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Sample records for global posture reeducation

  1. Effectiveness of global postural reeducation in the treatment of temporomandibular disorder: case report.

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    Monteiro, Wagner; Francisco de Oliveira Dantas da Gama, Thomaz; dos Santos, Robiana Maria; Collange Grecco, Luanda André; Pasini Neto, Hugo; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of global postural reeducation in the treatment of temporomandibular disorder through bilateral surface electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the masseter muscle in a 23-year-old volunteer. EMG values for the masseter were collected at rest (baseline) and during a maximal occlusion. There was a change in EMG activity both at rest and during maximal occlusion following the intervention, evidencing neuromuscular rebalancing between both sides after treatment as well as an increase in EMG activity during maximal occlusion, with direct improvement in the recruitment of motor units during contractile activity and a decrease in muscle tension between sides at rest. The improvement in postural patterns of the cervical spine provided an improvement in aspects of the EMG signal of the masseter muscle in this patient. However, a multidisciplinary study is needed in order to determine the effect of different forms of treatment on this condition and compare benefits between interventions. Therefore, this study can provide a direction regarding the application of this technique in patients with temporomandibular disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Global Postural Reeducation on cardiovascular system of healthy subjects

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    Elizângela Márcia de Carvalho Abreu

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effect of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR on cardiovascular system by heart rate variability (HRV, blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR. Materials and methods Seventeen healthy men (22.47 ± 3.02 years were submitted to the postures frog on the floor, frog on the air, sitting, standing against the wall and inclined standing, two postures per session. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP and HR were recorded. The intervals between heartbeats were collected during the whole session (Polar S810i. The frequency domain was analyzed (Wavelet Transform, the low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF were obtained. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey (p < 0.05. Results Increased LF/HF ratio was observed in the frog on the floor (1 ± 0.1 vs. 2 ± 0.3 p < 0.05 and on the air postures (1 ± 0.1 vs. 2 ± 0.2 p < 0.01. There was an increase in SBP in the postures frog on the floor (123 ± 2 vs. 136 ± 4 p < 0.05, frog on the air (122 ± 2 vs. 133 ± 3 p < 0.05, standing against the wall (123 ± 2 vs. 136 ± 4 p < 0.05, inclined standing (124 ± 3 vs. 146 ± 5 p < 0.05. There was increase of DBP in the postures frog on the floor (69 ± 2 vs. 81 ± 2 p < 0.01, frog on the air (72 ± 2 vs. 83 ± 3 p < 0.05, sitting (85 ± 2 vs. 102 ± 3 p < 0.01. There was increase in HR in the postures frog on the air (67 ± 2 vs. 77 ± 3 p < 0.05 and inclined standing (88 ± 3.5 vs. 101 ± 3 p < 0.05. Conclusion The increase in LF/HF ratio and also the BP and HR indicates high sympathetic activity, possibly related to the work isometric developed during GPR method. [P

  3. Efeitos da Reeducação Postural Global em escolares com escoliose Global Posture Reeducation effects in students with scoliosis

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    Pollyana Coelho Vieira Toledo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o efeito do método da Reeducação Postural Global (RPG em escolares com diagnóstico de escoliose torácica não estrutural (ETNE. Os escolares com indicativo de ETNE ao exame postural e teste de Adams negativo foram encaminhados ao exame radiográfico para comprovação diagnóstica. Foram selecionados 20 participantes (11 meninos e 9 meninas, com 10±3 anos, divididos randomicamente em dois grupos homogêneos: o que realizou o RPG (GRPG durante 12 semanas com duração de 25 a 30 minutos cada sessão, de acordo com o que aguentou permanecer na postura; e o grupo controle (GC, sem intervenção. Após três meses, os dois grupos repetiram a avaliação postural e o exame radiográfico. Para avaliação das estatísticas, foi utilizada análise de variância (ANOVA univariada, com medidas repetidas, seguida do Post Hoc de Tukey para identificar as possíveis diferenças intra e intergrupos. O valor de α foi de 0,05. O GRPG apresentou redução significativa no ângulo de Cobb na comparação intragrupo (Δ%=-35,100; p=0,009, mas o GC não (Δ%=9,520; p=0,789. Pode-se concluir que escolares submetidos ao método da RPG apresentaram melhora do quadro de escoliose torácica não estrutural.The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of Global Reeducation Postural (RPG method in scholars diagnosed with thoracic nonstructural scoliosis (ETNE. Scholars with indicative of ETNE to postural exam and Adams test negative were directed to radiographic exam to diagnostic. Twenty participants were selected (11 boys and 9 girls, 10±3 years old and randomly divided in two homogeneous groups: group treated by RPG (GRPG and control group (CG. The GRPG was submitted a RPG treatment during 12 weeks in sessions from 25 to 30 minutes in agreement with each student tolerance at posture. The CG didn't suffer intervention. After three months, both groups repeated the postural and radiographic exam. For statistics, it was used

  4. Reeducação Postural Global: uma revisão da literatura Global Postural Re-education: a literature review

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    Rosana M. Teodori

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O método de Reeducação Postural Global (RPG tem sido utilizado na clínica com relatos de benefícios para a prevenção e recuperação de disfunções musculoesqueléticas. Após duas décadas de aplicação, estudos têm verificado sua eficácia no tratamento de diferentes condições clínicas e ele tem sido comparado com outros recursos fisioterapêuticos. Entretanto, são poucos os estudos voltados à comprovação dos princípios defendidos pelo autor do método, o que torna frágeis as argumentações em favor dele. OBJETIVO: Realizar, com base na literatura científica, uma análise crítica dos efeitos da intervenção fisioterapêutica utilizando o método RPG. MÉTODOS: Pesquisaram-se as bases de dados Medline, SciELO, LILACS e PeDRO, de 2000 a 2010, considerando os unitermos: RPG, alongamento global e alongamento ativo. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 25 estudos, sendo 13 relacionados ao método RPG e oito aos alongamentos global e ativo, além de três livros e uma tese. Após análise, 20 referências foram utilizadas. CONCLUSÕES: Parte dos estudos aponta que o método RPG é mais efetivo, enquanto outros mostram resultados similares a outros métodos de intervenção fisioterapêutica. Estudos indicam benefícios do método na melhora da força muscular respiratória, expansibilidade torácica, mobilidade toracoabdominal e da pressão respiratória máxima, além de reduzir a dor, a perda de urina em mulheres incontinentes, melhorar a flexibilidade, a atividade eletromiográfica nas disfunções temporomandibulares e a estabilidade postural em alterações ortopédicas de membros inferiores. Limitações metodológicas observadas sugerem a necessidade de maior rigor em futuras pesquisas.BACKGROUND: The Global Postural Re-education (GPR method has been widely used in clinical practice, with reported benefits for prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal dysfunctions. In parallel with almost two decades

  5. Effectiveness of a 'Global Postural Reeducation' program for persistent Low Back Pain: a non-randomized controlled trial

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    Violante Francesco S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this non-randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Global Postural Reeducation (GPR program as compared to a Stabilization Exercise (SE program in subjects with persistent low back pain (LBP at short- and mid-term follow-up (ie. 3 and 6 months. Methods According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 100 patients with a primary complaint of persistent LBP were enrolled in the study: 50 were allocated to the GPR group and 50 to the SE group. Primary outcome measures were Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI. Secondary outcome measures were lumbar Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Fingertip-to-floor test (FFT. Data were collected at baseline and at 3/6 months by health care professionals unaware of the study. An intention to treat approach was used to analyze participants according to the group to which they were originally assigned. Results Of the 100 patients initially included in the study, 78 patients completed the study: 42 in the GPR group and 36 in the SE group. At baseline, the two groups did not differ significantly with respect to gender, age, BMI and outcome measures. Comparing the differences between groups at short- and mid-term follow-up, the GPR group revealed a significant reduction (from baseline in all outcome measures with respect to the SE group. The ordered logistic regression model showed an increased likelihood of definitive improvement (reduction from baseline of at least 30% in RMDQ and VAS scores for the GPR group compared to the SE group (OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.7 to 5.7. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a GPR intervention in subjects with persistent LBP induces a greater improvement on pain and disability as compared to a SE program. These results must be confirmed by further studies with higher methodological standards, including randomization, larger sample size, longer follow-up and subgrouping of the LBP subjects. Trial

  6. Lombalgia durante a gestação: eficácia do tratamento com Reeducação Postural Global (RPG Lumbar pain during pregnancy: efficacy of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR treatment

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    Vinicius Fernandes Barrionuevo Gil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo clínico comparativo com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da Reeducação Postural Global (RPG no tratamento da lombalgia durante a gravidez e sua relação com limitações funcionais das gestantes. Os sujeitos foram 34 gestantes nulíparas atendidas em três centros de saúde e um hospital privado de Campinas, com idade gestacional entre 20 e 25 semanas e queixa de dor lombar. Dezessete gestantes foram submetidas a sessões de RPG durante oito semanas consecutivas, e as demais seguiram orientações de rotina para controle da dor lombar. Em cada sessão de RPG avaliou-se a intensidade da dor percebida pela mulher, antes e após os procedimentos. O grupo controle foi avaliado quanto à intensidade da dor na admissão, às quatro e oito semanas do estudo. Aplicou-se o questionário Roland-Morris para avaliar limitações funcionais, ao início e final do acompanhamento. O grupo de RPG apresentou decréscimo estatisticamente significativo na intensidade da dor antes e depois das sessões. Ao longo do estudo, as mulheres submetidas a RPG tiveram medianas de intensidade da dor e médias do escore de limitações funcionais significativamente menores que as do grupo controle. Análise de covariância indicou que o tratamento com RPG estava associado à menor intensidade da dor percebida ao final do estudo. Conclui-se que a RPG pode dar importante contribuição no tratamento da dor lombar durante a gestação, reduzindo, ao mesmo tempo, as limitações funcionais.A clinical comparative study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR in low back pain treatment during pregnancy, and its association with pregnant women functional limitations. The subjects were 34 nulliparous women attended in 3 public health units and 1 private hospital in Campinas. All women were at 20-25 weeks gestation and experiencing low back pain. Seventeen women were submitted to 8 GPR weekly consecutive sessions and 17

  7. Efeito da reeducação postural global no alinhamento corporal e nas condições clínicas de indivíduos com disfunção temporomandibular associada a desvios posturais Effect of global postural reeducation on body alignment and on clinical status of individuals with temporomandibular disorder associated to postural deviations

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    Débora Basso

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou verificar o efeito da técnica de reeducação postural global (RPG nas condições físicas, psicológicas e psicossociais, assim como no alinhamento corporal, de indivíduos com disfunção temporomandibular (DTM associada a desvio postural. Participaram 20 indivíduos com DTM e com desvio postural confirmado por exame físico, avaliados, antes e depois do tratamento de RPG, pelos critérios diagnósticos de desordens temporomandibulares (RDC/TMD, na sigla em inglês e quanto às medidas angulares, por fotogrametria digital. O tratamento consistiu em 10 sessões semanais de RPG. Os resultados após o tratamento mostram, na classificação da disfunção, maior predomínio de desordens apenas musculares (em detrimento das articulares e por deslocamento de disco e redução da intensidade da dor orofacial; o percentual de indivíduos sem depressão aumentou de 10% para 35%; o percentual de indivíduos com classificação normal de sintomas físicos (excluindo itens de dor passou de 30% para 55%. Foi encontrada melhora estatisticamente significante na maioria das medidas angulares, exceto nos ângulos frontais dos membros inferiores e ângulo perna/retropé direito. O alinhamento horizontal da cabeça e as medidas de lordose cervical e lombar, com valores normais antes da RPG, não se modificaram. Conclui-se que, com o tratamento de RPG, os indivíduos apresentaram importantes melhoras dos sintomas físicos e psicológicos da DTM, assim como melhora do alinhamento e simetria corporais.The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the technique of global postural re-education (GPR on body alignment and clinical status of individuals with temporomandibular disorder (TMD associated to postural deviations. Twenty individuals with both TMD and postural deviations confirmed by physical examination were assessed, before and after treatment, by the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD and as to

  8. External load application in gait and posture reeducation after diffuse axonal injury of the corpus callosum. A case report

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    Magdalena Zawadka

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury caused car accidents is the one of the most common causes of diffuse axonal injury typically located at the grey-white matter junction, in the corpus callosum. A 58-year-old female patient Caucasian race was admitted to the Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Unit with head injury, broken right ulnar bone, numerous broken ribs and broken right iliac crest. Neurological examination resulted in right-sided hemiparesis. There were also coordination and balance disorders while sitting and standing. The patient was unable to walk. After physiotherapy treatment included external load application (ankle weights and rucksack with weights in gait and posture reeducation, patient has improved balance, locomotion and body posture. However, application of external loads during walk and posture reeducation needs to be further investigated with greater number of participants and control group.

  9. EXERCISE, MANUAL THERAPY AND POSTURAL RE-EDUCATION FOR UNCONTROLLED EAR TWITCHING AND RELATED IMPAIRMENTS AFTER WHIPLASH INJURY: A CASE REPORT.

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    Flanders, Kelsey; Feldner, Heather

    2017-10-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders and the interventions used to remediate them are well documented in physical therapy literature. However, specific interventions for spasms of the neck musculature that also involve constant ear twitching have yet to be addressed. The purpose of this case report is twofold. First, to describe comprehensive physical therapy management and outcomes for a subject with uncontrolled ear twitching and related musculoskeletal impairments, and second, to discuss the physical therapist's approach to evidence-based care when faced with a paucity of literature addressing physical therapy interventions for subjects with uncontrolled ear twitching. The subject was a 14-year-old female who sustained a right anterolateral whiplash injury when struck in the head by a volleyball seven months prior to physical therapy. Beginning five months after that injury, she experienced uncontrolled and constant superior/inferior movement of her right ear (hereafter described in this report as a twitch) in addition to facial and cervical pain from her initial injury. She was unable to participate in high school athletics due to her pain. A multimodal treatment approach including exercise, manual therapy, and postural reeducation was utilized during the subject's episode of care. After eight treatment sessions, the subjects's cervical range of motion and upper extremity strength improved. The reported frequency of ear twitching decreased, as did reports of neck and shoulder pain. In addition, her Neck Disability Index improved from a score of 22, indicating moderate disability, to 9, indicating mild disability and she was able to return to sport activity. With limited research to direct intervention, clinical reasoning was utilized to formulate an effective therapeutic intervention. A combination of manual therapy, exercise, and postural reeducation intervention was effective for this subject and could assist in guiding interventions for similarly unique clinical

  10. Reeducation at Heidelberg University.

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    Giles, Geoffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    Utilizes German archival records to illuminate crucial post-war events at Heidelberg University. The university became the focal point of attempts to define the theoretical and practical meaning of "geistige Umerziehung" (spiritual reeducation). Discusses the conflict between U.S. authorities and such esteemed German scholars as Karl…

  11. Knee posture during gait and global functioning post-stroke: a theoretical ICF framework using current measures in stroke rehabilitation

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    Neves Rosa, Marlene Cristina; Marques, Alda; Demain, Sara; Metcalf, Cheryl D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To characterise the global functioning post-stroke in patients with normal knee posture (NKP) and abnormal knee posture (AKP) during loading-response. Methods: 35 people, 6 months post-stroke. with NKP and AKP were identified and assessed using clinical measures classified into the corresponding International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domains: weight function (body mass index); muscle power (knee isometric strength); muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Sca...

  12. Inter-rater reliability of the evaluation of muscular chains associated with posture alterations in scoliosis

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    Fortin Carole

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Global postural re-education (GPR evaluation, posture alterations are associated with anterior or posterior muscular chain impairments. Our goal was to assess the reliability of the GPR muscular chain evaluation. Methods Design: Inter-rater reliability study. Fifty physical therapists (PTs and two experts trained in GPR assessed the standing posture from photographs of five youths with idiopathic scoliosis using a posture analysis grid with 23 posture indices (PI. The PTs and experts indicated the muscular chain associated with posture alterations. The PTs were also divided into three groups according to their experience in GPR. Experts’ results (after consensus were used to verify agreement between PTs and experts for muscular chain and posture assessments. We used Kappa coefficients (K and the percentage of agreement (%A to assess inter-rater reliability and intra-class coefficients (ICC for determining agreement between PTs and experts. Results For the muscular chain evaluation, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A: 56 to 82; K: 0.42 to 0.76 and perfect for 19 PI for the experts. For posture assessment, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A > 60%; K: 0.42 to 0.75 and moderate to perfect for 18 PI for the experts (%A: 80 to 100; K: 0.55 to 1.00. The agreement between PTs and experts was good for most muscular chain evaluations (18 PI; ICC: 0.82 to 0.99 and PI (19 PI; ICC: 0.78 to 1.00. Conclusions The GPR muscular chain evaluation has good reliability for most posture indices. GPR evaluation should help guide physical therapists in targeting affected muscles for treatment of abnormal posture patterns.

  13. The effects of a global postural exercise program on temporomandibular disorder

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    Alexandre Fiorelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes in the suboccipital muscles and the hamstrings may interfere with head posture and the biomechanics of the temporomandibular joint, both of which contribute to the severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of a global postural exercise program (GPEP on pain intensity and mouth-opening range of motion (ROM in women with TMD. The participants were comprised of 30 women with TMD who were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG and a control group (CG. A pressure algometer was used for pain assessment and a paquimeter was used to measure ROM. The duration of the GPEP was six weeks. In the EG, there was a reduction in pain intensity and an increase in mouth-opening ROM compared to the CG. Therefore, we concluded that the GPEP was effective in relieving pain in all of the evaluated muscles and regions, and in increasing mouth-opening ROM in women with TMD.

  14. Global body posture and plantar pressure distribution in individuals with and without temporomandibular disorder: a preliminary study.

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    Souza, Juliana A; Pasinato, Fernanda; Corrêa, Eliane C R; da Silva, Ana Maria T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate body posture and the distribution of plantar pressure at physiologic rest of the mandible and during maximal intercuspal positions in subjects with and without temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Fifty-one subjects were assessed by the Diagnostic Criteria for Research on Temporomandibular Disorders and divided into a symptomatic group (21) and an asymptomatic group (30). Postural analysis for both groups was conducted using photogrammetry (SAPo version 0.68; University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil). The distribution of plantar pressures was evaluated by means of baropodometry (Footwork software), at physiologic rest and maximal intercuspal positions. Of 18 angular measurements, 3 (17%) were statistically different between the groups in photogrammetric evaluation. The symptomatic group showed more pronounced cervical distance (P = .0002), valgus of the right calcaneus (P = .0122), and lower pelvic tilt (P = .0124). The baropodometry results showed the TMD subjects presented significantly higher rearfoot and lower forefoot distribution than those in the asymptomatic group. No differences were verified in maximal intercuspal position in the between-group analysis and between the 2 mandibular positions in the within-group analysis. Subjects with and without TMD presented with global body posture misalignment. Postural changes were more pronounced in the subjects with TMD. In addition, symptomatic subjects presented with abnormal plantar pressure distribution, suggesting that TMD may have an influence on the postural system. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Postural changes and pain in the academic performance of elementary school students

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    Maria Homéria Leite de Morais Sampaio

    Full Text Available Abstract Postural changes and pain in the spine of children and adolescents of school age are influenced by the permanent incorrect sitting position, misuse of furniture and weight of the backpack. The aim of this study was to verify postural changes and pain in the academic performance of elementary school students. It was a cross-sectional study, with a descriptive and analytical approach. The subjects were 83 elementary students, aged 8 to 12 years, of Kindergarten and Elementary Education at Paulo Sarasate Municipal School, Ceará. It was performed from March to June 2008. In the physical examination it was used an evaluation form, based on Global Postural reeducation, by Souchard method, which included the variables: compromised anterior, posterior, superior shoulder muscle chains and pain and, in academic performance, a semi-structured questionnaire with the variables: behavior, attendance and performance. The data was stored in the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS version 18.0. In the descriptive analysis, absolute and relative frequencies were used, and in the inferential analysis, the following tests were applied: Mann-Whitney, to verify the existence of significant differences in changes in groups A and B, at a significance level of 5%, and the F statistical test, for comparing postural changes and pain, in the three grades. Results: it was noted that the majority of the students presented postural changes, such as forward head, lifted shoulders, dorsal hyperkyphosis and pain, which predominantly occurred in the anterior chain, when compared with the posterior and superior chains. These changes in both groups were statistically significant only in subjects of the fifth grade with satisfactory academic performance and behavior. It was concluded that there was no association between postural changes and school performance, although it was influenced by pain.

  16. ANTIQUE – MODERN: MASTICATION REEDUCATION IN OBESITY RECOVERY

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    Sergiu TEODORESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mastication reeducation is one of the ways of body remodeling, that can be used in the obesity recovery. In antique Greece, this kind of exercises were practiced in Palestra (gymnastics, sports and sporting competitions schools and arenas. "Besides, Palestras teachers recommended to the athletes to chew well and at leisure, to gain more power, instead of swallow in the greedily eating way, without chewing. ......... therefore, one of the regular exercise, in the Palestra, is chewing food. ". At present, a study showed that the evolution of the fat percentage, as part of body composition, was significantly positive for the experimental group subjects. Mastication reeducation physical exercises are ways to understand, appreciate and to keep healthy the own body.

  17. Re-education of good ergonomics in nursing for Suomikoti

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    Isoheiko, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to promote and “refresh” the good ergonomics in nursing for Suomikoti in Sweden. The author noticed the need for re-education or “refreshment” of the nursing ergonomics among the permanent personnel as well updating knowledge of functioning of the existing assistive devices. Suomikoti has already a good and comprehensive transfer and ergonomics education and practical training for new employees arranged by their own physiotherapist and occupational therapist. It cov...

  18. Music and 're-education' in the Soviet Gulag.

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    Klause, Inna

    2013-01-01

    After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks announced a new human dimension of penal policy whose goal should be the so-called 're-education' of prisoners. The desired 're-education' was to be realised using two kinds of measures: the physical work of the prisoners, and 'cultural education work'. A varied musical life in groups, 'agitation brigades', ensembles, orchestras and choirs developed within the framework of the 'cultural education work'. Two camps responsible for building canals in the 1930s particularly adopted this musical life: Belbaltlag and Dmitlag. In the latter, a composition competition took place in 1936 in which, among others, the arrested composer Sergey Protopopov took part. Since the 1930s, the Gulag administration had publicised that the measures taken for 're-education' concerned primarily criminal prisoners, as opposed to 'political prisoners', who were labelled as foreign to socialist society. Although the 'cultural education work' would not have functioned as well as it did without the cooperation of 'political prisoners', since their participation did not fit into the prescribed ideology, they were often underappreciated or even completely concealed. The following is a depiction of the officially organised musical life in the Gulag in the 1920s and 1930s as a grey zone. Music making and listening represented not only a source of strength for the prisoners, but also brought about situations that meant physical and psychological torture for them.

  19. Tratamiento de la lumbalgia crónica con fisioterapia convencional y reeducación postural global: a propósito de un caso"

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    Martínez Mingo, Maialen

    2013-01-01

    Se elige un caso de lumbalgia crónica en un sujeto de 19 años de edad, el cual padece un dolor lumbar durante un año aproximadamente. El paciente recibe tratamiento fisioterápico de electroterapia, sin resultados positivos. Posteriormente, se emplean técnicas de osteopatía con idénticos resultados. Es por eso, que se decide optar por la reeducación postural global (RPG) simultáneamente a la fisioterapia convencional (masoterapia y electroterapia). Tras un periodo de 10 sesiones de RPG, ...

  20. Relationships among head posture, pain intensity, disability and deep cervical flexor muscle performance in subjects with postural neck pain

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    Arun V. Subbarayalu, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Information Technology (IT professionals working with computers gradually develop forward head posture and, as a result, these professionals are susceptible to several neck disorders. This study intended to reveal the relationships between pain intensity, disability, head posture and deep cervical flexor (DCF muscle performance in patients with postural neck pain. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 IT professionals who were diagnosed with postural neck pain. The participants were recruited with a random sampling approach. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ, the Modified Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (MHPSCI, and the Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback Unit were used to measure neck pain intensity, neck disability, head posture, and DCF muscle performance, respectively. Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significantly strong positive relationship between the VAS and the NPQ (r = 0.734. The cranio-vertebral (CV angle was found to have a significantly negative correlation with the VAS (r = −0.536 and a weak negative correlation with the NPQ (r = −0.389. Conclusion: This study concluded that a smaller CV angle corresponded to greater neck pain intensity and disability. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between CV angle and DCF muscle performance, indicating that head posture re-education through postural correction exercises would not completely correct the motor control deficits in DCF muscles. In addition, a suitable exercise regimen that exclusively targets the deep cervical flexor muscle to improve its endurance is warranted. Keywords: Craniovertebral angle, Disability deep cervical flexors muscle performance, Head posture, Postural neck pain

  1. Benefits of a vesicle re-education program on elderly hospitalized patients

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    Silvia del Rey Contreras

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary incontinence is a geriatric syndrome of high prevalence in elderly people, which very frequently is not diagnosed and many times appears when suffering a sharp incapacitate Pathology.The aim of the research is to discover the response to the treatment of vesicle re-education in patients with various pathologies and to observe if the benefit is permanent.A group of 372 patients of the “Middle-Stay Unit” of the Red Cross Hospital were evaluated from October 1, 2001 to December 31, 2002 using objective instruments of physical and mental evaluation. The results showed that the prevalence of the incontinence at patients’ admission was very high and the vesicle re-education was proved to be very effective since the continence was recovered in a significant number of patients permanently.

  2. EFFECT OF UNIPOLAR ACU-STIM ON MUSCLE RE-EDUCATION FOLLOWING TENDON TRANSFER - A CASE STUDY

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    Prof. Srikanth R

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tendon transfer surgery is usually done to improve function, following damage to either major nerve trunks or peripheral nerves. Re-education of the muscle is of utmost importance to gain functional activity.To achieve this, along with re-education exercises, faradic stimulation is usually used. Unipolar Acu-Stim (UAS, is an innovative technique where an acupuncture needle is used to stimulate the transferred tendon with Surged Faradic Currents (SFC. The objective of the study is to identify if the application of SFC using UAS method, is effective to re-educate a transferred muscle. Case Description: The subject was a 24 year old male who had a loss of finger and thumb extension following Posterior Interosseous Nerve (PIN palsy, for which Flexor Carpi Radialis (FCR was transferred to Extensor Digitorum Communis (EDC and Palmaris Longus (PL was transferred to Extensor Pollicis Longus (EPL. Following removal of the POP, UAS with surged faradic current was applied for 4 weeks along with re-education exercises. Prognosis of finger extension was assessed by goniometry and video recordings. Outcome: At the end of 8th week, as observed on goniometry and video recordings, complete finger extension was achieved. Discussion: UAS with SFC, is useful in re-education of a transferred muscle, as desired movement can be achieved with low intensity.

  3. Determining postural stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Erez (Inventor); Forth, Katharine E. (Inventor); Paloski, William H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining postural stability of a person can include acquiring a plurality of pressure data points over a period of time from at least one pressure sensor. The method can also include the step of identifying a postural state for each pressure data point to generate a plurality of postural states. The method can include the step of determining a postural state of the person at a point in time based on at least the plurality of postural states.

  4. Application of psychomotor reeducation method in the treatment of developmental verbal dyspraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Katarina N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspraxia is often defined as a disorder or immaturity in the development of motor skills and organized, voluntary movements in the objective space. Considering speech as a motor activity of high specificity and complexity, dyspraxic disorders can also affect the control of oral-buccal-lingual movements and produce problems in oral expression. Developmental verbal dyspraxia is the developmental speech and language disorder that is manifested in the difficulty of programming sequential speech movements, and therefore the production of meaningful verbal messages and its accompanying nonverbal elements. It is diagnosed if the child has no detected peripheral organ damage, severe sensory disturbances, nor muscle weakness or dysfunction. Also, an intellectual functioning is within normal range ande receptive language skills are intact. Good results in the treatment of developmental dyspraxic disorders are achieved by using techniques of psychomotor reeducation method, a kind of developmental therapy that achieves reintegration of practognostical skills and psychomotor activity by using speech, body movements and tonic dialogue as authentic means of communication. This paper will describe certain types of exercises of general psychomotor re-education which can be used in the treatment of developmental verbal dyspraxia, as a supplement to speech and neuropsychological therapy.

  5. RE-EDUCATIVE METHOD IN THE PROCESS OF MINIMIZING OF AUTOAGRESIVE WAYS OF BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad GLUMBIC

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Autoagressive behavior is a relatively frequent symptom of mental disturbances and behavior disturbances which are the subject of professional engagement of clinically oriented defectologists. In the process of rehabilitation numerous methods are used, from behavioral to psychopharmacological ones by which the above mentioned problems are eliminated of softened.The paper deals with four children with different diagnosis (autism, disintegrative psychosis, Patau syndrome and amaurosis that have the same common denominator-mental retardation and autoagression.We have tried to point out-by the description of a study case as well as the ways od work with these children-an application possibly of the particular methods of general and special re-education of psychomotorics in the process of autoagressive ways of behavior minimizing.The paper gives the autor’s notion of indications for re-educative method application with in the multihandicapped children population. Defectological treatment discovers new forms of existence in the existential field, not only to the retarded child but also to the very therapist. Epistemological consequences of the mentioned transfer are given in details in the paper.

  6. Guide to Good Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are moving or still, can prevent pain, injuries, and other health problems. What is posture? Posture is how you hold your body. There are two types: Dynamic posture is how you hold yourself when you are moving, like when you are walking, running, or bending over to pick up something. Static ...

  7. Therapeutic Fascism: re-educating communists in Nazi-occupied Serbia, 1942-44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antic, Ana

    2014-03-01

    This article probes the relationship between psychoanalysis and right-wing authoritarianism, and analyses a unique psychotherapeutic institution established by Serbia's World War II collaborationist regime. The extraordinary Institute for compulsory re-education of high-school and university students affiliated with the Communist resistance movement emerged in the context of a brutal civil war and violent retaliations against Communist activists, but its openly psychoanalytic orientation was even more astonishing. In order to stem the rapid spread of Communism, the collaborationist state, led by its most extreme fascistic elements, officially embraced psychotherapy, the 'talking cure' and Freudianism, and conjured up its own theory of mental pathology and trauma - one that directly contradicted the Nazi concepts of society and the individual. In the course of the experiment, Serbia's collaborationists moved away from the hitherto prevailing organicist, biomedical model of mental illness, and critiqued traditional psychiatry's therapeutic pessimism.

  8. Music and 're-education' in Greek prison camps: from Makronisos (1947-1955) to Giaros (1967-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaeti, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the policy of 're-education' for left-wing political prisoners in Greece during the military Junta (1967-1974) at the prison camp on the island of Giaros from 1967 to November 1968. Taking as its starting point the ways folk culture was used to substantiate the Colonels' ideological discourse and to give their rule aesthetic roots as a strategy of legitimization, the paper investigates how this kind of music was instrumentalized as a way of breaking political prisoners in exile. Music from loudspeakers was part of an attempt to make detainees sign Declarations of Loyalty, renouncing their values and their comrades. The 're-education' programme of Giaros is examined here as a remainder of the Greek Civil-War legacy (1946-1949), and particularly of the institutionalized 're-education' and 'rehabilitation' programme of the infamous prison camps on the island of Makronisos (1947-1955). Interviews with former detainees from both historical periods underline the damaging effects of the use of music, highlighting the need to understand music's capacity to degrade, but also torture, individuals instead of uplift and ennoble the soul.

  9. 2012 National Guard Bureau Posture Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Illinois / Poland Indiana / Slovakia Kansas / Armenia Maine/ Montenegro Maryland / Estonia Maryland / Bosnia Michigan / Latvia Minnesota / Croatia New Jersey...alternative methods of planting to help increase crop production in the area. 2012 Posture Statement 19 Global Engagement State Partnership...horticulture ( plant cultivation), pest control, veterinary/animal husbandry techniques, civil engineering, and energy management. As a result of the

  10. De-educate to re-educate: aging and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Adriaan; Zimney, Kory; Johnson, Eldon A; Kraemer, Chris; Fesler, Justin; Burcham, Tyler

    2017-12-01

    Patients' beliefs about their condition have been shown to play a significant role in their pain experience and response to treatment, especially when a patient sees their tissue health as vulnerable or aged. Educational can alter these beliefs. Prior to new information, patients often have to be de-educated regarding common misbeliefs to undergo re-education. To determine if a brief de-education session regarding aging and low back pain (LBP) can shift pain ratings, fear-avoidance beliefs, beliefs regarding aging and LBP, and limited active trunk flexion. Fifty adults ranging from 50 to 93 years of age (SD = 10.73) with a 15.1 years of LBP were education on the poor correlation between aging and LBP. Prior to and immediately after the education pain ratings for LBP and leg pain (numeric pain rating scale-NPRS), fear-avoidance (fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire-FABQ), beliefs regarding aging and LBP (Likert scale) and active trunk flexion were measured. Significant changes were found in positive shifts with LBP (p = 0.002), leg pain (p = 0.042), FABQ-physical activity subscale (p = 0.004) and active trunk forward flexion (p aging result in a positive shift in pain, fear avoidance related to physical activity and active trunk flexion. Prior to providing patients with new healthcare information, de-educating them regarding poor beliefs may be helpful in shifting them towards new, healthier paradigms associated with their condition.

  11. Gait re-education based on the Bobath concept in two patients with hemiplegia following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, S

    2001-03-01

    This case report describes the use of gait re-education based on the Bobath concept to measure the changes that occurred in the gait of 2 patients with hemiplegia who were undergoing outpatient physical therapy. One patient ("NM"), a 65-year-old woman, was referred for physical therapy 6 weeks following a right cerebrovascular accident. She attended 30 therapy sessions over a 15-week period. The other patient ("SA"), a 71-year-old woman, was referred for physical therapy 7 weeks following a left cerebrovascular accident. She attended 28 therapy sessions over a 19-week period. Clinical indexes of impairment and disability and 3-dimensional gait data were obtained at the start of treatment and at discharge. Therapy was based on the Bobath concept. At discharge, NM demonstrated improvements in her hip and knee movements, reduced tone, and improved mobility. At discharge, SA demonstrated improved mobility. During gait, both patients demonstrated more normal movement patterns at the level of the pelvis, the knee, and the ankle in the sagittal plane. SA also demonstrated an improvement in hip extension. These cases demonstrate that recovery of more normal movement patterns and functional ability can be achieved following a cardiovascular accident and provide insight into the clinical decision making of experienced practitioners using Bobath's concept.

  12. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Spondylitis › Treatment Information › Exercise & Posture Print Page Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ... For First Responders For Chiropractors Research Article Archive Exercise Guidelines Having an exercise program that accomplishes your ...

  13. Static body postural misalignment in individuals with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Thaís C.; Turci, Aline M.; Pinheiro, Carina F.; Sousa, Letícia M.; Grossi, Débora B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between body postural changes and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has been widely discussed in the literature, however, there is little evidence to support this association. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between static body postural misalignment and TMD. METHOD: A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane, and Scopus databases including studies published in English between 1950 and March 2012. Cross-sectional, cohort, case control, and survey studies that assessed body posture in TMD patients were selected. Two reviewers performed each step independently. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. RESULTS: Twenty studies were analyzed for their methodological quality. Only one study was classified as a moderate quality study and two were classified as strong quality studies. Among all studies considered, only 12 included craniocervical postural assessment, 2 included assessment of craniocervical and shoulder postures,, and 6 included global assessment of body posture. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence of craniocervical postural changes in myogenous TMD, moderate evidence of cervical postural misalignment in arthrogenous TMD, and no evidence of absence of craniocervical postural misalignment in mixed TMD patients or of global body postural misalignment in patients with TMD. It is important to note the poor methodological quality of the studies, particularly those regarding global body postural misalignment in TMD patients. PMID:25590441

  14. Early sensory re-education of the hand after peripheral nerve repair based on mirror therapy: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Mayara H.; Barbosa, Rafael I.; Marcolino, Alexandre M.; Elui, Valéria M. C.; Rosén, Birgitta; Fonseca, Marisa C. R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mirror therapy has been used as an alternative stimulus to feed the somatosensory cortex in an attempt to preserve hand cortical representation with better functional results. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the short-term functional outcome of an early re-education program using mirror therapy compared to a late classic sensory program for hand nerve repair. METHOD: This is a randomized controlled trial. We assessed 20 patients with median and ulnar nerve and flexor tendon repair using the Rosen Score combined with the DASH questionnaire. The early phase group using mirror therapy began on the first postoperative week and lasted 5 months. The control group received classic sensory re-education when the protective sensation threshold was restored. All participants received a patient education booklet and were submitted to the modified Duran protocol for flexor tendon repair. The assessments were performed by the same investigator blinded to the allocated treatment. Mann-Whitney Test and Effect Size using Cohen's d score were used for inter-group comparisons at 3 and 6 months after intervention. RESULTS: The primary outcome (Rosen score) values for the Mirror Therapy group and classic therapy control group after 3 and 6 months were 1.68 (SD=0.5); 1.96 (SD=0.56) and 1.65 (SD=0.52); 1.51 (SD=0.62), respectively. No between-group differences were observed. CONCLUSION: Although some clinical improvement was observed, mirror therapy was not shown to be more effective than late sensory re-education in an intermediate phase of nerve repair in the hand. Replication is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26786080

  15. Early sensory re-education of the hand after peripheral nerve repair based on mirror therapy: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara H. Paula

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mirror therapy has been used as an alternative stimulus to feed the somatosensory cortex in an attempt to preserve hand cortical representation with better functional results. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the short-term functional outcome of an early re-education program using mirror therapy compared to a late classic sensory program for hand nerve repair. METHOD: This is a randomized controlled trial. We assessed 20 patients with median and ulnar nerve and flexor tendon repair using the Rosen Score combined with the DASH questionnaire. The early phase group using mirror therapy began on the first postoperative week and lasted 5 months. The control group received classic sensory re-education when the protective sensation threshold was restored. All participants received a patient education booklet and were submitted to the modified Duran protocol for flexor tendon repair. The assessments were performed by the same investigator blinded to the allocated treatment. Mann-Whitney Test and Effect Size using Cohen's d score were used for inter-group comparisons at 3 and 6 months after intervention. RESULTS: The primary outcome (Rosen score values for the Mirror Therapy group and classic therapy control group after 3 and 6 months were 1.68 (SD=0.5; 1.96 (SD=0.56 and 1.65 (SD=0.52; 1.51 (SD=0.62, respectively. No between-group differences were observed. CONCLUSION: Although some clinical improvement was observed, mirror therapy was not shown to be more effective than late sensory re-education in an intermediate phase of nerve repair in the hand. Replication is needed to confirm these findings.

