and Soccer Heading respectively. Centre of pressure (COP) excursion and three-dimensional movement data were acquired to determine variability in medial-lateral COP sway and shoulder-pelvic movement. While there was no difference in medial-lateral COP variability between games during trial 1, there was a significant difference after 10 trials. COP sway increased (59-75 mm) for Soccer Heading while it decreased (67-33 mm) for Ski Slalom from trial 1 to trial 10. During Ski Slalom participants demonstrated decreased shoulder and pelvic movement combined with increased pelvic-shoulder coupling. Conversely, participants demonstrated greater initial shoulder tilt when playing Soccer Heading, with no reduction in pelvic rotation and tilt. Participants decreased pelvic and trunk movements when skiing, suggesting a greater contribution of lower extremity control while they primarily used a trunk strategy to play Soccer Heading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Research Methodology in Global Strategy Research

    Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro; Mudambi, Ram; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    We review advances in research methodology used in global strategy research and provide suggestions on how researchers can improve their analyses and arguments. Methodological advances in the extraction of information, such as computer-aided text analysis, and in the analysis of datasets......, such as differences-in-differences and propensity score matching, have helped deal with challenges (e.g., endogeneity and causality) that bedeviled earlier studies and resulted in conflicting findings. These methodological advances need to be considered as tools that complement theoretical arguments and well......-explained logics and mechanisms so that researchers can provide better and more relevant recommendations to managers designing the global strategies of their organizations....

  1. [Global and national strategies against antibiotic resistance].

    Abu Sin, Muna; Nahrgang, Saskia; Ziegelmann, Antina; Clarici, Alexandra; Matz, Sibylle; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Eckmanns, Tim

    2018-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasingly perceived as a global health problem. To tackle AMR effectively, a multisectoral one health approach is needed. We present some of the initiatives and activities at the national and global level that target the AMR challenge. The Global Action Plan on AMR, which has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), in close collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is considered a blueprint to combat AMR. Member states endorsed the action plan during the World Health Assembly 2015 and committed themselves to develop national action plans on AMR. The German Antibiotic Resistance Strategy (DART 2020) is based on the main objectives of the global action plan and was revised and published in 2015. Several examples of the implementation of DART 2020 are outlined here.

  2. National action strategy on global warming

    1990-11-01

    A document prepared by a committee of Canadian environmental ministries proposes a strategic framework for a national action plan concerning global warming. The strategy would be carried out jointly by governments and all other sectors of the economy, taking into account the present state of scientific knowledge on global warming. Within this framework, the governments in cooperation with interested parties would take certain measures in their respective areas of competence. The main recommendations of the document include the following. The action strategy should comprise 3 elements: limiting emissions of greenhouse gases; forecasting climatic changes which Canada could undergo due to global warming and preparing for such changes; and improving scientific knowledge and the capacity to predict climatic changes. Limitations on this strategy should take into account such matters as the interaction of greenhouse gases with other pollutants, the importance of the international context, the need to adapt to new discoveries, and the importance of regional differences. Implementation of the strategy should incorporate widespread consultation of all affected sectors, sustained work on establishing international conventions and protocols on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, objectives and schedules for such reductions, and stepwise actions to control emissions in order to enable an adequate evaluation of the consequences and effectiveness of such measures. 10 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Ford Motor Company's Global Electrification Strategy

    Ellen Hughes-Cromwick

    2011-01-01

    Ford Motor Company has developed global platforms for its vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles and forthcoming battery-electric and plug-in hybrids. Providing electrification technologies is a key element of Ford's broader strategy of producing vehicles that have improved fuel economy and reduced greenhouse emissions. The breadth of this effort—across a range of vehicle types—is unique in the automotive industry. Of particular importance is using the same vehicle platforms for electri...

  4. Global Cities and Multinational Enterprise Location Strategy

    Goerzen, Anthony; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    We combine the concept of location derived by economic geographers with theories of the multinational enterprise (MNE) and the liability of foreignness developed by international business scholars, to examine the factors that propel MNEs toward, or away from, “global cities”. We argue that three...... distinctive characteristics of global cities – global interconnectedness, cosmopolitanism, and abundance of advanced producer services – help MNEs overcome the costs of doing business abroad, and we identify the contingencies under which these characteristics combine with firm attributes to exert......- and subsidiary-level factors, including investment motives, proprietary capabilities, and business strategy. Our study provides important insights for international business scholars by shedding new light on MNE location choices and also contributes to our understanding of economic geography by examining...

  5. Posture and cognition in the elderly: interaction and contribution to the rehabilitation strategies.

    Borel, L; Alescio-Lautier, B

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review the effects of aging on sensory systems and their impact on posture, balance and gait. We also address cognitive aging and attempt to specify which altered cognitive functions negatively impact balance and walking. The role of cognition in postural control is tested with dual-task experiments. This situation results in deleterious effects due to an attentional overload. Given the human cognitive system has limited capacities, we propose that simultaneously performing two tasks depends on the capacity of each individual to perform these tasks on a continuum between automatic execution to highly controlled performance. A level of maximum control exceeds the subject's attentional capacity, which makes it impossible to perform both tasks simultaneously. The subject therefore prioritizes one of the tasks. We use representative dual-task studies from the literature to illustrate the relationship between the different cognitive components and their impact on the control of posture and gait in elderly subjects with altered cognitive capacities and with elderly subjects who are fallers or who have altered sensory-motor capacities. Recently this postural-cognitive relationship was addressed with a new approach. We report how cognitive training can improve dual-task management and we attempt to define the cognitive mechanisms that may be responsible for better postural balance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the lambda model for human postural control during ankle strategy.

    Micheau, Philippe; Kron, Aymeric; Bourassa, Paul

    2003-09-01

    An accurate modeling of human stance might be helpful in assessing postural deficit. The objective of this article is to validate a mathematical postural control model for quiet standing posture. The postural dynamics is modeled in the sagittal plane as an inverted pendulum with torque applied at the ankle joint. The torque control system is represented by the physiological lambda model. Two neurophysiological command variables of the central nervous system, designated lambda and micro, establish the dynamic threshold muscle at which motoneuron recruitment begins. Kinematic data and electromyographic signals were collected on four young males in order to measure small voluntary sway and quiet standing posture. Validation of the mathematical model was achieved through comparison of the experimental and simulated results. The mathematical model allows computation of the unmeasurable neurophysiological commands lambda and micro that control the equilibrium position and stability. Furthermore, with the model it is possible to conclude that low-amplitude body sway during quiet stance is commanded by the central nervous system.

  7. Global warming: Towards a strategy for Ontario

    1990-01-01

    A discussion paper is provided as background to a proposed public review of a strategy for Ontario's response to global warming. Global warming arises from the generation of greenhouse gases, which come from the use of fossil fuels, the use of chlorofluorocarbons, and deforestation. Energy policy is the backbone of achieving climate stability since the burning of fossil fuels releases most of the greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide. Canada is, by international standards, a very energy-intensive country and is among the world's largest emitters of carbon dioxide on a per capita basis. Ontario is the largest energy-using province in Canada, and fossil fuels represent over 80% of provincial energy use. A proposed goal for Ontario is to provide leadership in stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases, while minimizing the social, economic, and environmental costs in Ontario of adapting to global warming. A proposed first step to address global warming is to achieve reductions in expected emissions of the greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, so that levels by the year 2000 are lower than in 1989. Current policies and regulations helping to reduce the greenhouse effect include some of the current controls on automotive emissions and the adoption by the provincial electric utility of targets to reduce electricity demand. New initiatives include establishment of minimum energy efficiency standards and reduction of peak-day electricity use. Action steps for future consideration are detailed in the categories of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, carbon dioxide absorption, and research and analysis into global warming

  8. Success in Global New Product Development: Impact of Strategy and the Behavioral Environment of the Firm

    de Brentani, U.; Kleinschmidt, E.J.; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Product innovation and the trend toward globalization are two important dimensions driving business today, and a firm's global new product development (NPD) strategy is a primary determinant of performance. Succeeding in this competitive and complex market arena calls for corporate resources...... America and Europe, business-to-business, services and goods), a structural model testing for the hypothesized mediation effects was substantially supported. Specifically, having an organizational posture that, at once, values innovation plus globalization, as well as a senior management that is active...... as primary determinants of competitive advantage and, thus, of superior performance through the strategic initiatives that these enable. In the study, global NPD programs are assessed in terms of three dimensions: (1) the organizational resources or behavioral environment of the firm relevant...

  9. Base-of-the-pyramid global strategy

    Boşcor, D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global strategies for MNCs should focus on customers in emerging and developing markets instead of customers in developed economies. The “base-of-the-pyramid segment” comprises 4 billion people in the world. In order to be successful, companies will be required to form unconventional partnerships- with entities ranging from local governments to non-profit organizations - to gain the community’s trust and understand the environmental, infrastructure and political issues that may affect business. Being able to provide affordable, high-quality products and services in this market segment often means new approaches to marketing- new packaging and pricing structures, and using unfamiliar distribution structures.

  10. Compensatory motor control after stroke: an alternative joint strategy for object-dependent shaping of hand posture.

    Raghavan, Preeti; Santello, Marco; Gordon, Andrew M; Krakauer, John W

    2010-06-01

    Efficient grasping requires planned and accurate coordination of finger movements to approximate the shape of an object before contact. In healthy subjects, hand shaping is known to occur early in reach under predominantly feedforward control. In patients with hemiparesis after stroke, execution of coordinated digit motion during grasping is impaired as a result of damage to the corticospinal tract. The question addressed here is whether patients with hemiparesis are able to compensate for their execution deficit with a qualitatively different grasp strategy that still allows them to differentiate hand posture to object shape. Subjects grasped a rectangular, concave, and convex object while wearing an instrumented glove. Reach-to-grasp was divided into three phases based on wrist kinematics: reach acceleration (reach onset to peak horizontal wrist velocity), reach deceleration (peak horizontal wrist velocity to reach offset), and grasp (reach offset to lift-off). Patients showed reduced finger abduction, proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) flexion, and metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP) extension at object grasp across all three shapes compared with controls; however, they were able to partially differentiate hand posture for the convex and concave shapes using a compensatory strategy that involved increased MCP flexion rather than the PIP flexion seen in controls. Interestingly, shape-specific hand postures did not unfold initially during reach acceleration as seen in controls, but instead evolved later during reach deceleration, which suggests increased reliance on sensory feedback. These results indicate that kinematic analysis can identify and quantify within-limb compensatory motor control strategies after stroke. From a clinical perspective, quantitative study of compensation is important to better understand the process of recovery from brain injury. From a motor control perspective, compensation can be considered a model for how joint redundancy is exploited

  11. The use of cognitive cues for anticipatory strategies in a dynamic postural control task - validation of a novel approach to dual-task testing

    Læssøe, Uffe; Grarup, Bo; Bangshaab, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dual-task testing is relevant in the assessment of postural control. A combination of a primary (motor) and a secondary (distracting cognitive) tasks is most often used. It remains a challenge however, to standardize and monitor the cognitive task. In this study a new dual......-task testing approach with a facilitating, rather than distracting, cognitive component was evaluated. Methods: Thirty-one community-dwelling elderly and fifteen young people were tested with respect to their ability to use anticipatory postural control strategies. The motor task consisted of twenty...... two sessions. Conclusion: The dual-task test was sensitive enough to discriminate between elderly and young people. It revealed that the elderly did not utilize cognitive cues for their anticipatory postural control strategies as well as the young were able to. The test procedure was feasible...

  12. Implicit postural control strategies in older hemodialysis patients: an objective hallmark feature for clinical balance assessment.

    Magnard, Justine; Hristea, Dan; Lefrancois, Gaëlle; Testa, Angelo; Paris, Anne; Deschamps, Thibault

    2014-09-01

    Elderly patients with end stage renal diseases (ESRD) undergoing hemodialyis (HD) present poorer physical function and higher accident falls than healthy elderly population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the HD-related changes in postural sway in ESRD patients, as an objective hallmark of their functional abilities. We hypothesized that the ESRD symptoms (i.e. uremic syndrome) and the HD therapy affected the postural control, evidenced by higher bounding limits of center-of-pressure (COP) velocity dynamics. Fifty-five participants, including 28 HD patients and 27 age, body mass index and gender-matched healthy participants HS (70.42 ± 13.69 years; 23.46 ± 4.67 kg/m(2); 35.7% women vs. 73.62 ± 6.59 years; 25.09 ± 3.54 kg/m(2); 37% women), were asked to maintain quiet stance on force platform, with eyes open and eyes closed. COP parameters were mean and standard deviation (SD) of position, velocity and average absolute maximal velocity (AAMV) in antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions. The results revealed a significant main effect of group on velocity-based variables, highlighting that mean velocity, SD velocity and AAMV (ppostural sway. The clinical assessment of this active control of COP velocity dynamics could be useful to examine the effects of targeted intradialytic exercise programs on functional performances and for early detection of increased fall risk in HD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. GLOBAL TEAM MANAGEMENT: AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT OF FIRMS’ INNOVATION STRATEGY

    AZİM ÖZTÜRK

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the world marketplace some firms compete successfully and others fail to gain global competitive advantage. Some researchers argue that innovation strategy is the answer to successfully meeting today’s and tomorrow’s global business challenges.  An important aspect of the innovation strategy is managing global teams effectively.  Thus, firms of tomorrow will be characterized by values such as teamwork, innovation, cultural diversity, and a global mindset.  The rapid globalization of business, and increasing competition will continue to drive the need for effective teamwork and/in innovation management.  The purpose of our research is to gain insight into global team management and its role as a major component of innovation strategy.  We discuss the changing and developing functions of teamwork, examine the characteristics of global teams, and finally offer a process to achieve effective global team management.

  14. Postponement in logistics strategies of global supply chains

    Agnieszka Szmelter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present postponement strategy as a crucial element of logistics strategies of today’s global supply chains. The article presents the history of postponement, characteristics of this concept, types of postponement and important information about its implementation in global supply chains. The paper also contains guidelines for future research on postponement concept.

  15. What are the Essential Success Strategies for Global CIOs?

    Jay Crotts

    2010-01-01

    @@ As a CIO in the global environment,my biggest challenge is to understand the dynamics of how my company operates in each country.Acquiring an understanding of how market maturity affects business strategy helps me develop an IT strategy that supports local markets while enhancing them with the global resources,processes and efficiencies at our disposal.

  16. Global Supply-Chain Strategy And Global Competitiveness

    Asghar Sabbaghi; Navid Sabbaghi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an analysis of global supply chain in a broader context that encompasses not only the producing company, but suppliers and customers.The theme of this study is to identify global sourcing and selling options, to enhance customer service and value added, to optimize inventory performance, to reduce total delivered costs and lead times, to achieve lower break-even costs, and to improve operational flexibility, customization and partner relations. In this ...

  17. The Mutual Impact of Global Strategy and Organizational Learning

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Lyles, Marjorie A.; Easterby-Smith, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Despite the interest in issues of knowing and learning in the global strategy field, there has been limited mutual engagement and interaction between the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. The purpose of our article is to reflect on and articulate how the mutual exchange...... of ideas between these fields can be encouraged. To this end, we first conduct a review of the intersection of the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. We then present two recommendations regarding how the interaction between the two fields can be enhanced. Our first recommendation...... is for global strategy research to adopt a broader notion of organizational learning. Our second recommendation is for global strategy research to capitalize on its attention to context in order to inform and enhance organizational learning theory. We discuss the use of context in a number of common research...

  18. Efeito da reeducação postural global no alinhamento corporal e nas condições clínicas de indivíduos com disfunção temporomandibular associada a desvios posturais Effect of global postural reeducation on body alignment and on clinical status of individuals with temporomandibular disorder associated to postural deviations

    Débora Basso

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou verificar o efeito da técnica de reeducação postural global (RPG nas condições físicas, psicológicas e psicossociais, assim como no alinhamento corporal, de indivíduos com disfunção temporomandibular (DTM associada a desvio postural. Participaram 20 indivíduos com DTM e com desvio postural confirmado por exame físico, avaliados, antes e depois do tratamento de RPG, pelos critérios diagnósticos de desordens temporomandibulares (RDC/TMD, na sigla em inglês e quanto às medidas angulares, por fotogrametria digital. O tratamento consistiu em 10 sessões semanais de RPG. Os resultados após o tratamento mostram, na classificação da disfunção, maior predomínio de desordens apenas musculares (em detrimento das articulares e por deslocamento de disco e redução da intensidade da dor orofacial; o percentual de indivíduos sem depressão aumentou de 10% para 35%; o percentual de indivíduos com classificação normal de sintomas físicos (excluindo itens de dor passou de 30% para 55%. Foi encontrada melhora estatisticamente significante na maioria das medidas angulares, exceto nos ângulos frontais dos membros inferiores e ângulo perna/retropé direito. O alinhamento horizontal da cabeça e as medidas de lordose cervical e lombar, com valores normais antes da RPG, não se modificaram. Conclui-se que, com o tratamento de RPG, os indivíduos apresentaram importantes melhoras dos sintomas físicos e psicológicos da DTM, assim como melhora do alinhamento e simetria corporais.The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the technique of global postural re-education (GPR on body alignment and clinical status of individuals with temporomandibular disorder (TMD associated to postural deviations. Twenty individuals with both TMD and postural deviations confirmed by physical examination were assessed, before and after treatment, by the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD and as to

  19. Singapore's Global Schoolhouse Strategy: Retreat or Recalibration?

    Waring, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In 2002 a high-level economic review committee recommended that Singapore position itself as a "global schoolhouse". An ambitious target was set to attract 150,000 international students to Singapore by 2015 and to lift the education sector's contribution to GDP from 1.9% to 5% in the same timeframe. The global schoolhouse was viewed as…

  20. Strategies for mitigation of global warming

    Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed.......The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed....

  1. U.S. nuclear policy, strategy, and force structure: insights and issues from the 1994, 2001, and 2010 nuclear posture reviews

    Lyons, Marco J.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the main decisions taken in the 1994, 2001, and 2010 Nuclear Posture Reviews regarding U.S. nuclear capabilities and declaratory strategy, and the policy debates that followed the publication of each NPR, focusing on deterrence and other objectives of U.S. national security strategy. It analyzes and compares the post–Cold War NPRs to understand how each administration attempted to shape and direct policy, and how k...

  2. Lombalgia durante a gestação: eficácia do tratamento com Reeducação Postural Global (RPG Lumbar pain during pregnancy: efficacy of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR treatment

    Vinicius Fernandes Barrionuevo Gil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo clínico comparativo com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da Reeducação Postural Global (RPG no tratamento da lombalgia durante a gravidez e sua relação com limitações funcionais das gestantes. Os sujeitos foram 34 gestantes nulíparas atendidas em três centros de saúde e um hospital privado de Campinas, com idade gestacional entre 20 e 25 semanas e queixa de dor lombar. Dezessete gestantes foram submetidas a sessões de RPG durante oito semanas consecutivas, e as demais seguiram orientações de rotina para controle da dor lombar. Em cada sessão de RPG avaliou-se a intensidade da dor percebida pela mulher, antes e após os procedimentos. O grupo controle foi avaliado quanto à intensidade da dor na admissão, às quatro e oito semanas do estudo. Aplicou-se o questionário Roland-Morris para avaliar limitações funcionais, ao início e final do acompanhamento. O grupo de RPG apresentou decréscimo estatisticamente significativo na intensidade da dor antes e depois das sessões. Ao longo do estudo, as mulheres submetidas a RPG tiveram medianas de intensidade da dor e médias do escore de limitações funcionais significativamente menores que as do grupo controle. Análise de covariância indicou que o tratamento com RPG estava associado à menor intensidade da dor percebida ao final do estudo. Conclui-se que a RPG pode dar importante contribuição no tratamento da dor lombar durante a gestação, reduzindo, ao mesmo tempo, as limitações funcionais.A clinical comparative study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR in low back pain treatment during pregnancy, and its association with pregnant women functional limitations. The subjects were 34 nulliparous women attended in 3 public health units and 1 private hospital in Campinas. All women were at 20-25 weeks gestation and experiencing low back pain. Seventeen women were submitted to 8 GPR weekly consecutive sessions and 17

  3. Toward an Integrative Model of Global Business Strategy

    Li, Xin

    fragmentation-integration-fragmentation-integration upward spiral. In response to the call for integrative approach to strategic management research, we propose an integrative model of global business strategy that aims at integrating not only strategy and IB but also the different paradigms within the strategy...... field. We also discuss the merit and limitation of our model....

  4. The Military Strategy of Global Jihad

    Zabel, Sara E

    2007-01-01

    .... Global jihadis have spent more than 40 years refining their philosophy, gaining experience, building their organization, and developing plans to reestablish what they see as the only true Islamic state on earth...

  5. Innovation Strategies for a Global Economy: Development ...

    2010-10-01

    Oct 1, 2010 ... This path-breaking book integrates theory, case studies, data and policy ... their development, implementation, measurement and management. Following the global economic crisis, people are asking: what went wrong? Here ...

  6. Sensorimotor Reorganizations of Arm Kinematics and Postural Strategy for Functional Whole-Body Reaching Movements in Microgravity

    Thomas Macaluso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of weightlessness on human behavior during the forthcoming long-term space missions is of critical importance, especially when considering the efficiency of goal-directed movements in these unusual environments. Several studies provided a large set of evidence that gravity is taken into account during the planning stage of arm reaching movements to optimally anticipate its consequence upon the moving limbs. However, less is known about sensorimotor changes required to face weightless environments when individuals have to perform fast and accurate goal-directed actions with whole-body displacement. We thus aimed at characterizing kinematic features of whole-body reaching movements in microgravity, involving high spatiotemporal constraints of execution, to question whether and how humans are able to maintain the performance of a functional behavior in the standards of normogravity execution. Seven participants were asked to reach as fast and as accurately as possible visual targets while standing during microgravity episodes in parabolic flight. Small and large targets were presented either close or far from the participants (requiring, in the latter case, additional whole-body displacement. Results reported that participants successfully performed the reaching task with general temporal features of movement (e.g., movement speed close to land observations. However, our analyses also demonstrated substantial kinematic changes related to the temporal structure of focal movement and the postural strategy to successfully perform -constrained- whole-body reaching movements in microgravity. These immediate reorganizations are likely achieved by rapidly taking into account the absence of gravity in motor preparation and execution (presumably from cues about body limbs unweighting. Specifically, when compared to normogravity, the arm deceleration phase substantially increased. Furthermore, greater whole-body forward displacements

  7. DaimlerChrysler - powertrain-strategy. Global requirements - global solutions; DaimlerChrysler - Powertrain-Strategie. Globale Anforderungen - Globale Loesungen

    Mikulic, L. [Mercedes Car Group, DaimlerChrysler AG, Mercedes-Benz Technology Center, Stuttgart (Germany); Lee, R. [DaimlerChrysler Corporation, Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2007-07-01

    'Globalization' - few concepts have shaped the last fifteen years like this has. For some it is a synonym for unexpected economic and social revolution, a threatening change in familiar arrangements, whilst others see the coalescence of global structures as, more than anything, a challenge - which, if mastered, offers endless possibilities for success. The challenges facing an automotive manufacturer in a globalized world are of quite a different nature. Not least, the constantly increasing competitive pressure has reduced the number of independent automotive manufacturers, in what is known as the Triad (Europe, Japan and North America), from 42 at the beginning of the 1960's to just 15 today. Also in Europe, consolidation has led, on the one hand, to a reduction in individual brands and on the other, to a number of collaborative projects between companies. Even in the dynamically growing East Asia markets, where the number of independent carmakers is still large, such collaborations have already occurred. In the near future much dynamics can be expected within the two fastest growing markets, China and India. Within these competitive markets, a globally operating company like DaimlerChrysler is faced with new challenges. (orig.)

  8. Global gas strategies: a major player's perspective

    Brown, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the world demand for energy and discovery of further reserves of natural gas world-wide mean that the natural gas industry is poised to expand its influence on the global fuel markets. This paper explores the industry's potential for expansion, the need for a dynamic approach to change and a respect for the complexity of market forces. Guidelines for success in expansion are drawn up. The virtues of natural gas in relation to environmental factors and diversity of supply, through pipelines or LNG, are extolled and the industry urged to grasp the challenge of the competitive global market fuels. (UK)

  9. Strategies for global monitoring of tropical forests

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1994-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is conducting a global assessment of tropical forest resources, which will be accomplished by mid-1992. This assessment requires, in part, estimates of the total area of tropical forest cover in 1990 and the rate of change in forest cover between 1980 and 1990. The following are described here: (1) the...

  10. Nuclear power development: global challenges and strategies

    Mourogov, Victor M.; )

    1997-01-01

    This article highlights key factors that will determine today and tomorrow's optimal energy strategies. It addresses methods to utilize the high potential energy content of uranium. Plutonium used as fuel in a nuclear reactors is discussed as is the future potential of a thorium fuel cycle. Various strategies to increase the economic viability of nuclear power are brought out. Technological means to further minimize environmental impacts and to enhance safety are covered as they are a major factor in public acceptance. Also covered are advances anticipated by mid-century in nuclear reactor and fuel cycle technologies

  11. Postural Stabilization Strategies to Motor Contagion Induced by Action Observation Are Impaired in Parkinson’s Disease

    Elisa Pelosin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Postural reactions can be influenced by concomitant tasks or different contexts and are modulated by a higher order motor control. Recent studies investigated postural changes determined by motor contagion induced by action observation (chameleon effect showing that observing a model in postural disequilibrium induces an increase in healthy subjects’ body sway. Parkinson’s disease (PD is associated with postural instability and impairments in cognitively controlled balance tasks. However, no studies investigated if viewing postural imbalance might influence postural stability in PD and if patients are able to inhibit a visual postural perturbation. In this study, an action observation paradigm for assessing postural reaction to motor contagion in PD subjects and healthy older adults was used. Postural stability changes were measured during the observation of a static stimulus (control condition and during a point-light display of a gymnast balancing on a rope (biological stimulus. Our results showed that, during the observation of the biological stimulus, sway area and antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacements of center of pressure significantly increased only in PD participants, whereas correct stabilization reactions were present in elderly subjects. These results demonstrate that PD leads to a decreased capacity to control automatic imitative tendencies induced by motor contagion. This behavior could be the consequence either of an inability to inhibit automatic imitative tendencies or of the cognitive load requested by the task. Whatever the case, the issue about the ability to inhibit automatic imitative tendencies could be crucial for PD patients since it might increase falls risk and injuries.

  12. WHO global and regional strategies for health and environment

    Hisashi Ogawa

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the WHO global and regional strategies for health and environment and discusses research needs on environmental health to support the implementation of the strategies. Particular emphasis on applied researches which generate information, for decision making, on health effects of development and environmental changes in specific locations

  13. WHO global and regional strategies for health and environment

    Ogawa, Hisashi [World Health Organization, Manila (Philippines). Regional Office for the Western Pacific

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the WHO global and regional strategies for health and environment and discusses research needs on environmental health to support the implementation of the strategies. Particular emphasis on applied researches which generate information, for decision making, on health effects of development and environmental changes in specific locations.

  14. Texting and walking: strategies for postural control and implications for safety.

    Siobhan M Schabrun

    Full Text Available There are concerns about the safety of texting while walking. Although evidence of negative effects of mobile phone use on gait is scarce, cognitive distraction, altered mechanical demands, and the reduced visual field associated with texting are likely to have an impact. In 26 healthy individuals we examined the effect of mobile phone use on gait. Individuals walked at a comfortable pace in a straight line over a distance of ∼8.5 m while; 1 walking without the use of a phone, 2 reading text on a mobile phone, or 3 typing text on a mobile phone. Gait performance was evaluated using a three-dimensional movement analysis system. In comparison with normal waking, when participants read or wrote text messages they walked with: greater absolute lateral foot position from one stride to the next; slower speed; greater rotation range of motion (ROM of the head with respect to global space; the head held in a flexed position; more in-phase motion of the thorax and head in all planes, less motion between thorax and head (neck ROM; and more tightly organized coordination in lateral flexion and rotation directions. While writing text, participants walked slower, deviated more from a straight line and used less neck ROM than reading text. Although the arms and head moved with the thorax to reduce relative motion of the phone and facilitate reading and texting, movement of the head in global space increased and this could negatively impact the balance system. Texting, and to a lesser extent reading, modify gait performance. Texting or reading on a mobile phone may pose an additional risk to safety for pedestrians navigating obstacles or crossing the road.

  15. Global integration strategies in times of crisis

    Jensen, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, we can observe the emergence of firms, born both digital and global, that have disrupted existing industries. Deploying digital technologies, they have developed innovative value chains and business models that threaten established multinational companies (MNCs). In this chapter......, we examine how MNCs can and do respond to the challenge digital technologies represent. We describe the main facets of digital technologies and discus the potential these have to undermine the value chains and business models of established MNCs. In order to illustrate this, we employ longitudinal...... data from Telenor, a leading multinational mobile telecom company. Telenor perceives digitalization as a critical threat that in turn is causing a radical rethink about the viability of its decentralized, locally responsive value chain and business model. Our data provides insights into business models...

  16. An Analysis of Yip's Global Strategy Model, Using Coca-Cola ...

    Analysis of the selected business cases suggest a weak fit between the Yip model of a truly Global strategy ... like Coca-Cola in the beverage industry for effective implementation of a global strategy. ... Keywords: Global Strategy, Leadership.

  17. Effectiveness of a 'Global Postural Reeducation' program for persistent Low Back Pain: a non-randomized controlled trial

    Violante Francesco S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this non-randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Global Postural Reeducation (GPR program as compared to a Stabilization Exercise (SE program in subjects with persistent low back pain (LBP at short- and mid-term follow-up (ie. 3 and 6 months. Methods According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 100 patients with a primary complaint of persistent LBP were enrolled in the study: 50 were allocated to the GPR group and 50 to the SE group. Primary outcome measures were Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI. Secondary outcome measures were lumbar Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Fingertip-to-floor test (FFT. Data were collected at baseline and at 3/6 months by health care professionals unaware of the study. An intention to treat approach was used to analyze participants according to the group to which they were originally assigned. Results Of the 100 patients initially included in the study, 78 patients completed the study: 42 in the GPR group and 36 in the SE group. At baseline, the two groups did not differ significantly with respect to gender, age, BMI and outcome measures. Comparing the differences between groups at short- and mid-term follow-up, the GPR group revealed a significant reduction (from baseline in all outcome measures with respect to the SE group. The ordered logistic regression model showed an increased likelihood of definitive improvement (reduction from baseline of at least 30% in RMDQ and VAS scores for the GPR group compared to the SE group (OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.7 to 5.7. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a GPR intervention in subjects with persistent LBP induces a greater improvement on pain and disability as compared to a SE program. These results must be confirmed by further studies with higher methodological standards, including randomization, larger sample size, longer follow-up and subgrouping of the LBP subjects. Trial

  18. Tratamiento de la lumbalgia crónica con fisioterapia convencional y reeducación postural global: a propósito de un caso"

    Martínez Mingo, Maialen

    2013-01-01

    Se elige un caso de lumbalgia crónica en un sujeto de 19 años de edad, el cual padece un dolor lumbar durante un año aproximadamente. El paciente recibe tratamiento fisioterápico de electroterapia, sin resultados positivos. Posteriormente, se emplean técnicas de osteopatía con idénticos resultados. Es por eso, que se decide optar por la reeducación postural global (RPG) simultáneamente a la fisioterapia convencional (masoterapia y electroterapia). Tras un periodo de 10 sesiones de RPG, ...

  19. Priority setting of strategies and mechanisms for limiting global warming

    Lewis, S.J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Scientific communities have reached a consensus that increases of greenhouse gas emission will result in climatic warming and sea level rises despite existing uncertainties. Major uncertainties include the sensitivities of climate changes in terms of timing, magnitude, and scales of regional changes. Socioeconomic uncertainties encompass population and economic growth, changes in technology, future reliance on fossil fuel, and policies compiled to stabilize the global warming. Moreover, increase in world population coupled with limited resources will increase the vulnerability of ecosystems and social systems. Global warming has become an international concern since the destinies of all nations are closely interwoven by this issue and how nations deal with it. Appropriate strategies and mechanisms are need to slow down the buildup of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases. Questionnaires were sent to 150 experts in 30 countries to evaluate such strategies and mechanisms for dealing with global warming, from both the domestic and international perspectives. This paper will focus primarily on strategy selection

  20. The Islamic State’s Global Propaganda Strategy

    Daveed Gartenstein-Ross

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This Research Paper aims to analyse in depth the global propaganda strategy of the so-called “Islamic State” (IS by looking at the methods through which this grand strategy is carried out as well as the objectives that IS wants to achieve through it. The authors first discuss IS’ growth model, explaining why global expansion and recruitment of foreign fighters are pivotal to IS success. Having in mind this critical role, the authors then explore the narratives and themes used by the group to mobilise foreign fighters and jihadists groups. Third, the paper analyses how IS deploys its narratives in those territories where it has established a foothold. Fourth, it outlines IS’ direct engagement strategy and how it is used to facilitate allegiance of other jihadist groups. The final section of the paper offers a menu of policy options that stakeholders can implement to counter IS’ global propaganda efforts.

  1. Hydrogen energy strategies and global stability and unrest

    Midilli, A.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on hydrogen energy strategies and global stability and unrest. In order to investigate the strategic relationship between these concepts, two empirical relations that describe the effects of fossil fuels on global stability and global unrest are developed. These relations incorporate predicted utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuels, and are used to investigate whether hydrogen utilization can reduce the negative global effects related to fossil fuel use, eliminate or reduce the possibilities of global energy conflicts, and contribute to achieving world stability. It is determined that, if utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels increases, for a fixed usage of petroleum, coal and natural gas, the level of global unrest decreases. However, if the utilization ratio of hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuels is lower than 100%, the level of global stability decreases as the symptoms of global unrest increase. It is suggested that, to reduce the causes of global unrest and increase the likelihood of global stability in the future, hydrogen energy should be widely and efficiently used, as one component of plans for sustainable development. (author)

  2. Digital Innovations: Startup Marketing Strategy for Global Growth

    Gröhn, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    This thesis discusses the relatively new phenomena of innovative digital products created by startup companies, who often must scale globally fast, before the volatile trends or the fierce competition of the digital marketspace take over. International entry itself is no longer the issue, but rather standing out in the crowd while balancing resources and flexibility. The focus is on how startups can induce global growth and tackle structural obstacles by means of marketing strategy. The t...

  3. Malaysian diaspora strategies in a globalized Muslim market

    Fischer, Johan

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores Malaysia’s efforts to develop and dominate a global market in halal (literally, ‘lawful or ‘permitted’) commodities as a diaspora strategy and how Malaysian state institutions, entrepreneurs, restaurants and middle-class groups in London respond to and are affected...... and practise Malaysian diaspora strategies in the globalized market for halal products and services. This paper is based on ethnographic material from fieldwork among state institutions, entrepreneurs, restaurants and middle-class groups in Kuala Lumpur and London, namely participant observation...

  4. Postural complexity influences development in infants born preterm with brain injury: relating perception-action theory to 3 cases.

    Dusing, Stacey C; Izzo, Theresa; Thacker, Leroy R; Galloway, James Cole

    2014-10-01

    Perception-action theory suggests a cyclical relationship between movement and perceptual information. In this case series, changes in postural complexity were used to quantify an infant's action and perception during the development of early motor behaviors. Three infants born preterm with periventricular white matter injury were included. Longitudinal changes in postural complexity (approximate entropy of the center of pressure), head control, reaching, and global development, measured with the Test of Infant Motor Performance and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, were assessed every 0.5 to 3 months during the first year of life. All 3 infants demonstrated altered postural complexity and developmental delays. However, the timing of the altered postural complexity and the type of delays varied among the infants. For infant 1, reduced postural complexity or limited action while learning to control her head in the midline position may have contributed to her motor delay. However, her ability to adapt her postural complexity eventually may have supported her ability to learn from her environment, as reflected in her relative cognitive strength. For infant 2, limited early postural complexity may have negatively affected his learning through action, resulting in cognitive delay. For infant 3, an increase in postural complexity above typical levels was associated with declining neurological status. Postural complexity is proposed as a measure of perception and action in the postural control system during the development of early behaviors. An optimal, intermediate level of postural complexity supports the use of a variety of postural control strategies and enhances the perception-action cycle. Either excessive or reduced postural complexity may contribute to developmental delays in infants born preterm with white matter injury. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  5. International Pricing Strategies for Born-Global Firms

    Michael Neubert

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to understand how born global firms develop their international pricing strategies, practices, and models. It aims to expand the study of international entrepreneurship and born global firms by including a broader and deeper range of pricing aspects than is normally found in the international entrepreneurship and pricing literature. The paper opted for a multiple case-study research design using different sources of evidence, including four in-depth interviews with CEOs of born global firms. The case-study firms were selected using a purposive selection method. The theoretical framework of Ingenbleek, Frambach & Verhallen is used. The results suggest that successful leaders act as ‘integrating forces’ on two levels: by applying a structured and disciplined price-setting process with regular reviews and by mediating between corporate financial goals and the local market reality. The results support the claim that policy makers should offer insights, training and financial support to give promising born global firms the possibility to select the most efficient international pricing models and strategies. The results are relevant for entrepreneurs to understand the importance of efficient price-modelling processes and the influence of the different price strategies and price models on financial results and sales revenues.

  6. The regions and global warming: Impacts and response strategies

    1991-01-01

    To date, much of the attention given to global warming in scientific research as well as in policy development has focused on the global picture. International negotiations and agreements to stabilize, and eventually reduce, greenhouse gas emissions are very important. By themselves, however, they are not sufficient to address global warming. Regional strategies are also needed. They can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and they will be the most effective way to mitigate the consequences of global warming. Adaptive strategies must respond to local and regional conditions. In many countries, subnational jurisdictions such as states and provinces or community organizations can already take effective actions without direction from their national government or waiting for international agreements. An important factor in defining regional approaches is the disparate consequences of climate change for developed and developing areas. Different strategies will also be needed for industrial and agricultural regions. Wealthy industrial regions may be better able to develop capital-intensive, adaptive infrastructure than regions with fewer discretionary resources where people are more vulnerable to the vagaries of weather patterns. On the other hand, regions that rely on indigenous knowledge and local resources may be better equipped to make incremental adaptations and more willing to modify life-styles. Ultimately, all climate change effects are experienced in specific places and effective response depends upon local action. We recognize that individual localities cannot solve a problem of global proportions by acting alone. However, a regional strategy can supplement international and national action and be the focal point for addressing risks in the unique social and economic context of a particular area. These meetings discussions dealt with the impacts and implications of climate change on such things as agriculture, forestry, and policy

  7. Global low-carbon transition and China's response strategies

    Jian-Kun He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement establishes a new mechanism for post-2020 global climate governance, and sets long-term goals for global response to climate change, which will accelerate worldwide low-carbon transformation of economic development pattern, promote the revolutionary reform of energy system, boost a fundamental change in the mode of social production and consumption, and further the civilization of human society from industrial civilization to eco-civilization. The urgency of global low-carbon transition will reshape the competition situation of world's economy, trade and technology. Taking the construction of eco-civilization as a guide, China explores green and low-carbon development paths, establishes ambitious intended nationally determined contribution (INDC targets and action plans, advances energy production and consumption revolution, and speeds up the transformation of economic development pattern. These strategies and actions not only confirm to the trend of the world low-carbon transition, but also meet the intrinsic requirements for easing the domestic resources and environment constraints and realizing sustainable development. They are multi-win-win strategies for promotion of economic development and environmental protection and mitigation of carbon emissions. China should take the global long-term emission reduction targets as a guide, and formulate medium and long-term low-carbon development strategy, build the core competitiveness of low-carbon advanced technology and development pattern, and take an in-depth part in global governance so as to reflect the responsibility of China as a great power in constructing a community of common destiny for all mankind and addressing global ecological crisis.

  8. CHANGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES RELATED TO THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT COMPLEXITY

    Elena DOVAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes in organizations appear as a reaction to the organizational environment changes. In order to manage these changes successfully, the managers need to anticipate and design alternative strategies by preparing different options.  Nevertheless, the complexity of the global environment forces the managers to adopt strategies for their organizations that are facilitating the creation of new strategic competences and competitive advantages to face the environmental rapid changes. In this context, this paper is aiming to illustrate the main directions the change management may consider to change the organization strategies in order to harmonize them to the external environment, such as: integration versus externalization, flexible specialization and flexible organization, standardization versus adaptation, market segmentation, relationship building and maintaining and communication integration.  However, the new strategies are based on a changed attitude of the managers towards the competitive advantage that is dynamic and focused on creation rather then to operations.

  9. Global Search Strategies for Solving Multilinear Least-Squares Problems

    Mats Andersson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The multilinear least-squares (MLLS problem is an extension of the linear least-squares problem. The difference is that a multilinear operator is used in place of a matrix-vector product. The MLLS is typically a large-scale problem characterized by a large number of local minimizers. It originates, for instance, from the design of filter networks. We present a global search strategy that allows for moving from one local minimizer to a better one. The efficiency of this strategy is illustrated by the results of numerical experiments performed for some problems related to the design of filter networks.

  10. Simulation analysis of globally integrated logistics and recycling strategies

    Song, S.J.; Hiroshi, K. [Hiroshima Inst. of Tech., Graduate School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Dept. of In formation and Intelligent Systems Engineering, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper focuses on the optimal analysis of world-wide recycling activities associated with managing the logistics and production activities in global manufacturing whose activities stretch across national boundaries. Globally integrated logistics and recycling strategies consist of the home country and two free trading economic blocs, NAFTA and ASEAN, where significant differences are found in production and disassembly cost, tax rates, local content rules and regulations. Moreover an optimal analysis of globally integrated value-chain was developed by applying simulation optimization technique as a decision-making tool. The simulation model was developed and analyzed by using ProModel packages, and the results help to identify some of the appropriate conditions required to make well-performed logistics and recycling plans in world-wide collaborated manufacturing environment. (orig.)

  11. Burnout Syndrome: Global Medicine Volunteering as a Possible Treatment Strategy.

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2018-04-01

    In the last few decades, "burnout syndrome" has become more common among clinicians, or at least more frequently recognized. Methods to prevent and treat burnout have had inconsistent results. Simultaneously, clinicians' interest in global medicine has increased dramatically, offering a possible intervention strategy for burnout while providing help to underserved areas. Caused by a variety of stressors, burnout syndrome ultimately results in physicians feeling that their work no longer embodies why they entered the medical field. This attitude harms clinicians, their patients and colleagues, and society. Few consistently successful interventions exist. At the same time, clinicians' interest in global medicine has risen exponentially. This paper reviews the basics of both phenomena and posits that global medicine experiences, although greatly assisting target populations, also may offer a strategy for combating burnout by reconnecting physicians with their love of the profession. Because studies have shown that regular volunteering improves mental health, short-term global medicine experiences may reinvigorate and reengage clinicians on the verge of, or suffering from, persistent burnout syndrome. Fortuitously, this intervention often will greatly benefit medically underserved populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Managing differences: the central challenge of global strategy.

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2007-03-01

    The main goal of any international strategy should be to manage the large differences that arise at the borders of markets. Yet executives often fail to exploit market and production discrepancies, focusing instead on the tensions between standardization and localization. In this article, Pankaj Ghemawat presents a new framework that encompasses all three effective responses to the challenges of globalization. He calls it the AAA Triangle. The A's stand for the three distinct types of international strategy. Through adaptation, companies seek to boost revenues and market share by maximizing their local relevance. Through aggregation, they attempt to deliver economies of scale by creating regional, or sometimes global, operations. And through arbitrage, they exploit disparities between national or regional markets, often by locating different parts of the supply chain in different places--for instance, call centers in India, factories in China, and retail shops in Western Europe. Ghemawat draws on several examples that illustrate how organizations use and balance these strategies and describes the trade-offs they make as they do so. Because most enterprises should draw from all three A's to some extent, the framework can be used to develop a summary scorecard indicating how well the company is globalizing. However, given the tensions among the strategies, it's not enough simply to tick off the corresponding boxes. Strategic choice requires some degree of prioritization--and the framework can help with that as well. While it is possible to make progress on all three strategies, companies usually must focus on one or two when trying to build competitive advantage.

  13. Analysis of the mobile strategy of the Omnibearing level posture climbing robot%全方位水平姿态爬楼机器人运动策略

    梁虎

    2014-01-01

    本文主要介绍了全方位水平姿态爬楼机器人的简要原理,分析了机器人运动策略。通过足点规划诠释机器人行走策略;结合实际场景,分析机器人全环境运动策略。%This paper mainly introduces the principle of the omnibearing level posture climbing robot. We analyze the robot motion planning strategy. By us-ing the foot points to show the robot walking theory. According to the actual environment, we show the whole environment moving strategy of the robot.

  14. Reaktualisasi Strategi Pendidikan Islam: Ikhtiar Mengimbangi Pendidikan Global

    M. Sobry

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Globalization is inevitable phenomenon that may cause anxiety amongst countries, such as Indonesia, that still preserve their culture, ethics and religious values because it always introduces new things that are not easily adjusted to regional or local contexts. Globalization as it is reflected in rapid change and transformation in technology has affected most of human’s life, including education. Globalized education is the one that is characterized by global and transnational elements in its basic structure, for example, the use of information technologies and digital media that have both positive and negative impacts. However, for Indonesia, whose majority population is Islam, globalization is not a threat, which should be evaded. What needs to do is to integrate Islamic concepts and values in it. Globalization and its type of education that looks contrary to religious norms will no longer become a menace if it is strengthened with religious values.    Abstrak: Globalisasi merupakan fenomena kekinian yang terkadang dipandang sebagai momok dalam konteks bangsa, seperti Indonesia, yang berhasrat kuat melestarikan nilai adat, budaya, moral, dan nilai agama. Tulisan ini mencermati globalisasi yang memengaruhi dunia pendidikan sebagaimana terlihat pada semakin luasnya penggunaan media digital dengan semua manfaat dan mudarat yang menyertainya. Penulis berpendapat bahwa fenomena itu semestinya dipandang wajar dan dihadapi dengan lapang dada. Namun ia harus diimbangi dengan konsep-konsep islami dan diperkuat dengan strategi islami pula. Islam memiliki konsep moralitas dan etika yang komprehensif untuk diaktualisasikan dalam konteks arus globalisasi. Oleh karena itu, tidak ada jalan lain untuk mengimbangi pendidikan global saat ini kecuali dengan kembali kepangkuan konsep-konsep pendidikan Islam. 

  15. A review of Thailand's strategies for global climate change

    Boonchalermkit, S.

    1994-01-01

    Thailand is greatly concerned about global climate change, which is caused primarily by the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and the release of chlorofluorocarbons. The country itself is not currently a major contributor to global climate change. However, as Thailand's economy expands and its burning of fossil fuels increases, the country's contribution to global climate change could increase. Thailand's use of primary energy supplies grew at an average rate of 13.4 percent per year in the period 1985 to 1990. The rapid, sustained growth was due to the overall pace of growth in the economy and the expansion of industrial, construction, and transportation activities. The primary energy demand was approximately 31,600 kilotons of oil equivalent (KTOE) in 1990. The transportation sector accounted for the largest proportion of energy demand at 30 percent. Within the next 15 years, the power sector is expected to overtake the transportation sector as the largest consumer of energy. Petroleum is currently the predominant source of energy in Thailand, accounting for 56 percent of the primary energy demand. Thailand recognizes that it has an important part to play in finding solutions to minimizing emissions of greenhouse gases and identifying viable response strategies. Thus, in this paper the authors will present several policy strategies relevant to climate change in Thailand and discuss how they have been implemented and enforced. Policies concerning forestry, energy, and environment are reviewed in detail in this paper

  16. Terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change: A research strategy

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere.

  17. Priority Selection Within National Innovation Strategy in Global Context

    Prokopenko Olha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with global experience in analysing the priorities based on their importance for country development and on national and international criteria using algorithm for the selection process. The main aspects of the process of development and implementation of international technology strategies were considered. The authors prove that through the analysis of innovation systems at macro level decision about the priorities in optimization with the aim to improve regulations in science, technology and innovation is provided. The main techniques and decisions were considered based on foresight-studies. Authors propose to create informative and analytical system for the foresight aims.

  18. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E 3 (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E 3 model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E 3 model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues

  19. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology and Safety Assessment Div.

    1997-09-24

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E{sup 3} (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E{sup 3} model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E{sup 3} model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues.

  20. Postural risk assessment of mechanised firewood processing.

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Aminti, Giovanni; De Francesco, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    The study assessed the postural risk of mechanised firewood processing with eight machines, representing the main technology solutions available on the market. Assessment was conducted with the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS) on 1000 still frames randomly extracted from videotaped work samples. The postural risk associated with firewood processing was variable and associated with technology type. Simple, manually operated new machines incurred a higher postural risk compared with semi- or fully automatic machines. In contrast, new semi-automatic and automatic machines were generally free from postural risk. In all cases, attention should be paid to postural risk that may occur during blockage resolution. The study did not cover the postural risk of firewood processing sites as a whole. The study provided useful information for selecting firewood processing machinery and for improving firewood machinery design, as part of a more articulate strategy aimed at enhancing the safety of firewood processing work sites. Practitioner Summary: The postural risk associated with mechanised firewood processing (eg cutting and splitting) depends on the type of equipment. Postural risk is highest (OWAS Action Category 2) with new in-line machines, designed for operation by a single worker. Fully automatic machines present minimum postural risk, except during blockage resolution.