  16. Influence of musical groove on postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jessica M; Warlaumont, Anne S; Abney, Drew H; Rigoli, Lillian M; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Timescales of postural fluctuation reflect underlying neuromuscular processes in balance control that are influenced by sensory information and the performance of concurrent cognitive and motor tasks. An open question is how postural fluctuations entrain to complex environmental rhythms, such as in music, which also vary on multiple timescales. Musical groove describes the property of music that encourages auditory-motor synchronization and is used to study voluntary motor entrainment to rhythmic sounds. The influence of groove on balance control mechanisms remains unexplored. We recorded fluctuations in center of pressure (CoP) of standing participants (N = 40) listening to low and high groove music and during quiet stance. We found an effect of musical groove on radial sway variability, with the least amount of variability in the high groove condition. In addition, we observed that groove influenced postural sway entrainment at various temporal scales. For example, with increasing levels of groove, we observed more entrainment to shorter, local timescale rhythmic musical occurrences. In contrast, we observed more entrainment to longer, global timescale features of the music, such as periodicity, with decreasing levels of groove. Finally, musical experience influenced the amount of postural variability and entrainment at local and global timescales. We conclude that groove in music and musical experience can influence the neural mechanisms that govern balance control, and discuss implications of our findings in terms of multiscale sensorimotor coupling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Development of low postural tone compensatory patterns in children - theoretical basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogola, Anna; Saulicz, Edward; Kuszewski, Michał; Matyja, Małgorzata; Myśliwiec, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Neurological literature indicates the existence of children with low postural tone without association with central nervous system damage. This fact induces to think about mechanisms, which allow these children to maintain upright posture. There is a suspicion that compensatory mechanism included in this process, enables to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality. Observations of children's developmental stages caused determination of some postural tone area, which comprise both children with normotonia and with low postural tone without characteristics of central nervous system (CNS) damage. Set of specific qualities allows determination of two types of low postural tone: spastoidal and atetoidal type. Spastoidal type is characterized by deep trunk muscles (local) low postural tone compensated by excessive tension of superficial muscles (global). Atetoidal type includes children with low postural tone in both deep and superficial muscles. At inefficient active subsystem, verticalization proceeds at excessive use of passive subsystem qualities, that is meniscus, ligament, bone shape, and muscles passive features. From neurodevelopmental point of view compensatory mechanisms can be used in children with low postural tone in order to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality.

  18. Regional differences in lumbar spinal posture and the influence of low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnett Angus F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal posture is commonly a focus in the assessment and clinical management of low back pain (LBP patients. However, the link between spinal posture and LBP is not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that considering regional, rather than total lumbar spine posture is important. The purpose of this study was to determine; if there are regional differences in habitual lumbar spine posture and movement, and if these findings are influenced by LBP. Methods One hundred and seventy female undergraduate nursing students, with and without LBP, participated in this cross-sectional study. Lower lumbar (LLx, Upper lumbar (ULx and total lumbar (TLx spine angles were measured using an electromagnetic tracking system in static postures and across a range of functional tasks. Results Regional differences in lumbar posture and movement were found. Mean LLx posture did not correlate with ULx posture in sitting (r = 0.036, p = 0.638, but showed a moderate inverse correlation with ULx posture in usual standing (r = -0.505, p Conclusion This study supports the concept of regional differences within the lumbar spine during common postures and movements. Global lumbar spine kinematics do not reflect regional lumbar spine kinematics, which has implications for interpretation of measures of spinal posture, motion and loading. BMI influenced regional lumbar posture and movement, possibly representing adaptation due to load.

  19. Reflex control of the spine and posture: a review of the literature from a chiropractic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlappi Mark

    2005-08-01

    all of the postural reflexes either in Earth's gravity or in microgravitational environments. Studies testing the function of each postural component, as well as those discussing postural reflex interactions, were also included in this review. Discussion It is quite apparent from the indexed literature we searched that posture is largely maintained by reflexive, involuntary control. While reflexive components for postural control are found in skin and joint receptors, somatic graviceptors, and baroreceptors throughout the body, much of the reflexive postural control mechanisms are housed, or occur, within the head and neck region primarily. We suggest that the postural reflexes may function in a hierarchical fashion. This hierarchy may well be based on the gravity-dependent or gravity-independent nature of each postural reflex. Some or all of these postural reflexes may contribute to the development of a postural body scheme, a conceptual internal representation of the external environment under normal gravity. This model may be the framework through which the postural reflexes anticipate and adapt to new gravitational environments. Conclusion Visual and vestibular input, as well as joint and soft tissue mechanoreceptors, are major players in the regulation of static upright posture. Each of these input sources detects and responds to specific types of postural stimulus and perturbations, and each region has specific pathways by which it communicates with other postural reflexes, as well as higher central nervous system structures. This review of the postural reflex structures and mechanisms adds to the growing body of posture rehabilitation literature relating specifically to chiropractic treatment. Chiropractic interest in these reflexes may enhance the ability of chiropractic physicians to treat and correct global spine and posture disorders. With the knowledge and understanding of these postural reflexes, chiropractors can evaluate spinal configurations not only

  20. Postural ortostatisk takykardisyndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Pors, Kirsten; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous condition of dysautonomia and suspected autoimmunity characterized by abnormal increments in heart rate upon assumption of the upright posture accompanied by symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion and sympathoexcitation. An increase...... in heart rate equal to or greater than 30 bpm or to levels higher than 120 bpm during a head-up tilt test is the main diagnostic criterion. Management includes both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment focusing on stress management, volume expansion and heart rate control....

  1. Body posture modulates action perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Marius; Toni, Ivan; de Lange, Floris P

    2013-04-03

    Recent studies have highlighted cognitive and neural similarities between planning and perceiving actions. Given that action planning involves a simulation of potential action plans that depends on the actor's body posture, we reasoned that perceiving actions may also be influenced by one's body posture. Here, we test whether and how this influence occurs by measuring behavioral and cerebral (fMRI) responses in human participants predicting goals of observed actions, while manipulating postural congruency between their own body posture and postures of the observed agents. Behaviorally, predicting action goals is facilitated when the body posture of the observer matches the posture achieved by the observed agent at the end of his action (action's goal posture). Cerebrally, this perceptual postural congruency effect modulates activity in a portion of the left intraparietal sulcus that has previously been shown to be involved in updating neural representations of one's own limb posture during action planning. This intraparietal area showed stronger responses when the goal posture of the observed action did not match the current body posture of the observer. These results add two novel elements to the notion that perceiving actions relies on the same predictive mechanism as planning actions. First, the predictions implemented by this mechanism are based on the current physical configuration of the body. Second, during both action planning and action observation, these predictions pertain to the goal state of the action.

  2. Nuclear Posture Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    REVIEW margin for further delay in recapitalizing the physical infrastructure needed to produce strategic materials and components for U.S. nuclear... REVIEW 2018 This page left intentionally blank REVIEW NUCLEAR POSTURE REVIEW FEBRUARY 2018...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE This page left intentionally blank REVIEW CONTENTS SECRETARY’S PREFACE

  3. The Post-War British "Re-Education" Policy for German Universities and Its Application at the Universities of Göttingen and Cologne (1945-1947)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euros, Glesni

    2016-01-01

    The crux of British aims for Germany following the Second World War focused on "re-education" and democratisation. Well aware that the victors' policies following World War One had failed to prevent Germany from pursuing an expansionist path once again, the plan was to help Germany learn from her problematic past. These aims extended to…

  4. POSTURAL SHOCK IN PREGNANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Ralph L.; Knauer, John; Larson, Roger K.

    1955-01-01

    Signs and symptoms of shock may be produced in some patients in late pregnancy by putting them in the dorsal recumbent posture. Change from this position will relieve the condition. The features of the supine hypotensive syndrome can be duplicated by applying pressure to the abdomen with the patient in a lateral position. The postural variations of venous pressure, blood pressure, and pulse appear to be due to obstruction of venous return from the lower portion of the body caused by the large uterus of late pregnancy compressing the vena cava. When shock is observed in a woman in late pregnancy, she should be turned to a lateral position before more active measures of treatment are begun. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:14351983

  5. The differences in postural reactions between scoliosis and scoliotic posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to demonstrate the differences in amplitudes of postural reactions in girls with scoliotic posture and idiopathic scoliosis. 28 girls aged 7-18 years old were involved in the study. Children attended to the Interschool Centre of Corrective Exercises in Starachowice. The research was conducted in June 2011. Spine research was made by Exhibeon digital radiography. Based on the size of the angle of spinal curvature there were identified: scoliotic posture: 1-9° and scoliosis: ≥10°. Postural reactions were examined by static-dynamic Tecnobody’s ST 310 Plus Stability System platform. There were 21 (75% children with scoliotic posture, and 7 (25% with idiopathic scoliosis. Student's t-test showed a significantly higher postural reactions for scoliosis in relation to scoliotic postures in case of: Average Forward-Backward Speed (OE, (p=0,05, Medium-Lateral Standard Deviation X (CE, (p=0,002, and Ellipse area (CE, (p=0,012. To verify the significant differences, demonstrating the lack of homogeneity of variance, the Mann–Whitney U-test has been used, which showed a significant differences between the scoliotic posture and scoliosis in case of: Medium-Lateral Standard Deviation X (CE, (p=0,0012, Average Forward-Backward Speed (OE, (p=0,0548, and Ellipse area (CE (p=0,0047. Together with an increase of the angle of curvature, the value of these postural reactions also grew. Most of postural reactions didn’t fit the norm.

  6. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  7. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  8. [Multicentric prospective randomized study evaluating the interest of intravaginal electro-stimulation at home for urinary incontinence after prior perineal reeducation. Interim analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopès, P; Levy-Toledano, R; Chiarelli, P; Rimbault, F; Marès, P

    2014-03-01

    Perineal reeducation of stress urinary incontinence is beneficial in 80% of cases. However, patients have to perform self-retraining exercises of the perineal muscles at home, in order to maintain the benefit of the physiotherapy. The aim of this study is to assess the benefit of GYNEFFIK(®), a perineal electro-stimulator, during this home-care phase. Women with stress urinary incontinence (UI) or with mixed UI (composed predominantly of stress UI) that responded to physiotherapy were included in this study in two parallel groups. The groups followed a self-reeducation program, with or without GYNEFFIK(®) electro-stimulation sessions. The comparison of the two groups was based on the rate of women for whom the benefit of the initial perineal reeducation was maintained (defined as non-worsening ICIQ and Ditrovie scales' score). According to the protocol, an interim analysis was performed on 95 patients (i.e. almost half of the expected sample size) who had had at least one evaluation under treatment, among which 44 patients had finished the study. The therapeutic benefit of the initial perineal reeducation was maintained in 87.8% of the GYNEFFIK(®) patient group, while it was maintained in 52.2% (P=0.0001) in the usual care group (i.e. who did not use electro-stimulation). Likewise, patient had a more favorable subjective impression when using GYNEFFIK(®) (83.7% versus 60.0% in the usual care group) as they felt that they improved during the study. In the GYNEFFIK(®) group, no increase in symptoms was reported, whereas almost one out of five patients in the usual care group felt that their condition had worsened. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  9. Effect of Selective Temporary Anaesthesia in Combination with Sensory Re-Education on Improvement of Hand Sensibility after Median and Ulnar Nerve Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Hasan-Zadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The results of sensory improvement from nerve repair in adult are often poor. To confirm with previous results and this hypothesis that forearm deafferentation would enhance the sensory outcome by increasing the cortical hand representation, this study is aimed to investigate the effect of repeated sessions of cutaneous forearm anaesthesia of the injured limb, in combination with sensory re-education on the sensory outcome in the hand after median or ulnar nerve repair. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was designed as a double-blind randomized clinical trial. 13 patients that they had been undergoing surgery of hand nerves repaire were selected probability and assigned to examination (n=6 and control (n=7 group. During a 2 week period, a topical anaesthetic cream (Lidocaine for examination group and a placebo for control group was applied repeatedly (twice a week for 1 hour onto the flexor aspect of the forearm of injured hand and combined with sensory re-education. Assessments of sensory function were performed prior to the experiment and after the fourth application of Lidocaine/placebo. For analysis of data, Wilcoxon singed rank and Mann - Whitney U-tests were used. Results: Perception of touch that was measured with SWMs, had been improved significantly in the Lidocaine group in comparison with placebo group (P=0/03. Conclusion: This finding suggests that forearm deafferentation of injured limb, in combination with sensory re-education, can enhance sensory reover after nerve repair.

  10. Clinical application of computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback prototype for sensorimotor control of the hand in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Su, Fong-Chin; Kuo, Huan-Ting; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Kuo, Li-Chieh

    2012-05-09

    Hemianaesthesia patients usually exhibit awkward and inefficient finger movements of the affected hands. Conventionally, most interventions emphasize the improvement of motor deficits, but rarely address sensory capability and sensorimotor control following stroke. Thus it is critical for stroke patients with sensory problems to incorporate appropriate strategies for dealing with sensory impairment, into traditional hand function rehabilitation programs. In this study, we used a custom-designed computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback (CERB) prototype to analyze hand grasp performances, and monitor the training effects on hand coordination for stroke patients with sensory disturbance and without motor deficiency. The CERB prototype was constructed to detect momentary pinch force modulation for 14 sub-acute and chronic stroke patients with sensory deficiency and 14 healthy controls. The other ten chronic stroke patients (ranges of stroke period: 6-60 months) were recruited to investigate the effects of 4-weeks computerized biofeedback treatments on the hand control ability. The biofeedback procedures provide visual and auditory cues to the participants when the interactive force of hand-to-object exceeded the target latitude in a pinch-up-holding task to trigger optimal motor strategy. Follow-up measurements were conducted one month after training. The hand sensibility, grip forces and results of hand functional tests were recorded and analyzed. The affected hands of the 14 predominant sensory stroke patients exhibited statistically significant elevation in the magnitude of peak pinch force (p = 0.033) in pinching and lifting-up tasks, and poor results for hand function tests (p = 0.005) than sound hands did. In addition, the sound hands of patients were less efficient in force modulation (p = 0.009) than the hands of healthy subjects were. Training with the biofeedback system produced significant improvements in grip force modulation (p = 0.020) and

  11. Clinical application of computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback prototype for sensorimotor control of the hand in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Hsiu-Yun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemianaesthesia patients usually exhibit awkward and inefficient finger movements of the affected hands. Conventionally, most interventions emphasize the improvement of motor deficits, but rarely address sensory capability and sensorimotor control following stroke. Thus it is critical for stroke patients with sensory problems to incorporate appropriate strategies for dealing with sensory impairment, into traditional hand function rehabilitation programs. In this study, we used a custom-designed computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback (CERB prototype to analyze hand grasp performances, and monitor the training effects on hand coordination for stroke patients with sensory disturbance and without motor deficiency. Methods The CERB prototype was constructed to detect momentary pinch force modulation for 14 sub-acute and chronic stroke patients with sensory deficiency and 14 healthy controls. The other ten chronic stroke patients (ranges of stroke period: 6–60 months were recruited to investigate the effects of 4-weeks computerized biofeedback treatments on the hand control ability. The biofeedback procedures provide visual and auditory cues to the participants when the interactive force of hand-to-object exceeded the target latitude in a pinch-up-holding task to trigger optimal motor strategy. Follow-up measurements were conducted one month after training. The hand sensibility, grip forces and results of hand functional tests were recorded and analyzed. Results The affected hands of the 14 predominant sensory stroke patients exhibited statistically significant elevation in the magnitude of peak pinch force (p = 0.033 in pinching and lifting-up tasks, and poor results for hand function tests (p = 0.005 than sound hands did. In addition, the sound hands of patients were less efficient in force modulation (p = 0.009 than the hands of healthy subjects were. Training with the biofeedback system produced

  12. POSTUR PADA WANITA HAMIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paryono .

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction: Pregnancy effects in changes on all body systems leading to a new balance women and maternal adaptation.Weight gain in pregnant women from both the uterus and breast development generally occurs at the front of the body, butwhen standing they were still able to maintain a posture that does not face. The purpose of this article is to examine thereasons why pregnant women do not fall to front and how the good attitude of the pregnant woman's body.Materials and Methods: Material of this article are literatures related to pregnancy and the pregnant woman's bodyp o s t u r e , a n d t h e y w e r e c o l l e c t e d b y l i t e r a t u r e ' s s t u d y a n d l i t e r a r y s t u d y .Discussion: Increased abdominal distension that makes tilting the pelvis forward, decreased abdominal muscle tone andincrease weight gain in late pregnancy requires a readjustment spinal curvature. Woman's center of gravity shifts forward.Lumbosakrum normal curve should be more curved and the curvature of the servikodorsal be formed to maintain balance.Assessment of anterior view, lateral and posterior body should include an understanding of the physical structures such asjoints and muscles as well as how the meridian pathways. To compensate for the anterior position of the enlarged uterus,lordosis shifting center of gravity to the back of the lower limbs. There is an increased sacroiliac joint mobility,sakrokoksigeal, and pubic joints during pregnancy, possibly due to hormonal changes. Individual assessments will berequired to determine the pattern of muscle for every person, especially for those who have musculoskeletal problems.Conclusions and Recommendations: The size of the stomach in a pregnant woman, then the gravity of the body changes.Body to be biased toward the rear, but this position makes your back hurt. Advice for pregnant women in order to maintainyour posture as follows: head upKeyword : Posture, Pregnancy, Women.

  13. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  14. Modeling and Analyzing Intrusion Attempts to a Computer Network Operating in a Defense in Depth Posture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Givens, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In order to ensure the confidentially, integrity, and availability of networked resources operating on the Global Information Grid, the Department of Defense has incorporated a "Defense-in-Depth" posture...

  15. Body posture and postural stability of people practicing qigong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Correct and stable posture is essential for the implementation of the majority of voluntary movements and locomotion. The study of postural stability is an element of clinical trials evaluating physical activity in order to determine the optimal therapeutic procedures. Qigong exercises are not only a form of prevention, helpful in maintaining wellbeing, but also a means of therapy in many diseases, including disorders of postural stability. Aim of the research: To analyse the association between the quality of posture and postural stability of people practicing qigong. Material and methods : The study involved 32 people. The mean age of those tested was 54 years. Posture study used optoelectronic method Diers formetric III 4D. Postural stability was tested on the platform Biodex Balance System. The studies were performed at the Posture Laboratory of the Institute of Physiotherapy at Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce. Results and conclusions : Spearman rank order correlation showed a positive correlation of relative rotation of the spine area with a general indicator of stability (p = 0.0206 at an average level (R = 0.4075 and with the index of the stability A/P (p = 0.0310, although at a lower level (R = 0.3819. With the increase in the relative rotation of the spine area the overall stability indicator and stability indicator A/P also increased. Significant positive correlations were also seen for the surface rotation (+max and a general indication of the stability and the stability index A/P. With the increase of surface rotation (+max of the spine the overall stability indicator and stability indicator A/P also increased.

  16. Study on Posture Estimation Using Delayed Measurements for Mobile Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    When associating data from various sensors to estimate the posture of mobile robots, a crucial problem to be solved is that there may be some delayed measurements. Furthermore, the general multi-sensor data fusion algorithm is a Kalman filter. In order to handle the problem concerning delayed measurements, this paper investigates a Kalman filter modified to account for the delays. Based on the interpolating measurement, a fusion system is applied to estimate the posture of a mobile robot which fuses the data from the encoder and laser global position system using the extended Kalman filter algorithm. Finally, the posture estimation experiment of the mobile robot is given whose result verifies the feasibility and efficiency of the algorithm.

  17. Imaging Posture Veils Neural Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Thibault

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas modern brain imaging often demands holding body positions incongruent with everyday life, posture governs both neural activity and cognitive performance. Humans commonly perform while upright; yet, many neuroimaging methodologies require participants to remain motionless and adhere to non-ecological comportments within a confined space. This inconsistency between ecological postures and imaging constraints undermines the transferability and generalizability of many a neuroimaging assay.Here we highlight the influence of posture on brain function and behavior. Specifically, we challenge the tacit assumption that brain processes and cognitive performance are comparable across a spectrum of positions. We provide an integrative synthesis regarding the increasingly prominent influence of imaging postures on autonomic function, mental capacity, sensory thresholds, and neural activity. Arguing that neuroimagers and cognitive scientists could benefit from considering the influence posture wields on both general functioning and brain activity, we examine existing imaging technologies and the potential of portable and versatile imaging devices (e.g., functional near infrared spectroscopy. Finally, we discuss ways that accounting for posture may help unveil the complex brain processes of everyday cognition.

  18. Chiropractic biophysics technique: a linear algebra approach to posture in chiropractic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D D; Janik, T J; Harrison, G R; Troyanovich, S; Harrison, D E; Harrison, S O

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses linear algebra as applied to human posture in chiropractic, specifically chiropractic biophysics technique (CBP). Rotations, reflections and translations are geometric functions studied in vector spaces in linear algebra. These mathematical functions are termed rigid body transformations and are applied to segmental spinal movement in the literature. Review of the literature indicates that these linear algebra concepts have been used to describe vertebral motion. However, these rigid body movers are presented here as applying to the global postural movements of the head, thoracic cage and pelvis. The unique inverse functions of rotations, reflections and translations provide a theoretical basis for making postural corrections in neutral static resting posture. Chiropractic biophysics technique (CBP) uses these concepts in examination procedures, manual spinal manipulation, instrument assisted spinal manipulation, postural exercises, extension traction and clinical outcome measures.

  19. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  20. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  1. Interactions between posture and locomotion: motor patterns in humans walking with bent posture versus erect posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, R; Zago, M; Lacquaniti, F

    2000-01-01

    Human erect locomotion is unique among living primates. Evolution selected specific biomechanical features that make human locomotion mechanically efficient. These features are matched by the motor patterns generated in the CNS. What happens when humans walk with bent postures? Are normal motor patterns of erect locomotion maintained or completely reorganized? Five healthy volunteers walked straight and forward at different speeds in three different postures (regular, knee-flexed, and knee- and trunk-flexed) while their motion, ground reaction forces, and electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded. The three postures imply large differences in the position of the center of body mass relative to the body segments. The elevation angles of the trunk, pelvis, and lower limb segments relative to the vertical in the sagittal plane, the ground reaction forces and the rectified EMGs were analyzed over the gait cycle. The waveforms of the elevation angles along the gait cycle remained essentially unchanged irrespective of the adopted postures. The first two harmonics of these kinematic waveforms explain >95% of their variance. The phase shift but not the amplitude ratio between the first harmonic of the elevation angle waveforms of adjacent pairs was affected systematically by changes in posture. Thigh, shank, and foot angles covaried close to a plane in all conditions, but the plane orientation was systematically different in bent versus erect locomotion. This was explained by the changes in the temporal coupling among the three segments. For walking speeds >1 m s(-1), the plane orientation of bent locomotion indicates a much lower mechanical efficiency relative to erect locomotion. Ground reaction forces differed prominently in bent versus erect posture displaying characteristics intermediate between those typical of walking and those of running. Mean EMG activity was greater in bent postures for all recorded muscles independent of the functional role. The waveforms

  2. Investigating the Effects of Different Working Postures on Cognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Mohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study demonstrates that cognitive performance is affected by working postures. This study demonstrates that standard sitting posture is the best posture. Therefore, it is recommended that sitting posture can help in increasing cognitive performance in the workplace.

  3. Cinerama sickness and postural instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jelte E; Ledegang, Wietse D; Lubeck, Astrid J A; Stins, John F

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min after watching a 1 h 3D aviation documentary in a cinema. Sickness was significantly larger right after the movie than before, and in a lesser extent still so after 45 min. The average standard deviation of the lateral centre of pressure excursions was significantly larger only right afterwards. When low-pass filtered at 0.1 Hz, lateral and for-aft excursions were both significantly larger right after the movie, while for-aft excursions then remained larger even after 45 min. Speculating on previous findings, we predict more sickness and postural instability in 3D than in 2D movies, also suggesting a possible, but yet unknown risk for work-related activities and vehicle operation. Watching motion pictures may be sickening and posturally destabilising, but effects in a cinema are unknown. We, therefore, carried out an observational study showing that sickness then is mainly an issue during the exposure while postural instability is an issue afterwards.

  4. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Lam, Jennifer; Schultz, Rachel; Davis, Melissa

    2018-01-05

    Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl ( Pavo cristatus ) and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl (Pavo cristatus and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior.

  6. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Chen, Janini; Freitag, Fernanda; Valente, Debora; Souza, Carolina de Oliveira; Voos, Mariana Callil; Chien, Hsin Fen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do n...

  7. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica L. Yorzinski; Jennifer Lam; Rachel Schultz; Melissa Davis

    2018-01-01

    Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The h...

  8. Postural ortostatisk takykardi-syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Pors, Kirsten; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous condition of dysautonomia and suspected autoimmunity characterized by abnormal increments in heart rate upon assumption of the upright posture accompanied by symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion and sympathoexcitation. An increase...... in heart rate equal to or greater than 30 bpm or to levels higher than 120 bpm during a head-up tilt test is the main diagnostic criterion. Management includes both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment focusing on stress management, volume expansion and heart rate control....

  9. Measuring postural sway in sitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Hansen, Lisbeth; Luun, Malene

    2015-01-01

    group appeared to result from an equally stable trunk supported on a less stable pelvis. Mediolateral marker sway and intersegmental angular sway showed a clearer age dependency. Trunk postural control does not appear to differ between children older and younger than 10 years old, but sagittal plane...... and younger than 10 years old, participated in this study. The children sat unsupported for 30 s while their posture and sway were quantified using stereophotogrammetry. The tendency in both age groups was to sit with a backward tilted pelvis and a kyphotic trunk. The sitting position was most varied...

  10. Postural complexity influences development in infants born preterm with brain injury: relating perception-action theory to 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusing, Stacey C; Izzo, Theresa; Thacker, Leroy R; Galloway, James Cole

    2014-10-01

    Perception-action theory suggests a cyclical relationship between movement and perceptual information. In this case series, changes in postural complexity were used to quantify an infant's action and perception during the development of early motor behaviors. Three infants born preterm with periventricular white matter injury were included. Longitudinal changes in postural complexity (approximate entropy of the center of pressure), head control, reaching, and global development, measured with the Test of Infant Motor Performance and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, were assessed every 0.5 to 3 months during the first year of life. All 3 infants demonstrated altered postural complexity and developmental delays. However, the timing of the altered postural complexity and the type of delays varied among the infants. For infant 1, reduced postural complexity or limited action while learning to control her head in the midline position may have contributed to her motor delay. However, her ability to adapt her postural complexity eventually may have supported her ability to learn from her environment, as reflected in her relative cognitive strength. For infant 2, limited early postural complexity may have negatively affected his learning through action, resulting in cognitive delay. For infant 3, an increase in postural complexity above typical levels was associated with declining neurological status. Postural complexity is proposed as a measure of perception and action in the postural control system during the development of early behaviors. An optimal, intermediate level of postural complexity supports the use of a variety of postural control strategies and enhances the perception-action cycle. Either excessive or reduced postural complexity may contribute to developmental delays in infants born preterm with white matter injury. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  11. USAF Posture Statement 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    request maintains investments in the DCGS, the MQ-1 Predator, the RC-135 Rivet Joint, the RQ-4 Global Hawk Block 40, and U-2 programs, and makes internal... electromagnetic jamming. Our potential adversaries are also making advances by electronically linking their own combat capabilities, creating new military

  12. Postural Control in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen-Raz, Reuven; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Postural control was evaluated in 91 autistic, 166 normal, and 18 mentally retarded children using a computerized posturographic procedure. In comparison to normal children, the autistic subjects were less likely to exhibit age-related changes in postural performance, and postures were more variable and less stable. (Author/JDD)

  13. Automated Assessment of Postural Stability (AAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    performed a battery of standard clinical tests of dynamic posture, whereas the fourth subject performed the stereotyped postures (e.g. movements restricted...Processing & Control [2] Napoli A, Ward C, Glass S, Tucker C, Obeid I (2016) “Automated Assessment of Postural Stability System,” IEEE Engineering in

  14. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD. Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do not improve gait and posture in PD.

  15. Visual Vection does not Perturb Squatting Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Gilles

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vision contributes fundamentally to the control of the standing posture. The illusion of self motion falsely perceived (vection increases postural sway while standing. In this paper we examine the effect of vection on both standing and deep squatting with the hypothesis that the squatting posture should not be disturbed by the conflict of sensory information due to vection. The results show that standing posture only was affected by the visual stimuli. The widespread use of squatting for work as well as rest could be due in part to this lack of effect of sensory perturbation on postural stability.

  16. Postural risk assessment of mechanised firewood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Aminti, Giovanni; De Francesco, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    The study assessed the postural risk of mechanised firewood processing with eight machines, representing the main technology solutions available on the market. Assessment was conducted with the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS) on 1000 still frames randomly extracted from videotaped work samples. The postural risk associated with firewood processing was variable and associated with technology type. Simple, manually operated new machines incurred a higher postural risk compared with semi- or fully automatic machines. In contrast, new semi-automatic and automatic machines were generally free from postural risk. In all cases, attention should be paid to postural risk that may occur during blockage resolution. The study did not cover the postural risk of firewood processing sites as a whole. The study provided useful information for selecting firewood processing machinery and for improving firewood machinery design, as part of a more articulate strategy aimed at enhancing the safety of firewood processing work sites. Practitioner Summary: The postural risk associated with mechanised firewood processing (eg cutting and splitting) depends on the type of equipment. Postural risk is highest (OWAS Action Category 2) with new in-line machines, designed for operation by a single worker. Fully automatic machines present minimum postural risk, except during blockage resolution.

  17. Postural control in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes

    2011-12-01

    To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  18. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  19. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, M Hongchul; Ting, Lena H

    2016-01-01

    conclude that generalization of function across postures does not arise from limb biomechanics or a single optimality criterion. Muscle synergies may reflect acquired motor solutions globally tuned for generalizability across biomechanical contexts, facilitating rapid motor adaptation.

  20. Geometric morphometrics as a tool for improving the comparative study of behavioural postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fureix, Carole; Hausberger, Martine; Seneque, Emilie; Morisset, Stéphane; Baylac, Michel; Cornette, Raphaël; Biquand, Véronique; Deleporte, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Describing postures has always been a central concern when studying behaviour. However, attempts to compare postures objectively at phylogenetical, populational, inter- or intra-individual levels generally either rely upon a few key elements or remain highly subjective. Here, we propose a novel approach, based on well-established geometric morphometrics, to describe and to analyse postures globally (i.e. considering the animal's body posture in its entirety rather than focusing only on a few salient elements, such as head or tail position). Geometric morphometrics is concerned with describing and comparing variation and changes in the form (size and shape) of organisms using the coordinates of a series of homologous landmarks (i.e. positioned in relation to skeletal or muscular cues that are the same for different species for every variety of form and function and that have derived from a common ancestor, i.e. they have a common evolutionary ancestry, e.g. neck, wings, flipper/hand). We applied this approach to horses, using global postures (1) to characterise behaviours that correspond to different arousal levels, (2) to test potential impact of environmental changes on postures. Our application of geometric morphometrics to horse postures showed that this method can be used to characterise behavioural categories, to evaluate the impact of environmental factors (here human actions) and to compare individuals and groups. Beyond its application to horses, this promising approach could be applied to all questions involving the analysis of postures (evolution of displays, expression of emotions, stress and welfare, behavioural repertoires…) and could lead to a whole new line of research.

  1. Detecting altered postural control after cerebral concussion in athletes with normal postural stability

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanaugh, J; Guskiewicz, K; Giuliani, C; Marshall, S; Mercer, V; Stergiou, N

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine if approximate entropy (ApEn), a regularity statistic from non-linear dynamics, could detect changes in postural control during quiet standing in athletes with normal postural stability after cerebral concussion.

  2. Common postural defects among music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimal coordination and control of posture and movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Rolf; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of stability and coordination of posture and locomotion, together with algorithms for continuous-time quadratic optimization of motion control. Explicit solutions to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for optimal control of rigid-body motion are obtained by solving an algebraic matrix equation. The stability is investigated with Lyapunov function theory and it is shown that global asymptotic stability holds. It is also shown how optimal control and adaptive control may act in concert in the case of unknown or uncertain system parameters. The solution describes motion strategies of minimum effort and variance. The proposed optimal control is formulated to be suitable as a posture and movement model for experimental validation and verification. The combination of adaptive and optimal control makes this algorithm a candidate for coordination and control of functional neuromuscular stimulation as well as of prostheses. Validation examples with experimental data are provided.

  4. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E.; Gadd, Nichole E.; Caldwell, Erin E.; Peters, Brian T.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Oddsson, Lars I. E.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory—visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orie...

  5. Education and the Prevention of Postural Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olchowska-Kotala Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine: whether and at what stage of education is proper body posture learned, the intention of young adults to participate in activities teaching proper posture, and the effects of factors related with the said intention. Methods. The study involved 430 university students aged 18-24 years. Anthropometric data was collected. Participants completed questionnaires assessing physical activity level (IPAQ and their intention to participate in extracurricular activities teaching proper posture while sitting or walking, proper running technique, corrective gymnastics, or weight loss exercises. A self-assessment of posture, physical fitness, attractiveness, and body satisfaction was also completed. Results. Lower back pain was experienced by 41% of the respondents. Most were taught proper posture-related habits in primary school, followed by secondary school, and then at university. Many students expressed their intention to participate in the extracurricular activities. None of the questionnaire variables were associated with the intention to learn proper walking posture or proper running technique. The intention to participate in classes teaching proper sitting posture was associated with lower back pain in women and low physical activity level in men. In women, a relationship was found between the intention to participate in weight loss exercises and body dissatisfaction, high BMI, and poor self-evaluations of posture and attractiveness. In men, this activity was associated with body dissatisfaction. Conclusions. There is a need for further education on the development of proper postural habits at the university level.

  6. The dentist's operating posture - ergonomic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-06-15

    The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist's physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture.

  7. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Skotte, Jørgen H.; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck...... pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded...... to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p balance, measured as CEA (p

  8. Postural Consequences of Cervical Sagittal Imbalance: A Novel Laboratory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Avinash G; Havey, Robert M; Khayatzadeh, Saeed; Muriuki, Muturi G; Voronov, Leonard I; Carandang, Gerard; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lam; Ghanayem, Alexander J; Schuit, Dale; Patel, Alpesh A; Smith, Zachary A; Sears, William

    2015-06-01

    A biomechanical study using human spine specimens. To study postural compensations in lordosis angles that are necessary to maintain horizontal gaze in the presence of forward head posture and increasing T1 sagittal tilt. Forward head posture relative to the shoulders, assessed radiographically using the horizontal offset distance between the C2 and C7 vertebral bodies (C2-C7 [sagittal vertical alignment] SVA), is a measure of global cervical imbalance. This may result from kyphotic alignment of cervical segments, muscle imbalance, as well as malalignment of thoracolumbar spine. Ten cadaveric cervical spines (occiput-T1) were tested. The T1 vertebra was anchored to a tilting and translating base. The occiput was free to move vertically but its angular orientation was constrained to ensure horizontal gaze regardless of sagittal imbalance. A 5-kg mass was attached to the occiput to mimic head weight. Forward head posture magnitude and T1 tilt were varied and motions of individual vertebrae were measured to calculate C2-C7 SVA and lordosis across C0-C2 and C2-C7. Increasing C2-C7 SVA caused flexion of lower cervical (C2-C7) segments and hyperextension of suboccipital (C0-C1-C2) segments to maintain horizontal gaze. Increasing kyphotic T1 tilt primarily increased lordosis across the C2-C7 segments. Regression models were developed to predict the compensatory C0-C2 and C2-C7 angulation needed to maintain horizontal gaze given values of C2-C7 SVA and T1 tilt. This study established predictive relationships between radiographical measures of forward head posture, T1 tilt, and postural compensations in the cervical lordosis angles needed to maintain horizontal gaze. The laboratory model predicted that normalization of C2-C7 SVA will reduce suboccipital (C0-C2) hyperextension, whereas T1 tilt reduction will reduce the hyperextension in the C2-C7 segments. The predictive relationships may help in planning corrective strategy in patients experiencing neck pain, which may be

  9. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Takakusaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture- gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture- gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling.

  10. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting "problems" to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant "tuning" of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, "passive" response to perturbations as well as the delayed, "active" responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach.

  11. Compromising Postural Balance in the Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, Jaap; de Bruin, Eling D.; Uebelhart, Daniel; Mulder, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Additional tasks that are assumed to disturb standing postural control can be divided in added motor or added cognitive tasks. It is unknown which type of task causes the most disturbances of postural control in elderly. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether the dual

  12. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  13. The Relationship Between Postural and Movement Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G

    2016-01-01

    Postural stabilization is provided by stretch reflexes, intermuscular reflexes, and intrinsic muscle properties. Taken together, these posture-stabilizing mechanisms resist deflections from the posture at which balance of muscle and external forces is maintained. Empirical findings suggest that for each muscle, these mechanisms become functional at a specific, spatial threshold-the muscle length or respective joint angle at which motor units begin to be recruited. Empirical data suggest that spinal and supraspinal centers can shift the spatial thresholds for a group of muscles that stabilized the initial posture. As a consequence, the same stabilizing mechanisms, instead of resisting motion from the initial posture, drive the body to another stable posture. In other words by shifting spatial thresholds, the nervous system converts movement resisting to movement-producing mechanisms. It is illustrated that, contrary to conventional view, this control strategy allows the system to transfer body balance to produce locomotion and other actions without loosing stability at any point of them. It also helps orient posture and movement with the direction of gravity. It is concluded that postural and movement stability is provided by a common mechanism.

  14. Lung function and postural changes during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørregaard, O; Schultz, P; Ostergaard, A; Dahl, R

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of postural changes on lung function in pregnant women during the first, second, third trimester and post partum. A significant decrease in FRC, PEF and FEV1 was observed as a result of the postural changes. Arterial oxygenation, MVV and DLCO remained largely the same.

  15. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...

  16. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  17. Spinal lordosis optimizes the requirements for a stable erect posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Liebetrau, Anne; Schinowski, David; Wulf, Thomas; de Lussanet, Marc H E

    2012-04-16

    Lordosis is the bending of the lumbar spine that gives the vertebral column of humans its characteristic ventrally convex curvature. Infants develop lordosis around the time when they acquire bipedal locomotion. Even macaques develop a lordosis when they are trained to walk bipedally. The aim of this study was to investigate why humans and some animals develop a lumbar lordosis while learning to walk bipedally. We developed a musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine, that includes an asymmetric, dorsally shifted location of the spinal column in the body, realistic moment arms, and physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA) of the muscles as well as realistic force-length and force-velocity relationships. The model was used to analyze the stability of an upright body posture. According to our results, lordosis reduces the local joint torques necessary for an equilibrium of the vertebral column during an erect posture. At the same time lordosis increases the demands on the global muscles to provide stability. We conclude that the development of a spinal lordosis is a compromise between the stability requirements of an erect posture and the necessity of torque equilibria at each spinal segment.

  18. Spinal lordosis optimizes the requirements for a stable erect posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Heiko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lordosis is the bending of the lumbar spine that gives the vertebral column of humans its characteristic ventrally convex curvature. Infants develop lordosis around the time when they acquire bipedal locomotion. Even macaques develop a lordosis when they are trained to walk bipedally. The aim of this study was to investigate why humans and some animals develop a lumbar lordosis while learning to walk bipedally. Results We developed a musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine, that includes an asymmetric, dorsally shifted location of the spinal column in the body, realistic moment arms, and physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA of the muscles as well as realistic force-length and force-velocity relationships. The model was used to analyze the stability of an upright body posture. According to our results, lordosis reduces the local joint torques necessary for an equilibrium of the vertebral column during an erect posture. At the same time lordosis increases the demands on the global muscles to provide stability. Conclusions We conclude that the development of a spinal lordosis is a compromise between the stability requirements of an erect posture and the necessity of torque equilibria at each spinal segment.

  19. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  20. Postural coordination during socio-motor improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gueugnon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation. Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively. Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and anti-phase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability. Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  1. Postural defects in children and teenagers as one of the major issues in psychosomatic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Wawrzyniak

    2017-03-01

    creation of muscular contracture and is aimed at the so-called postural re-education. The selection of physical activity should be adequate to the type of postural defect.

  2. Características biomecânicas, ergonômicas e clínicas da postura sentada: uma revisão Biomechanic, ergonomic, and clinical features of the sitting posture: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nise Ribeiro Marques

    2010-09-01

    pattern of sitting, and their design allows for posture diversity. Changes in the chair, exercises to improve endurance and proprioception, as well as postural re-education, are useful interventions to reduce the impact of prolonged sitting position on the skeletal muscle system.

  3. An investigation into essential aspects of posture in primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postures of the subjects were analysed by means of photographic images using the pro forma of Barlow (1956, 1990). The majority of the executives had malposture with 2.3%, 23.3%, 58.1% and 16.3% and 6.3% of the subjects being categorised with slight postural defects, severe postural defects, very severe postural ...

  4. Does increased postural threat lead to more conscious control of posture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J L; Horslen, B C; Carpenter, M G; Adkin, A L

    2009-11-01

    Although it is well established that postural threat modifies postural control, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for these changes. It is possible that changes in postural control under conditions of elevated postural threat result from a shift to a more conscious control of posture. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of elevated postural threat on conscious control of posture and to determine the relationship between conscious control and postural control measures. Forty-eight healthy young adults stood on a force plate at two different surface heights: ground level (LOW) and 3.2-m above ground level (HIGH). Centre of pressure measures calculated in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction were mean position (AP-MP), root mean square (AP-RMS) and mean power frequency (AP-MPF). A modified state-specific version of the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale was used to measure conscious motor processing (CMP) and movement self-consciousness (MSC). Balance confidence, fear of falling, perceived stability, and perceived and actual anxiety indicators were also collected. A significant effect of postural threat was found for movement reinvestment as participants reported more conscious control and a greater concern about their posture at the HIGH height. Significant correlations between CMP and MSC with AP-MP were observed as participants who consciously controlled and were more concerned for their posture leaned further away from the platform edge. It is possible that changes in movement reinvestment can influence specific aspects of posture (leaning) but other aspects may be immune to these changes (amplitude and frequency).

  5. Relationship between Postural Deformities and Frontal Function in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ninomiya, Satoko; Morita, Akihiko; Teramoto, Hiroko; Akimoto, Takayoshi; Shiota, Hiroshi; Kamei, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Postural deformities and executive dysfunction (ED) are common symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD remains unclear. This study assessed the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD. Sixty-five patients with sporadic PD were assessed for the severity of postural deformities and executive function. The severity of postural deformities was scored using the United Parkinson's Disease Ra...

  6. [Head posture in orthodontics: physiopathology and clinical aspects 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltabiano, M; Verzi, P; Scire Scappuzzo, G

    1989-01-01

    The Authors review in orthodontic respects present knowledges about head posture involvement in craniofacial morphogenesis and pathology. Relationships between craniofacial morphology, craniocervical posture, craniomandibular posture, cervical spine curvature, hyoid bone position and posture of whole body in space are shown, in attempt to explain conditions such as "forward head posture", mouth breathing and some occlusal disorders. Main methods to evaluate craniocervical relations on lateral skull radiographs are analysed. Pathogenesis of pain syndromes associated with abnormal craniocervical and craniomandibular mechanics are also briefly treated.

  7. Postural orientation and equilibrium processes associated with increased postural sway in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Hallac, Rami R; Conroy, Kaitlin C; White, Stormi P; Kane, Alex A; Collinsworth, Amy L; Sweeney, John A; Mosconi, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    Increased postural sway has been repeatedly documented in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Characterizing the control processes underlying this deficit, including postural orientation and equilibrium, may provide key insights into neurophysiological mechanisms associated with ASD. Postural orientation refers to children's ability to actively align their trunk and head with respect to their base of support, while postural equilibrium is an active process whereby children coordinate ankle dorsi-/plantar-flexion and hip abduction/adduction movements to stabilize their upper body. Dynamic engagement of each of these control processes is important for maintaining postural stability, though neither postural orientation nor equilibrium has been studied in ASD. Twenty-two children with ASD and 21 age and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) controls completed three standing tests. During static stance, participants were instructed to stand as still as possible. During dynamic stances, participants swayed at a comfortable speed and magnitude in either anterior-posterior (AP) or mediolateral (ML) directions. The center of pressure (COP) standard deviation and trajectory length were examined to determine if children with ASD showed increased postural sway. Postural orientation was assessed using a novel virtual time-to-contact (VTC) approach that characterized spatiotemporal dimensions of children's postural sway (i.e., body alignment) relative to their postural limitation boundary, defined as the maximum extent to which each child could sway in each direction. Postural equilibrium was quantified by evaluating the amount of shared or mutual information of COP time series measured along the AP and ML directions. Consistent with prior studies, children with ASD showed increased postural sway during both static and dynamic stances relative to TD children. In regard to postural orientation processes, children with ASD demonstrated reduced spatial

  8. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: Centre of Pressure (CoP) measurements were tested against pain, fear of pain, and physical function. Velocity, anterior-posterior displacement, and the Romberg Ratio obtained on a portable force platform were used as measures of postural stability. RESULTS: Baseline and 12-week follow-up results of 97....... CONCLUSION: This first study of concurrent and predictive validity of postural balance in LBP patients revealed no association between CoP measures and pain, fear of pain, and physical function....

  9. Postural stability in young and old women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    at an early stage, good knowledge and sensitive measurements of postural stability are essential. In addition, in order to develop effective intervention strategies such knowledge is of major importance. However, no single postural stability parameter has effectively been able to identify individuals at risk...... of falling. Hence, there is a strong need for development and identification of sensitive postural sway parameters in various demographic groups. The aim of this study was to explore differences in postural stability between physically active old (O) and young (Y) women using newly developed sway parameters....... METHODS AND MATERIALS: Center of pressure (CoP) excursion was measured (100 Hz) by force plate (AMTI) analysis in old (72.5±6.3 years) and young (25.8±1.6 years) women during static 2-leg (bilateral) and 1-leg (unilateral) standing (15-s) with eyes opened. RESULTS: O demonstrated elevated CoP sway length...

  10. Postural effects when cycling in late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maureen E; Cooper, Karen A; Boyce, E Stewart; Hunyor, Stephen N

    2006-12-01

    This study assessed if upright cycling is preferable to semi-recumbent cycling during pregnancy. Healthy women with low risk singleton pregnancies were tested at 34-38 weeks gestation. They cycled for 12 min, either semi-recumbent (45 degrees, n = 27) or upright (n = 23), at 135-145 beats min(-1). When semi-recumbent, minute ventilation was greater (pposture-independent. All increased with exercise (p0.05). Small post-exercise fetal heart rate increases (by 8 beats min(-1), ppostures (n = 11 in each sub-group), with no adverse changes. Fetal heart rate accelerations and uterine activity (n = 11 in each sub-group) were not influenced by posture or exercise. (1) Neither posture had a distinct advantage. (2) Both postures were safe for short duration cycling. (3) The same target maternal heart rates are suitable for both postures because they resulted in similar oxygen consumptions and fetal heart rates.

  11. Impaired postural stability after laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, K Z; Staehr-Rye, A K; Rasmussen, L S

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: We included 25 women undergoing outpatient gynaecological laparoscopic surgery in the study. Patients received standardised anaesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium. Postural stability was assessed preoperatively, at 30 min after tracheal extubation, and at discharge from the post...

  12. Effect of absence of vision on posture

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z.; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A.; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the ...

  13. Posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Page 1 of 8 25th International Conference of CAD/CAM, Robotics & Factories of the Future Conference, 13-16 July 2010, Pretoria, South Africa A POSTURE ESTIMATION SYSTEM FOR UNDERGROUND MINE VEHICLES Khonzumusa Hlophe1, Gideon Ferreira2... and the transmitter. The main difference between the three systems is their implementation. This paper describes an implementation of a posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, a brief...

  14. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E; Gadd, Nichole E; Caldwell, Erin E; Peters, Brian T; Reschke, Millard F; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Oddsson, Lars I E; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory-visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orientation with and without vision was assessed. Postural control in this test paradigm was hypothesized to utilize predominantly contributions of somatosensory information from the feet and ankle joint, with minimal vestibular input. Fourteen healthy subjects "stood" supine on their dominant leg while strapped to a backpack frame that was freely moving on air-bearings, to remove available otolith tilt cues with respect to gravity that influences postural control when standing upright. The backpack was attached through a cable to a pneumatic cylinder that provided a gravity-like load. Subjects performed three trials each with Eyes-open (EO) and Eyes-closed (EC) while loaded with 60% body weight. There was no difference in unipedal stance time (UST) across the two conditions with EC condition challenging the postural control system greater than the EO condition. Stabilogram-diffusion analysis (SDA) indicated that the critical mean square displacement was significantly different between the two conditions. Vestibular cues, both in terms of magnitude and the duration for which relevant information was available for postural control in this test paradigm, were minimized. These results support our hypothesis that maintaining unipedal stance in supine orientation without vision, minimizes vestibular contribution and thus predominantly utilizes somatosensory information for postural control.

  15. Relationship between craniomandibular disorders and poor posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolakis, P; Nicolakis, M; Piehslinger, E; Ebenbichler, G; Vachuda, M; Kirtley, C; Fialka-Moser, V

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to show that a relationship between craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and postural abnormalities has been repeatedly postulated, but still remains unproven. This study was intended to test this hypothesis. Twenty-five CMD patients (mean age 28.2 years) were compared with 25 gender and age matched controls (mean age 28.3 years) in a controlled, investigator-blinded trial. Twelve postural and ten muscle function parameters were examined. Measurements were separated into three subgroups, consisting of those variables associated with the cervical region, the trunk in the frontal plane, and the trunk in the sagittal plane. Within these subgroups, there was significantly more dysfunction in the patients, compared to control subjects (Mann-Whitney U test p Postural and muscle function abnormalities appeared to be more common in the CMD group. Since there is evidence of the mutual influence of posture and the craniomandibular system, control of body posture in CMD patients is recommended, especially if they do not respond to splint therapy. Whether poor posture is the reason or the result of CMD cannot be distinguished by the data presented here.

  16. Day-to-Day Variability of Postural Sway and Its Association With Cognitive Function in Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Leach

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increased variability in motor function has been observed during the initial stages of cognitive decline. However, the natural variability of postural control, as well as its association with cognitive status and decline, remains unknown. The objective of this pilot study was to characterize the day-to-day variability in postural sway in non-demented older adults. We hypothesized that older adults with a lower cognitive status would have higher day-to-day variability in postural sway.Materials and Methods: A Nintendo Wii balance board (WBB was used to quantify postural sway in the home twice daily for 30 days in 20 non-demented, community-dwelling older adults: once under a single-task condition and once under a dual-task condition (using a daily word search task administered via a Nook tablet. Mean sway distance, velocity, area, centroidal frequency and frequency dispersion were derived from the center of pressure data acquired from the WBB.Results: Linear relationships were observed between the day-to-day variability in postural sway and cognitive status (indexed by cognitive global z-scores. More variability in time-domain postural sway (sway distance and area and less variability in frequency-domain postural sway (centroidal sway frequency were associated with a lower cognitive status under both the single- and dual-task conditions. Additionally, lower cognitive performance rates on the daily word search task were related to a lower cognitive status.Discussion: This small pilot study conducted on a short time scale motivates large-scale implementations over more extended time periods. Tracking longitudinal changes in postural sway may further our understanding of early-stage postural decline and its association with cognitive decline and, in turn, may aid in the early detection of dementia during preclinical stages when the utility of disease-modifying therapies would be greatest.

  17. Anatomy and histochemistry of hindlimb flight posture in birds. I. The extended hindlimb posture of shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Joshua C; Meyers, Ron A

    2008-08-01

    Birds utilize one of two hindlimb postures during flight: an extended posture (with the hip and knee joints flexed, while the ankle joint is extended caudally) or a flexed posture (with the hip, knee, and ankle joints flexed beneath the body). American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) extend their legs caudally during flight and support them for extended periods. Slow tonic and slow twitch muscle fibers are typically found in muscles functioning in postural support due to the fatigue resistance of these fibers. We hypothesized that a set of small muscles composed of high percentages of slow fibers and thus dedicated to postural support would function in securing the legs in the extended posture during flight. This study examined the anatomy and histochemical profile of eleven hindlimb muscles to gain insight into their functional roles during flight. Contrary to our hypothesis, all muscles possessed both fast twitch and slow twitch or slow tonic fibers. We believe this finding is due to the versatility of dynamic and postural functions the leg muscles must facilitate, including standing, walking, running, swimming, and hindlimb support during flight. Whether birds use an extended or flexed hindlimb flight posture may be related to the aerodynamic effect of leg position or may reflect evolutionary history. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Head movements and postures as pain behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2018-01-01

    Pain assessment can benefit from observation of pain behaviors, such as guarding or facial expression, and observational pain scales are widely used in clinical practice with nonverbal patients. However, little is known about head movements and postures in the context of pain. In this regard, we analyze videos of three publically available datasets. The BioVid dataset was recorded with healthy participants subjected to painful heat stimuli. In the BP4D dataset, healthy participants performed a cold-pressor test and several other tasks (meant to elicit emotion). The UNBC dataset videos show shoulder pain patients during range-of-motion tests to their affected and unaffected limbs. In all videos, participants were sitting in an upright position. We studied head movements and postures that occurred during the painful and control trials by measuring head orientation from video over time, followed by analyzing posture and movement summary statistics and occurrence frequencies of typical postures and movements. We found significant differences between pain and control trials with analyses of variance and binomial tests. In BioVid and BP4D, pain was accompanied by head movements and postures that tend to be oriented downwards or towards the pain site. We also found differences in movement range and speed in all three datasets. The results suggest that head movements and postures should be considered for pain assessment and research. As additional pain indicators, they possibly might improve pain management whenever behavior is assessed, especially in nonverbal individuals such as infants or patients with dementia. However, in advance more research is needed to identify specific head movements and postures in pain patients. PMID:29444153

  19. Postural Response Signal Characteristics Identified by Method of Developed Statokinesigram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbolyas Boris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human postural system is taken as complex biological system with specific input and output time characteristics, in this study. Evaluation of measured output characteristics is useful in medical diagnostics or in describing postural system disorders. System theory principle provide suitable basis for postural signals analysis. Participating volunteers were instructed to maintain quiet upright stance posture on firm support surface of stabilometric platform for 60s. Postural system actuation was realized by vibration stimuli applied bilaterally on Achilles tendons for 20s. Postural reaction signal, its time profile and static and dynamic characteristics were evaluated by Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory (MDST.

  20. Effect of absence of vision on posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words "body", "posture", "blind" and "absence of vision". References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished.

  1. Kinematics of the human mandible for different head postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C M; Huddleston Slater, J J; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2000-04-01

    The influence of head posture on movement paths of the incisal point (IP) and of the mandibular condyles during free open-close movements was studied. Ten persons, without craniomandibular or cervical spine disorders, participated in the study. Open close mandibular movements were recorded with the head in five postures, viz., natural head posture, forward head posture, military posture, and lateroflexion to the right and to the left side, using the Oral Kinesiologic Analysis System (OKAS-3D). This study showed that in a military head posture, the opening movement path of the incisal point is shifted anteriorly relative to the path in a natural head posture. In a forward head posture, the movement path is shifted posteriorly whereas during lateroflexion, it deviates to the side the head has moved to. Moreover, the intra-articular distance in the temporomandibular joint during closing is smaller with the head in military posture and greater in forward head posture, as compared to the natural head posture. During lateroflexion, the intra-articular distance on the ipsilateral side is smaller. The influence of head posture upon the kinematics of the mandible is probably a manifestation of differences in mandibular loading in the different head postures.

  2. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Methods Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling) and fast (trembling) component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA) was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. Results More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p neck pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain in the Romberg position with eyes closed, but not with eyes open. Conclusions Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. Trial registration ISRCTN96241850 PMID:21806796

  3. Is postural control affected by expertise in alpine skiing?

    OpenAIRE

    Noe, F; Paillard, T

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the postural performance of two groups of male skiers competing at different levels and the consequences on postural control of the suppression of visual afferences by eye closure.

  4. Programa de la actividad física terapéutica para la reeducación postural de escolares portadores de escoliosis desde la escuela

    OpenAIRE

    Mireya Pérez Rodríguez; Julio Torres Leyva

    2009-01-01

    El programa se fundamenta en un modelo pedagógico para la reeducación postural integral de escolares portadores de escoliosis, es contentivo de un método novedoso de reeducación postural global y ofrece alternativas para la reeducación postural desde la escuela basadas en ejercicios físicos, danzoterapia y juegos con fines terapéuticos y profilácticos, implementado en centros escolares del territorio, es resultado de un proyecto de investigación y tesis de doctorado, resultó efectivo en la mo...

  5. Classifying Transition Behaviour in Postural Activity Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James BRUSEY

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A few accelerometers positioned on different parts of the body can be used to accurately classify steady state behaviour, such as walking, running, or sitting. Such systems are usually built using supervised learning approaches. Transitions between postures are, however, difficult to deal with using posture classification systems proposed to date, since there is no label set for intermediary postures and also the exact point at which the transition occurs can sometimes be hard to pinpoint. The usual bypass when using supervised learning to train such systems is to discard a section of the dataset around each transition. This leads to poorer classification performance when the systems are deployed out of the laboratory and used on-line, particularly if the regimes monitored involve fast paced activity changes. Time-based filtering that takes advantage of sequential patterns is a potential mechanism to improve posture classification accuracy in such real-life applications. Also, such filtering should reduce the number of event messages needed to be sent across a wireless network to track posture remotely, hence extending the system’s life. To support time-based filtering, understanding transitions, which are the major event generators in a classification system, is a key. This work examines three approaches to post-process the output of a posture classifier using time-based filtering: a naïve voting scheme, an exponentially weighted voting scheme, and a Bayes filter. Best performance is obtained from the exponentially weighted voting scheme although it is suspected that a more sophisticated treatment of the Bayes filter might yield better results.

  6. U.S. Global Defense Posture, 1783-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    depots at Mare Island in Califor- nia and at St. Th omas, Port Mahon, Rio de Janeiro , Valparaiso, Buenos Aires, Hong Kong, Porto Praya, La Spezia, Lisbon...navy, which together could prevent a coup de main, allowing time for citizen- soldier reinforcements to mass and repel future invaders.3 Initially, the...perma- nent military detachments in several Chinese cities and on the Yangtze River to defend U.S. citizens and diplomats from the turbulence inside

  7. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed....... METHODS: Review of controlled, clinical trials evaluating postoperative pulmonary function in patients positioned in the supine vs. the sitting or standing position and patients positioned in the supine vs. the lateral position. Data were obtained from a search in the Medline and Cochrane databases (1966...

  8. Development of the Coordination between Posture and Manual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Claxton, Laura J.; Keen, Rachel; Berthier, Neil E.; Riccio, Gary E.; Hamill, Joseph; Van Emmerik, Richard E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have suggested that proper postural control is essential for the development of reaching. However, little research has examined the development of the coordination between posture and manual control throughout childhood. We investigated the coordination between posture and manual control in children (7- and 10-year-olds) and adults during…

  9. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  10. Decrease in back strength in asymmetric trunk postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Daanen, H. A M; Meijst, W. J.; Ligteringen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The extension force against resistance was recorded in 23 postures for 12 subjects to find explanations for the decrease in back strength in asymmetric postures. A reduction in muscle force in asymmetric postures was found up to 40%, but was strongly dependent on the plane in which asymmetry

  11. Postural Determinants in the Blind. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Irwin M.; Murphy, Thomas J.

    The problem of malposture in the blind and its affect on orientation and travel skills was explored. A group of 45 students were enrolled in a standard 3-month mobility training program. Each student suffered a postural problem, some compounded by severe orthopedic and/or neurological deficit. All subjects were given complete orthopedic and…

  12. Smart rehabilitation garment for posture monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Q.; Chen, W.; Timmermans, A.A.A.; Karachristos, C.; Martens, J.B.O.S.; Markopoulos, P.

    Posture monitoring and correction technologies can support prevention and treatment of spinal pain or can help detect and avoid compensatory movements during the neurological rehabilitation of upper extremities, which can be very important to ensure their effectiveness. We describe the design and

  13. Robust balance shift control with posture optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavafoglu, Z.; Kavafoglu, Ersan; Egges, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a control framework which creates robust and natural balance shifting behaviours during standing. Given high-level features such as the position of the center of mass projection and the foot configurations, a kinematic posture satisfying these features is synthesized using

  14. Can smartwatches replace smartphones for posture tracking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-10-22

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch's ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches' ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed.

  15. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Collin S; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  16. Public and Private Posture : Zadie Smith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heynders, Odile

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will focus on Smith’s posture, and in particular on how her public position and literary work negotiate issues such as identification, celebrity, style and authenticity. First, the paradox of the ‘celebrity authority’ will be examined, followed by a Derrida-inspired analysis of Smith’s

  17. Evaluation of body posture in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Fernandes Andrade

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To investigate the body posture of nursing students before and after clinical practice. METHOD The study was developed in two stages. Initially the body posture of students of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th periods were assessed through photogrammetry. All images were analyzed in a random and masked manner with CorporisPro® 3.1.3 software. Three evaluations were performed for each angle and then the mean value was calculated. Two years later, when the 4th period students had developed their clinical internships, their body posture was again evaluated. RESULTS The total sample consisted of 112 students. Comparison of their posture with the normality pattern showed that all the angles presented significant differences (p< 0.00, except for the angle of the Thales triangle. Reassessment of these students evidenced significant differences in the angles of the acromioclavicular joint (p=0.03, knee flexion (p< 0.00 and in the tibiotarsal angle (p< 0.00. CONCLUSION All the students presented alterations when compared to the normality values. The segments that presented significant differences between before and after practice were the acromioclavicular angle, knee flexion, and tibiotarsal angle; the latter two were in the rolling position.

  18. Posture changes and subfoveal choroidal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Antonio; Geiser, Martial H; Riva, Charles E

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of posture change on subfoveal choroidal blood flow (ChBF) in normal volunteers. The pulsatile, nonpulsatile, and mean ChBF were measured with laser Doppler flowmetry in 11 healthy volunteers with a mean age of 32 +/- 13 (SD) years. The posture of the subjects was changed from standing (90 degrees ), to supine (-8 degrees ), and back to standing, with a mechanically driven table. During the whole experimental procedure, ChBF and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded. After 30 seconds in standing position, the subjects were tilted to supine during approximately 30 seconds. They remained in this position for approximately 2 minutes, after which they were tilted back to the standing position (recovery), where they remained for another approximately 2 minutes. Systemic brachial artery blood pressure (BP) was measured in the baseline, supine, and recovery positions. This procedure was repeated to measure the intraocular pressure (IOP) at the different postures. Mean BP did not change significantly throughout the experimental procedure. As the body was tilted from standing to supine, HR decreased by 16% (P blood velocity. Based on previously reported experimental data that indicate that the ocular perfusion pressure increases less than predicted by purely hydrostatic considerations when the body is tilted from the standing to the supine position, the observed increase in ChBF suggests a passive response of the choroidal circulation to the posture change.

  19. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin S VanBuren

    Full Text Available Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination. Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  20. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Retno Nurwulan

    Full Text Available Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1 texting impaired postural stability, (2 the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3 performing texting is perceived to be more difficult.

  1. Should Ballet Dancers Vary Postures and Underfoot Surfaces When Practicing Postural Balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Karin, Janet; Tirosh, Oren

    2018-01-01

    Postural balance (PB) is an important component skill for professional dancers. However, the effects of different types of postures and different underfoot surfaces on PB have not adequately been addressed. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different conditions of footwear, surfaces, and standing positions on static and dynamic PB ability of young ballet dancers. A total of 36 male and female young professional ballet dancers (aged 14-19 years) completed static and dynamic balance testing, measured by head and lumbar accelerometers, while standing on one leg in the turnout position, under six different conditions: (1) "relaxed" posture; (2) "ballet" posture; (3) barefoot; (4) ballet shoes with textured insoles; (5) barefoot on a textured mat; and (6) barefoot on a spiky mat. A condition effect was found for static and dynamic PB. Static PB was reduced when dancers stood in the ballet posture compared with standing in the relaxed posture and when standing on a textured mat and on a spiky mat (p ballet shoes with textured insoles and when standing on a spiky mat compared with all other conditions (p ballet aligned position, including dance practice on different types of floors and on different types of textured/spiky materials may result in skill transfer to practice on normal floor surfaces, and both static and dynamic PB exercises should be assessed and generalized into practical dance routines.

  2. Validity Evaluation of the Assessment Method for Postural Loading on the Upper Body in Printing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khandan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Musculoskeletal disorders and injuries are known as a global occupational challenge. These injuries are more are concentrated in the upper limb. There are several methods to assess this kind of disorders, each of which have different efficiencies for various jobs based on their strengths and weaknesses. This study aimed to assess the validity of LUBA method in order to evaluate risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders in a printing industry in Qom province, 2014. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, all operational workers (n=94 were investigated in 2014. Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ was used to collect data on musculoskeletal disorders. We also used LUBA method to analyze postures in four different parts of the body (neck, shoulder, elbow, and wrist. The obtained data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Kruskal Wallis, and Kappa agreement tests. Results: Lumbar region of back with 35.1% prevalence had the most problems. The results of LUBA method showed that most postures were located at the second corrective action level, and need further studies. Agreement between assessment of shoulder posture and its disorders was significant (p0.05.  Conclusion: According to the results of this study on reliability and predictive validity of the LUBA method in printing industry, it can be concluded that this method is not a reliable method for posture assessment; however, further and more comprehensive studies are recommended.  

  3. Evolution of Sports-medical Team Management in the Program of Posture Correction in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlakovic, Aldvin; Muftic, Mirsad; Radjo, Izet; Talovic, Munir; Mahmutovic, Ifet

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the organization and coordination of multidisciplinary team consisted of health and kinesiology professionals at the correction of posture among girls in the period of the second phase of intense growth and development. Testing was conducted on a sample of 70 girls, aged 11.9±2.3 years, in which by the expert evaluation is recorded weakness of individual muscle groups, but also of the whole musculature. For the assessment of posture we applied the method of Napoleon Wolanski. Used are 9 variables that included the observed region of the body and an overall assessment of posture. The subjects were included in the program of kinesiology treatment with duration of 28 weeks. For all the parameters have been applied statistical procedures at univariate and multivariate level. Data on subjects were obtained by measuring the same variables at two time points, i.e. before and after the application of kinesiology treatments. Analyses of differences arithmetic mean and mean values were done with the t-test for paired samples. In order to determine global quantitative differences of tested variables tested discriminant analysis was applied. The results showed that the models which complement the experience and practical application of expert health professionals and kinesiology knowledge is a very effective tool for improving posture of girls in the second phase of intensive growth and development. In this way can be prevented health problems that might arise later in life.

  4. Postural control in women with breast hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The consequences of breast hypertrophy have been described based on the alteration of body mass distribution, leading to an impact on psychological and physical aspects. The principles of motor control suggest that breast hypertrophy can lead to sensorimotor alterations and the impairment of body balance due to postural misalignment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the postural control of women with breast hypertrophy under different sensory information conditions. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 14 women with breast hypertrophy and 14 without breast hypertrophy, and the mean ages of the groups were 39 ±15 years and 39±16 years, respectively. A force platform was used to assess the sensory systems that contribute to postural control: somatosensory, visual and vestibular. Four postural conditions were sequentially tested: eyes open and fixed platform, eyes closed and fixed platform, eyes open and mobile platform, and eyes closed and mobile platform. The data were processed, and variables related to the center of pressure were analyzed for each condition. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the conditions between the groups for the area of center of pressure displacement and the velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The alpha level error was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Women with breast hypertrophy presented an area that was significantly higher for three out of four conditions and a higher velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior direction under two conditions: eyes open and mobile platform and eyes closed and mobile platform. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast hypertrophy have altered postural control, which was demonstrated by the higher area and velocity of center of pressure displacement.

  5. The reliability and validity of the Saliba Postural Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cristiana Kahl; Johnson, Vicky Saliba; Godwin, Ellen M; Pappas, Evangelos

    2016-07-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of the Saliba Postural Classification System (SPCS). Two physical therapists classified pictures of 100 volunteer participants standing in their habitual posture for inter and intra-tester reliability. For validity, 54 participants stood on a force plate in a habitual and a corrected posture, while a vertical force was applied through the shoulders until the clinician felt a postural give. Data were extracted at the time the give was felt and at a time in the corrected posture that matched the peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) in the habitual posture. Inter-tester reliability demonstrated 75% agreement with a Kappa = 0.64 (95% CI = 0.524-0.756, SE = 0.059). Intra-tester reliability demonstrated 87% agreement with a Kappa = 0.8, (95% CI = 0.702-0.898, SE = 0.05) and 80% agreement with a Kappa = 0.706, (95% CI = 0.594-0818, SE = 0.057). The examiner applied a significantly higher (p < 0.001) peak vertical force in the corrected posture prior to a postural give when compared to the habitual posture. Within the corrected posture, the %VGRF was higher when the test was ongoing vs. when a postural give was felt (p < 0.001). The %VGRF was not different between the two postures when comparing the peaks (p = 0.214). The SPCS has substantial agreement for inter- and intra-tester reliability and is largely a valid postural classification system as determined by the larger vertical forces in the corrected postures. Further studies on the correlation between the SPCS and diagnostic classifications are indicated.

  6. Relationship between Muscle Function, Muscle Typology and Postural Performance According to Different Postural Conditions in Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Although motor output of the postural function clearly influences postural performance in young and older subjects, no relationship has been formally established between them. However, the relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength/power and postural performance is often pointed out, especially in older subjects. In fact, the influence of motor output may vary according to the postural condition considered (e.g., static, dynamic, challenging, disturbing). In static postural condition, there may be a relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength and postural performance when the value of muscle strength is below a certain threshold in older subjects. Above this threshold of muscle strength, this relationship may disappear. In dynamic postural condition, lower-extremity muscle power could facilitate compensatory postural actions, limiting induced body imbalance likely to generate falls in older subjects. In young subjects, there could be a relationship between very early rapid torque of the leg extensor muscles and postural performance. In the case of postural reaction to (external) perturbations, a high percentage of type II muscle fibers could be associated with the ability to react quickly to postural perturbations in young subjects, while it may enable a reduction in the risk of falls in older subjects. In practice, in older subjects, muscle strength and/or power training contributes to reducing the risk of falls, as well as slowing down the involution of muscle typology regarding type II muscle fibers.

  7. Somatic features and body posture in children with scoliosis and scoliotic posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between somatic features and body posture in children with scoliosis and scoliotic posture. The study included 28 girls aged 7-18 with scoliosis and scoliotic posture. The selection of the subjects was deliberate. Height measurements were conducted with an anthropometer and weight measurements were done with an electronic scale. Body posture tests were performed using Exhibeon 3D digital photogrammetry and digital radiographs. The significant Spearman correlations between postural variables for the sagittal plane and the somatic variables regarded: trunk inclination angle and BMI (R= 0,4553, p= p=0,015, Abs of the trunk inclination angle and BMI (R = 0.5522, p = 0.002, length of thoracic kyphosis and BMI (R=0,4147, p=0.028, lumbar lordosis and BMI (R=0,4509, p=0,016. The significant Spearman correlations between scoliotic posture variables and the somatic variables concerned: length of primary lordosis and body height (R =0,4923, p=0.008, the length of the primary lordosis and body mass (R = 0.3932, p = 0.038, the length of the primary lordosis and BMI (R=0,4923, p=0.008. Variation analysis regarding postural (Exhibeon and somatic variables showed significant correlations between the direction of the primary curvature and body mass (p=0,0432, body height and primary angle location (p=0,0290 and between the height of the body and the location of the secondary angle (p = 0,0278.

  8. Ergonomic strategies to improve radiographers' posture during mammography activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernean, Nicolai; Serranheira, Florentino; Gonçalves, Pedro; Sá Dos Reis, Cláudia

    2017-08-01

    To identify alternatives for radiographers' postures while performing mammography that can contribute to reduce the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). Radiographers' postures to positioning craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated without any intervention for three scenarios: radiographer/patient with similar statures, radiographer smaller than patient and radiographer taller than patient. Actions were taken to modify the postures: seated radiographer; patient on a step; seated patient; radiographer on a step. All the postures were analysed using kinovea 0.8.15 software and the angles were measured twice and classified according to European standard EN1005-4: 2005. The non-acceptable angles were measured mainly during MLO positioning when radiographer was taller than the patient: 139° and 120° for arm-flexion and abduction, 72° for trunk and -24° for head/neck-flexion. The introduction of alternative postures (radiographer seated), allowed improvements in posture (60° and 99° for arm flexion and abduction, 14° for trunk and 0° for head/neck flexion), being classified as acceptable. The alternative postures simulated have the potential to reduce the risk of developing WRMSDs when radiographers and patients have different statures. • Radiographers' postures in mammography can contribute to work-related musculoskeletal disorders • Non-acceptable posture was identified for MLO breast positioning (radiographer taller than patient) • Adapting posture to patient biotype reduces the WRMSD risk for radiographers.

  9. Re-Educating the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This article means to investigate the philosophical concept of human embodiment in relation to physical education. As human beings not only do we have a body that we can control, but we "are" our body and live embodied in the world, as the German thinker, Helmuth Plessner, puts it in one of his many contributions to the philosophical…

  10. Obesity impact on the attentional cost for controlling posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Mignardot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing.Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1 and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6 maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal. The two postural tasks were performed (1 alone and (2 in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT. Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials.(1 Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP, in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2 Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3 Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4 RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity.Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities.