  1. Rebuilding the Arab Economies: New Regional and Global Strategies

    Laura - Ramona BENCHEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arab countries are facing one of their most difficult periods of the modern history. The popular uprisings which broke out at the beginning of 2011 in Tunisia and then spread to Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Jordan, Bahrain and Syria, reflect profound economic and social hardships, but also major uncertainties regarding the political perspectives of these countries. The political transition carried out by several Arab countries could represent an incentive for profound economic reorganization and structural change all over the region. The aim of this paper is to assess the structural economic challenges the Arab countries had been confronted with over many decades and to identify possible regional and global strategies for economic development.

  2. Implementation Strategy for a Global Solar and Wind Atlas

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    In July 2009, Major Economies Forum leaders met to prepare for the COP 15 Copenhagen Conference that took place later that year. At this occasion the Major Economies Forum Global Partnership f or low carbon and climate-friendly technology was founded and Technology Action Plans (TAPs) for ten key low-carbon technologies were drafted. At that juncture Denmark, Germany and Spain took on the responsibility for drafting TAPs for Solar and Wind Energy Technologies. The TAPs were then consolidated and presented at COP 15 that would later take place in December in Copenhagen. Since then, countries that led the development of the Action Plans have started their implementation. During a first Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) in July 2010 in Washington on the invitation of Steven Chu, US Secretary of Energy, several initiatives were launched. Denmark, Germany and Spain took the lead in the implementation of the TAPs for Solar and Wind Technologies and initiated the Multilateral Working Group on Solar and Wind Energy Technologies (MWGSW). Several countries joined the working group in Washington and afterwards. In two international workshops in Bonn (June 2010) and Madrid (November 2010) and in meetings during the first CEM in Washington (July 2010) and the second CEM in Abu Dhabi (April 2011) the Multilateral Working Group made substantial progress in the two initial fields of action: (1) the Development of a Global Solar and Wind Atlas; and (2) the Development of a Long-term Strategy on Joint Capacity Building. Discussion papers on the respective topics were elaborated involving the Working Group's member countries as well as various international institutions. This led to concrete proposals for several pilot activities in both fields of action. After further specifying key elements of the suggested projects in two expert workshops in spring 2011, the Multilateral Working Group convened for a third international workshop in Copenhagen, Denmark, to discuss the project

  3. Regional strategies for the accelerating global problem of groundwater depletion

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Gleeson, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater--the world's largest freshwater resource--is critically important for irrigated agriculture and hence for global food security. Yet depletion is widespread in large groundwater systems in both semi-arid and humid regions of the world. Excessive extraction for irrigation where groundwater is slowly renewed is the main cause of the depletion, and climate change has the potential to exacerbate the problem in some regions. Globally aggregated groundwater depletion contributes to sea-level rise, and has accelerated markedly since the mid-twentieth century. But its impacts on water resources are more obvious at the regional scale, for example in agriculturally important parts of India, China and the United States. Food production in such regions can only be made sustainable in the long term if groundwater levels are stabilized. To this end, a transformation is required in how we value, manage and characterize groundwater systems. Technical approaches--such as water diversion, artificial groundwater recharge and efficient irrigation--have failed to balance regional groundwater budgets. They need to be complemented by more comprehensive strategies that are adapted to the specific social, economic, political and environmental settings of each region.

  4. [MPOWER--strategy for fighting the global tobacco epidemic].

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that tobacco use may cause death of 5 million people in 2008, which is higher than the number of deaths attributed to tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS and malaria taken together. By 2030, the number of deaths related to the tobacco epidemic could exceed annually even 8 million. Despite many difficulties, a growing number of countries undertake intensive actions aimed at tobacco control. The objective of this paper was to discuss the major objectives of the MPOWER Report issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The MPOWER package consists a set of six key and most effective strategies for fighting the global tobacco epidemic: 1) Monitoring tobacco consumption and the effectiveness of preventive measures; 2) Protect people from tobacco smoke; 3) Offer help to quit tobacco use; 4) Warn about the dangers of tobacco; 5) Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship; and 6) Raise taxes on tobacco. It is proven that these strategies implemented in the compatible way, effectively decreases tobacco use. In addition, MPOWER comprises epidemiological data, information on implemented tobacco control measures and their efficiency. MPOWER is the only one document of a somewhat strategic nature that is a source of information on the spread of tobacco epidemic, as well as of suggestions concerning specific actions for supporting the fight against this epidemic.

  5. Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies

    Larson, K.M.; Cervelli, Peter; Lisowski, M.; Miklius, Asta; Segall, P.; Owen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring secular tectonic deformation. For these applications, data are transferred to an analysis center each day and routinely processed in 24-hour segments. To use GPS for monitoring volcanic events, which may last only a few hours, real-time or near real-time data processing and subdaily position estimates are valuable. Strategies have been researched for obtaining station coordinates every 15 min using a Kalman filter; these strategies have been tested on data collected by a GPS network on Kilauea Volcano. Data from this network are tracked continuously, recorded every 30 s, and telemetered hourly to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. A white noise model is heavily impacted by data outages and poor satellite geometry, but a properly constrained random walk model fits the data well. Using a borehole tiltmeter at Kilauea's summit as ground-truth, solutions using different random walk constraints were compared. This study indicates that signals on the order of 5 mm/h are resolvable using a random walk standard deviation of 0.45 cm/???h. Values lower than this suppress small signals, and values greater than this have significantly higher noise at periods of 1-6 hours. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Mobilization strategy to overcome global crisis of water consumption

    Suzdaleva, Antonina; Goryunova, Svetlana; Marchuk, Aleksey; Borovkov, Valery

    2017-10-01

    Today, the global water consumption crisis is one of the main threats that can disrupt socio-economic and environmental conditions of life of the majority of the world’s population. The water consumption mobilization strategy is based on the idea of increasing the available water resources. The main direction for the implementation of this strategy is the construction of anti-rivers - the systems for inter-basin (interregional) water resources redistribution. Antirivers are intended for controlled redistribution of water resources from regions with their catastrophic excess to regions with their critical shortage. The creation of anti-rivers, taking into account the requirements of environmental safety, will form large-scale managed natural- engineering systems and implement the principle of sustainable development adopted by the United Nations. The aim of the article is to substantiate a new methodological approach to address the problem, where the implementation of this approach can prevent large-scale humanitarian and environmental disasters expected in the coming years.

  7. Chinese Global and Russian Spatial Strategies: Harmonization Potential

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Minakir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A probability of the harmonization of the Chinese sub-global strategy ‘One Belt, One Road’, proposed in 2013, and Russian integration project for the Eurasia economic cooperation are reviewed as well as the influence of this potential synchronized project on the Far Eastern segment of the Russian spatial strategy. It is noted that the problems of spatial heterogeneity gave push to the ‘One Belt, One Road’ project when China approached the point in economic development where different regional economic zones demand new infrastructural solutions for maintaining economic dynamics. The article shows that the declared co-development of countries involved is based on the rigid pragmatic financial-credit and infrastructural expansion of Central Asian model: mandatory provision of significant share in property (controlling stake, if possible, mandatory financing with construction contract and guaranteed future export of services for operating the facilities, ensuring the rights on full (or no less than 50% export of raw materials for further processing to China, employing Chinese labor in Russian-Chinese enterprises, and using Chinese machinery and equipment

  8. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  9. Effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation-a Systematic review and metaanalysis

    Woo, Mei Teng; Davids, Keith; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Orth, Dominic; Chow, Jia Yi; Jaakkola, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of balance control have tended to only focus on the effects of single lower-limb stimulation strategies, and a current limitation is the lack of comparison between different relevant stimulation strategies. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine

  10. ASSESSMENT OF THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF GLOBAL MARKETING STRATEGY

    V. Savelyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns with essence of assessment of the business environment and specific directions of analysis during the working out of global marketing strategy. The classification of the global marketing environment researches and tasks sequence in the context of the decisions made on each stage of global marketing strategy is proposed.

  11. Landslide risk reduction strategies: an inventory for the Global South

    Maes, Jan; Kervyn, Matthieu; Vranken, Liesbet; Dewitte, Olivier; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Mertens, Kewan; Jacobs, Liesbet; Poesen, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Landslides constitute a serious problem globally. Moreover, landslide impact remains underestimated especially in the Global South. It is precisely there where the largest impact is experienced. An overview of measures taken to reduce risk of landslides in the Global South is however still lacking. Because in many countries of the Global South disaster risk reduction (DRR) is at an emerging stage, it is crucial to monitor the ongoing efforts (e.g. discussions on the Post-2015 Framework for DRR). The first objective of this study is to make an inventory of techniques and strategies that are applied to reduce risk from landslides in tropical countries. The second objective is to investigate what are the main bottlenecks for implementation of DRR strategies. In order to achieve these objectives, a review of both scientific and grey literature was conducted, supplemented with expert knowledge. The compilation of recommended and implemented DRR measures from landslide-prone tropical countries is based on an adapted classification proposed by the SafeLand project. According to Vaciago (2013), landslide risk can be reduced by either reducing the hazard, the vulnerability, the number or value of elements at risk or by sharing the residual risk. In addition, these measures can be combined with education and/or awareness raising and are influenced by governance structures and cultural beliefs. Global landslide datasets have been used to identify landslide-prone countries, augmented with region-specific datasets. Countries located in the tropics were selected in order to include landslide-prone countries with a different Human Development Index (HDI) but with a similar climate. Preliminary results support the statement made by Anderson (2013) that although the importance of shifting from post-disaster emergency actions to pre-disaster mitigation is acknowledged, in practice this paradigm shift seems rather limited. It is expected that this is especially the case in countries

  12. Determining postural stability

    Lieberman, Erez (Inventor); Forth, Katharine E. (Inventor); Paloski, William H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining postural stability of a person can include acquiring a plurality of pressure data points over a period of time from at least one pressure sensor. The method can also include the step of identifying a postural state for each pressure data point to generate a plurality of postural states. The method can include the step of determining a postural state of the person at a point in time based on at least the plurality of postural states.

  13. A Strategy To Infuse a Global Perspective into Consumer Education.

    McGregor, Sue L. T.; Bourbonniere, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    A four-phase plan for delivering consumer education from a global perspective involves teachers in gaining familiarity with (1) the conventional approach to consumer education; (2) the cultures of globalization, capitalism, and consumerism; (3) the global perspective; and (4) integration of the three to create a global curriculum. (Contains 50…

  14. The deregulated global economy: women workers and strategies of resistance.

    Hale, A

    1996-10-01

    This article discusses the lack of input from women in international debates about the global economy. Women in the South are the most vulnerable to exploitation and most ignored in international discussions of how to protect fair labor standards. Restructuring has led to loss of secure jobs in the public sector and the expansion of female employment in low-paid, insecure, unskilled jobs. Businesses desire a cheap and flexible workforce. Declines in social services, the elimination of subsidies on basic goods, and the introduction of user fees puts pressure on women to supplement family income. A parallel outcome is reduced employment rights, neglect of health and safety standards, and increased disregard among women for their domestic responsibilities. There is a need for alternative models of development. The Self-Employed Women's Organization in India serves as a model for resisting exploitation among self-employed and home-based employees. Female industrial strikers are demanding attention to excessive hours of work, enforced overtime, bullying, and lack of sanitary and medical facilities. There is always fear that organized resistance will lead to industrial relocation or loss of jobs. The International Labor Organization has had a code for 20 years, but the threat of exposure to the press is sometimes more effective. There must be regulation throughout subcontracting chains of transnational companies. International alliances should revolve around issues/strategies identified by workers. International alliances are needed for influencing multinational companies and national governments and lobbying global economic and financial institutions. Standards that are included in social clause discussions are minimum requirements that do not address gender-specific issues. Women Working Worldwide is developing a position statement of social clauses that incorporates a women's perspective.

  15. Global powertrains - the GM case; Globale Antriebssysteme - Die Strategie von GM

    Johansson, R.J. [General Motors Powertrain Europe, Turin (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In today's environment the development of vehicles is confronted with very high customer expectations and legislative restrictions, which can only be fulfilled with a high technological effort and profound know how. These challenges are further increased due to the diversity of markets with regional preferences and increased cost and demand for energy. At the same time it is a principle for General Motors to offer our customers a sustainable and economical individual mobility. The worldwide development strategy of GM powertrain is following exactly this philosophy: efficient and and cost-effective technologies are being developed for gasoline and diesel engines in order to fulfill all of todays and all prognosed future requirements. Based on this GM has defined it's longterm strategy, the march to zero, which includes alternative propulsion systems with the ultimate goal of the neutral emission vehicle with ensured energy supply. With a unique worldwide development network GM is in an optimal position to take on this challenge. Already today GM is successfully using the synergies of competence centers all over the world for the global development strategy. Modern powertrains are based on a common structure but allow regional adaptation to all markets by using a modular system. This development philosophy is one of the cornerstones for General Motors position as the world's largest carmaker. (orig.)

  16. Elder Abuse: Global Situation, Risk Factors, and Prevention Strategies.

    Pillemer, Karl; Burnes, David; Riffin, Catherine; Lachs, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Elder mistreatment is now recognized internationally as a pervasive and growing problem, urgently requiring the attention of health care systems, social welfare agencies, policymakers, and the general public. In this article, we provide an overview of global issues in the field of elder abuse, with a focus on prevention. This article provides a scoping review of key issues in the field from an international perspective. By drawing primarily on population-based studies, this scoping review provided a more valid and reliable synthesis of current knowledge about prevalence and risk factors than has been available. Despite the lack of scientifically rigorous intervention research on elder abuse, the review also identified 5 promising strategies for prevention. The findings highlight a growing consensus across studies regarding the extent and causes of elder mistreatment, as well as the urgent need for efforts to make elder mistreatment prevention programs more effective and evidence based. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Overview of the status and global strategy for neonicotinoids.

    Jeschke, Peter; Nauen, Ralf; Schindler, Michael; Elbert, Alfred

    2011-04-13

    In recent years, neonicotinoid insecticides have been the fastest growing class of insecticides in modern crop protection, with widespread use against a broad spectrum of sucking and certain chewing pests. As potent agonists, they act selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), their molecular target site. The discovery of neonicotinoids can be considered as a milestone in insecticide research and greatly facilitates the understanding of functional properties of the insect nAChRs. In this context, the crystal structure of the acetylcholine-binding proteins provides the theoretical foundation for designing homology models of the corresponding receptor ligand binding domains within the nAChRs, a useful basis for virtual screening of chemical libraries and rational design of novel insecticides acting on these practically relevant channels. Because of the relatively low risk for nontarget organisms and the environment, the high target specificity of neonicotinoid insecticides, and their versatility in application methods, this important class has to be maintained globally for integrated pest management strategies and insect resistance management programs. Innovative concepts for life-cycle management, jointly with the introduction of generic products, have made neonicotinoids the most important chemical class for the insecticide market.

  18. Terrestrial Ecosystem Responses to Global Change: A Research Strategy

    Ecosystems Working Group,

    1998-09-23

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Models and experiments are equally important for developing process-level understanding into a predictive capability. To support both the development and testing of mechanistic ecosystem models, a two-tiered design of ecosystem experiments should be used. This design should include both (1) large-scale manipulative experiments for comprehensive testing of integrated ecosystem models and (2) multifactor, multilevel experiments for parameterization of process models across the critical range of interacting environmental factors (CO{sub 2}, temperature, water

  19. United States Cybersecurity Strategy, Policy, and Organization: Poorly Postured to Cope with a Post-9/11 Security Environment?

    2012-12-14

    Specific Federal Agencies Department of Agriculture Agriculture, Food ( meat , poultry , egg products) Sector-Specific Agencies shall...Healthcare, and food (other than meat , poultry , egg products) Environmental Protection Agency Drinking water and Water treatment systems...EOP entities, develop a framework for research and development strategies that focus on game -changing technologies that have the potential to enhance

  20. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme V: The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact. Teacher Strategies. Experimental Edition.

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Designed to assist teachers and supervisors in the implementation of the global history course, this bulletin presents learning activities which include the rationale, performance objectives, and teaching strategies related to Theme V entitled, "The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact." This theme has seven subthemes: (1)…

  1. Optimal coordination and control of posture and movements.

    Johansson, Rolf; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of stability and coordination of posture and locomotion, together with algorithms for continuous-time quadratic optimization of motion control. Explicit solutions to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for optimal control of rigid-body motion are obtained by solving an algebraic matrix equation. The stability is investigated with Lyapunov function theory and it is shown that global asymptotic stability holds. It is also shown how optimal control and adaptive control may act in concert in the case of unknown or uncertain system parameters. The solution describes motion strategies of minimum effort and variance. The proposed optimal control is formulated to be suitable as a posture and movement model for experimental validation and verification. The combination of adaptive and optimal control makes this algorithm a candidate for coordination and control of functional neuromuscular stimulation as well as of prostheses. Validation examples with experimental data are provided.

  2. Forest Service Global Change Research Strategy, 2009-2019 Implementation Plan

    Allen Solomon; Richard A. Birdsey; Linda A. Joyce

    2010-01-01

    In keeping with the research goals of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the climate change strategy of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the climate change framework of the Forest Service, this Forest Service Global Change Research Strategy, 2009-2019 Implementation Plan (hereafter called the Research Plan), was written by Forest Service Research...

  3. Global Strategy: The World is your Oyster (if you can shuck it!)

    T.H. Reus (Taco)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn this inaugural lecture, Taco briefly describes the disciplinary background, central research questions, and themes of Global Strategy, and he presents what may be the dominant framework of understanding how global strategy works and what determines its success. In a nutshell, the

  4. Global Networks: Emerging Constraints on Strategy (Defense Horizons, July 2004)

    Fonow, Bob

    2004-01-01

    .... This shift is problematic for U.S. national security, because the global telecommunications infrastructure is becoming an important strategic battlespace the physical battlefield of information warfare...

  5. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting "problems" to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant "tuning" of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, "passive" response to perturbations as well as the delayed, "active" responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach.

  6. The Relationship Between Postural and Movement Stability.

    Feldman, Anatol G

    2016-01-01

    Postural stabilization is provided by stretch reflexes, intermuscular reflexes, and intrinsic muscle properties. Taken together, these posture-stabilizing mechanisms resist deflections from the posture at which balance of muscle and external forces is maintained. Empirical findings suggest that for each muscle, these mechanisms become functional at a specific, spatial threshold-the muscle length or respective joint angle at which motor units begin to be recruited. Empirical data suggest that spinal and supraspinal centers can shift the spatial thresholds for a group of muscles that stabilized the initial posture. As a consequence, the same stabilizing mechanisms, instead of resisting motion from the initial posture, drive the body to another stable posture. In other words by shifting spatial thresholds, the nervous system converts movement resisting to movement-producing mechanisms. It is illustrated that, contrary to conventional view, this control strategy allows the system to transfer body balance to produce locomotion and other actions without loosing stability at any point of them. It also helps orient posture and movement with the direction of gravity. It is concluded that postural and movement stability is provided by a common mechanism.

  7. Developing Strategies for Islamic Banks to Face the Future Challenges of Financial Globalization

    Al Ajlouni, Ahmed

    2004-01-01

    Developing Strategies for Islamic Banks to Face the Future Challenges of Financial Globalization Ahmed Al-Ajlouni Abstract This study aims at forming strategic response to assess the ability of Islamic banks in benefiting from the opportunities that may be provided by financial globalization and limits its threats, through assessing the capability of Islamic banks to meet the requirements and challenges of financial globalization, then suggests the suitable strategies that may be ...

  8. Connecting strategy and execution in global R&D

    Sbernini, Federico; Granini, Nicola; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between global product development strategic decisions, which include outsourcing, offshoring practices as well as strategic alliances, and their impact on the day-to-day business in a global and open innovation context. By adopting an exploratory inductive...

  9. China's Coal Methane: Actors, Structures, Strategies and their Global Impacts

    Chen, Ke; Charnoz, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    The need for China to alleviate its energy shortage, reduce its dependence on foreign sources and mitigate its climate impact is driving a dire quest for alternative fuels. Coal Mine Methane (CMM), in this context, holds significant potential. While the 11. Five-Year Plan aimed to capture and use 10 billion m"3 per year of CMM by 2010, the country achieved less than a quarter of this. This paper enquires into this puzzling outcome, which bears consequences for the world at large. China is indeed responsible for more than 40% of the world's total un-captured CMM emissions - which act as a greenhouse gas 21 times more potent than CO_2, and whose role in global warming is often underestimated, especially in short- and medium-term climate strategies. While the Chinese central government may have incentive to work towards promoting CMM, the benefits of such policies at the sub-national level are far from self-evident. National CMM policies can have significant economic and social costs at the local level, and thus their implementation can be jeopardized. Implementation of such policies is inherently ambiguous, conflicting, and as such, political. Current research on the Chinese CMM industry has largely focused on its techno-economic aspects, with little if any politico-institutional analyses. As for policy research on the larger Chinese energy sector, this seems sturdily to embody a top-down view: it mostly ends up blaming the country's decentralized governance structure and lack of a stringent implementation chain. Such top-down approaches do not help uncover 'the sinews of war': the range of less formal mechanisms, negotiations and agreements among the local actors, without which implementation does not in fact occur at the sub-national level. Nor do top-down research approaches facilitate inquiry into the way local stakeholders re-frame the meaning, content and impact of CMM policies. More generally, the top-down approaches fail to consider the significance of

  10. Guide to Good Posture

    ... you are moving or still, can prevent pain, injuries, and other health problems. What is posture? Posture is how you hold your body. There are two types: Dynamic posture is how you hold yourself when you are moving, like when you are walking, running, or bending over to pick up something. Static ...

  11. Growth and posture control strategies in Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus saplings in response to canopy disturbance.

    Collet, Catherine; Fournier, Mériem; Ningre, François; Hounzandji, Ablo Paul-Igor; Constant, Thiéry

    2011-06-01

    Forest tree saplings that grow in the understorey undergo frequent changes in their light environment to which they must adapt to ensure their survival and growth. Crown architecture, which plays a critical role in light capture and mechanical stability, is a major component of sapling adaptation to canopy disturbance. Shade-adapted saplings typically have plagiotropic stems and branches. After canopy opening, they need to develop more erect shoots in order to exploit the new light conditions. The objective of this study was to test whether changes in sapling stem inclination occur after canopy opening, and to analyse the morphological changes associated with stem reorientation. A 4-year canopy-opening field experiment with naturally regenerated Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus saplings was conducted. The appearance of new stem axes, stem basal diameter and inclination along the stem were recorded every year after canopy opening. Both species showed considerable stem reorientation resulting primarily from uprighting (more erect) shoot movements in Fagus, and from uprighting movements, shoot elongation and formation of relay shoots in Acer. In both species, the magnitude of shoot uprighting movements was primarily related to initial stem inclination. Both the basal part and the apical part of the stem contributed to uprighting movements. Stem movements did not appear to be limited by stem size or by stem growth. Stem uprighting movements in shade-adapted Fagus and Acer saplings following canopy disturbance were considerable and rapid, suggesting that stem reorientation processes play a significant role in the growth strategy of the species.

  12. Strategies for Combating Global Economic Crisis in Nigeria through ...

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... cash-productive; boosting the students interest I n science; and developing ... Global economic depression, according to Babalola and Tiamiyu (2009) ... help to overcome the problem of economic crisis in the country? 2.

  13. Global Insurgency Strategy and the Salafi Jihad Movement

    Shultz, Jr, Richard H

    2008-01-01

    ... on a global scale by the Salafi Jihad movement. This work lays out the case that terrorism and insurgency differ, and that the current "long war" is actually being fought by the other side as an insurgency...

  14. Intercultural Communication: A Key Element in Global Strategies.

    Spinks, Nelda; Wells, Barron

    1997-01-01

    Cultural factors in global communication include differences in customs, space, dress, religion, class, work ethic, privacy, and other areas. Language differences in oral, written, and nonverbal communication as well as semantics also complicate intercultural communication. (SK)

  15. A Revised Strategy for the Global War on Terrorism

    Maxwell, Jeffrey W

    2007-01-01

    .... A more complete strategy is needed to counter this ideology. New priorities of action include information operations, strategic communications and strengthening societies. These actions will help undermine the enemy's ability to transfer feelings of oppression and hopelessness into hatred and violence. With a balanced strategy, in the long run we will win both the battle of arms and ideas.

  16. Globalizing core business strategies for U.S. utilities

    Weidenbach, W.H. Jr. [Weidenbach & Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Good afternoon. I am honored to be here today and consider it a privilege to be a part of such a forum. I`d like to talk about changes that have taken place in the U.S. electric utility industry--changes that have helped promote the evolution of the independent power industry. My talk today will involve a brief history of the U.S. electric generating industry, addressing legislation and issues that affect the emerging independent power industry. Just a few years ago, electric utilities in the U.S. were experiencing very fast growth building many new, large, state-of-the-art generating plants. Issues such as the oil embargo, regulation and public opinion made it necessary for many of these companies to move predominately to coal-fired plants while completing their nuclear programs. In additions to developing the proven, reliable and efficient operating skills for these plants, this was also a period of building strong financial posture for these companies adding to their credentials. The lower growth rate that prevails today for U.S. utilities is allowing new strength to be developed in areas such as Demand Side Management and Integrated Resource Planning. These skills have also prepared U.S. companies to expand their market opportunities. Recent regulatory changes now allow these companies to expand their core business strengths to market in the non-regulated arena both domestically and internationally. Privatization of existing facilities have offered almost instant equity an operational opportunities for these companies both at home and throughout the world. Now that major growth is in other areas-particularly in Asia, U.S. companies are quite interested in bringing their skills and capabilities to bear in these fast growing areas of opportunity. This proven experience, exceptional financial strength and entrepreneurial spirit make these companies great partnership opportunities for existing and future generating facilities.

  17. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity.

    Bauman, Adrian; Craig, Cora L

    2005-08-24

    In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet). International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  18. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity

    Craig Cora L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet. International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  19. Global Obesity Study on Drivers for Weight Reduction Strategies

    Carola Grebitus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess factors determining the reaction of individuals to the threats of overweight and obesity and to examine the interdependencies between weight-reducing strategies. Methods: Cross-country survey covering 19 countries and 13,155 interviews. Data were analysed using a bivariate probit model that allows simultaneously analysing two weight-reducing strategies. Results: Results show that weight-reducing strategies chosen are not independent from each other. Findings also reveal that different strategies are chosen by different population segments. Women are more likely to change their dietary patterns and less likely to become physically active after surpassing a weight threshold. In addition, the probability of a dietary change in case of overweight differs considerably between countries. The study also reveals that attitudes are an important factor for the strategy choice. Conclusions: It is vital for public health policies to understand determinants of citizens' engagement in weight reduction strategies once a certain threshold is reached. Thus, results can support the design of public health campaigns and programmes that aim to change community or national health behaviour trends taking into account, e.g., national differences.

  20. Statistical strategies for global monitoring of tropical forests

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1991-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is conducting a global assessment of tropical forest resources, which will be accomplished by mid-1992. This assessment requires, in part, estimates of the total area of tropical forest cover in 1990, and the rate of change in forest cover between 1980 and 1990. This paper describes: (1) the strategic...

  1. The Global Enery and Water Cycle Experiment Science Strategy

    Chahine, M. T.

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of water in the atmosphere and at the surface of the Earth is the most influential factor regulating our environment, not only because water is essential for life but also because through phase transitions it is the main energy source that control clouds and radiation and drives the global circulation of the atmosphere.

  2. A strategy for global environmental education at the university

    Hussain, S.T.; Hayes, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's environment is a dynamic system that is affected both by natural phenomena and by human activity. The changes occurring in the global environment are bound to have serious consequences for all its inhabitants. Therefore, the world is rapidly becoming interdependent. Multidisciplinary scientific efforts must be directed toward understanding these global environmental changes. These efforts will require sufficient funds to attract scientists into global environmental research and to disseminate new knowledge to future scholars and to the general public alike. The federal government has a definite role to play in this effort and should allocate sufficient funds to initiate and sustain these programs. Unfortunately, such funds are not currently budgeted. The academic department, as the basic structural and functional unit of the American university system, is most appropriate to ensure environmental educational goals. The authors propose the establishment of a novel Department of Global Environment at every university. That department must be multidisciplinary in nature and must accumulate a critical mass of scholars from all relevant traditional disciplines in the arts and sciences to generate knowledge, to educate students, and to provide advisory services to policy makers. The study product of this department should receive a broad-based education and should emerge as an informed individual who possesses sufficient skills to achieve sustainable communities. That student should also be equipped to assume leadership and to formulate policy about global environmental issues. The investment in education may well be the only way to secure a future for humanity and for the natural world as we now know it

  3. A global strategy for the European PV industry

    Viaud, M.; Despotou, E.; Latour, M.; Hoffmann, W.; Macias, E.; Cameron, M.; Laborde, E.

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to develop a comprehensive strategy that answers to the need of today European PV industry. Namely: - Develop PV markets in Europe - Develop export markets. - Position the European PV industry within the European political environment and support the effort of national actors in their local objectives. This method lends itself to brainstorming to create actions and synergies, on order to achieve strategy objectives. The whole work is based on working groups clearly defined on the purpose, where all EPIA members are invited to participate. The overall first results are presented during the 19. EU PV Conference in Paris and EPIA will do recommendations on actions to be undertaken in the future. This strategy is co-financed by EPIA members and the 6. Framework Programme for research of the European Commission through the PV Catapult project. (authors)

  4. Relationship Between Competitive Strategies and the Success Perception of Polish Born Globals

    Baranowska-Prokop Ewa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of this paper is to describe and evaluate the competitive strategies applied by Polish born global enterprises. To reveal these strategies, two competitive models developed by M.E. Porter are applied to an original data set obtained from 256 small and medium Polish enterprises through a survey employing the CATI technique. The outcomes of these strategies, as perceived by the companies applying them, are also evaluated against two hypotheses. We conclude that Polish firms apply both basic strategies of competition, i.e. cost leadership strategies and differentiation strategies and that a substantial majority of companies perceive themselves to have succeeded on the market.

  5. The German government's global health strategy--a strategy also to support research and development for neglected diseases?

    Fehr, Angela; Razum, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Neglected tropical infectious diseases as well as rare diseases are characterized by structural research and development (R&D) deficits. The market fails for these disease groups. Consequently, to meet public health and individual patient needs, political decision makers have to develop strategies at national and international levels to make up for this R&D deficit. The German government recently published its first global health strategy. The strategy underlines the German government's commitment to strengthening global health governance. We find, however, that the strategy lacks behind the international public health endeavors for neglected diseases. It fails to make reference to the ongoing debate on a global health agreement. Neither does it outline a comprehensive national strategy to promote R&D into neglected diseases, which would integrate existing R&D activities in Germany and link up to the international debate on sustainable, needs-based R&D and affordable access. This despite the fact that only recently, in a consensus-building process, a National Plan of Action for rare diseases was successfully developed in Germany which could serve as a blueprint for a similar course of action for neglected diseases. We recommend that, without delay, a structured process be initiated in Germany to explore all options to promote R&D for neglected diseases, including a global health agreement.

  6. The German government's global health strategy – a strategy also to support research and development for neglected diseases?

    Angela Fehr

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical infectious diseases as well as rare diseases are characterized by structural research and development (R&D deficits. The market fails for these disease groups. Consequently, to meet public health and individual patient needs, political decision makers have to develop strategies at national and international levels to make up for this R&D deficit. The German government recently published its first global health strategy. The strategy underlines the German government's commitment to strengthening global health governance. We find, however, that the strategy lacks behind the international public health endeavors for neglected diseases. It fails to make reference to the ongoing debate on a global health agreement. Neither does it outline a comprehensive national strategy to promote R&D into neglected diseases, which would integrate existing R&D activities in Germany and link up to the international debate on sustainable, needs-based R&D and affordable access. This despite the fact that only recently, in a consensus-building process, a National Plan of Action for rare diseases was successfully developed in Germany which could serve as a blueprint for a similar course of action for neglected diseases. We recommend that, without delay, a structured process be initiated in Germany to explore all options to promote R&D for neglected diseases, including a global health agreement.

  7. Strategies for high-precision Global Positioning System orbit determination

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Border, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Various strategies for the high-precision orbit determination of the GPS satellites are explored using data from the 1985 GPS field test. Several refinements to the orbit determination strategies were found to be crucial for achieving high levels of repeatability and accuracy. These include the fine tuning of the GPS solar radiation coefficients and the ground station zenith tropospheric delays. Multiday arcs of 3-6 days provided better orbits and baselines than the 8-hr arcs from single-day passes. Highest-quality orbits and baselines were obtained with combined carrier phase and pseudorange solutions.

  8. [Global brain metastases management strategy: a multidisciplinary-based approach].

    Métellus, P; Tallet, A; Dhermain, F; Reyns, N; Carpentier, A; Spano, J-P; Azria, D; Noël, G; Barlési, F; Taillibert, S; Le Rhun, É

    2015-02-01

    Brain metastases management has evolved over the last fifteen years and may use varying strategies, including more or less aggressive treatments, sometimes combined, leading to an improvement in patient's survival and quality of life. The therapeutic decision is subject to a multidisciplinary analysis, taking into account established prognostic factors including patient's general condition, extracerebral disease status and clinical and radiological presentation of lesions. In this article, we propose a management strategy based on the state of current knowledge and available therapeutic resources. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  9. Global warming mitigation strategies and programs for power plant developers

    Holmes, N.R.

    1992-01-01

    Power plant developers are increasingly being surprised by regulatory agencies requiring them to mitigate the carbon dioxide(CO 2 ) emissions from their proposed power plants, as part of the plant's operating permit conditions. Since carbon dioxide is not a criteria pollutant with a National Ambient Air Quality Standard, power plant developers are often troubled by this additional regulatory requirement. This presentation will describe the contribution that CO 2 makes to global warming, the role of trees and forests as carbon sequesters or sinks, some non-forestry related and forestry related mitigation programs, including the advantages, disadvantages, and some cost estimates for the forestry related CO 2 mitigation programs. As public concern about global warming continues to escalate, it is almost certain that regulatory agencies will increase their focus on CO 2 mitigation

  10. Global Salafist Jihad in UK -- Strategies of Prevention

    2007-05-24

    global Jihadist movement has become decentralised and more diffuse, events in Iraq are shaping a new generation of terrorist leaders and operatives...Qaeda’s(pl~ers could conceive, plan and prepare attacks. Germany was favoured due to their security forces’ ignorance ofMiddle Eastern networks - most...social value, there is little intellectkI energy devoted to a better understanding of radicalisation and methods to blunt its ¢ffect, a paucity of

  11. Global Corporate Priorities and Demand-Led Learning Strategies

    Dealtry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to start the process of exploring how to optimise connections between the strategic needs of an organisation as directed by top management and its learning management structures and strategies. Design/methodology/approach: The article takes a broad brush approach to a complex and large subject area that is…

  12. Slowing global warming. Mitigation strategy for the developing world

    Pachauri, R.K.; Barathan, S.

    1995-01-01

    Globally, a range of human activities that characterize modern economic systems are leading to emissions of greenhouse gases. For some activities like the cultivation of paddy rice in flooded soils, there is reason to believe that there are no economically viable or practical alternatives to the current methods which produce these emissions. However, there are several other areas of human activity ranging from the generation of electricity to the provision of passenger and freight transport, in which there clearly exists the potential for preparing the agenda for change which would mitigate global warming. The objective of this paper is to discuss and evaluate a suitable mix of innovative measures which would make efficient use of scarce resources and maximize returns from the resources invested to limit CO 2 emissions. In particular, this paper evolves a three phase approach for mitigating CO 2 emissions that can be widely applied to reorient economic development policies in the developing world. Comprising an agenda for change, it underlines specific failures in national policies, identifies thrust areas for mitigating CO 2 emissions and suggests policy responses in major sectors of the economy. The guiding premise here is simple and straightforward - the energy sector (inclusive of the services provided by energy rather than energy per se) which has been a major cause for invoking the threat of climate change and global warming, must now become a part of the solution. (au) 11 refs

  13. Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, GOLD Executive Summary

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Hurd, Suzanne S; Agusti, Alvar G

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health problem and since 2001 the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) has published its strategy document for the diagnosis and management of COPD. This executive summary presents the main contents of the second 5...

  14. Evaluating Strategies for Achieving Global Collective Action on Transnational Health Threats and Social Inequalities

    Hoffman, Steven Justin

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation presents three studies that evaluate different strategies for addressing transnational health threats and social inequalities that depend upon or would benefit from global collective action. Each draws upon different academic disciplines, methods and epistemological traditions. Chapter 1 assesses the role of international law in addressing global health challenges, specifically examining when, how and why global health treaties may be helpful. Evidence from 90 quantitati...

  15. Postural stability in young and old women

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    at an early stage, good knowledge and sensitive measurements of postural stability are essential. In addition, in order to develop effective intervention strategies such knowledge is of major importance. However, no single postural stability parameter has effectively been able to identify individuals at risk...... of falling. Hence, there is a strong need for development and identification of sensitive postural sway parameters in various demographic groups. The aim of this study was to explore differences in postural stability between physically active old (O) and young (Y) women using newly developed sway parameters....... METHODS AND MATERIALS: Center of pressure (CoP) excursion was measured (100 Hz) by force plate (AMTI) analysis in old (72.5±6.3 years) and young (25.8±1.6 years) women during static 2-leg (bilateral) and 1-leg (unilateral) standing (15-s) with eyes opened. RESULTS: O demonstrated elevated CoP sway length...

  16. The EU's New Global Strategy : Its Implementation in a Troubled International Environment

    Buitelaar, T.; Larik, J.E.; Matta, A.; Vos, de B.

    2016-01-01

    Executive Summary In June 2016, High Representative Mogherini presented the EU’s new Global Strategy on Foreign and Security Policy (EUGS) to the European Council. With the Strategy now finalized, attention needs to turn to its implementation in an environment mired by crises both within Europe and

  17. Corporate Strategies and Global Competition: Odense Steel Shipyard, 1918-2012

    Poulsen, Rene Taudal; Jensen, Kristoffer; Christensen, Rene Schroder

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the competitive strategies of Odense Steel Shipyard between 1918 and 2012 and challenges existing scholarship on competition in global industries. Until the 1980s, the yard adopted typical strategies in shipbuilding, starting with cost leadership and subsequently adopting...

  18. Global optimization numerical strategies for rate-independent processes

    Benešová, Barbora

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2011), s. 197-220 ISSN 0925-5001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LC06052 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : rate-independent processes * numerical global optimization * energy estimates based algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2011 http://math.hnue.edu.vn/portal/rss.viewpage.php?id=0000037780&ap=L3BvcnRhbC9ncmFiYmVyLnBocD9jYXRpZD0xMDEyJnBhZ2U9Mg==

  19. Remote sensing strategies for global resource exploration and environmental management

    Henderson, Frederick B.

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing, when integrated with other exploration techniques, has demonstrated operational exploration and engineering cost savings and reduced exploration risks through improved geological mapping. Land and ocean remote sensing satellite systems under development for the 1990's by the United States, France, Japan, Canada, ESA, Russia, China, and others, will significantly increase our ability to explore for, develop, and manage energy and mineral resources worldwide. A major difference between these systems is the "Open Skies" and "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" policies as have been practiced by the U.S. and France and the restrictive nationalistic data policies as have been practiced by Russia and India. Global exploration will use satellite remote sensing to better map regional structural and basin-like features that control the distribution of energy and mineral resources. Improved sensors will better map lithologic and stratigraphic units and identify alteration effects in rocks, soils, and vegetation cover indicative of undiscovered subsurface resources. These same sensors will also map and monitor resource development. The use of satellite remote sensing data will grow substantially through increasing integration with other geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data using improved geographic information systems (GIS). International exploration will focus on underdeveloped countries rather than on mature exploration areas such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. Energy and mineral companies and government agencies in these countries and others will utilize available remote sensing data to acquire economic intelligence on global resources. If the "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" principle is observed by satellite producing countries, exploration will remain competitive "on the ground". In this manner, remote sensing technology will continue to be developed to better explore for and manage the world's needed resources

  20. Postural Consequences of Cervical Sagittal Imbalance: A Novel Laboratory Model.

    Patwardhan, Avinash G; Havey, Robert M; Khayatzadeh, Saeed; Muriuki, Muturi G; Voronov, Leonard I; Carandang, Gerard; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lam; Ghanayem, Alexander J; Schuit, Dale; Patel, Alpesh A; Smith, Zachary A; Sears, William

    2015-06-01

    A biomechanical study using human spine specimens. To study postural compensations in lordosis angles that are necessary to maintain horizontal gaze in the presence of forward head posture and increasing T1 sagittal tilt. Forward head posture relative to the shoulders, assessed radiographically using the horizontal offset distance between the C2 and C7 vertebral bodies (C2-C7 [sagittal vertical alignment] SVA), is a measure of global cervical imbalance. This may result from kyphotic alignment of cervical segments, muscle imbalance, as well as malalignment of thoracolumbar spine. Ten cadaveric cervical spines (occiput-T1) were tested. The T1 vertebra was anchored to a tilting and translating base. The occiput was free to move vertically but its angular orientation was constrained to ensure horizontal gaze regardless of sagittal imbalance. A 5-kg mass was attached to the occiput to mimic head weight. Forward head posture magnitude and T1 tilt were varied and motions of individual vertebrae were measured to calculate C2-C7 SVA and lordosis across C0-C2 and C2-C7. Increasing C2-C7 SVA caused flexion of lower cervical (C2-C7) segments and hyperextension of suboccipital (C0-C1-C2) segments to maintain horizontal gaze. Increasing kyphotic T1 tilt primarily increased lordosis across the C2-C7 segments. Regression models were developed to predict the compensatory C0-C2 and C2-C7 angulation needed to maintain horizontal gaze given values of C2-C7 SVA and T1 tilt. This study established predictive relationships between radiographical measures of forward head posture, T1 tilt, and postural compensations in the cervical lordosis angles needed to maintain horizontal gaze. The laboratory model predicted that normalization of C2-C7 SVA will reduce suboccipital (C0-C2) hyperextension, whereas T1 tilt reduction will reduce the hyperextension in the C2-C7 segments. The predictive relationships may help in planning corrective strategy in patients experiencing neck pain, which may be

  1. Population Differences in Postural Response Strategy Associated with Exposure to a Novel Continuous Perturbation Stimuli: Would Dancers Have Better Balance on a Boat?

    Carolyn A Duncan

    Full Text Available Central or postural set theory suggests that the central nervous system uses short term, trial to trial adaptation associated with repeated exposure to a perturbation in order to improve postural responses and stability. It is not known if longer-term prior experiences requiring challenging balance control carryover as long-term adaptations that influence ability to react in response to novel stimuli. The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals who had long-term exposure to balance instability, such as those who train on specific skills that demand balance control, will have improved ability to adapt to complex continuous multidirectional perturbations. Healthy adults from three groups: 1 experienced maritime workers (n = 14, 2 novice individuals with no experience working in maritime environments (n = 12 and 3 individuals with training in dance (n = 13 participated in the study. All participants performed a stationary standing task while being exposed to five 6 degree of freedom motions designed to mimic the motions of a ship at sea. The balance reactions (change-in-support (CS event occurrences and characteristics were compared between groups. Results indicate dancers demonstrated significantly fewer CS events than novices during the first trial, but did not perform as well as those with offshore experience. Linear trend analyses revealed that short-term adaptation across all five trials was dependent on the nature of participant experience, with dancers achieving postural stability earlier than novices, but later than those with offshore experience. These results suggest that long term previous experiences also have a significant influence on the neural control of posture and balance in the development of compensatory responses.

  2. Energy and the environment. A global view and strategies

    Pasztor, J.

    1988-01-01

    It should be recognized that the key to the future is in the rational use of energy, that is, a more efficient use of energy rather than a continuous increase in the supply of energy. Every unit of energy saved is a unit of energy which does not have to be produced, and whose environmental impacts do not have to be dealt with. Massive reductions in the growth rates, and, where possible, in the absolute use of energy will help us to gain time to better understand and develop response strategies to problems like climate change on the acidification of the environment. In this sense the rational use of energy, including intensified energy efficiency measures is the most environmentally sound energy option with which we should move into the next century. 25 refs., 4 figs

  3. Workshop Builds Strategies to Address Global Positioning System Vulnerabilities

    Fisher, Genene

    2011-01-01

    When we examine the impacts of space weather on society, do we really understand the risks? Can past experiences reliably predict what will happen in the future? As the complexity of technology increases, there is the potential for it to become more fragile, allowing for a single point of failure to bring down the entire system. Take the Global Positioning System (GPS) as an example. GPS positioning, navigation, and timing have become an integral part of daily life, supporting transportation and communications systems vital to the aviation, merchant marine, cargo, cellular phone, surveying, and oil exploration industries. Everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS. Understanding the risks of space weather to GPS and the many economic sectors reliant upon it, as well as how to build resilience, was the focus of a policy workshop organized by the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and held on 13-14 October 2010 in Washington, D. C. The workshop brought together a select group of policy makers, space weather scientists, and GPS experts and users.

  4. Global approaches and local strategies for phase unwrapping

    Guerriero, L.; Refice, A.; Stramaglia, S.; Chiaradia, M. T.; Satalino, G.; Veneziani, N.; Blonda, P.; Pasquariello, G.

    2001-01-01

    Phase unwrapping, i.e. the retrieval of absolute phases from wrapped, noisy measures, is a tough problem because of the presence of rotational inconsistencies (residues), randomly generated by noise and undersampling on the principal phase gradient field. These inconsistencies prevent the recovery of the absolute phase field by direct integration of the wrapped gradients. In this paper it is examined the relative merit of known global approaches and then it is presented evidence that the approach based on stochastic annealing can recover the true phase field also in noisy areas with severe undersampling, where other methods fail. Then, some experiments with local approaches are presented. A fast neural filter has been trained to eliminate close residue couples by joining them in a way which takes into account the local phase information. Performances are about 60-70% of the residues. Finally, other experiments have been aimed at designing an automated method for the determination of weight matrices to use in conjunction with local phase unwrapping algorithms. The method, tested with the minimum cost flow algorithm, gives good performances over both simulated and real data

  5. WHAT FIRMS ARE REWARDED AFTER GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS? THE ROLE OF INNOVATION AND GLOBALIZATION STRATEGIES IN RECOVERY

    Victoria Golikova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to conduct an empirical investigation and reveal what types of globalization and innovation strategies in turbulent and unfavorable regional institutional environment are most likely to be associated with different trajectories of Russian manufacturing firms’ performance in 2007- 2012. We employ the results of empirical survey of 1000 medium and large enterprises in manufacturing (2009 linked to financial data from Amadeus database and the data on the regional institutional environment. We test that (1 introduction of innovations before the crisis ceteris paribus helped the firms to successfully pass the crisis and recover. We expect that (2 companies that became globalized before the crisis (via importing of intermediate and capital goods; exporting; FDI; establishment of partner linkages with foreign firms ceteris paribus are more likely to successfully pass the crisis and grow. And (3 propose the positive effect of synergy of innovation efforts and globalization strategy of the firm. We expect that the abovementioned factors are complimentary and reinforce the ability of the firm to recover after crisis shock. We found strong support for the hypothesis that firms financing introduction of new products before the crisis and simultaneously managed to promote and sell them on the global market were rewarded by quick return to the growing path after global crisis. Other strategies, i.e. solely innovations without exporting play insignificant role while exporting without attempts to introduce new products contribute even negatively to post-crisis recover. Institutional environment also matters: in the regions with less level of corruption firms were more likely to grow after the crisis.

  6. Pricing hospital care: Global budgets and marginal pricing strategies.

    Sutherland, Jason M

    2015-08-01

    The Canadian province of British Columbia (BC) is adding financial incentives to increase the volume of surgeries provided by hospitals using a marginal pricing approach. The objective of this study is to calculate marginal costs of surgeries based on assumptions regarding hospitals' availability of labor and equipment. This study is based on observational clinical, administrative and financial data generated by hospitals. Hospital inpatient and outpatient discharge summaries from the province are linked with detailed activity-based costing information, stratified by assigned case mix categorizations. To reflect a range of operating constraints governing hospitals' ability to increase their volume of surgeries, a number of scenarios are proposed. Under these scenarios, estimated marginal costs are calculated and compared to prices being offered as incentives to hospitals. Existing data can be used to support alternative strategies for pricing hospital care. Prices for inpatient surgeries do not generate positive margins under a range of operating scenarios. Hip and knee surgeries generate surpluses for hospitals even under the most costly labor conditions and are expected to generate additional volume. In health systems that wish to fine-tune financial incentives, setting prices that create incentives for additional volume should reflect knowledge of hospitals' underlying cost structures. Possible implications of mis-pricing include no response to the incentives or uneven increases in supply. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. 2012 National Guard Bureau Posture Statement

    2012-01-01

    Illinois / Poland Indiana / Slovakia Kansas / Armenia Maine/ Montenegro Maryland / Estonia Maryland / Bosnia Michigan / Latvia Minnesota / Croatia New Jersey...alternative methods of planting to help increase crop production in the area. 2012 Posture Statement 19 Global Engagement State Partnership...horticulture ( plant cultivation), pest control, veterinary/animal husbandry techniques, civil engineering, and energy management. As a result of the

  8. 19th Annual conference ampersand exposition: Global strategies for environmental issues

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The 19th Annual conference and exposition on Global Strategies for Environmental Issues was held June 12-15, 1994 in New Orleans, Louisiana. This volume contains abstracts of the oral presentations. They are organized into the following sections: Environmental Management; Biodiversity/sustainable Development; Gulf Regional Issues; Environmental Ethics/Equity; NEPA Symposium; International Environmental Issues; Global Environmental Effects; and, Risk Assessment. Abstracts of poster sessions are also included

  9. Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat.

    Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C; Daszak, Peter

    2014-12-30

    Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies have been developed that include programs to reduce the underlying drivers of pandemics, particularly animal-to-human disease transmission. Here, we use real options economic modeling of current globally coordinated adaptation strategies for pandemic prevention. We show that they would be optimally implemented within 27 y to reduce the annual rise of emerging infectious disease events by 50% at an estimated one-time cost of approximately $343.7 billion. We then analyze World Bank data on multilateral "One Health" pandemic mitigation programs. We find that, because most pandemics have animal origins, mitigation is a more cost-effective policy than business-as-usual adaptation programs, saving between $344.0.7 billion and $360.3 billion over the next 100 y if implemented today. We conclude that globally coordinated pandemic prevention policies need to be enacted urgently to be optimally effective and that strategies to mitigate pandemics by reducing the impact of their underlying drivers are likely to be more effective than business as usual.

  10. Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat

    Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C.; Daszak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies have been developed that include programs to reduce the underlying drivers of pandemics, particularly animal-to-human disease transmission. Here, we use real options economic modeling of current globally coordinated adaptation strategies for pandemic prevention. We show that they would be optimally implemented within 27 y to reduce the annual rise of emerging infectious disease events by 50% at an estimated one-time cost of approximately $343.7 billion. We then analyze World Bank data on multilateral “One Health” pandemic mitigation programs. We find that, because most pandemics have animal origins, mitigation is a more cost-effective policy than business-as-usual adaptation programs, saving between $344.0.7 billion and $360.3 billion over the next 100 y if implemented today. We conclude that globally coordinated pandemic prevention policies need to be enacted urgently to be optimally effective and that strategies to mitigate pandemics by reducing the impact of their underlying drivers are likely to be more effective than business as usual. PMID:25512538

  11. Exploring new communication strategies for a global brand : transmedia storytelling and gamification

    Brieger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Marketing is changing and companies or brands try to find new ways to engage consumers and involve them in their advertising efforts. There are two new communication strategies that might be able to lead the way into a new area of advertising and marketing: transmedia storytelling and gamification. The research questions were how to use such strategies in the communication or branding environment and how to use them when a global brand wants to communicate across cultures while adapting the a...

  12. Global Strategy Implementation at the Business Unit Level: Operational Capabilities and Administrative Mechanisms

    Kendall Roth; David M Schweiger; Allen J Morrison

    1991-01-01

    The study examines the impact of internationally strategy on organizational design and the influence of the organizational design on effectiveness at the business unit level. The empirical findings are based on survey responses from eighty-two business units competing in global industries. The findings are supportive of the contingency notion which suggests that business unit effectiveness is a function of the fit between the international strategy and the organizational design.© 1991 JIBS. J...

  13. Integrated Marketing Strategies of German Companies : Start-Ups vs. Global Brands

    Kostin, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor's thesis is to find out and analyze different marketing strategies of German fashion companies. The main part is comparing relatively young start-up companies to established companies and analyzing to what extent the strategies differ. The methodology used in this paper were semi-structured expert interviews with German start-up companies. The results were analyzed and compared to the secondary research on the big global German companies. The findings showed that ...

  14. Um estudo piloto na avaliação das estratégias posturais em jovens e idosos usando um sistema eletromagnético tridimensional A pilot study on the evaluation of postural strategies in young and elderly subjects using a tridimensional electromagnetic system

    José Ailton Oliveira Carneiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Para manter o equilíbrio postural, algumas estratégias posturais são normalmente usadas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as estratégias posturais de jovens e idosos em diferentes condições sensoriais usando um sistema de sensores eletromagnéticos tridimensionais posicionados na primeira vértebra torácica e região sacral. Também reportamos valores de oscilação postural dos jovens e idosos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal observacional. Participaram do estudo 25 jovens e 16 idosas. O equipamento PolhemusTM com dois sensores foi usado para avaliar os parâmetros de oscilação postural (deslocamento máximo, velocidade média e trajetória. A aquisição dos dados foi realizada com os sujeitos em pé, realizando um teste de 90 segundos para as quatro condições sensoriais: olhos abertos e fechados nas superfícies estável e instável. RESULTADOS: Os sensores 1 e 2 apresentaram alta correlação cruzada em todas as condições sensoriais para ambos os grupos (r > 0.99; p One resorts to various postural strategies while attempting to maintain balance. OBJECTIVE: To assess the postural strategies adopted by young and elderly subjects in varying sensory conditions by using a system of tridimensional electromagnetic sensors positioned on the projection of the first thoracic vertebra and on the sacral region. Postural oscillation values for young and elderly subjects were also reported. METHOD: This observational cross-sectional study enrolled 25 young and 16 elderly individuals. A PolhemusTM device equipped with two sensors was used to assess postural oscillation parameters (maximum displacement, mean velocity, and trajectory. Data acquisition was carried out with subjects standing while undergoing a 90-second test in four sensory conditions: eyes opened, eyes closed, on a stable surface, and on an unstable surface. RESULTS: Sensors 1 and 2 presented significant cross-correlations in all sensory conditions for both groups (r > 0.99; p < 0.001. No

  15. Exercise and Posture

    ... About Spondylitis › Treatment Information › Exercise & Posture Print Page Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ... For First Responders For Chiropractors Research Article Archive Exercise Guidelines Having an exercise program that accomplishes your ...

  16. Possible global strategies for stopping polio vaccination and how they could be harmonized.

    Cochi, S L; Sutter, R W; Aylward, R B

    2001-01-01

    One of the challenges of the polio eradication initiative over the next few years will be the formulation of an optimal strategy for stopping poliovirus vaccination after global certification of polio eradication has been accomplished. This strategy must maximize the benefits and minimize the risks. A number of strategies are currently under consideration, including: (i) synchronized global discontinuation of use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); (ii) regional or subregional coordinated OPV discontinuation; and (iii) moving from trivalent to bivalent or monovalent OPV. Other options include moving from OPV to global use of IPV for an interim period before cessation of IPV use (to eliminate circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus, if necessary) or development of new OPV strains that are not transmissible. Each of these strategies is associated with specific advantages (financial benefits for OPV discontinuation) and disadvantages (cost of switch to IPV) and inherent uncertainties (risk of continued poliovirus circulation in certain populations or prolonged virus replication in immunodeficient persons). An ambitious research agenda addresses the remaining questions and issues. Nevertheless, several generalities are already clear. Unprecedented collaboration between countries, regions, and indeed the entire world will be required to implement a global OPV discontinuation strategy Regulatory approval will be needed for an interim bivalent OPV or for monovalent OPV in many countries. Manufacturers will need sufficient lead time to produce sufficient quantities of IPV Finally, the financial implications for any of these strategies need to be considered. Whatever strategy is followed it will be necessary to stockpile supplies of a poliovirus-containing vaccine (most probably all three types of monovalent OPV), and to develop contingency plans to respond should an outbreak of polio occur after stopping vaccination.

  17. [Future Regulatory Science through a Global Product Development Strategy to Overcome the Device Lag].

    Tsuchii, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Environment that created "medical device lag (MDL)" has changed dramatically, and currently that term is not heard often. This was mainly achieved through the leadership of three groups: government, which determined to overcome MDL and took steps to do so; medical societies, which exhibited accountability in trial participation; and MD companies, which underwent a change in mindset that allowed comprehensive tripartite cooperation to reach the current stage. In particular, the global product development strategy (GPDS) of companies in a changing social environment has taken a new-turn with international harmonization trends, like Global Harmonization Task Force and International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. As a result, this evolution has created opportunities for treatment with cutting-edge MDs in Japanese society. Simultaneously, it has had a major impact on the planning process of GPDS of companies. At the same time, the interest of global companies has shifted to emerging economies for future potential profit since Japan no longer faces MDL issue. This economic trend makes MDLs a greater problem for manufacturers. From the regulatory science viewpoint, this new environment has not made it easy to plan a global strategy that will be adaptable to local societies. Without taking hasty action, flexible thinking from the global point of view is necessary to enable the adjustment of local strategies to fit the situation on the ground so that the innovative Japanese medical technology can be exported to a broad range of societies.

  18. Asthma Treatments for Children and Adolescents: Strategies for a Global Approach

    Robert L Thivierge

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for a global approach to the management of asthma in children and adolescents are described. Such an approach requires the physician to explain to the patient the pathophysiology of asthma, to evaluate and, whenever possible, change predisposing environmental factors, to establish a written plan of action and to maintain a close follow-up of the patient to ensure compliance.

  19. A global method for calculating plant CSR ecological strategies applied across biomes world-wide

    Pierce, S.; Negreiros, D.; Cerabolini, B.E.L.; Kattge, J.; Díaz, S.; Kleyer, M.; Shipley, B.; Wright, S.J.; Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Onipchenko, V.G.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Frenette-Dussault, C.; Weiher, E.; Pinho, B.X.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Grime, J.P.; Thompson, K.; Hunt, R.; Wilson, P.J.; Buffa, G.; Nyakunga, O.C.; Reich, P.B.; Caccianiga, M.; Mangili, F.; Ceriani, R.M.; Luzzaro, A.; Brusa, G.; Siefert, A.; Barbosa, N.P.U.; Chapin III, F.S.; Cornwell, W.K.; Fang, Jingyun; Wilson Fernandez, G.; Garnier, E.; Le Stradic, S.; Peñuelas, J.; Melo, F.P.L.; Slaviero, A.; Tabarrelli, M.; Tampucci, D.

    2017-01-01

    Competitor, stress-tolerator, ruderal (CSR) theory is a prominent plant functional strategy scheme previously applied to local floras. Globally, the wide geographic and phylogenetic coverage of available values of leaf area (LA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA)

  20. Balancing Inside and Outside Lobbying: The Political Strategies of Lobbyists at Global Diplomatic Conferences

    Hanegraaff, M.; Beyers, J.; De Bruycker, I.

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to explain the use of inside and outside lobbying by organised interests at global diplomatic conferences. At first sight, the lobbying at these venues is puzzling as it does not seem to be a very fruitful way to acquire influence. The use of outside strategies especially is

  1. Linking Globalization, Economic Growth and Poverty: Impacts of Agribusiness Strategies on Sub-Saharan Africa

    Dave Weatherspoon; Joyce Cacho; Ralph Christy

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the increased role of the domestic and multinational private sectors in economic development within SSA. The globalization process demands that private sector strategies must now be assessed by their contributions to emerging economies, as well as by company goals.

  2. The EU's Global Strategy in the Age of Brexit and 'America First'

    Larik, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    In June 2016, the European Union launched its new ‘Global Strategy for Foreign and Security Policy’. In less unusual times, it would have been received as merely the latest iteration of the main tenets and ambitions of EU external action, this time with an enhanced dose of pragmatism to respond to a

  3. Global burden of Shigella infections : implications for vaccine development and implementation of control strategies

    Kotloff, KL; Winickoff, JP; Ivanoff, B; Clemens, JD; Swerdlow, DL; Sansonetti, PJ; Adak, GK; Levine, MM

    1999-01-01

    Few studies provide data on the global morbidity and mortality caused by infection with Shigella spp.; such estimates are needed, however, to plan strategies of prevention and treatment. Here we report the results of a review of the literature published between 1966 and 1997 on Shigella infection.

  4. Asset-Based Community Development as a Strategy for Developing Local Global Health Curricula.

    Webber, Sarah; Butteris, Sabrina M; Houser, Laura; Coller, Karen; Coller, Ryan J

    2018-02-07

    A significant and growing proportion of US children have immigrant parents, an issue of increasing importance to pediatricians. Training globally minded pediatric residents to address health inequities related to globalization is an important reason to expand educational strategies around local global health (LGH). We developed a curriculum in the pediatric global health residency track at the University of Wisconsin in an effort to address gaps in LGH education and to increase resident knowledge about local health disparities for global community members. This curriculum was founded in asset-based community development (ABCD), a strategy used in advocacy training but not reported in global health education. The initial curriculum outputs have provided the foundation for a longitudinal LGH curriculum and a community-academic partnership. Supported by a community partnership grant, this partnership is focused on establishing a community-based postpartum support group for local Latinos, with an emphasis on building capacity in the Latino community. Aspects of this curriculum can serve other programs looking to develop LGH curricula rooted in building local partnerships and capacity using an ABCD model. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Schistosomiasis elimination strategies and potential role of a vaccine in achieving global health goals.

    Mo, Annie X; Agosti, Jan M; Walson, Judd L; Hall, B Fenton; Gordon, Lance

    2014-01-01

    In March 2013, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation co-sponsored a meeting entitled "Schistosomiasis Elimination Strategy and Potential Role of a Vaccine in Achieving Global Health Goals" to discuss the potential role of schistosomiasis vaccines and other tools in the context of schistosomiasis control and elimination strategies. It was concluded that although schistosomiasis elimination in some focal areas may be achievable through current mass drug administration programs, global control and elimination will face several significant scientific and operational challenges, and will require an integrated approach with other, additional interventions. These challenges include vector (snail) control; environmental modification; water, sanitation, and hygiene; and other future innovative tools such as vaccines. Defining a clear product development plan that reflects a vaccine strategy as complementary to the existing control programs to combat different forms of schistosomiasis will be important to develop a vaccine effectively.

  6. Neural basis of postural focus effect on concurrent postural and motor tasks: phase-locked electroencephalogram responses.

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Zhao, Chen-Guang; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2014-11-01

    Dual-task performance is strongly affected by the direction of attentional focus. This study investigated neural control of a postural-suprapostural procedure when postural focus strategy varied. Twelve adults concurrently conducted force-matching and maintained stabilometer stance with visual feedback on ankle movement (visual internal focus, VIF) and on stabilometer movement (visual external focus, VEF). Force-matching error, dynamics of ankle and stabilometer movements, and event-related potentials (ERPs) were registered. Postural control with VEF caused superior force-matching performance, more complex ankle movement, and stronger kinematic coupling between the ankle and stabilometer movements than postural control with VIF. The postural focus strategy also altered ERP temporal-spatial patterns. Postural control with VEF resulted in later N1 with less negativity around the bilateral fronto-central and contralateral sensorimotor areas, earlier P2 deflection with more positivity around the bilateral fronto-central and ipsilateral temporal areas, and late movement-related potential commencing in the left frontal-central area, as compared with postural control with VIF. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP principal component revealed phase-locked neural oscillations in the delta (1-4Hz), theta (4-7Hz), and beta (13-35Hz) rhythms. The delta and theta rhythms were more pronounced prior to the timing of P2 positive deflection, and beta rebound was greater after the completion of force-matching in VEF condition than VIF condition. This study is the first to reveal the neural correlation of postural focusing effect on a postural-suprapostural task. Postural control with VEF takes advantage of efficient task-switching to facilitate autonomous postural response, in agreement with the "constrained-action" hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Static body postural misalignment in individuals with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    Chaves, Thaís C.; Turci, Aline M.; Pinheiro, Carina F.; Sousa, Letícia M.; Grossi, Débora B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between body postural changes and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has been widely discussed in the literature, however, there is little evidence to support this association. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between static body postural misalignment and TMD. METHOD: A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane, and Scopus databases including studies published in English between 1950 and March 2012. Cross-sectional, cohort, case control, and survey studies that assessed body posture in TMD patients were selected. Two reviewers performed each step independently. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. RESULTS: Twenty studies were analyzed for their methodological quality. Only one study was classified as a moderate quality study and two were classified as strong quality studies. Among all studies considered, only 12 included craniocervical postural assessment, 2 included assessment of craniocervical and shoulder postures,, and 6 included global assessment of body posture. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence of craniocervical postural changes in myogenous TMD, moderate evidence of cervical postural misalignment in arthrogenous TMD, and no evidence of absence of craniocervical postural misalignment in mixed TMD patients or of global body postural misalignment in patients with TMD. It is important to note the poor methodological quality of the studies, particularly those regarding global body postural misalignment in TMD patients. PMID:25590441

  8. Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies

    Melissa M. Coughlin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global coverage of first and second doses of measles-containing vaccine, leading to a decrease in global incidence of measles, and through improved case based surveillance supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. Improved vaccine delivery methods will likely play an important role in achieving measles elimination goals as these delivery methods circumvent many of the logistic issues associated with subcutaneous injection. This review highlights the status of global measles epidemiology, novel measles vaccination strategies, and describes the pathway toward measles elimination.

  9. Effect of absence of vision on posture.

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words "body", "posture", "blind" and "absence of vision". References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished.

  10. Imperial or postcolonial governance? Dissecting the genealogy of a global public health strategy.

    Brown, Tim; Bell, Morag

    2008-11-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century it became increasingly apparent that the inter-relationship between globalisation and health is extremely complex. This complexity is highlighted in debates surrounding the re-emergence of infectious diseases, where it is recognised that the processes of globalisation have combined to create the conditions where once localised, microbial hazards have come to pose a threat to many western nations. By contrast, in an emerging literature relating to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases, and reflected in the WHO 'Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health', it is the so-called 'western lifestyle' that has been cast as the main threat to a population's health. This paper explores critically global responses to this development. Building on our interest in questions of governance and the ethical management of the healthy body, we examine whether the global strategy, in seeking to contain the influence of a 'western lifestyle', also promotes contemporary 'western-inspired' approaches to public health practices. The paper indicates that a partial reading of the WHO strategy suggests that certain countries, especially those outside the West, are being captured or 'enframed' by the integrative ambitions of a western 'imperial' vision of global health. However, when interpreted critically through a postcolonial lens, we argue that 'integration' is more complex, and that the subtle and dynamic relations of power that exist between countries of the West/non-West, are exposed.

  11. Impacts of climate mitigation strategies in the energy sector on global land use and carbon balance

    Engström, Kerstin; Lindeskog, Mats; Olin, Stefan; Hassler, John; Smith, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to limit damage to the global economy climate-change-induced and secure the livelihoods of future generations requires ambitious mitigation strategies. The introduction of a global carbon tax on fossil fuels is tested here as a mitigation strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations and radiative forcing. Taxation of fossil fuels potentially leads to changed composition of energy sources, including a larger relative contribution from bioenergy. Further, the introduction of a mitigation strategy reduces climate-change-induced damage to the global economy, and thus can indirectly affect consumption patterns and investments in agricultural technologies and yield enhancement. Here we assess the implications of changes in bioenergy demand as well as the indirectly caused changes in consumption and crop yields for global and national cropland area and terrestrial biosphere carbon balance. We apply a novel integrated assessment modelling framework, combining three previously published models (a climate-economy model, a socio-economic land use model and an ecosystem model). We develop reference and mitigation scenarios based on the narratives and key elements of the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs). Taking emissions from the land use sector into account, we find that the introduction of a global carbon tax on the fossil fuel sector is an effective mitigation strategy only for scenarios with low population development and strong sustainability criteria (SSP1 Taking the green road). For scenarios with high population growth, low technological development and bioenergy production the high demand for cropland causes the terrestrial biosphere to switch from being a carbon sink to a source by the end of the 21st century.

  12. Impacts of climate mitigation strategies in the energy sector on global land use and carbon balance

    K. Engström

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to limit damage to the global economy climate-change-induced and secure the livelihoods of future generations requires ambitious mitigation strategies. The introduction of a global carbon tax on fossil fuels is tested here as a mitigation strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations and radiative forcing. Taxation of fossil fuels potentially leads to changed composition of energy sources, including a larger relative contribution from bioenergy. Further, the introduction of a mitigation strategy reduces climate-change-induced damage to the global economy, and thus can indirectly affect consumption patterns and investments in agricultural technologies and yield enhancement. Here we assess the implications of changes in bioenergy demand as well as the indirectly caused changes in consumption and crop yields for global and national cropland area and terrestrial biosphere carbon balance. We apply a novel integrated assessment modelling framework, combining three previously published models (a climate–economy model, a socio-economic land use model and an ecosystem model. We develop reference and mitigation scenarios based on the narratives and key elements of the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs. Taking emissions from the land use sector into account, we find that the introduction of a global carbon tax on the fossil fuel sector is an effective mitigation strategy only for scenarios with low population development and strong sustainability criteria (SSP1 Taking the green road. For scenarios with high population growth, low technological development and bioenergy production the high demand for cropland causes the terrestrial biosphere to switch from being a carbon sink to a source by the end of the 21st century.

  13. Influence of musical groove on postural sway.

    Ross, Jessica M; Warlaumont, Anne S; Abney, Drew H; Rigoli, Lillian M; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Timescales of postural fluctuation reflect underlying neuromuscular processes in balance control that are influenced by sensory information and the performance of concurrent cognitive and motor tasks. An open question is how postural fluctuations entrain to complex environmental rhythms, such as in music, which also vary on multiple timescales. Musical groove describes the property of music that encourages auditory-motor synchronization and is used to study voluntary motor entrainment to rhythmic sounds. The influence of groove on balance control mechanisms remains unexplored. We recorded fluctuations in center of pressure (CoP) of standing participants (N = 40) listening to low and high groove music and during quiet stance. We found an effect of musical groove on radial sway variability, with the least amount of variability in the high groove condition. In addition, we observed that groove influenced postural sway entrainment at various temporal scales. For example, with increasing levels of groove, we observed more entrainment to shorter, local timescale rhythmic musical occurrences. In contrast, we observed more entrainment to longer, global timescale features of the music, such as periodicity, with decreasing levels of groove. Finally, musical experience influenced the amount of postural variability and entrainment at local and global timescales. We conclude that groove in music and musical experience can influence the neural mechanisms that govern balance control, and discuss implications of our findings in terms of multiscale sensorimotor coupling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Strategies for assessing proton linkage to bimolecular interactions by global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry data

    Coussens, Nathan P.; Schuck, Peter; Zhao, Huaying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We demonstrate the usefulness of global analysis of ITC data for proton-linked binding study. ► Various experimental strategies are evaluated for their information content. ► Data at multiple temperatures might improve the precision of binding parameters. ► Methods for detailed error analysis of parameter uncertainties are discussed. ► By global modeling, an uncertainty in molecular concentrations can be accounted for. - Abstract: Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a traditional and powerful method for studying the linkage of ligand binding to proton uptake or release. The theoretical framework has been developed for more than two decades and numerous applications have appeared. In the current work, we explored strategic aspects of experimental design. To this end, we simulated families of ITC data sets that embed different strategies with regard to the number of experiments, range of experimental pH, buffer ionization enthalpy, and temperature. We then re-analyzed the families of data sets in the context of global analysis, employing a proton linkage binding model implemented in the global data analysis platform SEDPHAT, and examined the information content of all data sets by a detailed statistical error analysis of the parameter estimates. In particular, we studied the impact of different assumptions about the knowledge of the exact concentrations of the components, which in practice presents an experimental limitation for many systems. For example, the uncertainty in concentration may reflect imperfectly known extinction coefficients and stock concentrations or may account for different extents of partial inactivation when working with proteins at different pH values. Our results show that the global analysis can yield reliable estimates of the thermodynamic parameters for intrinsic binding and protonation, and that in the context of the global analysis the exact molecular component concentrations may not be required. Additionally

  15. Down-Side Risk Metrics as Portfolio Diversification Strategies across the Global Financial Crisis

    David E. Allen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper features an analysis of the effectiveness of a range of portfolio diversification strategies, with a focus on down-side risk metrics, as a portfolio diversification strategy in a European market context. We apply these measures to a set of daily arithmetically-compounded returns, in U.S. dollar terms, on a set of ten market indices representing the major European markets for a nine-year period from the beginning of 2005 to the end of 2013. The sample period, which incorporates the periods of both the Global Financial Crisis (GFC and the subsequent European Debt Crisis (EDC, is a challenging one for the application of portfolio investment strategies. The analysis is undertaken via the examination of multiple investment strategies and a variety of hold-out periods and backtests. We commence by using four two-year estimation periods and a subsequent one-year investment hold out period, to analyse a naive 1/N diversification strategy and to contrast its effectiveness with Markowitz mean variance analysis with positive weights. Markowitz optimisation is then compared to various down-side investment optimisation strategies. We begin by comparing Markowitz with CVaR, and then proceed to evaluate the relative effectiveness of Markowitz with various draw-down strategies, utilising a series of backtests. Our results suggest that none of the more sophisticated optimisation strategies appear to dominate naive diversification.

  16. Changing Strategies in Global Wind Energy Shipping, Logistics, and Supply Chain Management

    Poulsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Within the global wind energy market, a number of derived industries support the continued expansion of the ever larger onshore and offshore wind farms. One such derived industry is that of shipping, logistics, and supply chain management. Based on extensive case study work performed since 2009......, the paper reviews different wind energy markets globally. Subsequently, a number of supply chain set-ups serviced by the shipping, logistics, and supply chain management industry are reviewed. Finally, winning business models and strategies of current as well as emerging supply chain constituencies...

  17. From Multilatina to Global Latina: Unveiling the corporate-level international strategy choices of Grupo Nutresa

    MARIA A DE VILLA

    Full Text Available Research on Multilatinas has underexplored multinationals from Colombia and their corporate-level international strategy choices to develop into Global Latinas. Building on interviews, documents, and archival data about Grupo Nutresa -Colombia's most international firm in manufactured goods-, this study unveils and discusses this firm's corporate-level international strategy choices between 1960 and 2014. A prevailing notion is that most multinationals from Latin America continue to target international operations to focus mainly on their home region through an export, multidomestic or transnational corporate-level international strategy. In contrast, data show that Grupo Nutresa chose to evolve through a sequential approach from an export to a transnational corporate-level international strategy while its international operations were able to transcend its home region to reach North America, Asia, Europe, Africa, and Oceania. These results add to international business research on emergent market multinational companies (EMNCs from Latin America by unveiling the corporate-level international strategy choices of a Colombian origin Multilatina that transformed into a Global Latina.

  18. Increased alertness, better than posture prioritization, explains dual-task performance in prosthesis users and controls under increasing postural and cognitive challenge.

    Howard, Charla L; Perry, Bonnie; Chow, John W; Wallace, Chris; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2017-11-01

    Sensorimotor impairments after limb amputation impose a threat to stability. Commonly described strategies for maintaining stability are the posture first strategy (prioritization of balance) and posture second strategy (prioritization of concurrent tasks). The existence of these strategies was examined in 13 below-knee prosthesis users and 15 controls during dual-task standing under increasing postural and cognitive challenge by evaluating path length, 95% sway area, and anterior-posterior and medial-lateral amplitudes of the center of pressure. The subjects stood on two force platforms under usual (hard surface/eyes open) and difficult (soft surface/eyes closed) conditions, first alone and while performing a cognitive task without and then with instruction on cognitive prioritization. During standing alone, sway was not significantly different between groups. After adding the cognitive task without prioritization instruction, prosthesis users increased sway more under the dual-task than single-task standing (p ≤ 0.028) during both usual and difficult conditions, favoring the posture second strategy. Controls, however, reduced dual-task sway under a greater postural challenge (p ≤ 0.017), suggesting the posture first strategy. With prioritization of the cognitive task, sway was unchanged or reduced in prosthesis users, suggesting departure from the posture second strategy, whereas controls maintained the posture first strategy. Individual analysis of dual tasking revealed that greater postural demand in controls and greater cognitive challenge in prosthesis users led to both reduced sway and improved cognitive performance, suggesting cognitive-motor facilitation. Thus, activation of additional resources through increased alertness, rather than posture prioritization, may explain dual-task performance in both prosthesis users and controls under increasing postural and cognitive challenge.

  19. Turkey - An 'Ormuz strait' in the US strategy for global energy control

    Lagha, Chegrouche

    2003-01-01

    Following the events of September 11, 2001, rivalry in the Caspian region has taken the form of open conflicts in which the various powers confront one another via zones and 'proxy' ethnic and/or cultural communities. Alliances are circumstantial and can be changed as the geostrategic interests of the protagonists dictate. This is a rivalry that is re-shaping the geopolitical and strategic order in this region. New facts come along to expose a new American strategy for the global control of energy resources. Turkey appears as a Eurasian barrier in this new strategy and warfare as a means to open up the Caspian region. (authors)

  20. COIN Goes GLOCAL: Traditional COIN With a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

    2007-05-17

    COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles? A...TITLE AND SUBTITLE COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global P ti D th C t US St t R fl t COIN 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Perspective: Does...Monograph: COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

  1. Development of low postural tone compensatory patterns in children - theoretical basis.

    Gogola, Anna; Saulicz, Edward; Kuszewski, Michał; Matyja, Małgorzata; Myśliwiec, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Neurological literature indicates the existence of children with low postural tone without association with central nervous system damage. This fact induces to think about mechanisms, which allow these children to maintain upright posture. There is a suspicion that compensatory mechanism included in this process, enables to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality. Observations of children's developmental stages caused determination of some postural tone area, which comprise both children with normotonia and with low postural tone without characteristics of central nervous system (CNS) damage. Set of specific qualities allows determination of two types of low postural tone: spastoidal and atetoidal type. Spastoidal type is characterized by deep trunk muscles (local) low postural tone compensated by excessive tension of superficial muscles (global). Atetoidal type includes children with low postural tone in both deep and superficial muscles. At inefficient active subsystem, verticalization proceeds at excessive use of passive subsystem qualities, that is meniscus, ligament, bone shape, and muscles passive features. From neurodevelopmental point of view compensatory mechanisms can be used in children with low postural tone in order to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality.

  2. Regional differences in lumbar spinal posture and the influence of low back pain

    Burnett Angus F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal posture is commonly a focus in the assessment and clinical management of low back pain (LBP patients. However, the link between spinal posture and LBP is not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that considering regional, rather than total lumbar spine posture is important. The purpose of this study was to determine; if there are regional differences in habitual lumbar spine posture and movement, and if these findings are influenced by LBP. Methods One hundred and seventy female undergraduate nursing students, with and without LBP, participated in this cross-sectional study. Lower lumbar (LLx, Upper lumbar (ULx and total lumbar (TLx spine angles were measured using an electromagnetic tracking system in static postures and across a range of functional tasks. Results Regional differences in lumbar posture and movement were found. Mean LLx posture did not correlate with ULx posture in sitting (r = 0.036, p = 0.638, but showed a moderate inverse correlation with ULx posture in usual standing (r = -0.505, p Conclusion This study supports the concept of regional differences within the lumbar spine during common postures and movements. Global lumbar spine kinematics do not reflect regional lumbar spine kinematics, which has implications for interpretation of measures of spinal posture, motion and loading. BMI influenced regional lumbar posture and movement, possibly representing adaptation due to load.

  3. Reflex control of the spine and posture: a review of the literature from a chiropractic perspective

    Schlappi Mark

    2005-08-01

    all of the postural reflexes either in Earth's gravity or in microgravitational environments. Studies testing the function of each postural component, as well as those discussing postural reflex interactions, were also included in this review. Discussion It is quite apparent from the indexed literature we searched that posture is largely maintained by reflexive, involuntary control. While reflexive components for postural control are found in skin and joint receptors, somatic graviceptors, and baroreceptors throughout the body, much of the reflexive postural control mechanisms are housed, or occur, within the head and neck region primarily. We suggest that the postural reflexes may function in a hierarchical fashion. This hierarchy may well be based on the gravity-dependent or gravity-independent nature of each postural reflex. Some or all of these postural reflexes may contribute to the development of a postural body scheme, a conceptual internal representation of the external environment under normal gravity. This model may be the framework through which the postural reflexes anticipate and adapt to new gravitational environments. Conclusion Visual and vestibular input, as well as joint and soft tissue mechanoreceptors, are major players in the regulation of static upright posture. Each of these input sources detects and responds to specific types of postural stimulus and perturbations, and each region has specific pathways by which it communicates with other postural reflexes, as well as higher central nervous system structures. This review of the postural reflex structures and mechanisms adds to the growing body of posture rehabilitation literature relating specifically to chiropractic treatment. Chiropractic interest in these reflexes may enhance the ability of chiropractic physicians to treat and correct global spine and posture disorders. With the knowledge and understanding of these postural reflexes, chiropractors can evaluate spinal configurations not only

  4. Postural ortostatisk takykardisyndrom

    Brinth, Louise; Pors, Kirsten; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous condition of dysautonomia and suspected autoimmunity characterized by abnormal increments in heart rate upon assumption of the upright posture accompanied by symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion and sympathoexcitation. An increase...... in heart rate equal to or greater than 30 bpm or to levels higher than 120 bpm during a head-up tilt test is the main diagnostic criterion. Management includes both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment focusing on stress management, volume expansion and heart rate control....

  5. A Guiding Evolutionary Algorithm with Greedy Strategy for Global Optimization Problems

    Leilei Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Guiding Evolutionary Algorithm (GEA with greedy strategy for global optimization problems is proposed. Inspired by Particle Swarm Optimization, the Genetic Algorithm, and the Bat Algorithm, the GEA was designed to retain some advantages of each method while avoiding some disadvantages. In contrast to the usual Genetic Algorithm, each individual in GEA is crossed with the current global best one instead of a randomly selected individual. The current best individual served as a guide to attract offspring to its region of genotype space. Mutation was added to offspring according to a dynamic mutation probability. To increase the capability of exploitation, a local search mechanism was applied to new individuals according to a dynamic probability of local search. Experimental results show that GEA outperformed the other three typical global optimization algorithms with which it was compared.

  6. Public policy and risk financing strategies for global catastrophe risk management - the role of global risk initiatives

    McSharry, Patrick; Mitchell, Andrew; Anderson, Rebecca

    2010-05-01

    Decision-makers in both public and private organisations depend on accurate data and scientific understanding to adequately address climate change and the impact of extreme events. The financial impacts of catastrophes on populations and infrastructure can be offset through effective risk transfer mechanisms, structured to reflect the specific perils and levels of exposure to be covered. Optimal strategies depend on the likely socio-econonomic impact, the institutional framework, the overall objectives of the covers placed and the level of both the frequency and severity of loss potential expected. The diversity of approaches across different countries has been documented by the Spanish "Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros". We discuss why international public/private partnerships are necessary for addressing the risk of natural catastrophes. International initiatives such as the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) and the World Forum of Catastrophe Programmes (WFCP) can provide effective guidelines for constructing natural catastrophe schemes. The World Bank has been instrumental in the creation of many of the existing schemes such as the Turkish Catastrophe Insurance Pool, the Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility and the Mongolian Index-Based Livestock Insurance Program. We review existing schemes and report on best practice in relation to providing protection against natural catastrophe perils. The suitability of catastrophe modelling approaches to support schemes across the world are discussed and we identify opportunities to improve risk assessment for such schemes through transparent frameworks for quantifying, pricing, sharing and financing catastrophe risk on a local and global basis.

  7. Strategies of EU agro-food cooperatives to confront globalization: The case of wine cooperatives

    Juan Sebastián Castillo Valero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to globalization and market integration, the agro-food cooperative sector needs to be more competitive. This generates new challenges for cooperative enterprises in the agro-food sector. In this article the analysis of the wine producing sector is undertaken in the area of greatest world-wide wine production and commercialization, Castilla-La Mancha. EU wineries and cooperatives should propose strategic lines within an economy marked by a globalization process in world markets. The paradigmatic case is analyzed in this paper of the comparison of strategies followed by cooperatives confronting capitalist winery enterprises. Therefore, the degree of suitability is aimed to be elucidated and the success of the foundations of international commercial strategies that cooperative enterprises of the sector have followed, depending on their characteristics. Moreover, an exhaustive diagnosis is offered of the current strategic situation of cooperatives and their probability of gaining access to and/or growing in the international market. The parameters that have resulted significant are used as conclusions and recommendations so that cooperatives will reformulate their strategies and the organizations linked to the agro-food sector will know what factors to foment and support in their internationalization and global competitive positioning.

  8. Global strategies to reduce the price of antiretroviral medicines: evidence from transactional databases.

    Waning, Brenda; Kaplan, Warren; King, Alexis C; Lawrence, Danielle A; Leufkens, Hubert G; Fox, Matthew P

    2009-07-01

    To estimate the impact of global strategies, such as pooled procurement arrangements, third-party price negotiation and differential pricing, on reducing the price of antiretrovirals (ARVs), which currently hinders universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment. We estimated the impact of global strategies to reduce ARV prices using data on 7253 procurement transactions (July 2002-October 2007) from databases hosted by WHO and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. For 19 of 24 ARV dosage forms, we detected no association between price and volume purchased. For the other five ARVs, high-volume purchases were 4-21% less expensive than medium- or low-volume purchases. Nine of 13 generic ARVs were priced 6-36% lower when purchased under the Clinton Foundation HIV/AIDS Initiative (CHAI). Fifteen of 18 branded ARVs were priced 23-498% higher for differentially priced purchases compared with non-CHAI generic purchases. However, two branded, differentially priced ARVs were priced 63% and 73% lower, respectively, than generic non-CHAI equivalents. Large purchase volumes did not necessarily result in lower ARV prices. Although current plans for pooled procurement will further increase purchase volumes, savings are uncertain and should be balanced against programmatic costs. Third-party negotiation by CHAI resulted in lower generic ARV prices. Generics were less expensive than differentially priced branded ARVs, except where little generic competition exists. Alternative strategies for reducing ARV prices, such as streamlining financial management systems, improving demand forecasting and removing barriers to generics, should be explored.

  9. Body posture modulates action perception.

    Zimmermann, Marius; Toni, Ivan; de Lange, Floris P

    2013-04-03

    Recent studies have highlighted cognitive and neural similarities between planning and perceiving actions. Given that action planning involves a simulation of potential action plans that depends on the actor's body posture, we reasoned that perceiving actions may also be influenced by one's body posture. Here, we test whether and how this influence occurs by measuring behavioral and cerebral (fMRI) responses in human participants predicting goals of observed actions, while manipulating postural congruency between their own body posture and postures of the observed agents. Behaviorally, predicting action goals is facilitated when the body posture of the observer matches the posture achieved by the observed agent at the end of his action (action's goal posture). Cerebrally, this perceptual postural congruency effect modulates activity in a portion of the left intraparietal sulcus that has previously been shown to be involved in updating neural representations of one's own limb posture during action planning. This intraparietal area showed stronger responses when the goal posture of the observed action did not match the current body posture of the observer. These results add two novel elements to the notion that perceiving actions relies on the same predictive mechanism as planning actions. First, the predictions implemented by this mechanism are based on the current physical configuration of the body. Second, during both action planning and action observation, these predictions pertain to the goal state of the action.

  10. Strategies for Corporate Global Expansion of Pakistani Companies in the Age of Technology

    Jawaid Ahmed Qureshi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to meticulously probe about the applications of cutting-edge strategies of globally expanding companies operative in several industrial sectors of Pakistan. Many companies craft and execute various strategies to globalize their operations and networks in several continents, which can not only benefit them but add value in the domestic cum global economy. Many researchers expounded that along with many other factors, capacity-building and competitive edges of business provide these companies the competitive strengths to excel in their global operations. Regarding such strengths, advancement in technology inclusive of research in business R&D (Research & Development, and marketing and business research, process design, automation, and e-commerce play a decisive role in providing them the core competitive edges that they leverage to advance their growth and expansion in the global market. This paper employs hybrid research techniques including qualitative and quantitative research. Semi-structured interviews have been taken for qualitative enquiry and structured survey has been undertaken for quantitative enquiry. The samples are drawn from multiple populations pertaining top-five export sectors of Pakistan by applying convenience sampling procedures for interviews and proportionate stratified sampling articulated with systematic sampling for survey. The findings uncover that after turning as retrenched domestic entities, many of the companies in Pakistan prefer global expansion. They usually resume from export operations in various countries especially where they develop a network of business associates, and then gradually move to open subsidiaries abroad. They avail technological edges to upgrade their processes, plants, products

  11. A Case Study Approach On Indian Companies And Global Companies Entry In Foreign Markets An Analysis Of Glocalization Strategies

    Fernandes, Semila

    2013-01-01

    The present paper involved a study on Glocal communication strategy adopted by select global companies while foraying into India and Indian companies foray into the foreign markets. Glocalization concept in specific terms implies Think Global and Act Local which has been developed through Japanese business practices. The requirement of this global localization idea arrived in the late 1980s to bridge the gap between local, regional, national, global management of the businesses 20.PROBLEM STA...

  12. Developing and implementing a data acquisition strategy for global agricultural monitoring: an inter-agency initiative

    Justice, C. O.; Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Killough, B.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, in response to global food crises, the G20 Agricultural Ministers launched a satellite-based global agricultural monitoring initiative to develop the Group on Earth Observations Global Agriculture Monitoring (GEOGLAM) system. The GEO is aimed at enhancing the availability and use of both satellite and in situ data for societal benefit. This initiative builds on the observation requirements developed by the GEO Agricultural Community of Practice, the understanding that no one satellite system can currently provide all the data needed for agricultural monitoring and the resulting recommendation for improved acquisition and availability of data by the World's space agencies. Implicit in this recommendation is the fact that certain regions of the Earth are imagery rich while others are imagery poor, leaving knowledge gaps about agricultural processes and food supply for certain areas of the World. In order to respond to these knowledge gaps and to strengthen national, regional, and global agricultural monitoring networks, GEOGLAM is working with the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS), the space arm of GEO, to develop a coordinated global acquisition strategy. A key component of GEOGLAM is an effort to articulate the temporal and spatial Earth Observation (EO) requirements for monitoring; second, the identification of current and planned missions which are capable of fulfilling these EO requirements; and third, the development of a multi-agency, multi-mission image acquisition strategy for agricultural monitoring. CEOS engineers and GEOGLAM scientists have been collaborating on the EO requirements since 2012, and are now beginning the first implementation phase of the acquisition strategy. The goal is to put in place an operational system of systems using a virtual constellation of satellite-based sensors acquiring data to meet the needs for monitoring and early warning of shortfalls in agricultural production, a goal that was articulated in the 1970's

  13. The introduction of new vaccines into developing countries. IV: Global Access Strategies.

    Mahoney, Richard T; Krattiger, Anatole; Clemens, John D; Curtiss, Roy

    2007-05-16

    This paper offers a framework for managing a comprehensive Global Access Strategy for new vaccines in developing countries. It is aimed at strengthening the ability of public-sector entities to reach their goals. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and The Rockefeller Foundation have been leaders in stimulating the creation of new organizations - public/private product development partnerships (PDPs) - that seek to accelerate vaccine development and distribution to meet the health needs of the world's poor. Case studies of two of these PDPs - the Salmonella Anti-pneumococcal Vaccine Program and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative - examine development of such strategies. Relying on the application of innovation theory, the strategy leads to the identification of six Components of Innovation which cover all aspects of the vaccine innovation process. Appropriately modified, the proposed framework can be applied to the development and introduction of other products in developing countries including drugs, and nutritional and agricultural products.

  14. Accuracy and speed feedback: Global and local effects on strategy use

    Touron, Dayna R.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Background Skill acquisition often involves a shift from an effortful algorithm-based strategy to more fluent memory-based performance. Older adults’ slower strategy transitions can be ascribed to both slowed learning and metacognitive factors. Experimenters often provide feedback on response accuracy; this emphasis may either inadvertently reinforce older adults’ conservatism or might highlight that retrieval is generally quite accurate. RT feedback can lead to more rapid shift to retrieval (Hertzog, Touron, & Hines, 2007). Methods This study parametrically varied trial-by-trial feedback to examine whether strategy shifts in the noun-pair task in younger (M = 19) and older adults (M = 67) were influenced by type of performance feedback: none, trial accuracy, trial RT, or both accuracy and RT. Results Older adults who received accuracy feedback retrieved more often, particularly on difficult rearranged trials, and participants who receive speed feedback performed the scanning strategy more quickly. Age differences were also obtained in local (trial-level) reactivity to task performance, but these were not affected by feedback. Conclusions Accuracy and speed feedback had distinct global (general) influences on task strategies and performance. In particular, it appears that the standard practice of providing trial-by-trial accuracy feedback might facilitate older adults’ use of retrieval strategies in skill acquisition tasks. PMID:24785594

  15. Nuclear Posture Review

    2018-02-01

    REVIEW margin for further delay in recapitalizing the physical infrastructure needed to produce strategic materials and components for U.S. nuclear... REVIEW 2018 This page left intentionally blank REVIEW NUCLEAR POSTURE REVIEW FEBRUARY 2018...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE This page left intentionally blank REVIEW CONTENTS SECRETARY’S PREFACE

  16. Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. corn belt?

    Johnson, Jane M-F; Archer, David W; Weyers, Sharon L; Barbour, Nancy W

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural management practices that enhance C sequestration, reduce greenhouse gas emission (nitrous oxide [N₂O], methane [CH₄], and carbon dioxide [CO₂]), and promote productivity are needed to mitigate global warming without sacrificing food production. The objectives of the study were to compare productivity, greenhouse gas emission, and change in soil C over time and to assess whether global warming potential and global warming potential per unit biomass produced were reduced through combined mitigation strategies when implemented in the northern U.S. Corn Belt. The systems compared were (i) business as usual (BAU); (ii) maximum C sequestration (MAXC); and (iii) optimum greenhouse gas benefit (OGGB). Biomass production, greenhouse gas flux change in total and organic soil C, and global warming potential were compared among the three systems. Soil organic C accumulated only in the surface 0 to 5 cm. Three-year average emission of N₂O and CH was similar among all management systems. When integrated from planting to planting, N₂O emission was similar for MAXC and OGGB systems, although only MAXC was fertilized. Overall, the three systems had similar global warming potential based on 4-yr changes in soil organic C, but average rotation biomass was less in the OGGB systems. Global warming potential per dry crop yield was the least for the MAXC system and the most for OGGB system. This suggests management practices designed to reduce global warming potential can be achieved without a loss of productivity. For example, MAXC systems over time may provide sufficient soil C sequestration to offset associated greenhouse gas emission. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Formation of the US global energy strategy in 1991-2015

    Nikolay Vladimirovich Ponomarev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the formation of US global energy strategy in the timeframe of 1991-2015 and shifting emphasis in strategic documents indicating new regional priorities. Provisions concerning international energy interests of the United States can be traced back to the very first national security strategy and appear to be inherent core element of the American foreign policy. Due to domestic energy consumption patterns and cold war era strategic perception of fuel reserves US policy has been extensively centered on hydrocarbon resources. It proceeded from initial focus on the Persian Gulf to a global level commitment to ensure all-out output growth and transfer routs diversification for oil and gas exports in a number of key regions including the Caspian, and the Gulf of Guinea. By mid 2000s the US had become increasingly concerned with countering international influence and limiting regional clout of great powers that were pursuing independent policy and relying on state control of national energy companies and foreign energy assets, labeled as «resource nationalism». At the dawn of a new decade climate change in the Arctic and the rise of Indo-Asia-Pacific as a new global foremost transport and economic hub brought these rich in resources and critical in terms of resources shipping maritime domains to the forefront of US policy. Although the US prepares to assume the role of energy exporting country in the wake of shale oil and gas revolution that didn’t cause revision of this strategy but is merely supplementing it with a new international leverage. Revealed continuity rests on interpretation of unconstrained extraction and transit of hydrocarbon supplies to the world market and safety of the transit spaces as essential prerequisites for the stability of the US-centric global economy and entire postbipolar world order. Significant reliance on military instruments to maintain regional security regimes for international energy exports

  18. Strategies for ensuring global consistency/comparability of water-quality data

    Klein, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    In the past 20 years the water quality of the United States has improved remarkably-the waters are safer for drinking, swimming, and fishing. However, despite many accomplishments, it is still difficult to answer such basic questions as: 'How clean is the water?' and 'How is it changing over time?' These same questions exist on a global scale as well. In order to focus water-data issues in the United States, a national Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) was initiated for public and private organizations, whereby key elements involved in data collection, analysis, storage, and management could be made consistent and comparable. The ITFM recommended and its members are implementing a nationwide strategy to improve water-quality monitoring, assessment, and reporting activities. The intent of this paper is to suggest that a voluntary effort be initiated to ensure the comparability and utility of hydrological data on a global basis. Consistent, long-term data sets that are comparable are necessary in order to formulate ideas regarding regional and global trends in water quantity and quality. The author recommends that a voluntary effort similar to the ITFM effort be utilized. The strategy proposed would involve voluntary representation from countries and international organizations (e.g. World Health Organization) involved in drinking-water assessments and/or ambient water-quality monitoring. Voluntary partnerships such as this will improve curability to reduce health risks and achieve a better return on public and private investments in monitoring, environmental protection, and natural resource management, and result in a collaborative process that will save millions of dollars.In this work it is suggested that a voluntary effort be initiated to ensure the comparability and utility of hydrological data on a global basis. The strategy proposed would involve voluntary representation from countries and international organizations involved in

  19. Postural control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    Porto, E F; Castro, A A M; Schmidt, V G S; Rabelo, H M; Kümpel, C; Nascimento, O A; Jardim, J R

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control. Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using "balance", "postural control", and "COPD" as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers. A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the "balance in COPD or postural control in COPD" keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study examiners found only seven studies that had a PEDro score higher than five points. The examiners' interrater agreement was 76.4%. Six of those studies were accomplished with a control group and one study used their patients as their own controls. The studies were published between 2004 and 2013. Patients with COPD present postural control impairment when compared with age-matched healthy controls. Associated factors contributing to impaired postural control were

  20. Strategic political postures and political market orientation

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter......Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts......, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit...

  1. INTEGRATING COUNTRY-SPECIFIC CULTURE IN THE BRANDING STRATEGY FOR BUILDING GLOBAL SUCCESS

    Alexandra IOANID

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A strong brand is the one that integrates its cultural origins and values with the cultural values of the countries where it operates, building relationships based on trust with the local consumers. The chances for a company to gain share market when starting operations in a new country grows a lot if the management allows enough regional flexibility on how the brands are marketed, according to the cultural characteristics of the potential local customers. In the actual globalized business environment, the brand marketer has the choice to adopt a global or a local approach in the marketing strategy, that most of the times determines the success or the failure of the business in a specific country. An important challenge for any marketer is the integration of the brand-culture with the country-culture and in this context, the paper analyses different cultures and offers some branding strategies valid for both products and services. This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of the country-specific culture integration in the marketing strategy of a company for growing the effectiveness of all its operations. The ideas mentioned in this paper are based on literature research and also on authors’ experience with multicultural environments.