  11. Obesity Impact on the Attentional Cost for Controlling Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Olivier, Isabelle; Promayon, Emmanuel; Nougier, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing. Methods Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1) and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6) maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal). The two postural tasks were performed (1) alone and (2) in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT). Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials. Findings (1) Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP), in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2) Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3) Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4) RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity. Interpretation Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities. PMID:21187914

  12. Measuring postural control during mini-squat posture in men with early knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, M; Gramani-Say, K; Serrão, P R M S; Lessi, G C; Barela, J A; Carvalho, R P; Mattiello, S M

    2017-04-01

    Studies have suggested a compromised postural control in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) evidenced by larger and faster displacement of center of pressure (COP). However, quantification of postural control in the mini-squat posture performed by patients with early knee OA and its relation to muscle strength and self-reported symptoms have not been investigated. The main aim of this cross-sectional, observational, controlled study was to determine whether postural control in the mini-squat posture differs between individuals with early knee OA and a control group (CG) and verify the relation among knee extensor torque (KET) and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. Twenty four individuals with knee OA grades I and II (OAG) (mean age: 52.35±5.00) and twenty subjects without knee injuries (CG) (mean age: 51.40±8.07) participated in this study. Participants were assessed in postural control through a force plate (Bertec Mod. USA), which provided information about the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) COP displacement during the mini-squat, in isometric, concentric and eccentric knee extensor torque (KET) (90°/s) through an isokinetic dynamometer (BiodexMulti-Joint System3, Biodex Medical Incorporation, New York, NY, USA), and in self-reported symptoms through the WOMAC questionnaire. The main outcomes measured were the AP and ML COP amplitude and velocity of displacement; isometric, concentric, and eccentric KET and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. No significant differences were found between groups for postural control (p>0.05). Significant lower eccentric KET (p=0.01) and higher scores for the WOMAC subscales of pain (p=postural instability and the need to include quadriceps muscle strengthening, especially by eccentric contractions. The relationship between the self-reported symptoms and a lower and slower COP displacement suggest that the postural control strategy during tasks with a semi-flexed knee

  13. Programa de la actividad física terapéutica para la reeducación postural de escolares portadores de escoliosis desde la escuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireya Pérez Rodríguez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El programa se fundamenta en un modelo pedagógico para la reeducación postural integral de escolares portadores de escoliosis, es contentivo de un método novedoso de reeducación postural global y ofrece alternativas para la reeducación postural desde la escuela basadas en ejercicios físicos, danzoterapia y juegos con fines terapéuticos y profilácticos, implementado en centros escolares del territorio, es resultado de un proyecto de investigación y tesis de doctorado, resultó efectivo en la modificación de actitudes y  hábitos posturales incorrectos, corrección de escoliosis, favorecido por laintegración entre escuela, fami lia y comunidad en función de la reeducación postural integral de los escolares.

  14. Strategic political postures and political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter......Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts......, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit...

  15. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) patients have poorer postural control compared to healthy controls, and the importance of assessing and addressing balance is a matter of debate. In the clinic, balance is often tested by means of the one leg stand test (OLST) while research often employs center of pressure (Co......P) on a force platform. Portable force platforms might be of clinical relevance, but their reliability for LBP patients in a clinical setting has not been demonstrated. As LBP patients are more dependent on vision compared to healthy controls, the ratio of tests performed with eyes open and eyes closed (Romberg...... Ratio) might be of clinical interest. This study aimed to assess postural balance in LBP patients by analyzing intra-session reliability of CoP parameters on a portable force platform, the Romberg Ratio, and the OLST. Furthermore, we aimed to determine whether CoP parameters and OLST measure identical...

  16. Research of Human Postural Balance Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Griškevičius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In present article postural balance between subjects with stroke and healthy subjects, is being investigated with eyes opened and eyes closed. In the research participated 30 healthy subjects and 15 subjects with stroke. At the same time two experimental measurements were performed – postural balance was measured using balance platform and oscillations of the centre of mass were observed using two-axial accelerometer. It was noted, that amplitudes of subjects with stroke were larger almost two times than control group’s of healthy subjects. It was find out, that ratios of pressure distribution on both left and right legs are in range from 1 to 0.9 for healthy subjects, and ratios below 0.9 are common for subjects with stroke. When subjects were standing with eyes closed, sway amplitudes were higher and the ratios of load distribution on left and right legs were lower.Article in Lithuanian

  17. Human Posture Identification Using a MIMO Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Sasakawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The elderly are constantly in danger of falling and injuring themselves without anyone realizing it. A safety-monitoring system based on microwaves can ease these concerns. The authors have proposed safety-monitoring systems that use multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar to localize persons by capturing their biological activities such as respiration. However, our studies to date have focused on localization, which is easier to achieve than an estimation of human postures. This paper proposes a human posture identification scheme based on height and a Doppler radar cross section (RCS as estimated by a MIMO array. This scheme allows smart home applications to dispense with contact and wearable devices. Experiments demonstrate that this method can identify the supine position (i.e., after a fall with 100% accuracy, and the average identification rate is 95.0%.

  18. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    effect on postoperative pulmonary function in the sitting or standing position compared with the supine. Thus, avoidance of the supine position may improve postoperative pulmonary function. Three of six studies showed a positive effect on postoperative pulmonary function of the lateral side compared......BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...... with the supine. Thus, the lateral position has limited effects on pulmonary function. CONCLUSION: Changes of postoperative position from supine to sitting or standing are of major importance in the interpretation of postoperative pulmonary outcome studies and in future strategies to improve pulmonary outcome....

  19. Evaluation of body posture in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marília Fernandes; Chaves, Érika de Cássia Lopes; Miguel, Michele Rita Oliveira; Simão, Talita Prado; Nogueira, Denismar Alves; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2017-08-28

    To investigate the body posture of nursing students before and after clinical practice. The study was developed in two stages. Initially the body posture of students of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th periods were assessed through photogrammetry. All images were analyzed in a random and masked manner with CorporisPro® 3.1.3 software. Three evaluations were performed for each angle and then the mean value was calculated. Two years later, when the 4th period students had developed their clinical internships, their body posture was again evaluated. The total sample consisted of 112 students. Comparison of their posture with the normality pattern showed that all the angles presented significant differences (pcomposta por 112 estudantes. Comparando-se os estudantes com o padrão de normalidade, todos os ângulos apresentaram diferença significativa (p< 0,00), com exceção do ângulo triângulo de Tales. Reavaliando os mesmos estudantes, houve diferença significativa nos ângulos da articulação acromioclavicular (p=0,03), da flexão de joelhos (p< 0,00) e no ângulo tibiotársico (p< 0,00). Todos os estudantes apresentaram alterações, comparadas aos valores de normalidade. Os segmentos com diferença significativa, comparando-se antes e após a prática, foram o ângulo acromioclavicular, flexo de joelho e ângulo tibiotársico, sendo os dois últimos na posição de rolamento.

  20. Human Posture Identification Using a MIMO Array

    OpenAIRE

    Dai Sasakawa; Naoki Honma; Takeshi Nakayama; Shoichi Iizuka

    2018-01-01

    The elderly are constantly in danger of falling and injuring themselves without anyone realizing it. A safety-monitoring system based on microwaves can ease these concerns. The authors have proposed safety-monitoring systems that use multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar to localize persons by capturing their biological activities such as respiration. However, our studies to date have focused on localization, which is easier to achieve than an estimation of human postures. This paper pr...

  1. Lead effects on postural balance of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Shukla, R.; Bornschein, R.L.; Dietrich, K.N. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Keith, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The postural sway responses of 63 children with a mean age of 5.74 years were quantified with a Force Platform technique. The average maximum (max) blood lead (PbB) of these children during the first 5 years of life was 20.7 {mu}g/dL (range 9.2 to 32.5). The backward stepwise regression analysis for sway area response during the eyes-closed, no-foam test with all the covariates and confounders and the PbB parameters showed a significant relationship with peak or max PbB during the second year of life. These results are consistent with their previous study with a smaller group of children. The data have been analyzed to provide some insight into the role of various afferents for the maintenance of postural balance. The results suggests a hypothesis that if the max PbB had caused some level of impairment in the functional capacities or interconnectivity of the vestibular and/or proprioception systems at 2 years of age, then it is reasonable to assume that the redundancy in the postural afferent systems would naturally adapt to rely more on the remaining intact afferent system (in this case, vision).

  2. A postural `stressed` cerebral HMPAO case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.C.; Jost, G.M.; Bolitho, L.; Grantham, M. [Wangaratta District Hospital, VIC (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Full text: This case study represents an example of the utility of postural hypoperfusion stressed HMPAO SPECT. An elderly woman of 78 with a long history of giddiness was referred to our laboratory for examination of possible cerebral ischaemia. She had recurrent dizzy episodes, sometimes posture related, over the past few years and had suffered several falls. Cerebral DSA revealed minimal disease. CT scans were reported as normal. Carotid duplex Doppler studies revealed bilateral plaque disease in the carotid bulbs extending to the origins of the ICAs which were not significant stenoses. Postural symptoms were induced by standing the patient up rapidly and HMPAO was administered at the same time. A SPECT scan of the brain was performed. Quantitative analysis showed a left to right decrease of 10.8% in the temporo-occipital area, 5.6% in the temporo-parietal area and 2.5% in the cerebellar and parietal areas. Images revealed moderately reduced tracer concentration in the left half of the cerebellum and the left occipital region extending as far forward as the temporo-parietal region A repeat HMPAO SPECT scan without stress was normal. This would appear to indicate reversible ischaemia in the left posterior region, and is consistent with the reported symptoms. This case illustrates the usefulness of HMPAO in the diagnosis of reversible cerebral ischaemia.

  3. Ice skating promotes postural control in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M; Röttger, K; Taube, W

    2014-12-01

    High fall rates causing injury and enormous financial costs are reported for children. However, only few studies investigated the effects of balance training in children and these studies did not find enhanced balance performance in postural (transfer) tests. Consequently, it was previously speculated that classical balance training might not be stimulating enough for children to adequately perform these exercises. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of ice skating as an alternative form of balance training. Volunteers of an intervention (n = 17; INT: 13.1 ± 0.4 years) and a control group (n = 13; CON: 13.2 ± 0.3 years) were tested before and after training in static and dynamic postural transfer tests. INT participated in eight sessions of ice skating during education lessons, whereas CON participated in normal physical education. Enhanced balance performance was observed in INT but not in CON when tested on an unstable free-swinging platform (P skating in children. More importantly, participating children improved static and dynamic balance control in postural tasks that were not part of the training. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A postural 'stressed' cerebral HMPAO case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.C.; Jost, G.M.; Bolitho, L.; Grantham, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This case study represents an example of the utility of postural hypoperfusion stressed HMPAO SPECT. An elderly woman of 78 with a long history of giddiness was referred to our laboratory for examination of possible cerebral ischaemia. She had recurrent dizzy episodes, sometimes posture related, over the past few years and had suffered several falls. Cerebral DSA revealed minimal disease. CT scans were reported as normal. Carotid duplex Doppler studies revealed bilateral plaque disease in the carotid bulbs extending to the origins of the ICAs which were not significant stenoses. Postural symptoms were induced by standing the patient up rapidly and HMPAO was administered at the same time. A SPECT scan of the brain was performed. Quantitative analysis showed a left to right decrease of 10.8% in the temporo-occipital area, 5.6% in the temporo-parietal area and 2.5% in the cerebellar and parietal areas. Images revealed moderately reduced tracer concentration in the left half of the cerebellum and the left occipital region extending as far forward as the temporo-parietal region A repeat HMPAO SPECT scan without stress was normal. This would appear to indicate reversible ischaemia in the left posterior region, and is consistent with the reported symptoms. This case illustrates the usefulness of HMPAO in the diagnosis of reversible cerebral ischaemia

  5. The effects of brief swaying on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagé, Sara; Maheu, Maxime; Landry, Simon P; Champoux, François

    2017-12-06

    Postural control can be improved with balance training. However, the nature and duration of the training required to enhance posture remains unclear. We studied the effects of 5 min of a self-initiated balance exercise along a single axis on postural control in healthy individuals. Postural control was measured before and after a 5-min period where members of the experimental group were asked to lean their entire body forward and backward and members of the control group were asked to remain seated. A significant improvement for sway velocity, a postural control variable significantly associated with an increased risk of falls, was found in the experimental group following the body sway exercise. These data suggest that a basic exercise can rapidly improve postural control and reduce the risk of falls.

  6. Postural steadiness and ankle force variability in peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Roger J.; Feldman-Kothe, Caitlin; Trabert, Megan K.; Hitchcock, Leah N.; Reiser, Raoul F.; Tracy, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose was to determine the effect of peripheral neuropathy (PN) on motor output variability for ankle muscles of older adults, and the relation between ankle motor variability and postural stability in PN patients. Methods Older adults with (O-PN) and without PN (O), and young adults (Y) underwent assessment of standing postural stability and ankle muscle force steadiness. Results O-PN displayed impaired ankle muscle force control and postural stability compared with O and Y groups. For O-PN, the amplitude of plantarflexor force fluctuations was moderately correlated with postural stability under no-vision conditions (r = 0.54, P = 0.01). Discussion The correlation of variations in ankle force with postural stability in PN suggests a contribution of ankle muscle dyscontrol to the postural instability that impacts physical function for older adults with PN. PMID:26284897

  7. Inactivity periods and postural change speed can explain atypical postural change patterns of Caenorhabditis elegans mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-19

    With rapid advances in genome sequencing and editing technologies, systematic and quantitative analysis of animal behavior is expected to be another key to facilitating data-driven behavioral genetics. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism in this field. Several video-tracking systems are available for automatically recording behavioral data for the nematode, but computational methods for analyzing these data are still under development. In this study, we applied the Gaussian mixture model-based binning method to time-series postural data for 322 C. elegans strains. We revealed that the occurrence patterns of the postural states and the transition patterns among these states have a relationship as expected, and such a relationship must be taken into account to identify strains with atypical behaviors that are different from those of wild type. Based on this observation, we identified several strains that exhibit atypical transition patterns that cannot be fully explained by their occurrence patterns of postural states. Surprisingly, we found that two simple factors-overall acceleration of postural movement and elimination of inactivity periods-explained the behavioral characteristics of strains with very atypical transition patterns; therefore, computational analysis of animal behavior must be accompanied by evaluation of the effects of these simple factors. Finally, we found that the npr-1 and npr-3 mutants have similar behavioral patterns that were not predictable by sequence homology, proving that our data-driven approach can reveal the functions of genes that have not yet been characterized. We propose that elimination of inactivity periods and overall acceleration of postural change speed can explain behavioral phenotypes of strains with very atypical postural transition patterns. Our methods and results constitute guidelines for effectively finding strains that show "truly" interesting behaviors and systematically uncovering novel gene

  8. A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Maartje H; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C; van Campen, Jos P C M; Lems, Willem F; Beijnen, Jos H; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2014-02-01

    A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current study was therefore to examine postural control during walking in elderly patients with FP, and to investigate the relationship with geriatric phenomena that may cause FP, such as increased TK, VFs, frailty, polypharmacy and cognitive impairments. Fifty-six elderly patients (aged 80 ± 5.2 years; 70% female) walked 160 m at self-selected speed while trunk accelerations were recorded. Walking speed, mean stride time and coefficient of variation (CV) of stride time were recorded. In addition, postural control during walking was quantified by time-dependent variability measures derived from the theory of stochastic dynamics, indicating smoothness, degree of predictability, and local stability of trunk acceleration patterns. Twenty-five patients (45%) had FP and demonstrated a more variable and less structured gait pattern, and a more irregular trunk acceleration pattern than patients with normal posture. FP was significantly associated with an increased TK, but not with other geriatric phenomena. An increased TK may bring the body's centre of mass forward, which requires correcting responses, and reduces the ability to respond on perturbation, which was reflected by higher variation in the gait pattern in FP-patients. Impairments in postural control during walking are a major risk factor for falling: the results indicate that patients with FP have impaired postural control during walking and might therefore be at increased risk of falling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Time-of-day influences postural balance in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, M G; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Laessoe, U

    2012-01-01

    Postural balance assessments are performed in both clinical and basic research settings on a daily basis. During a 24-h time span our physiology and physical performance undergo radical changes as we are influenced by the circadian rhythm. The time-of-day interaction on postural balance is unknow...... in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the time-of-day effect on postural balance in older adults....

  10. The study of postural workload in assembly of furniture upholstery

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Lasota Andrzej; Hankiewicz Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSDs) which common cause of health problems, sick leave and it can result in decreased quality of work and increased absenteeism. The objective of this study is to evaluate and investigate the postural workload of sewing machine operators in the assembly of upholstery in furniture factory by using the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS) with sampling. The results indicated that posture code ...

  11. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O.

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. Accordi...

  12. Postural adjustments are modulated by manual task complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Augusto Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily life activities of humans are characterized by dual tasks, in which a manual task is performed concomitantly with a postural task. Based on the assumption that both manual and postural tasks require attentional resources, no consensus exists as to how the central nervous system modulates postural adjustments in dual tasks. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a manual task requiring attentional resources on shoulder and ankle adjustments as a function of the direction and predictability of postural perturbation. The participants (n=6 were evaluated during the performance of a simple and a complex manual task, while the base of support was moved backward or forward. Latency of activation of the tibialis anterior and gastroc-nemius muscles and angular acceleration of the shoulder were analyzed. The results showed that execution of the complex manual task delayed postural adjustment. Moreover, this delay occurred differently depending on the direction of postural perturbation. The delay in postural adjustment occurred proximally in the case of anterior displacement of the platform, and distally in the case of posterior displacement. Postural adjustments were more affected by the attentional task than by the predictability of platform displacement. These results are consistent with the concept of an integrated control between manual actions and the maintenance of static posture.

  13. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  14. The dentist’s operating posture – ergonomic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist’s physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture. PMID:25184007

  15. Multisensory training for postural sway control in non-injured elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multisensory training for postural sway control in non-injured elderly females. ... Elderly adults demonstrate increased postural sway, which may ultimately lead to falls. ... Keywords: multisensory training, postural sway control, balance ability, ...

  16. On the functional integration between postural and supra-postural tasks on the basis of contextual cues and task constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Andrea Cristina; de Azevedo Neto, Raymundo Machado; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2010-10-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of uncertainty about direction of mechanical perturbation and supra-postural task constraint on postural control, young adults had their upright stance perturbed while holding a tray in a horizontal position. Stance was perturbed by moving forward or backward a supporting platform, contrasting situations of certainty versus uncertainty of direction of displacement. Increased constraint on postural stability was imposed by a supra-postural task of equilibrating a cylinder on the tray. Performance was assessed through EMG of anterior leg muscles, angular displacement of the main joints involved in the postural reactions and displacement of the tray. Results showed that both certainty on the direction of perturbation and increased supra-postural task constraint led to decreased angular displacement of the knee and the hip. Furthermore, combination of certainty and high supra-postural task constraint produced shorter latency of muscular activation. Such postural responses were paralleled by decreased displacement of the tray. These results suggest a functional integration between the tasks, with central set priming reactive postural responses from contextual cues and increased stability demand. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Maartje H.; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Lems, Willem F.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current

  18. A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.H.; van der Jagt-Willems, H.; van Campen, J.P.C.M.; Lems, W.F.; Beijnen, J.H.; Lamoth, C.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current

  19. Effects of rapid maxillary expansion on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Celebi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk. Materials and Methods: A sample of 51 adolescent patients was randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, which consisted of 28 patients (15 females and 13 males, RME was performed as a part of routine orthodontic treatment. The remaining 23 individuals (12 females and 11 males served as the control group. Lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in natural head position, postural stability, and fall risk scores were obtained during the first visit. They were repeated on average 3.8 months and 3.5 months later for the study and control groups, respectively. The changes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, paired samples t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and independent samples t-test. Results: As a result of RME, a statistically significant decrease was detected in the fall risk score (P < 0.05 in the study group, while the head position and postural stability remained unchanged. For the control group, no significant changes were observed in all measurements. Conclusions: The result of the present study suggests that RME has a capacity of improving fall risk.

  20. Clinical evaluation of postural posture of patients with previous stroke subjected to early rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sagan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impairment disorders are often found in patients with stroke and impairment of motor and cognitive functions. This is a very serious complication because, by imposing a motor impairment, it aggravates the condition of disability and makes it difficult to conduct physical rehabilitation.The resulting neurological deficits due to stroke determine functional disorders. The possibility of locomotion is usually compromised, therefore the risk of falls increases significantly. The aim of the work is to present Postural Assesment Scale for Strock PASS with the postural stroke assessment scale, the impact of early rehabilitation of patients staying in the neurology ward.Material and methods: Postural examination was carried out among 17 people, of which 8 were women, and 9 were male. The study was divided into two stages. The first stage occurred immediately after the stroke and the second one before the patient was discharged from the ward. Research was carried out at the Biegański Specialist Hospital in Grudziądz in the Department of Neurology and Clinical Neuroimmunology and Impact Department.Conclusions: The results of the postural studies carried out in people with previous stroke subjected to early physiotherapy have a beneficial effect of the conducted therapy. There are positive changes between the first and the final examination of the patients.

  1. Cardiovascular function in pregnancy: effects of posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bene, R; Barletta, G; Mello, G; Lazzeri, C; Mecacci, F; Parretti, E; Martini, E; Vecchiarino, S; Franchi, F; La Villa, G

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular response to active postural changes in pregnancy. Prospective study. Outpatient Clinic, Fetal Maternity Unit. Sixteen healthy women referred prior to pregnancy. Heart rate, arterial pressure, echocardiographic end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes (Teichholz' s formula) were measured in the three months before pregnancy, at the end of the first and second trimester, at mid third trimester, and six months after delivery in the supine and standing position, in thirteen women (mean age 33, range 25-38 years). Cardiac output (supine position) significantly increased (28%): it reached its maximum at the second trimester, remained steadily elevated in the mid third trimester, and returned to baseline after delivery. Cardiac output increased during pregnancy also in the active orthostatic position, the percentage increase being greater (70%) since the standing pre-conception value was lower. The postural stress induced similar changes in heart rate, arterial pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction before, during and after pregnancy. However, the reduction in cardiac output associated with early standing attenuated significantly at the second trimester and it was absent at mid third trimester (F = 3.13, P = 0.021). This was due to the interplay between the significantly lesser increase in systemic vascular resistance, occurring since the first trimester, and the significantly lesser decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic volume which was observed in the mid third trimester. These data indicate that the elevated cardiac output is adequately maintained in pregnancy during the postural challenge, due to optimisation of the responses of preload and afterload.

  2. Postural Hand Synergies during Environmental Constraint Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Della Santina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping. We investigated this hypothesis in experiments performed by six subjects, who were asked to grasp objects from a flat surface. We quantitatively characterized hand posture behavior from a kinematic perspective, i.e., the hand joint angles, in both pre-shaping and during the interaction with the environment. To determine the role of tactile feedback, we repeated the same experiments but with subjects wearing a rigid shell on the fingertips to reduce cutaneous afferent inputs. Results show the persistence of at least two postural synergies in all the considered experimental conditions and phases. Tactile impairment does not alter significantly the first two synergies, and contact with the environment generates a change only for higher order Principal Components. A good match also arises between the first synergy found in our analysis and the first synergy of grasping as quantified by previous work. The present study is motivated by the interest of learning from the human example, extracting lessons that can be applied in robot design and control. Thus, we conclude with a discussion on implications for robotics of our findings.

  3. Safeguards technology: present posture and future impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keepin, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    With widespread and growing concern over the issues of nuclear safeguards, international nuclear trade and nuclear weapons proliferation, the full development of the world's nuclear energy potential could well depend on how effectively the strategic nuclear materials that fuel nuclear power are controlled and safeguarded. The broad U.S. program in nuclear safeguards and security is directed toward a balanced safeguards system incorporating the two major components of physical security and materials control. The current posture of modern safeguards technology, its impact on plant operations, and the key role it must play in the implementation of stringent cost-effective safeguards systems in facilities throughout the nuclear fuel cycle are outlined

  4. Artificial Intelligence Software for Assessing Postural Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Erez; Forth, Katharine; Paloski, William

    2013-01-01

    A software package reads and analyzes pressure distributions from sensors mounted under a person's feet. Pressure data from sensors mounted in shoes, or in a platform, can be used to provide a description of postural stability (assessing competence to deficiency) and enables the determination of the person's present activity (running, walking, squatting, falling). This package has three parts: a preprocessing algorithm for reading input from pressure sensors; a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which is used to determine the person's present activity and level of sensing-motor competence; and a suite of graphical algorithms, which allows visual representation of the person's activity and vestibular function over time.

  5. Neural basis of postural focus effect on concurrent postural and motor tasks: phase-locked electroencephalogram responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Zhao, Chen-Guang; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2014-11-01

    Dual-task performance is strongly affected by the direction of attentional focus. This study investigated neural control of a postural-suprapostural procedure when postural focus strategy varied. Twelve adults concurrently conducted force-matching and maintained stabilometer stance with visual feedback on ankle movement (visual internal focus, VIF) and on stabilometer movement (visual external focus, VEF). Force-matching error, dynamics of ankle and stabilometer movements, and event-related potentials (ERPs) were registered. Postural control with VEF caused superior force-matching performance, more complex ankle movement, and stronger kinematic coupling between the ankle and stabilometer movements than postural control with VIF. The postural focus strategy also altered ERP temporal-spatial patterns. Postural control with VEF resulted in later N1 with less negativity around the bilateral fronto-central and contralateral sensorimotor areas, earlier P2 deflection with more positivity around the bilateral fronto-central and ipsilateral temporal areas, and late movement-related potential commencing in the left frontal-central area, as compared with postural control with VIF. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP principal component revealed phase-locked neural oscillations in the delta (1-4Hz), theta (4-7Hz), and beta (13-35Hz) rhythms. The delta and theta rhythms were more pronounced prior to the timing of P2 positive deflection, and beta rebound was greater after the completion of force-matching in VEF condition than VIF condition. This study is the first to reveal the neural correlation of postural focusing effect on a postural-suprapostural task. Postural control with VEF takes advantage of efficient task-switching to facilitate autonomous postural response, in agreement with the "constrained-action" hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Functional Head Postures on the Dynamic Functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The dentist utilizes supine position during therapeutic procedures, while the patients assumes extended head posture during mastication. It is critical for the restorative dentist to evaluate and understand the possible effect of change in head posture on occlusal contacts. An understanding of the possible effect ...

  7. Effects of Dyslexia on Postural Control in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M.; Magnusson, M.; Lush, D.; Gomez, S.; Fransson, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia has been shown to affect postural control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in postural stability measured as torque variance in an adult dyslexic group (n=14, determined using the Adult Dyslexia Checklist (ADCL) and nonsense word repetition test) and an adult non-dyslexic group (n=39) on a firm surface and…

  8. Characterization of postural control impairment in women with fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempere-Rubio, Núria; López-Pascual, Juan; Aguilar-Rodríguez, Marta; Cortés-Amador, Sara; Espí-López, Gemma; Villarrasa-Sapiña, Israel

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this cross-sectional study was to detect whether women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) have altered postural control and to study the sensory contribution to postural control. We also explored the possibility that self-induced anxiety and lower limb strength may be related to postural control. For this purpose, 129 women within an age range of 40 to 70 years were enrolled. Eighty of the enrolled women had FMS. Postural control variables, such as Ellipse, Root mean square (RMS) and Sample entropy (SampEn), in both directions (i.e. mediolateral and anteroposterior), were calculated under five different conditions. A force plate was used to register the center of pressure shifts. Furthermore, isometric lower limb strength was recorded with a portable dynamometer and normalized by lean body mass. The results showed that women with FMS have impaired postural control compared with healthy people, as they presented a significant increase in Ellipse and RMS values (pPostural control also worsens with the gradual alteration of sensory inputs in this population (p0.05). There were no significant correlations between postural control and lower limb strength (p>0.05). Therefore, women with FMS have impaired postural control that is worse when sensory inputs are altered but is not correlated with their lower limb strength. PMID:29723223

  9. Thoracic posture, shoulder muscle activation patterns and isokinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor posture, scapular dyskinesia, altered scapular muscle recruitment patterns and ... postural deviation and incorrect shoulder kinematics.[5]. Knowledge of the .... the contra-lateral hand was placed as far down the spinal column as possible, and the ... produced by muscle contraction for rotation around a joint.[12] During.

  10. The final common pathway in postural control - Developmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernell, D

    A brief review is given concerning postural specialisations among mammalian muscle fibres and motor units. Most skeletal muscles contain a mixture of fibres with different characteristics, and their slow-twitch (S) units are well-known to possess properties suitable for postural tasks: they are

  11. Effect of magnification loupes on dental hygiene student posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, J Peggy; Millar, A Michele; Burke, Jillian M; Maillet, Michelle A; Maillet, Wayne A; Neish, Nancy R

    2008-01-01

    The chair-side work posture of dental hygienists has long been a concern because of health-related problems potentially caused or exacerbated by poor posture. The purpose of this study was to investigate if using magnification loupes improved dental hygiene students' posture during provision of treatment. The treatment chosen was hand-scaling, and the effect of the timing of introduction of the loupes to students was also examined. Thirty-five novice dental hygiene students took part in the study. Each student was assessed providing dental hygiene care with and without loupes, thus controlling for innate differences in natural posture. Students were randomized into two groups. Group one used loupes in the first session and did not use them for the second session. Group two reversed this sequence. At the end of each session, all students were videotaped while performing scaling procedures. Their posture was assessed using an adapted version of Branson et al.'s Posture Assessment Instrument (PAI). Four raters assessed students at three time periods for nine posture components on the PAI. A paired t-test compared scores with and without loupes for each student. Scores showed a significant improvement in posture when using loupes (ppostural benefit is realized by requiring students to master the use of magnification loupes as early as possible within the curriculum.

  12. Postural stability and occlusal status among Japanese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song-Yu, Xuan; Rodis, Omar M M; Ogata, Sagiri; Can-Hu, Jin; Nishimura, Michiko; Matsumura, Seishi

    2012-06-01

    There are still no data available on the relationship between postural stability and occlusal status among the elderly. To examine relationships between postural stability and occlusal status through a cohort study among elderly Japanese. Oral examination, occlusal status, postural stability and a questionnaire were conducted and given to 87 community-dwelling Japanese at enrolment. The average occlusal pressure of the female group was statistically higher than the male group while average occlusal pressure and postural stability length were lesser in the group with more remaining teeth. Postural stability area and number of remaining teeth showed statistically significant correlations. Postural stability length was lesser in the group with strong occlusal force. Furthermore, the number of decayed teeth was fewer in the good hygiene group. This study identified a close relationship between occlusal status and postural stability of Japanese older individuals. Occlusal hypofunction was observed more in those with occlusal problems, and a decrease in their occlusal functions resulted in postural instability. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Problems of display postures in the Charadrii (Aves: Charadriiformes)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of displays in the Charadrii (= waders or shorebirds) show that the same posture in different species, even quite closely related, may have a different function in a given context. As a corollary to this, two species even in the same genus may have quite different display postures to convey the same message.

  14. Differences in body composition and prevalence for postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence rate for postural deviations and body composition status among two racial groups in South Africa. The sample (n = 216) consisted of 89 African girls and 127 Caucasian girls. Anthropometric (BMI and percentage body fat) and body posture measurements were performed.

  15. Posture and isokinetic shoulder strength in female water polo players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Being overhead athletes, water polo players can present with muscular imbalances of the shoulder, between the internal rotators (IR) and external rotators (ER), leading to changes in posture and an increased risk of injury. Objectives: To assess posture and isokinetic shoulder strength of female club-level ...

  16. Prism adaptation improves postural imbalance in neglect patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Olthoff, Liselot; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Visser-Meily, Johanna M a

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found a negative relation between neglect and postural imbalance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of a single session of prism adaptation on balance [i.e. mediolateral and anteroposterior center of pressure (CoP)] and postural sway (i.e. mean

  17. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  18. Relationship between posterior crossbite and postural alterations in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaqueline de Matos Lopes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the posture of individuals with functional posterior crossbite, malocclusion is one of the most in need of orthodontic treatment. Methods: This work presents an analysis of postural among children 6 to 12 years who present functional posterior cross bite of both genders who are in mixed dentition or no intervention prior orthodontic and orthopedic. Was obtained images in the plans: front and back where it was analyzed the asymmetry or symmetry of the individual in the image and in the lateral, anterior, a posterior or normality. Results: 100% had some kind of postural change, and the asymmetry between the scapulae (shoulder found the greatest change, as one of extreme importance in this age group represents a growing skeletal muscle. Conclusion: analyzes all of the children showed postural abnormalities and malocclusion are also of great importance not only to be treating the problem orally, but the postural problem with the help of a multidisciplinary team.

  19. Clinical working postures of bachelor of oral health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, S J; Johnstone, C L; Hutchinson, C M W; Taylor, P A; Wade, K J

    2011-09-01

    To observe and describe the clinical working postures of final-year Bachelor of Oral Health (BOH) students. Pilot observational study. The University of Otago Faculty of Dentistry and School of Physiotherapy. Eight final-year BOH students voluntarily participated in this study, where postural data were collected using a digital video camera during a standard clinical treatment session. The postural data were analysed using 3D Match biomechanical software. Final-year BOH students who work in the seated position are exposed to neck flexion of greater than 35 degrees, together with trunk flexion greater than 20 degrees and bilateral elbow flexion greater than 90 degrees. The findings of this study agree with the findings of previous postural studies of dental professionals. Dental hygiene students, together with their clinical supervisors, need to be aware of the importance of good working posture early in their careers, and pay particular attention to the degree of neck flexion occurring for prolonged periods.

  20. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Tickle

    Full Text Available Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  1. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  2. Sensory modulation of movement, posture and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saradjian, A H

    2015-11-01

    During voluntary movement, there exists a well known functional sensory attenuation of afferent inputs, which allows us to discriminate between information related to our own movements and those arising from the external environment. This attenuation or 'gating' prevents some signals from interfering with movement elaboration and production. However, there are situations in which certain task-relevant sensory inputs may not be gated. This review begins by identifying the prevalent findings in the literature with specific regard to the somatosensory modality, and reviews the many cases of classical sensory gating phenomenon accompanying voluntary movement and their neural basis. This review also focuses on the newer axes of research that demonstrate that task-specific sensory information may be disinhibited or even facilitated during engagement in voluntary actions. Finally, a particular emphasis will be placed on postural and/or locomotor tasks involving strong somatosensory demands, especially for the setting of the anticipatory postural adjustments observed prior the initiation of locomotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Posture of the head and pharyngeal swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.

    1986-01-01

    Closure of the laryngeal vestibule during swallowing is important for protection of the airways. The present investigation included 53 patients with dysphagia examined cineradiographically with the head held in resting posture, flexion and extension. The ability to protect the airways by the downward movement of the epiglottis and by obliteration of the laryngeal vestibule was studied in different postures of the head. Of 35 patients with normal laryngeal obliteration with the head in resting position 10 showed a defective closure at swallowing in extension. In 18 patients with defective closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position 9 were improved on flexion and two on extension of the head. In one patient with defectie closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position swallowing in flexion showed an aggravated dysfunction. In our other patients the defective closure became more marked on extension. Four patients had less effective downward movement of the epiglottis with the head in extension. Of 10 patients with defective epiglottic movement with the head in resting position two were improved on tilting the head forwards. The results show that the position of the head influences the closure of the airways during swallowing. Patients with defective protection of the laryngeal vestibule should be instructed to swallow with the head tilted forwards. (orig.)

  4. Self versus environment motion in postural control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Dokka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To stabilize our position in space we use visual information as well as non-visual physical motion cues. However, visual cues can be ambiguous: visually perceived motion may be caused by self-movement, movement of the environment, or both. The nervous system must combine the ambiguous visual cues with noisy physical motion cues to resolve this ambiguity and control our body posture. Here we have developed a Bayesian model that formalizes how the nervous system could solve this problem. In this model, the nervous system combines the sensory cues to estimate the movement of the body. We analytically demonstrate that, as long as visual stimulation is fast in comparison to the uncertainty in our perception of body movement, the optimal strategy is to weight visually perceived movement velocities proportional to a power law. We find that this model accounts for the nonlinear influence of experimentally induced visual motion on human postural behavior both in our data and in previously published results.

  5. Emotion expression in body action and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dael, Nele; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-10-01

    Emotion communication research strongly focuses on the face and voice as expressive modalities, leaving the rest of the body relatively understudied. Contrary to the early assumption that body movement only indicates emotional intensity, recent studies have shown that body movement and posture also conveys emotion specific information. However, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by a lack of production studies informed by a theoretical framework. In this research we adopted the Body Action and Posture (BAP) coding system to examine the types and patterns of body movement that are employed by 10 professional actors to portray a set of 12 emotions. We investigated to what extent these expression patterns support explicit or implicit predictions from basic emotion theory, bidimensional theory, and componential appraisal theory. The overall results showed partial support for the different theoretical approaches. They revealed that several patterns of body movement systematically occur in portrayals of specific emotions, allowing emotion differentiation. Although a few emotions were prototypically expressed by one particular pattern, most emotions were variably expressed by multiple patterns, many of which can be explained as reflecting functional components of emotion such as modes of appraisal and action readiness. It is concluded that further work in this largely underdeveloped area should be guided by an appropriate theoretical framework to allow a more systematic design of experiments and clear hypothesis testing.

  6. Dynamic postural stability during advancing pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, J L; Chambers, A J; Daftary, A; Redfern, M S

    2010-08-26

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of experiencing a fall. Numerous anatomical, physiological, and hormonal alterations occur during pregnancy, but the influence of these factors on dynamic postural stability has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine dynamic postural stability in pregnant women during their second and third trimesters as well as in a group of non-pregnant control women. Eighty-one women (41 pregnant, 40 controls) participated stood on a force plate that translated anteroposteriorly at small, medium, and large magnitudes. Reaction time and center of pressure (COP) movement during the translations were analyzed. Trimester, perturbation direction, and perturbation magnitude were the independent variables in a mixed-model analysis of variance on each of the following dependent variables: reaction time, initial sway, total sway, and sway velocity. Reaction time to the perturbation was not significantly different between the groups. Initial sway, total sway, and sway velocity were significantly less during the third trimester than during the second trimester and when compared to the non-pregnant controls (Ppostural stability. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Maternal posture and its influence on birthweight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takito, Monica Yuri; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    To analyze the relationship between maternal posture/physical activity and inadequate birthweight. Prospective cohort study involving 152 pregnant women from a public low-risk antenatal care facility. Three interviews evaluating the frequency of physical activity were administered to each pregnant woman during gestation. Birthweight (inadequate when or =3,000 g) was the dependent variable and the frequency of physical activity the independent variable. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic univariate analysis and multiple regression controlling for schooling, smoking, living with spouse, and baseline nutritional status. The practice of walking for at least 50 minutes during the first period of pregnancy was identified as a protective factor against inadequate birthweight (adjusted OR=0.44; 95% CI: 0.20-0.98). Standing for 2.5 hours or longer during the second semester of pregnancy was associated with increased risk (adjusted OR=3.23; 95% CI: 1.30-7.99). Dose-response relationships were identified for washing clothing by hand and cooking (p-value for linear trend clothing during the second trimester of gestation remained statistically significant. Our results show the importance of medical orientation regarding posture and physical activity during antenatal care, aiming at the reduction of inadequate birthweight.

  8. Screening initial entry training trainees for postural faults and low back or hip pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John R

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of postural faults and postural awareness in military trainees has not been assessed. Five hundred Soldiers entering Advanced Individual Training were screened for standing posture and completed an anonymous questionnaire during inprocessing. Postural faults were identified in 202 subjects. Chi square analysis demonstrated a relationship between posture observed and posture reported: 87% of subjects with postural faults were unaware of postural faults; 12% with proper posture reported having poor posture. Subjects reported comparable frequencies of back pain and hip pain with postural faults (33.2%, 21.2%) and without faults (28.5%, 14.7%). Anonymous reporting was higher than formal reporting and requests for care during the same period (37% vs 3.4%).

  9. Posture Detection Based on Smart Cushion for Wheelchair Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The postures of wheelchair users can reveal their sitting habit, mood, and even predict health risks such as pressure ulcers or lower back pain. Mining the hidden information of the postures can reveal their wellness and general health conditions. In this paper, a cushion-based posture recognition system is used to process pressure sensor signals for the detection of user’s posture in the wheelchair. The proposed posture detection method is composed of three main steps: data level classification for posture detection, backward selection of sensor configuration, and recognition results compared with previous literature. Five supervised classification techniques—Decision Tree (J48, Support Vector Machines (SVM, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP, Naive Bayes, and k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN—are compared in terms of classification accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure. Results indicate that the J48 classifier provides the highest accuracy compared to other techniques. The backward selection method was used to determine the best sensor deployment configuration of the wheelchair. Several kinds of pressure sensor deployments are compared and our new method of deployment is shown to better detect postures of the wheelchair users. Performance analysis also took into account the Body Mass Index (BMI, useful for evaluating the robustness of the method across individual physical differences. Results show that our proposed sensor deployment is effective, achieving 99.47% posture recognition accuracy. Our proposed method is very competitive for posture recognition and robust in comparison with other former research. Accurate posture detection represents a fundamental basic block to develop several applications, including fatigue estimation and activity level assessment.

  10. Acute Effects of Posture Shirts on Rounded-Shoulder and Forward-Head Posture in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, John; Hibberd, Elizabeth; Petschauer, Meredith; Myers, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    Rounded-shoulder and forward-head posture can be contributing factors to shoulder pain. Corrective techniques such as manual therapy and exercise have been shown to improve these altered postures, but there is little evidence that corrective garments such as posture shirts can alter posture. To determine the acute effects of corrective postureshirt use on rounded-shoulder and forward-head posture in asymptomatic college students. Repeated-measures intervention study with counterbalanced conditions. Research laboratory. 24 members of the general student body of a university, 18-25 y old, with a forward shoulder angle (FSA) >52° and no history of upper-extremity surgery, scoliosis, active shoulder pain, or shoulder pain in the previous 3 mo that restricted participation for 3 consecutive days. Photographic posture assessment under a control condition, under a sham or treatment condition (counterbalanced), under another control condition, and treatment or sham. FSA and forward head angle (FHA) calculated from a lateral photograph. FSA decreased relative to the control condition while participants wore the sham shirt (P = .029) but not the corrective posture shirt (P = 1.00). FHA was unchanged between groups (P = .371). Application of a corrective posture shirt did not acutely alter FSA or FHA, while application of a sham shirt may decrease FSA at rest.

  11. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance in patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain – a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Per J; Andreasson, Daniel; Eriksson, Magnus; Hägglund, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Background Although cervical pain is widespread, most victims are only mildly and occasionally affected. A minority, however, suffer chronic pain and/or functional impairments. Although there is abundant literature regarding nontraumatic neck pain, little focuses on diagnostic criteria. During the last decade, research on neck pain has been designed to evaluate underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, without noteworthy success. Independent researchers have investigated postural balance and cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility among patients with chronic neck pain, and have (in most cases) concluded the source of the problem is a reduced ability in the neck's proprioceptive system. Here, we investigated cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance among patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain. Methods Ours was a two-group, observational pilot study of patients with complaints of continuous neck pain during the 3 months prior to recruitment. Thirteen patients with chronic neck pain of nontraumatic origin were recruited from an institutional outpatient clinic. Sixteen healthy persons were recruited as a control group. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was assessed by exploring head repositioning accuracy and postural balance was measured with computerized static posturography. Results Parameters of cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility were not reduced. However, in one of six test movements (flexion), global repositioning errors were significantly larger in the experimental group than in the control group (p < .05). Measurements did not demonstrate any general impaired postural balance, and varied substantially among participants in both groups. Conclusion In patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain, we found statistically significant global repositioning errors in only one of six test movements. In this cohort, we found no evidence of impaired postural balance. Head repositioning accuracy and computerized static posturography are

  12. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance in patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Per J; Andreasson, Daniel; Eriksson, Magnus; Hägglund, Andreas

    2009-06-30

    Although cervical pain is widespread, most victims are only mildly and occasionally affected. A minority, however, suffer chronic pain and/or functional impairments. Although there is abundant literature regarding nontraumatic neck pain, little focuses on diagnostic criteria. During the last decade, research on neck pain has been designed to evaluate underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, without noteworthy success. Independent researchers have investigated postural balance and cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility among patients with chronic neck pain, and have (in most cases) concluded the source of the problem is a reduced ability in the neck's proprioceptive system. Here, we investigated cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance among patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain. Ours was a two-group, observational pilot study of patients with complaints of continuous neck pain during the 3 months prior to recruitment. Thirteen patients with chronic neck pain of nontraumatic origin were recruited from an institutional outpatient clinic. Sixteen healthy persons were recruited as a control group. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was assessed by exploring head repositioning accuracy and postural balance was measured with computerized static posturography. Parameters of cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility were not reduced. However, in one of six test movements (flexion), global repositioning errors were significantly larger in the experimental group than in the control group (p < .05). Measurements did not demonstrate any general impaired postural balance, and varied substantially among participants in both groups. In patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain, we found statistically significant global repositioning errors in only one of six test movements. In this cohort, we found no evidence of impaired postural balance.Head repositioning accuracy and computerized static posturography are imperfect measures of functional

  13. Working Posture Analysis Methods and the Effects of Working Posture on Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Esen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs which cause great health problems and social resource consumption are common problems which commonly influence working population. MSDs which is at the top of the list in the sense of health problems, expenses made for these disorders and which has negative influences in the sense of employee labor efficiency, quality of life, physical and social functions results from poor working postures. Observation, analysis of working postures with scientific methods, and making necessary recoveries and arrangements bring important contributions for control of working performance and decrease of MSDs. In this study, risk factors which cause the emergence of MSDs, types and symptoms of disorders are summarized, basic principles to be used in preventing these disorders are presented and scientific methods used in determination of risk factors are classified and presented.

  14. PENINGKATAN STABILITAS POSTURAL PADA LANSIA MELALUI BALANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnanto .

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stabilitas postural adalah masalah yang umum pada lansia. Balance exercise dapat dijadikan alternative latihan bagi lansia. Latihan ini meliputi 5 gerakan (plantar flexion, hip flexion, hip flexion, knee flexion dan side leg raise. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa efek dari balance exercise terhadap peningkatan stabilitas postural pada lansia. Penelitian ini menggunakan design pre eksperimen. Populasi yang digunakan adalah lansia di Panti Wreda Bangkalan. Total sampel adalah 11 responden, yang diambil berdasarkan kriteria inklusi. Variabel dependen adalah balance exercise dan variabel independen adalah stabilitas postural. Stabilitas postural diukur menggunakan 2 tes, yaitu tes Tinetti dan TUGT (Time Up and Go Test. Data dianalisa menggunakan paired t test dengan level signifikan 0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa balance exercise secara signifikan dapat meningkatkan stabilitas postural. Pada tes Tinetti (p=0,000 dan di TUGT (p=0,001. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat hasil yang signifikan antara balance exercise dengan peningkatan stabilitas postural pada lansia. Hal ini disebabkan Karena balance exercise dapat membuat otot lansia menjadi hipertrofi. Hipertrofi dapat meningkatkan kekuatan otot sehingga stabilitas postural lansia dapat meningkat. Penelitian yang akan datang diharapkan melibatkan lebih banyak responden dengan waktu penelitian yang lebih lama dan pengukuran yang lebih baik untuk memastikan hasil yang lebih akurat.

  15. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  16. Spatial and temporal analysis of postural control in dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouleme, Nathalie; Gerard, Christophe Loic; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine postural control of dyslexic children using both spatial and temporal analysis. Thirty dyslexic (mean age 9.7±0.3years) and thirty non-dyslexic age-matched children participated in the study. Postural stability was evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral®. Posture was recorded in the following conditions: eyes open fixating a target (EO) and eyes closed (EC) on stable (-S-) and unstable (-U-) platforms. The findings of this study showed poor postural stability in dyslexic children with respect to the non-dyslexic children group, as demonstrated by both spatial and temporal analysis. In both groups of children postural control depends on the condition, and improves when the eyes are open on a stable platform. Dyslexic children have spectral power indices that are higher than in non-dyslexic children and they showed a shorter cancelling time. Poor postural control in dyslexic children could be due to a deficit in using sensory information most likely caused by impairment in cerebellar activity. The reliability of brain activation patterns, namely in using sensory input and cerebellar activity may explain the deficit in postural control in dyslexic children. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Postural activity monitoring for increasing safety in bomb disposal missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusey, James; Rednic, Ramona; Gaura, Elena I; Kemp, John; Poole, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    In enclosed suits, such as those worn by explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) experts, evaporative cooling through perspiration is less effective and, particularly in hot environments, uncompensable heat stress (UHS) may occur. Although some suits have cooling systems, their effectiveness during missions is dependent on the operative's posture. In order to properly assess thermal state, temperature-based assessment systems need to take posture into account. This paper builds on previous work for instrumenting EOD suits with regard to temperature monitoring and proposes to also monitor operative posture with MEMS accelerometers. Posture is a key factor in predicting how body temperature will change and is therefore important in providing local or remote warning of the onset of UHS. In this work, the C4.5 decision tree algorithm is used to produce an on-line classifier that can differentiate between nine key postures from current acceleration readings. Additional features that summarize how acceleration is changing over time are used to improve average classification accuracy to around 97.2%. Without such temporal feature extraction, dynamic postures are difficult to classify accurately. Experimental results show that training over a variety of subjects, and in particular, mixing gender, improves results on unseen subjects. The main advantages of the on-line posture classification system described here are that it is accurate, does not require integration of acceleration over time, and is computationally lightweight, allowing it to be easily supported on wearable microprocessors

  18. Assessment of postural instability in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, J W; Orawiec, R; Duda-Kłodowska, D; Opala, G

    2007-10-01

    Postural instability is one of the most disabling features of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we focused on postural instability as the main factor predisposing parkinsonians to falls. For this purpose, changes in sway characteristics during quiet stance due to visual feedback exclusion were studied. We searched for postural sway measures that could be potential discriminators for an increased fall risk. A group of 110 subjects: 55 parkinsonians (Hoehn and Yahr: 1-3), and 55 age-matched healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. Their spontaneous sway characteristics while standing quiet with eyes open and eyes closed were analyzed. We found that an increased mediolateral sway and sway area while standing with eyes closed are characteristic of parkinsonian postural instability and may serve to quantify well a tendency to fall. These sway indices significantly correlated with disease severity rated both by the Hoehn and Yahr scale as well as by the Motor Section of the UPDRS. A forward shift of a mean COP position in parkinsonians which reflects their flexed posture was also significantly greater to compare with the elderly subjects and exhibited a high sensitivity to visual conditions. Both groups of postural sway abnormalities identified here may be used as accessible and reliable measures which allow for quantitative assessment of postural instability in Parkinson's disease.

  19. USE OF SOFTWARES FOR POSTURE ASSESSMENT: INTEGRATIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyla Maria Porto de Freitas Camelo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To carry out an integrative literature review on the postural analysis softwares available today. It is an integrative-narrative review of qualitative and methodological nature performed during April-July 2014. As inclusion criteria, the articles should be bibliographical or original research and available with full access. At first, we proceeded to the identification of the keywords for the softwares related to postural assessment commonly used in the health field, in such case "posture", "software", and "postural assessment". The search was narrowed by publication date from 2002 to 2014. Through the information acquired from the articles and from the software developers, information on 12 programs that assist the postural evaluation were obtained - Alcimage, All Body Scan 3D, Aplob, APPID, Biotonix, Corporis Pro, Fisimetrix, Fisiometer Posturograma, Physical Fisio, Physio Easy, Posture Print and SAPO. However, only one tool has more information and studies, namely SAPO. There are many postural analysis softwares available on the internet today, however, these are quite disparate in relation to possible answers and are still poorly widespread as research tools.

  20. Postural habits of young adults and possibilities of modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Czupryna, Krzysztof; Bąk, Krzysztof; Wróblewska, Ewa; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess postural habits in young, healthy people, identify correlations between postural errors and pain and attempt to modify bad habits. 144 people, aged 18-23 were enrolled. The intervention consisted of 4 stages: Stage 1 - identification of postural habits, description of responses to stress, back pain frequency and intensity (Jackson & Moskowitz); Stage 2 - correction of habitual position with the help of a physiotherapist, briefing about ergonomic everyday behaviours and consequences of continued non-ergonomic behaviours, Stage 3 - follow-up examination: self-assessment of changes, evaluation of the effects of modifications, determination of causes for discontinuing the behaviour modification programme, where applicable; and Stage 4 - final examination, assessment of results. Correlations were sought between inappropriate postural behaviour in various positions and between non-ergonomic postural behaviour and pain location and response to stress. Statistical analysis was carried out with Excel and Statistica v. 7.1. A non-parametric χ(2) test was used at phabit. 3. An attempt to modify non-ergonomic postural behaviours usually results in pain, which may act as a demotivating factor. 4. Discomfort associated with the modification of habitual postural behaviours is reduced after 3-4 months of regular training.

  1. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianne Furtado

    Full Text Available The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep. Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high. The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor and static (clinical test of sensory integration. The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  2. Multi-joint postural behavior in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcot, Katia; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Suvà, Domizio; Armand, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated balance impairment in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Although it is currently accepted that postural control depends on multi-joint coordination, no study has previously considered this postural strategy in patients suffering from knee OA. The objectives of this study were to investigate the multi-joint postural behavior in patients with knee OA and to evaluate the association with clinical outcomes. Eighty-seven patients with knee OA and twenty-five healthy elderly were recruited to the study. A motion analysis system and two force plates were used to investigate the joint kinematics (trunk and lower body segments), the lower body joint moments, the vertical ground reaction force ratio and the center of pressure (COP) during a quiet standing task. Pain, functional capacity and quality of life status were also recorded. Patients with symptomatic and severe knee OA adopt a more flexed posture at all joint levels in comparison with the control group. A significant difference in the mean ratio was found between groups, showing an asymmetric weight distribution in patients with knee OA. A significant decrease in the COP range in the anterior-posterior direction was also observed in the group of patients. Only small associations were observed between postural impairments and clinical outcomes. This study brings new insights regarding the postural behavior of patients with severe knee OA during a quiet standing task. The results confirm the multi-joint asymmetric posture adopted by this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Methodology for Investigating Adaptive Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, P. V.; Riccio, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    Our research on postural control and human-environment interactions provides an appropriate scientific foundation for understanding the skill of mass handling by astronauts in weightless conditions (e.g., extravehicular activity or EVA). We conducted an investigation of such skills in NASA's principal mass-handling simulator, the Precision Air-Bearing Floor, at the Johnson Space Center. We have studied skilled movement-body within a multidisciplinary context that draws on concepts and methods from biological and behavioral sciences (e.g., psychology, kinesiology and neurophysiology) as well as bioengineering. Our multidisciplinary research has led to the development of measures, for manual interactions between individuals and the substantial environment, that plausibly are observable by human sensory systems. We consider these methods to be the most important general contribution of our EVA investigation. We describe our perspective as control theoretic because it draws more on fundamental concepts about control systems in engineering than it does on working constructs from the subdisciplines of biomechanics and motor control in the bio-behavioral sciences. At the same time, we have attempted to identify the theoretical underpinnings of control-systems engineering that are most relevant to control by human beings. We believe that these underpinnings are implicit in the assumptions that cut across diverse methods in control-systems engineering, especially the various methods associated with "nonlinear control", "fuzzy control," and "adaptive control" in engineering. Our methods are based on these theoretical foundations rather than on the mathematical formalisms that are associated with particular methods in control-systems engineering. The most important aspects of the human-environment interaction in our investigation of mass handling are the functional consequences that body configuration and stability have for the pick up of information or the achievement of

  4. A review of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carew, Sheila

    2012-01-31

    A 21-year-old female reports an 18-month history of light-headedness on standing. This is often associated with palpitations and a feeling of intense anxiety. She has had two black-outs in the past 12 months. She is not taking any regular medications. Her supine blood pressure was 126\\/84 mmHg with a heart rate of 76 bpm, and her upright blood pressure was 122\\/80 mmHg with a heart rate of 114 bpm. A full system examination was otherwise normal. She had a 12-lead electrocardiogram performed which was unremarkable. She was referred for head-up tilt testing. She was symptomatic during the test and lost consciousness at 16 min. Figure 1 summarizes her blood pressure and heart rate response to tilting. A diagnosis of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome with overlapping vasovagal syncope was made.

  5. Postural control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, E F; Castro, A A M; Schmidt, V G S; Rabelo, H M; Kümpel, C; Nascimento, O A; Jardim, J R

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control. Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using "balance", "postural control", and "COPD" as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers. A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the "balance in COPD or postural control in COPD" keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study examiners found only seven studies that had a PEDro score higher than five points. The examiners' interrater agreement was 76.4%. Six of those studies were accomplished with a control group and one study used their patients as their own controls. The studies were published between 2004 and 2013. Patients with COPD present postural control impairment when compared with age-matched healthy controls. Associated factors contributing to impaired postural control were

  6. Stereotypes and prejudice affect the recognition of emotional body postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J

    2018-03-26

    Most research on emotion recognition focuses on facial expressions. However, people communicate emotional information through bodily cues as well. Prior research on facial expressions has demonstrated that emotion recognition is modulated by top-down processes. Here, we tested whether this top-down modulation generalizes to the recognition of emotions from body postures. We report three studies demonstrating that stereotypes and prejudice about men and women may affect how fast people classify various emotional body postures. Our results suggest that gender cues activate gender associations, which affect the recognition of emotions from body postures in a top-down fashion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of ...

  8. Relationship between postural alignment in sitting by photogrammetry and seated postural control in post-stroke subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Y R; Vijayakumar, K; Abraham, J M; Misri, Z K; Suresh, B V; Unnikrishnan, B

    2014-01-01

    This study was executed to find out correlation between postural alignment in sitting measured through photogrammetry and postural control in sitting following stroke. A cross-sectional study with convenient sampling consisting of 45 subjects with acute and sub-acute stroke. Postural alignment in sitting was measured through photogrammetry and relevant angles were obtained through software MB Ruler (version 5.0). Seated postural control was measured through Function in Sitting Test (FIST). Correlation was obtained using Spearman's Rank Correlation co-efficient in SPSS software (version 17.0). Moderate positive correlation (r = 0.385; p < 0.01) was found between angle of lordosis and angle between acromion, lateral epicondyle and point between radius and ulna. Strong negative correlation (r = -0.435; p < 0.01) was found between cranio-vertebral angle and kyphosis. FIST showed moderate positive correlation (r = 0.3446; p < 0.05) with cranio-vertebral angle and strong positive correlation (r = 0.4336; p < 0.01) with Brunnstrom's stage of recovery in upper extremity. Degree of forward head posture in sitting correlates directly with seated postural control and inversely with degree of kyphosis in sitting post-stroke. Postural control in sitting post-stroke is directly related with Brunnstrom's stage of recovery in affected upper extremity in sitting.

  9. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ling Teng

    Full Text Available Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99; controls (76.53±7.47; t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory

  10. Dual task interference on postural sway, postural transitions and gait in people with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Fortaleza, Ana Claudia; Mancini, Martina; Carlson-Kuhta, Patty; King, Laurie A; Nutt, John G; Chagas, Eliane Ferrari; Freitas, Ismael Forte; Horak, Fay B

    2017-07-01

    Freezing of gait (FoG) is associated with less automatic gait and more impaired cognition, balance and postural transitions compared to people with PD who do not have FoG. However, it is unknown whether dual-task cost during postural sway, postural transitions (such as gait initiation and turning), and gait are more in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have freezing of gait (FoG+) compared to those who do not have FoG (FoG-). Here, we hypothesized that the effects of a cognitive dual task on postural sway, postural transitions and gait would be larger in FoG+ than FoG-. Thirty FoG- and 24 FoG+ performed an Instrumented Stand and Walk test in OFF medication state, with and without a secondary cognitive task (serial subtraction by 3s). Measures of postural sway, gait initiation, turning, and walking were extracted using body-worn inertial sensors. FoG+ showed significantly larger dual task cost than FoG- for several gait metrics, but not during postural sway or postural transitions. During walking, FoG+ exhibited a larger dual task cost than FoG- resulting in shorter stride length and slower stride velocity. During standing, FoG+ showed a larger postural sway compared to FoG- and during gait initiation, FoG+, but not FoG-, showed a longer first step duration during the dual-task condition compared to single-task condition (interaction effect, p=0.04). During turning, both groups showed a slower turn peak speed in the dual-task condition compared to single task condition. These findings partly support our hypothesis that dual task cost on walking is greater in FoG+ than FoG-. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Effects of hippotherapy on posture in individuals with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Espindula

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS have alterations that affect the musculoskeletal system, causing abnormal patterns, and alter the morphological anatomical and mechanical axes that provide intrinsic stability to the skeleton, and can trigger misalignments and orthopedic disorders in adulthood. Objective: The objective of student to evaluate posture and postural alignment before and after the hippotherapyin individuals with DS. Methods: Posture of five individuals with DS was evaluated by the software SAPO before and after 27 sessions the hippotherapy. Data were subjected to qualitative descriptive analysis using cluster and statistical analysis with the aid of the software Sigma Stat 2.0, considering differences as statistically significant at p-value < 5%. Results: Improvements were achieved for the alignment of shoulder, head, hip, and lower limbs, in addition to decrease in kyphosis and head protrusion. Conclusion: Patients with DS demonstrated satisfactory changes in motor behavior reflected in improved static posture after treatment with hippotherapy.

  12. Design of strategies to assess lumbar posture during work.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdorf, A.; Riel, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of postural load on the back should describe exposure patterns among workers and factors affecting these exposure patterns. This article presents general guidelines for designing appropriate measurement strategies; how to obtain detailed data with an applicable

  13. Analysis of Postural Control Adaptation During Galvanic and Vibratory Stimulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fransson, P

    2001-01-01

    The objective for this study was to investigate whether the postural control adaptation during galvanic stimulation of the vestibular nerve were similar to that found during vibration stimulation to the calf muscles...

  14. Assessment of striatal & postural deformities in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that striatal and postural deformities were common and present in about half of the patients with PD. These deformities we more common in patients with advanced stage of PD.

  15. Postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mona Mokhtar El Bardawil

    2013-04-18

    Apr 18, 2013 ... Postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 .... with a high power 90 mm circular coil, capable of generating. 2 T maximum field ..... advanced glycation end products, oxidative damage and microvascular ...

  16. Postural hypotension in type 1 diabetes: The influence of glycemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-04

    saharan ... Key words: Diabetes mellitus, duration, glycemic control, postural hypotension. Date of ... or older) provided informed consent before enrolment in the study. .... asymptomatic despite significant falls in blood pressure.[26].

  17. The US Strategic Posture Review: Issues for the New Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunn, M

    2001-01-01

    .... The forthcoming Strategic Posture Review (SPR) needs to fundamentally reassess the purposes of nuclear weapons, missile defenses, and the requirements of deterrence and stability in the new security environment...

  18. Pokhran II and Beyond (Emerging Indian Nuclear Posture)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mishra, Jeetendra

    2002-01-01

    .... The nuclear forces, however, are sought only to be minimum possible to credibly deter nuclear weapons use or coercion against India, Considering the imperatives of the Indian deterrence posture...

  19. 2007 Posture Statement, Army Reserve: An Operational Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stultz, Jack C

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Army Reserve Posture Statement describes how the Army Reserve continues to transform from a strategic reserve to an operational force, meeting today's challenges as it better prepares for future uncertainties...

  20. Differences in body composition and occurrence of postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differences in body composition and occurrence of postural deviations in boys from two ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... procedures of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK).

  1. Posture and isokinetic shoulder strength in female water polo players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    pathological injuries, such as rotator cuff tendinitis, shoulder instability and shoulder ... and specific postural characteristics, which will be useful in future studies. ... concentric and eccentric IR and ER shoulder muscle strength in 15 club-level ...

  2. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, J.F.; Beek, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of

  3. Postural control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto EF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available EF Porto,1,2 AAM Castro,1,3 VGS Schmidt,4 HM Rabelo,4 C Kümpel,2 OA Nascimento,5 JR Jardim5 1Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Federal University of São Paulo, 2Adventist University, São Paulo, 3Federal University of Pampa, Rio Grande do Sul, 4Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Adventist University, 5Respiratory Diseases, Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control.Methods: Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using “balance”, “postural control”, and “COPD” as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers.Results: A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the “balance in COPD or postural control in COPD” keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study

  4. The validity of the first and second generation Microsoft Kinect™ for identifying joint center locations during static postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; McGorry, Raymond W

    2015-07-01

    The Kinect™ sensor released by Microsoft is a low-cost, portable, and marker-less motion tracking system for the video game industry. Since the first generation Kinect sensor was released in 2010, many studies have been conducted to examine the validity of this sensor when used to measure body movement in different research areas. In 2014, Microsoft released the computer-used second generation Kinect sensor with a better resolution for the depth sensor. However, very few studies have performed a direct comparison between all the Kinect sensor-identified joint center locations and their corresponding motion tracking system-identified counterparts, the result of which may provide some insight into the error of the Kinect-identified segment length, joint angles, as well as the feasibility of adapting inverse dynamics to Kinect-identified joint centers. The purpose of the current study is to first propose a method to align the coordinate system of the Kinect sensor with respect to the global coordinate system of a motion tracking system, and then to examine the accuracy of the Kinect sensor-identified coordinates of joint locations during 8 standing and 8 sitting postures of daily activities. The results indicate the proposed alignment method can effectively align the Kinect sensor with respect to the motion tracking system. The accuracy level of the Kinect-identified joint center location is posture-dependent and joint-dependent. For upright standing posture, the average error across all the participants and all Kinect-identified joint centers is 76 mm and 87 mm for the first and second generation Kinect sensor, respectively. In general, standing postures can be identified with better accuracy than sitting postures, and the identification accuracy of the joints of the upper extremities is better than for the lower extremities. This result may provide some information regarding the feasibility of using the Kinect sensor in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  5. Effect of Body Mass Index on Postural Balance and Muscle Strength in Children Aged 8-10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Prasetiowati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Childhood overweight and obesity, which are considered as global epidemic, can be assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI. BMI difference can lead to anatomic changes due to an increased body load. This increase might also affect motor performance, including changes in postural balance and muscle strength. Aims and Objectives: to explain the influence of BMI on postural balance and lower limb muscle strength and to assess the correlation between those two variables in children aged 8-10 years. Material and methods:The sample consisted of 63 children aged 8-10 years, which were divided in 3 groups: BMI-normal, BMI-overweight, and BMI-obese. The postural balance was assessed using single leg balance test on MatScan and the Center Of Pressure (COP area was recorded. Isometric muscle strength of hip extensor and knee extensor were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. Results: Obese children had significantly largerCOP area than overweight (p = 0.004 and normal weight children (p = 0.000.There were no significant differences in hip extensor muscle strength between obese children with overweight and normal weight children (p=0.527. The absolute knee extensor muscle strength in obese group was significantly higher than the overweight and normal group (p = 0.003. However the relative muscle strength of lower limb for obese children was significantly lower than for normal weight. There was no significant correlation between absolute hip extensor and knee extensor muscles strength with COP area. Conclusion: Obese children have decreased postural balance and increased absolute knee extensormuscle strength significantly when compared to overweight and normal children. There is no significant correlation between postural balance and muscle strength.

  6. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation improves adaptive postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, Peter; Hsieh, Billie; Cresswell, Andrew; Au, Jacky; Meinzer, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Rehabilitation interventions contribute to recovery of impaired postural control, but it remains a priority to optimize their effectiveness. A promising strategy may involve transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of brain areas involved in fine-tuning of motor adaptation. This study explored the effects of cerebellar tDCS (ctDCS) on postural recovery from disturbance by Achilles tendon vibration. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in this sham-ctDCS controlled study. Standing blindfolded on a force platform, four trials were completed: 60 s quiet standing followed by 20 min active (anodal-tDCS, 1 mA, 20 min, N = 14) or sham-ctDCS (40 s, N = 14) tDCS; three quiet standing trials with 15 s of Achilles tendon vibration and 25 s of postural recovery. Postural steadiness was quantified as displacement, standard deviation and path derived from the center of pressure (COP). Baseline demographics and quiet standing postural steadiness, and backwards displacement during vibration were comparable between groups. However, active-tDCS significantly improved postural steadiness during vibration and reduced forward displacement and variability in COP derivatives during recovery. We demonstrate that ctDCS results in short-term improvement of postural adaptation in healthy individuals. Future studies need to investigate if multisession ctDCS combined with training or rehabilitation interventions can induce prolonged improvement of postural balance. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Practice of Contemporary Dance Promotes Stochastic Postural Control in Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrufino, Lena; Bril, Blandine; Dietrich, Gilles; Nonaka, Tetsushi; Coubard, Olivier A.

    2011-01-01

    As society ages and the frequency of falls increases, counteracting gait and posture decline is a challenging issue for countries of the developed world. Previous studies have shown that exercise and hazard management help to improve balance and/or decrease the risks for falling in normal aging. Motor activity based on motor-skill learning, particularly dance, can also benefit balance and decreases falls with age. Recent studies have suggested that older dancers have better balance, posture, ...

  8. Development of anticipatory postural adjustments during locomotion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, H; Forssberg, H

    1992-08-01

    1. Anticipatory postural adjustments were studied in children (6-14 yr of age) walking on a treadmill while pulling a handle. Electromyographs (EMGs) and movements were recorded from the left arm and leg. 2. Postural activity in the leg muscles preceded voluntary arm muscle activity in all age groups, including the youngest children (6 yr of age). The latency to both leg and arm muscle activity, from a triggering audio signal, decreased with age. 3. In older children the latency to both voluntary and postural activity was influenced by the phase of the step cycle. The shortest latency to the first activated postural muscle occurred during single support phase in combination with a long latency to arm muscle activity. 4. In the youngest children, there was no phase-dependent modulation of the latency to the activation of the postural muscles. The voluntary activity was delayed during the beginning of the support phase resulting in a long delay between leg and arm muscle activity. 5. The postural muscle activation pattern was modified in a phase-dependent manner in all children. Lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and hamstring muscles (HAM) were activated during the early support phase, whereas tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (Q) muscles were activated during the late support phase and during the swing phase. However, in the 6-yr-old children, LG was also activated in the swing phase. LG was activated before the HAM activity in the youngest children but after HAM in 14-yr-old children and adults. 6. The occurrence of LG activity in postural responses before heel strike suggests an immature (nonplantigrade) gating of postural activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Advantages and disadvantages of stiffness instructions when studying postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T

    2016-05-01

    To understand the maintenance of upright stance, researchers try to discover the fundamental mechanisms and attentional resources devoted to postural control and eventually to the performance of other tasks (e.g., counting in the head). During their studies, some researchers require participants to stand as steady as possible and other simply ask participants to stand naturally. Surprisingly, a clear and direct explanation of the usefulness of the steadiness requirement seems to be lacking, both in experimental and methodological discussions. Hence, the objective of the present note was to provide advantages and disadvantages of this steadiness requirement in studies of postural control. The advantages may be to study fundamental postural control, to eliminate useless postural variability, to control spurious body motions and to control the participants' thoughts. As disadvantages, this steadiness requirement only leads to study postural control in unnatural upright stance, it changes the focus of attention (internal vs. external) and the nature of postural control (unconscious vs. conscious), it increases the difficulty of a supposedly easy control task and it eliminates or reduces the opportunity to record exploratory behaviors. When looking carefully at the four advantages of the steadiness requirement, one can believe that they are, in fact, more disadvantageous than advantageous. Overall therefore, this requirement seems illegitimate and it is proposed that researchers should not use it in the study of postural control. They may use this requirement only if they search to know the limit until which participants can consciously reduce their postural sway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Postural stability in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    6 Abstract Title: Postural stability in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Objectives: The aim of this thesis was to find out if the postural stability is differed in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury and in the control group after the "4 steps - one leg stance" test had been performed. Methods: This study compared a group with anterior cruciate ligament injury and a control group on the basis of the "4 steps - one leg stance" test. Methods of comparison and analys...

  11. Increased dynamic regulation of postural tone through Alexander Technique training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, T W; Gurfinkel, V S; Horak, F B; Cordo, P J; Ames, K E

    2011-02-01

    Gurfinkel and colleagues (2006) recently found that healthy adults dynamically modulate postural muscle tone in the body axis during anti-gravity postural maintenance and that this modulation is inversely correlated with axial stiffness. Our objective in the present study was to investigate whether dynamic modulation of axial postural tone can change through training. We examined whether teachers of the Alexander Technique (AT), who undergo "long-term" (3-year) training, have greater modulation of axial postural tone than matched control subjects. In addition, we performed a longitudinal study on the effect of "short-term" (10-week) AT training on the axial postural tone of individuals with low back pain (LBP), since short term AT training has previously been shown to reduce LBP. Axial postural tone was quantified by measuring the resistance of the neck, trunk and hips to small (±10°), slow (1°/s) torsional rotation during stance. Modulation of tone was determined by the torsional resistance to rotation (peak-to-peak, phase-advance, and variability of torque) and axial muscle activity (EMG). Peak-to-peak torque was lower (∼50%), while phase-advance and cycle-to-cycle variability were enhanced for AT teachers compared to matched control subjects at all levels of the axis. In addition, LBP subjects decreased trunk and hip stiffness following short-term AT training compared to a control intervention. While changes in static levels of postural tone may have contributed to the reduced stiffness observed with the AT, our results suggest that dynamic modulation of postural tone can be enhanced through long-term training in the AT, which may constitute an important direction for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between temporomandibular disorders and abnormal head postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Francisco FAULIN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possible correlation between the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and different head postures in the frontal and sagittal planes using photographs of undergraduate students in the School of Dentistry at the Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brazil. In this nonrandomized, cross-sectional study, the diagnoses of TMD were made with the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD axis I. The craniovertebral angle was used to evaluate forward head posture in the sagittal plane, and the interpupillary line was used to measure head tilt in the frontal plane. The measurements to evaluate head posture were made using the Software for the Assessment of Posture (SAPO. Students were divided into two study groups, based on the presence or absence of TMD. The study group comprised 46 students and the control group comprised 80 students. Data about head posture and TMD were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 13. Most cases of TMD were classified as degenerative processes (group III, followed by disk displacement (group II and muscle disorders (group I. There was no sex predominance for the type of disorder. No association was found between prevalence rates for head postures in the frontal plane and the occurrence of TMD. The same result was found for the association of TMD diagnosis with craniovertebral angle among men and women, and the group that contained both men and women. Abnormal head postures were common among individuals both with and without TMD. No association was found between head posture evaluated in the frontal and sagittal planes and TMD diagnosis with the use of RDC/TMD.

  13. Postural Balance in Women with Osteoporosis and Effective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Ünlüsoy; Ece Aydoğ; İhsan Ünlüsoy

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The most common cause of mortality and morbidity among osteoporotic individuals is bone fracture which in many cases is a direct result of falls. Individual factors contributing to the risk of fall are poor postural balance and lack of muscle strength. Our aims were to assess postural dynamic balance in osteoporotic women and to describe the effective factors on the balance performance. Methods: Twenty osteoporotic women with kyphosis, 50 osteoporotic women without kyph...

  14. Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2012-07-01

    Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. The effect of exercise on the cardio-postural relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Bruner, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Syncope is common in individuals who experience orthostatic hypotension which is often associated with cardiovascular conditions, brain injuries, and ageing. A bi-directional link between the cardiovascular and postural control systems was recently identified, and may provide insight into syncope and orthostatic hypotension. This thesis examined the inter-dependent relationship between cardiovascular and postural controls before and after light exercise to induce mild orthostatic stress. It w...