  2. 'Preparing ourselves to become an international organization': Thailand Tobacco Monopoly's regional and global strategies.

    MacKenzie, Ross; Ross, Hana; Lee, Kelley

    2017-03-01

    The Thailand Tobacco Monopoly (TTM) controlled the country's tobacco industry from its formation in the 1940s, until the government dropped restrictions on imported cigarettes in the late 1980s in response to pressure from the United States. The TTM has since competed with transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) in a semi-monopoly market in which TTCs have steadily increased their market share. Coupled with a decline in national smoking prevalence, the result of Thailand's stringent tobacco control agenda, the TTM now accounts for a diminishing share of a contracting market. In response, the monopoly has looked to regional trade liberalisation, and proximity to markets with some of the world's highest smoking rates to expand its operations. Expansion strategies have gone largely unrealised however, and the TTM effectively remains a domestic operation. Using TTM publications, market and trade reports, industry publications, tobacco industry documents and other resources, this paper analyses TTM expansion strategies, and the limited extent to which they have been achieved. This inability to expand its operations has left the monopoly potentially vulnerable to global strategies of its transnational competitors. This article is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  3. Global demand for rare earth resources and strategies for green mining

    Dutta, Tanushree [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Hyun, E-mail: kkim61@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Uchimiya, Minori [USDA-ARS Southern Regional Research Center, 1100 Robert E. Lee Boulevard, New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Kwon, Eilhann E. [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul 05006 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byong-Hun [Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Deep, Akash [Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIR-CSIO), Sector 30C, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Yun, Seong-Taek [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences and KU-KIST Green School, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for emerging renewable energy resources and ‘smart’ electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at an annual rate of 5% by 2020. This high growth rate will require a steady supply base of REEs in the long run. At present, China is responsible for 85% of global rare earth oxide (REO) production. To overcome this monopolistic supply situation, new strategies and investments are necessary to satisfy domestic supply demands. Concurrently, environmental, economic, and social problems arising from REE mining must be addressed. There is an urgent need to develop efficient REE recycling techniques from end-of-life products, technologies to minimize the amount of REEs required per unit device, and methods to recover them from fly ash or fossil fuel-burning wastes.

  4. Review of the regions and global warming: Impacts and response strategies

    Schmandt, J.; Clarkson, J.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a compilation of essays prepared by the winners and finalists of the 1991 competition for the George and Cynthia Mitchell International Prize for Sustainable Development. In that year, the prize was awarded for outstanding papers on regional implications of global climate change. In the introduction that precedes the 19 essays, the editors establish that the volume focuses on mitigative and adaptive strategies that can be carried out regionally. Because the authors of the essays are from a wide range of locations and affiliations, they present a diverse set of perspectives on the global change issue. The essays are simultaneously scholarly and of uniformly high readability, and should be understandable to a general college-level audience

  5. Driving forces: Motor vehicle trends and their implications for global warming, energy strategies, and transportation planning

    MacKenzie, J.J.; Walsh, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Cars, trucks, and other vehicles have long been linked to smog and other urban pollution, but the part they play in the larger complex of atmospheric and energy ills that we now face is often overlooked. In Driving Forces: Motor Vehicle Trends and Their Implications for Global Warming, Energy Strategies, and Transportation Planning, James J. MacKenzie, senior associate in World Resources Institute's Program in Climate, Energy, and Pollution, and Michael P. Walsh, an international consultant on transportation and environmental issues, fill in this knowledge gap with new data and analyses. They spell out four policy shifts that can help hold the line on global warming: improve new-vehicle efficiency; make transportation more efficient; cut other greenhouse gas emissions; create the green car of the future. The report focuses especially on the US, which pioneered the automotive revolution and leads the world in oil imports and emissions

  6. Global strategy for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger

    Hurd, Suzanne S; Lemanske, Robert F; Becker, Allan

    2011-01-01

    in this age group. For this reason, to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in young children, a symptoms-only descriptive approach that includes the definition of various wheezing phenotypes has been recommended. In 1993, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was implemented to develop a network of individuals...... and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor airway inflammation, the main pathologic hallmarks of the condition, can be assessed routinely......, organizations, and public health officials to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma while at the same time assuring a mechanism to incorporate the results of scientific investigations into asthma care. Since then, GINA has developed and regularly revised a Global Strategy for Asthma...

  7. Multi-joint postural behavior in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Turcot, Katia; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Suvà, Domizio; Armand, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated balance impairment in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Although it is currently accepted that postural control depends on multi-joint coordination, no study has previously considered this postural strategy in patients suffering from knee OA. The objectives of this study were to investigate the multi-joint postural behavior in patients with knee OA and to evaluate the association with clinical outcomes. Eighty-seven patients with knee OA and twenty-five healthy elderly were recruited to the study. A motion analysis system and two force plates were used to investigate the joint kinematics (trunk and lower body segments), the lower body joint moments, the vertical ground reaction force ratio and the center of pressure (COP) during a quiet standing task. Pain, functional capacity and quality of life status were also recorded. Patients with symptomatic and severe knee OA adopt a more flexed posture at all joint levels in comparison with the control group. A significant difference in the mean ratio was found between groups, showing an asymmetric weight distribution in patients with knee OA. A significant decrease in the COP range in the anterior-posterior direction was also observed in the group of patients. Only small associations were observed between postural impairments and clinical outcomes. This study brings new insights regarding the postural behavior of patients with severe knee OA during a quiet standing task. The results confirm the multi-joint asymmetric posture adopted by this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. WHEN THE PRESENT GETS US ... GLOBALIZATION: NEW TECHNOLOGIES, STRATEGY AND POLITICAL COMMUNICATION

    Gustavo Martín Fragachán

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The current phase of the capitalist world development receives the name of globalization and has brought a series of consequences: a few positive and great very denials, some of which will try to be analyzed by me in the lines that continue later, insisting, very specially, in those who say to the development of new technologies of communication, to the called “social networks” and to the consequences that the same ones have had both for the communication and for the development of new modalities of political strategy.

  9. Internationalization of product-service systems: Global, regional or national strategy?

    Parry, G.; Bustinza, O. F.; Vendrell-Herrero, F.; O'Regan, N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of national, regional or global strategies in the provision of a music industry product service system. Quantitative analysis of cross-section data from over 70,000 respondents from 15 geographically spread countries identified a homogeneous group of so-called ‘Out of Touch’ consumers characterized by a shared attitude: they are interested in and have the money to purchase music, but no longer do so. The analysis ascertains if and how re-engaging this group in...

  10. Exosomes Enter Vaccine Development: Strategies Meeting Global Challenges of Emerging Infections.

    Jungbauer, Alois

    2018-04-01

    New approaches for vaccination must be developed in order to meet the grand challenges for emerging infectious diseases. Exosomes now enter vaccine development and these are strategies are meeting these global challenges, as demonstrated by Anticoli et al., in this issue of Biotechnology Journal. Using exosome vaccines has been now been demonstrated in vivo for several viruses such as Ebola Virus VP24, VP40, and NP, Influenza Virus NP, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever NP, West Nile Virus NS3, and Hepatitis C Virus NS3. Now this technology must be tested in clinics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Global-local feature attention network with reranking strategy for image caption generation

    Wu, Jie; Xie, Si-ya; Shi, Xin-bao; Chen, Yao-wen

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a novel framework, named as global-local feature attention network with reranking strategy (GLAN-RS), is presented for image captioning task. Rather than only adopting unitary visual information in the classical models, GLAN-RS explores the attention mechanism to capture local convolutional salient image maps. Furthermore, we adopt reranking strategy to adjust the priority of the candidate captions and select the best one. The proposed model is verified using the Microsoft Common Objects in Context (MSCOCO) benchmark dataset across seven standard evaluation metrics. Experimental results show that GLAN-RS significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches, such as multimodal recurrent neural network (MRNN) and Google NIC, which gets an improvement of 20% in terms of BLEU4 score and 13 points in terms of CIDER score.

  12. POSTURAL SHOCK IN PREGNANCY

    Wilkening, Ralph L.; Knauer, John; Larson, Roger K.

    1955-01-01

    Signs and symptoms of shock may be produced in some patients in late pregnancy by putting them in the dorsal recumbent posture. Change from this position will relieve the condition. The features of the supine hypotensive syndrome can be duplicated by applying pressure to the abdomen with the patient in a lateral position. The postural variations of venous pressure, blood pressure, and pulse appear to be due to obstruction of venous return from the lower portion of the body caused by the large uterus of late pregnancy compressing the vena cava. When shock is observed in a woman in late pregnancy, she should be turned to a lateral position before more active measures of treatment are begun. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:14351983

  13. Supplier Partnership Strategy and Global Competitiveness: A Case of Samsung Electronics

    Jangwoo Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Samsung Group has accelerated its management innovation process, following the announcement of ‘New Management’ by the CEO Lee Kun-Hee. Particular attention must be paid to the smart-phone business of Samsung Electronics, which is the core company of the Samsung Group. In 2009, as Apple entered into the Korean market, the domestic smart-phone market faced the so called ‘Apple Shock’ due to its choice of a monopolistic and closed operating system. In response, Samsung Electronics introduced the innovative Galaxy series, replacing the old model of Omnia series. This move reaped dramatic success by dominating the world smart-phone market. Samsung Electronics ranked first in the 2012 world smart-phone market, and in 2013 it sold over 300 million devices for the first time in history, thereby solidifying the number one spot with a market share of 32.3%. Samsung Electronics’ achievement in its management innovation process was successful, due to its internal innovation and its partnership with sub-suppliers. Samsung Electronics strengthened its supplier partnership strategy, which in turn, led to an internalization of subparts assembly and process technology. By conducting the final assembly process on its own, it established the global supply chain that accompanies a high level of efficiency and operational elasticity. Samsung Electronics successfully systemized several hundred suppliers into an effective partnership and created an eco system where cooperation and competition can co-exist in its supply chain network. In sum, Samsung Electronics has successfully created the Samsung Production System that brings an economy of scale and allows prompt response. On the other hand, Apple did not get involved with subparts production, besides design and product design. This research identifies the effectiveness of Samsung Electronics’ supplier partnerships in its global competitiveness by examining characteristics of supplier partnership

  14. Investigation of China’s national public relations strategy under globalization : the hotspots around the national media

    雷, 紫雯

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates on China’s national public relations strategy under the globalization by analyzing the national media. In recent years, in order to improve the global public opinion environment, and to improve its national public relations capabilities that match its economic power status, China has actively strengthened its national public relations strategies, including making the national “media go out”, and building world-class media. By researching on the localization of Chinese ...

  15. Measuring postural control during mini-squat posture in men with early knee osteoarthritis.

    Petrella, M; Gramani-Say, K; Serrão, P R M S; Lessi, G C; Barela, J A; Carvalho, R P; Mattiello, S M

    2017-04-01

    Studies have suggested a compromised postural control in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) evidenced by larger and faster displacement of center of pressure (COP). However, quantification of postural control in the mini-squat posture performed by patients with early knee OA and its relation to muscle strength and self-reported symptoms have not been investigated. The main aim of this cross-sectional, observational, controlled study was to determine whether postural control in the mini-squat posture differs between individuals with early knee OA and a control group (CG) and verify the relation among knee extensor torque (KET) and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. Twenty four individuals with knee OA grades I and II (OAG) (mean age: 52.35±5.00) and twenty subjects without knee injuries (CG) (mean age: 51.40±8.07) participated in this study. Participants were assessed in postural control through a force plate (Bertec Mod. USA), which provided information about the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) COP displacement during the mini-squat, in isometric, concentric and eccentric knee extensor torque (KET) (90°/s) through an isokinetic dynamometer (BiodexMulti-Joint System3, Biodex Medical Incorporation, New York, NY, USA), and in self-reported symptoms through the WOMAC questionnaire. The main outcomes measured were the AP and ML COP amplitude and velocity of displacement; isometric, concentric, and eccentric KET and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. No significant differences were found between groups for postural control (p>0.05). Significant lower eccentric KET (p=0.01) and higher scores for the WOMAC subscales of pain (p=postural instability and the need to include quadriceps muscle strengthening, especially by eccentric contractions. The relationship between the self-reported symptoms and a lower and slower COP displacement suggest that the postural control strategy during tasks with a semi-flexed knee

  16. Life in unexpected places: Employing visual thinking strategies in global health training.

    Allison, Jill; Mulay, Shree; Kidd, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The desire to make meaning out of images, metaphor, and other representations indicates higher-order cognitive skills that can be difficult to teach, especially in the complex and unfamiliar environments like those encountered in many global health experiences. Because reflecting on art can help develop medical students' imaginative and interpretive skills, we used visual thinking strategies (VTS) during an immersive 4-week global health elective for medical students to help them construct new understanding of the social determinants of health in a low-resource setting. We were aware of no previous formal efforts to use art in global health training. We assembled a group of eight medical students in front of a street mural in Kathmandu and used VTS methods to interpret the scene with respect to the social determinants of health. We recorded and transcribed the conversation and conducted a thematic analysis of student responses. Students shared observations about the mural in a supportive, nonjudgmental fashion. Two main themes emerged from their observations: those of human-environment interactions (specifically community dynamics, subsistence land use, resources, and health) and entrapment/control, particularly relating to expectations of, and demands on, women in traditional farming communities. They used the images as well as their experience in Nepali communities to consolidate complex community health concepts. VTS helped students articulate their deepening understanding of the social determinants of health in Nepal, suggesting that reflection on visual art can help learners apply, analyze, and evaluate complex concepts in global health. We demonstrate the relevance of drawing upon many aspects of cultural learning, regarding art as a kind of text that holds valuable information. These findings may help provide innovative opportunities for teaching and evaluating global health training in the future.

  17. Management strategies for coral reefs and people under global environmental change: 25 years of scientific research.

    Comte, Adrien; Pendleton, Linwood H

    2018-03-01

    Coral reef ecosystems and the people who depend on them are increasingly exposed to the adverse effects of global environmental change (GEC), including increases in sea-surface temperature and ocean acidification. Managers and decision-makers need a better understanding of the options available for action in the face of these changes. We refine a typology of actions developed by Gattuso et al. (2015) that could serve in prioritizing strategies to deal with the impacts of GEC on reefs and people. Using the typology we refined, we investigate the scientific effort devoted to four types of management strategies: mitigate, protect, repair, adapt that we tie to the components of the chain of impact they affect: ecological vulnerability or social vulnerability. A systematic literature review is used to investigate quantitatively how scientific effort over the past 25 years is responding to the challenge posed by GEC on coral reefs and to identify gaps in research. A growing literature has focused on these impacts and on management strategies to sustain coral reef social-ecological systems. We identify 767 peer reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2016 that address coral reef management in the context of GEC. The rate of publication of such studies has increased over the years, following the general trend in climate research. The literature focuses on protect strategies the most, followed by mitigate and adapt strategies, and finally repair strategies. Developed countries, particularly Australia and the United States, are over-represented as authors and locations of case studies across all types of management strategies. Authors affiliated in developed countries play a major role in investigating case studies across the globe. The majority of articles focus on only one of the four categories of actions. A gap analysis reveals three directions for future research: (1) more research is needed in South-East Asia and other developing countries where the impacts of

  18. [Cost-effectiveness analysis and diet quality index applied to the WHO Global Strategy].

    Machado, Flávia Mori Sarti; Simões, Arlete Naresse

    2008-02-01

    To test the use of cost-effectiveness analysis as a decision making tool in the production of meals for the inclusion of the recommendations published in the World Health Organization's Global Strategy. Five alternative options for breakfast menu were assessed previously to their adoption in a food service at a university in the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. Costs of the different options were based on market prices of food items (direct cost). Health benefits were estimated based on adaptation of the Diet Quality Index (DQI). Cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated by dividing benefits by costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated as cost differential per unit of additional benefit. The meal choice was based on health benefit units associated to direct production cost as well as incremental effectiveness per unit of differential cost. The analysis showed the most simple option with the addition of a fruit (DQI = 64 / cost = R$ 1.58) as the best alternative. Higher effectiveness was seen in the options with a fruit portion (DQI1=64 / DQI3=58 / DQI5=72) compared to the others (DQI2=48 / DQI4=58). The estimate of cost-effectiveness ratio allowed to identifying the best breakfast option based on cost-effectiveness analysis and Diet Quality Index. These instruments allow easy application easiness and objective evaluation which are key to the process of inclusion of public or private institutions under the Global Strategy directives.

  19. Global environmental policy strategies. ''Environment and development'' in north-south relations

    Bruckmeier, K.

    1994-01-01

    Global environmental policy has hardly made headway after the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992, despite there being no shortage of programmes, institutions, and actors. Obviously, formal structures for political action based on the system of institutions of the United Nations do not suffice. Global environmental policy strategies must reach further, overcoming system-immanent obstacles to sustainable development. This necessitates analyzing the causes of environmental destruction and making a critical evaluation of the relations between the societies of the North and South that received their imprint from development policies. Only after such a preliminary elucidation by interdisciplinary approaches in the light of political and ecological economy and human ecology does an empirical analysis of politically controlled processes in environmental and development policy make sense. The analysis points to strategies for this international political field that rely on non-governmental actors and social movements, and question the traditional European model of an environmental policy determined by government institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  20. The Impact of Complexity on Shaping Logistics Strategies in Global Supply Chains

    Agnieszka Szmelter

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The paper aims to summarize approaches to complexity management by implementing particular logistics concepts within logistics strategies in global supply chains and to highlight a research gap in this regard. Additionally, complexity management concepts are presented. Design/methodology/approach - To achieve the research objective, a systematic literature review was used. 11 research paper were analyzed with use of review protocol. Findings - Approaches to mentioned research problem are heterogeneous in current literature and there is a research gap in complexity studies in logistics, precluding further research, for example, on complexity measurement systems. Research implications/limitations - Identified research gap will require further studies. Studied area requires more empirical research, especially in the field of complexity measurement and management techniques in particular global supply chains. Originality/value/contribution - The paper summarizes current knowledge about logistics concepts helping to manage complexity in global supply chains and defines research gaps. There are no available literature summary of that kind. The article contains a full review of logistics complexity management concepts presented in scientific literature until the end of 2016.

  1. Korea’s Trade Strategies for Mega Free Trade Agreements in Regional and Global Economic Integration

    Sang-Chul Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea has developed rapidly since the 1960s. It is one of the four Asian tiger economies and a good model for developing countries. Korea shows the world how a developing country can develop its economy rapidly and become industrialized. Its development strategy has mainly been an export-oriented trade policy. As a result, its trade volume grew from $1 billion in 1966 to $1 trillion in 2011, which is a 1,000-fold increase within five decades. Since 2011, Korea has become one of seven countries with a trade volume over $1 trillion. However, the Korean economy has experienced turbulence as well as positive growth. It underwent severe economic crises such as the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the global financial crisis in 2008. Its economy has been extremely vulnerable to the external economic environment, although it has improved and strengthened, particularly since the global financial crisis. During those two crises, the government carried out an appropriate trade policy with a strategic approach to upgrade its industrial structure and competitiveness in global markets. This article comprehensively discusses Korean trade policy and strategy over the last five decades, and how its national economy has developed rapidly. It also explores how the government sets its strategic targets in Asia and the Asia Pacific region. It considers two mega free trade agreements (FTAs — the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and the Trans-Pacific Partnership — as new opportunities for further development. Therefore, it is wise to analyze these regional mega FTAs in order to maximize the national interest.

  2. The Trilateral Force: The Atlantic Alliance and the Future of Nuclear Weapons Strategy

    2013-12-03

    Commission Report: Modernizing US. Nuclear Strategy, Force Structure and Posture, Global Zero (2012), 6. 27 Dana Johnson, et al., "Triad, Dyad, Monad...2012. Forsyth, J., B. Saltzman , and G. Schaub. "Remembrance of Things Past: The Enduring Value ofNuclear Weapons." Strategic Studies Quarterly

  3. Does a crouched leg posture enhance running stability and robustness?

    Blum, Yvonne; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra; Daley, Monica A; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-07-21

    Humans and birds both walk and run bipedally on compliant legs. However, differences in leg architecture may result in species-specific leg control strategies as indicated by the observed gait patterns. In this work, control strategies for stable running are derived based on a conceptual model and compared with experimental data on running humans and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). From a model perspective, running with compliant legs can be represented by the planar spring mass model and stabilized by applying swing leg control. Here, linear adaptations of the three leg parameters, leg angle, leg length and leg stiffness during late swing phase are assumed. Experimentally observed kinematic control parameters (leg rotation and leg length change) of human and avian running are compared, and interpreted within the context of this model, with specific focus on stability and robustness characteristics. The results suggest differences in stability characteristics and applied control strategies of human and avian running, which may relate to differences in leg posture (straight leg posture in humans, and crouched leg posture in birds). It has been suggested that crouched leg postures may improve stability. However, as the system of control strategies is overdetermined, our model findings suggest that a crouched leg posture does not necessarily enhance running stability. The model also predicts different leg stiffness adaptation rates for human and avian running, and suggests that a crouched avian leg posture, which is capable of both leg shortening and lengthening, allows for stable running without adjusting leg stiffness. In contrast, in straight-legged human running, the preparation of the ground contact seems to be more critical, requiring leg stiffness adjustment to remain stable. Finally, analysis of a simple robustness measure, the normalized maximum drop, suggests that the crouched leg posture may provide greater robustness to changes in terrain height

  4. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    effect on postoperative pulmonary function in the sitting or standing position compared with the supine. Thus, avoidance of the supine position may improve postoperative pulmonary function. Three of six studies showed a positive effect on postoperative pulmonary function of the lateral side compared......BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...... with the supine. Thus, the lateral position has limited effects on pulmonary function. CONCLUSION: Changes of postoperative position from supine to sitting or standing are of major importance in the interpretation of postoperative pulmonary outcome studies and in future strategies to improve pulmonary outcome....

  5. Postural control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

    Porto EF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available EF Porto,1,2 AAM Castro,1,3 VGS Schmidt,4 HM Rabelo,4 C Kümpel,2 OA Nascimento,5 JR Jardim5 1Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Federal University of São Paulo, 2Adventist University, São Paulo, 3Federal University of Pampa, Rio Grande do Sul, 4Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Adventist University, 5Respiratory Diseases, Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control.Methods: Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using “balance”, “postural control”, and “COPD” as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers.Results: A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the “balance in COPD or postural control in COPD” keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study

  6. The differences in postural reactions between scoliosis and scoliotic posture

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to demonstrate the differences in amplitudes of postural reactions in girls with scoliotic posture and idiopathic scoliosis. 28 girls aged 7-18 years old were involved in the study. Children attended to the Interschool Centre of Corrective Exercises in Starachowice. The research was conducted in June 2011. Spine research was made by Exhibeon digital radiography. Based on the size of the angle of spinal curvature there were identified: scoliotic posture: 1-9° and scoliosis: ≥10°. Postural reactions were examined by static-dynamic Tecnobody’s ST 310 Plus Stability System platform. There were 21 (75% children with scoliotic posture, and 7 (25% with idiopathic scoliosis. Student's t-test showed a significantly higher postural reactions for scoliosis in relation to scoliotic postures in case of: Average Forward-Backward Speed (OE, (p=0,05, Medium-Lateral Standard Deviation X (CE, (p=0,002, and Ellipse area (CE, (p=0,012. To verify the significant differences, demonstrating the lack of homogeneity of variance, the Mann–Whitney U-test has been used, which showed a significant differences between the scoliotic posture and scoliosis in case of: Medium-Lateral Standard Deviation X (CE, (p=0,0012, Average Forward-Backward Speed (OE, (p=0,0548, and Ellipse area (CE (p=0,0047. Together with an increase of the angle of curvature, the value of these postural reactions also grew. Most of postural reactions didn’t fit the norm.

  7. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  8. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  9. Forum on Global Climate Strategies. Beyond 2012. The Route Ahead. Looking for a consensus framework

    Perez-Arriaga, E.; Linares, P.; Batlle, C.; Barquin, J.

    2007-06-01

    The scientific knowledge on climate change has firmed up considerably. This has been made broadly known by the publication of the initial documents of the Fourth Assessment Report on global warming by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The ample body of available scientific evidence now clearly indicates that climate change is serious and urgent. There is a generalized consensus from major academic, professional and political institutions about the importance of the climate change threat. This is more than enough to urge policy makers to put together a response that measures up to the challenge. A diversity of schemes and strategies to address climate change have been already identified and debated in public forums, so the challenges of a plausible long-term strategy, as well as the viewpoints of all countries, are now mostly explicit and known. Climate change can only be effectively tackled through broad participation in the global reduction effort by all present and future major emitters. Resolved political will is needed to make real progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. There is a growing sense of urgency for stronger actions to curb the primary causes and to prepare for the consequences of global warming. The principal challenge for the future climate regime is to identify the nature and level of commitment that will provide sufficient incentives for all Parties, especially the largest emitters, to join a global agreement and achieve sufficient reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to comply with art. 2 of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Dialogue among the key international partners to explore global climate strategies is already being conducted in various international forums: formally under the UNFCC, but also within the G8 and other multilateral and bilateral meetings. Identification, analysis and proposals of alternatives are also being put forth in high-quality workshops run by universities and NGOs, with

  10. Strategies for the coupling of global and local crystal growth models

    Derby, Jeffrey J.; Lun, Lisa; Yeckel, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    The modular coupling of existing numerical codes to model crystal growth processes will provide for maximum effectiveness, capability, and flexibility. However, significant challenges are posed to make these coupled models mathematically self-consistent and algorithmically robust. This paper presents sample results from a coupling of the CrysVUn code, used here to compute furnace-scale heat transfer, and Cats2D, used to calculate melt fluid dynamics and phase-change phenomena, to form a global model for a Bridgman crystal growth system. However, the strategy used to implement the CrysVUn-Cats2D coupling is unreliable and inefficient. The implementation of under-relaxation within a block Gauss-Seidel iteration is shown to be ineffective for improving the coupling performance in a model one-dimensional problem representative of a melt crystal growth model. Ideas to overcome current convergence limitations using approximations to a full Newton iteration method are discussed.

  11. An open ecosystem engagement strategy through the lens of global food safety

    Stacey, Paul; Fons, Garin; Bernardo, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    The Global Food Safety Partnership (GFSP) is a public/private partnership established through the World Bank to improve food safety systems through a globally coordinated and locally-driven approach. This concept paper aims to establish a framework to help GFSP fully leverage the potential of open models. In preparing this paper the authors spoke to many different GFSP stakeholders who asked questions about open models such as: what is it?what’s in it for me?why use an open rather than a proprietary model?how will open models generate equivalent or greater sustainable revenue streams compared to the current “traditional” approaches?  This last question came up many times with assertions that traditional service providers need to see opportunity for equivalent or greater revenue dollars before they will buy-in. This paper identifies open value propositions for GFSP stakeholders and proposes a framework for creating and structuring that value. Open Educational Resources (OER) were the primary open practice GFSP partners spoke to us about, as they provide a logical entry point for collaboration. Going forward, funders should consider requiring that educational resources and concomitant data resulting from their sponsorship should be open, as a public good. There are, however, many other forms of open practice that bring value to the GFSP. Nine different open strategies and tactics (Appendix A) are described, including: open content (including OER and open courseware), open data, open access (research), open government, open source software, open standards, open policy, open licensing and open hardware. It is recommended that all stakeholders proactively pursue "openness" as an operating principle. This paper presents an overall GFSP Open Ecosystem Engagement Strategy within which specific local case examples can be situated. Two different case examples, China and Colombia, are presented to show both project-based and crowd-sourced, direct-to-public paths

  12. IO strategies and data services for petascale data sets from a global cloud resolving model

    Schuchardt, K L; Palmer, B J; Daily, J A; Elsethagen, T O; Koontz, A S

    2007-01-01

    Global cloud resolving models at resolutions of 4km or less create significant challenges for simulation output, data storage, data management, and post-simulation analysis and visualization. To support efficient model output as well as data analysis, new methods for IO and data organization must be evaluated. The model we are supporting, the Global Cloud Resolving Model being developed at Colorado State University, uses a geodesic grid. The non-monotonic nature of the grid's coordinate variables requires enhancements to existing data processing tools and community standards for describing and manipulating grids. The resolution, size and extent of the data suggest the need for parallel analysis tools and allow for the possibility of new techniques in data mining, filtering and comparison to observations. We describe the challenges posed by various aspects of data generation, management, and analysis, our work exploring IO strategies for the model, and a preliminary architecture, web portal, and tool enhancements which, when complete, will enable broad community access to the data sets in familiar ways to the community

  13. Integrated and global pseudotargeted metabolomics strategy applied to screening for quality control markers of Citrus TCMs.

    Shu, Yisong; Liu, Zhenli; Zhao, Siyu; Song, Zhiqian; He, Dan; Wang, Menglei; Zeng, Honglian; Lu, Cheng; Lu, Aiping; Liu, Yuanyan

    2017-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) exerts its therapeutic effect in a holistic fashion with the synergistic function of multiple characteristic constituents. The holism philosophy of TCM is coincident with global and systematic theories of metabolomics. The proposed pseudotargeted metabolomics methodologies were employed for the establishment of reliable quality control markers for use in the screening strategy of TCMs. Pseudotargeted metabolomics integrates the advantages of both targeted and untargeted methods. In the present study, targeted metabolomics equipped with the gold standard RRLC-QqQ-MS method was employed for in vivo quantitative plasma pharmacochemistry study of characteristic prototypic constituents. Meanwhile, untargeted metabolomics using UHPLC-QE Orbitrap HRMS with better specificity and selectivity was employed for identification of untargeted metabolites in the complex plasma matrix. In all, 32 prototypic metabolites were quantitatively determined, and 66 biotransformed metabolites were convincingly identified after being orally administered with standard extracts of four labeled Citrus TCMs. The global absorption and metabolism process of complex TCMs was depicted in a systematic manner.

  14. CSR Strategies in Greater China: Global, East Asian, American, European Style?

    Heiduk Guenter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility emerged in the United States and spread to Europe and Asia while being adapted to national/local characteristics. Since borders between markets and societies are blurring and globalization is promoting MNCs which find themselves acting in hybrid societies, international institutions put efforts into the development and moral acceptance of global CSR standards. The scientific interest in CSR focused on the conflicts between company returns and benefits for society. The resulting concepts of performance-oriented, awareness-oriented and welfare-oriented CSR should facilitate the evaluation of CSR strategies implemented by MNCs. In research on the cultural dimensions of economies, it might be possible to allocate geographically the three concepts. Regarding the newly emerging Chinese MNCs, the paper aims to shed light on which concept they follow. On the one hand, CSR concepts of American and/or European MNCs that are present in China might serve as a role model; on the other hand, by learning from Taiwanese/ Hong Kong MNCs, a “greater China CSR approach” might emerge. Empirical studies and own field research suggest that compared to American and European companies, CSR is less deeply rooted in Chinese companies. Furthermore, significant differences between Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwanese companies indicate that a Greater Chinese CSR approach does not yet exist. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that American and European CSR concepts will experience a Chinese influence in the near future.

  15. Leveraging public finance to achieve endgame for tobacco - possible national and global strategies

    Pranay Lal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Calls for institutional investors to divest (sell off tobacco stocks threaten the industry´s share values, publicise its bad behaviour, and label it as a politically unacceptable ally. The rise of the socially responsible investment movement, increasing litigation against major tobacco companies, and an increasing emphasis on tobacco industry delegitimisation as a tobacco control strategy created a climate within which tobacco divestment was open for serious discussion. Methods This survey enquired from 19 environment (including groups working against GHGs, asbestos and Big Oil, social and development sectors (groups working on IFC exclusion criteria on the role of public finance, and the arguments to support divestment from "sin" or exclusion sectors. Results In general the respondents to this survey presented the the following arguments which support divestment: • Global obligations to the WHO´s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the other global treaties like the SDG. •\tEthical argument: Governments and their agencies that hold public funds can no longer support tobacco control and tobacco industry. •\tFiscal argument: high costs of national and global litigations make companies, public funded organisations and governments prone to heavy litigation costs and potential costs for damages •\tPublic health argument: Because tobacco industry continue to hold important policy positions, they block and interfere tobacco control efforts. Conclusions To begin a campaign for divestment would require preliminary work by civil society institutions which includes: • Tracking and monitoring institutions and investments • Collaborating with organisations which advocate for ethical or socially responsible investments. • Developing a policy research and advocacy roadmap with stakeholders towards and end date for divestment

  16. Dynamic postural stability differences between male and female players with and without ankle sprain

    Dallinga, Joan; van der Does, Henrike; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The strategy for dynamic postural stability might be different for male and female players. Additionally, dynamic and challenging tasks are recommended to measure differences in postural stability between injured and non-injured players. Therefore, the dynamic stability index (DSI) was

  17. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying postural instability in Parkinson's disease using dynamic posturography

    Nonnekes, J.H.; Kam, D. de; Geurts, A.C.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    Postural instability, one of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), has devastating consequences for affected patients. Better strategies to prevent falls are needed, but this calls for an improved understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying postural instability. We must also

  18. Otolith and Vertical Canal Contributions to Dynamic Postural Control

    Black, F. Owen

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine: 1) how do normal subjects adjust postural movements in response to changing or altered otolith input, for example, due to aging? and 2) how do patients adapt postural control after altered unilateral or bilateral vestibular sensory inputs such as ablative inner ear surgery or ototoxicity, respectively? The following hypotheses are under investigation: 1) selective alteration of otolith input or abnormalities of otolith receptor function will result in distinctive spatial, frequency, and temporal patterns of head movements and body postural sway dynamics. 2) subjects with reduced, altered, or absent vertical semicircular canal receptor sensitivity but normal otolith receptor function or vice versa, should show predictable alterations of body and head movement strategies essential for the control of postural sway and movement. The effect of altered postural movement control upon compensation and/or adaptation will be determined. These experiments provide data for the development of computational models of postural control in normals, vestibular deficient subjects and normal humans exposed to unusual force environments, including orbital space flight.

  19. Do older adults perceive postural constraints for reach estimation?

    Cordova, Alberto; Gabbard, Carl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Recent evidence indicates that older persons have difficulty mentally representing intended movements. Furthermore, in an estimation of reach paradigm using motor imagery, a form of mental representation, older persons significantly overestimated their ability compared with young adults. The authors tested the notion that older adults may also have difficulty perceiving the postural constraints associated with reach estimation. The authors compared young (Mage = 22 years) and older (Mage = 67) adults on reach estimation while seated and in a more postural demanding standing and leaning forward position. The expectation was a significant postural effect with the standing condition, as evidenced by reduced overestimation. Whereas there was no difference between groups in the seated condition (both overestimated), older adults underestimated whereas the younger group once again overestimated in the standing condition. From one perspective, these results show that older adults do perceive postural constraints in light of their own physical capabilities. That is, that group perceived greater postural demands with the standing posture and elected to program a more conservative strategy, resulting in underestimation.

  20. The global challenge of type 2 diabetes and the strategies for response in ethnic minority groups.

    Lirussi, Flavio

    2010-09-01

    Ethnic minorities living in high-income countries usually exhibit a greater risk of developing diabetes along with higher morbidity and mortality rates. We evaluated the effectiveness of interventions to improve glycaemic control in ethnic minority groups. Results of major controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included in the review. Only 1/47 studies addressing diet and exercise interventions reported details on the ethnicity of the studied population. Self-management education was successful if associated with increased self-efficacy; delivered over a longer period; of high intensity; culturally tailored; and when using community educators. Strategies adopted in community-gathering places, family-based, multifaceted, and those tackling the social context were likely to be more effective. A positive relationship was found between social support and self-management behaviour as well as quality of life, but there is little evidence about the impact of organizational changes within health-care services on diabetes control. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence on effective strategies for response to diabetes in ethnic minorities. Also, there is a need to take into account diabetes beliefs and communication difficulties, as well as potential protective factors. Globally, many health-care systems are inadequately equipped to improve diabetes prevention and disease outcomes in these communities. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation improves adaptive postural control.

    Poortvliet, Peter; Hsieh, Billie; Cresswell, Andrew; Au, Jacky; Meinzer, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Rehabilitation interventions contribute to recovery of impaired postural control, but it remains a priority to optimize their effectiveness. A promising strategy may involve transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of brain areas involved in fine-tuning of motor adaptation. This study explored the effects of cerebellar tDCS (ctDCS) on postural recovery from disturbance by Achilles tendon vibration. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in this sham-ctDCS controlled study. Standing blindfolded on a force platform, four trials were completed: 60 s quiet standing followed by 20 min active (anodal-tDCS, 1 mA, 20 min, N = 14) or sham-ctDCS (40 s, N = 14) tDCS; three quiet standing trials with 15 s of Achilles tendon vibration and 25 s of postural recovery. Postural steadiness was quantified as displacement, standard deviation and path derived from the center of pressure (COP). Baseline demographics and quiet standing postural steadiness, and backwards displacement during vibration were comparable between groups. However, active-tDCS significantly improved postural steadiness during vibration and reduced forward displacement and variability in COP derivatives during recovery. We demonstrate that ctDCS results in short-term improvement of postural adaptation in healthy individuals. Future studies need to investigate if multisession ctDCS combined with training or rehabilitation interventions can induce prolonged improvement of postural balance. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The CEOS Global Observation Strategy for Disaster Risk Management: An Enterprise Architect's View

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.; Frye, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS), on behalf of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), is defining an enterprise architecture (known as GA.4.D) for the use of satellite observations in international disaster management. This architecture defines the scope and structure of the disaster management enterprise (based on disaster types and phases); its processes (expressed via use cases / system functions); and its core values (in particular, free and open data sharing via standard interfaces). The architecture also details how a disaster management enterprise describes, obtains, and handles earth observations and data products for decision-support; and how it draws on distributed computational services for streamlined operational capability. We have begun to apply this architecture to a new CEOS initiative, the Global Observation Strategy for Disaster Risk Management (DRM). CEOS is defining this Strategy based on the outcomes of three pilot projects focused on seismic hazards, volcanoes, and floods. These pilots offer a unique opportunity to characterize and assess the impacts (benefits / costs) of the GA.4.D architecture in practice. In particular, the DRM Floods Pilot is applying satellite-based optical and radar data to flood mitigation, warning, and response, including monitoring and modeling at regional to global scales. It is focused on serving user needs and building local institutional / technical capacity in the Caribbean, Southern Africa, and Southeast Asia. In the context of these CEOS DRM Pilots, we are characterizing where and how the GA.4D architecture helps participants to: - Understand the scope and nature of hazard events quickly and accurately - Assure timely delivery of observations into analysis, modeling, and decision-making - Streamline user access to products - Lower barriers to entry for users or suppliers - Streamline or focus field operations in

  3. From Risks to Shared Value? Corporate Strategies in Building a Global Water Accounting and Disclosure Regime

    Marco A. Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The current debate on water accounting and accountability among transnational actors such as corporations and NGOs is likely to contribute to the emergence of a global water governance regime. Corporations within the food and beverage sector (F-B are especially vulnerable to water risks; therefore, in this article we analyse motivations and strategies of the major F-B corporations participating in the debate and developing different water accounting, disclosure and risk-assessment tools. Neo-institutionalism and neo-Gramscian regime theory provide the basis for our framework to analyse the discursive, material and organisational corporate water strategies. Findings based on an analysis of the chosen F-B corporations’ sustainability reports and interviews with key informants suggest that the corporations share similar goals and values with regard to the emerging regime. They seek a standardisation that is practical and supportive in improving their water efficiency and communication with stakeholders. This indicates that some harmonisation has taken place over time and new actors have been pursuing the path of the pioneering companies, but the lead corporations are also differentiating their strategies, thus engaging in hegemonic positioning. However, so far the plethora of NGO-driven accountability initiatives and tools has fragmented the field more than 'war of position' amongst the corporations. Furthermore, several companies claim to have proceeded from internal water-risk management to reducing risks throughout their value chains and watersheds. As a result they are 'creating shared value' with stakeholders, and potentially manifesting an emergent paradigm that goes beyond a private regime framework. Nevertheless, in the absence of verification schemes, questions of sustainability and legitimacy of such actions on the ground prevail and remain a topic for further research.

  4. IMPROVEMENT OF MANGOSTEEN FARMING AND POSTHARVEST HANDLING STRATEGIES BASED ON GLOBAL GAP STANDARD AT KIARA PEDES, PURWAKARTA DISTRICT

    Nanda Erlangga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were (1 to determine the value chain of mangosteen at Kiara Pedes Sub district, Purwakarta District, (2 to identify the gap between actual condition at Kiara Pedes and Global GAP standard, (3 to identify internal and external factors that can affect the implementation strategy of Global GAP standards, and (4 to develop alternative strategies that can be applied to improve the system of mangosteen cultivation and post harvest handling based on Global GAP standards. The analytical tools being used in this study were value chain analysis, gap analysis, internal and external factor evaluation (IFE, EFE, IE matrix, SWOT analysis, and quantitative strategic planning matrix (QSPM. Identified primary actors in mangosteen value chain were farmers, middlemen, suppliers, exporters, and local and overseas retailers. Based on IE Matrix and SWOT analysis, the strategies to implement Global GAP standards were (a to increase mangosteen productivity and improve its quality by using developed cultivation and postharvest technology, (b to increase productivity, and improve quality and transportation network in accordance with Global GAP standard, (c to improve clean water and post-harvest infrastructure through cooperation with exporters and financial institutions, and (d to improve warehouse and supporting facilities such as packaging and sanitation according to the Global GAP standard for minimizing the environmental constraints. The most priority strategies from the QSPM analysis were improving clean water and post-harvest infrastructure through cooperation with exporters and financial institutions, followed by using the developed cultivation and postharvest technology to increase mangosteen productivity and improve its quality.Keywords: Mangosteen, Global GAP Standard, Value Chain, Improvement Strategies, Farming and Postharvest Handling Practices

  5. Human Posture and Movement Prediction based on Musculoskeletal Modeling

    Farahani, Saeed Davoudabadi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis explores an optimization-based formulation, so-called inverse-inverse dynamics, for the prediction of human posture and motion dynamics performing various tasks. It is explained how this technique enables us to predict natural kinematic and kinetic patterns for human posture...... and motion using AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). AMS uses inverse dynamics to analyze musculoskeletal systems and is, therefore, limited by its dependency on input kinematics. We propose to alleviate this dependency by assuming that voluntary postures and movement strategies in humans are guided by a desire...... expenditure, joint forces and other physiological properties derived from the detailed musculoskeletal analysis. Several attempts have been made to uncover the principles underlying motion control strategies in the literature. In case of some movements, like human squat jumping, there is almost no doubt...

  6. POSTUR PADA WANITA HAMIL

    Paryono .

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction: Pregnancy effects in changes on all body systems leading to a new balance women and maternal adaptation.Weight gain in pregnant women from both the uterus and breast development generally occurs at the front of the body, butwhen standing they were still able to maintain a posture that does not face. The purpose of this article is to examine thereasons why pregnant women do not fall to front and how the good attitude of the pregnant woman's body.Materials and Methods: Material of this article are literatures related to pregnancy and the pregnant woman's bodyp o s t u r e , a n d t h e y w e r e c o l l e c t e d b y l i t e r a t u r e ' s s t u d y a n d l i t e r a r y s t u d y .Discussion: Increased abdominal distension that makes tilting the pelvis forward, decreased abdominal muscle tone andincrease weight gain in late pregnancy requires a readjustment spinal curvature. Woman's center of gravity shifts forward.Lumbosakrum normal curve should be more curved and the curvature of the servikodorsal be formed to maintain balance.Assessment of anterior view, lateral and posterior body should include an understanding of the physical structures such asjoints and muscles as well as how the meridian pathways. To compensate for the anterior position of the enlarged uterus,lordosis shifting center of gravity to the back of the lower limbs. There is an increased sacroiliac joint mobility,sakrokoksigeal, and pubic joints during pregnancy, possibly due to hormonal changes. Individual assessments will berequired to determine the pattern of muscle for every person, especially for those who have musculoskeletal problems.Conclusions and Recommendations: The size of the stomach in a pregnant woman, then the gravity of the body changes.Body to be biased toward the rear, but this position makes your back hurt. Advice for pregnant women in order to maintainyour posture as follows: head upKeyword : Posture, Pregnancy, Women.

  7. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  8. Modeling and Analyzing Intrusion Attempts to a Computer Network Operating in a Defense in Depth Posture

    Givens, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In order to ensure the confidentially, integrity, and availability of networked resources operating on the Global Information Grid, the Department of Defense has incorporated a "Defense-in-Depth" posture...

  9. Structuring energy supply and demand networks in a general equilibrium model to simulate global warming control strategies

    Hamilton, S.; Veselka, T.D.; Cirillo, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Global warming control strategies which mandate stringent caps on emissions of greenhouse forcing gases can substantially alter a country's demand, production, and imports of energy products. Although there is a large degree of uncertainty when attempting to estimate the potential impact of these strategies, insights into the problem can be acquired through computer model simulations. This paper presents one method of structuring a general equilibrium model, the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program/Global Climate Change (ENPEP/GCC), to simulate changes in a country's energy supply and demand balance in response to global warming control strategies. The equilibrium model presented in this study is based on the principle of decomposition, whereby a large complex problem is divided into a number of smaller submodules. Submodules simulate energy activities and conversion processes such as electricity production. These submodules are linked together to form an energy supply and demand network. Linkages identify energy and fuel flows among various activities. Since global warming control strategies can have wide reaching effects, a complex network was constructed. The network represents all energy production, conversion, transportation, distribution, and utilization activities. The structure of the network depicts interdependencies within and across economic sectors and was constructed such that energy prices and demand responses can be simulated. Global warming control alternatives represented in the network include: (1) conservation measures through increased efficiency; and (2) substitution of fuels that have high greenhouse gas emission rates with fuels that have lower emission rates. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  10. USGS global change science strategy: A framework for understanding and responding to climate and land-use change

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Taylor, Ione L.; Belnap, Jayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Frazier, Eldrich L.; Haines, John W.; Kirtland, David A.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C.D.; O'Malley, Robin; Thompson, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Global Change Science Strategy expands on the Climate Variability and Change science component of the USGS 2007 Science Strategy, “Facing Tomorrow’s Challenges: USGS Science in the Coming Decade” (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). Here we embrace the broad definition of global change provided in the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–606,104 Stat. 3096–3104)—“Changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life”—with a focus on climate and land-use change.There are three major characteristics of this science strategy. First, it addresses the science required to broadly inform global change policy, while emphasizing the needs of natural-resource managers and reflecting the role of the USGS as the science provider for the Department of the Interior and other resource-management agencies. Second, the strategy identifies core competencies, noting 10 critical capabilities and strengths the USGS uses to overcome key problem areas. We highlight those areas in which the USGS is a science leader, recognizing the strong partnerships and effective collaboration that are essential to address complex global environmental challenges. Third, it uses a query-based approach listing key research questions that need to be addressed to create an agenda for hypothesis-driven global change science organized under six strategic goals. Overall, the strategy starts from where we are, provides a vision for where we want to go, and then describes high-priority strategic actions, including outcomes, products, and partnerships that can get us there. Global change science is a well-defined research field with strong linkages to the ecosystems, water, energy and minerals, natural hazards, and environmental health components of the USGS Science Strategy

  11. The influence of globalization on the national identity formation and the new strategies of the Ukrainian youth behaviour

    Karmaliuk Sergii Pavlovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the national identity and the new strategy of the Ukrainian youth behaviour in the context of the processes of globalization. The author analysed the problem whether young people, including Ukrainian, are ready for the global changes influence; whether they are able to preserve the youth’s national identity and national culture. The article also discovers the effect of mass media on the important problems of public life. It is proved that mass media contribute the consolidation (the merge of the national cultures into the regional and the gradual formation of the global culture.

  12. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B.; Smith, Ward N.; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Worth, Devon E.; Zentner, Robert; Malhi, Sukhdev S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha −1 decreased on average the emissions of N 2 O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO 2 emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. - Highlights: • LCA was combined with DNDC model to estimate the GWP of a cropping system. • N 2 O, NO and NH 3 flux increased by 39% under the higher fertilizer rate. • A change from 75 to 50 kg N ha −1 reduced the GWP per ha and GJ basis by 18%. • N 2 O emissions contributed 67% to the overall GWP of the cropping system. • Small changes in N fertilizer can have a substantial environmental impact

  13. Goals and strategies in the global control design of the OAJ Robotic Observatory

    Yanes-Díaz, A.; Rueda-Teruel, S.; Antón, J. L.; Rueda-Teruel, F.; Moles, M.; Cenarro, A. J.; Marín-Franch, A.; Ederoclite, A.; Gruel, N.; Varela, J.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Chueca, S.; Díaz-Martín, M. C.; Guillén, L.; Luis-Simoes, R.; Maícas, N.; Lamadrid, J. L.; López-Sainz, A.; Hernández-Fuertes, J.; Valdivielso, L.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Penteado, P.; Schoenell, W.; Kanaan, A.

    2012-09-01

    There are many ways to solve the challenging problem of making a high performance robotic observatory from scratch. The Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) is a new astronomical facility located in the Sierra de Javalambre (Teruel, Spain) whose primary role will be to conduct all-sky astronomical surveys. The OAJ control system has been designed from a global point of view including astronomical subsystems as well as infrastructures and other facilities. Three main factors have been considered in the design of a global control system for the robotic OAJ: quality, reliability and efficiency. We propose CIA (Control Integrated Architecture) design and OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) as a key performance indicator in order to improve operation processes, minimizing resources and obtaining high cost reduction whilst maintaining quality requirements. The OAJ subsystems considered for the control integrated architecture are the following: two wide-field telescopes and their instrumentation, active optics subsystems, facilities for sky quality monitoring (seeing, extinction, sky background, sky brightness, cloud distribution, meteorological station), domes and several infrastructure facilities such as water supply, glycol water, water treatment plant, air conditioning, compressed air, LN2 plant, illumination, surveillance, access control, fire suppression, electrical generators, electrical distribution, electrical consumption, communication network, Uninterruptible Power Supply and two main control rooms, one at the OAJ and the other remotely located in Teruel, 40km from the observatory, connected through a microwave radio-link. This paper presents the OAJ strategy in control design to achieve maximum quality efficiency for the observatory processes and operations, giving practical examples of our approach.

  14. Which way to go. Observations based on discussion on global perspectives and energy strategies

    Sassin, W; Lovins, A; Meadows, D; Penczynski, P

    1977-09-01

    One of the most controversial topics of the present time seems to be the world's future energy supply and demand. To establish a balanced view, the IIASA Energy Systems Program has sought periodically to compare its own work with that of other groups researching similar areas. At the beginning of 1977, Dennis Meadows, co-author of the Club-of-Rome study ''Limits to Growth'', and Amory Lovins of ''Friends of the Earth'' joined IIASA for a limited time. Both of them favor a ''soft technology'' path for the world's future energy system. Their stay at IIASA was an opportunity to check whether or not their results provide for a deeper understanding of a complex global future. This short note summarizes some conclusions that emerged from discussions of D. Meadows, A. Lovins, and members of the Energy Systems Program. In searching for the sources of opposing conclusions with respect to nuclear, large-scale solar, coal, renewable sources in a local or regional context (like wind, wave power, biomass utilization, and small-scale solar heat) and energy conservation measures such as better insulation or the co-generation of electricity and process heat, it turned out to be helpful to address the following questions: (1) Which long-term fundamental problems other than energy questions have to be faced by mankind within the coming 50 years. (2) Is the appropriate scale for analyzing these problems global, regional, or local. (3) In which subsectors should the economy be disaggregated in order to tackle the problem of self-reliance and resilience. (4) How can one define a technological solution for the energy supply with respect to the anticipated state of affairs in terms of do's and not in terms of don'ts. (5) How can one specify an energy strategy leading from today's situation into a long-term future when the goals to be achieved vary with time and in principle are subject to revision. (MCW)

  15. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level.

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B; Smith, Ward N; Desjardins, Raymond L; Worth, Devon E; Zentner, Robert; Malhi, Sukhdev S

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha(-1) decreased on average the emissions of N2O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO2 emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Body posture and postural stability of people practicing qigong

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Correct and stable posture is essential for the implementation of the majority of voluntary movements and locomotion. The study of postural stability is an element of clinical trials evaluating physical activity in order to determine the optimal therapeutic procedures. Qigong exercises are not only a form of prevention, helpful in maintaining wellbeing, but also a means of therapy in many diseases, including disorders of postural stability. Aim of the research: To analyse the association between the quality of posture and postural stability of people practicing qigong. Material and methods : The study involved 32 people. The mean age of those tested was 54 years. Posture study used optoelectronic method Diers formetric III 4D. Postural stability was tested on the platform Biodex Balance System. The studies were performed at the Posture Laboratory of the Institute of Physiotherapy at Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce. Results and conclusions : Spearman rank order correlation showed a positive correlation of relative rotation of the spine area with a general indicator of stability (p = 0.0206 at an average level (R = 0.4075 and with the index of the stability A/P (p = 0.0310, although at a lower level (R = 0.3819. With the increase in the relative rotation of the spine area the overall stability indicator and stability indicator A/P also increased. Significant positive correlations were also seen for the surface rotation (+max and a general indication of the stability and the stability index A/P. With the increase of surface rotation (+max of the spine the overall stability indicator and stability indicator A/P also increased.

  17. Albedo control as an effective strategy to tackle Global Warming: A case study

    Cotana, Franco; Rossi, Federico; Filipponi, Mirko; Coccia, Valentina; Pisello, Anna Laura; Bonamente, Emanuele; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Cavalaglio, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We modeled the energy exchanges for the system Earth–Atmosphere–Outer space. • We proposed a method quantifying the CO 2eq offset potential of high-albedo surfaces. • We presented the application of the method to a case study in Tunis. • The CO 2eq offsetting potential depends on the geometry-orientation of the surfaces. • An economic value was attributed to the Albedo control compensation mechanism. - Abstract: Recent research developments focused on Climate Change issue aimed at achieving Kyoto targets. In this context, an innovative methodology (officially recognized by WEC in 2009) is proposed to mitigate Global Warming by artificially enhancing earth’s Albedo. Such a methodology allows to quantify the maximum environmental benefit achievable through the installation of Albedo control technologies, as a function of the geographical features of the installation site, local meteorological conditions, radiative properties, tilt angle, and orientation of the surfaces. This benefit is directly quantified in terms of CO 2eq offset. Albedo control can be an effective mitigation strategy by means of three synergistic effects: a direct contribution towards Global Warming mitigation produced by an enhanced reflection to the space of the shortwave incident radiation; the indirect contribution from energy saving in buildings with high Albedo envelopes; the indirect contribution from the mitigation of Urban Heat Island phenomenon. Since the effectiveness of Albedo control is mostly relevant in Mediterranean area, for both climate conditions and historical-architectural heritage, this work presents procedures and findings of the ABCD project (Albedo, Building green, Control of Global Warming and Desertification) concluded in 2012, funded by the Italian Ministry for the Environment. A description of the analytic model is also presented. The paper focuses on the application of the methodology to a Tunisian factory site, showing that approximately

  18. Design strategies to minimize the radiative efficiency of global warming molecules

    Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    A strategy is devised to screen molecules based on their radiative efficiency. The methodology should be useful as one additional constraint when determining the best molecule to use for an industrial application. The strategy is based on the results of a recent study where we examined molecular properties of global warming molecules using ab initio electronic structure methods to determine which fundamental molecular properties are important in assessing the radiative efficiency of a molecule. Six classes of perfluorinated compounds are investigated. For similar numbers of fluorine atoms, their absorption of radiation in the IR window decreases according to perfluoroethers > perfluorothioethers ≈ sulfur/carbon compounds > perfluorocarbons > perfluoroolefins > carbon/nitrogen compounds. Perfluoroethers and hydrofluorethers are shown to possess a large absorption in the IR window due to (i) the C─O bonds are very polar, (ii) the C-O stretches fall within the IR window and have large IR intensity due to their polarity, and (iii) the IR intensity for C-F stretches in which the fluorine atom is bonded to the carbon that is bonded to the oxygen atom is enhanced due to a larger C─F bond polarity. Lengthening the carbon chain leads to a larger overall absorption in the IR window, though the IR intensity per bond is smaller. Finally, for a class of partially fluorinated compounds with a set number of electronegative atoms, the overall absorption in the IR window can vary significantly, as much as a factor of 2, depending on how the fluorine atoms are distributed within the molecule. PMID:20439762

  19. Postural orientation and equilibrium: what do we need to know about neural control of balance to prevent falls?

    Horak, Fay B

    2006-09-01

    Postural control is no longer considered simply a summation of static reflexes but, rather, a complex skill based on the interaction of dynamic sensorimotor processes. The two main functional goals of postural behaviour are postural orientation and postural equilibrium. Postural orientation involves the active alignment of the trunk and head with respect to gravity, support surfaces, the visual surround and internal references. Sensory information from somatosensory, vestibular and visual systems is integrated, and the relative weights placed on each of these inputs are dependent on the goals of the movement task and the environmental context. Postural equilibrium involves the coordination of movement strategies to stabilise the centre of body mass during both self-initiated and externally triggered disturbances of stability. The specific response strategy selected depends not only on the characteristics of the external postural displacement but also on the individual's expectations, goals and prior experience. Anticipatory postural adjustments, prior to voluntary limb movement, serve to maintain postural stability by compensating for destabilising forces associated with moving a limb. The amount of cognitive processing required for postural control depends both on the complexity of the postural task and on the capability of the subject's postural control system. The control of posture involves many different underlying physiological systems that can be affected by pathology or sub-clinical constraints. Damage to any of the underlying systems will result in different, context-specific instabilities. The effective rehabilitation of balance to improve mobility and to prevent falls requires a better understanding of the multiple mechanisms underlying postural control.

  20. Management of postural sensory conflict and dynamic balance control in late-stage Parkinson's disease.

    Colnat-Coulbois, S; Gauchard, G C; Maillard, L; Barroche, G; Vespignani, H; Auque, J; Perrin, P P

    2011-10-13

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is known to affect postural control, especially in situations needing a change in balance strategy or when a concurrent task is simultaneously performed. However, few studies assessing postural control in patients with PD included homogeneous population in late stage of the disease. Thus, this study aimed to analyse postural control and strategies in a homogeneous population of patients with idiopathic advanced (late-stage) PD, and to determine the contribution of peripheral inputs in simple and more complex postural tasks, such as sensory conflicting and dynamic tasks. Twenty-four subjects with advanced PD (duration: median (M)=11.0 years, interquartile range (IQR)=4.3 years; Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS): M "on-dopa"=13.5, IQR=7.8; UPDRS: M "off-dopa"=48.5, IQR=16.8; Hoehn and Yahr stage IV in all patients) and 48 age-matched healthy controls underwent static (SPT) and dynamic posturographic (DPT) tests and a sensory organization test (SOT). In SPT, patients with PD showed reduced postural control precision with increased oscillations in both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral planes. In SOT, patients with PD displayed reduced postural performances especially in situations in which visual and vestibular cues became predominant to organize balance control, as was the ability to manage balance in situations for which visual or proprioceptive inputs are disrupted. In DPT, postural restabilization strategies were often inefficient to maintain equilibrium resulting in falls. Postural strategies were often precarious, postural regulation involving more hip joint than ankle joint in patients with advanced PD than in controls. Difficulties in managing complex postural situations, such as sensory conflicting and dynamic situations might reflect an inadequate sensory organization suggesting impairment in central information processing. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. TES ammonia retrieval strategy and global observations of the spatial and seasonal variability of ammonia

    M. W. Shephard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Presently only limited sets of tropospheric ammonia (NH3 measurements in the Earth's atmosphere have been reported from satellite and surface station measurements, despite the well-documented negative impact of NH3 on the environment and human health. Presented here is a detailed description of the satellite retrieval strategy and analysis for the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES using simulations and measurements. These results show that: (i the level of detectability for a representative boundary layer TES NH3 mixing ratio value is ~0.4 ppbv, which typically corresponds to a profile that contains a maximum level value of ~1 ppbv; (ii TES NH3 retrievals generally provide at most one degree of freedom for signal (DOFS, with peak sensitivity between 700 and 900 mbar; (iii TES NH3 retrievals show significant spatial and seasonal variability of NH3 globally; (iv initial comparisons of TES observations with GEOS-CHEM estimates show TES values being higher overall. Important differences and similarities between modeled and observed seasonal and spatial trends are noted, with discrepancies indicating areas where the timing and magnitude of modeled NH3 emissions from agricultural sources, and to lesser extent biomass burning sources, need further study.

  2. Strategies for antiviral stockpiling for future influenza pandemics: a global epidemic-economic perspective.

    Carrasco, Luis R; Lee, Vernon J; Chen, Mark I; Matchar, David B; Thompson, James P; Cook, Alex R

    2011-09-07

    Influenza pandemics present a global threat owing to their potential mortality and substantial economic impacts. Stockpiling antiviral drugs to manage a pandemic is an effective strategy to offset their negative impacts; however, little is known about the long-term optimal size of the stockpile under uncertainty and the characteristics of different countries. Using an epidemic-economic model we studied the effect on total mortality and costs of antiviral stockpile sizes for Brazil, China, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, New Zealand, Singapore, the UK, the USA and Zimbabwe. In the model, antivirals stockpiling considerably reduced mortality. There was greater potential avoidance of expected costs in the higher resourced countries (e.g. from $55 billion to $27 billion over a 30 year time horizon for the USA) and large avoidance of fatalities in those less resourced (e.g. from 11.4 to 2.3 million in Indonesia). Under perfect allocation, higher resourced countries should aim to store antiviral stockpiles able to cover at least 15 per cent of their population, rising to 25 per cent with 30 per cent misallocation, to minimize fatalities and economic costs. Stockpiling is estimated not to be cost-effective for two-thirds of the world's population under current antivirals pricing. Lower prices and international cooperation are necessary to make the life-saving potential of antivirals cost-effective in resource-limited countries.

  3. Local industry in global networks : changing competitiveness, corporate strategies and pathways of development in Singapore and Malaysia's garment industry

    Smakman, Floortje

    2004-01-01

    The garment industry in Singapore and Malaysia has been incorporated into global production networks and commodity chains - driven by large US and European garment companies - since the 1960s and 1970s respectively. The industry was an intricate part of the export led industrialisation strategies

  4. On the strategy of modernization and development of Russian economy in a global depression

    Sergey Yurievich Glazyev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals the essence of the program proposed by author on preemptive measures to develop the Russian economy in terms of a global depression. The distinctive features of the present global crisis and the prospects of overcoming it are identified. We propose three possible scenarios for the world economy after the crisis: 1 the scenario of quick withdrawal to a long wave of economic growth (optimistic; 2 the catastrophic scenario; 3 the inertial scenario. The key idea of forming a national strategy for accelerated development lies in: the timely establishment of basic industries, the new technological order and early withdrawal of the Russian economy on the associated new long wave of growth, increasing the power of multiple domestic banking and investment system; economic stabilization and creating a zone of sustainable development in the regions of the Eurasian Economic Community and the CIS. Taking into account the experience of anti-crisis policy of foreign countries, strategic mistakes in the planning of anti-crisis measures are identified. In the analysis of national anti-crisis policies and assessing the effectiveness of anti-crisis measures it is justified that the same mistakes were made in Russia. To overcome them, it is required to provide consistency of macroeconomic policies with the priorities of long-term economic and technological development. It might be achieved by concentrating resources on the development of advanced industrial and technological systems that require dedicated work of the national financial and investment system, including the mechanisms of monetary, fiscal and foreign exchange policy. Conceptual parameters of the strategic planning system that can identify promising areas of economic growth as well as guide the development of state institutions to implement them are formulated. The elements of such a system created in Russia in recent years and requiring its introduction are defined. The efficiency

  5. Study on Posture Estimation Using Delayed Measurements for Mobile Robots

    2005-01-01

    When associating data from various sensors to estimate the posture of mobile robots, a crucial problem to be solved is that there may be some delayed measurements. Furthermore, the general multi-sensor data fusion algorithm is a Kalman filter. In order to handle the problem concerning delayed measurements, this paper investigates a Kalman filter modified to account for the delays. Based on the interpolating measurement, a fusion system is applied to estimate the posture of a mobile robot which fuses the data from the encoder and laser global position system using the extended Kalman filter algorithm. Finally, the posture estimation experiment of the mobile robot is given whose result verifies the feasibility and efficiency of the algorithm.

  6. Imaging Posture Veils Neural Signals

    Robert T Thibault

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas modern brain imaging often demands holding body positions incongruent with everyday life, posture governs both neural activity and cognitive performance. Humans commonly perform while upright; yet, many neuroimaging methodologies require participants to remain motionless and adhere to non-ecological comportments within a confined space. This inconsistency between ecological postures and imaging constraints undermines the transferability and generalizability of many a neuroimaging assay.Here we highlight the influence of posture on brain function and behavior. Specifically, we challenge the tacit assumption that brain processes and cognitive performance are comparable across a spectrum of positions. We provide an integrative synthesis regarding the increasingly prominent influence of imaging postures on autonomic function, mental capacity, sensory thresholds, and neural activity. Arguing that neuroimagers and cognitive scientists could benefit from considering the influence posture wields on both general functioning and brain activity, we examine existing imaging technologies and the potential of portable and versatile imaging devices (e.g., functional near infrared spectroscopy. Finally, we discuss ways that accounting for posture may help unveil the complex brain processes of everyday cognition.

  7. The globalisation strategies of five Asian tobacco companies: a comparative analysis and implications for global health governance.

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-03-01

    The global tobacco industry, from the 1960s to mid 1990s, saw consolidation and eventual domination by a small number of transnational tobacco companies (TTC). This paper draws together comparative analysis of five case studies in the special issue on 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.' The cases suggest that tobacco industry globalisation is undergoing a new phase, beginning in the late 1990s, with the adoption of global business strategies by five Asian companies. The strategies were prompted foremost by external factors, notably market liberalisation, competition from TTCs and declining domestic markets. State protection and promotion enabled the industries in Japan, South Korea and China to rationalise their operations ahead of foreign market expansion. The TTM and TTL will likely remain domestic or perhaps regional companies, JTI and KT&G have achieved TTC status, and the CNTC is poised to dwarf all existing companies. This global expansion of Asian tobacco companies will increase competition which, in turn, will intensify marketing, exert downward price pressures along the global value chain, and encourage product innovation. Global tobacco control requires fuller understanding of these emerging changes and the regulatory challenges posed by ongoing globalisation.

  8. The globalisation strategies of five Asian tobacco companies: a comparative analysis and implications for global health governance

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The global tobacco industry, from the 1960s to mid 1990s, saw consolidation and eventual domination by a small number of transnational tobacco companies (TTC). This paper draws together comparative analysis of five case studies in the special issue on ‘The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.’ The cases suggest that tobacco industry globalisation is undergoing a new phase, beginning in the late 1990s, with the adoption of global business strategies by five Asian companies. The strategies were prompted foremost by external factors, notably market liberalisation, competition from TTCs and declining domestic markets. State protection and promotion enabled the industries in Japan, South Korea and China to rationalise their operations ahead of foreign market expansion. The TTM and TTL will likely remain domestic or perhaps regional companies, JTI and KT&G have achieved TTC status, and the CNTC is poised to dwarf all existing companies. This global expansion of Asian tobacco companies will increase competition which, in turn, will intensify marketing, exert downward price pressures along the global value chain, and encourage product innovation. Global tobacco control requires fuller understanding of these emerging changes and the regulatory challenges posed by ongoing globalisation. PMID:28139967

  9. Adoption of Technology as a Response Strategy to Globalization: A Study of Manufacturing Firms in Kenya

    Solomon Kinyanjui; Margaret A. Oloko; Hazel G. Gachunga; Beatrice G. Gathondu

    2014-01-01

    Globalization affects local and international firms in many ways. Studies have shown that factors in the internal as well as external environments of firms influence the rate to which globalization will affect them. On the local scene however, no known studies have been done on the response of manufacturing firms to counter globalization. In addition, since the concept of globalization is multidimensional and its influence is varied in nature, this study aimed at investigating how manufacturi...

  10. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B.; Smith, Ward N. [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Desjardins, Raymond L., E-mail: ray.desjardins@agr.gc.ca [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Worth, Devon E. [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Zentner, Robert [Swift Current Research Station, Swift Current, Saskatchewan S0E 1A0 (Canada); Malhi, Sukhdev S. [Melfort Research Farm, PO Box 1240, Melfort, Saskatchewan S0E 1A0 (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha{sup −1} decreased on average the emissions of N{sub 2}O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO{sub 2} emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. - Highlights: • LCA was combined with DNDC model to estimate the GWP of a cropping system. • N{sub 2}O, NO and NH{sub 3} flux increased by 39% under the higher fertilizer rate. • A change from 75 to 50 kg N ha{sup −1} reduced the GWP per ha and GJ basis by 18%. • N{sub 2}O emissions contributed 67% to the overall GWP of the cropping system. • Small changes in N fertilizer can have a substantial environmental impact.

  11. Chiropractic biophysics technique: a linear algebra approach to posture in chiropractic.

    Harrison, D D; Janik, T J; Harrison, G R; Troyanovich, S; Harrison, D E; Harrison, S O

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses linear algebra as applied to human posture in chiropractic, specifically chiropractic biophysics technique (CBP). Rotations, reflections and translations are geometric functions studied in vector spaces in linear algebra. These mathematical functions are termed rigid body transformations and are applied to segmental spinal movement in the literature. Review of the literature indicates that these linear algebra concepts have been used to describe vertebral motion. However, these rigid body movers are presented here as applying to the global postural movements of the head, thoracic cage and pelvis. The unique inverse functions of rotations, reflections and translations provide a theoretical basis for making postural corrections in neutral static resting posture. Chiropractic biophysics technique (CBP) uses these concepts in examination procedures, manual spinal manipulation, instrument assisted spinal manipulation, postural exercises, extension traction and clinical outcome measures.

  12. Postural balance and the risk of falling during pregnancy.

    Cakmak, Bulent; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Inanir, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological process and many changes occur in a woman's body during pregnancy. These changes occur in all systems to varying degrees, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems. The hormonal, anatomical, and physiological changes occurring during pregnancy result in weight gain, decreased abdominal muscle strength and neuromuscular control, increased ligamentous laxity, and spinal lordosis. These alterations shift the centre of gravity of the body, altering the postural balance and increasing the risk of falls. Falls during pregnancy can cause maternal and foetal complications, such as maternal bone fractures, head injuries, internal haemorrhage, abruption placenta, rupture of the uterus and membranes, and occasionally maternal death or intrauterine foetal demise. Preventative strategies, such as physical exercise and the use of maternity support belts, can increase postural stability and reduce the risk of falls during pregnancy. This article reviews studies that have investigated changes in postural balance and risk of falling during pregnancy.

  13. Will Transition of Staple Food Strategy in China Really Mitigate Global Climate Change?

    Liu, B.; Zhao, D.

    2017-12-01

    With the increase in agricultural demand, reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a vital challenge in mitigating climate change. Potato staple food strategy in China introduced by Ministry of Agriculture in 2015 is to gradually adjust staple food structure, which provides an opportunity to meet with the challenge. Apart from staple food structure, difference on energy, material input, geography, and crop management are essential to determine agriculture's contribution to climate change. In this study, we conduct a life cycle analysis of four staple foods in China, namely rice, wheat, maize, and potato, to develop crop-specific estimates of GHG emissions and GHG intensity by using `Production intensity' (carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per kilocalorie produced), to help us understand potential synergies and frictions between food producing and climate mitigation. Data used in this study is on city / province levels if city level is unavailable in 2015. First, we evaluate GHG reductions due to transition of staple food structure in China. Staple food GHG emissions in China are 546.90 Tg CO2e yr-1 in 2015, with 47.6%, 21.9%, 27.3% and 3.2% from rice, wheat, maize and potato. Mean production intensity of staple food is 0.45 Mg CO2e M kcal-1 in 2015. Maize leads the intensity with 0.77 Mg CO2e M kcal-1, followed by rice (0.49 Mg CO2e M kcal-1), wheat (0.28 Mg CO2e M kcal-1) and potato (0.24 Mg CO2e M kcal-1). After staple food structure adjustment, 25 Tg CO2e yr-1 (4.2%) reduction will be accomplished in 2020 without any crop management improvement. Further reduction (33.3% - 40.4%) could be achieved with crop management improvement. In addition, because of staple food structure switching, native rice production will decline, which might lead to more export from countries with higher production intensity. Estimated emission leakage from rice import is 30.10 Tg CO2e yr-1, exceeds emission reduction in native China. Therefore, potato staple food strategy could

  14. A global epidemiological survey and strategy of treatment of military ocular injury

    Mao-nian ZHANG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the current global status of military ocular injury for the purpose of improving the level of domestic epidemiological investigation,in order to improve treatment strategies,and to prevent and reduce the incidence of military ocular injury in Chinese PLA.Methods The epidemiological literature concerning military ocular injury occurring in our country and abroad in recent five years was retrieved by information research;the problems and experiences in the aspects of epidemiological survey,registry,data collection,systematic treatment and prevention of military ocular injury existed in PLA were also summarized and analyzed.Results There were currently no systematic epidemiological data about ocular injury in PLA.A few articles about epidemiological study on ocular injury showed that servicemen were the high risk population of ocular injury.Both in peacetime or wartime the ocular injury was the primary cause leading to monocular blindness of soldiers.As to the ocular injury,in 51.55% of the patients,it occurred in the military operations and work,and 30.31% in military training.The incidence of ocular injury was different in various services,for example,the incidence in the internal security forces of armed police could be as high as 78.85% due to training of martial arts and boxing and wrestling.The deficiency of microsurgery equipments and untimely evacuation were the main causes affecting prognosis during treatment course in primary military hospitals.Conclusions Military affairs,physical training,military maneuver and defense constructions are the main causes of ocular injury in servicemen,and young male soldiers are the main group for prevention and treatment for military ocular injury.More attention should be paid to the epidemiological survey of military ocular injury to find out the causes leading to ocular injury,to improve treatment strategies,to formulate feasible protective measures and then military ocular

  15. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  16. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  17. Postural control and freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease.

    Schlenstedt, Christian; Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Witt, Karsten; Weisser, Burkhard; Fasano, Alfonso; Deuschl, Günther

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between freezing of gait (FOG) and postural instability in Parkinson's disease (PD) is unclear. We analyzed the impact of FOG on postural control. 31 PD patients with FOG (PD+FOG), 27 PD patients without FOG (PD-FOG) and 22 healthy control (HC) were assessed in the ON state. Postural control was measured with the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale and with center of pressure (COP) analysis during quiet stance and maximal voluntary forward/backward leaning. The groups were balanced concerning age, disease duration and disease severity. PD+FOG performed significantly worse in the FAB scale (21.8 ± 5.8) compared to PD-FOG (25.6 ± 5.0) and HC (34.9 ± 2.4) (mean ± SD, p postural control asymmetry. PD+FOG have reduced postural control compared to PD-FOG and HC. Our results show a relationship between the anterior-posterior COP position during quiet stance and FOG. The COP shift towards posterior in PD+FOG leads to a restricted precondition to generate forward progression during gait initiation. This may contribute to the occurrence of FOG or might be a compensatory strategy to avoid forward falls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases in Italy (GARD-Italy): strategy and activities.

    Laurendi, Giovanna; Mele, Sonia; Centanni, Stefano; Donner, Claudio F; Falcone, Franco; Frateiacci, Sandra; Lazzeri, Marta; Mangiacavallo, Antonino; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Viegi, Giovanni; Pisanti, Paola; Filippetti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The steady increase in incidence of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) now constitutes a serious public health problem. CRDs are often underdiagnosed and many patients are not diagnosed until the CRD is too severe to prevent normal daily activities. The prevention of CRDs and reducing their social and individual impacts means modifying environmental and social factors and improving diagnosis and treatment. Prevention of risk factors (tobacco smoke, allergens, occupational agents, indoor/outdoor air pollution) will significantly impact on morbidity and mortality. The Italian Ministry of Health (MoH) has made respiratory disease prevention a top priority and is implementing a comprehensive strategy with policies against tobacco smoking, indoor/outdoor pollution, obesity, and communicable diseases. Presently these actions are not well coordinated. The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD), set up by the World Health Organization, envisages national bodies; the GARD initiative in Italy, launched 11/6/2009, represents a great opportunity for the MoH. Its main objective is to promote the development of a coordinated CRD program in Italy. Effective prevention implies setting up a health policy with the support of healthcare professionals and citizen associations at national, regional, and district levels. What is required is a true inter-institutional synergy: respiratory diseases prevention cannot and should not be the responsibility of doctors alone, but must involve politicians/policymakers, as well as the media, local institutions, and schools, etc. GARD could be a significant experience and a great opportunity for Italy to share the GARD vision of a world where all people can breathe freely. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A call to strengthen the global strategy for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis: the time is now

    Lo, Nathan C.; Addiss, David G.; Hotez, Peter J.; King, Charles H.; Stothard, J. Russell; Evans, Darin S.; Colley, Daniel G.; Lin, William; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Bustinduy, Amaya L.; Raso, Giovanna; Bendavid, Eran; Bogoch, Isaac I.; Fenwick, Alan; Savioli, Lorenzo; Molyneux, David; Utzinger, Jürg; Andrews, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary In 2001, the World Health Assembly (WHA) passed the landmark WHA 54.19 resolution for global scale up of mass administration of anthelminthic drugs for morbidity control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), which affect over 1.5 billion of the world's poorest people. Since then, over a decade of research and experience has yielded critical new knowledge on the control and elimination of these helminthiases. However, the global strategy has remained largely unchanged since the original 2001 WHA resolution and associated World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on preventive chemotherapy. Here, we highlight recent advances that, taken together, support a call to revise the global strategy and guidelines for preventive chemotherapy and complementary interventions against schistosomiasis and STH. This includes the development of guidance that is specific to goals of “morbidity control” and “elimination of transmission.” We quantify the result of forgoing this opportunity by computing the yearly disease burden, mortality, and lost economic productivity associated with maintaining status quo. Without change, we estimate that the population of sub-Saharan Africa will likely lose 2.3 million disability-adjusted life years and US$3.5 billion of economic productivity every year, which is comparable to recent acute epidemics, including the 2014 Ebola and 2015 Zika epidemics. We propose that the time is now to strengthen the global strategy to address the substantial disease burden of schistosomiasis and STH. PMID:27914852

  20. A call to strengthen the global strategy against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis: the time is now.

    Lo, Nathan C; Addiss, David G; Hotez, Peter J; King, Charles H; Stothard, J Russell; Evans, Darin S; Colley, Daniel G; Lin, William; Coulibaly, Jean T; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Raso, Giovanna; Bendavid, Eran; Bogoch, Isaac I; Fenwick, Alan; Savioli, Lorenzo; Molyneux, David; Utzinger, Jürg; Andrews, Jason R

    2017-02-01

    In 2001, the World Health Assembly (WHA) passed the landmark WHA 54.19 resolution for global scale-up of mass administration of anthelmintic drugs for morbidity control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, which affect more than 1·5 billion of the world's poorest people. Since then, more than a decade of research and experience has yielded crucial knowledge on the control and elimination of these helminthiases. However, the global strategy has remained largely unchanged since the original 2001 WHA resolution and associated WHO guidelines on preventive chemotherapy. In this Personal View, we highlight recent advances that, taken together, support a call to revise the global strategy and guidelines for preventive chemotherapy and complementary interventions against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. These advances include the development of guidance that is specific to goals of morbidity control and elimination of transmission. We quantify the result of forgoing this opportunity by computing the yearly disease burden, mortality, and lost economic productivity associated with maintaining the status quo. Without change, we estimate that the population of sub-Saharan Africa will probably lose 2·3 million disability-adjusted life-years and US$3·5 billion of economic productivity every year, which is comparable to recent acute epidemics, including the 2014 Ebola and 2015 Zika epidemics. We propose that the time is now to strengthen the global strategy to address the substantial disease burden of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Shifts in nitrogen acquisition strategies enable enhanced terrestrial carbon storage under elevated CO2 in a global model

    Sulman, B. N.; Brzostek, E. R.; Menge, D.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.

    2017-12-01

    Earth System Model (ESM) projections of terrestrial carbon (C) uptake are critical to understanding the future of the global C cycle. Current ESMs include intricate representations of photosynthetic C fixation in plants, allowing them to simulate the stimulatory effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 levels on photosynthesis. However, they lack sophisticated representations of plant nutrient acquisition, calling into question their ability to project the future land C sink. We conducted simulations using a new model of terrestrial C and nitrogen (N) cycling within the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) global land model LM4 that uses a return on investment framework to simulate global patterns of N acquisition via fixation of N2 from the atmosphere, scavenging of inorganic N from soil solution, and mining of organic N from soil organic matter (SOM). We show that these strategies drive divergent C cycle responses to elevated CO2 at the ecosystem scale, with the scavenging strategy leading to N limitation of plant growth and the mining strategy facilitating stimulation of plant biomass accumulation over decadal time scales. In global simulations, shifts in N acquisition from inorganic N scavenging to organic N mining along with increases in N fixation supported long-term acceleration of C uptake under elevated CO2. Our results indicate that the ability of the land C sink to mitigate atmospheric CO2 levels is tightly coupled to the functional diversity of ecosystems and their capacity to change their N acquisition strategies over time. Incorporation of these mechanisms into ESMs is necessary to improve confidence in model projections of the global C cycle.

  2. Global navigation satellite systems performance analysis and augmentation strategies in aviation

    Sabatini, Roberto; Moore, Terry; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2017-11-01

    In an era of significant air traffic expansion characterized by a rising congestion of the radiofrequency spectrum and a widespread introduction of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are being exposed to a variety of threats including signal interferences, adverse propagation effects and challenging platform-satellite relative dynamics. Thus, there is a need to characterize GNSS signal degradations and assess the effects of interfering sources on the performance of avionics GNSS receivers and augmentation systems used for an increasing number of mission-essential and safety-critical aviation tasks (e.g., experimental flight testing, flight inspection/certification of ground-based radio navigation aids, wide area navigation and precision approach). GNSS signal deteriorations typically occur due to antenna obscuration caused by natural and man-made obstructions present in the environment (e.g., elevated terrain and tall buildings when flying at low altitude) or by the aircraft itself during manoeuvring (e.g., aircraft wings and empennage masking the on-board GNSS antenna), ionospheric scintillation, Doppler shift, multipath, jamming and spurious satellite transmissions. Anyone of these phenomena can result in partial to total loss of tracking and possible tracking errors, depending on the severity of the effect and the receiver characteristics. After designing GNSS performance threats, the various augmentation strategies adopted in the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management and Avionics (CNS + A) context are addressed in detail. GNSS augmentation can take many forms but all strategies share the same fundamental principle of providing supplementary information whose objective is improving the performance and/or trustworthiness of the system. Hence it is of paramount importance to consider the synergies offered by different augmentation strategies including Space Based Augmentation System (SBAS), Ground

  3. Interactions between posture and locomotion: motor patterns in humans walking with bent posture versus erect posture.

    Grasso, R; Zago, M; Lacquaniti, F

    2000-01-01

    Human erect locomotion is unique among living primates. Evolution selected specific biomechanical features that make human locomotion mechanically efficient. These features are matched by the motor patterns generated in the CNS. What happens when humans walk with bent postures? Are normal motor patterns of erect locomotion maintained or completely reorganized? Five healthy volunteers walked straight and forward at different speeds in three different postures (regular, knee-flexed, and knee- and trunk-flexed) while their motion, ground reaction forces, and electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded. The three postures imply large differences in the position of the center of body mass relative to the body segments. The elevation angles of the trunk, pelvis, and lower limb segments relative to the vertical in the sagittal plane, the ground reaction forces and the rectified EMGs were analyzed over the gait cycle. The waveforms of the elevation angles along the gait cycle remained essentially unchanged irrespective of the adopted postures. The first two harmonics of these kinematic waveforms explain >95% of their variance. The phase shift but not the amplitude ratio between the first harmonic of the elevation angle waveforms of adjacent pairs was affected systematically by changes in posture. Thigh, shank, and foot angles covaried close to a plane in all conditions, but the plane orientation was systematically different in bent versus erect locomotion. This was explained by the changes in the temporal coupling among the three segments. For walking speeds >1 m s(-1), the plane orientation of bent locomotion indicates a much lower mechanical efficiency relative to erect locomotion. Ground reaction forces differed prominently in bent versus erect posture displaying characteristics intermediate between those typical of walking and those of running. Mean EMG activity was greater in bent postures for all recorded muscles independent of the functional role. The waveforms

  4. Global health promotion: how can we strengthen governance and build effective strategies?

    Lee, Kelley

    2006-12-01

    This paper discusses what is meant by 'global health promotion' and the extent to which global governance architecture is emerging, enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health within an increasingly global context. A review of selected initiatives on breast-milk substitutes, healthy cities, tobacco control and diet and nutrition suggests that existing institutions are uneven in their capacity to tackle global health issues. The strategic building of a global approach to health promotion will draw on a broad range of governance instruments, give careful attention to implementation in the medium to longer term, reflect on the nature and appropriateness of partnerships and develop fuller understanding of effective policies for harnessing the positive influences of globalization and countering the negatives.

  5. Investigating the Effects of Different Working Postures on Cognitive Performance

    Sharareh Mohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study demonstrates that cognitive performance is affected by working postures. This study demonstrates that standard sitting posture is the best posture. Therefore, it is recommended that sitting posture can help in increasing cognitive performance in the workplace.

  6. Effects of Lifetime Occupational Pesticide Exposure on Postural Control Among Farmworkers and Non-Farmworkers.

    Sunwook, Kim; Nussbaum, Maury A; Quandt, Sara A; Laurienti, Paul J; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess potential chronic effects of pesticide exposure on postural control, by examining postural balance of farmworkers and non-farmworkers diverse self-reported lifetime exposures. Balance was assessed during quiet upright stance under four experimental conditions (2 visual × 2 cognitive difficulty). Significant differences in baseline balance performance (eyes open without cognitive task) between occupational groups were apparent in postural sway complexity. When adding a cognitive task to the eyes open condition, the influence of lifetime exposure on complexity ratios appeared different between occupational groups. Removing visual information revealed a negative association of lifetime exposure with complexity ratios. Farmworkers and non-farmworkers may use different postural control strategies even when controlling for the level of lifetime pesticide exposure. Long-term exposure can affect somatosensory/vestibular sensory systems and the central processing of sensory information for postural control.

  7. Cinerama sickness and postural instability.

    Bos, Jelte E; Ledegang, Wietse D; Lubeck, Astrid J A; Stins, John F

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min after watching a 1 h 3D aviation documentary in a cinema. Sickness was significantly larger right after the movie than before, and in a lesser extent still so after 45 min. The average standard deviation of the lateral centre of pressure excursions was significantly larger only right afterwards. When low-pass filtered at 0.1 Hz, lateral and for-aft excursions were both significantly larger right after the movie, while for-aft excursions then remained larger even after 45 min. Speculating on previous findings, we predict more sickness and postural instability in 3D than in 2D movies, also suggesting a possible, but yet unknown risk for work-related activities and vehicle operation. Watching motion pictures may be sickening and posturally destabilising, but effects in a cinema are unknown. We, therefore, carried out an observational study showing that sickness then is mainly an issue during the exposure while postural instability is an issue afterwards.

  8. Postural Hand Synergies during Environmental Constraint Exploitation

    Cosimo Della Santina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping. We investigated this hypothesis in experiments performed by six subjects, who were asked to grasp objects from a flat surface. We quantitatively characterized hand posture behavior from a kinematic perspective, i.e., the hand joint angles, in both pre-shaping and during the interaction with the environment. To determine the role of tactile feedback, we repeated the same experiments but with subjects wearing a rigid shell on the fingertips to reduce cutaneous afferent inputs. Results show the persistence of at least two postural synergies in all the considered experimental conditions and phases. Tactile impairment does not alter significantly the first two synergies, and contact with the environment generates a change only for higher order Principal Components. A good match also arises between the first synergy found in our analysis and the first synergy of grasping as quantified by previous work. The present study is motivated by the interest of learning from the human example, extracting lessons that can be applied in robot design and control. Thus, we conclude with a discussion on implications for robotics of our findings.

  9. An Analysis of Think Globally-Act Locally Strategy Implementation in Developing Relationship of Headquarters and Subsidiaries: Case Study of John Clements Consultants Inc., Philippines & Indonesia

    Dilla Noverita

    2007-01-01

    Moreover, this research analyses how JCCI applies “think globally – act locally” strategy in its global operations and developing relationship with subsidiaries. It brings the issues of all challenges and obstacles the company has in dealing with subsidiaries. Finally, this research recommends alternative strategies to leverage the relationship between headquarters and subsidiaries more efficiently and to minimize the obstacles in cross-cultural management so that the company will be able to strengthen its position in global service market.

  10. Global Learning and Development as an Engagement Strategy for Christian Higher Education: A Macro Study

    Decker, Allyn; Hawkins, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to better understand the variety of student and faculty global learning and development programs by member institutions of the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU), and what motivated the creation of these types of programs. Although various forms of global engagement programming were examined,…

  11. Acting locally, developing knowledge globally: a transitions perspective on designing climate change adaptation strategies

    Grin, J.; Driessen, J.; Leroy, P.; van Vierssen, W.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change, from many perspectives and for many reasons, is a complex issue: scientifically, politically, and in terms of global justice. As such, climate change might be the global societal and political challenge of the 21st century. Dealing with it, either via mitigation or via adaptation,

  12. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl.

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Lam, Jennifer; Schultz, Rachel; Davis, Melissa

    2018-01-05

    Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl ( Pavo cristatus ) and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl (Pavo cristatus and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior.

  14. Mild hallux valgus angle affects single-limb postural stability in asymptomatic subjects.

    Çınar-Medeni, Özge; Atalay Guzel, Nevin; Basar, Selda

    2016-01-01

    Single-limb postural stability is a key component of lower extremity functional status. Factors affecting postural stability should be well defined to prevent injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the hallux valgus angle on postural stability in asymptomatic subjects. A total of 19 subjects were included in the study. The hallux valgus angle and postural stability were assessed. Participants were assigned to two groups according to whether the hallux valgus angle was pathological or not. A hallux valgus angle greater than 15 degrees was accepted as pathological. The relationship between the hallux valgus angle and postural stability, and the differences in postural stability scores between the two groups were analyzed. Postural stability was assessed with a stabilometer. The test was performed with the eyes open. We found a significant correlation between the hallux valgus angle and mediolateral and overall stability index (r= 0.484, p= 0.036; r = 0.463, p= 0.046 respectively). Subjects with a pathological mild hallux valgus angle had greater stability index scores than normal subjects (phallux valgus angle has negative effects on postural stability as a forefoot deformity. This deformity should be taken into account for injury prevention strategies in pain-free younger adults.

  15. Local industry in global networks : changing competitiveness, corporate strategies and pathways of development in Singapore and Malaysia's garment industry

    Smakman, Floortje

    2004-01-01

    The garment industry in Singapore and Malaysia has been incorporated into global production networks and commodity chains - driven by large US and European garment companies - since the 1960s and 1970s respectively. The industry was an intricate part of the export led industrialisation strategies adopted by both countries. However, since incorporation, changing competitiveness due to both international, regional end local pressures, has meant local garment firms have had to implement a range ...

  16. A Brief Analysis on Cross-cultural Communication Strategy of Chinese Films under the Context of Globalization

    Cao Zhiyong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of globalization waves, the cross-cultural communication becomes more and more common nowadays. Chinese films, as a kind of mass media and the carrier of ideology, must meet the challenge in the world with active attitudes and take part in cross-cultural communication worldwide extensively. The context of globalization is not only a challenge but also an opportunity for Chinese films and if Chinese films want to be successful in the process of cross-cultural communication, it must find out a conjoint point between globalization and location to implement dual-coding of them. With the objective of consensus but different for the cultural demands of cross-cultural communication, the communicational strategies in culture,subject,art and operation must extensively use for reference and boldly create to renew the situation of Chinese films.

  17. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Chen, Janini; Freitag, Fernanda; Valente, Debora; Souza, Carolina de Oliveira; Voos, Mariana Callil; Chien, Hsin Fen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do n...

  18. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl

    Jessica L. Yorzinski; Jennifer Lam; Rachel Schultz; Melissa Davis

    2018-01-01

    Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The h...

  19. Postural ortostatisk takykardi-syndrom

    Brinth, Louise; Pors, Kirsten; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous condition of dysautonomia and suspected autoimmunity characterized by abnormal increments in heart rate upon assumption of the upright posture accompanied by symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion and sympathoexcitation. An increase...... in heart rate equal to or greater than 30 bpm or to levels higher than 120 bpm during a head-up tilt test is the main diagnostic criterion. Management includes both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment focusing on stress management, volume expansion and heart rate control....

  20. Measuring postural sway in sitting

    Curtis, Derek John; Hansen, Lisbeth; Luun, Malene

    2015-01-01

    group appeared to result from an equally stable trunk supported on a less stable pelvis. Mediolateral marker sway and intersegmental angular sway showed a clearer age dependency. Trunk postural control does not appear to differ between children older and younger than 10 years old, but sagittal plane...... and younger than 10 years old, participated in this study. The children sat unsupported for 30 s while their posture and sway were quantified using stereophotogrammetry. The tendency in both age groups was to sit with a backward tilted pelvis and a kyphotic trunk. The sitting position was most varied...

  1. USAF Posture Statement 2013

    2013-04-12

    request maintains investments in the DCGS, the MQ-1 Predator, the RC-135 Rivet Joint, the RQ-4 Global Hawk Block 40, and U-2 programs, and makes internal... electromagnetic jamming. Our potential adversaries are also making advances by electronically linking their own combat capabilities, creating new military

  2. Global environmental policy strategies. ''Environment and development'' in north-south relations. Strategien globaler Umweltpolitik. ''Umwelt und Entwicklung'' in den Nord-Sued-Beziehungen

    Bruckmeier, K

    1994-01-01

    Global environmental policy has hardly made headway after the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992, despite there being no shortage of programmes, institutions, and actors. Obviously, formal structures for political action based on the system of institutions of the United Nations do not suffice. Global environmental policy strategies must reach further, overcoming system-immanent obstacles to sustainable development. This necessitates analyzing the causes of environmental destruction and making a critical evaluation of the relations between the societies of the North and South that received their imprint from development policies. Only after such a preliminary elucidation by interdisciplinary approaches in the light of political and ecological economy and human ecology does an empirical analysis of politically controlled processes in environmental and development policy make sense. The analysis points to strategies for this international political field that rely on non-governmental actors and social movements, and question the traditional European model of an environmental policy determined by government institutions. (orig./UA)

  3. Postural Control in Children with Autism.

    Kohen-Raz, Reuven; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Postural control was evaluated in 91 autistic, 166 normal, and 18 mentally retarded children using a computerized posturographic procedure. In comparison to normal children, the autistic subjects were less likely to exhibit age-related changes in postural performance, and postures were more variable and less stable. (Author/JDD)

  4. Automated Assessment of Postural Stability (AAPS)

    2016-10-01

    performed a battery of standard clinical tests of dynamic posture, whereas the fourth subject performed the stereotyped postures (e.g. movements restricted...Processing & Control [2] Napoli A, Ward C, Glass S, Tucker C, Obeid I (2016) “Automated Assessment of Postural Stability System,” IEEE Engineering in

  5. Self versus environment motion in postural control.

    Kalpana Dokka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To stabilize our position in space we use visual information as well as non-visual physical motion cues. However, visual cues can be ambiguous: visually perceived motion may be caused by self-movement, movement of the environment, or both. The nervous system must combine the ambiguous visual cues with noisy physical motion cues to resolve this ambiguity and control our body posture. Here we have developed a Bayesian model that formalizes how the nervous system could solve this problem. In this model, the nervous system combines the sensory cues to estimate the movement of the body. We analytically demonstrate that, as long as visual stimulation is fast in comparison to the uncertainty in our perception of body movement, the optimal strategy is to weight visually perceived movement velocities proportional to a power law. We find that this model accounts for the nonlinear influence of experimentally induced visual motion on human postural behavior both in our data and in previously published results.

  6. Comparison between project-based learning and discovery learning toward students' metacognitive strategies on global warming concept

    Tumewu, Widya Anjelia; Wulan, Ana Ratna; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to know comparing the effectiveness of learning using Project-based learning (PjBL) and Discovery Learning (DL) toward students metacognitive strategies on global warming concept. A quasi-experimental research design with a The Matching-Only Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design was used in this study. The subjects were students of two classes 7th grade of one of junior high school in Bandung City, West Java of 2015/2016 academic year. The study was conducted on two experimental class, that were project-based learning treatment on the experimental class I and discovery learning treatment was done on the experimental class II. The data was collected through questionnaire to know students metacognitive strategies. The statistical analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences in students metacognitive strategies between project-based learning and discovery learning.

  7. Early and rapid globalization as part of innovation and growth strategies

    Zijdemans, Erik; Azimi, Zohreh; Tanev, Stoyan

    propositions (Bailetti & Zijdemans, 2014). The GVG was tested empirically through its application to 12 cybersecurity start-ups in Ottawa, ON, Canada. Additionally, the applicability of the GVG was validated by an in depth case study of a business development agency focusing on supporting the global start......) – a framework linking the ex-ante value drivers and ex-post characteristics of BG firms. Our aim is to use the GVG to help innovative start-ups in making strategic ex-ante decisions contributing to the development of competitive global business models, complementary global resources and differentiated value...... of newly created technology firms. The preliminary results indicate that business development agencies currently do not actively or efficiently support the global start of new firms. They need however appropriate tools and mechanisms that would help them developing such capacity....

  8. Postural stability in young adults with Down syndrome in challenging conditions.

    Ewa Bieć

    Full Text Available To evaluate postural control and performance in subjects with Down syndrome (SwDS, we measured postural sway (COP in quiet stance in four 20-second tests: with eyes open or closed and on hard or foam surface. Ten SwDS and eleven healthy subjects participated, aged 29.8 (4.8 and 28.4 (3.9, respectively. The time-series recorded with the sampling rate of 100 Hz were used to evaluate postural performance (COP amplitude and mean velocity and strategies (COP frequency, fractal dimension and entropy. There were no intergroup differences in the amplitude except the stance on foam pad with eyes open when SwDS had larger sway. The COP velocity and frequency were larger in SwDS than controls in all trials on foam pad. During stances on the foam pad SwDS increased fractal dimension showing higher complexity of their equilibrium system, while controls decreased sample entropy exhibiting more conscious control of posture in comparison to the stances on hard support surface. This indicated that each group used entirely different adjustments of postural strategies to the somatosensory challenge. It is proposed that the inferior postural control of SwDS results mainly from insufficient experience in dealing with unpredictable postural stimuli and deficit in motor learning.

  9. Global Market Entry Strategy and Point-A Perspective of Chinese Pharmaceutical Enterprise

    TonyZhang

    2003-01-01

    After joining WTO, China will not only open its door wider to foreign investment and operations in Chinese market, but also play an increasing role in global market. However, unlike many other Chinese industries that are already major suppliers or producers of consumer products at global market, majority of pharmaceutical enterprises in China remain domestic operations. Today there are still major obstacles for Chinese pharmaceutical enterprises to overcome in entering key markets such as US and Europe.