  16. Barnacle Geese Achieve Significant Energetic Savings by Changing Posture

    OpenAIRE

    Tickle, Peter G.; Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy con...

  17. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control

    OpenAIRE

    Stins, John F; Beek, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP) trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis t...

  18. FATIGUE AND FAULTY POSTURE CONNECTION AMONG CHILDREN, DIAGNOSED WITH DYSARTHRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejeva Julija

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To analyze spastic dysarthria form in children population dependency of fatigue and faulty posture relationship. Methods: Research performed with the permission of the bioethics committee (RE-BK-063. The Dutch Fatigue Scale (DUFS. Posture in standing was assessed by Hoeger and Kendall. Research subjects n=40. n=20 children diagnosed with spastic dysarthria and n=20 of children without dysarthria. Their age was 10±2.1years. Boys were n=20 and girls - n=20.Results were statistically significant at p<0.05. Microsoft Office 2013, Excel package were used to count a research results. Results: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is more significant that for children without dysarthria; results were statistically significant, p<0.05. Posture disorder for children with dysarthria was statistically significant higher than among children without dysarthria, p<0.05. Conclusions: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is higher than for healthy children, thus for the girls fatigue level is higher than for the boys. Spastic form dysarthria has an impact to a child posture, by creating a direct dependency between posture deformation and skeletal muscle system disease, which decreases muscle power and increasing fatigue for a child. To correct faulty posture thus to decrease fatigue the tight collaboration needed between rehabilitation team members.

  19. Fatigue and faulty posture connection among children, diagnosed with dysarthria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Andrejeva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To analyze spastic dysarthria form in children population dependency of fatigue and faulty posture relationship. Methods: Research performed with the permission of the bioethics committee (RE-BK-063. The Dutch Fatigue Scale (DUFS. Posture in standing was assessed by Hoeger and Kendall. Research subjects n=40. n=20 children diagnosed with spastic dysarthria and n=20 of children without dysarthria. Their age was 10±2.1years. Boys were n=20 and girls - n=20.Results were statistically significant at p<0.05. Microsoft Office 2013, Excel package were used to count a research results. Results: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is more significant that for children without dysarthria; results were statistically significant, p<0.05. Posture disorder for children with dysarthria was statistically significant higher than among children without dysarthria, p<0.05. Conclusions: For children with dysarthria fatigue level is higher than for healthy children, thus for the girls fatigue level is higher than for the boys. Spastic form dysarthria has an impact to a child posture, by creating a direct dependency between posture deformation and skeletal muscle system disease, which decreases muscle power and increasing fatigue for a child. To correct faulty posture thus to decrease fatigue the tight collaboration needed between rehabilitation team members.

  20. Otolith and Vertical Canal Contributions to Dynamic Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F. Owen

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine: 1) how do normal subjects adjust postural movements in response to changing or altered otolith input, for example, due to aging? and 2) how do patients adapt postural control after altered unilateral or bilateral vestibular sensory inputs such as ablative inner ear surgery or ototoxicity, respectively? The following hypotheses are under investigation: 1) selective alteration of otolith input or abnormalities of otolith receptor function will result in distinctive spatial, frequency, and temporal patterns of head movements and body postural sway dynamics. 2) subjects with reduced, altered, or absent vertical semicircular canal receptor sensitivity but normal otolith receptor function or vice versa, should show predictable alterations of body and head movement strategies essential for the control of postural sway and movement. The effect of altered postural movement control upon compensation and/or adaptation will be determined. These experiments provide data for the development of computational models of postural control in normals, vestibular deficient subjects and normal humans exposed to unusual force environments, including orbital space flight.

  1. Is there a relationship between head posture and craniomandibular pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C M; De Boer, W; Lobbezoo, F; Habets, L L M H; Naeije, M

    2002-11-01

    An often-suggested factor in the aetiology of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) is an anteroposition of the head. However, the results of clinical studies to the relationship between CMD and head posture are contradictory. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to determine differences in head posture between well-defined CMD pain patients with or without a painful cervical spine disorder and healthy controls. The second aim was to determine differences in head posture between myogenous and arthrogenous CMD pain patients and controls. Two hundred and fifty persons entered the study. From each person, a standardized oral history was taken and blind physical examinations of the masticatory system and of the neck were performed. The participants were only included into one of the subgroups when the presence or absence of their symptoms was confirmed by the results of the physical examination. Head posture was quantified using lateral photographs and a lateral radiograph of the head and the cervical spine. After correction for age and gender effects, no difference in head posture was found between any of the patient and non-patient groups (P > 0.27). Therefore, this study does not support the suggestion that painful craniomandibular disorders, with or without a painful cervical spine disorder, are related to head posture.

  2. The relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cuccia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing, oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system's proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus. If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss.

  3. The Relationship Between the Stomatognathic System and Body Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Antonino; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing), oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system’s proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus). If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss. PMID:19142553

  4. Posture and low back pain during pregnancy - 3D study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkowski, Wojciech M; Tomasik, Paweł; Walesiak, Katarzyna; Głuszak, Michał; Krawczak, Karolina; Michoński, Jakub; Czyżewska, Anna; Żukowska, Agnieszka; Sitnik, Robert; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Back pain is a common complaint of pregnant women. The posture, curvatures of the spine and the center of gravity changes are considered as the mechanisms leading to pain. The study aimed to assess spinal curvatures and static postural characteristics with three-dimensional surface topography and search for relationships with the occurrence of back pain complaints among pregnant women. The study was conducted from December 2012 to February 2014. Patients referred from University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics were examined outpatient at the Posture Study Unit of Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Sixty-five women at 4-39 weeks of pregnancy were assessed and surveyed with Oswestry Disability Index; posture was evaluated using surface topography. The study confirmed that difficulties in sitting and standing are significant in the third trimester of the pregnancy. The overall tendency for significant lumbar curvature changes in pregnant women was not confirmed. Major changes in sagittal trunk inclination in relation to the plumb line were not observed in the study group. The issue regarding how the pregnancy causes changes in spinal curvature and posture remains open for further studies. Presented method of 3D surface topography can reveal postural changes, but that requires several exams of each subject and strict follow-up of the series of cases.

  5. Use of Video Analysis System for Working Posture Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Timothy D.; Whitmore, Mihriban

    1994-01-01

    In a work environment, it is important to identify and quantify the relationship among work activities, working posture, and workplace design. Working posture may impact the physical comfort and well-being of individuals, as well as performance. The Posture Video Analysis Tool (PVAT) is an interactive menu and button driven software prototype written in Supercard (trademark). Human Factors analysts are provided with a predefined set of options typically associated with postural assessments and human performance issues. Once options have been selected, the program is used to evaluate working posture and dynamic tasks from video footage. PVAT has been used to evaluate postures from Orbiter missions, as well as from experimental testing of prototype glove box designs. PVAT can be used for video analysis in a number of industries, with little or no modification. It can contribute to various aspects of workplace design such as training, task allocations, procedural analyses, and hardware usability evaluations. The major advantage of the video analysis approach is the ability to gather data, non-intrusively, in restricted-access environments, such as emergency and operation rooms, contaminated areas, and control rooms. Video analysis also provides the opportunity to conduct preliminary evaluations of existing work areas.

  6. Do older adults perceive postural constraints for reach estimation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Alberto; Gabbard, Carl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Recent evidence indicates that older persons have difficulty mentally representing intended movements. Furthermore, in an estimation of reach paradigm using motor imagery, a form of mental representation, older persons significantly overestimated their ability compared with young adults. The authors tested the notion that older adults may also have difficulty perceiving the postural constraints associated with reach estimation. The authors compared young (Mage = 22 years) and older (Mage = 67) adults on reach estimation while seated and in a more postural demanding standing and leaning forward position. The expectation was a significant postural effect with the standing condition, as evidenced by reduced overestimation. Whereas there was no difference between groups in the seated condition (both overestimated), older adults underestimated whereas the younger group once again overestimated in the standing condition. From one perspective, these results show that older adults do perceive postural constraints in light of their own physical capabilities. That is, that group perceived greater postural demands with the standing posture and elected to program a more conservative strategy, resulting in underestimation.

  7. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPoil Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems.

  8. Effects of Levodopa on Postural Strategies in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Chiara; Mancini, Martina; Rocchi, Laura; Horak, Fay

    2016-05-01

    Altered postural control and balance are major disabling issues of Parkinson's disease (PD). Static and dynamic posturography have provided insight into PD's postural deficits; however, little is known about impairments in postural coordination. We hypothesized that subjects with PD would show more ankle strategy during quiet stance than healthy control subjects, who would include some hip strategy, and this stiffer postural strategy would increase with disease progression. We quantified postural strategy and sway dispersion with inertial sensors (one placed on the shank and one on the posterior trunk at L5 level) while subjects were standing still with their eyes open. A total of 70 subjects with PD, including a mild group (H&Y≤2, N=33) and a more severe group (H&Y≥3, N=37), were assessed while OFF and while ON levodopa medication. We also included a healthy control group (N=21). Results showed an overall preference of ankle strategy in all groups while maintaining balance. Postural strategy was significantly lower ON compared to OFF medication (indicating more hip strategy), but no effect of disease stage was found. Instead, sway dispersion was significantly larger in ON compared to OFF medication, and significantly larger in the more severe PD group compared to the mild. In addition, increased hip strategy during stance was associated with poorer self-perception of balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  10. Quantitative Postural Analysis of Children With Congenital Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pádua, Michelle; Sauer, Juliana F; João, Silvia M A

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the postural alignment of children with visual impairment with that of children without visual impairment. The sample studied was 74 children of both sexes ages 5 to 12 years. Of these, 34 had visual impairment and 40 were control children. Digital photos from the standing position were used to analyze posture. Postural variables, such as tilt of the head, shoulder position, scapula position, lateral deviation of the spine, ankle position in the frontal plane and head posture, angle of thoracic kyphosis, angle of lumbar lordosis, pelvis position, and knee position in the frontal and sagittal planes, were measured with the Postural Assessment Software 0.63, version 36 (SAPO, São Paulo, Brazil), with markers placed in predetermined bony landmarks. The main results of this study showed that children with visual impairment have increased head tilt (P Visual impairment influences postural alignment. Children with visual impairment had increased head tilt, uneven shoulders, greater lateral deviation of the spine, thoracic kyphosis, lower lumbar lordosis, and more severe valgus deformities on knees. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. A New Standing Posture Detector to Enable People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation by Changing Their Standing Posture through a Commercial Wii Balance Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture) and a Wii Balance Board with a newly developed standing posture detection program (i.e. a new software program turns a Wii Balance Board into a precise standing posture detector). The…

  12. Two aspects of feedforward postural control: anticipatory postural adjustments and anticipatory synergy adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klous, Miriam; Mikulic, Pavle; Latash, Mark L

    2011-05-01

    We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to explore the relations between anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during feedforward control of vertical posture. ASAs represent a drop in the index of a multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing the coordinate of the center of pressure in preparation to an action. ASAs reflect early changes of an index of covariation among variables reflecting muscle activation, whereas APAs reflect early changes in muscle activation levels averaged across trials. The assumed purpose of ASAs is to modify stability of performance variables, whereas the purpose of APAs is to change magnitudes of those variables. We hypothesized that ASAs would be seen before APAs and that this finding would be consistent with regard to the muscle-mode composition defined on the basis of different tasks and phases of action. Subjects performed a voluntary body sway task and a quick, bilateral shoulder flexion task under self-paced and reaction time conditions. Surface muscle activity of 12 leg and trunk muscles was analyzed to identify sets of 4 muscle modes for each task and for different phases within the shoulder flexion task. Variance components in the muscle-mode space and indexes of multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing shift of the center of pressure were computed. ASAs were seen ∼ 100-150 ms prior to the task initiation, before APAs. The results were consistent with respect to different sets of muscle modes defined over the two tasks and different shoulder flexion phases. We conclude that the preparation for a self-triggered postural perturbation is associated with two types of anticipatory adjustments, ASAs and APAs. They reflect different feedforward processes within the hypothetical hierarchical control scheme, resulting in changes in patterns of covariation of elemental variables and in their patterns averaged across trials, respectively. The results show that synergies quantified

  13. Activation timing of postural muscles of lower legs and prediction of postural disturbance during bilateral arm flexion in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Chie; Fujiwara, Katsuo; Kiyota, Naoe

    2017-12-22

    Activation timings of postural muscles of lower legs and prediction of postural disturbance were investigated in young and older adults during bilateral arm flexion in a self-timing task and an oddball task with different probabilities of target presentation. Arm flexion was started from a standing posture with hands suspended 10 cm below the horizontal level in front of the body, in which postural control focused on the ankles is important. Fourteen young and 14 older adults raised the arms in response to the target sound signal. Three task conditions were used: 15 and 45% probabilities of the target in the oddball task and self-timing. Analysis items were activation timing of postural muscles (erector spinae, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius) with respect to the anterior deltoid (AD), and latency and amplitude of the P300 component of event-related brain potential. For young adults, all postural muscles were activated significantly earlier than AD under each condition, and time of preceding gastrocnemius activation was significantly longer in the order of the self-timing, 45 and 15% conditions. P300 latency was significantly shorter, and P300 amplitude was significantly smaller under the 45% condition than under the 15% condition. For older adults, although all postural muscles, including gastrocnemius, were activated significantly earlier than AD in the self-timing condition, only activation timing of gastrocnemius was not significantly earlier than that of AD in oddball tasks, regardless of target probability. No significant differences were found between 15 and 45% conditions in onset times of all postural muscles, and latency and amplitude of P300. These results suggest that during arm movement, young adults can achieve sufficient postural preparation in proportion to the probability of target presentation in the oddball task. Older adults can achieve postural control using ankle joints in the self-timing task. However, in the oddball task, older adults

  14. Effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Fabio A; Polastri, Paula F; Baptista, André M; Lirani-Silva, Ellen; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; Beretta, Victor S; Gobbi, Lilian T B

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Nineteen people with PD and 11 neurologically healthy individuals performed three standing task conditions: bipedal standing, tandem and unipedal adapted standing; the individuals with PD performed the tasks in ON and OFF medication state. The participants with PD were distributed into 2 groups according to disease severity: unilateral group (n=8) and bilateral group (n=11). The two PD groups performed the evaluations both under and without the medication. Two force plates were used to analyze the posture. The symmetric index was calculated for various of center of pressure. ANOVA one-way (groups) and two-way (PD groups×medication), with repeated measures for medication, were calculated. For main effects of group, the bilateral group was more asymmetric than CG. For main effects of medication, only unipedal adapted standing presented effects of PD medication. There was PD groups×medication interaction. Under the effects of medication, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area than the bilateral group in unipedal adapted standing. In addition, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of mean velocity, RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area in unipedal standing and area in tandem adapted standing after a medication dose. Postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks was dependent on disease severity and medication state in people with PD. The bilateral group presented higher postural control asymmetry than the control and unilateral groups in challenging postural tasks. Finally, the medication dose was able to reduce postural control asymmetry in the unilateral group during challenging postural tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, pmaintain balance compared to the controls.

  16. [Changes in intraocular pressure depending on posture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Ramona; Pop, Monica; Tătaru, C; Gheorghe, A; Bădescu, Silvia; Stanciu, Maria; Burcea, M

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is an important eye disease that, left untreated, causes irreversible blindness by affecting optic nerve threads. Decreasing intraocular pressure and maintaining it at a low level throughout the day is one of the objectives of antiglaucoma therapy. This is a prospective study conducted on a sample of 80 patients who presented at "Emergency Eye Hospital" Bucharest between 1st of December 2013 30th of July 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: 40 patients with glaucoma and 40 patients without glaucoma (control group). THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: To determine changes in intraocular pressure that may occur depending on body posture and the correlations between changes in intraocular pressure and glaucoma, obesity, hypertension. These IOP changes may be important in the progression of glaucoma regarding that one third of our time is spent on supine position during night. RESULTS AND CONCLUZIONS: IOP varies from sitting down to supine position. IOP increases in supine in most patients (with or without glaucoma) with an average of 1.25 mmHg. The increase among patients with glaucoma is higher (1.67 mmHg) compared to those without glaucoma (0.82 mmHg). In patients with hypertension and glaucoma, IOP increased with 2.62 mmHg. In patients with hypertension and obesity IOP increased with 2.5 mmHg.

  17. Influence of Sensory Dependence on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Fiedler, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The current project is part of an NSBRI funded project, "Development of Countermeasures to Aid Functional Egress from the Crew Exploration Vehicle Following Long-Duration Spaceflight." The development of this countermeasure is based on the use of imperceptible levels of electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the inner ear to assist and enhance the response of a person s sensorimotor function. These countermeasures could be used to increase an astronaut s re-adaptation rate to Earth s gravity following long-duration space flight. The focus of my project is to evaluate and examine the correlation of sensory preferences for vision and vestibular systems. Disruption of the sensorimotor functions following space flight affects posture, locomotion and spatial orientation tasks in astronauts. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Computerized Dynamic Posturography Test (CDP) are measurements used to examine subjects visual and vestibular sensory preferences. The analysis of data from these tasks will assist in relating the visual dependence measures recognized in the GEFT and RFT with vestibular dependence measures recognized in the stability measures obtained during CDP. Studying the impact of sensory dependence on the performance in varied tasks will help in the development of targeted countermeasures to help astronauts readapt to gravitational changes after long duration space flight.

  18. Neuromuscular dentistry: Occlusal diseases and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Toseef; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Zahid, Syed Naved; Chaudhary, Prabhat K

    2013-01-01

    Neuromuscular dentistry has been a controversial topic in the field of dentistry and still remains debatable. The issue of good occlusion and sound health has been repeatedly discussed. Sometimes we get complains of sensitive teeth and sometimes of tired facial muscles on getting up in the morning. Owing to the intimate relation of masticatory apparatus with the cranium and cervico-scapular muscular system, the disorders in any system, draw attention from concerned clinicians involved in management, to develop an integrated treatment protocol for the suffering patients. There may be patients reporting to the dental clinics after an occlusal restoration or extraction, having pain in or around the temporomandibular joint, headache or neck pain. Although their esthetic demands must not be undermined during the course of treatment plan, whenever dental treatment of any sort is planned, occlusion/bite should be given prime importance. Very few dentist are able to diagnose the occlusal disease and of those who diagnose many people resort to aggressive treatment modalities. This paper aims to report the signs of occlusal disease, and discuss their association with TMDs and posture.

  19. A comparison of three observational techniques for assessing postural loads in industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Dohyung; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to compare 3 observational techniques for assessing postural load, namely, OWAS, RULA, and REBA. The comparison was based on the evaluation results generated by the classification techniques using 301 working postures. All postures were sampled from the iron and steel, electronics, automotive, and chemical industries, and a general hospital. While only about 21% of the 301 postures were classified at the action category/level 3 or 4 by both OWAS and REBA, about 56% of the postures were classified into action level 3 or 4 by RULA. The inter-method reliability for postural load category between OWAS and RULA was just 29.2%, and the reliability between RULA and REBA was 48.2%. These results showed that compared to RULA, OWAS, and REBA generally underestimated postural loads for the analyzed postures, irrespective of industry, work type, and whether or not the body postures were in a balanced state.

  20. Real-Time Hand Posture Recognition Using a Range Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahamy, Herve

    The basic goal of human computer interaction is to improve the interaction between users and computers by making computers more usable and receptive to the user's needs. Within this context, the use of hand postures in replacement of traditional devices such as keyboards, mice and joysticks is being explored by many researchers. The goal is to interpret human postures via mathematical algorithms. Hand posture recognition has gained popularity in recent years, and could become the future tool for humans to interact with computers or virtual environments. An exhaustive description of the frequently used methods available in literature for hand posture recognition is provided. It focuses on the different types of sensors and data used, the segmentation and tracking methods, the features used to represent the hand postures as well as the classifiers considered in the recognition process. Those methods are usually presented as highly robust with a recognition rate close to 100%. However, a couple of critical points necessary for a successful real-time hand posture recognition system require major improvement. Those points include the features used to represent the hand segment, the number of postures simultaneously recognizable, the invariance of the features with respect to rotation, translation and scale and also the behavior of the classifiers against non-perfect hand segments for example segments including part of the arm or missing part of the palm. A 3D time-of-flight camera named SR4000 has been chosen to develop a new methodology because of its capability to provide in real-time and at high frame rate 3D information on the scene imaged. This sensor has been described and evaluated for its capability for capturing in real-time a moving hand. A new recognition method that uses the 3D information provided by the range camera to recognize hand postures has been proposed. The different steps of this methodology including the segmentation, the tracking, the hand

  1. Equilíbrio postural de atletas remadores Equilibrio postural de atletas remadores Postural balance in rowing athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taian de Mello Martins Vieira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A influência do condicionamento físico no equilíbrio postural por um período prolongado ainda não está esclarecida. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar parâmetros estabilométricos em testes de longa duração entre atletas remadores e um grupo de indivíduos saudáveis, não-atletas, que permaneceram de pé sobre uma plataforma de força durante 31 minutos. A cada cinco minutos de teste era apresentada uma escala modificada de Borg para pontuar o nível de desconforto. Os parâmetros estudados foram: desvio-padrão, velocidade média e freqüência média dos deslocamentos lateral e ântero-posterior, e a área elíptica do deslocamento do centro de pressão no plano da plataforma. O grupo dos atletas não apresentou diferenças significativas nos parâmetros durante todo o teste. O grupo controle apresentou valores significativamente mais elevados na área elíptica e a velocidade média da metade do teste em diante. Os atletas apresentaram valores significativamente menores para escala de Borg, representando maior resistência ao desconforto gerado pela atividade. Com base nos resultados, sugere-se que as alterações estabilométricas apresentadas pelo grupo de não-atletas sejam decorrentes de processos fisiológicos periféricos e que o condicionamento físico parece ser um fator importante na manutenção do equilíbrio estático por período prolongado.La influencia del condicionamiento físico en el equilibrio postural por un periodo prolongado todavía no está aclarado. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido comparar parámetros estabilométricos en tests de larga duración entre atletas remadores y un grupo de individuos saludables, no atletas, que permanecieron de pie sobre una plataforma de fuerza durante 31 minutos. A cada cinco minutos de prueba era presentada una escala modificada de Borg para puntuar el nivel de incomodidad. Los parámetros estudiados fueron: desvío padrón, velocidad media y frecuencia media de los

  2. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (ppostural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part from optimization of this multi-system interaction. Copyright © 2015

  3. One month of contemporary dance modulates fractal posture in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier A. Coubard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the human aging of postural control and how physical or motor activity improves balance and gait is challenging for both clinicians and researchers. Previous studies have evidenced that physical and sporting activity focusing on cardiovascular and strength conditioning help older adults develop their balance and gait and/or decrease their frequency of falls. Motor activity based on motor-skill learning has also been put forward as an alternative to develop balance and/or prevent falls in aging. Specifically dance has been advocated as a promising program to boost motor control. In this study, we examined the effects of contemporary dance (CD on postural control of older adults. Upright stance posturography was performed in 38 participants aged 54-89 years before and after the intervention period, during which one half of the randomly assigned participants was trained to CD and the other half was not trained at all (no dance, ND. CD training lasted 4 weeks, 3 times a week. We performed classical statistic scores of postural signal and dynamic analyses, namely signal diffusion analysis (SDA, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. CD modulated postural control in older trainees, as revealed in the eyes closed condition by a decrease in fractal dimension and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. The ND group showed an increase in length and mean velocity of postural signal, and the eyes open a decrease in RQA maximal diagonal line in the anteroposterior plane and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. No change was found in SDA in either group. We suggest that such a massed practice of CD reduced the quantity of exchanges between the subject and the environment by increasing their postural confidence. Since CD has low-physical but high-motor impact, we conclude that it may be recommended as a useful program to rehabilitate posture in aging.

  4. [The impact of different sports on posture regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwesig, R; Kluttig, A; Leuchte, S; Becker, S; Schmidt, H; Esperer, H D

    2009-09-01

    Previous work has suggested that both the level of activity and the type of sport may have a major impact on postural control. However, no systematic investigation has been performed regarding the various types of professional sports. Particularly, the impact of competitional sports on the postural subsystems has not been elucidated so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the major professional sport types, such as handball, gymnastics, swimming, and shooting, on the subsystems of postural control. We also tested the hypothesis that specific types of sport have specific effects on postural regulation. 155 competitive male and female athletes (handball: n = 30; gymnastics: n = 44; swimming: n = 50; shooting: n = 31), and 34 age- and gender-matched controls were investigated using the Interactive Balance System (IBS; Tetrax Inc., Ramat Gan, Israel). The following spectral and time-domain indices were determined: power in the following frequency bands: P(F1) (0.03 - 0.1 Hz), P(F)(2 - 4) (0.1 - 0.5 Hz), P(F)(5 - 6) (0.5 - 1.0 Hz), P(F)(7 - 8) (> 1.0 Hz), stability index (STABI), and synchronisation index (SYN). Shooting athletes exhibited significantly smaller values of P(F1) (p = 0.003), P(F)(2 - 4) (p sports exert different effects on the various subsystems of posture control, where especially shooting competitors demonstrate a significantly better posture regulation. Those effects can be parameterised and quantified with the IBS which thus enables an efficient and purposeful training. Furthermore, the IBS is highly suitable for aptitude screening in sports with high posture regulatory demands (shooting competitions, gymnastics, diving etc.). Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York .

  5. Does a crouched leg posture enhance running stability and robustness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yvonne; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra; Daley, Monica A; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-07-21

    Humans and birds both walk and run bipedally on compliant legs. However, differences in leg architecture may result in species-specific leg control strategies as indicated by the observed gait patterns. In this work, control strategies for stable running are derived based on a conceptual model and compared with experimental data on running humans and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). From a model perspective, running with compliant legs can be represented by the planar spring mass model and stabilized by applying swing leg control. Here, linear adaptations of the three leg parameters, leg angle, leg length and leg stiffness during late swing phase are assumed. Experimentally observed kinematic control parameters (leg rotation and leg length change) of human and avian running are compared, and interpreted within the context of this model, with specific focus on stability and robustness characteristics. The results suggest differences in stability characteristics and applied control strategies of human and avian running, which may relate to differences in leg posture (straight leg posture in humans, and crouched leg posture in birds). It has been suggested that crouched leg postures may improve stability. However, as the system of control strategies is overdetermined, our model findings suggest that a crouched leg posture does not necessarily enhance running stability. The model also predicts different leg stiffness adaptation rates for human and avian running, and suggests that a crouched avian leg posture, which is capable of both leg shortening and lengthening, allows for stable running without adjusting leg stiffness. In contrast, in straight-legged human running, the preparation of the ground contact seems to be more critical, requiring leg stiffness adjustment to remain stable. Finally, analysis of a simple robustness measure, the normalized maximum drop, suggests that the crouched leg posture may provide greater robustness to changes in terrain height

  6. Effect of Pregnancy on Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpinski, Kurt; Iodice, Valeria; Sandroni, Paola; Low, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical presentation, autonomic dysfunction, and pregnancy outcomes in parous and nulliparous women with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and in women with POTS before and after pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study consists of women who had at least 1 pregnancy during which time they met criteria for POTS between May 1993 and July 2009. All patients underwent standard autonomic testing. POTS was defined as a heart rate (HR) increase of greater than 30 beats/min on head-up tilt (HUT) with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Patients' charts were reviewed retrospectively to determine pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Clinical characteristics related to POTS did not differ between parous and nulliparous women except for disease duration (parous, 3.7±2.6; nulliparous, 2.1±2.2; Pchange in HR on HUT: parous, 42.6±12.0 beats/min; nulliparous, 41.3±10.6 beats/min; P=.39). Of 116 total pregnancies, adverse pregnancy outcomes were reported in 9% and maternal complications in 1%. No complication was related to POTS. There was a trend toward modest improvement in autonomic dysfunction before and after pregnancy (change in HR on HUT: before pregnancy, 38.1±22.7 beats/min; after pregnancy, 21.9±14.9 beats/min; P=.07). CONCLUSION: The long-term impact of pregnancy on POTS does not appear to be clinically important. However, there does appear to be a trend toward improvement in the short-term postpartum period. Adverse pregnancy events were similar to those seen in the general public and do not present a barrier to women with POTS who want to have children. PMID:20516426

  7. THE PRESENCE OF POSTURAL DEFORMITIES OF THE YOUTH DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF PARENTS KNOWLADGE ABOUT DEFICIENT BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bogdanović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is deterimining the presence of postural deformities in sagittal view (defi cient kyphotic and lordotic body posture of the youth depanding on the level of parents knowladge about defi cient body posture. The complete content of the program was conducted in the territory of the city of Kragujevac in several elementary schools, comprising 299 students of the 5th grade and their parents. The object of this study was to determine the number of students with defi cient kyphotic and lordotic body posture, to determine the presence of dis arrangements depanding on the gender and to determine the presence of kyphotic and lordotic deformity depanding on the parents level of information about defi ciant body posture among children. Kyphotic deformity of the examiners of male population is mostly present in the group of parents who are poorly informed about body posture defi ciency. Regarding examiners of female population , the presence of deformation is equally divided on the group of parents who expressed themselves as being very well, those who are undecided and those who are poorly informed. The more signifi cant presence of kyphotic deformity is at examiners of male population than at the examiners of female population while the higher presence of lordotic deformity is at the examiners of female population. Regarding female population we can observe the highest presence of deformation in the group of parents who are undecided while the other groups are very equabal by the presence of deformation. Stated measures impose a statement that it is necessary to continuosly work on both - children education and parents education aiming to recognize posture defi ciency and physical deformation of school and preschool population and all of this with the object of reducing the deformation and on time detecting certain disarrangements and taking adaquate measures for its senctuary

  8. The study of postural workload in assembly of furniture upholstery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Lasota Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSDs which common cause of health problems, sick leave and it can result in decreased quality of work and increased absenteeism. The objective of this study is to evaluate and investigate the postural workload of sewing machine operators in the assembly of upholstery in furniture factory by using the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS with sampling. The results indicated that posture code 2111 (back code: 2 – bent forward; arms code: 1 – both below the shoulder joint; legs code: 1 – sitting position; load code: – 1 less than 10 kg was the most common working posture rating 38.1%; 63.9% of positions displayed non-neutral back postures and 52% received harmful action categories. The performed assembly tasks have an influence on harmless and harmful action categories. This study is crucial on assembly, and in the future work allows develop a framework for assessment the physical risk of WRMSDs in assembly.

  9. Postural control and freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Christian; Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Witt, Karsten; Weisser, Burkhard; Fasano, Alfonso; Deuschl, Günther

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between freezing of gait (FOG) and postural instability in Parkinson's disease (PD) is unclear. We analyzed the impact of FOG on postural control. 31 PD patients with FOG (PD+FOG), 27 PD patients without FOG (PD-FOG) and 22 healthy control (HC) were assessed in the ON state. Postural control was measured with the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale and with center of pressure (COP) analysis during quiet stance and maximal voluntary forward/backward leaning. The groups were balanced concerning age, disease duration and disease severity. PD+FOG performed significantly worse in the FAB scale (21.8 ± 5.8) compared to PD-FOG (25.6 ± 5.0) and HC (34.9 ± 2.4) (mean ± SD, p postural control asymmetry. PD+FOG have reduced postural control compared to PD-FOG and HC. Our results show a relationship between the anterior-posterior COP position during quiet stance and FOG. The COP shift towards posterior in PD+FOG leads to a restricted precondition to generate forward progression during gait initiation. This may contribute to the occurrence of FOG or might be a compensatory strategy to avoid forward falls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  11. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand,  posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007.  The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  12. Analisis ergonomi postur kerja operator pada proses pembuatan batako

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Anggraini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Proses pembuatan batako merupakan salah satu pekerjaan yang membutuhkan penanganan material secara manual,sehingga tenaga fisik pekerja diperlukan meskipun mesin bantu cetak sudah tersedia. Berdasarkan pengamatan dilapangandiketahui bahwa seluruh aktivitas pembuatan batako banyak membutuhkan tenaga fisik. Pekerjaan membuat batako dapatdibagi menjadi beberapa elemen kerja dan setiap elemen kerja memberikan postur kerja yang bervariasi. Hasil analisis posturkerja dengan menggunakan REBA menunjukkan pekerja pada proses pemindahan batako basah memiliki nilai 11 dengan levelrisiko sangat tinggi. Perbaikan dilakukan dengan menambahkan kursi pekerja dan berhasil menurunkan skor REBA menjadi 5.Kata Kunci: Postur kerja, REBA Abstract: Brick-making process is one of those jobs that require manual materials handling, so that the physical exertion of workersneeded though a production machine is already available. Based on observations in the field note that the entire activity ofbrick-making requires a lot of physical exertion. Brick-making can be divided into several working elements and each element ofthe work provides a varied work posture. The results of the analysis work posture using REBA showed workers in the processof moving the wet concrete blocks have a value of 11 with a very high risk level. Improvement of working conditions by adding aseat for workers reduce the REBA score to 5 .Keywords: Work Posture , REBA

  13. [Occlusion and posture: is there evidence of correlation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelotti, A; Manzo, P; Farella, M; Martina, R

    1999-11-01

    The observation that the masticatory system and the postural body regulating system are anatomically and functionally related, has led to postulate several hypotheses of correlation between occlusal and postural disturbances. In the last decade, these arguments have gained a great social impact, also because they have been broadly spread by the mass-media. As a consequence, there has been a growing number of patients seeking concomitant occlusal and postural treatments. The aim of this study was to review critically the current evidence of correlation between the two systems; this in order to address clinical issues for the management of patients. Methodology of the studies reviewed has been evaluated according to the criteria suggested by Storey and Rugh 20 rif. Although there are some evidences of correlation between occlusion and posture, this appears limited to the cranio-cervical tract of the column and tends to disappear when descending in cranio-caudal direction. On the basis of this review of the literature, it's not advisable to treat postural imbalance by means of occlusal treatment or vice versa, particularly if the therapeutic modalities are irreversible.

  14. Relationship between antigravity control and postural control in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, J S

    1988-04-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the relationship between antigravity control (supine flexion and prone extension) and postural control (static and dynamic balance), 2) to determine the quality of antigravity and postural control, and 3) to determine whether sex and ethnic group differences correlate with differences in antigravity control and postural control in young children. I tested 107 black, Hispanic, and Caucasian children in a Head Start program, with a mean age of 61 months. The study results showed significant relationships between antigravity control and postural control. Subjects' supine flexion performance was significantly related to the quantity and quality of their static and dynamic balance performance, whereas prone extension performance was related only to the quality of dynamic balance performance. Quality scale measurements (r = .90) indicated that the children in this study had not yet developed full antigravity or postural control. The study results revealed differences between sexes in the quality of static balance and prone extension performance and ethnic differences in static balance, dynamic balance, and prone extension performance.

  15. Effect of body posture on involuntary swallow in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Shogo; Takeishi, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Ito, Kayoko; Tsukada, Tetsu; Inoue, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Clinically, reclining posture has been reported to reduce risk of aspiration. However, during involuntary swallow in reclining posture, changes in orofacial and pharyngeal movement before and during pharyngeal swallow should be considered. Further, the mechanisms underlying the effect of body posture on involuntary swallow remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of body posture on activity patterns of the suprahyoid muscles and on patterns of bolus transport during a natural involuntary swallow. Thirteen healthy male adults participated in a water infusion test and a chewing test. In the water infusion test, thickened water was delivered into the pharynx at a very slow rate until the first involuntary swallow was evoked. In the chewing test, subjects were asked to eat 10 g of gruel rice. In both tests, the recording was performed at four body postures between upright and supine positions. Results showed that reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow and prolonged onset latency of the swallowing initiation. Muscle burst duration and whiteout time measured by videoendoscopy significantly increased with body reclining and prolongation of the falling time. In the chewing test, reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow, and the frequency of bolus residue after the first swallow increased. Duration and area of EMG burst and whiteout time significantly increased with body reclining. These data suggest that body reclining may result in prolongation of pharyngeal swallow during involuntary swallow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Phobic postural vertigo treated with autogenic training: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Fumiyuki; Nakai, Kimiko; Kunihiro, Takanobu; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2008-09-30

    Patients suffering from dizziness due to vertigo are commonly encountered in the department of otolaryngology. If various clinical examinations do not reveal any objective findings, then the patients are referred to the department of internal medicine or psychiatry. In many cases, the diagnosis is psychological dizziness. Phobic postural vertigo, which was first reported by Brandt T et al in 1994, is supposed to be a type of psychological dizziness. The diagnosis is based on 6 characteristics proposed by Brandt et al. Patients are usually treated with conventional medical therapy, but some cases may be refractory to such a therapy. Psychotherapy is recommended in some cases; however, psychotherapy including autogenic training, which can be used for general relaxation, is not widely accepted. This paper describes the successful administration of autogenic training in a patient suffering from phobic postural vertigo. We present a case of a patient who suffered from phobic postural vertigo. A 37-year-old female complained of dizziness. She had started experiencing dizziness almost 3 years She was intractable to many sort of conventional therapy. In the end, her symptom disappeared after introduction of autogenic training. Autogenic training can be a viable and acceptable treatment option for phobic postural vertigo patients who fail to respond to other therapies. This case emphasizes the importance of autogenic training as a method to control symptom of phobic postural vertigo.

  17. Skeletal Muscle Pump Drives Control of Cardiovascular and Postural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay K.; Garg, Amanmeet; Xu, Da; Bruner, Michelle; Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Blaber, Andrew P.; Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2017-03-01

    The causal interaction between cardio-postural-musculoskeletal systems is critical in maintaining postural stability under orthostatic challenge. The absence or reduction of such interactions could lead to fainting and falls often experienced by elderly individuals. The causal relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP), calf electromyography (EMG), and resultant center of pressure (COPr) can quantify the behavior of cardio-postural control loop. Convergent cross mapping (CCM) is a non-linear approach to establish causality, thus, expected to decipher nonlinear causal cardio-postural-musculoskeletal interactions. Data were acquired simultaneously from young participants (25 ± 2 years, n = 18) during a 10-minute sit-to-stand test. In the young population, skeletal muscle pump was found to drive blood pressure control (EMG → SBP) as well as control the postural sway (EMG → COPr) through the significantly higher causal drive in the direction towards SBP and COPr. Furthermore, the effect of aging on muscle pump activation associated with blood pressure regulation was explored. Simultaneous EMG and SBP were acquired from elderly group (69 ± 4 years, n = 14). A significant (p = 0.002) decline in EMG → SBP causality was observed in the elderly group, compared to the young group. The results highlight the potential of causality to detect alteration in blood pressure regulation with age, thus, a potential clinical utility towards detection of fall proneness.

  18. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Kubo

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade, yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. According to a large dataset presented in this study, the body sizes of all nonplantigrades (including nonvolant dinosaurs, nonvolant terrestrial birds, extant mammals, and extinct Nearctic mammals are above 500 g, except for macroscelid mammals (i.e., elephant shrew, a few alvarezsauroid dinosaurs, and nondinosaur ornithodirans (i.e., the immediate ancestors of dinosaurs. When nonplantigrade tetrapods evolved from plantigrade ancestors, lineages with nonplantigrade foot posture exhibited a steady increase in body size following Cope's rule. In contrast, contemporaneous plantigrade lineages exhibited no trend in body size evolution and were largely constrained to small body sizes. This evolutionary pattern of body size specific to foot posture occurred repeatedly during both the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras. Although disturbed by the end-Cretaceous extinction, species of mid to large body size have predominantly been nonplantigrade animals from the Jurassic until the present; conversely, species with small body size have been exclusively composed of plantigrades in the nonvolant terrestrial tetrapod fauna.

  19. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. According to a large dataset presented in this study, the body sizes of all nonplantigrades (including nonvolant dinosaurs, nonvolant terrestrial birds, extant mammals, and extinct Nearctic mammals) are above 500 g, except for macroscelid mammals (i.e., elephant shrew), a few alvarezsauroid dinosaurs, and nondinosaur ornithodirans (i.e., the immediate ancestors of dinosaurs). When nonplantigrade tetrapods evolved from plantigrade ancestors, lineages with nonplantigrade foot posture exhibited a steady increase in body size following Cope's rule. In contrast, contemporaneous plantigrade lineages exhibited no trend in body size evolution and were largely constrained to small body sizes. This evolutionary pattern of body size specific to foot posture occurred repeatedly during both the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras. Although disturbed by the end-Cretaceous extinction, species of mid to large body size have predominantly been nonplantigrade animals from the Jurassic until the present; conversely, species with small body size have been exclusively composed of plantigrades in the nonvolant terrestrial tetrapod fauna.

  20. Testing postural control among various osteoporotic patient groups: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Maartje H; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C; van Campen, Jos P C M; Lems, Willem F; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2012-10-01

    Osteoporosis can cause vertebral fractures, which might lead to a flexed posture, impaired postural control and consequently increased fall risk. Therefore, the aim of the present review was to examine whether postural control of patients with osteoporosis, vertebral fractures, thoracic kyphosis and flexed posture is affected. Furthermore, instruments measuring postural control were evaluated and examined for sensitivity and easy clinical use. Until February 2011, electronic databases were systematically searched for cross-sectional studies. Methodological quality was assessed with a modified Downs & Black scale. Of the 518 found studies, 18 studies were included. Postural control was generally affected for patients with vertebral fractures, thoracic kyphosis and flexed posture. Patients with osteoporosis had impaired postural control when assessed with computerized instruments. Easy performance-based tests did not show any impairments. There is evidence for an impaired postural control in all patient groups included. Impaired postural control is an important risk factor for falls. Functional performance tests are not sensitive and specific enough to detect affected postural control in patients with osteoporosis. To detect impaired postural control among osteoporotic patients and to obtain more insight into the underlying mechanisms of postural control, computerized instruments are recommended, such as easy-to-use ambulant motion-sensing (accelerometry) technology. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Prolonged phone-call posture causes changes of ulnar motor nerve conduction across elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Luca; Coraci, Daniele; Erra, Carmen; Doneddu, Pietro Emiliano; Granata, Giuseppe; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2016-08-01

    Postures and work-hobby activities may play a role in the origin and progression of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE), whose occurrence appears to be increasing. The time spent on mobile-phone has increased in the last decades leading to an increased time spent with flexed elbow (prolonged-phone-posture, PPP). We aimed to assess the effect of PPP both in patients with symptoms of UNE and in symptom-free subjects. Patients with pure sensory symptoms of UNE and negative neurophysiological tests (MIN-UNE) and symptom-free subjects were enrolled. We evaluated ulnar motor nerve conduction velocity across elbow at baseline and after 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18min of PPP in both groups. Fifty-six symptom-free subjects and fifty-eight patients were enrolled. Globally 186 ulnar nerves from 114 subjects were studied. Conduction velocity of ulnar nerve across the elbow significantly changed over PPP time in patients with MIN-UNE, showing a different evolution between the two groups. PPP causes a modification of ulnar nerve functionality in patients with MIN-UNE. PPP may cause transient stress of ulnar nerve at elbow. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Holding a handle for balance during continuous postural perturbations – immediate and transitionary effects on whole body posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Camernik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When balance is exposed to perturbations, hand contacts are often used to assist postural control. We investigated the immediate and the transitionary effects of supportive hand contacts during continuous anteroposterior perturbations of stance by automated waist-pulls. Ten young adults were perturbed for five minutes and required to maintain balance by holding to a stationary, shoulder-high handle and following its removal. Centre of pressure (COP displacement, hip, knee, and ankle angles, leg and trunk muscle activity and handle contact forces were acquired. The analysis of results show that COP excursions are significantly smaller when the subjects utilize supportive hand contact and that the displacement of COP is strongly correlated to the perturbation force and significantly larger in the anterior than posterior direction. Regression analysis of hand forces revealed that subjects utilized the hand support significantly more during the posterior than anterior perturbations. Moreover, kinematical analysis showed that utilization of supportive hand contacts alters posture of the whole body and that postural readjustments after the release of the handle occur at different time scales in the hip, knee, and ankle joints. Overall, our findings show that supportive hand contacts are efficiently used for balance control during continuous postural perturbations and that utilization of a handle has significant immediate and transitionary effects on whole body posture.

  3. Dysphagia associated with cervical spine and postural disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Soultana; Exarchakos, Georgios; Beris, Alexander; Ploumis, Avraam

    2013-12-01

    Difficulties with swallowing may be both persistent and life threatening for the majority of those who experience it irrespective of age, gender, and race. The purpose of this review is to define oropharyngeal dysphagia and describe its relationship to cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances due to either congenital or acquired disorders. The etiology and diagnosis of dysphagia are analyzed, focusing on cervical spine pathology associated with dysphagia as severe cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances largely have been held accountable for deglutition disorders. Scoliosis, kyphosis–lordosis, and osteophytes are the primary focus of this review in an attempt to elucidate the link between cervical spine disorders and dysphagia. It is important for physicians to be knowledgeable about what triggers oropharyngeal dysphagia in cases of cervical spine and postural disorders. Moreover, the optimum treatment for dysphagia, including the use of therapeutic maneuvers during deglutition, neck exercises, and surgical treatment, is discussed.

  4. Postural control and shoulder steadiness in F-16 pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Britt; Murray, Mike; Chreiteh, Shadi S

    2014-01-01

    to a control group (CG; N = 28) or training group (TG; N = 27). Postural control was tested in four different settings: Romberg with open and closed eyes, unilateral stance, and perturbation. Maximal voluntary contraction and force steadiness was measured for shoulder elevation. RESULTS: At follow......-up, there was a significant between-group difference in the Romberg test with closed eyes only (95% confidence ellipse area; CG: 761 +/- 311 mm2; TG: 650 +/- 405 mm2). Prior to randomization, there were no significant differences in postural control and steadiness between 30 pilots who experienced neck pain within...... the previous 3 mo and 25 pilots without such pain. DISCUSSION: Impaired postural control and steadiness may only be quantifiable in individuals experiencing acute neck pain of certain intensity, and there may be a ceiling effect in the ability to improve these parameters. For individuals with highly developed...

  5. Human Posture and Movement Prediction based on Musculoskeletal Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Saeed Davoudabadi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis explores an optimization-based formulation, so-called inverse-inverse dynamics, for the prediction of human posture and motion dynamics performing various tasks. It is explained how this technique enables us to predict natural kinematic and kinetic patterns for human posture...... and motion using AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). AMS uses inverse dynamics to analyze musculoskeletal systems and is, therefore, limited by its dependency on input kinematics. We propose to alleviate this dependency by assuming that voluntary postures and movement strategies in humans are guided by a desire...... expenditure, joint forces and other physiological properties derived from the detailed musculoskeletal analysis. Several attempts have been made to uncover the principles underlying motion control strategies in the literature. In case of some movements, like human squat jumping, there is almost no doubt...

  6. Cortical involvement in anticipatory postural reactions in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rosenberg, Kasper; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar

    2009-01-01

    All movements are accompanied by postural reactions which ensure that the balance of the body is maintained. It has not been resolved that to what extent the primary motor cortex and corticospinal tract are involved in the control of these reactions. Here, we investigated the contribution...... of the corticospinal tract to the activation of the soleus (SOL) muscle in standing human subjects (n = 10) in relation to voluntary heel raise, anticipatory postural activation of the soleus muscle when the subject pulled a handle and to reflex activation of the soleus muscle when the subject was suddenly pulled...... was observed prior to EMG onset for the external perturbation. These data suggest that the primary motor cortex is involved in activating the SOL muscle as part of an anticipatory postural reaction....

  7. Hand Posture Prediction Using Neural Networks within a Biomechanical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Mora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs in the framework of a biomechanical hand model for grasping. ANNs enhance the model capabilities as they substitute estimated data for the experimental inputs required by the grasping algorithm used. These inputs are the tentative grasping posture and the most open posture during grasping. As a consequence, more realistic grasping postures are predicted by the grasping algorithm, along with the contact information required by the dynamic biomechanical model (contact points and normals. Several neural network architectures are tested and compared in terms of prediction errors, leading to encouraging results. The performance of the overall proposal is also shown through simulation, where a grasping experiment is replicated and compared to the real grasping data collected by a data glove device.

  8. Postural balance and the risk of falling during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Bulent; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Inanir, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological process and many changes occur in a woman's body during pregnancy. These changes occur in all systems to varying degrees, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems. The hormonal, anatomical, and physiological changes occurring during pregnancy result in weight gain, decreased abdominal muscle strength and neuromuscular control, increased ligamentous laxity, and spinal lordosis. These alterations shift the centre of gravity of the body, altering the postural balance and increasing the risk of falls. Falls during pregnancy can cause maternal and foetal complications, such as maternal bone fractures, head injuries, internal haemorrhage, abruption placenta, rupture of the uterus and membranes, and occasionally maternal death or intrauterine foetal demise. Preventative strategies, such as physical exercise and the use of maternity support belts, can increase postural stability and reduce the risk of falls during pregnancy. This article reviews studies that have investigated changes in postural balance and risk of falling during pregnancy.

  9. Postural control in children with typical development and children with profound hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro de Sousa AM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aneliza Maria Monteiro de Sousa,1 Jônatas de França Barros,2 Brígido Martins de Sousa Neto31Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil; 2Department of Physical Education at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; 3University Center UNIEURO, Brasilia, Federal District, BrazilPurpose: To describe the behavior of the postural control in children with profound sensorineural hearing loss and compare the results of experimental tests with hearing children aged 7 to 10 years.Patients and methods: This is a cross-sectional study where 100 children were divided into experimental and control groups. We used a force platform, AccuSway Plus, where the tests were conducted under the experimental conditions: open base, eyes open (OBEO; open base, eyes closed (OBEC; closed base, eyes open (CBEO; closed base, eyes closed (CBEC. The body sway velocity (V of the center of pressure, the displacement in the anteroposterior direction (COPap and mediolateral (COPml of the center of pressure were the parameters to evaluate the postural control. For statistical analysis we used the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test, with a significance level of 5%.Results: In comparisons of variables between the groups, the experimental group outperformed by at least 75% of the control group values. In terms of global trends, the experimental group shows higher values of body oscillations in all experimental conditions and variables evaluated. Children with hearing loss had poorer balance performance compared to the group of hearing. The inferential analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in the balance between deaf and hearing children in the OBEC experimental condition in relation to the COPml parameter (P = 0.04. There were no statistically significant differences in comparisons between the sexes when the groups were analyzed separately. The prevalence of unknown etiology

  10. Comparisons of muscular activity in males and females while walking in restricted postures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hodgskiss, J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine differences in muscular activation between males and females while walking in restricted postures. Restricted postures are evident in various industries, including mining, construction and agriculture...

  11. Time-of-Day Influences on Static and Dynamic Postural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gribble, Phillip A; Tucker, W. Steven; White, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Assessment of postural control is used extensively in clinical and research applications. Time of day affects aspects of physical performance, but whether it also affects postural control is unknown.

  12. Age-related neural correlates of cognitive task performance under increased postural load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Impe, A; Bruijn, S M; Coxon, J P; Wenderoth, N; Sunaert, S; Duysens, J; Swinnen, S P

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that postural control requires increased cognitive control and visuospatial processing with aging. Consequently, performance can decline when concurrently performing a postural and a demanding cognitive task. We aimed to identify the neural substrate underlying this

  13. Audio-Biofeedback training for posture and balance in Patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirelman, Anat; Herman, Talia; Nicolai, Simone; Zijlstra, Agnes; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Becker, Clemens; Chiari, Lorenzo; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from dysrhythmic and disturbed gait, impaired balance, and decreased postural responses. These alterations lead to falls, especially as the disease progresses. Based on the observation that postural control improved in patients with

  14. The Interaction between Visual and Proprioception Information for Dynamic Postural Control in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yasin hoseini

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: the posture is controled mostly by the motion in the knee joint rather than the hip or ankle joints. It is recommended to enhance the knee extensors to prevent falling in people with high risk of postural instability.

  15. Postural stability decreases in elite young soccer players after a competitive soccer match

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, João; Fontes, Ivo; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of an official soccer match on postural stability in youth elite soccer players.......To investigate the effects of an official soccer match on postural stability in youth elite soccer players....

  16. Feeding and resting postures of wild northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurck, Maria F; Nowak, Matthew G; Costa, Leny C M; Mendes, Sérgio L; Ford, Susan M; Strier, Karen B

    2013-01-01

    Increased body size in Brachyteles has been regarded as an important evolutionary adaptation that allowed a greater reliance on leaves compared to other more frugivorous Atelidae, but its association with muriqui positional behavior and substrate use is still unknown. Here, we present original data on the feeding and resting postures of the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) and evaluate predictions about the relationships between body size, postural behavior, and substrate use derived from previously published data for other atelids (e.g. Alouatta, Ateles, and Lagothrix). The study was undertaken from August 2002 to July 2003 on a large group of well-habituated muriquis inhabiting the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural - Felíciano Miguel Abdala in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Consistent with our predictions, we found that B. hypoxanthus was highly suspensory during postural feeding (60.9%) and commonly used tail-hind limb suspension/horizontal tripod (38.0%) or tail-forelimb/hind limb suspension (21.4%). However, although tail-suspensory postures permitted the muriquis to use the terminal canopy and small-sized substrates, these areas were also accessed via tail-assisted above-branch postural behaviors involving multiple substrates. Unexpectedly, tail-suspensory postures were found to be frequently associated with large substrates, tree trunks, and the understory. We suggest that Brachyteles' ability to access food resources from all areas of a feeding tree and from tree crowns at different canopy levels may account for their ability to efficiently exploit food resources in seasonal disturbed forest fragments of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest today. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Automatic postural response systems in individuals with congenital total blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, H; Yabe, K

    2001-07-01

    This study examined the effects of the absence of vision from birth on automatic postural responses to platform displacements during stance. Postural responses were induced by producing randomly four types of perturbations which consisted of forward and backward translations, and toe up and down rotations. Nine congenitally totally blind and nine sighted adults served as subjects. EMG signals were recorded from four muscles in the right leg, and reaction time to somatosensory stimuli generated by platform displacements was measured by pushing a hand-held button. To assess the ability to control postural balance, the root mean square (RMS) values for lateral and antero-posterior sway before, during, and after perturbations were calculated. The EMG amplitude in the gastrocnemius muscle of a blind subject was smaller than that of a sighted subject with eyes closed. No significant differences were found between blind and sighted subjects in EMG latencies of the lower extremity muscles in response to perturbations. The blind subjects had significantly faster reaction times to somatosensory stimuli triggered by platform displacements, but in toe down rotations no significant difference was found between blind and sighted subjects. The difference in the EMG latencies and reaction times between the two groups suggests that blindness from birth may not affect the spinal stretch reflex, but may affect a volitional act mediated through the motor cortex. There were also no significant differences in the RMS values for postural sway between blind and sighted subjects with eyes open or closed, although blind subjects swayed more after backward translations than did sighted subjects with eyes open. Results suggest that the ability to control postural balance during perturbations was not affected by vision loss from birth. Our findings suggest that the automatic postural response systems of humans are unaffected by the absence of vision from birth and are rather hard wired.

  18. Usefulness of posture training for patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E F; Domenech, M A; Fischer, J R

    2000-02-01

    Many practitioners have found that posture training has a positive impact on temporomandibular, or TMD, symptoms. The authors conducted a study to evaluate its effectiveness. Sixty patients with TMD and a primary muscle disorder were randomized into two groups: one group received posture training and TMD self-management instructions while the control group received TMD self-management instructions only. Four weeks after the study began, the authors reexamined the subjects for changes in symptoms, pain-free opening and pressure algometer pain thresholds. In addition, pretreatment and posttreatment posture measurements were recorded for subjects in the treatment group. Statistically significant improvement was demonstrated by the modified symptom severity index, maximum pain-free opening and pressure algometer threshold measurements, as well as by the subjects' perceived TMD and neck symptoms. Subjects in the treatment group reported having experienced a mean reduction in TMD and neck symptoms of 41.9 and 38.2 percent, respectively, while subjects in the control group reported a mean reduction in these symptoms of 8.1 and 9.3 percent. Within the treatment group, the authors found significant correlations between improvements in TMD symptoms and improvements in neck symptoms (P head and shoulder posture measurements at the outset of treatment (P Posture training and TMD self-management instructions are significantly more effective than TMD self-management instructions alone for patients with TMD who have a primary muscle disorder. Patients with TMD who hold their heads farther forward relative to the shoulders have a high probability of experiencing symptom improvement as a result of posture training and being provided with selfmanagement instructions.

  19. Postural health in women: the role of physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britnell, S J; Cole, J V; Isherwood, L; Sran, M M; Britnell, N; Burgi, S; Candido, G; Watson, L

    2005-05-01

    To advise obstetric and gynaecology care providers of the physical, psychological, and environmental factors that affect women's posture throughout their lifespan, from adolescence to menopause. To outline the physiotherapy management of obstetrics, osteoporosis, and urinary incontinence in women and to identify recommendations for referral to a physiotherapist. Knowledge of abnormal postures, contributing factors and recommendations for physiotherapy management. MEDLINE, PEDro, and Cochrane Library Search from 1992 to 2003 for English-language articles and references from current textbooks related to posture and women's health conditions that are managed by physiotherapists. The evidence collected was reviewed by the authors and quantified using the evaluation of evidence guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam. 1. Pelvic floor muscle training with a physiotherapist is recommended to prevent urinary incontinence during pregnancy and after delivery (I-A). 2. Core stability training with a physiotherapist is recommended to prevent and treat back and pelvic pain during and following pregnancy (I-B). 3. Physiotherapist-prescribed exercises are recommended for women to elicit positive changes in bone mass and to reduce fall and fracture risk (I-A). 4. Pelvic floor muscle training with a physiotherapist is recommended for women with stress urinary incontinence (I-A). The Canadian Physiotherapy Association and Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada have developed this joint policy statement regarding posture in women's health that highlights the physical, psychological, and environmental factors that affect women's posture throughout their lifespan, from adolescence to menopause. This statement outlines the role of physiotherapy in the assessment and treatment of women's posture; outlines the physiotherapy management of obstetrics, osteoporosis, and urinary incontinence; and identifies recommendations for referral to a

  20. Effect of intervention on development of hip posture in very preterm babies.

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, J A; Edwards, A D; McCormick, D C; Roth, S C; Stewart, A L

    1991-01-01

    Preterm babies are physiologically hypotonic, which causes their posture to be flattened when lying in the prone position. This flattened posture may persist beyond term. In a prospective, randomised, controlled, double blind trial of postural support carried out on 45 babies born at less than 33 weeks of gestation, we showed that infants positioned with specific hip support during the period of intensive care had significantly fewer features of flattened posture at the age equivalent to term.

  1. Heat-conserving postures hinder escape: a thermoregulation–predation trade-off in wintering birds

    OpenAIRE

    Jennie M. Carr; Steven L. Lima

    2012-01-01

    Wintering birds may conserve body heat by adopting postures with minimal leg exposure or significant ptiloerection. However, maximally heat-conserving postures may hinder a bird's ability to escape attack, leading to a trade-off between predation risk and thermoregulation. Such a trade-off implies that birds should use the most heat-conserving postures only at very cold temperatures. Feeding in a relatively low-risk environment should also facilitate the use of such heat-conserving postures. ...

  2. Effects of kettlebell training on postural coordination and jump performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a worksite intervention using kettlebell training to improve postural reactions to perturbation and jump performance.This single-blind randomized controlled trial involved 40 adults (n=40) from occupations with a high....... The outcome measures were postural reactions to sudden perturbation and maximal countermovement jump height.Compared to the control group, the training group significant decreased stopping time following perturbation (-109ms, 95% CI [-196:-21]). Jump height increased significantly in the training group (1.5cm...

  3. The Effect of Body Posture on Brain Glymphatic Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hedok; Xie, Lulu; Yu, Mei; Kang, Hongyi; Feng, Tian; Deane, Rashid; Logan, Jean; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene

    2015-08-05

    The glymphatic pathway expedites clearance of waste, including soluble amyloid β (Aβ) from the brain. Transport through this pathway is controlled by the brain's arousal level because, during sleep or anesthesia, the brain's interstitial space volume expands (compared with wakefulness), resulting in faster waste removal. Humans, as well as animals, exhibit different body postures during sleep, which may also affect waste removal. Therefore, not only the level of consciousness, but also body posture, might affect CSF-interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange efficiency. We used dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI and kinetic modeling to quantify CSF-ISF exchange rates in anesthetized rodents' brains in supine, prone, or lateral positions. To validate the MRI data and to assess specifically the influence of body posture on clearance of Aβ, we used fluorescence microscopy and radioactive tracers, respectively. The analysis showed that glymphatic transport was most efficient in the lateral position compared with the supine or prone positions. In the prone position, in which the rat's head was in the most upright position (mimicking posture during the awake state), transport was characterized by "retention" of the tracer, slower clearance, and more CSF efflux along larger caliber cervical vessels. The optical imaging and radiotracer studies confirmed that glymphatic transport and Aβ clearance were superior in the lateral and supine positions. We propose that the most popular sleep posture (lateral) has evolved to optimize waste removal during sleep and that posture must be considered in diagnostic imaging procedures developed in the future to assess CSF-ISF transport in humans. The rodent brain removes waste better during sleep or anesthesia compared with the awake state. Animals exhibit different body posture during the awake and sleep states, which might affect the brain's waste removal efficiency. We investigated the influence of body posture on brainwide transport of inert

  4. Perioperative care of an adolescent with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kernan Scott

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS is a disorder characterized by postural tachycardia in combination with orthostatic symptoms without associated hypotension. Symptoms include light-headedness, palpitations, fatigue, confusion, and anxiety, which are brought on by assuming the upright position and usually relieved by sitting or lying down. Given the associated autonomic dysfunction that occurs with POTS, various perioperative concerns must be considered when providing anesthetic care for such patients. We present an adolescent with POTS who required anesthetic care during posterior spinal fusion for the treatment of scoliosis. The potential perioperative implications of this syndrome are discussed.

  5. Répertoire postural du singe Cercopithecus nictitans stampflii , dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les cercopithèques sont des espèces de singe très actifs. A l\\'instar des autres espèces, ils adoptent la majeure partie du temps des postures diverses. Le but de notre étude est de décrire le comportement de posture du cercopithèque nictitans. La méthode instantanée de collecte des données a été utilisée de février 2002 ...

  6. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  7. Influence of pain on postural control in women with neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pain on postural control in women with neck pain and the relationship with possible changes in sensory systems and posture. The neck pain group was composed of women, aged between 20 and 50years, complaining of neck pain for more than three months; the control group was composed of women without complaints of neck pain. For the characterization of the groups, we used anamnesis, neck disability index and Visual Analogue Scale. Postural balance was assessed on force platform. Postural balance with manipulation of the sensory systems was measured by Foam Laser Dynamic Posturography, exposing the individual to six sensory organization tests. Posture was assessed by the Postural Assessment Software. The normality of the variables were verified using Shapiro-Wilk test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test for comparison between groups, with a significance level of5%. Groups were homogeneous in demographic variables. We observed higher amplitude and displacement velocity of the center of pressure in the neck pain group, showing greater postural balance. There were significant diferences incraniovertebral angle, showing forward head posture in symptomatic women. In dynamics posturography, we observed a difference between the groups: the score obtainedin the six sensory conditions showed that neck pain group presented greater balance impairment. Neck pain and forward head posture have a deleterious effect on postural control in symptomatic women, both in the static posture and dynamic posture.

  8. Standing Postural Control in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yi Huey; Partridge, Katie; Girdler, Sonya; Morris, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    Impairments in postural control affect the development of motor and social skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review compared the effect of different sensory conditions on static standing postural control between ASD and neurotypical individuals. Results from 19 studies indicated a large difference in postural control…

  9. Voluntarily controlled but not merely observed visual feedback affects postural sway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tomohisa; Hiromitsu, Kentaro; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Online stabilization of human standing posture utilizes multisensory afferences (e.g., vision). Whereas visual feedback of spontaneous postural sway can stabilize postural control especially when observers concentrate on their body and intend to minimize postural sway, the effect of intentional control of visual feedback on postural sway itself remains unclear. This study assessed quiet standing posture in healthy adults voluntarily controlling or merely observing visual feedback. The visual feedback (moving square) had either low or high gain and was either horizontally flipped or not. Participants in the voluntary-control group were instructed to minimize their postural sway while voluntarily controlling visual feedback, whereas those in the observation group were instructed to minimize their postural sway while merely observing visual feedback. As a result, magnified and flipped visual feedback increased postural sway only in the voluntary-control group. Furthermore, regardless of the instructions and feedback manipulations, the experienced sense of control over visual feedback positively correlated with the magnitude of postural sway. We suggest that voluntarily controlled, but not merely observed, visual feedback is incorporated into the feedback control system for posture and begins to affect postural sway. PMID:29682421

  10. Assessment of Postural Control in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao, Silvia Leticia; dos Santos, Adriana Neves; Woollacott, Marjorie Hines; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed to review studies that assessed postural control (PC) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and describe the methods used to investigate postural control in this population. It also intended to describe the performance of children with CP in postural control. An extensive database search was performed using the keywords: postural…

  11. The Control of Posture in Newly Standing Infants is Task Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Laura J.; Melzer, Dawn K.; Ryu, Joong Hyun; Haddad, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    The postural sway patterns of newly standing infants were compared under two conditions: standing while holding a toy and standing while not holding a toy. Infants exhibited a lower magnitude of postural sway and more complex sway patterns when holding the toy. These changes suggest that infants adapt postural sway in a manner that facilitates…

  12. Testing postural control among various osteoporotic patient groups: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.H.; van der Jagt-Willems, H.; van Campen, J.P.C.M.; Lems, W.F.; Lamoth, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Osteoporosis can cause vertebral fractures, which might lead to a flexed posture, impaired postural control and consequently increased fall risk. Therefore, the aim of the present review was to examine whether postural control of patients with osteoporosis, vertebral fractures, thoracic

  13. Testing postural control among various osteoporotic patient groups : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Maartje H.; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Lems, Willem F.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Osteoporosis can cause vertebral fractures, which might lead to a flexed posture, impaired postural control and consequently increased fall risk. Therefore, the aim of the present review was to examine whether postural control of patients with osteoporosis, vertebral fractures, thoracic

  14. Development of postural control in typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy : Possibilities for intervention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Peters, Victorine B.; Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H.; Dirks, Tineke; Bakker, Hanneke; Bos, Arie F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The basic level of postural control is functionally active from early infancy onwards: young infants possess a repertoire of direction-specific postural adjustments. Whether or not direction-specific adjustments are used depends on the child's age and the nature of the postural task. The second

  15. Postural stability and ankle sprain history in athletes compared to uninjured controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurnink, A.; Fransz, D.P.; Kingma, I.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diminished postural stability is a risk factor for ankle sprain occurrence and ankle sprains result in impaired postural stability. To date, ankle sprain history has not been taken into account as a determinant of postural stability, while it could possibly specify subgroups of interest.

  16. Relationship between Postural Deformities and Frontal Function in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Ninomiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postural deformities and executive dysfunction (ED are common symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD; however, the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD remains unclear. This study assessed the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD. Sixty-five patients with sporadic PD were assessed for the severity of postural deformities and executive function. The severity of postural deformities was scored using the United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale item 28 score: no postural deformity (0, mild postural deformities (1, or severe postural deformities (2–4. Executive function was assessed using the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS and an age-controlled standardized BADS score <70 was defined as ED. Age-controlled standardized BADS scores were compared across the three groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Relationship between ED and the severity of postural deformities was assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Age-controlled standardized BADS score significantly differed among the three groups P=0.005. ED was significantly related to the severity of postural deformities P=0.0005. The severity of postural deformities was associated with a lower age-controlled standardized BADS score and ED, and these findings suggest that postural deformities were associated with frontal dysfunction in patients with PD.

  17. Body posture recognition and turning recording system for the care of bed bound patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Rong-Shue; Mi, Zhenqiang; Yang, Bo-Ru; Kau, Lih-Jen; Bitew, Mekuanint Agegnehu; Li, Tzu-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes body posture recognition and turning recording system for assisting the care of bed bound patients in nursing homes. The system continuously detects the patient's body posture and records the length of time for each body posture. If the patient remains in the same body posture long enough to develop pressure ulcers, the system notifies caregivers to change the patient's body posture. The objective of recording is to provide the log of body turning for querying of patients' family members. In order to accurately detect patient's body posture, we developed a novel pressure sensing pad which contains force sensing resistor sensors. Based on the proposed pressure sensing pad, we developed a bed posture recognition module which includes a bed posture recognition algorithm. The algorithm is based on fuzzy theory. The body posture recognition algorithm can detect the patient's bed posture whether it is right lateral decubitus, left lateral decubitus, or supine. The detected information of patient's body posture can be then transmitted to the server of healthcare center by the communication module to perform the functions of recording and notification. Experimental results showed that the average posture recognition accuracy for our proposed module is 92%.

  18. Mechanisms of inhibition of vasopressin release during moderate antiorthostatic posture change in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B.; Gabrielsen, A.; Christensen, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the carotid baroreceptor stimulation caused by a posture change from upright seated with legs horizontal (Seat) to supine (Sup) participates in the suppression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) release. Ten healthy males underwent this posture change for 30 min without...... decreased from 0.9 +/- 0.2 to 0.5 +/- 0.1 pg/ml (P posture...

  19. On the relative contribution of the paretic leg to the control of posture after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; de Haart, Mirjam; Beek, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced postural steadiness and asymmetry of weight bearing are characteristic for posture after stroke. To examine the relative contribution of each leg to postural control in a cohort of 33 stroke patients at 5 stages during 3 months of inpatient rehabilitation, while taking clinical scores of

  20. On the relative contribution of the paretic leg to the control of posture after stroke.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Haart, M. de; Beek, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced postural steadiness and asymmetry of weight bearing are characteristic for posture after stroke. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relative contribution of each leg to postural control in a cohort of 33 stroke patients at 5 stages during 3 months of inpatient rehabilitation, while taking

  1. On the relative contribution of the paretic leg to the control of posture after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Geurts, A.C.; de Haart, M.; Beek, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Reduced postural steadiness and asymmetry of weight bearing are characteristic for posture after stroke. Objective: To examine the relative contribution of each leg to postural control in a cohort of 33 stroke patients at 5 stages during 3 months of inpatient rehabilitation, while taking

  2. Meta-Analysis: Association Between Wrist Posture and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Among Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doohee You

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: We found evidence that prolonged exposure to non-neutral wrist postures is associated with a twofold increased risk for CTS compared with low hours of exposure to non-neutral wrist postures. Workplace interventions to prevent CTS should incorporate training and engineering interventions that reduce sustained non-neutral wrist postures.

  3. ANALISIS KETIGGIAN MEJA KERJA YANG IDEAL TERHADAP POSTUR PEKERJA DIVISI CUTTING INDUSTRI GARMEN DENGAN POSTURE EVALUATION (PEI PADA VIRTUAL ENVIROMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boy Nurtjahyo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mencoba untuk mengimplementasikan suatu metodologi untuk mempelajari, dalam lingkungan virtual, aspek ergonomi dari suatu tempat kerja di industri garmen. Variabel tempat kerja yang diteliti dalam penelitian ini adalah ketinggian meja kerja. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendapatkan konfigurasi ketinggian meja yang ideal bagi pekerja divisi cutting industri garmen. Tool yang digunakan dalam menyelesaikan skripsi ini adalah Posture Evaluation Index yang mengintegrasikan skor Low Back Analysis (LBA, Ovako Working Posture (OWAS, dan Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA. Penentuan konfigurasi yang ideal dilakukan dengan mempertimbangkan jenis pekerjaan dan posisi kerja ketika melakukan pekerjaan tersebut, apakah dalam posisi duduk atau berdiri. Analisis dilakukan dengan menggunakan model manusia digital yang disediakan software Jack pada virtual environment. Hasil penelitian dapat digunakan sebagai referensi dalam merancang tempat kerja yang lebih baik secara ergonomis. Kata kunci : Ergonomi, Virtual Environment, Divisi Cutting  Industri Garmen, Posture Evaluation Index   Abstract   The research deals with the implementation of a methodology in order to study, in a virtual environment, the ergonomics of a work cell in garment industry. The work cell’s variable studied in this research is table height. The goal of this research is to determine an ideal table height for the workers of cutting division in garment industry. The tool to conduct this research is called Posture Evaluation Index (PEI which integrates the score of Low Back Analysis (LBA, Ovako Working Posture (OWAS, dan Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA. The Determination of table height configuration is based on type of work and work position (standing or sitting. The research uses digital human model form Jack software in a virtual environment. The result from this research can be a reference for future work cell design. Keywords: Ergonomics, Virtual Environment, Cutting

  4. POSTUR KERJA DAN RISIKO LOW BACK PAIN PADA PEKERJA PASIRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Nurkertamanda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu pekerjaan angkat angkut adalah pekerjaan menurunkan pasir dari atas truk. Dalam bekerja, pekerja menggunakan alat bantu berupa enggrong yang merupakan sekop dengan gagang pendek. Akibat penggunaan enggrong, pekerja bekerja dengan postur tubuh membungkuk. Postur kerja ini menimbulkan potensi low back pain pada pekerja. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian cross sectional dengan jumlah sampel 9 partisipan. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui potensi risiko low back pain berdasarkan sudut kemiringan trunk ketika pekerja bekerja menurunkan pasir dengan enggrong. Sudut kemiringan trunk yang diprediksi meliputi: 1 sudut kemiringan trunk flexion, 2 sudut kemiringan trunk bending, dan 3 sudut kemiringan trunk twisting. Data postur kerja diambil dengan menggunakan kamera 3D Microsoft KinectTM dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan software Siemen Jack metode 3D Static Strength Prediction Program (3DSSPP untuk memprediksi sudut kemiringan trunk. Hasil analisis dari ke-6 postur kerja menunjukkan postur-postur kerja yang sering dilakukan pekerja mempunyai rerata sudut kemiringan trunk flexion sebesar 61,10 ± 10,090, sudut kemiringan trunk bending sebesar 19,80 ± 6,740 dan sudut kemiringan trunk twisting sebesar 20,00 ± 9,030. Rerata sudut kemiringan trunk flexion yang mencapai 87,28 %  dari sudut kemiringan maksimal merupakan penyebab utama risiko low back pain. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan potensi terjadinya low back pain pada pekerja pasiran dapat terjadi. Perlu intervensi ergonomi untuk mencegah dan mengurangi potensi risiko terjadi low back pain pada pekerja pasiran.   Abstract One of the manual matrial handling jobs is the derivative work from the top of the truck. In working the workers use a tool that enggrong which is a short-handed shovel. Due to the use of employee enggrong work with stooped posture. This work posture raises the potential for low back pain in workers. This study is a cross sectional study with a sample of 9

  5. A modified sagittal spine postural classification and its relationship to deformities and spinal mobility in a chinese osteoporotic population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Jun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abnormal posture and spinal mobility have been demonstrated to cause functional impairment in the quality of life, especially in the postmenopausal osteoporotic population. Most of the literature studies focus on either thoracic kyphosis or lumbar lordosis, but not on the change of the entire spinal alignment. Very few articles reported the spinal alignment of Chinese people. The purpose of this study was threefold: to classify the spinal curvature based on the classification system defined by Satoh consisting of the entire spine alignment; to identify the change of trunk mobility; and to relate spinal curvature to balance disorder in a Chinese population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 450 osteoporotic volunteers were recruited for this study. Spinal range of motion and global curvature were evaluated noninvasively using the Spinal-Mouse® system and sagittal postural deformities were characterized. RESULTS: We found a new spine postural alignment consisting of an increased thoracic kyphosis and decreased lumbar lordosis which we classified as our modified round back. We did not find any of Satoh's type 5 classification in our population. Type 2 sagittal alignment was the most common spinal deformity (38.44%. In standing, thoracic kyphosis angles in types 2 (58.34° and 3 (58.03° were the largest and lumbar lordosis angles in types 4 (13.95° and 5 (-8.61° were the smallest. The range of flexion (ROF and range of flexion-extension (ROFE of types 2 and 3 were usually greater than types 4 and 5, with type 1 being the largest. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study classified and compared for the first time the mobility, curvature and balance in a Chinese population based on the entire spine alignment and found types 4 and 5 to present the worst balance and mobility. This study included a new spine postural alignment classification that should be considered in future population studies.