  10. An Analysis of American Animated Movies Marketing Strategies on the Angle of Globalization

    康静丹

    2016-01-01

    In a global age, the American animated film in⁃dustry that features a solid industrial foundation with the mature operational mechanism and takes a large share of global market. The thesis is going to illustrate the operational system and pat⁃terns of American animated film industry on the basis of the sta⁃tus quo of American cartoon movie market, to be a reference to the further development of Chinese cartoon movie industry.

  11. Globalization and sustainable development: a political ecology strategy to realize ecological justice

    Byrne, John; Glover, Leigh; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2006-01-01

    Organic agriculture is, like mainstream agriculture, faced with the challenges of globalization and sustainable development. Ecological justice, the fair distribution of livelihoods and environments, has emerged as a key concept in efforts, on the one hand, to resist negative consequences of globalization and ecological modernization and, on the other to propose new agenda and institutional arrangements. This chapter investigates the role that ecological justice as a political ecology strateg...

  12. Inter-rater reliability of the evaluation of muscular chains associated with posture alterations in scoliosis

    Fortin Carole

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Global postural re-education (GPR evaluation, posture alterations are associated with anterior or posterior muscular chain impairments. Our goal was to assess the reliability of the GPR muscular chain evaluation. Methods Design: Inter-rater reliability study. Fifty physical therapists (PTs and two experts trained in GPR assessed the standing posture from photographs of five youths with idiopathic scoliosis using a posture analysis grid with 23 posture indices (PI. The PTs and experts indicated the muscular chain associated with posture alterations. The PTs were also divided into three groups according to their experience in GPR. Experts’ results (after consensus were used to verify agreement between PTs and experts for muscular chain and posture assessments. We used Kappa coefficients (K and the percentage of agreement (%A to assess inter-rater reliability and intra-class coefficients (ICC for determining agreement between PTs and experts. Results For the muscular chain evaluation, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A: 56 to 82; K: 0.42 to 0.76 and perfect for 19 PI for the experts. For posture assessment, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A > 60%; K: 0.42 to 0.75 and moderate to perfect for 18 PI for the experts (%A: 80 to 100; K: 0.55 to 1.00. The agreement between PTs and experts was good for most muscular chain evaluations (18 PI; ICC: 0.82 to 0.99 and PI (19 PI; ICC: 0.78 to 1.00. Conclusions The GPR muscular chain evaluation has good reliability for most posture indices. GPR evaluation should help guide physical therapists in targeting affected muscles for treatment of abnormal posture patterns.

  13. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions

  14. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  15. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  16. Strategic Posture and Outsourcing

    Mahnke, Volker; Overby, Mikkel Lucas; Özcan, Serden

    2004-01-01

    concern of this chapter is to addressthe crucial question: How do capability development strategies differ between first-movers and late entrants in IT-enabled services. We develop theory based on three explorative case studies - FedEx, UPS and DHL. An analysis of the three companies reveals...

  17. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD. Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do not improve gait and posture in PD.

  18. Visual Vection does not Perturb Squatting Posture

    Dietrich Gilles

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vision contributes fundamentally to the control of the standing posture. The illusion of self motion falsely perceived (vection increases postural sway while standing. In this paper we examine the effect of vection on both standing and deep squatting with the hypothesis that the squatting posture should not be disturbed by the conflict of sensory information due to vection. The results show that standing posture only was affected by the visual stimuli. The widespread use of squatting for work as well as rest could be due in part to this lack of effect of sensory perturbation on postural stability.

  19. The effects of anxiety and external attentional focus on postural control in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Jazaeri, Seyede Zohreh; Azad, Akram; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Habibi, Seyed Amirhassan; Mandehgary Najafabadi, Mahbubeh; Saberi, Zakieh Sadat; Rahimzadegan, Hawre; Moradi, Saeed; Behzadipour, Saeed; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Khalaf, Kinda

    2018-01-01

    Background Although anxiety is a common non-motor outcome of Parkinson's disease (PD) affecting 40% of patients, little attention has been paid so far to its effects on balance impairment and postural control. Improvement of postural control through focusing on the environment (i.e. external focus) has been reported, but the role of anxiety, as a confounding variable, remains unclear. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the influence of anxiety and attentional focus instruction on the standing postural control of PD patients. Methods Thirty-four patients with PD (17 with high anxiety (HA-PD) and 17 with low anxiety (LA-PD)), as well as 17 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects (HC) participated in the study. Postural control was evaluated using a combination of two levels of postural difficulty (standing on a rigid force plate surface with open eyes (RO) and standing on a foam surface with open eyes (FO)), as well as three attentional focus instructions (internal, external and no focus). Results Only the HA-PD group demonstrated significant postural control impairment as compared to the control, as indicated by significantly greater postural sway measures. Moreover, external focus significantly reduced postural sway in all participants especially during the FO condition. Conclusion The results of the current study provide evidence that anxiety influences balance control and postural stability in patients with PD, particularly those with high levels of anxiety. The results also confirmed that external focus is a potential strategy that significantly improves the postural control of these patients. Further investigation of clinical applicability is warranted towards developing effective therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment plans. PMID:29390029

  20. The effects of anxiety and external attentional focus on postural control in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Jazaeri, Seyede Zohreh; Azad, Akram; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Habibi, Seyed Amirhassan; Mandehgary Najafabadi, Mahbubeh; Saberi, Zakieh Sadat; Rahimzadegan, Hawre; Moradi, Saeed; Behzadipour, Saeed; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Taghizadeh, Ghorban; Khalaf, Kinda

    2018-01-01

    Although anxiety is a common non-motor outcome of Parkinson's disease (PD) affecting 40% of patients, little attention has been paid so far to its effects on balance impairment and postural control. Improvement of postural control through focusing on the environment (i.e. external focus) has been reported, but the role of anxiety, as a confounding variable, remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of anxiety and attentional focus instruction on the standing postural control of PD patients. Thirty-four patients with PD (17 with high anxiety (HA-PD) and 17 with low anxiety (LA-PD)), as well as 17 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects (HC) participated in the study. Postural control was evaluated using a combination of two levels of postural difficulty (standing on a rigid force plate surface with open eyes (RO) and standing on a foam surface with open eyes (FO)), as well as three attentional focus instructions (internal, external and no focus). Only the HA-PD group demonstrated significant postural control impairment as compared to the control, as indicated by significantly greater postural sway measures. Moreover, external focus significantly reduced postural sway in all participants especially during the FO condition. The results of the current study provide evidence that anxiety influences balance control and postural stability in patients with PD, particularly those with high levels of anxiety. The results also confirmed that external focus is a potential strategy that significantly improves the postural control of these patients. Further investigation of clinical applicability is warranted towards developing effective therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment plans.

  1. A Review of America's Strategy: What It Will Take to Win the Global War on Terror

    Wallace, Mark R

    2006-01-01

    .... To eliminate terrorism nations of the world must first recognize the seriousness of the threat and fully comprehend our enemy's goals as well as their strategy for achieving their revolutionary objectives...

  2. The Global Petrochemical Industry: the market. Market Analysis - 2017-2023 Trends - Corporate Strategies

    2017-02-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Market Fundamentals: Overview, The Industry; 2. Market Environment and Prospects: Market Environment, Demand, Supply, Trade; 3. Corporate Strategies and Competition: Competitive Environment, Structure of Competition, Business Strategies; 4. Case Studies; 5. Statistical Appendix; 6. Sources; 7. Annexes

  3. Innovative Strategies Development of the Company in Terms of Global Competition

    Radu Riana Iren; Necsulescu Ecaterina

    2011-01-01

    Blue ocean strategy challenges companies to emerge in the middle of the fierce competition that is by creating undisputed market areas which result in competition to become irrelevant. Only, instead of dividing the existing market demand, blue ocean strategy refers to a growing demand and to eliminate competition. Blue Ocean opportunities have always existed and have been explored as the universe expanded business. This expansion is the foundation of economic growth.

  4. The Global Oil and Gas Industry: the Market. Market Analysis - 2017-2020 Trends - Corporate Strategies

    2017-07-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Market Fundamentals: Overview The Industry; 2. Market Environment and Prospects: Market Overview, Supply, Demand, Prices, Trade; 3. Corporate Strategies and Competition: Competitive Environment, Leaders' Recent Performances, Corporate Strategies; 4. Case Studies; 5. Statistical Appendix; 6. Sources; 7. Annexes

  5. The Global Renewable Energy Equipment Industry: the Market. Market Analysis - 2017-2035 Trends - Corporate Strategies

    2017-08-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Market Fundamentals: Overview, The Industry; 2. Market Environment and Prospects: Market Overview, Demand, Supply; 3. Corporate Strategies and Competition: Competitive Forces, Structure of Competition, Corporate Strategies; 4. Case Studies; 5. Statistical Appendix; 6. Sources; 7. Annexes

  6. Quality of diabetes care worldwide and feasibility of implementation of the Alphabet Strategy: GAIA project (Global Alphabet Strategy Implementation Audit).

    Lee, James D; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan; Morrissey, John R; Patel, Vinod

    2014-10-11

    The Alphabet Strategy (AS) is a diabetes care checklist ensuring "important, simple things are done right all the time." Current audits of diabetes care in developed countries reveal wide variations in quality with performance of care processes frequently sub-optimal. This study had three components:• an audit to assess diabetes care quality worldwide,• a questionnaire study seeking opinions on the merits of the AS,• a pilot study to assess the practicality of implementation of the AS in a low socioeconomic setting. Audit data was collected from 52 centres across 32 countries. Data from 4537 patients were converted to Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF) scores to enable inter-centre comparison. These were compared to each country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and Total Health Expenditure percentage per capita (THE%). The opinions of diabetes patients and healthcare professionals from the diabetes care team at each of these centres were sought through a structured questionnaire. A retrospective audit on 100 randomly selected case notes was conducted prior to AS implementation in a diabetes outpatient clinic in India, followed by a prospective audit after four months to assess its impact on care quality. QOF scores showed wide variation across the centres (mean 49.0, range 10.2-90.1). Although there was a positive relationship between GDP and THE% to QOF scores, there were exceptions. 91% of healthcare professionals felt the AS approach was practical. Patients found the checklist to be a useful education tool. Significant improvements in several aspects of care as well as 36% improvement in QOF score were seen following implementation. International centres observed large variations in care quality, with standards frequently sub-optimal. 71% of health care professionals would consider adopting the AS in their daily practice. Implementation in a low resource country resulted in significant improvements in some aspects of diabetes care. The AS checklist for

  7. Postural Muscle Dyscoordination in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    Jolanda C. van der Heide

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives an overview of the knowledge currently available on muscular dyscoordination underlying postural problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Such information is a prerequisite for developing successful therapeutic interventions in children with CP. Until now, three children with CP functioning at GMFCS (Gross Motor Function Classification System level V have been documented. The children totally or partially lacked direction specificity in their postural adjustments and could not sit independently for more than 3 seconds. Some children functioning at GMFCS level IV have intact direction-specific adjustments, whereas others have problems in generating consistently direction-specific adjustments. Children at GMFCS levels I to III have an intact basic level of control but have difficulties in fine-tuning the degree of postural muscle contraction to the task-specific conditions, a dysfunction more prominently present in children with bilateral spastic CP than in children with spastic hemiplegia. The problems in the adaptation of the degree of muscle contraction might be the reason that children with CP, more often than typically developing children, show an excess of antagonistic coactivation during difficult balancing tasks and a preference for cranial-caudal recruitment during reaching. This might imply that both stereotypies might be regarded as functional strategies to compensate for the dysfunctional capacity to modulate subtly postural activity.

  8. Effectiveness of forest management strategies to mitigate effects of global change in Siberia

    Eric Gustafson; Anatoly Shvidenko; Robert Scheller; Brian. Sturtevant

    2011-01-01

    Siberian forest ecosystems are experiencing multiple global changes. Climate change produces direct (temperature and precipitation) and indirect (altered fire regimes and increase in cold-limited insect outbreaks) effects. Although much of Siberia has not yet been subject to timber harvest, the frontier of timber cutting is advancing steadily across the region. We...

  9. Internationalization Strategies for the Global Knowledge Society. CBIE PhD Research Series

    Szyszlo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to improve understanding of internationalization as a strategic response to the catalysts of globalization and the knowledge society. The paper will attempt to critically identify and interpret how the aforementioned elements are being recontextualized and translated into responsive internationalization policies and…

  10. Global financial strategies for economic growth and energy in a charged world

    Wappenhans, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    The need for environment and financing for the economical and technical development of the energy sector is referred to from a global view. On the understanding of a transition to a privatised supply industry, the measure of financing the fixed energy industry investments is not seen as the greatest problem of the future. (UA) [de

  11. Do company strategies and structures converge in global markets? Evidence from the computer industry

    Duysters, G.M.; Hagedoorn, J.

    2001-01-01

    This note examines isomorphism and diversity in a global industry. We study how the ongoing internationalisation process has affected companies from various regions of the world. Empirical research is focussed on the international computer industry. We find that companies in this sector have become

  12. Positioning Global Education for the 1990s: Strategies for Higher Education.

    Scott, Robert A.

    All colleges and universities should be considering how they will incorporate global aspects of education and society into their curricula. The degree of program development will depend upon the goals and missions of each campus, but the programs should build from each campus' strength. The purpose of this paper is to discuss: (1) the principles…

  13. Climate of Concern--A Search for Effective Strategies for Teaching Children about Global Warming

    Taber, Fiona; Taylor, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the issue of global warming is one of great concern for Australian children. This point to the need for effective teaching about this issue. Children should be properly informed about actions that help reduce carbon emissions as this may give them a sense of empowerment and go some way to alleviating concerns. This…

  14. Globalization and Developing Countries: Emerging Strategies of Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation

    Bigman, D.

    2002-01-01

    The globalization process and the internal policy reforms that the developing countries have implemented during the past decade have changed the relative prices of practically all their inputs and outputs. Agricultural producers have therefore been forced to change the structure and methods of their

  15. Minding the carbon store: Weighing U.S. forestry strategies to slow global warming

    Trexler, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    If global warming is to be slowed heat-trapping gases must be controlled but, in addition, carbon sinks must be expanded. This document provides economic, political and technical analyses for each of seven biotic policy options that are feasible for the US. Individual chapters were indexed separately for the data base

  16. Attentional demands and postural recovery: the effects of aging.

    Brown, L A; Shumway-Cook, A; Woollacott, M H

    1999-04-01

    Cognitive demands associated with balance and locomotion may contribute to the incidence of falling among older adults. This study addressed issues related to the effects of aging on the attentional demands of recovering from an external disturbance to balance. This research also investigated whether performing a secondary cognitive task differentially affects postural recovery in young versus older adults. Fifteen young and 10 healthy older adults were exposed to a series of balance disturbances. Attentional demands were assessed using a dual task paradigm where postural recovery served as the primary task, and counting backwards served as a concurrent secondary cognitive task. The effect of the counting task was assessed by comparing kinematic variables related to feet-in-place and stepping recovery strategies. Recovering upright stance was found to be attentionally demanding in both age groups. The type of recovery strategy did not influence attentional demands in young adults; however, a hierarchy of increasing attentional demands between the ankle strategy and compensatory stepping was apparent among older adults. In addition, stepping appears to be more attentionally demanding for older adults than for younger adults. Counting backwards did not affect the type of strategy used; however, it did affect the kinematics of stepping. For both age groups, steps occurred when the center of mass was located in a more central location within the base of support when the secondary task was added. The ability to recover a stable posture following an external perturbation is more attentionally demanding for older adults than for younger adults. This would suggest that for some older adults, an increased risk for loss of balance and falls may result if sufficient attentional resources are not allocated to the task of postural recovery.

  17. SMEs Going Global: A Comparison of the Internationalization Strategies of Publishers and Online Social Networks

    Bettina Lis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, most research has been conducted on the internationalization strategies of large media companies and groups. But tapping new foreign markets is also relevant to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs of all media sectors. This paper therefore focuses on the internationalization strategies of different types of media SMEs. It aims at describing and comparing the motives for becoming an international player as well as the specific market selection, market entry, and market development strategies. Furthermore, it focuses on the main organizational implications. On the basis of a multiple-case design we compare two German regional newspaper publishers with two German special interest publishers and two online social business networks. Results show similarities and differences between these media sectors according to the nature of the media businesses. The cases also highlight the importance of international management skills also in the context of SMEs.

  18. Strategies to Engage Men and Boys in Violence Prevention: A Global Organizational Perspective.

    Carlson, Juliana; Casey, Erin; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Tolman, Richard M; Walsh, Tova B; Kimball, Ericka

    2015-11-01

    This study presents descriptive findings from in-depth interviews with 29 representatives of organizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America that engage men and boys in preventing gender-based violence. In particular, the findings suggest that strategies are responsive to the specific cultural, economic, and contextual concerns of the local community, with nuanced messages and appropriate messengers. In addition, respondents reported key principles informing their organizational strategies to deepen men and boys' engagement. Attention is also paid to respondents' caution about the risks of framing of engagement practices as separate from both women's organizations and women and girls themselves. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Soil erosion, climate change and global food security: challenges and strategies.

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    An overview is presented of the determined degree of global land degradation (principally occurring through soil erosion), with some consideration of its possible impact on global food security. Most determinations of the extent of land degradation (e.g. GLASOD) have been made on the basis of "expert judgement" and perceptions, as opposed to direct measurements of this multifactorial phenomenon. More recently, remote sensing measurements have been made which indicate that while some regions of the Earth are "browning" others are "greening". The latter effect is thought to be due to fertilisation of the growth of biomass by increasing levels of atmospheric CO2, and indeed the total amount of global biomass was observed to increase by 3.8% during the years 1981-2003. Nonetheless, 24% of the Earth's surface had occasioned some degree of degradation in the same time period. It appears that while long-term trends in NDVI (normalised difference vegetation index) derivatives are only broad indicators of land degradation, taken as a proxy, the NDVI/NPP (net primary productivity) trend is able to yield a benchmark that is globally consistent and to illuminate regions in which biologically significant changes are occurring. Thus, attention may be directed to where investigation and action at the ground level is required, i.e. to potential "hot spots" of land degradation and/or erosion. The severity of land degradation through soil erosion, and an according catastrophic threat to the survival of humanity may in part have been overstated, although the rising human population will impose inexorable demands for what the soil can provide. However the present system of industrialised agriculture would not be possible without plentiful provisions of cheap crude oil and natural gas to supply fuels, pesticides, herbicides and fertilisers. It is only on the basis of these inputs that it has been possible for the human population to rise above 7 billion. Hence, if the cheap oil and gas

  20. Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2017 Report: GOLD Executive Summary.

    Vogelmeier, Claus F; Criner, Gerard J; Martinez, Fernando J; Anzueto, Antonio; Barnes, Peter J; Bourbeau, Jean; Celli, Bartolome R; Chen, Rongchang; Decramer, Marc; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Frith, Peter; Halpin, David M G; López Varela, M Victorina; Nishimura, Masaharu; Roche, Nicolas; Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto; Sin, Don D; Singh, Dave; Stockley, Robert; Vestbo, Jørgen; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Agusti, Alvar

    2017-03-01

    This Executive Summary of the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD (GOLD) 2017 Report focuses primarily on the revised and novel parts of the document. The most significant changes include: 1) the assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been refined to separate the spirometric assessment from symptom evaluation. ABCD groups are now proposed to be derived exclusively from patient symptoms and their history of exacerbations; 2) for each of the groups A to D, escalation strategies for pharmacological treatments are proposed; 3) the concept of de-escalation of therapy is introduced in the treatment assessment scheme; 4) nonpharmacologic therapies are comprehensively presented and; 5) the importance of comorbid conditions in managing COPD is reviewed. Copyright ©2017 the American Thoracic Society. Published with permission from the American Thoracic Society. Design and branding are copyright ©ERS 2017.

  1. Identification of the unstable human postural control system

    Sungjae eHwang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining upright bipedal posture requires a control system that continually adapts to changing environmental conditions, such as different support surfaces. Behavioral changes associated with different support surfaces, such as the predominance of an ankle or hip strategy, is considered to reflect a change in the control strategy. However, tracing such behavioral changes to a specific component in a closed loop control system is challenging. Here we used the joint input-output (JIO method of closed-loop system identification to identify the musculoskeletal and neural feedback components of the human postural control loop. The goal was to establish changes in the control loop corresponding to behavioral changes observed on different support surfaces. Subjects were simultaneously perturbed by two independent mechanical and two independent sensory perturbations while standing on a normal or short support surface. The results show a dramatic phase reversal between visual input and body kinematics due to the change in surface condition from trunk leads legs to legs lead trunk with increasing frequency of the visual perturbation. Through decomposition of the control loop, we found that behavioral change is not necessarily due to a change in control strategy, but in the case of different support surfaces, is linked to changes in properties of the plant. The JIO method is an important tool to identify the contribution of specific components within a closed loop control system to overall postural behavior and may be useful to devise better treatment of balance disorders.

  2. Decarbonization of fossil fuels as a strategy to control global warming

    Abbasi, T.; Abbasi, S.A. [Pondicherry Central University, Pondicherry (India)

    2011-05-15

    With the world reaching near-total consensus on the seriousness of the global warming impacts, and on the urgency to halt further warming, R & D efforts have intensified many-fold to find ways and means of global warming control. One of the avenues being explored is 'decarbonization' of fossil fuel use by either decarbonizing the fuels before they are burnt or by capturing the CO{sub 2} they emit on combustion. In this paper the various available options are reviewed in the context of their economic and environmental viability. It emerges that even as the goal is very enchanting, the possibility of it's realization appears remote. It also follows that the only sure method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions presently available to humankind is by reducing consumption of energy and other resources.

  3. Global change modeling for Northern Eurasia: a review and strategies to move forward

    Monier, E.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Sokolov, A. P.; Zhuang, Q.; Sokolik, I. N.; Lawford, R. G.; Kappas, M.; Paltsev, S.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Northern Eurasia is made up of a complex and diverse set of physical, ecological, climatic and human systems, which provide important ecosystem services including the storage of substantial stocks of carbon in its terrestrial ecosystems. At the same time, the region has experienced dramatic climate change, natural disturbances and changes in land management practices over the past century. For these reasons, Northern Eurasia is both a critical region to understand and a complex system with substantial challenges for the modeling community. This review is designed to highlight the state of past and ongoing efforts of the research community to understand and model these environmental, socioeconomic, and climatic changes. We further aim to provide perspectives on the future direction of global change modeling to improve our understanding of the role of Northern Eurasia in the coupled human-Earth system. Modeling efforts have shown that environmental and socioeconomic changes in Northern Eurasia can have major impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems services, environmental sustainability, and the carbon cycle of the region, and beyond. These impacts have the potential to feedback onto and alter the global Earth system. We find that past and ongoing studies have largely focused on specific components of Earth system dynamics and have not systematically examined their feedbacks to the global Earth system and to society. We identify the crucial role of Earth system models in advancing our understanding of feedbacks within the region and with the global system. We further argue for the need for integrated assessment models (IAMs), a suite of models that couple human activity models to Earth system models, which are key to address many emerging issues that require a representation of the coupled human-Earth system.

  4. Energy Security and Economics of Indian Biofuel Strategy in a Global Context

    Gunatilake, Herath; Roland-Holst, David; Sugiyarto, Guntur; Baka, Jenn

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for climate change mitigation and greater energy security for many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks - global warming pollution and negative economic impacts of oil price hikes. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk ...

  5. Concentrated Language Encounter Approach in Practice for Global Teaching of Literacy: Lighthouse Strategy Implementation

    Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the lighthouse literacy strategies model using the concentrated language encounter (CLE) approach that has been successfully replicated in many countries in different languages and cultures. A review of CLE research studies and the project implementation in Thailand showed highly significant results in students' literacy…

  6. Technology and international strategies in born global firms: evidence from The Netherlands

    Anne van Delft; Sumit Kundu; Hein Roelfsema

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the internationalization strategies of biotech firms in the Netherlands. We find that many of these firms are born internationals in the sense that from their inception they are actively engaged in international cooperation. However, we find that the nature of potential

  7. Effectiveness of forest management strategies to mitigate effects of global change in south-central Siberia

    Eric J. Gustafson; Anatoly Z. Shvidenko; Robert M. Scheller

    2011-01-01

    We investigated questions about the ability of broad silvicultural strategies to achieve multiple objectives (reduce disturbance losses, maintain the abundance of preferred species, mitigate fragmentation and loss of age-class diversity, and sequester aboveground carbon) under future climate conditions in Siberia. We conducted a factorial experiment using the LANDIS-II...

  8. Global asymptotic stability of a passive juggling strategy: A possible parts-feeding method

    Swanson P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate that a passive vibration strategy can bring a one-degree-of-freedom ball to a specified periodic trajectory from all initial conditions. We draw motivation from the problem of parts feeding in sensorless assembly. We provide simulation results suggesting the relevance of our analysis to the parts feeding problem.

  9. Navigating global space of tertiary education and ending up in Denmark. Educational strategies of mobile students

    Wilken, Lisanne; Dahlberg, Mette Ginnerskov

    The analysis takes inspiration from Pierre Bourdieu‟s concept of strategy, and explores how a Danish university becomes a possible study destination for different students and for different reasons. After an introduction to Denmark as a destination for international students we outline Bourdieu‟s...

  10. Reconciling sectoral abatement strategies with global climate targets: the case of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet.

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Dhaniati, Ni Made A; Müller, Daniel B

    2012-01-03

    The IPCC Forth Assessment Report postulates that global warming can be limited to 2 °C by deploying technologies that are currently available or expected to be commercialized in the coming decades. However, neither specific technological pathways nor internationally binding reduction targets for different sectors or countries have been established yet. Using the passenger car stock in China as example we compute direct CO(2) emissions until 2050 depending on population, car utilization, and fuel efficiency and compare them to benchmarks derived by assuming even contribution of all sectors and a unitary global per capita emission quota. Compared to present car utilization in industrialized countries, massive deployment of prototypes of fuel efficient cars could reduce emissions by about 45%, and moderately lower car use could contribute with another 33%. Still, emissions remain about five times higher than the benchmark for the 2 °C global warming target. Therefore an extended analysis, including in particular low-carbon fuels and the impact of urban and transport planning on annual distance traveled and car ownership, should be considered. A cross-sectoral comparison could reveal whether other sectors could bear an overproportional reduction quota instead. The proposed model offers direct interfaces to material industries, fuel production, and scrap vehicle supply.

  11. The Global Nuclear Futures Model: A Dynamic Simulation Tool for Energy Strategies

    Bixler, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Futures Model (GNFM) is a dynamic simulation tool that provides an integrated framework to model key aspects of nuclear energy, nuclear materials storage and disposition, global nuclear materials management, and nuclear proliferation risk. It links nuclear energy and other energy shares dynamically to greenhouse gas emissions and twelve other measures of environmental impact. It presents historical data from 1990 to 2000 and extrapolates energy demand through the year 2050. More specifically, it contains separate modules for energy, the nuclear fuel cycle front end, the nuclear fuel cycle back end, defense nuclear materials, environmental impacts, and measures of the potential for nuclear proliferation. It is globally integrated but also breaks out five regions of the world so that environmental impacts and nuclear proliferation concerns can be evaluated on a regional basis. The five regions are the United States of America (USA), The Peoples Republic of China (China), the former Soviet Union (FSU), the OECD nations excluding the USA, and the rest of the world (ROW). (author)

  12. LIFELONG LEARNING AS A STRATEGY FOR EDUCATING GLOBAL CITIZENS WITHIN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Ele HOLVOET

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research emphasizes the need for educa tion on global citizenship (GC within higher education (Davis, Evans Reid, 2005; Ibrahim, 2008; Schultz, 2007. However, GC is an ill- defined concept (Schultz, 2007 and its position in university policies is unclear (Holvoet, 2007. Therefore, the GC concept is difficult to impl ement within universities’ educational practice (Fullan, 2002; Hargreaves Goodson, 2006. In order to overcome possible impediments, the reported research aimed at elucidating visions of policy makers on the role of higher education institutes with regard to positioning GC in society. The findings resulted from a two round Delphi inqu iry and in-depth interviews with 20 key figures in the field of academic policy making in five Fl emish universities, representatives of the Flemish government’s education department and members of GC education agencies. Respondents reported two components as basic conditions for universities to educate their students as global citizens: the need for a reflexive learning approach and an international learning environment. Conditions and difficu lties in creating such environments were distinguished. As lifelong learning is defined as “a way of empowering people for active engagement with important personal, social and global issues” (European Commission, 2001, this concept is considered as appropriate to supply a framework for GC.

  13. Global Reduction in HIV-related Maternal Mortality: ART as a Key Strategy

    Hamisu M. Salihu, MD, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Holtz and colleagues present a synthesis of evidence from published studies over the previous decade on the collective impact of HIV-targeted interventions on maternal mortality. Amongst an assortment of interventions [that include antiretroviral therapy (ART, micronutrients (multivitamins, vitamin A and selenium, and antibiotics], only ART reduced maternal mortality among HIV-infected pregnant and post-partum mothers. These findings have fundamental and global strategic implications. They are also timely since they provide the evidence that ART reduces HIV-related maternal mortality, and by further enhancing access to ART in HIV-challenged and poor regions of the world, significant improvement in maternal morbidity and mortality indices could be attained. The paper bears good tidings and sound scientific proof that the financial investment made globally by government and non-governmental organizations and agencies to reduce the global burden of HIV/AIDS primarily by making ART more accessible to regions of the world most affected by the epidemic is beginning to show beneficial effects not only in terms of numerical reductions in the rates of new cases of HIV/AIDS among women, but also in maternal mortality levels.

  14. Postural control in blind subjects.

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes

    2011-12-01

    To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  15. Postural control in blind subjects

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  16. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures.

    Sohn, M Hongchul; Ting, Lena H

    2016-01-01

    conclude that generalization of function across postures does not arise from limb biomechanics or a single optimality criterion. Muscle synergies may reflect acquired motor solutions globally tuned for generalizability across biomechanical contexts, facilitating rapid motor adaptation.

  17. Geometric morphometrics as a tool for improving the comparative study of behavioural postures.

    Fureix, Carole; Hausberger, Martine; Seneque, Emilie; Morisset, Stéphane; Baylac, Michel; Cornette, Raphaël; Biquand, Véronique; Deleporte, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Describing postures has always been a central concern when studying behaviour. However, attempts to compare postures objectively at phylogenetical, populational, inter- or intra-individual levels generally either rely upon a few key elements or remain highly subjective. Here, we propose a novel approach, based on well-established geometric morphometrics, to describe and to analyse postures globally (i.e. considering the animal's body posture in its entirety rather than focusing only on a few salient elements, such as head or tail position). Geometric morphometrics is concerned with describing and comparing variation and changes in the form (size and shape) of organisms using the coordinates of a series of homologous landmarks (i.e. positioned in relation to skeletal or muscular cues that are the same for different species for every variety of form and function and that have derived from a common ancestor, i.e. they have a common evolutionary ancestry, e.g. neck, wings, flipper/hand). We applied this approach to horses, using global postures (1) to characterise behaviours that correspond to different arousal levels, (2) to test potential impact of environmental changes on postures. Our application of geometric morphometrics to horse postures showed that this method can be used to characterise behavioural categories, to evaluate the impact of environmental factors (here human actions) and to compare individuals and groups. Beyond its application to horses, this promising approach could be applied to all questions involving the analysis of postures (evolution of displays, expression of emotions, stress and welfare, behavioural repertoires…) and could lead to a whole new line of research.

  18. Support afferentation in the posture and locomotion control system

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Kozlovskaya, Inesa

    Mechanisms of support afferentation contribution in posture and locomotion control, which were uncertain up to now, became the point of intensive studies recently. This became possible since the space flights era started which created the conditions for simulated microgravity experiments under conditions of dry immersion and bedrest. The results of neurophysiological studies performed under the conditions of supportlessness have shown that decline or elimination of support loads is followed by deep and fast developing alterations in postural tonic system, including development of postural muscle atonia, changes of recruitment order of motoneurons innervating the shin muscles, spinal hyperreflexia development etc. (Kozlovskaya I.B. et al., 1987). It has been also shown that application of artificial support stimulation in the regimen of natural locomotion under these conditions decreases significantly or even eliminates the development of mentioned changes. The results of these studies laid down the basis for a new hypothesis on the trigger role of support afferentation in postural tonic system and its role in organization and control of postural synergies (Grigoriev A.I. et al., 2004). According to this hypothesis the muscle reception is considered to be the leading afferent input in the control of locomotion. However the data of recent studies pointed out strongly to the participation of support afferentation in definition of cognitive strategies and motor programs of locomotor movements (Chernikova L.A. et al., 2013) and, consequently, in the processes of their initiation (Gerasimenko Yu.P. et al., 2012). The cortical locomotor reflex composes apparently the basis of these processes. The receptive field of this reflex is located in the support zones of the soles and the central part is located in the posterior parietal areas (IPL) of brain cortex. The study is supported by RFBR grant N 13-04-12091 OFI-m.

  19. Body Context and Posture Affect Mental Imagery of Hands

    Ionta, Silvio; Perruchoud, David; Draganski, Bogdan; Blanke, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Different visual stimuli have been shown to recruit different mental imagery strategies. However the role of specific visual stimuli properties related to body context and posture in mental imagery is still under debate. Aiming to dissociate the behavioural correlates of mental processing of visual stimuli characterized by different body context, in the present study we investigated whether the mental rotation of stimuli showing either hands as attached to a body (hands-on-body) or not (hands-only), would be based on different mechanisms. We further examined the effects of postural changes on the mental rotation of both stimuli. Thirty healthy volunteers verbally judged the laterality of rotated hands-only and hands-on-body stimuli presented from the dorsum- or the palm-view, while positioning their hands on their knees (front postural condition) or behind their back (back postural condition). Mental rotation of hands-only, but not of hands-on-body, was modulated by the stimulus view and orientation. Additionally, only the hands-only stimuli were mentally rotated at different speeds according to the postural conditions. This indicates that different stimulus-related mechanisms are recruited in mental rotation by changing the bodily context in which a particular body part is presented. The present data suggest that, with respect to hands-only, mental rotation of hands-on-body is less dependent on biomechanical constraints and proprioceptive input. We interpret our results as evidence for preferential processing of visual- rather than kinesthetic-based mechanisms during mental transformation of hands-on-body and hands-only, respectively. PMID:22479618

  20. Decreased postural control in people with moderate hearing loss

    Thomas, Ewan; Martines, Francesco; Bianco, Antonino; Messina, Giuseppe; Giustino, Valerio; Zangla, Daniele; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Balance is a complex process that involves multiple sensory integrations. The auditory, visual, and vestibular systems are the main contributors. Hearing loss or hearing impairment may induce inappropriate postural strategies that could affect balance and therefore increase the risk of falling. The aim of this study was to understand whether hearing loss could influence balance, cervical posture, and muscle activation in the cervical region. Thirteen patients (61 ± 13 years; 161.8 ± 11.0 cm; 70.5 ± 15.9 kg) with moderate hearing loss (Right ear −60 ± 21 dB; Left ear −61 ± 24 dB) underwent: an audiometric examination, a postural examination (with open and closed eyes) through a stabilometric platform, a cervical ROM examination through a head accelerometer, and a sternocleidomastoid electromyography (EMG) examination. A linear regression analysis has shown a regression coefficient (R2) 0.76 and 0.69 between hearing loss and the posturographic parameters, on the sagittal sway, with open and closed eyes, respectively. The combination of frontal and sagittal sway is able to explain up to 84% of the variance of the audiometric assessment. No differences were found between right and left hemibody between the audiometric, posturographic, cervical ROM parameters, and in EMG amplitude. ROM and EMG parameters have not shown any significant associations with hearing loss, for both right and left head rotation. Hearing loss is associated to increased posturographic measures, especially the sagittal sway, underlining a reduced postural control in people with hearing impairments. No association was found between the heads posture and neck activation with hearing loss. Hearing loss may be associated with an increased risk of falls. PMID:29620637

  1. Decreased postural control in people with moderate hearing loss.

    Thomas, Ewan; Martines, Francesco; Bianco, Antonino; Messina, Giuseppe; Giustino, Valerio; Zangla, Daniele; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Balance is a complex process that involves multiple sensory integrations. The auditory, visual, and vestibular systems are the main contributors. Hearing loss or hearing impairment may induce inappropriate postural strategies that could affect balance and therefore increase the risk of falling.The aim of this study was to understand whether hearing loss could influence balance, cervical posture, and muscle activation in the cervical region.Thirteen patients (61 ± 13 years; 161.8 ± 11.0 cm; 70.5 ± 15.9 kg) with moderate hearing loss (Right ear -60 ± 21 dB; Left ear -61 ± 24 dB) underwent: an audiometric examination, a postural examination (with open and closed eyes) through a stabilometric platform, a cervical ROM examination through a head accelerometer, and a sternocleidomastoid electromyography (EMG) examination.A linear regression analysis has shown a regression coefficient (R) 0.76 and 0.69 between hearing loss and the posturographic parameters, on the sagittal sway, with open and closed eyes, respectively. The combination of frontal and sagittal sway is able to explain up to 84% of the variance of the audiometric assessment. No differences were found between right and left hemibody between the audiometric, posturographic, cervical ROM parameters, and in EMG amplitude. ROM and EMG parameters have not shown any significant associations with hearing loss, for both right and left head rotation.Hearing loss is associated to increased posturographic measures, especially the sagittal sway, underlining a reduced postural control in people with hearing impairments. No association was found between the heads posture and neck activation with hearing loss. Hearing loss may be associated with an increased risk of falls.

  2. Global oral health inequalities: task group--implementation and delivery of oral health strategies

    Sheiham, A; Alexander, D; Cohen, L

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the shortcomings of present approaches to reduce oral diseases and inequalities, details the importance of social determinants, and links that to research needs and policies on implementation of strategies to reduce oral health inequalities. Inequalities in health...... their environment. There is a dearth of oral health research on social determinants that cause health-compromising behaviors and on risk factors common to some chronic diseases. The gap between what is known and implemented by other health disciplines and the dental fraternity needs addressing. To re-orient oral...... strategies tailored to determinants and needs of each group along the social gradient. Approaches focusing mainly on downstream lifestyle and behavioral factors have limited success in reducing health inequalities. They fail to address social determinants, for changing people's behaviors requires changing...

  3. International Food Assistance: A U.S. Governmentwide Strategy Could Accelerate Progress Toward Global Food Security

    2009-10-29

    Presidential Initiative to End Hunger in Africa ( IEHA )—which represented the U.S. strategy to help fulfill the MDG goal of halving hunger by 2015...was constrained in funding and limited in scope. In 2005, USAID, the primary agency that implemented IEHA , committed to providing an estimated $200...Development Assistance (DA) and other accounts. IEHA was intended to build an African-led partnership to cut hunger and poverty by investing in efforts

  4. Financial strategies for minimizing corporate income taxes under Brazil's new global tax system

    Limberg, Stephen T.; Robison, John R.; Schadewald, Michael S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Brazil adopted a worldwide income tax system for corporations. This system represents a fundamental change in how the Brazílian government treats multinational transactions and the tax minimizing strategies relevant to businesses. In this article, we describe the conceptual basis for worldwide tax systems and the problem of double taxation that they create. Responses to double taxation by both the governments and the priva te sector are considered. Namely, the imperfect mechanisms de...

  5. Communicating the Urgency and Challenge of Global Climate Change: Lessons Learned and New Strategies

    Dilling, L.; Moser, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    Climate change can sometimes be characterized as a "creeping environmental problem"--it is complex and long-term, involves long system lags, lacks the immediacy of everyday experience and thus is hard to perceive, and feels overwhelming to most individuals. Climate change thus does not typically attain the status of an urgent concern, taking priority over other matters for individuals, organizations or in the policy arena. We review the major reasons behind this lack of urgency, and document the observed consequences of previous communication strategies, including lack of public understanding, indifference, confusion, fear and uncertainty. We find that certain emotional motivators such as fear and guilt, while oft-employed, do not actually result in improved recognition of the urgency of the issue, nor do they typically result in action. Rather, positive and engaging approaches may be more likely to achieve this goal. We propose seven strategies to improve the communication of climate change and its urgency: 1) Abide by basic communication rules and heed the warnings of communication experts; 2) Address the emotional and the temporal components of "urgency"; 3) Increase the persuasiveness of the message; 4) Use trusted messengers-broaden the circle; 5) Use opportunities well; 6) Tap into individual and cultural strengths and values; and 7) Unite and Conquer. The multi-faceted nature of the proposed strategies reflects the unique challenges of the climate change issue as well as the need to engage all levels and sectors of societies in the solution, from individuals, to businesses, to governments. These strategies and results emerged from a multi-disciplinary, academic/practitioner workshop on the topic held at NCAR in summer 2004.

  6. Global warming and its implication to emission reduction strategies for residential buildings

    Wang, Xiaoming; Chen, Dong; Ren, Zhengen [CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship and CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), P.O. Box 56, Graham Road, Highett, Victoria 3190 (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Carbon emission reduction schemes by improving residential building energy performance are often developed and assessed upon the assumption of current or stationary climates. This study investigated the heating and cooling (H-C) energy requirements and corresponding carbon emissions of residential houses in different climatic conditions in relation to global warming. This included assessing and quantifying the efficacy of emission reduction schemes based on emission reduction capacity (ERC). ERC represents the percentage of projected carbon emission reduction under changing climate in a specific year compared to the expected reduction by a scheme at current or stationary climates. It is shown that in a heating-dominated region with a cold climate or temperate climate with cold winter, ERC is projected to increase (or the projected emission reduction is higher than the expected reduction under the emission reduction scheme) in the presence of global warming. In contrast, in a cooling-dominated region with a hot dry or hot humid climate or an H-C balanced temperate climate, ERC is projected to decline. This implies that emission reductions will be lower than those initially targeted by the emission reduction scheme without consideration of global warming. Additionally, to reflect the changing carbon emission over years due to climate change, the average emission reduction capacity (AERC) was also proposed for the assessment of reduction schemes. It was concluded that the design and assessment of carbon emission reduction schemes for residential buildings need to move beyond its assumptions of a current or stationary climate to take into account climate change impacts. (author)

  7. Modelling global distribution, risk and mitigation strategies of floating plastic pollution

    van Sebille, Erik; Wilcox, Chris; Sherman, Peter; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Lavender Law, Kara

    2016-04-01

    Microplastic debris floating at the ocean surface can harm marine life. Understanding the severity of this harm requires knowledge of plastic abundance and distributions. Dozens of expeditions measuring microplastics have been carried out since the 1970s, but they have primarily focused on the North Pacific and North Atlantic accumulation zones, with much sparser coverage elsewhere. Here, we use the largest dataset of microplastic measurements assembled to date to assess the confidence we can have in global estimates of microplastic abundance and mass. We use a rigorous statistical framework to standardise a global dataset of plastic marine debris measured using surface-trawling plankton nets and couple this with three different ocean circulation models to spatially interpolate the observations. Our estimates show that the accumulated number of microplastic particles in 2014 ranges from 15 to 51 trillion particles, weighing between 93 and 236 thousand metric tons. A large fraction of the uncertainty in these estimates comes from sparse sampling in coastal and Southern Hemisphere regions. We then use this global distribution of small floating plastic debris to map out where in the ocean the risk to marine life (in particular seabirds and plankton growth) is greatest, using a quantitative risk framework. We show that the largest risk occurs not necessarily in regions of high plastic concentration, but rather in regions of extensive foraging with medium-high plastic concentrations such as coastal upwelling regions and the Southern Ocean. Finally, we use the estimates of distribution to investigate where in the ocean plastic can most optimally be removed, assuming hypothetical clean-up booms following the ideas from The Ocean Cleanup project. We show that mitigation of the plastic problem can most aptly be done near coastlines, particularly in Asia, rather than in the centres of the gyres. Based on these results, we propose more focus on the coastal zones when

  8. Detecting altered postural control after cerebral concussion in athletes with normal postural stability

    Cavanaugh, J; Guskiewicz, K; Giuliani, C; Marshall, S; Mercer, V; Stergiou, N

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine if approximate entropy (ApEn), a regularity statistic from non-linear dynamics, could detect changes in postural control during quiet standing in athletes with normal postural stability after cerebral concussion.

  9. Common postural defects among music students.

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Positioning in the Global Value Chain as a Sustainable Strategy: A Case Study in a Mature Industry

    Jose Albors-Garrigos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the development of new industrialized countries, such as Brazil, China and other Southern Asian economies, as well as a globalized economy, traditional competitive paradigms based on advantages associated with costs and quality efficiencies or even innovation are no longer sufficient. These previous classical paradigms related competitiveness either to costs or technology innovation and the resources of industry incumbents. However, the combination of adequate knowledge and relationship management with marketing efforts brings forth a reconsideration of the present competitive models that go beyond those analyses from the point of view of global value chains. The objective of this investigation will analyze the governance structure of the territorial value chain in the Spanish and Italian ceramic tile industry, through the understanding of the previous and current roles of several industries involved in the value creation system. By way of both a case study and quantitative methodology approach, we will explore the paradigm change where traditional chain actors are losing their grip on their contribution to the territorial value creation system as new actors appear with a more stable status. The article concludes that proper positioning in the global value chain is a key strategy for the sustainability of the involved firms, especially Small and Medium Enterprises (SME.

  11. POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS WITH AND WITHOUT CHRONIC MOTION SENSITIVITY

    Alyahya D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural control requires complex processing of peripheral sensory inputs from the visual, somatosensory and vestibular systems. Motion sensitivity and decreased postural control are influenced by visual-vestibular conflicts.The purpose of this study was to measure the difference between the postural control of healthy adults with and without history of sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity using a computerized dynamic posturography in a virtual reality environment. Sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity was operationally defined as a history of avoiding activities causing dizziness, nausea, imbalance, and/or blurred vision without having a related medical diagnosis. Methods: Twenty healthy adults between 22 and 33 years of age participated in the study. Eleven subjects had sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity and 9 subjects did not. Postural control was measured in both groups using the Bertec Balance Advantage-Dynamic Computerized Dynamic Posturography with Immersion Virtual Reality (CDP-IVR. The CDP-IVR reports an over-all equilibrium score based on subjects’ center of gravity displacement and postural sway while immersed in a virtual reality environment. Subjects were tested on stable (condition 1 and unstable (condition2 platform conditions. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean age, height, weight, body mass index in kg/m2, postural control scores for conditions 2, and average (p>0.05. However, significant differences were observed in mean postural control for condition 1 between groups (p=0.03. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that healthy young adults without chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity have better postural control than those with chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity. Further investigation is warranted to explore wider age ranges with larger samples sizes as well as intervention strategies to improve postural control.

  12. Methods and strategy for modeling daily global solar radiation with measured meteorological data - A case study in Nanchang station, China

    Wu, Guofeng; Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Tiejun

    2007-01-01

    Solar radiation is a primary driver for many physical, chemical and biological processes on the earth's surface, and complete and accurate solar radiation data at a specific region are quite indispensable to the solar energy related researches. This study, with Nanchang station, China, as a case study, aimed to calibrate existing models and develop new models for estimating missing global solar radiation data using commonly measured meteorological data and to propose a strategy for selecting the optimal models under different situations of available meteorological data. Using daily global radiation, sunshine hours, temperature, total precipitation and dew point data covering the years from 1994 to 2005, we calibrated or developed and evaluated seven existing models and two new models. Validation criteria included intercept, slope, coefficient of determination, mean bias error and root mean square error. The best result (R 2 = 0.93) was derived from Chen model 2, which uses sunshine hours and temperature as predictors. The Bahel model, which only uses sunshine hours, was almost as good, explaining 92% of the solar radiation variance. Temperature based models (Bristow and Campbell, Allen, Hargreaves and Chen 1 models) provided less accurate results, of which the best one (R 2 = 0.69) is the Bristow and Campbell model. The temperature based models were improved by adding other variables (daily mean total precipitation and mean dew point). Two such models could explain 77% (Wu model 1) and 80% (Wu model 2) of the solar radiation variance. We, thus, propose a strategy for selecting an optimal method for calculating missing daily values of global solar radiation: (1) when sunshine hour and temperature data are available, use Chen model 2; (2) when only sunshine hour data are available, use Bahel model; (3) when temperature, total precipitation and dew point data are available but not sunshine hours, use Wu model 2; (4) when only temperature and total precipitation are

  13. The worldwide trend of using botanical drugs and strategies for developing global drugs.

    Ahn, Kyungseop

    2017-03-01

    Natural product drugs, or botanical drugs, are drugs composed of natural substances which have constituents with healthenhancing or medicinal activities. In Korea, government-led projects brought attention to botanical drugs invigorating domestic botanical drug industry. Foreign markets, as well, are growing bigger as the significance of botanical drugs stood out. To follow along with the tendency, Korea puts a lot of effort on developing botanical drugs suitable for global market. However, standards for approving drug sales vary by countries. And also, thorough standardization, certification, clinical studies and data of these will be required as well as data confirming safety and effectiveness. Meanwhile, as an international exchange in botanical drug market continues, the importance of plant resources was emphasized. Thus countries' ownership of domestic natural resources became vital. Not only establishing a systematic method to secure domestic plant resources, but also cooperation with other countries on sharing natural resources is essential to procure natural resources effectively. Korea started to show visible results with botanical drugs, and asthma/COPD treatment made out of speedwell is one example. Sufficient investment and government's active support for basic infrastructure for global botanical drugs will bring Korea to much higher level of botanical drug development. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(3): 111-116].

  14. Energy use and implications for efficiency strategies in global fluid-milk processing industry

    Xu Tengfang; Flapper, Joris

    2009-01-01

    The fluid-milk processing industry around the world processes approximately 60% of total raw milk production to create diverse fresh fluid-milk products. This paper reviews energy usage in existing global fluid-milk markets to identify baseline information that allows comparisons of energy performance of individual plants and systems. In this paper, we analyzed energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on fluid-milk processing across a number of countries and regions. The study has found that the average final energy intensity of individual plants exhibited significant large variations, ranging from 0.2 to 12.6 MJ per kg fluid-milk product across various plants in different countries and regions. In addition, it is observed that while the majority of larger plants tended to exhibit higher energy efficiency, some exceptions existed for smaller plants with higher efficiency. These significant differences have indicated large potential energy-savings opportunities in the sector across many countries. Furthermore, this paper illustrates a positive correlation between implementing energy-monitoring programs and curbing the increasing trend in energy demand per equivalent fluid-milk product over time in the fluid-milk sector, and suggests that developing an energy-benchmarking framework, along with promulgating new policy options should be pursued for improving energy efficiency in global fluid-milk processing industry.

  15. The 'International' and the 'Global' as Complementary Power Strategies within Corporate Roman Catholicism

    Kenneth Houston

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The putative resurgence of religious belief and its reinvigorated socio-political importance – or at least prominence – has prompted critical reflection on religion, broadly defined, as a new force in politics. This paper examines the ‘global’ and ‘international’ role of Roman Catholicism. Roman Catholicism has manifested itself as an actor on the international stage and as a trans-national and global ‘community’. Frequently the conceptual dividing line between these is ambiguous. Vatican City and the Holy See have both been accorded international status, the former since the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty by Italy’s fascist leader, Benito Mussolini, in 1929, the latter since the mid nineteenth century following the absorption of the Papal States into the newly unified Italian Republic. The Holy See also enjoys a special status position within the United Nations system as a non-member observer state. Following revelations of clerical child abuse the Holy See was put on the defensive in several national contexts in a public controversy that resonated much more widely. This trans-nationally organised religion has mobilised both nationally and internationally to defend its institutional interests. Through an examination of empirical instances the study sidesteps the question of whether religions are ‘global’ or ‘international’ phenomena, and draws attention to the distinct power modalities operative at the level of both international politics and in transnational or global organisation.

  16. Retraction Note to: “Global Assessment in the World Bank Education Strategy 2020”

    Christopher S. Collins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article published in Volume 2, Issue 1, pages 29-41 (DOI 10.5195/ehe.2011.41 has been retracted at the request of the editors. The editors became aware of the issue on 21 March 2016 and quickly began investigating the situation. Several locations in the article contain plagiarized texts from various authors, either with inadequate or no attribution. Specifically, these include: excerpts from Marilee J. Bresciani’s 2006 book Outcomes-Based Academic and Co-Curricular Program Review: A Compilation of Institutional Practices appearing on page 30; excerpts from Tom Schuller and Stéphan Vincent-Lancrin’s chapter in the 2009 book International Organizations and Higher Education Policy: Thinking Globally, Acting Locally? appearing on page 31; excerpts from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD website “UNESCO, OECD guidelines for quality provision in cross-border higher education” appearing on page 31; excerpts from David H. Kamens and Connie L. McNeely’s 2010 article, “Globalization and the Growth of International Education Testing and National Assessment” published in the Comparative Education Review appearing on page 31, and; excerpts from E. J. K. McKellar’s conference paper “Change our assessment practices? Why should we? The theory behind assessment practices” appearing on pages 32-33. The author apologizes to the journal and to its readers for the errors noted above.

  17. 潍柴全球化战略迎来收获期%Weichai global strategy ushered in the harvest period

    高凤艳

    2016-01-01

    Take the road of globalization, is Weichai unswerving strategic choice. By implementing capital mergers and acquisitions, overseas investment to build factories, the strategies of technical output and export trade, Weichai accelerate internationalization, expand international cooperation capacity, pushing forward the construction of the “the Belt and Road”, gradually formed and perfected the diversiifcation strategy layout.

  18. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E.; Gadd, Nichole E.; Caldwell, Erin E.; Peters, Brian T.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Oddsson, Lars I. E.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory—visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orie...

  19. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying postural instability in Parkinson's disease using dynamic posturography.

    Nonnekes, Jorik; de Kam, Digna; Geurts, Alexander C H; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2013-12-01

    Postural instability, one of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), has devastating consequences for affected patients. Better strategies to prevent falls are needed, but this calls for an improved understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying postural instability. We must also improve our ability to timely identify patients at risk of falling. Dynamic posturography is a promising avenue to achieve these goals. The latest moveable platforms can deliver 'real-life' balance perturbations, permitting study of everyday fall circumstances. Dynamic posturography studies have shown that PD patients have fundamental problems in scaling their postural responses in accordance with the need of the actual balance task at hand. On-going studies evaluate the predictive ability of impaired posturography performance for daily life falls. We also review recent work aimed at exploring balance correcting steps in PD, and the presumed interaction between startle pathways and postural responses.

  20. Effect of an Ergonomics-Based Educational Intervention Based on Transtheoretical Model in Adopting Correct Body Posture Among Operating Room Nurses

    Moazzami, Zeinab; Dehdari, Tahere; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hosein; Soltanian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the preventive strategies for chronic low back pain among operating room nurses is instructing proper body mechanics and postural behavior, for which the use of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) has been recommended. Methods: Eighty two nurses who were in the contemplation and preparation stages for adopting correct body posture were randomly selected (control group = 40, intervention group = 42). TTM variables and body posture were measured at baseline and again after 1 and...

  1. Education and the Prevention of Postural Defects

    Olchowska-Kotala Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine: whether and at what stage of education is proper body posture learned, the intention of young adults to participate in activities teaching proper posture, and the effects of factors related with the said intention. Methods. The study involved 430 university students aged 18-24 years. Anthropometric data was collected. Participants completed questionnaires assessing physical activity level (IPAQ and their intention to participate in extracurricular activities teaching proper posture while sitting or walking, proper running technique, corrective gymnastics, or weight loss exercises. A self-assessment of posture, physical fitness, attractiveness, and body satisfaction was also completed. Results. Lower back pain was experienced by 41% of the respondents. Most were taught proper posture-related habits in primary school, followed by secondary school, and then at university. Many students expressed their intention to participate in the extracurricular activities. None of the questionnaire variables were associated with the intention to learn proper walking posture or proper running technique. The intention to participate in classes teaching proper sitting posture was associated with lower back pain in women and low physical activity level in men. In women, a relationship was found between the intention to participate in weight loss exercises and body dissatisfaction, high BMI, and poor self-evaluations of posture and attractiveness. In men, this activity was associated with body dissatisfaction. Conclusions. There is a need for further education on the development of proper postural habits at the university level.

  2. The dentist's operating posture - ergonomic aspects.

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-06-15

    The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist's physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture.

  3. Effective strategies to reduce commercial tobacco use in Indigenous communities globally: A systematic review.

    Minichiello, Alexa; Lefkowitz, Ayla R F; Firestone, Michelle; Smylie, Janet K; Schwartz, Robert

    2016-01-11

    All over the world, Indigenous populations have remarkably high rates of commercial tobacco use compared to non-Indigenous groups. The high rates of commercial tobacco use in Indigenous populations have led to a variety of health issues and lower life expectancy than the general population. The objectives of this systematic review were to investigate changes in the initiation, consumption and quit rates of commercial tobacco use as well as changes in knowledge, prevalence, community interest, and smoke-free environments in Indigenous populations. We also aimed to understand which interventions had broad reach, what the common elements that supported positive change were and how Aboriginal self-determination was reflected in program implementation. We undertook a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications and grey literature selected from seven databases and 43 electronic sources. We included studies between 1994 and 2015 if they addressed an intervention (including provision of a health service or program, education or training programs) aimed to reduce the use of commercial tobacco use in Indigenous communities globally. Systematic cross-regional canvassing of informants in Canada and internationally with knowledge of Indigenous health and/or tobacco control provided further leads about commercial tobacco reduction interventions. We extracted data on program characteristics, study design and learnings including successes and challenges. In the process of this review, we investigated 73 commercial tobacco control interventions in Indigenous communities globally. These interventions incorporated a myriad of activities to reduce, cease or protect Indigenous peoples from the harms of commercial tobacco use. Interventions were successful in producing positive changes in initiation, consumption and quit rates. Interventions also facilitated increases in the number of smoke-free environments, greater understandings of the harms of commercial tobacco use and a

  4. The (Mis)appropriation of HIV/AIDS advocacy strategies in Global Mental Health: towards a more nuanced approach.

    Howell, Alison; Mills, China; Rushton, Simon

    2017-07-01

    Mental health is increasingly finding a place on global health and international development agendas. Advocates for Global Mental Health (GMH), and international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, argue that treatments available in high-income countries should also be made available in low- and middle-income countries. Such arguments are often made by comparing mental health to infectious diseases, including the relative disease and economic burdens they impose, and pointing to the applicability of the right to access treatment for mental health, not only infectious diseases. HIV/AIDS advocacy in particular has been held up by GMH advocates as offering an appropriate strategy for generating global commitment. There is a need to assess how health issues are framed not only in relation to social goods outside of health (such as human rights, security or development), but also in relation to other health or disease models, and how health policy and practice is shaped as a result. The article debates the merits and consequences of likening mental health to HIV/AIDS, and identifies four major problems with the model for GMH advocacy being developed through these analogies: 1. An inappropriately universalizing global approach to context-specific problems; 2. A conception of human rights that focuses on the right to access treatment at the expense of the right to refuse it; 3. A tendency to treat poverty as a psychiatric issue, rather than recognizing that mental distress can be the result of poverty and other forms of inequality; 4. The prioritization of destigmatization of disease over social justice models. There are significant problems with the wholesale adoption of an (often simplified) version of HIV/AIDS advocacy as a model for GMH. Yet critical engagement with the important and nuanced differences between HIV/AIDS and mental health may nevertheless point to some possibilities for productive engagement and cross

  5. Global evidence directing regional preventive strategies in Southeast Asia for fighting TB/HIV.

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Moolphate, Saiyud; Paudel, Damodar; Jayathunge Ph, Mangalasiri; Duangrithi, Duangjai; Wangdi, Kinley; Aung, Thin Nyein Nyein; Lorga, Thaworn; Higuchi, Kazue

    2013-03-14

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-epidemics form a huge burden of disease in the Southeast Asia region. Five out of eleven nations in this region are high TB/HIV burden countries: Myanmar, Thailand, India, Indonesia and Nepal. The trends of TB incidence in these countries have been rising in recent years, in contrast to a falling global trend. Experts in the field of TB control and health service providers have been perplexed by the association of TB and HIV infections which causes a mosaic clinical presentation, a unique course with poor treatment outcomes including death. We conducted a review of contemporary evidence relating to TB/HIV control with the aims of assisting integrated health system responses in Southeast Asia and demystifying current evidence to facilitate translating it into practice.

  6. Opportunities for Intervention Strategies for Weight Management: Global Actions on Fluid Intake Patterns

    Max Lafontan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Water is an essential nutrient for all physiological functions and particularly important for thermoregulation. About 60% of our body weight is made of water. Under standard conditions (18-20 °C and moderate activity, water balance is regulated within 0.2 % of body weight over a 24-hour period. Water requirement varies between individuals and according to environmental conditions. Concerning considerations related to obesity, the health impact of fluid intake is commonly overlooked. Fluid intake advices are missing in most of food pyramids offered to the public, and water requirements and hydration challenges remain often neglected. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize and discuss the role of water consumption in the context of other important public health measures for weight management. Attention will be focused on fluid intake patterns and hydration-related questions in the context of global interventions and/or physical activity programs settled in weight management protocols.

  7. Opportunities for Intervention Strategies for Weight Management: Global Actions on Fluid Intake Patterns

    Lafontan, Max; Visscher, Tommy L.S.; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Yumuk, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Water is an essential nutrient for all physiological functions and particularly important for thermoregulation. About 60% of our body weight is made of water. Under standard conditions (18-20 °C and moderate activity), water balance is regulated within 0.2 % of body weight over a 24-hour period. Water requirement varies between individuals and according to environmental conditions. Concerning considerations related to obesity, the health impact of fluid intake is commonly overlooked. Fluid intake advices are missing in most of food pyramids offered to the public, and water requirements and hydration challenges remain often neglected. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize and discuss the role of water consumption in the context of other important public health measures for weight management. Attention will be focused on fluid intake patterns and hydration-related questions in the context of global interventions and/or physical activity programs settled in weight management protocols. PMID:25765164

  8. Coping with globalization: Asian versus Latin American strategies of development, 1980-2010

    Atul kohli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When compared to Latin America, Asian economies since 1980 have grown faster and have done so with relatively modest inequalities. Why? A comparison of Asia and Latin America underlines the superiority of the nationalist capitalist model of development, which has often been pursued more explicitly in Asia, over that of a dependent capitalist model, which has often been pursued in Latin America. In comparison to Latin America, the Asian model has facilitated higher and less volatile rates of economic growth and a greater political room to pursue social democratic policies. The "tap root" of these alternate pathways is relative autonomy from global constraints: states and economies in Asia have been more nationalist and autonomous than in Latin America.

  9. A guide to the translation of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) strategy into improved care

    Boulet, Louis-Philippe; FitzGerald, J Mark; Levy, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    In 1995, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) published an evidence-based workshop report as a guide to clinicians managing asthma patients, and has updated it annually to ensure that recommendations remain current. Although the report has been widely disseminated and influenced clinical...... practice and research, its major objective, of forming the basis for local and national initiatives to improve services for asthma patients, remains to be achieved. Over recent years, the science of guideline implementation has progressed, and encouraging examples of successful asthma programmes have been...... published. This report is intended to draw on this experience and assist with the translation of asthma guideline recommendations into quality programmes for patients with asthma using current knowledge translation principles. It also provides examples of successful initiatives in various socioeconomic...

  10. Product development strategy in the Danish agricultural complex: Global interaction with clusters of marketing excellence

    Kristensen, Preben Sander

    1992-01-01

    A study of the Danish foods industry shows that producers of food products have built up and maintain development of end-user products in interaction with customers in distant sophisticated markets. Concurrently, the Danish agro-industrial complex been singled out in other studies as a paradigmatic...... produce and utilize sticky and fastchanging information about production and markets respectively. It is precisely by not interacting wi market business-to-business demand from changing end-user market that the Danish agro-industrial complex has avoided being insulated. The managerial implication...... is that a company in search of partners for joint development in global agro-industra networks can realize a competitive advantage by applying a market view that is euclidean upstream and equidstant downstream....

  11. Postural control in blind individuals: A systematic review.

    Parreira, Rodolfo Borges; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2017-09-01

    Postural control (PC) requires the interaction of the three sensory systems for a good maintenance of the balance, and in blind people, lack of visual input can harm your PC. Thus the objective is to perform a literature review concerning role of sight in the maintenance of PC and the adaptation of brain structures when vision is absent. Studies were searched from Pubmed, and EMBASE that included individuals with congenital blindness. Articles studying person with acquired blindness or low vision was excluded from this review. 26 out of 322 articles were selected for review, and we found that 1) blind individuals exhibit PC deficits and that is compensated by the intensification of the remaining systems; 2) Neuroplastic adaptation occurs throughout the entire cerebral cortex; and 3) Sensorimotor stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation seem to be a rehabilitation strategy. According to this review, the findings suggest that improved remaining sensations in the presence of adaptations and neuroplasticity, does not translate into better postural control performance. Regarding rehabilitation strategies, more studies are needed to show which therapeutic modality best contributes to postural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparison of integrated river basin management strategies: A global perspective

    Zhao, Chunhong; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Guanghong

    In order to achieve the integrated river basin management in the arid and rapid developing region, the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in Northwestern China, one of critical river basins were selected as a representative example, while the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia and the Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the USA were selected for comparative analysis in this paper. Firstly, the comparable characters and hydrological contexts of these three watersheds were introduced in this paper. Then, based on comparative studies on the river basin challenges in terms of the drought, intensive irrigation, and rapid industrialization, the hydrological background of the MDB, the CRB and the HRB was presented. Subsequently, the river management strategies were compared in three aspects: water allocation, water organizations, and water act and scientific projects. Finally, we proposed recommendations for integrated river basin management for the HRB: (1) Water allocation strategies should be based on laws and markets on the whole basin; (2) Public participation should be stressed by the channels between governance organizations and local communities; (3) Scientific research should be integrated into river management to understand the interactions between the human and nature.

  13. Rapid Detection Strategies for the Global Threat of Zika Virus: Current State, New Hypotheses and Limitations

    Shruti Shukla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario regarding the widespread Zika virus (ZIKV has resulted in numerous diagnostic studies, specifically in South America and in locations where there is frequent entry of travelers returning from ZIKV-affected areas, including pregnant women with or without clinical symptoms of ZIKV infection. The World Health Organization, WHO, announced that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the United States of America in the near future. This situation has created an alarming public health emergency of international concern requiring the detection of this life-threatening viral candidate due to increased cases of newborn microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection. Hence, this review reports possible methods and strategies for the fast and reliable detection of ZIKV with particular emphasis on current updates, knowledge and new hypotheses that might be helpful for medical professionals in poor and developing countries that urgently need to address this problem. In particular, we emphasize liposome-based biosensors. Although these biosensors are currently among the less popular tools for human disease detection, they have become useful tools for the screening and detection of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses because of their versatile advantageous features compared to other sensing devices. This review summarizes the currently available methods employed for the rapid detection of ZIKV and suggests an innovative approach involving the application of a liposome-based hypothesis for the development of new strategies for ZIKV detection and their use as effective biomedicinal tools.

  14. The Geo-strategies and Global Peace of Technology on Customer Relationship Management Performance: A Pilot Study among SME’s Logistic Operators

    Muhamad Fairos Mohamad Shah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are playing an increasingly important role in sustaining geo strategies and global peace economic growth and logistic system in Malaysia. SMEs also play a very crucial role in customer relationship as they may serve the roles of customer, distributor producer and supplier. However, adaption of customer relationship in Malaysian SMEs has not been fully explored. CRMP model for logistic service presents the combination of technology strategy in term of geo strategies and global peace. The goal of this study is to investigate customer relationship management performance and technology strategy. The dimensions for technology factors are Support information system, information sharing, Usefulness, care/help, ease of use, service portfolio, security and Update System. The populations of study were customers from a logistic company located in Pulau Pinang. Simple random sampling was selected from the target populations. Data collection resulted in 100 respondents to answers questionnaire from the customers of logistic company. Based on the finding, the result showed that, technology strategies are anchor factors in determining geo strategies and global peace on customer relationship management performance. Further study has important managerial implications as the findings will enable management of SMEs to understand progressive and highly varied CRMP practices and contextual factors that contribute to the CRMP as well as geo strategies and global peace and innovative implementation.

  15. Proceedings of the Emissions trading conference : effective strategies for successful emissions trading in a global market

    2001-01-01

    There is growing interest everywhere in the topic of emissions trading in order to meet the commitments made under the Kyoto Protocol. During this conference, most aspects of emissions trading were discussed, ranging from the need to establish credible emission reduction estimates to the means of achieving those goals, to the trading activities of Ontario Power Generation in the field of emissions trading both at the domestic and the international level. There were presentations that focussed on greenhouse gas policies, markets and strategic plays, and the preparation for the regulation of greenhouse gas. An emissions trading regime for Canada was examined by one of the presenters. This conference provided a useful venue for all stakeholders to discuss various strategies and ideas related to emissions trading. Speakers represented governments, the private sector and utilities, as well as the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. tabs., figs

  16. The drivetrain strategy of a global company facing international competition; Antriebsstrategien eines Weltkonzerns im globalen Wettbewerb

    Winterkorn, M. [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The Volkswagen Group has long been aware of its responsibility for climate protection, and vigorously pursues technical innovations to further reduce fuel consumption and emissions - across its entire, extremely wide product range. In models from superminis to luxury saloons, Europe's largest carmaker employs a wide range of technological means to meet stringent environmental legislation worldwide. As a major aspect of its drivetrain strategy, the company is continuing its development of highly efficient TDI, TSI and TFSI engines for all vehicle classes. Hybrid models will also feature among the Volkswagen Group's products on the market. Moreover, the company is carrying out intensive research into alternative fuels and drive systems for the future. (orig.)

  17. STATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURE CONTROL IN POSTLINGUAL COCHLEAR IMPLANTED PATIENTS: Effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression

    BERNARD DEMANZE eLaurence

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Posture control is based on central integration of multisensory inputs, and on internal representation of body orientation in space. This multisensory feedback regulates posture control and continuously updates the internal model of body’s position which in turn forwards motor commands adapted to the environmental context and constraints. The peripheral localization of the vestibular system, close to the cochlea, makes vestibular damage possible following cochlear implant (CI surgery. Impaired vestibular function in CI patients, if any, may have a strong impact on posture stability. The simple postural task of quiet standing is generally paired with cognitive activity in most day life conditions, leading therefore to competition for attentional resources in dual-tasking, and increased risk of fall particularly in patients with impaired vestibular function. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of post-lingual cochlear implantation on posture control in adult deaf patients. Possible impairment of vestibular function was assessed by comparing the postural performance of patients to that of age-matched healthy subjects during a simple postural task performed in static and dynamic conditions, and during dual-tasking with a visual or auditory memory task. Postural tests were done in eyes open (EO and eyes closed (EC conditions, with the cochlear implant activated (ON or not (OFF. Results showed that the CI patients significantly reduced limits of stability and increased postural instability in static conditions. In dynamic conditions, they spent considerably more energy to maintain equilibrium, and their head was stabilized neither in space nor on trunk while the controls showed a whole body rigidification strategy. Hearing (prosthesis on as well as dual-tasking did not really improve the dynamic postural performance of the CI patients. We conclude that CI patients become strongly visual dependent mainly in challenging postural conditions.

  18. Behaviour change strategies for reducing blood pressure-related disease burden: findings from a global implementation research programme.

    Peiris, David; Thompson, Simon R; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Cárdenas, María Kathia; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Goudge, Jane; Gyamfi, Joyce; Kamano, Jemima Hoine; Irazola, Vilma; Johnson, Claire; Kengne, Andre P; Keat, Ng Kien; Miranda, J Jaime; Mohan, Sailesh; Mukasa, Barbara; Ng, Eleanor; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Praveen, Devarsetty; Salam, Abdul; Thorogood, Margaret; Thrift, Amanda G; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Waddy, Salina P; Webster, Jacqui; Webster, Ruth; Yeates, Karen; Yusoff, Khalid

    2015-11-09

    The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases comprises the majority of the world's public research funding agencies. It is focussed on implementation research to tackle the burden of chronic diseases in low- and middle-income countries and amongst vulnerable populations in high-income countries. In its inaugural research call, 15 projects were funded, focussing on lowering blood pressure-related disease burden. In this study, we describe a reflexive mapping exercise to identify the behaviour change strategies undertaken in each of these projects. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel framework, each team rated the capability, opportunity and motivation of the various actors who were integral to each project (e.g. community members, non-physician health workers and doctors in projects focussed on service delivery). Teams then mapped the interventions they were implementing and determined the principal policy categories in which those interventions were operating. Guidance was provided on the use of Behaviour Change Wheel to support consistency in responses across teams. Ratings were iteratively discussed and refined at several group meetings. There was marked variation in the perceived capabilities, opportunities and motivation of the various actors who were being targeted for behaviour change strategies. Despite this variation, there was a high degree of synergy in interventions functions with most teams utilising complex interventions involving education, training, enablement, environmental restructuring and persuasion oriented strategies. Similar policy categories were also targeted across teams particularly in the areas of guidelines, communication/marketing and service provision with few teams focussing on fiscal measures, regulation and legislation. The large variation in preparedness to change behaviour amongst the principal actors across these projects suggests that the interventions themselves will be variably taken up, despite the similarity in approaches taken

  19. Understanding how and why health is integrated into foreign policy - a case study of health is global, a UK Government Strategy 2008–2013

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, global health issues have become more prominent in foreign policies at the national level. The process to develop state level global health strategies is arguably a form of global health diplomacy (GHD). Despite an increase in the volume of secondary research and analysis in this area, little primary research, particularly that which draws directly on the perspectives of those involved in these processes, has been conducted. This study seeks to fill this knowledge gap through an empirical case study of Health is Global: A UK Government Strategy 2008–2013. It aims to build understanding about how and why health is integrated into foreign policy and derive lessons of potential relevance to other nations interested in developing whole-of-government global health strategies. Methods The major element of the study consisted of an in-depth investigation and analysis of the UK global health strategy. Document analysis and twenty interviews were conducted. Data was organized and described using an adapted version of Walt and Gilson’s policy analysis triangle. A general inductive approach was used to identify themes in the data, which were then analysed and interpreted using Fidler’s health and foreign policy conceptualizations and Kingdon’s multiples streams model of the policymaking process. Results The primary reason that the UK decided to focus more on global health is self-interest - to protect national and international security and economic interests. Investing in global health was also seen as a way to enhance the UK’s international reputation. A focus on global health to primarily benefit other nations and improve global health per se was a prevalent through weaker theme. A well organized, credible policy community played a critical role in the process and a policy entrepreneur with expertise in both international relations and health helped catalyze attention and action on global health when the time was right. Support

  20. A Methodology for Investigating Adaptive Postural Control

    McDonald, P. V.; Riccio, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    overt goals. It follows that an essential characteristic of postural behavior is the effective maintenance of the orientation and stability of the sensory and motor "platforms" (e.g., head or shoulders) over variations in the human, the environment and the task. This general skill suggests that individuals should be sensitive to the functional consequences of body configuration and stability. In other words, individuals should perceive the relation between configuration, stability, and performance so that they can adaptively control their interaction with the surroundings. Human-environment interactions constitute robust systems in that individuals can maintain the stability of such interactions over uncertainty about and variations in the dynamics of the interaction. Robust interactions allow individuals to adopt orientations and configurations that are not optimal with respect to purely energetic criteria. Individuals can tolerate variation in postural states, and such variation can serve an important function in adaptive systems. Postural variability generates stimulation which is "textured" by the dynamics of the human-environment system. The texture or structure in stimulation provides information about variation in dynamics, and such information can be sufficient to guide adaption in control strategies. Our method were designed to measure informative patterns of movement variability.

  1. Public health strategies to minimize the global incidence of child abuse

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an extremely complicated and a multi-faceted public health concern, significantly influenced by the victim's age, the settings in which the abuse occurs, and the relationship between the victim and perpetrator. The global estimates are just the tip of the iceberg as most of it takes place in the privacy of domestic life and often goes unreported and undetected. In fact, occurrence of child abuse can be best explained by exploring the complex interaction among multiple factors at different levels. In order to counter this menace there is a definite need to involve all the stakeholders and ensure mandatory reporting of child abuse with the help of a surveillance system. To conclude, comprehensive and integrated package of services is desired to minimize the incidence of child abuse and neglect, supplemented with community-based initiatives to facilitate early detection and prolonged follow-up of victims of the abuse. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 955-958

  2. Global restriction of using antibiotic growth promoters and alternative strategies in poultry production.

    Salim, Hossan Md; Huque, Khan Shahidul; Kamaruddin, Kazi M; Beg, M D Anwarul Haque

    2018-03-01

    A growing global concern of antibiotic use in poultry diets due to its potential adverse effects on birds and human health, food safety and the environment has led to a complete ban or restricted use in some countries, and, at the same time, expanding options for the use of alternative feed additives. Multiple, rather than a single additive may replace antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in poultry. Blending of feeding additives and hygienic farm management, vaccination and biosecurity may help achieve good intestinal health, stabilise enteric ecosystems and result in sustainable and cost effective production performance of birds. Moreover, controlling unsolicited ingredients at the production level must have the support of different markets responsible for the supply of safe and quality poultry products for consumers. This requires the further increase and diversification of value added poultry products and the expansion of their markets through strategic planning and gradual limitation of live bird markets. More research is warranted in order to explore suitable, reliable and cost effective alternatives to AGPs for commercial use, and strategic poultry value chain development.

  3. Global frameworks, local strategies: Women's rights, health, and the tobacco control movement in Argentina.

    Muñoz Martínez, Hepzibah; Pederson, Ann

    2018-02-23

    The article examines how civil society organisations in Argentina used the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) to frame the country's failure to enact strong national tobacco control legislation as a violation of women's rights in the late 2000s. We analyze this case study through the politics of scale, namely the social processes that produce, reproduce, and contest the boundaries of policies and socio-economic relations. This approach understands how multiple scales overlap and connect to obstruct or enhance the right to health in Latin America. In Argentina, the global organisation of tobacco companies, the reach of international financial institutions and the national dynamics of economic austerity and export-orientation promoted the local production and use of tobacco (leaf and cigarettes) and reproduced health inequalities in the country throughout the 1990s and the early 2000s. Yet, the visible legacy of local and national human rights struggles in the adoption of international human rights treaties into Argentina's national constitution allowed the tobacco control movement to link the scale of women's bodies to the right to health through the use of CEDAW to change national legislation, tackling the social determinants of the tobacco epidemic.

  4. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Skotte, Jørgen H.; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck...... pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded...... to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p balance, measured as CEA (p

  5. Remixing the ‘Appropriate Mix’: Reassessing NATO’s Deterrence and Defense Posture in the Face of New Threats

    Juarez, Anthony [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Richard and Rhoda Goldman School of Public Policy

    2016-05-31

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the countries of Europe face a renewed challenge from the east vis-à-vis the Putin regime in Moscow. In the face of these new challenges, NATO must reconsider its deterrence and defense posture in order to deter conflict in Europe. Unfortunately, Russian attempts to rewrite the rules of the post-Cold War international order by force have been coupled with nuclear saber rattling and overt nuclear threats. Russia’s nuclear threats, in addition to provocative changes to Russia’s nuclear posture in its Military Doctrine, are methods to make up for Russia’s conventional military inferiority relative to NATO and the United States. Some have described Moscow’s actions as laying the groundwork for a nuclear coercion strategy. While the decrease in the nuclear arsenals of Russia and the United States has reduced the likelihood of nuclear annihilation to an all-time low since the height of the Cold War, Russia’s nuclear coercion strategy is increasing the probability of nuclear employment in Europe. The probability of nuclear use is compounded by Russia’s tremendous local military advantage around its periphery in spite of U.S. global military primacy. This military advantage increases the incentive to use military force if Russian decision-makers conclude that a quick military victory is possible, or if Russian leaders miscalculate based on an incorrect assessment of military force balance or resolve of their adversary. The integration of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia (referred to as the Baltics in this paper) into the NATO alliance in 2004 makes Russia’s military advantage in its periphery increasingly relevant. Each NATO state is required to assist any NATO state that comes under attack per Article V of the North Atlantic Treaty. The Baltic states’ proximity to Russia, their weak indigenous militaries, their former status as Soviet Republics, large population of ethnic Russians, and Russian President

  6. Penerapan Strategi dan Teknologi PHT untuk Mendukung Syarat Kualitas Produk Pertanian dalam Menghadapi Era Perdagangan Global (Review

    GEDE MENAKA ADNYANA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Implementation Strategy and Technology of IPC to Support Terms of Quality Agricultural Products Era Dealing in Global Trade. In the era of free trade in the world, export-import activities, especially agricultural products and other dairy products, according to the agency authorized trade-WTO states that the flow of goods can no longer inhibited by rules such as tariffs and other barriers, but by the quality standards of agricultural and processed products. Faced with this situation, the government of Indonesia through the Ministry of Agriculture has issued regulation No. 27/Permentan/PP.340/5/2009 about oversight of expenditures and revenues fresh food of plant origin. In addition, it was also applied to the field school IPC and implement SOPs for agricultural products exported as coffee and cocoa.

  7. Anticipatory and Compensatory Postural Adjustments in Response to External Lateral Shoulder Perturbations in Subjects with Parkinson's Disease.

    Alexandre Kretzer E Castro de Azevedo

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticipatory (APA and compensatory (CPA postural adjustments in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD during lateral instability of posture. Twenty-six subjects (13 individuals with PD and 13 healthy matched controls were exposed to predictable lateral postural perturbations. The electromyographic (EMG activity of the lateral muscles and the displacement of the center of pressure (COP were recorded during four time intervals that are typical for postural adjustments, i.e., immediately before (APA1, APA2 and after (CPA1 and CPA2 the postural disturbances. The magnitude of the activity of the lateral muscles in the group with PD was lower only during the CPA time intervals and not during the anticipatory adjustments (APAs. Despite this finding, subjects with PD exhibit smaller COP excursions before and after the disturbance, probably due to lack of flexibility and proprioceptive impairments. The results of this study suggest that postural instability in subjects with PD can be partially explained by decreased postural sway, before and after perturbations, and reduced muscular activity after body disturbances. Our findings can motivate new studies to investigate therapeutic interventions that optimize the use of postural adjustment strategies in subjects with PD.

  8. BC Hydro's smart grid strategy within a global transformation

    Zucker, R. [BC Hydro, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Smart Grid Development Program

    2009-07-01

    Electric utilities are now examining methods of ensuring adequate supply and energy security for the future. This presentation discussed BC Hydro's smart grid program within the context of other global automated metering initiatives. Over 60 per cent of the United States' gross domestic product (GDP) is derived from industries and services dependent on electricity. Power outages and interruptions cost the country an estimated $150 billion per year. A more efficient and reliable grid will provide $1.8 trillion in annual additive revenue by 2020. BC Hydro currently has over 1.8 million customers, and is comprised of 41 dam sites, 30 hydro facilities, and 9 thermal units. The utility has over 18,000 km of transmission lines and 56,000 km of distribution lines. The province's energy plan hopes to achieve energy self-sufficiency by 2016, and all new electric generation will be net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) or serve as an offset for GHG emissions. The BC Hydro smart meter program will help to support the utility's conservation program. The smart grid will include fundamental applications for metering, meter data management, distribution automation and management, and substation automation. The foundation of the smart meter system is comprised of IT and telecommunications infrastructure and a circuit topology. Reliability and power quality improvements of 40 per cent are anticipated, as well as significant improvements in energy efficiency and customer service. Smart grid applications are being designed for microgrids and plug-in vehicles. A voltage control system has been designed to allow the real time management of energy flows. It was concluded that smart grid programs will provide significant benefits to utility customers and communities in the province. tabs., figs.

  9. Fowl adenovirus-induced diseases and strategies for their control - a review on the current global situation.

    Schachner, Anna; Matos, Miguel; Grafl, Beatrice; Hess, Michael

    2018-04-01

    The stand-alone pathogenicity of fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) had long been disputed, given the ubiquity of the viruses versus sporadic outbreaks, and variation between experimental studies. However, a globally emerging trend of FAdV-associated diseases has marked the past two decades, with hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome mainly in Asia besides Arabian and Latin American countries, and geographically more disseminated outbreaks of inclusion body hepatitis. Finally, the appearance of FAdV-induced gizzard erosion (AGE) in Asia and Europe completed the range of diseases. Epidemiological studies confirmed serotype FAdV-4 as agent of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome, whereas inclusion body hepatitis is related to FAdV-2, -8a, -8b and -11. Members of the biologically more distant serotype FAdV-1 induce AGE. Urged by increasing problems in the field, numerous pathogenicity studies with FAdVs from outbreaks substantiated the primary aetiologic role of particular strains for distinct clinical conditions. Developments in the poultry industry towards highly specialized genetic breeds and rigorous biosecurity additionally contribute to the growing incidence of FAdV-related diseases. Confirming field observations, recent studies connected a higher susceptibility of broilers with their distinct physiology, implying the choice of bird type as a factor to be considered in infection studies. Furthermore, elevated biosecurity standards have generated immunologically naïve breeding stocks, putting broilers at risk in face of vertical FAdV transmission. Therefore, future prevention strategies should include adequate antibodies in breeders prior to production and - if necessary - vaccination, in order to protect progenies. This review aims to deliver a detailed overview on the current global situation about FAdV-induced diseases, their reproduction in vivo and vaccination strategies.

  10. Dynamic modelling of water demand, water availability and adaptation strategies for power plants to global change

    Koch, Hagen; Voegele, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    According to the latest IPCC reports, the frequency of hot and dry periods will increase in many regions of the world in the future. For power plant operators, the increasing possibility of water shortages is an important challenge that they have to face. Shortages of electricity due to water shortages could have an influence on industries as well as on private households. Climate change impact analyses must analyse the climate effects on power plants and possible adaptation strategies for the power generation sector. Power plants have lifetimes of several decades. Their water demand changes with climate parameters in the short- and medium-term. In the long-term, the water demand will change as old units are phased out and new generating units appear in their place. In this paper, we describe the integration of functions for the calculation of the water demand of power plants into a water resources management model. Also included are both short-term reactive and long-term planned adaptation. This integration allows us to simulate the interconnection between the water demand of power plants and water resources management, i.e. water availability. Economic evaluation functions for water shortages are also integrated into the water resources management model. This coupled model enables us to analyse scenarios of socio-economic and climate change, as well as the effects of water management actions. (author)

  11. A global resource allocation strategy governs growth transition kinetics of Escherichia coli.

    Erickson, David W; Schink, Severin J; Patsalo, Vadim; Williamson, James R; Gerland, Ulrich; Hwa, Terence

    2017-11-02

    A grand challenge of systems biology is to predict the kinetic responses of living systems to perturbations starting from the underlying molecular interactions. Changes in the nutrient environment have long been used to study regulation and adaptation phenomena in microorganisms and they remain a topic of active investigation. Although much is known about the molecular interactions that govern the regulation of key metabolic processes in response to applied perturbations, they are insufficiently quantified for predictive bottom-up modelling. Here we develop a top-down approach, expanding the recently established coarse-grained proteome allocation models from steady-state growth into the kinetic regime. Using only qualitative knowledge of the underlying regulatory processes and imposing the condition of flux balance, we derive a quantitative model of bacterial growth transitions that is independent of inaccessible kinetic parameters. The resulting flux-controlled regulation model accurately predicts the time course of gene expression and biomass accumulation in response to carbon upshifts and downshifts (for example, diauxic shifts) without adjustable parameters. As predicted by the model and validated by quantitative proteomics, cells exhibit suboptimal recovery kinetics in response to nutrient shifts owing to a rigid strategy of protein synthesis allocation, which is not directed towards alleviating specific metabolic bottlenecks. Our approach does not rely on kinetic parameters, and therefore points to a theoretical framework for describing a broad range of such kinetic processes without detailed knowledge of the underlying biochemical reactions.

  12. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

    Kaoru Takakusaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture- gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture- gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling.

  13. Compromising Postural Balance in the Elderly

    Swanenburg, Jaap; de Bruin, Eling D.; Uebelhart, Daniel; Mulder, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Additional tasks that are assumed to disturb standing postural control can be divided in added motor or added cognitive tasks. It is unknown which type of task causes the most disturbances of postural control in elderly. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether the dual

  14. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  15. Lung function and postural changes during pregnancy.

    Nørregaard, O; Schultz, P; Ostergaard, A; Dahl, R

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of postural changes on lung function in pregnant women during the first, second, third trimester and post partum. A significant decrease in FRC, PEF and FEV1 was observed as a result of the postural changes. Arterial oxygenation, MVV and DLCO remained largely the same.

  16. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...

  17. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  18. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria.

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance.

  19. The impacts from globalization on the strategies of Brazilian marketing: the divide from communication front this scene

    Denio Dias Arrais

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history which influenced the marketing activities in the late 1980s. There were considerations of the relationship between advertising with social, cultural, economic and communication events among them. Try to permeate the identification of the effects on the development of production and marketing strategies, as the speeches were conducted this work. It was not intended to question whether this environment has brought benefits or harm, but to point its effects on communication and its effects particularly in the form of dissemination of products, services or ideas. In the 1980s, regarded by economists as the lost decade, to present results of economic development, propensity in Brazil showed even then, boiling considerable cultural communication. This period of "maturity" and the consolidation of the global village, whose scope of such an evolutionary stage of interaction between peoples due to the mass communication and, why not say, with considerable support from propaganda. Craftsmen of his time professionals in marketing and advertising created "intoxicate" and inspiration in this environment. Conventionally it is this scenario talk of globalization.

  20. Experimental strategies to assess the biological ramifications of multiple drivers of global ocean change-A review.

    Boyd, Philip W; Collins, Sinead; Dupont, Sam; Fabricius, Katharina; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Havenhand, Jonathan; Hutchins, David A; Riebesell, Ulf; Rintoul, Max S; Vichi, Marcello; Biswas, Haimanti; Ciotti, Aurea; Gao, Kunshan; Gehlen, Marion; Hurd, Catriona L; Kurihara, Haruko; McGraw, Christina M; Navarro, Jorge M; Nilsson, Göran E; Passow, Uta; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

    2018-06-01

    Marine life is controlled by multiple physical and chemical drivers and by diverse ecological processes. Many of these oceanic properties are being altered by climate change and other anthropogenic pressures. Hence, identifying the influences of multifaceted ocean change, from local to global scales, is a complex task. To guide policy-making and make projections of the future of the marine biosphere, it is essential to understand biological responses at physiological, evolutionary and ecological levels. Here, we contrast and compare different approaches to multiple driver experiments that aim to elucidate biological responses to a complex matrix of ocean global change. We present the benefits and the challenges of each approach with a focus on marine research, and guidelines to navigate through these different categories to help identify strategies that might best address research questions in fundamental physiology, experimental evolutionary biology and community ecology. Our review reveals that the field of multiple driver research is being pulled in complementary directions: the need for reductionist approaches to obtain process-oriented, mechanistic understanding and a requirement to quantify responses to projected future scenarios of ocean change. We conclude the review with recommendations on how best to align different experimental approaches to contribute fundamental information needed for science-based policy formulation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  2. Spinal lordosis optimizes the requirements for a stable erect posture.

    Wagner, Heiko; Liebetrau, Anne; Schinowski, David; Wulf, Thomas; de Lussanet, Marc H E

    2012-04-16

    Lordosis is the bending of the lumbar spine that gives the vertebral column of humans its characteristic ventrally convex curvature. Infants develop lordosis around the time when they acquire bipedal locomotion. Even macaques develop a lordosis when they are trained to walk bipedally. The aim of this study was to investigate why humans and some animals develop a lumbar lordosis while learning to walk bipedally. We developed a musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine, that includes an asymmetric, dorsally shifted location of the spinal column in the body, realistic moment arms, and physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA) of the muscles as well as realistic force-length and force-velocity relationships. The model was used to analyze the stability of an upright body posture. According to our results, lordosis reduces the local joint torques necessary for an equilibrium of the vertebral column during an erect posture. At the same time lordosis increases the demands on the global muscles to provide stability. We conclude that the development of a spinal lordosis is a compromise between the stability requirements of an erect posture and the necessity of torque equilibria at each spinal segment.

  3. Spinal lordosis optimizes the requirements for a stable erect posture

    Wagner Heiko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lordosis is the bending of the lumbar spine that gives the vertebral column of humans its characteristic ventrally convex curvature. Infants develop lordosis around the time when they acquire bipedal locomotion. Even macaques develop a lordosis when they are trained to walk bipedally. The aim of this study was to investigate why humans and some animals develop a lumbar lordosis while learning to walk bipedally. Results We developed a musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine, that includes an asymmetric, dorsally shifted location of the spinal column in the body, realistic moment arms, and physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA of the muscles as well as realistic force-length and force-velocity relationships. The model was used to analyze the stability of an upright body posture. According to our results, lordosis reduces the local joint torques necessary for an equilibrium of the vertebral column during an erect posture. At the same time lordosis increases the demands on the global muscles to provide stability. Conclusions We conclude that the development of a spinal lordosis is a compromise between the stability requirements of an erect posture and the necessity of torque equilibria at each spinal segment.

  4. Effect of intermittent feedback control on robustness of human-like postural control system

    Tanabe, Hiroko; Fujii, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2016-03-01

    Humans have to acquire postural robustness to maintain stability against internal and external perturbations. Human standing has been recently modelled using an intermittent feedback control. However, the causality inside of the closed-loop postural control system associated with the neural control strategy is still unknown. Here, we examined the effect of intermittent feedback control on postural robustness and of changes in active/passive components on joint coordinative structure. We implemented computer simulation of a quadruple inverted pendulum that is mechanically close to human tiptoe standing. We simulated three pairs of joint viscoelasticity and three choices of neural control strategies for each joint: intermittent, continuous, or passive control. We examined postural robustness for each parameter set by analysing the region of active feedback gain. We found intermittent control at the hip joint was necessary for model stabilisation and model parameters affected the robustness of the pendulum. Joint sways of the pendulum model were partially smaller than or similar to those of experimental data. In conclusion, intermittent feedback control was necessary for the stabilisation of the quadruple inverted pendulum. Also, postural robustness of human-like multi-link standing would be achieved by both passive joint viscoelasticity and neural joint control strategies.

  5. Strategies to enable the adoption of animal biotechnology to sustainably improve global food safety and security.

    Tizard, Mark; Hallerman, Eric; Fahrenkrug, Scott; Newell-McGloughlin, Martina; Gibson, John; de Loos, Frans; Wagner, Stefan; Laible, Götz; Han, Jae Yong; D'Occhio, Michael; Kelly, Lisa; Lowenthal, John; Gobius, Kari; Silva, Primal; Cooper, Caitlin; Doran, Tim

    2016-10-01

    The ability to generate transgenic animals has existed for over 30 years, and from those early days many predicted that the technology would have beneficial applications in agriculture. Numerous transgenic agricultural animals now exist, however to date only one product from a transgenic animal has been approved for the food chain, due in part to cumbersome regulations. Recently, new techniques such as precision breeding have emerged, which enables the introduction of desired traits without the use of transgenes. The rapidly growing human population, environmental degradation, and concerns related to zoonotic and pandemic diseases have increased pressure on the animal agriculture sector to provide a safe, secure and sustainable food supply. There is a clear need to adopt transgenic technologies as well as new methods such as gene editing and precision breeding to meet these challenges and the rising demand for animal products. To achieve this goal, cooperation, education, and communication between multiple stakeholders-including scientists, industry, farmers, governments, trade organizations, NGOs and the public-is necessary. This report is the culmination of concepts first discussed at an OECD sponsored conference and aims to identify the main barriers to the adoption of animal biotechnology, tactics for navigating those barriers, strategies to improve public perception and trust, as well as industry engagement, and actions for governments and trade organizations including the OECD to harmonize regulations and trade agreements. Specifically, the report focuses on animal biotechnologies that are intended to improve breeding and genetics and currently are not routinely used in commercial animal agriculture. We put forward recommendations on how scientists, regulators, and trade organizations can work together to ensure that the potential benefits of animal biotechnology can be realized to meet the future needs of agriculture to feed the world.

  6. The role of global public health strategy in non-profit organisational change at country level: lessons from the joining of Save the Children and Merlin in Myanmar.

    Campbell, Fiona M; Balabanova, Dina; Howard, Natasha

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a case study that critically assesses the role of global strategy 'Public Health on the Frontline 2014-2015' ('the Strategy') in supporting Merlin and Save the Children's organisational change and future programme of the combined organisation in Myanmar. Research was undertaken in 2014 in Myanmar. Twenty-six individual and three group interviews were conducted with stakeholders, and 10 meetings relevant to the country organisational transition process were observed. A conceptual framework was developed to assess the role of the global strategy in supporting the country change process. Several positive aspects of the global strategy were found, as well as critical shortcomings in its support to the organisational change process at country level. The strategy was useful in signalling Save the Children's intention to scale up humanitarian health provision. However, it had only limited influence on the early change process and outcomes in Myanmar. Results highlight several aspects that would enhance the role of a global strategy at country level. Lessons can be applied by organisations undertaking a similar process. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The Vulnerability of Earth Systems to Human-Induced Global Change and Strategies for Mitigation

    Watson, R. T.

    2002-12-01

    Since the IGY, there has been growing evidence that climate is changing in response to human activities. The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognizing that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world. The question is not whether climate will change, but rather how much (magnitude), how fast (the rate of change) and where (regional patterns). It is also clear that climate change and other human-induced modifications to the environment will, in many parts of the world, adversely affect socio-economic sectors, including water resources, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and human settlements, ecological systems (particularly forests and coral reefs), and human health (particularly diseases spread by insects), with developing countries being the most vulnerable. Environmental degradation of all types (i.e., climate change, loss of biodiversity, land degradation, air and water quality) all undermine the challenge of poverty alleviation and sustainable economic growth. One of the major challenges facing humankind is to provide an equitable standard of living for this and future generations: adequate food, water and energy, safe shelter and a healthy environment (e.g., clean air and water). Unfortunately, human-induced climate change, as well as other global environmental issues such as land degradation, loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion, threatens our ability to meet these basic human needs. The good news is, however, that the majority of experts believe that significant reductions in net

  8. Towards incorporating affective computing to virtual rehabilitation; surrogating attributed attention from posture for boosting therapy adaptation

    Rivas, Jesús J.; Heyer, Patrick; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Sucar, Luis Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Virtual rehabilitation (VR) is a novel motor rehabilitation therapy in which the rehabilitation exercises occurs through interaction with bespoken virtual environments. These virtual environments dynamically adapt their activity to match the therapy progress. Adaptation should be guided by the cognitive and emotional state of the patient, none of which are directly observable. Here, we present our first steps towards inferring non-observable attentional state from unobtrusively observable seated posture, so that this knowledge can later be exploited by a VR platform to modulate its behaviour. The space of seated postures was discretized and 648 pictures of acted representations were exposed to crowd-evaluation to determine attributed state of attention. A semi-supervised classifier based on Na¨ıve Bayes with structural improvement was learnt to unfold a predictive relation between posture and attributed attention. Internal validity was established following a 2×5 cross-fold strategy. Following 4959 votes from crowd, classification accuracy reached a promissory 96.29% (µ±σ = 87.59±6.59) and F-measure reached 82.35% (µ ± σ = 69.72 ± 10.50). With the afforded rate of classification, we believe it is safe to claim posture as a reliable proxy for attributed attentional state. It follows that unobtrusively monitoring posture can be exploited for guiding an intelligent adaptation in a virtual rehabilitation platform. This study further helps to identify critical aspects of posture permitting inference of attention.

  9. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  10. Postural coordination during socio-motor improvisation

    Mathieu Gueugnon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation. Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively. Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and anti-phase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability. Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  11. Do adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS neglect proprioceptive information in sensory integration of postural control?

    Christine Assaiante

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It has been reported that AIS rely much more on ankle proprioception to control the amplitude of the balance control commands as compared to age-matched healthy adolescents. Our hypothesis was that AIS do not neglect proprioceptive information to control posture probably because of their vestibular deficits. We investigated the proprioceptive contribution to postural control in AIS which expresses spinal deformity during a crucial transitional period of ontogenesis. METHODS: 10 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS with moderate spinal deformity (10° 35° and 10 control adolescents (CA had to maintain vertical stance while very slow oscillations in the frontal plane (below the detection threshold of the semicircular canal system were applied to the support with the eyes open and closed. Postural orientation and segmental stabilisation were analysed at head, shoulder, trunk and pelvis levels. RESULTS: Scoliosis did not affect vertical orientation control and segmental stabilization strategies. Vision improves postural control in both CA and AIS, which seem more dependent on visual cues than adults. CONCLUSIONS: AIS as CA were unable to control efficiently their postural orientation on the basis of the proprioceptive cues, the only sensory information available in the EC situation, whereas in the same condition healthy young adults present no difficulty to achieve the postural control. This suggests that AIS as CA transitory neglect proprioceptive information to control their posture. These results and previous studies suggest the existence of different afferent pathways for proprioceptive information subserving different parts in sensory integration of postural control. We conclude that the static proprioceptive system is not affected by the idiopathic scoliosis, while the dynamic proprioceptive system would be mainly affected.

  12. Predicting Factors of Worker Behavior for Proper Working Posture Based on Planed Behavior Theory

    E Mohammadi Zeydi

    2008-12-01

    Introduction & Objective: Injuries resulting from ignoring proper working posture especially in employees who sitting at workplace for more than of working hours are costly, and create significant pain and discomfort. Decreasing of these injuries is most effectively accomplished through the application of ergonomic design principles. Sometimes, however, barriers (technical and economic preclude ergonomic improvement and, consequently, some organizations rely on the use of proper sitting techniques and maintaining proper working posture as a major control strategy during workday. The problem, however, is that these process performing is inconsistent and managers have a difficult time motivating use of these techniques. The main aim of this study was to understand the factors driving proper working posture among employees. Materials & Methods: This study used the theory of planned behavior to predict upright working posture maintenance among 222 of assembling, machinery and printing line’s employees at a Qazvin Alborz industrial town manufacturing organization. Structural equation modeling, explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis were employed to analyze relationships among constructs. Results: Results revealed that attitude (p< 0.05, β= 0.53 and intention (p< 0.05, β= 0.46 were the strongest predictors of proper working posture maintenance behavior. Perceived behavior control, to a lesser degree, were also important influences on intention (p< 0.05, β= 0.34 and behavior (p< 0.05, β= 0.28. Subjective norms did not surface as effective direct predictors of upright working posture maintenance, but did affect behavior and intent via mediating factors (attitudes subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Finally, the TPB was supported as an effective model explaining upright working posture maintenance, and had potential application for many other safety-related behaviors. Conclusion: results of this study emphasis on considering factors such as

  13. Differentiation strategies in coffee global value chains through reference to territorial origin in Latin American countries

    Marescotti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years coffee has been regarded as a commodity. Recently, new trends both at consumption and production level created new opportunities for de-commodifying the coffee market, by a differentiation based on social, environmental and territorial resources, and consequently for strengthening local agro-food systems and improving the position of farmers in the value chain. In this perspective, territorial origin is one promising lever of differentiation, and there is a growing number of initiatives trying to develop protected Geographical Indications in coffee value chains. This work aims at identifying the different logics surrounding the construction of protected Geographical Indications (GIs in the coffee industry in Latin America, and to discuss the role of history and tradition in relation to the link to specific local resources. Our analysis highlights a variety of typologies of GI initiatives, which follow different logics and strategies, and interpret the concept of “origin” in different ways, especially when compared to the European Union one. However the role that history and traditions play in American coffee GIs is not yet relevant.Durante mucho tiempo, el café ha sido considerado como un producto commodity, de carácter indiferenciado. Recientemente, nuevas tendencias en la producción y el consumo de café han creado nuevas oportunidades para emprender estrategias de diferenciación (de-commodify en el mercado del café, basadas en los recursos locales de carácter social, medioambiental y territorial y, consecuentemente, con una finalidad de impulsar los sistemas agroalimentarios locales y de mejorar la situación de los agricultores en la cadena de valor. Desde esta perspectiva, el origen territorial se convierte en una herramienta prometedora de diferenciación del producto. Existe un número creciente de iniciativas cuyo propósito es desarrollar Indicaciones Geográficas (IGs en el ámbito de las cadenas de valor del

  14. Full of energy. A vision: The global factor-of-four strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and opting out of nuclear power

    Lovins, A.; Hennicke, P.

    1999-01-01

    Here it is at last: A sustainable global energy system. Based on a ''factor-of- four'' approach, the authors, who are experts in all matters of energy systems, explain the evolution of their energy strategy which is fit for global implementation and realization. It is technically feasible, ecologically justifiable, and economically attractive, as it relies on enhanced energy efficiency and enhanced use of renewable energy sources. (orig./CB) [de

  15. War in the Era of Declining U.S. Global Hegemony

    Francis Shor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While Clausewitz’s perspective that ‘war is the continuation of politics by other means’ is widely quoted, the full implications of that perspective are rarely explored. What I propose to highlight in this essay is how the imperial political projects of the UnitedStates in the post-Vietnam era unleashed direct and indirect regional war strategies from Latin America to the Middle East. The essay will highlight, in particular, the wide variety of such strategies from covert intervention in Chile to proxy wars in Central America to military intervention in Iraq and Afghanistan. Attempting to re-assert its global hegemony after Vietnam, the U.S. became more committed to perpetrating war as an instrument of its global posture. Of course, relying on war strategies, whether through direct or indirect interventions, complicates, if not confounds, the imposition of global hegemony.

  16. An investigation into essential aspects of posture in primary school ...

    Postures of the subjects were analysed by means of photographic images using the pro forma of Barlow (1956, 1990). The majority of the executives had malposture with 2.3%, 23.3%, 58.1% and 16.3% and 6.3% of the subjects being categorised with slight postural defects, severe postural defects, very severe postural ...

  17. Flood risk and adaptation strategies under climate change and urban expansion: A probabilistic analysis using global data.

    Muis, Sanne; Güneralp, Burak; Jongman, Brenden; Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Ward, Philip J

    2015-12-15

    An accurate understanding of flood risk and its drivers is crucial for effective risk management. Detailed risk projections, including uncertainties, are however rarely available, particularly in developing countries. This paper presents a method that integrates recent advances in global-scale modeling of flood hazard and land change, which enables the probabilistic analysis of future trends in national-scale flood risk. We demonstrate its application to Indonesia. We develop 1000 spatially-explicit projections of urban expansion from 2000 to 2030 that account for uncertainty associated with population and economic growth projections, as well as uncertainty in where urban land change may occur. The projections show that the urban extent increases by 215%-357% (5th and 95th percentiles). Urban expansion is particularly rapid on Java, which accounts for 79% of the national increase. From 2000 to 2030, increases in exposure will elevate flood risk by, on average, 76% and 120% for river and coastal floods. While sea level rise will further increase the exposure-induced trend by 19%-37%, the response of river floods to climate change is highly uncertain. However, as urban expansion is the main driver of future risk, the implementation of adaptation measures is increasingly urgent, regardless of the wide uncertainty in climate projections. Using probabilistic urban projections, we show that spatial planning can be a very effective adaptation strategy. Our study emphasizes that global data can be used successfully for probabilistic risk assessment in data-scarce countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance. PMID:25328553

  19. Cognitive tasks promote automatization of postural control in young and older adults.

    Potvin-Desrochers, Alexandra; Richer, Natalie; Lajoie, Yves

    2017-09-01

    Researchers looking at the effects of performing a concurrent cognitive task on postural control in young and older adults using traditional center-of-pressure measures and complexity measures found discordant results. Results of experiments showing improvements of stability have suggested the use of strategies such as automatization of postural control or stiffening strategy. This experiment aimed to confirm in healthy young and older adults that performing a cognitive task while standing leads to improvements that are due to automaticity of sway by using sample entropy. Twenty-one young adults and twenty-five older adults were asked to stand on a force platform while performing a cognitive task. There were four cognitive tasks: simple reaction time, go/no-go reaction time, equation and occurrence of a digit in a number sequence. Results demonstrated decreased sway area and variability as well as increased sample entropy for both groups when performing a cognitive task. Results suggest that performing a concurrent cognitive task promotes the adoption of an automatic postural control in young and older adults as evidenced by an increased postural stability and postural sway complexity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A mid-term assessment of progress towards the immunization coverage goal of the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS

    Karimov Rouslan I

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS (2006-2015 aims to reach and sustain high levels of vaccine coverage, provide immunization services to age groups beyond infancy and to those currently not reached, and to ensure that immunization activities are linked with other health interventions and contribute to the overall development of the health sector. Objective To examine mid-term progress (through 2010 of the immunization coverage goal of the GIVS for 194 countries or territories with special attention to data from 68 countries which account for more than 95% of all maternal and child deaths. Methods We present national immunization coverage estimates for the third dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid with pertussis (DTP3 vaccine and the first dose of measles containing vaccine (MCV during 2000, 2005 and 2010 and report the average annual relative percent change during 2000-2005 and 2005-2010. Data are taken from the WHO and UNICEF estimates of national immunization coverage, which refer to immunizations given during routine immunization services to children less than 12 months of age where immunization services are recorded. Results Globally DTP3 coverage increased from 74% during 2000 to 85% during 2010, and MCV coverage increased from 72% during 2000 to 85% during 2010. A total of 149 countries attained or were on track to achieve the 90% coverage goal for DTP3 (147 countries for MCV coverage. DTP3 coverage ≥ 90% was sustained between 2005 and 2010 by 99 countries (98 countries for MCV. Among 68 priority countries, 28 countries were identified as having made either insufficient or no progress towards reaching the GIVS goal of 90% coverage by 2015 for DTP3 or MCV. DTP3 and MCV coverage remained Conclusion Progress towards GIVS goals highlights improvements in routine immunization coverage, yet it is troubling to observe priority countries with little or no progress during the past five years. These results

  1. Wavelet Transform Analysis of the Power Spectrum of Centre of Pressure Signals to Detect the Critical Point Interval of Postural Control

    Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Snoussi, Hichem; Hewson, David; Duchêne, Jacques

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to detecting the critical point interval (CPI) when sensory feedback is used as part of a closed-loop postural control strategy. Postural balance was evaluated using centre of pressure (COP) displacements from a force plate for 17 control and 10 elderly subjects under eyes open, eyes closed, and vibration conditions. A modified local-maximum-modulus wavelet transform analysis using the power spectrum of COP signals was used to calculate CPI. Lower CPI values indicate increased closed-loop postural control with a quicker response to sensory input. Such a strategy requires greater energy expenditure due to the repeated muscular interventions to remain stable. The CPI for elderly occurred significantly quicker than for controls, indicating tighter control of posture. Similar results were observed for eyes closed and vibration conditions. The CPI parameter can be used to detect differences in postural control due to ageing.

  2. Does increased postural threat lead to more conscious control of posture?

    Huffman, J L; Horslen, B C; Carpenter, M G; Adkin, A L

    2009-11-01

    Although it is well established that postural threat modifies postural control, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for these changes. It is possible that changes in postural control under conditions of elevated postural threat result from a shift to a more conscious control of posture. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of elevated postural threat on conscious control of posture and to determine the relationship between conscious control and postural control measures. Forty-eight healthy young adults stood on a force plate at two different surface heights: ground level (LOW) and 3.2-m above ground level (HIGH). Centre of pressure measures calculated in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction were mean position (AP-MP), root mean square (AP-RMS) and mean power frequency (AP-MPF). A modified state-specific version of the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale was used to measure conscious motor processing (CMP) and movement self-consciousness (MSC). Balance confidence, fear of falling, perceived stability, and perceived and actual anxiety indicators were also collected. A significant effect of postural threat was found for movement reinvestment as participants reported more conscious control and a greater concern about their posture at the HIGH height. Significant correlations between CMP and MSC with AP-MP were observed as participants who consciously controlled and were more concerned for their posture leaned further away from the platform edge. It is possible that changes in movement reinvestment can influence specific aspects of posture (leaning) but other aspects may be immune to these changes (amplitude and frequency).

  3. Relationship between Postural Deformities and Frontal Function in Parkinson's Disease

    Ninomiya, Satoko; Morita, Akihiko; Teramoto, Hiroko; Akimoto, Takayoshi; Shiota, Hiroshi; Kamei, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Postural deformities and executive dysfunction (ED) are common symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD remains unclear. This study assessed the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD. Sixty-five patients with sporadic PD were assessed for the severity of postural deformities and executive function. The severity of postural deformities was scored using the United Parkinson's Disease Ra...

  4. [Head posture in orthodontics: physiopathology and clinical aspects 2].

    Caltabiano, M; Verzi, P; Scire Scappuzzo, G

    1989-01-01

    The Authors review in orthodontic respects present knowledges about head posture involvement in craniofacial morphogenesis and pathology. Relationships between craniofacial morphology, craniocervical posture, craniomandibular posture, cervical spine curvature, hyoid bone position and posture of whole body in space are shown, in attempt to explain conditions such as "forward head posture", mouth breathing and some occlusal disorders. Main methods to evaluate craniocervical relations on lateral skull radiographs are analysed. Pathogenesis of pain syndromes associated with abnormal craniocervical and craniomandibular mechanics are also briefly treated.

  5. Postural orientation and equilibrium processes associated with increased postural sway in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Wang, Zheng; Hallac, Rami R; Conroy, Kaitlin C; White, Stormi P; Kane, Alex A; Collinsworth, Amy L; Sweeney, John A; Mosconi, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    Increased postural sway has been repeatedly documented in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Characterizing the control processes underlying this deficit, including postural orientation and equilibrium, may provide key insights into neurophysiological mechanisms associated with ASD. Postural orientation refers to children's ability to actively align their trunk and head with respect to their base of support, while postural equilibrium is an active process whereby children coordinate ankle dorsi-/plantar-flexion and hip abduction/adduction movements to stabilize their upper body. Dynamic engagement of each of these control processes is important for maintaining postural stability, though neither postural orientation nor equilibrium has been studied in ASD. Twenty-two children with ASD and 21 age and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) controls completed three standing tests. During static stance, participants were instructed to stand as still as possible. During dynamic stances, participants swayed at a comfortable speed and magnitude in either anterior-posterior (AP) or mediolateral (ML) directions. The center of pressure (COP) standard deviation and trajectory length were examined to determine if children with ASD showed increased postural sway. Postural orientation was assessed using a novel virtual time-to-contact (VTC) approach that characterized spatiotemporal dimensions of children's postural sway (i.e., body alignment) relative to their postural limitation boundary, defined as the maximum extent to which each child could sway in each direction. Postural equilibrium was quantified by evaluating the amount of shared or mutual information of COP time series measured along the AP and ML directions. Consistent with prior studies, children with ASD showed increased postural sway during both static and dynamic stances relative to TD children. In regard to postural orientation processes, children with ASD demonstrated reduced spatial

  6. Strategies for restoration of deep-water coral ecosystems based on a global survey of oil and gas regulations

    Cordes, E. E.; Jones, D.; Levin, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    The oil and gas industry is one of the most active agents of the global industrialization of the deep sea. The wide array of impacts following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlighted the need for a systematic review of existing regulations both in US waters and internationally. Within different exclusive economic zones, there are a wide variety of regulations regarding the survey of deep-water areas prior to leasing and the acceptable set-back distances from vulnerable marine ecosystems once they are discovered. There are also varying mitigation strategies for accidental release of oil and gas, including active monitoring systems, temporary closings of oil and gas production, and marine protected areas. The majority of these regulations are based on previous studies of typical impacts from oil and gas drilling, rather than accidental releases. However, the probability of an accident from standard operations increases significantly with depth. The Oil & Gas working group of the Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative is an international partnership of scientists, managers, non-governmental organizations, and industry professionals whose goal is to review existing regulations for the oil & gas industry and produce a best practices document to advise both developed and developing nations on their regulatory structure as energy development moves into deeper waters.

  7. Global Business Networks and Cooperation within Supply Chain as a Strategy of High-Tech Companies’ Growth

    Milena Ratajczak-Mrozek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The specificity of the operation profile of high-tech companies, including the necessity of operating at the international scale may account for the fact that these companies may find in network relationships, business networks and cooperation an essential determinant for growth and competitiveness. Foreign entities should be especially interesting business partners for high- tech companies, as they are often seen as representing more advanced knowledge, resources and experience. The aim of the article is to point out to global business networks (i.e. including both local and foreign entities, and especially to cooperation within supply chain, as an important basis for a growth strategy of a high-tech company. The article adopts assumptions of the network approach as a concept of companies cooperation. An analysis of the author’s own as well as secondary empirical research, with the focus on high- tech companies located in Poland is presented. In particular, the data from own research of 62 high-tech companies in Poland conducted in the first half of 2011 is analysed. It shows that the high-tech companies placing great importance on cooperation within supply chain demonstrate a higher growth and level of competitiveness than the companies which do not ascribe such importance (bearing in mind that supply chain forms an important part of a business network.

  8. Pushing or sharing as value-driven strategies for societal change in global supply chains: two case studies in the British-South African fresh fruit supply chain

    Müller, C.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Glasbergen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Business strategy is linked to organisational values and culture, which is determined to some extent by national culture. This can provide a challenge in a global supply chain where culture and values at one end of the chain do not correspond with culture at the other end. This paper contends that

  9. Big moving day for biodiversity? A macroecological assessment of the scope for assisted colonization as a conservation strategy under global warming

    Svenning, J.-C.; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Morueta-Holme, Naia

    2009-01-01

    to corresponding losses locally. Our results suggest that there is substantial room for additional plant species across most areas of Europe, indicating that there is considerable scope for implementing assisted colonization as a proactive conservation strategy under global warming without necessarily implicating...

  10. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: Centre of Pressure (CoP) measurements were tested against pain, fear of pain, and physical function. Velocity, anterior-posterior displacement, and the Romberg Ratio obtained on a portable force platform were used as measures of postural stability. RESULTS: Baseline and 12-week follow-up results of 97....... CONCLUSION: This first study of concurrent and predictive validity of postural balance in LBP patients revealed no association between CoP measures and pain, fear of pain, and physical function....

  11. Postural effects when cycling in late pregnancy.

    O'Neill, Maureen E; Cooper, Karen A; Boyce, E Stewart; Hunyor, Stephen N

    2006-12-01

    This study assessed if upright cycling is preferable to semi-recumbent cycling during pregnancy. Healthy women with low risk singleton pregnancies were tested at 34-38 weeks gestation. They cycled for 12 min, either semi-recumbent (45 degrees, n = 27) or upright (n = 23), at 135-145 beats min(-1). When semi-recumbent, minute ventilation was greater (pposture-independent. All increased with exercise (p0.05). Small post-exercise fetal heart rate increases (by 8 beats min(-1), ppostures (n = 11 in each sub-group), with no adverse changes. Fetal heart rate accelerations and uterine activity (n = 11 in each sub-group) were not influenced by posture or exercise. (1) Neither posture had a distinct advantage. (2) Both postures were safe for short duration cycling. (3) The same target maternal heart rates are suitable for both postures because they resulted in similar oxygen consumptions and fetal heart rates.

  12. Impaired postural stability after laparoscopic surgery

    Eskildsen, K Z; Staehr-Rye, A K; Rasmussen, L S

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: We included 25 women undergoing outpatient gynaecological laparoscopic surgery in the study. Patients received standardised anaesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium. Postural stability was assessed preoperatively, at 30 min after tracheal extubation, and at discharge from the post...

  13. Instrumented Measurement of Balance and Postural Control in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation: A Critical Review

    Jayakaran, Prasath; Johnson, Gillian M.; Sullivan, S. John; Nitz, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of balance and postural performance that underpins activities of daily living is important in the rehabilitation of individuals with a lower limb amputation (LLA), and there are a number of methods and strategies available for this purpose. To provide an evidence-based choice of approach, this review aims to critically review the tasks…

  14. [Voluntary postural control learning with a use of visual bio-feedback in patients with spinocerebellar degenerations].

    Ustinova, K I; Ioffe, M E; Chernikova, L A; Kulikov, M A; Illarioshkin, S N; Markova, E D

    2004-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluation of possibility and features of voluntary postural control learning using biofeedback from a force platform in patients with spinocerebellar ataxias. Thirty-seven patients with different forms of spinocerebellar degenerations and 13 age-matched healthy subjects were trained to shift the center of pressure (CP) during several stabilographic computer games which tested an ability to learn 2 different types of voluntary postural control: general strategy and precise coordination of CP shifting. Despite the disturbances of static posture and ability for voluntary control of CP position, patients with spinocerebellar degenerations can learn to control a vertical posture using biofeedback on stabilogram. In contrast to healthy subjects, improvement of coordination in the training process does not exert a significant influence on the static posture characteristics, in particular on lateral CP oscillations. The results obtained suggest involvement of the cerebellum in both types of postural control that distinguishes them from pathology caused by motor cortex and nigro-striatal system involved only in one type of postural control.

  15. Effect of absence of vision on posture

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z.; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A.; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the ...

  16. Posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles

    Hlophe, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Page 1 of 8 25th International Conference of CAD/CAM, Robotics & Factories of the Future Conference, 13-16 July 2010, Pretoria, South Africa A POSTURE ESTIMATION SYSTEM FOR UNDERGROUND MINE VEHICLES Khonzumusa Hlophe1, Gideon Ferreira2... and the transmitter. The main difference between the three systems is their implementation. This paper describes an implementation of a posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, a brief...

  17. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control.

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E; Gadd, Nichole E; Caldwell, Erin E; Peters, Brian T; Reschke, Millard F; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Oddsson, Lars I E; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory-visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orientation with and without vision was assessed. Postural control in this test paradigm was hypothesized to utilize predominantly contributions of somatosensory information from the feet and ankle joint, with minimal vestibular input. Fourteen healthy subjects "stood" supine on their dominant leg while strapped to a backpack frame that was freely moving on air-bearings, to remove available otolith tilt cues with respect to gravity that influences postural control when standing upright. The backpack was attached through a cable to a pneumatic cylinder that provided a gravity-like load. Subjects performed three trials each with Eyes-open (EO) and Eyes-closed (EC) while loaded with 60% body weight. There was no difference in unipedal stance time (UST) across the two conditions with EC condition challenging the postural control system greater than the EO condition. Stabilogram-diffusion analysis (SDA) indicated that the critical mean square displacement was significantly different between the two conditions. Vestibular cues, both in terms of magnitude and the duration for which relevant information was available for postural control in this test paradigm, were minimized. These results support our hypothesis that maintaining unipedal stance in supine orientation without vision, minimizes vestibular contribution and thus predominantly utilizes somatosensory information for postural control.

  18. Advancement of the climate dual strategy. New concepts for a globally effective climate protection; Weiterentwicklung der baden-wuerttembergischen Klimadoppelstrategie. Neue Konzepte fuer einen global wirksamen Klimaschutz

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    The Baden-Wuerttemberg Council on Sustainable Development (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) presents a climate expert report with new concepts for a globally effective climate protection. First of all, the development of the global emissions of carbon dioxide since 1990 is described. The development of the global emissions of carbon dioxide up to 2050 is forecasted. Four general criteria (effectiveness, efficiency, fairness and acceptance) for a comparative evaluation of climate protection concepts are introduced. A proposal for solution on the basis of a globally effective cap-and-trade system as well as an identical scenario as an alternative with respect to the implementation are described. This alternative scenario is based on a cap-and-trade system but it develops on the basis of national self-commitment in accordance with an incentive and sanctionative system. Both implementation proposals are compared. Recommendations of the national government Baden-Wuerttemberg are given.

  19. Relationship between craniomandibular disorders and poor posture.

    Nicolakis, P; Nicolakis, M; Piehslinger, E; Ebenbichler, G; Vachuda, M; Kirtley, C; Fialka-Moser, V

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to show that a relationship between craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and postural abnormalities has been repeatedly postulated, but still remains unproven. This study was intended to test this hypothesis. Twenty-five CMD patients (mean age 28.2 years) were compared with 25 gender and age matched controls (mean age 28.3 years) in a controlled, investigator-blinded trial. Twelve postural and ten muscle function parameters were examined. Measurements were separated into three subgroups, consisting of those variables associated with the cervical region, the trunk in the frontal plane, and the trunk in the sagittal plane. Within these subgroups, there was significantly more dysfunction in the patients, compared to control subjects (Mann-Whitney U test p Postural and muscle function abnormalities appeared to be more common in the CMD group. Since there is evidence of the mutual influence of posture and the craniomandibular system, control of body posture in CMD patients is recommended, especially if they do not respond to splint therapy. Whether poor posture is the reason or the result of CMD cannot be distinguished by the data presented here.

  20. Day-to-Day Variability of Postural Sway and Its Association With Cognitive Function in Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    Julia M. Leach

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increased variability in motor function has been observed during the initial stages of cognitive decline. However, the natural variability of postural control, as well as its association with cognitive status and decline, remains unknown. The objective of this pilot study was to characterize the day-to-day variability in postural sway in non-demented older adults. We hypothesized that older adults with a lower cognitive status would have higher day-to-day variability in postural sway.Materials and Methods: A Nintendo Wii balance board (WBB was used to quantify postural sway in the home twice daily for 30 days in 20 non-demented, community-dwelling older adults: once under a single-task condition and once under a dual-task condition (using a daily word search task administered via a Nook tablet. Mean sway distance, velocity, area, centroidal frequency and frequency dispersion were derived from the center of pressure data acquired from the WBB.Results: Linear relationships were observed between the day-to-day variability in postural sway and cognitive status (indexed by cognitive global z-scores. More variability in time-domain postural sway (sway distance and area and less variability in frequency-domain postural sway (centroidal sway frequency were associated with a lower cognitive status under both the single- and dual-task conditions. Additionally, lower cognitive performance rates on the daily word search task were related to a lower cognitive status.Discussion: This small pilot study conducted on a short time scale motivates large-scale implementations over more extended time periods. Tracking longitudinal changes in postural sway may further our understanding of early-stage postural decline and its association with cognitive decline and, in turn, may aid in the early detection of dementia during preclinical stages when the utility of disease-modifying therapies would be greatest.

  1. The Use of Neck Support Pillows and Postural Exercises in the Management of Chronic Neck Pain.

    Jamal, Alisha N; Feldman, Brian M; Pullenayegum, Eleanor

    2016-10-01

    Chronic neck pain is a common problem with a profound effect on quality of life. Identifying evidence-based management strategies is fundamental in improving patient outcomes. This study is a reanalysis of the data from Helewa, et al to further characterize the effects of postural exercises and neck support pillows on neck pain. A full factorial model was used. All interactions were analyzed adjusting for the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) at baseline. Postural exercises significantly decreased NPQ scores at ≥ 3 weeks, and the use of a neck support pillow significantly decreased NPQ scores at ≥ 12 weeks. These interventions could be beneficial in reducing neck pain symptoms.

  2. Postural stability in the elderly during sensory perturbations and dual tasking: the influence of refractive blur.

    Anand, Vijay; Buckley, John G; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B

    2003-07-01

    To determine the influence of refractive blur on postural stability during somatosensory and vestibular system perturbation and dual tasking. Fifteen healthy, elderly subjects (mean age, 71 +/- 5 years), who had no history of falls and had normal vision, were recruited. Postural stability during standing was assessed using a force platform, and was determined as the root mean square (RMS) of the center of pressure (COP) signal in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral directions collected over a 30-second period. Data were collected under normal standing conditions and with somatosensory and vestibular system perturbations. Measurements were repeated with an additional physical and/or cognitive task. Postural stability was measured under conditions of binocular refractive blur of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 D and with eyes closed. The data were analyzed with a population-averaged linear model. The greatest increases in postural instability were due to disruptions of the somatosensory and vestibular systems. Increasing refractive blur caused increasing postural instability, and its effect was greater when the input from the other sensory systems was disrupted. Performing an additional cognitive and physical task increased A-P RMS COP further. All these detrimental effects on postural stability were cumulative. The findings highlight the multifactorial nature of postural stability and indicate why the elderly, many of whom have poor vision and musculoskeletal and central nervous system degeneration, are at greater risk of falling. The findings also highlight that standing instability in both normal and perturbed conditions was significantly increased with refractive blur. Correcting visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive error could be a useful intervention strategy to help prevent falls and fall-related injuries in the elderly.

  3. 'Posture for Learning': meeting the postural care needs of children with physical disabilities in mainstream primary schools in England--a research into practice exploratory study.

    Hutton, Eve; Coxon, Kirstie

    2011-01-01

     To explore teachers and teaching assistants' (TAs) views of how to manage the postural care needs of children with physical disabilities (PD) in mainstream primary schools, with the aim of developing strategies to support teachers and assistants in this role.  Qualitative data were gathered from a purposive sample of four primary schools in one county in the U.K. Individual and focus group interviews with 36 teachers and TAs were carried out and used to generate an explanatory framework around their experiences of managing the postural care needs of children with PD.  Teachers and TAs in schools were found to have limited understanding of postural management. Very few had personal experience of the benefits of postural care--instead, most appeared to think in terms of 'doing' rather than 'knowing' about postural care. When implementing therapy programmes, teaching staff followed therapists' instructions carefully, but did not understand the purpose of their actions. Participants described the emotional impact of caring for a child with PD and expressed anxieties about causing discomfort when using equipment such as specialist seating and standing frames. Equipment was viewed as bulky, uncomfortable and restrictive and not suited to the school environment. When asked which kinds of support would be valuable, participants identified practical solutions such as additional space or resources. Based on these findings, therapists, specialist teachers and parents developed an 'A-Z of postural care'. This information resource aimed to address the gaps in knowledge and understanding highlighted by teachers and TAs in the interviews and to acknowledge their anxieties when teaching and caring for children with PD. Stakeholder involvement in all aspects of the project from setting the research question to the development of the A-Z resource has assisted in the dissemination of the resource and its integration into the mainstream school system within the county.

  4. Virtual reality applications in assessing the effect of anxiety on sensorimotor integration in human postural control.

    Widdowson, Christopher; Ganhotra, Jatin; Faizal, Mohammed; Wilko, Marissa; Parikh, Saurin; Adhami, Zainulabidin; Hernandez, Manuel E

    2016-08-01

    Falls are a leading cause of injury and mortality among adults over the age of 65 years. Given the strong relation between fear of falling and fall risk, identification of the mechanisms that underlie anxiety-related changes in postural control may pave the way to the development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing fall risk in older adults. First, we review potential mechanisms underlying anxiety-mediated changes in postural control in older adults with and without neurological conditions. We then present a system that allows for the simultaneous recording of neural, physiological, and behavioral data in an immersive virtual reality (VR) environment while implementing sensory and mechanical perturbations to evaluate alterations in sensorimotor integration under conditions with high postural threat. We also discuss applications of VR in minimizing falls in older adults and potential future studies.

  5. Anatomy and histochemistry of hindlimb flight posture in birds. I. The extended hindlimb posture of shorebirds.

    McFarland, Joshua C; Meyers, Ron A

    2008-08-01

    Birds utilize one of two hindlimb postures during flight: an extended posture (with the hip and knee joints flexed, while the ankle joint is extended caudally) or a flexed posture (with the hip, knee, and ankle joints flexed beneath the body). American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) extend their legs caudally during flight and support them for extended periods. Slow tonic and slow twitch muscle fibers are typically found in muscles functioning in postural support due to the fatigue resistance of these fibers. We hypothesized that a set of small muscles composed of high percentages of slow fibers and thus dedicated to postural support would function in securing the legs in the extended posture during flight. This study examined the anatomy and histochemical profile of eleven hindlimb muscles to gain insight into their functional roles during flight. Contrary to our hypothesis, all muscles possessed both fast twitch and slow twitch or slow tonic fibers. We believe this finding is due to the versatility of dynamic and postural functions the leg muscles must facilitate, including standing, walking, running, swimming, and hindlimb support during flight. Whether birds use an extended or flexed hindlimb flight posture may be related to the aerodynamic effect of leg position or may reflect evolutionary history. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Galvanic vestibular stimulation may improve anterior bending posture in Parkinson's disease.

    Okada, Yohei; Kita, Yorihiro; Nakamura, Junji; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Kiriyama, Takao; Ueno, Satoshi; Hiyamizu, Makoto; Morioka, Shu; Shomoto, Koji

    2015-05-06

    This study investigated the effects of binaural monopolar galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), which likely stimulates the bilateral vestibular system, on the anterior bending angle in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with anterior bending posture in a single-blind, randomized sham-controlled crossover trial. The seven PD patients completed two types of stimulation (binaural monopolar GVS and sham stimulation) applied in a random order 1 week apart. We measured each patient's anterior bending angles while he or she stood with eyes open and eyes closed before/after the stimulations. The anterior bending angles in both the eyes-open and the eyes-closed conditions were significantly reduced after the GVS. The amount of change in the eyes-closed condition post-GVS was significantly larger than that by sham stimulation. The amount of change in anterior bending angles in the GVS condition was not significantly correlated with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score, disease duration, the duration of the postural deformities, and the anterior bending angles before the GVS. Binaural monopolar GVS might improve anterior bending posture in PD patients, irrespective of the duration and the severity of disease and postural deformities. Binaural monopolar GVS might be a novel treatment strategy to improve anterior bending posture in PD.

  7. Lower regulatory frequency for postural control in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Rasouli, Omid; Vasseljen, Ottar; Fors, Egil A; Lorås, Håvard W; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin

    2018-01-01

    As many similar symptoms are reported in fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), underlying defcits may potentially also be similar. Postural disequilibrium reported in both conditions may thus be explained by similar deviations in postural control strategies. 75 females (25/group FM, CFS and control, age 19-49 years) performed 60 s of quiet standing on a force platform in each of three conditions: 1) firm surface with vision, 2) firm surface without vision and, 3) compliant surface with vision. Migration of center of pressure was decomposed into a slow and a fast component denoting postural sway and lateral forces controlling postural sway, analyzed in the time and frequency domains. Main effects of group for the antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions showed that patients displayed larger amplitudes (AP, p = 0.002; ML, p = 0.021) and lower frequencies (AP, p controls. Post hoc analyses showed no significant differences between patient groups. In conclusion, both the CFS- and the FM-group differed from the control group. Larger postural sway and insufficient control was found in patients compared to controls, with no significant differences between the two patient groups.

  8. Evaluation of the demanded physical effort and posture of workers in forest nursery activity

    Eduardo da Silva Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the physical effort demanded and the posture of the workers in forest nursery activities and to propose an ergonomic reorganization to improve the security and health levels of workers. The study was carried out with workers of a forestry company located in Parana State, Brazil. The physical effort demanded was evaluation with in a survery of the workers cardiac frequency in different stages of the work using a Polar monitor from Finlandia and work classified in categories as proposed by Apud (1997. To evaluation posture the workers were filmed during the performance of his activities and the data submitted to the software WinOwas of analysis of postures. The results indicated that the work stages considered of higher physical exigency were the substrate preparation and transport of seedlings in polythene bags to vegetation home with cardiac frequency of 120 and 115 bpm and cardiovascular load of 42% and 37%, respectively, with the activities classified as average heavy. The critical posture to workers was at removal substrate in concrete-mixer, due an overload of lumbar column. The seedling production activity showed the necessity of the correction at posture of the workers because in 97% of the total time they stand with the lumbar column curved. It is possible to conclude that the forestry company should take preventive measures to avoid backaches, using educational strategies or changing the operational system.

  9. Head movements and postures as pain behavior

    Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2018-01-01

    Pain assessment can benefit from observation of pain behaviors, such as guarding or facial expression, and observational pain scales are widely used in clinical practice with nonverbal patients. However, little is known about head movements and postures in the context of pain. In this regard, we analyze videos of three publically available datasets. The BioVid dataset was recorded with healthy participants subjected to painful heat stimuli. In the BP4D dataset, healthy participants performed a cold-pressor test and several other tasks (meant to elicit emotion). The UNBC dataset videos show shoulder pain patients during range-of-motion tests to their affected and unaffected limbs. In all videos, participants were sitting in an upright position. We studied head movements and postures that occurred during the painful and control trials by measuring head orientation from video over time, followed by analyzing posture and movement summary statistics and occurrence frequencies of typical postures and movements. We found significant differences between pain and control trials with analyses of variance and binomial tests. In BioVid and BP4D, pain was accompanied by head movements and postures that tend to be oriented downwards or towards the pain site. We also found differences in movement range and speed in all three datasets. The results suggest that head movements and postures should be considered for pain assessment and research. As additional pain indicators, they possibly might improve pain management whenever behavior is assessed, especially in nonverbal individuals such as infants or patients with dementia. However, in advance more research is needed to identify specific head movements and postures in pain patients. PMID:29444153

  10. Human posture experiments under water: ways of applying the findings to microgravity

    Dirlich, Thomas

    For the design and layout human spacecraft interiors the Neutral Body Posture (NBP) in micro-gravity is of great importance. The NBP has been defined as the stable, replicable and nearly constant posture the body "automatically" assumes when a human relaxes in microgravity. Furthermore the NBP, as published, suggests that there is one standard neutral posture for all individuals. Published experiments from space, parabolic flights and under water on the other hand show strong inter-individual variations of neutral (relaxed) postures. This might originate from the quite small sample sizes of subjects analyzed or the different experiment conditions, e. g. space and under water. Since 2008 a collaborative research project focussing on human postures and motions in microgravity has been ongoing at the Technische Univer-sitüt München (TUM). This collaborative effort is undertaken by the Institute of Astronautics a (LRT) and the Institute of Ergonomics (LfE). Several test campaigns have been conducted in simulated microgravity under water using a specially designed standardized experiment setup. Stereo-metric HD video footage and anthropometric data from over 50 subjects (female and male) has been gathered in over 80 experiments. The video data is analyzed using PCMAN software, developed by the LfE, resulting in a 3D volumetric CAD-based model of each subject and posture. Preliminary and ongoing analysis of the data offer evidence for the existence of intra-individually constant neutral postures, as well as continuously recurring relaxation strate-gies. But as with the data published prior the TUM experiments show quite a large variation of inter-individual postures. These variation might be induced or influenced by the special environmental conditions in the underwater experiment. Thus in present paper ways of stan-dardizing data and applying the findings gathered under water to real microgravity are being discussed. The following influences stemming from the

  11. Postural steadiness during quiet stance does not associate with ability to recover balance in older women.

    Mackey, Dawn C; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2005-10-01

    Fall risk depends on ability to maintain balance during daily activities, and on ability to recover balance following a perturbation such as a slip or trip. We examined whether similar neuromuscular variables govern these two domains of postural stability. We conducted experiments with 25 older women (mean age=78 yrs, SD=7 yrs). We acquired measures of postural steadiness during quiet stance (mean amplitude, velocity, and frequency of centre-of-pressure movement when standing with eyes open or closed, on a rigid or compliant surface). We also measured ability to recover balance using the ankle strategy after release from a forward leaning position (based on the maximum release angle where recovery was possible, and corresponding values of reaction time, rate of ankle torque generation, and peak ankle torque). We found that balance recovery variables were not strongly or consistently correlated with postural steadiness variables. The maximum release angle associated with only three of the sixteen postural steadiness variables (mean frequency in rigid, eyes open condition (r=0.36, P=.041), and mean amplitude (r=0.41, P=.038) and velocity (r=0.49, P=.015) in compliant, eyes closed condition). Reaction time and peak torque did not correlate with any steadiness variables, and rate of torque generation correlated moderately with the mean amplitude and velocity of the centre-of-pressure in the compliant, eyes closed condition (r=0.48-0.60). Our results indicate that postural steadiness during quiet stance is not predictive of ability to recover balance with the ankle strategy. Accordingly, balance assessment and fall prevention programs should individually target these two components of postural stability.

  12. Postural Response Signal Characteristics Identified by Method of Developed Statokinesigram

    Barbolyas Boris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human postural system is taken as complex biological system with specific input and output time characteristics, in this study. Evaluation of measured output characteristics is useful in medical diagnostics or in describing postural system disorders. System theory principle provide suitable basis for postural signals analysis. Participating volunteers were instructed to maintain quiet upright stance posture on firm support surface of stabilometric platform for 60s. Postural system actuation was realized by vibration stimuli applied bilaterally on Achilles tendons for 20s. Postural reaction signal, its time profile and static and dynamic characteristics were evaluated by Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory (MDST.

  13. The Globalisation Strategies of Five Asian Tobacco Companies: A Comparative Analysis and Implications for Global Health Governance

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Lee, Kelley

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The global tobacco industry, from the 1960s to mid 1990s, saw consolidation and eventual domination by a small number of transnational tobacco companies (TTC). This paper draws together comparative analysis of five case studies in the special issue on ?The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.? The cases suggest that tobacco industry globalisation is undergoing a new phase, beginning in the late 1990s, with the adoption of global business st...

  14. Kinematics of the human mandible for different head postures.

    Visscher, C M; Huddleston Slater, J J; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2000-04-01

    The influence of head posture on movement paths of the incisal point (IP) and of the mandibular condyles during free open-close movements was studied. Ten persons, without craniomandibular or cervical spine disorders, participated in the study. Open close mandibular movements were recorded with the head in five postures, viz., natural head posture, forward head posture, military posture, and lateroflexion to the right and to the left side, using the Oral Kinesiologic Analysis System (OKAS-3D). This study showed that in a military head posture, the opening movement path of the incisal point is shifted anteriorly relative to the path in a natural head posture. In a forward head posture, the movement path is shifted posteriorly whereas during lateroflexion, it deviates to the side the head has moved to. Moreover, the intra-articular distance in the temporomandibular joint during closing is smaller with the head in military posture and greater in forward head posture, as compared to the natural head posture. During lateroflexion, the intra-articular distance on the ipsilateral side is smaller. The influence of head posture upon the kinematics of the mandible is probably a manifestation of differences in mandibular loading in the different head postures.

  15. Static and dynamic posture control in postlingual cochlear implanted patients: effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression.

    Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Léonard, Jacques; Dumitrescu, Michel; Meller, Renaud; Magnan, Jacques; Lacour, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Posture control is based on central integration of multisensory inputs, and on internal representation of body orientation in space. This multisensory feedback regulates posture control and continuously updates the internal model of body's position which in turn forwards motor commands adapted to the environmental context and constraints. The peripheral localization of the vestibular system, close to the cochlea, makes vestibular damage possible following cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Impaired vestibular function in CI patients, if any, may have a strong impact on posture stability. The simple postural task of quiet standing is generally paired with cognitive activity in most day life conditions, leading therefore to competition for attentional resources in dual-tasking, and increased risk of fall particularly in patients with impaired vestibular function. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of postlingual cochlear implantation on posture control in adult deaf patients. Possible impairment of vestibular function was assessed by comparing the postural performance of patients to that of age-matched healthy subjects during a simple postural task performed in static (stable platform) and dynamic (platform in translation) conditions, and during dual-tasking with a visual or auditory memory task. Postural tests were done in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions, with the CI activated (ON) or not (OFF). Results showed that the postural performance of the CI patients strongly differed from the controls, mainly in the EC condition. The CI patients showed significantly reduced limits of stability and increased postural instability in static conditions. In dynamic conditions, they spent considerably more energy to maintain equilibrium, and their head was stabilized neither in space nor on trunk: they behaved dynamically without vision like an inverted pendulum while the controls showed a whole body rigidification strategy. Hearing (prosthesis on) as well

  16. Postural stability changes in the elderly with cataract simulation and refractive blur.

    Anand, Vijay; Buckley, John G; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B

    2003-11-01

    maintaining postural stability. Correcting visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive error and cataracts could be a useful intervention strategy to help prevent falls and fall-related injuries in the elderly.

  17. Cost effectiveness of a government supported policy strategy to decrease sodium intake: global analysis across 183 nations.

    Webb, Michael; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali M; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Powles, John; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-10

     To quantify the cost effectiveness of a government policy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce sodium intake in 183 countries worldwide.  Global modeling study.  183 countries.  Full adult population in each country.  A "soft regulation" national policy that combines targeted industry agreements, government monitoring, and public education to reduce population sodium intake, modeled on the recent successful UK program. To account for heterogeneity in efficacy across countries, a range of scenarios were evaluated, including 10%, 30%, 0.5 g/day, and 1.5 g/day sodium reductions achieved over 10 years. We characterized global sodium intakes, blood pressure levels, effects of sodium on blood pressure and of blood pressure on cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease rates in 2010, each by age and sex, in 183 countries. Country specific costs of a sodium reduction policy were estimated using the World Health Organization Noncommunicable Disease Costing Tool. Country specific impacts on mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were modeled using comparative risk assessment. We only evaluated program costs, without incorporating potential healthcare savings from prevented events, to provide conservative estimates of cost effectiveness MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:  Cost effectiveness ratio, evaluated as purchasing power parity adjusted international dollars (equivalent to the country specific purchasing power of US$) per DALY saved over 10 years.  Worldwide, a 10% reduction in sodium consumption over 10 years within each country was projected to avert approximately 5.8 million DALYs/year related to cardiovascular diseases, at a population weighted mean cost of I$1.13 per capita over the 10 year intervention. The population weighted mean cost effectiveness ratio was approximately I$204/DALY. Across nine world regions, estimated cost effectiveness of sodium reduction was best in South Asia (I$116/DALY); across the world

  18. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control

    Beek Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that pictures with negative valence have a greater impact on postural control than neutral or positive ones. Thirty-four healthy subjects passively viewed a series of emotion eliciting images, while standing either in a bipedal or unipedal stance on a force plate. The images were adopted from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. We analysed mean and variability of the COP and the length of the associated sway path as a function of emotion. Results The mean position of the COP was unaffected by emotion, but unipedal stance resulted in overall greater body sway than bipedal stance. We found a modest effect of emotion on COP: viewing pictures of mutilation resulted in a smaller sway path, but only in unipedal stance. We obtained valence and arousal ratings of the images with an independent sample of viewers. These subjects rated the unpleasant images as significantly less pleasant than neutral images, and the pleasant images as significantly more pleasant than neutral images. However, the subjects rated the images as overall less pleasant and less arousing than viewers in a closely comparable American study, pointing to unknown differences in viewer characteristics. Conclusion Overall, viewing emotion eliciting images had little effect on body sway. Our finding of a reduction in sway path length when viewing pictures of mutilation was indicative of a freezing strategy, i.e. fear bradycardia. The results are consistent with current knowledge about the

  19. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control.

    Stins, John F; Beek, Peter J

    2007-10-04

    Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP) trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that pictures with negative valence have a greater impact on postural control than neutral or positive ones. Thirty-four healthy subjects passively viewed a series of emotion eliciting images, while standing either in a bipedal or unipedal stance on a force plate. The images were adopted from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). We analysed mean and variability of the COP and the length of the associated sway path as a function of emotion. The mean position of the COP was unaffected by emotion, but unipedal stance resulted in overall greater body sway than bipedal stance. We found a modest effect of emotion on COP: viewing pictures of mutilation resulted in a smaller sway path, but only in unipedal stance. We obtained valence and arousal ratings of the images with an independent sample of viewers. These subjects rated the unpleasant images as significantly less pleasant than neutral images, and the pleasant images as significantly more pleasant than neutral images. However, the subjects rated the images as overall less pleasant and less arousing than viewers in a closely comparable American study, pointing to unknown differences in viewer characteristics. Overall, viewing emotion eliciting images had little effect on body sway. Our finding of a reduction in sway path length when viewing pictures of mutilation was indicative of a freezing strategy, i.e. fear bradycardia. The results are consistent with current knowledge about the neuroanatomical organization of the emotion system and

  20. Getting men in the room: perceptions of effective strategies to initiate men's involvement in gender-based violence prevention in a global sample.

    Casey, Erin A; Leek, Cliff; Tolman, Richard M; Allen, Christopher T; Carlson, Juliana M

    2017-09-01

    As engaging men in gender-based violence prevention efforts becomes an increasingly institutionalised component of gender equity work globally, clarity is needed about the strategies that best initiate male-identified individuals' involvement in these efforts. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived relevance and effectiveness of men's engagement strategies from the perspective of men around the world who have organised or attended gender-based violence prevention events. Participants responded to an online survey (available in English, French and Spanish) and rated the effectiveness of 15 discrete engagement strategies derived from earlier qualitative work. Participants also provided suggestions regarding strategies in open-ended comments. Listed strategies cut across the social ecological spectrum and represented both venues in which to reach men, and the content of violence prevention messaging. Results suggest that all strategies, on average, were perceived as effective across regions of the world, with strategies that tailor messaging to topics of particular concern to men (such as fatherhood and healthy relationships) rated most highly. Open-ended comments also surfaced tensions, particularly related to the role of a gender analysis in initial men's engagement efforts. Findings suggest the promise of cross-regional adaptation and information sharing regarding successful approaches to initiating men's anti-violence involvement.