  6. Influences of a yoga intervention on the postural skills of the Italian short track speed skating team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Jean-François; Blais-Coutu, Sébastien; Gouadec, Kenan; Bédard, Éric; Fait, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In preparation for a short track speed skating season, eight men and seven women were given yoga sessions during an 8-week high volume training cycle. The sessions were planned according to the postural aspects specific to short track speed skating technical requirements. Three specific goals were selected for the intervention: 1) to observe whether the practice of yoga as postural training could improve the efficiency and the athlete’s repertoire along the muscular synergies solicited in the short track speed skating specific technique; 2) to enhance and diversify the motor time-on-task of athletes without changing the prescription of other training stimulus; and 3) to lower the risk of injury during periods with high volumes of training. Methods A total of 36 sessions of yoga were given. Three postural tests were administered before and after the intervention with 14 angles analyzed. Non-parametric Wilcoxon test was used to compare angles’ variations. Results The 36 yoga sessions totalized 986 minutes of motor time-on-task, registering a proportion of 30% of the global motor time-on-task of the training cycle. Improvements were found in eleven of the 14 angles measured when comparing pre- and post-postural tests (P-value from 0.01 to 0.005). During the 8 weeks, excepting traumatic injuries due to short track speed skating accidents, no skaters suffered injuries linked to the high volume of training. Following the intervention, coaches noticed, following their on-ice feedbacks, an adjustment in the efficiency of the skating technique, in particular regarding hip dissociation. Conclusion These results suggest that yoga could be inserted into out-of-season training cycles, even in a high volume training cycle. Planned with the decision training tools, it allows athletes to diversify their motor time-on-task by integrating a new functional range of generic movements with the solicitation of neuromuscular synergies related to the specificity of their

  7. Comparison of postural sway depending on balance pad type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, DongGeon; Kim, HaNa; An, HyunJi; Jang, JiEun; Hong, SoungKyun; Jung, SunHye; Lee, Kyeongbong; Choi, Myong-Ryol; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Lee, GyuChang

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the postural sway of healthy adults standing on different types of balance pads. [Subjects and Methods] Nine healthy adults participated in this study. Postural body sway was measured while participants were standing on four different types of balance pads: Balance-pad Elite (BE), Aero-Step XL (AS), Dynair Ballkissen Senso (DBS), and Dynair Ballkissen XXL Meditation and Yoga (DBMY). A Wii Balance Board interfaced with Balancia software was used to measure postural body sway. [Results] In the sway velocity, sway path length, and sway area, no significant differences were found between baseline conditions (participants were standing on the floor with no balance pad) and the use of the BE or AS. However, significant increases in all parameters were found comparing baseline conditions to the use of either Dynair balance pad. Furthermore, the use of either Dynair balance pad significantly increased postural sway compared to both the BE and the AS. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the DBS and DBMY balance pads may serve as superior tools for providing unstable condition for balance training than the BE and the AS balance pads.

  8. Foot Posture and Patellar Tendon Pain Among Adult Volleyball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Reinier; Malliaras, Peter; Munteanu, Shannon; Payne, Craig; Morrissey, Dylan; Maffulli, Nicola

    Objective: We hypothesized that individuals with a normal foot posture would be less likely to experience patellar tendon pain and pathology than those with a pronated or supinated foot. Design: Observational study. Setting: Field-based study among competing athletes. Participants: Volleyball

  9. Postural Control in Children, Teenagers and Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Galli, Manuela; Mainardi, Luca; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work was to analyze postural control in Down syndrome (DS) participants considering three different groups composed by children, teenagers and adults with DS. An analysis of the centre of pressure (COP) displacement during standing position was therefore performed for the three groups of subjects. The obtained signal of COP was…

  10. Postural Stability Margins as a Function of Support Surface Slopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviroop Dutt-Mazumder

    Full Text Available This investigation examined the effects of slope of the surface of support (35°, 30°, 20°, 10° Facing(Toe Down, 0° Flat and 10°, 20°, 25° Facing (Toe Up and postural orientation on the margins of postural stability in quiet standing of young adults. The findings showed that the center of pressure-CoP (displacement, area and length had least motion at the baseline (0° Flat platform condition that progressively increased as a function of platform angle in both facing up and down directions. The virtual time to collision (VTC dynamics revealed that the spatio-temporal margins to the functional stability boundary were progressively smaller and the VTC time series also more regular (SampEn-Sample Entropy as slope angle increased. Surface slope induces a restricted stability region with lower dimension VTC dynamics that is more constrained when postural orientation is facing down the slope. These findings provide further evidence that VTC acts as a control variable in standing posture that is influenced by the emergent dynamics of the individual-environment-task interaction.

  11. Attention Demand and Postural Control in Children with Hearing Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlich, Malgorzata; Krecisz, Krzysztof; Kuczynski, Michal

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for deteriorated postural control in children with hearing deficit (CwHD), we measured center-of-pressure (COP) variability, mean velocity and entropy in bipedal quiet stance (feet together) with or without the concurrent cognitive task (reaction to visual stimulus) on hard or foam surface in 29 CwHD and a…

  12. Postural Muscle Dyscoordination in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda C. van der Heide

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives an overview of the knowledge currently available on muscular dyscoordination underlying postural problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Such information is a prerequisite for developing successful therapeutic interventions in children with CP. Until now, three children with CP functioning at GMFCS (Gross Motor Function Classification System level V have been documented. The children totally or partially lacked direction specificity in their postural adjustments and could not sit independently for more than 3 seconds. Some children functioning at GMFCS level IV have intact direction-specific adjustments, whereas others have problems in generating consistently direction-specific adjustments. Children at GMFCS levels I to III have an intact basic level of control but have difficulties in fine-tuning the degree of postural muscle contraction to the task-specific conditions, a dysfunction more prominently present in children with bilateral spastic CP than in children with spastic hemiplegia. The problems in the adaptation of the degree of muscle contraction might be the reason that children with CP, more often than typically developing children, show an excess of antagonistic coactivation during difficult balancing tasks and a preference for cranial-caudal recruitment during reaching. This might imply that both stereotypies might be regarded as functional strategies to compensate for the dysfunctional capacity to modulate subtly postural activity.

  13. Time course analysis of baroreflex sensitivity during postural stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Berend E.; Gisolf, Janneke; Karemaker, John M.; Wesseling, Karel H.; Secher, Niels H.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2006-01-01

    Postural stress requires immediate autonomic nervous action to maintain blood pressure. We determined time-domain cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and time delay (tau) between systolic blood pressure and interbeat interval variations during stepwise changes in the angle of vertical body axis

  14. Effect of acute postural variation on diabetic macular oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinten, Martin; la Cour, Morten; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to study the pathophysiology of diabetic macular oedema (DMO) by analysis of concomitant changes in macular volume (MV), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), intraocular pressure (IOP), and retinal artery and vein diameters in response to acute postural changes in patients with DMO...

  15. Postural control of elderly: moving to predictable and unpredictable targets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, Vera; Lamoth, Claudine J C; van Keeken, Helco; Caljouw, Simone R

    2012-01-01

    Impaired postural control with muscle weakness is an important predictor of falls within the elderly population.Particular daily activities that require weight shifting in order to be able to reach a specific target (a cup on a table) require continuous adjustments to keep the body's center of mass

  16. Anticipatory postural adjustments in the back and leg lift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toussaint, H.M.; Commissaris, D.A.C.M.; Beek, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined anticipatory postural adjustments in a dynamic multi-joint action in which a relatively fast voluntary movement is being executed while balance is maintained in the field of gravity. In a bi-manual whole body lifting task, the pickup of the load induces a forward shift in the

  17. Analyzing the security posture of South African websites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtsweni, Jabu, S

    2015-08-12

    Full Text Available observed. Research studies also suggest that over 80% of the active websites are vulnerable to a myriad of attacks. This paper reports on a study conducted to passively analyze and determine the security posture of over 70 South African websites from...

  18. Postural responses to multidirectional stance perturbations in cerebellar ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Maaike; Allum, John H J; Visser, Jasper E; Grüneberg, Christian; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Kremer, H P H; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    Previous studies of patients with focal cerebellar damage underscored the importance of the cerebellum for balance control. These studies were restricted to postural control in the pitch plane, and focused mainly on leg muscle responses. Here, we examined the effect of degenerative cerebellar

  19. Foot posture and patellar tendon pain among adult volleyball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, R. de; Malliaras, P.; Munteanu, S.; Payne, C.; Morrissey, D.; Maffulli, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that individuals with a normal foot posture would be less likely to experience patellar tendon pain and pathology than those with a pronated or supinated foot. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Field-based study among competing athletes. PARTICIPANTS: Volleyball

  20. The effects of odor and body posture on perceived duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, E.; Hoeksma, M.R.; Smeets, M.A.M.; Semin, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an examination of the internal clock model, according to which subjective time duration is influenced by attention and arousal state. In a time production task, we examine the hypothesis that an arousing odor and an upright body posture affect perceived duration. The experimental

  1. Israel's nuclear posture: a cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nupur, Vyoma

    1998-01-01

    Security has always been a paramount and constant theme in the Israeli mind set. This paper traces the historical evolution of the country's nuclear posture and the acquisition of a nuclear capability in the backdrop of this concern. A further attempt has been made to analyse the principal characteristics of Israel's nuclear position and the events and issues that shaped it. (author)

  2. Postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logistic regression analysis showed peripheral neuropathy as the main factor implicated in postural instability in these patients. However, significant correlation was found between MEP amplitude and MCT composite score in patients without peripheral neuropathy. Conclusion: Although type 2 diabetic patients had ...

  3. Postural responses to multidirectional stance perturbations in cerebellar ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Maaike; Allum, John H J; Visser, Jasper E; Grüneberg, Christian; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Kremer, H P H; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies of patients with focal cerebellar damage underscored the importance of the cerebellum for balance control. These studies were restricted to postural control in the pitch plane, and focused mainly on leg muscle responses. Here, we examined the effect of degenerative cerebellar

  4. COMPLEX TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH POSTURAL PHOBIC DIZZINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Romanоva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 patients with postural phobic dizziness were examined. Somatic state and neurological status were assessed, neurovisualization and stabilometric investigation were carried out as well as a neuropsychological testing using estimation scales. The efficiency of complex rehabilitation was revealed including vestibular gymnastics, stabilometric training, psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy in correction of psychoemotional disturbances. 

  5. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in infants with CP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M; van der Fits, IBM; Stremmelaar, EF; Touwen, BCL

    1999-01-01

    The development of postural adjustments during reaching movements was longitudinally studied in seven infants with cerebral palsy (CP) between 4 and 18 months of age. Five infants developed spastic hemiplegia, one spastic tetraplegia, and one spastic tetraplegia with athetosis. Each assessment

  6. Breathing pattern and head posture: changes in craniocervical angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatucci, A; Raffaeli, F; Mastrovincenzo, M; Luchetta, A; Giannone, A; Ciavarella, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included 115 subject, 56 boys and 59 girls, 5-22-year-old. Among these, 80 were classified as oral breathers and 35 as physiological breathers. The diagnosis of oral breathing was carried out thanks to characteristic signs and symptoms evaluated on clinical examination, the analysis of characteristic X-ray images, ENT examination with active anterior rhinomanometric (AAR) test. The structural and postural analysis was carried out, calculating the craniofacial angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT. Both NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT appear to be significantly greater to those observed in physiological breathing patients. This means that patients who tend to breathe through the mouth rather than exclusively through the nose show a reduction of cervical lordosis and a proinclination of the head. Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.

  7. Closed loop kinesthetic feedback for postural control rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vérité, Fabien; Bachta, Wael; Morel, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Postural control rehabilitation may benefit from the use of smart devices providing biofeedback. This approach consists of increasing the patients perception of their postural state. Namely, postural state is monitored and fed back in real time to the patients through one or more sensory channels. This allows implementing rehabilitation exercises where the patients control their posture with the help of additional sensory inputs. In this paper, a closed loop control of the Center-Of-Pressure (CoP) based on kinesthetic feedback is proposed as a new form of biofeedback. The motion of a one Degree of Freedom (DoF) translational device, lightly touched by the patient's forefinger, is servoed to the patient's CoP position extracted from the measurements of a force plate on which he/she stands. As a result, the patient's CoP can be controllably displaced. A first set of experiments is used to prove the feasibility of this closed-loop control under ideal conditions favoring the perception of the kinesthetic feedback, while the subject is totally unaware of the context. A second set of experiments is then proposed to evaluate the robustness of this approach under experimental conditions that are more realistic with regards to the clinical context of a rehabilitation program involving biofeedback-based exercises.

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TMJ DISORDER AND HEAD AND NECK POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi R. Puspita Dewi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint disorders may be caused by variety of factors; one of which is the posture of head and neck. However, this remains controversial and a subject of debate by experts. The objective of this study was to know whether there was a relation between temporomandibular disorders and the head and neck posture seen radiographically. Subjects were 40 dental students from University of Indonesia who met the inclusion criteria, selected through questionnaire, and subjective examination based on Helkimo’s dysfunction index. Then, lateral cephalometric radiographs were done to all subjects. In the radiogram, a horizontal line was made from the nasion point to the sella tursica, and a vertical line was drawn along the prominent bone of C1 – C5. The angle between the two lines was measured, and used to represent the head and neck posture. The design of the study was cross sectional. Based on statistical analysis, there was no significant relationship between the anamnestic dysfunction index as well as the clinical dysfunction index that represented the temporomandibular joint disorders and the posture of the head and neck seen radiographically.

  9. [Influence of body posture in the prevalence of craniomandibular dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, R; Freesmeyer, W; Henríquez, J

    1999-09-01

    Postural alterations of the shoulders, dorsal spine and hips could have an influence on the development of craniomandibular dysfunctions. To study the influence of body posture on the prevalence of craniomandibular dysfunction. One hundred thirty six dental students and 41 patients assisting to the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) clinic at the Freie Universität at Berlin, were studied. Masticator, cervical muscles, temporomandibular joints and occlusions were clinically examined. The position of shoulders and hips was measured with the use of an acromiopelvimeter. No relationship was found between postural alterations of the hips and shoulders, articular noises and sensibility or pain while palpating the temporomandibular joints. Among students, a relationship between postural alterations of the shoulders and the sensibility or pain while palpating the TMJ, was observed. When all muscles were considered, a significant relationship between asymmetric shoulders or hips and muscular pain while palpating was observed among students. Some symptoms, especially muscular sensibility is more pronounced in people with hip and shoulder asymmetries. This relation is more pronounced in dental students than in patients.

  10. Postural Stability Margins as a Function of Support Surface Slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt-Mazumder, Aviroop; Slobounov, Seymon M; Challis, John Henry; Newell, Karl Maxim

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of slope of the surface of support (35°, 30°, 20°, 10° Facing(Toe) Down, 0° Flat and 10°, 20°, 25° Facing (Toe) Up) and postural orientation on the margins of postural stability in quiet standing of young adults. The findings showed that the center of pressure-CoP (displacement, area and length) had least motion at the baseline (0° Flat) platform condition that progressively increased as a function of platform angle in both facing up and down directions. The virtual time to collision (VTC) dynamics revealed that the spatio-temporal margins to the functional stability boundary were progressively smaller and the VTC time series also more regular (SampEn-Sample Entropy) as slope angle increased. Surface slope induces a restricted stability region with lower dimension VTC dynamics that is more constrained when postural orientation is facing down the slope. These findings provide further evidence that VTC acts as a control variable in standing posture that is influenced by the emergent dynamics of the individual-environment-task interaction.

  11. Practice of contemporary dance promotes stochastic postural control in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eFerrufino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As society ages and the frequency of falls increases, counteracting gait and posture decline is a challenging issue for countries of the developed world. Previous studies have shown that exercise and hazard management help to improve balance and/or decrease the risks for falling in normal aging. Motor activity based on motor-skill learning, particularly dance, can also benefit balance and decreases falls with age. Recent studies have suggested that older dancers had better balance, posture, or gait than non-dancers. Additionally, clinical or laboratory measures have shown improvements in some aspects of balance after dance interventions in elderly trainees. This study examined the impact of contemporary dance (CD and of fall prevention (FP programs on postural control of older adults. Posturography of quiet upright stance was performed in forty-one participants aged 59-86 years before and after 4.4-month training in either CD or FP once a week. Though classical statistic scores failed to show any effect, dynamic analyses of the center-of-pressure displacements revealed significant changes after training. Specifically, practice of CD enhanced the critical time interval in diffusion analysis, and reduced recurrence and mathematical stability in recurrence quantification analysis, whereas practice of FP induced or tended to induce the reverse patterns. We suggest that CD training based on motor improvisation favored stochastic posture inducing plasticity in motor control, while FP training based on more stereotyped behaviors did not.

  12. Medio-lateral postural instability in subjects with tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi eKapoula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus.Methods: Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40cm for 51s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40Hz for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions.Results: For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx. This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Conclusions: Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory-tinnitus and attention.

  13. Enhancing creativity: Proper body posture meets proper emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ning; Xue, Hua; Yuan, Huan; Wang, Qing; Runco, Mark A

    2017-02-01

    This study tested whether compatibility or incompatibility between body posture and emotion was beneficial for creativity. In Study 1, participants were asked to solve the Alternative Uses Task (AUT) problems when performing open or closed body posture in positive or negative emotional state respectively. The results showed that originality of AUT performance was higher in the compatible conditions (i.e., open-positive and closed-negative) than in the incompatible conditions (i.e., closed-positive and open-negative). In Study 2, the compatibility effect was replicated in both the AUT and the Realistic Presented Problem test (i.e., RPP). Moreover, it was revealed that participants exhibited the highest associative flexibility in the open-positive condition, and the highest persistence in the closed-negative condition. These findings indicate that compatibility between body posture and emotion is beneficial for creativity. This may be because when the implicit emotions elicited by body posture match explicit emotions, the effects of emotions on creativity are enhanced, therefore promoting creativity through the flexibility or the persistence pathway respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Do Equilibrium Constraints Modulate Postural Reaction when Viewing Imbalance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tia, Banty; Paizis, Christos; Mourey, France; Pozzo, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Action observation and action execution are tightly coupled on a neurophysiological and a behavioral level, such that visually perceiving an action can contaminate simultaneous and subsequent action execution. More specifically, observing a model in postural disequilibrium was shown to induce an increase in observers' body sway. Here we…

  15. Postural hypotension in type 1 diabetes: The influence of glycemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Postural hypotension (PH) indicates the presence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy and in diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with adverse outcome. Nonetheless, PH has been rarely characterized in young persons in Sub‑saharan Africa where suboptimal care of DM is prevalent. Aims: The aim of the study ...

  16. Thoracic posture, shoulder muscle activation patterns and isokinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Shoulder injuries are the most severe injuries in rugby union players, accounting for almost 20% of injuries related to the sport and resulting in lost playing hours. Objective. To profile the thoracic posture, scapular muscle activation patterns and rotator cuff muscle isokinetic strength of semi-professional

  17. Effect of forward/backward standing posture on foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Tan, T.K.; Punte, P.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Foot length and breadth are generally used to determine the correct shoe size. An important question is whether foot length and foot breadth are dependent upon body posture. Therefore, the effect of leaning forward/backward on foot length and breadth is investigated in this study. Seven subjects

  18. Postural inflexibility in PD: does it affect compensatory stepping?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, K.; Esselink, R.A.J.; Swart, B.J.M. de; Geurts, A.C.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) impairs the ability to shape postural responses to contextual factors. It is unknown whether such inflexibility pertains to compensatory steps to overcome balance perturbations. Participants were instructed to recover balance in response to a platform translation. A step was

  19. The Fulfillment of Others' Needs Elevates Children's Body Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepach, Robert; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Much is known about young children's helping behavior, but little is known about the underlying motivations and emotions involved. In 2 studies we found that 2-year-old children showed positive emotions of similar magnitude--as measured by changes in their postural elevation using depth sensor imaging technology--after they achieved a goal for…

  20. Comparing postural balance among older adults and Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Andrelino de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare postural balance among healthy older adults and Parkinson's disease (PD patients during one-legged stance balance. We recruited 36 individuals of both sexes and divided them into two groups: healthy older adults (HG, and individuals with PD (PG. All the participants were assessed through a single-leg balance test, with eyes open, during 30 seconds (30 seconds of rest across trials on a force platform. Balance parameters were computed from mean across trials to quantify postural control: center of pressure (COP area and mean velocity in both directions of movement, anterior-posterior and medial-lateral. Significant differences between-group were reported for area of COP (P=0.002 and mean velocity in anterior-posterior direction (P=0.037, where poor postural control was related to PD patients rather than to healthy individuals. One-legged stance balance was a sensitive task used to discriminate poor postural control in Parkinson individuals.

  1. On the functional aspects of variability in postural control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Emmerik, Richard E.A.; Van Wegen, Erwin E.H.

    2002-01-01

    Current research in nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory has challenged traditional perspectives that associate high variability with performance decrement and pathology. It is argued that variability can play a functional role in postural control and that reduction of variability is associated with

  2. Effect of multi axis vibration and subject postures on sketching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedentary activities such as reading, writing, sketching, etc. are affected due to the train vibrations. Therefore, the present study investigates the extent of perceived difficulty and distortion in a sketching task by seated subjects in two postures under low frequency, multi axial random vibrations. Thirty male voluntary subjects ...

  3. Modelling energy expenditure of a brick layer at various postures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy utilisation at work in the labour-intensive building industry is of prime importance to contractors who match people to jobs. This paper provides an insight into modelling energy expenditure in a specific task, namely brick laying in various postures. It therefore takes previous “generic” biomechanical-energy prediction ...

  4. Analysis awkward posture at food production activity using RULA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the workers continuously perform the activities throughout the working hours, they may experience prolonged standing which creates fatigue and causes an occupational hazard which includes slips and falls. The goal of this study was to identify awkward postures during food production activities. 40 workers with minimum ...

  5. Effect of posture on swallowing | Alghadir | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Swallowing is a systematic process. Any structural, physiological or neurological disturbance in this process may cause dysphagia. Although there are studies that report head/neck movements during mastication, there are fewer studies that show the effect of different head/neck postures on difficulty while ...

  6. Posture as index for approach-avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerland, A.; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franken, Ingmar; Zwaan, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Approach and avoidance are two behavioral responses that make people tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations. This study examines whether postural behavior is influenced by the affective state of pictures. While standing on the Wii™ Balance Board, participants viewed pleasant,

  7. Posture as index for Approach-Avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Eerland (Anita); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); R.A. Zwaan (Rolf)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractApproach and avoidance are two behavioral responses that make people tend to approach positive and avoid negative situations. This study examines whether postural behavior is influenced by the affective state of pictures. While standing on the Wii™ Balance Board, participants viewed

  8. Motivational Postures and Compliance with Environmental Law in Australian Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Robyn; Barclay, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Motivational posture theory is applied and extended to the context of Australian agriculture and environmental regulation. Regulatory failure in this area has been observed but little was known of the compliance attitudes and behaviours of farmers prior to this study. Agriculture covers over 60% of Australia's land surface so this information is…

  9. Weapons, Body Postures, and the Quest for Dominance in Robberies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosselman, Floris; Weenink, Don; Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    2018-01-01

    Objective: A small-scale exploration of the use of video analysis to study robberies. We analyze the use of weapons as part of the body posturing of robbers as they attempt to attain dominance. Methods: Qualitative analyses of video footage of 23 shop robberies. We used Observer XT software (vers...

  10. The effects of odour and body posture on perceived duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane eSchreuder

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports an examination of the internal clock model, according to which subjective time duration is influenced by attention and arousal state. In a time production task, we examine the hypothesis that an arousing odour and an upright body posture affect perceived duration.The experimental task was performed while participants were exposed to an odour and either sitting upright (arousing condition or lying down in a relaxing chair (relaxing condition. They were allocated to one of three experimental odour conditions: rosemary (arousing condition, peppermint (relaxing condition and no odour (control condition. The predicted effects of the odours were not borne out by the results. Self-reported arousal and pleasure states were measured before, during (after each body posture condition and post experimentally. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured before and during the experiment. As expected, odour had an effect on perceived duration. When participants were exposed to rosemary odour, they produced significantly shorter time intervals than in the no odour condition. This effect, however, could not be explained by increased arousal. There was no effect of body posture on perceived duration, even though body posture did induce arousal. The results do not support the proposed arousal mechanism of the internal clock model.

  11. Apraxia of gait- or apraxia of postural transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Marian L; Curtze, Carolin; Nutt, John G

    2018-02-19

    "Apraxia of gait" is not a useful concept and freezing of gait should also not be considered an apraxia. The concept of apraxia may, however, be applied to distortions of postural transitions that can accompany fronto-parietal lesions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of postural stability between injured and uninjured ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, I-Jung; Liao, Jung-Hsien; Wu, Hong-Wen; Su, Fong-Chin

    2011-06-01

    Ballet movements require a limited base of support; thus, ballet dancers require a high level of postural control. However, postural stability in ballet dancers is still unclear and needs to be understood. To evaluate ballet dancers' postural stability in performing single-leg standing, the en pointe task, and the first and fifth positions and to determine differences in task performance among healthy nondancers, healthy dancers, and dancers with ankle sprains. Controlled laboratory study. Injured dancers, uninjured dancers, and nondancers were recruited for this study (N = 33 age-matched participants; n= 11 per group). The tasks tested were single-leg standing with eyes open and closed, first position, fifth position, and en pointe. Center of pressure parameters were calculated from the ground-reaction force collected with 1 force plate. Analysis of variance was used to assess the differences of center of pressure parameters among 3 groups in single-leg standing; independent t test was used to examine the differences of center of pressure parameters between injured and uninjured dancers. During single-leg standing, injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and total trajectory of center of pressure, compared with the uninjured dancers and nondancers. During the first and fifth positions, the injured dancers demonstrated significantly greater standard deviation of center of pressure position in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, compared with the uninjured dancers. During en pointe, the injured dancers had significantly greater maximum displacement in the medial-lateral direction and the anterior-posterior direction, compared with the uninjured dancers. The injured and uninjured dancers demonstrated differences in postural stability in the medial-lateral direction during single-leg standing and the ballet postures. Although the injured dancers received ballet training, their postural stability

  13. Effect of postural changes on ICP in healthy and ill subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lonnie G; Juhler, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    to distinguish normal human physiology from disease entities such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension and normal pressure hydrocephalus, we investigated ICP in different body postures in both normal and ill subjects. METHODS: Thirty-one patients were included: four normal patients following complete removal......: upright standing, sitting in a chair, supine and right lateral lumbar puncture position. RESULTS: Linear regression of median ICP based on patient posture, group, and purpose of monitoring presented a significant model (p ... of differences in median ICP between body postures and supine ICP as the baseline, presented a highly significant model (p posture (p postures enabled...

  14. Cephalic version by postural management for breech presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Kulier, Regina

    2012-10-17

    Babies with breech presentation (bottom first) are at increased risk of complications during birth, and are often delivered by caesarean section. The chance of breech presentation persisting at the time of delivery, and the risk of caesarean section, can be reduced by external cephalic version (ECV - turning the baby by manual manipulation through the mother's abdomen). It is also possible that maternal posture may influence fetal position. Many postural techniques have been used to promote cephalic version. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of postural management of breech presentation on measures of pregnancy outcome. We evaluated procedures in which the mother rests with her pelvis elevated. These include the knee-chest position, and a supine position with the pelvis elevated with a wedge-shaped cushion. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (22 August 2012). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing postural management with pelvic elevation for breech presentation, with a control group. One or both review authors assessed eligibility and trial quality. We have included six studies involving a total of 417 women. The rates for non-cephalic births, Cesarean section and Apgar scores below 7 at one minute, regardless of whether ECV was attempted or not, were similar between the intervention and control groups (risk ratio (RR) 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 1.15; RR 1.10; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.37; RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.50 to 1.55). There is insufficient evidence from well-controlled trials to support the use of postural management for breech presentation. The numbers of women studied to date remain relatively small. Further research is needed.

  15. Support afferentation in the posture and locomotion control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Kozlovskaya, Inesa

    Mechanisms of support afferentation contribution in posture and locomotion control, which were uncertain up to now, became the point of intensive studies recently. This became possible since the space flights era started which created the conditions for simulated microgravity experiments under conditions of dry immersion and bedrest. The results of neurophysiological studies performed under the conditions of supportlessness have shown that decline or elimination of support loads is followed by deep and fast developing alterations in postural tonic system, including development of postural muscle atonia, changes of recruitment order of motoneurons innervating the shin muscles, spinal hyperreflexia development etc. (Kozlovskaya I.B. et al., 1987). It has been also shown that application of artificial support stimulation in the regimen of natural locomotion under these conditions decreases significantly or even eliminates the development of mentioned changes. The results of these studies laid down the basis for a new hypothesis on the trigger role of support afferentation in postural tonic system and its role in organization and control of postural synergies (Grigoriev A.I. et al., 2004). According to this hypothesis the muscle reception is considered to be the leading afferent input in the control of locomotion. However the data of recent studies pointed out strongly to the participation of support afferentation in definition of cognitive strategies and motor programs of locomotor movements (Chernikova L.A. et al., 2013) and, consequently, in the processes of their initiation (Gerasimenko Yu.P. et al., 2012). The cortical locomotor reflex composes apparently the basis of these processes. The receptive field of this reflex is located in the support zones of the soles and the central part is located in the posterior parietal areas (IPL) of brain cortex. The study is supported by RFBR grant N 13-04-12091 OFI-m.

  16. Fingertip touch improves postural stability in patients with peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, R; Shupert, C L; Horak, F B

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine whether fingertip touch on a stable surface could improve postural stability during stance in subjects with somatosensory loss in the feet from diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The contribution of fingertip touch to postural stability was determined by comparing postural sway in three touch conditions (light, heavy and none) in eight patients and eight healthy control subjects who stood on two surfaces (firm or foam) with eyes open or closed. In the light touch condition, fingertip touch provided only somatosensory information because subjects exerted less than 1 N of force with their fingertip to a force plate, mounted on a vertical support. In the heavy touch condition, mechanical support was available because subjects transmitted as much force to the force plate as they wished. In the no touch condition, subjects held the right forefinger above the force plate. Antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) root mean square (RMS) of center of pressure (CoP) sway and trunk velocity were larger in subjects with somatosensory loss than in control subjects, especially when standing on the foam surface. The effects of light and heavy touch were similar in the somatosensory loss and control groups. Fingertip somatosensory input through light touch attenuated both AP and ML trunk velocity as much as heavy touch. Light touch also reduced CoP sway compared to no touch, although the decrease in CoP sway was less effective than with heavy touch, particularly on the foam surface. The forces that were applied to the touch plate during light touch preceded movements of the CoP, lending support to the suggestion of a feedforward mechanism in which fingertip inputs trigger the activation of postural muscles for controlling body sway. These results have clinical implications for understanding how patients with peripheral neuropathy may benefit from a cane for postural stability in stance.

  17. Body Context and Posture Affect Mental Imagery of Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionta, Silvio; Perruchoud, David; Draganski, Bogdan; Blanke, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Different visual stimuli have been shown to recruit different mental imagery strategies. However the role of specific visual stimuli properties related to body context and posture in mental imagery is still under debate. Aiming to dissociate the behavioural correlates of mental processing of visual stimuli characterized by different body context, in the present study we investigated whether the mental rotation of stimuli showing either hands as attached to a body (hands-on-body) or not (hands-only), would be based on different mechanisms. We further examined the effects of postural changes on the mental rotation of both stimuli. Thirty healthy volunteers verbally judged the laterality of rotated hands-only and hands-on-body stimuli presented from the dorsum- or the palm-view, while positioning their hands on their knees (front postural condition) or behind their back (back postural condition). Mental rotation of hands-only, but not of hands-on-body, was modulated by the stimulus view and orientation. Additionally, only the hands-only stimuli were mentally rotated at different speeds according to the postural conditions. This indicates that different stimulus-related mechanisms are recruited in mental rotation by changing the bodily context in which a particular body part is presented. The present data suggest that, with respect to hands-only, mental rotation of hands-on-body is less dependent on biomechanical constraints and proprioceptive input. We interpret our results as evidence for preferential processing of visual- rather than kinesthetic-based mechanisms during mental transformation of hands-on-body and hands-only, respectively. PMID:22479618

  18. Decreased postural control in people with moderate hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ewan; Martines, Francesco; Bianco, Antonino; Messina, Giuseppe; Giustino, Valerio; Zangla, Daniele; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Balance is a complex process that involves multiple sensory integrations. The auditory, visual, and vestibular systems are the main contributors. Hearing loss or hearing impairment may induce inappropriate postural strategies that could affect balance and therefore increase the risk of falling. The aim of this study was to understand whether hearing loss could influence balance, cervical posture, and muscle activation in the cervical region. Thirteen patients (61 ± 13 years; 161.8 ± 11.0 cm; 70.5 ± 15.9 kg) with moderate hearing loss (Right ear −60 ± 21 dB; Left ear −61 ± 24 dB) underwent: an audiometric examination, a postural examination (with open and closed eyes) through a stabilometric platform, a cervical ROM examination through a head accelerometer, and a sternocleidomastoid electromyography (EMG) examination. A linear regression analysis has shown a regression coefficient (R2) 0.76 and 0.69 between hearing loss and the posturographic parameters, on the sagittal sway, with open and closed eyes, respectively. The combination of frontal and sagittal sway is able to explain up to 84% of the variance of the audiometric assessment. No differences were found between right and left hemibody between the audiometric, posturographic, cervical ROM parameters, and in EMG amplitude. ROM and EMG parameters have not shown any significant associations with hearing loss, for both right and left head rotation. Hearing loss is associated to increased posturographic measures, especially the sagittal sway, underlining a reduced postural control in people with hearing impairments. No association was found between the heads posture and neck activation with hearing loss. Hearing loss may be associated with an increased risk of falls. PMID:29620637

  19. Decreased postural control in people with moderate hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ewan; Martines, Francesco; Bianco, Antonino; Messina, Giuseppe; Giustino, Valerio; Zangla, Daniele; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Balance is a complex process that involves multiple sensory integrations. The auditory, visual, and vestibular systems are the main contributors. Hearing loss or hearing impairment may induce inappropriate postural strategies that could affect balance and therefore increase the risk of falling.The aim of this study was to understand whether hearing loss could influence balance, cervical posture, and muscle activation in the cervical region.Thirteen patients (61 ± 13 years; 161.8 ± 11.0 cm; 70.5 ± 15.9 kg) with moderate hearing loss (Right ear -60 ± 21 dB; Left ear -61 ± 24 dB) underwent: an audiometric examination, a postural examination (with open and closed eyes) through a stabilometric platform, a cervical ROM examination through a head accelerometer, and a sternocleidomastoid electromyography (EMG) examination.A linear regression analysis has shown a regression coefficient (R) 0.76 and 0.69 between hearing loss and the posturographic parameters, on the sagittal sway, with open and closed eyes, respectively. The combination of frontal and sagittal sway is able to explain up to 84% of the variance of the audiometric assessment. No differences were found between right and left hemibody between the audiometric, posturographic, cervical ROM parameters, and in EMG amplitude. ROM and EMG parameters have not shown any significant associations with hearing loss, for both right and left head rotation.Hearing loss is associated to increased posturographic measures, especially the sagittal sway, underlining a reduced postural control in people with hearing impairments. No association was found between the heads posture and neck activation with hearing loss. Hearing loss may be associated with an increased risk of falls.

  20. The Improvement of Dental Posture Using Personalized Biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanathornwong, Bhornsawan; Suebnukarn, Siriwan

    2015-01-01

    Dentists are subject to staying in static or awkward postures for long periods due to their highly concentrated work. This study describes a real-time personalized biofeedback system developed for dental posture training with the use of vibrotactile biofeedback. The real-time personalized biofeedback system was an integrated solution that comprised of two components: 1) a wearable device that contained an accelerometer sensor for measuring the tilt angle of the body (input) and provided real-time vibrotactile biofeedback (output); and 2) software for data capturing, processing, and personalized biofeedback generation. The implementation of real-time personalized vibrotactile feedback was computed using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). For the test case, we calculated the probability and log-likelihood of the test movements under the Work related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) and non-WMSD HMMs. The vibrotactile biofeedback was provided to the user via a wearable device for a WMSD-predicted case. In the system evaluation, a randomized crossover trial was conducted to compare dental posture measure using tilt angles of the upper back and muscle activities of those dental students that received vibrotactile biofeedback from the system with the control group against the dental students who received no feedback. The participants who received feedback from the system had a lower tilt angle at 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of Backx and Backy, as well as muscular load, which were statistically different (pbiofeedback system for posture training in dental students is feasible and associated with quantitative improvements of the dental posture.

  1. Perspectives on Child Abuse and Labour: Global Ethical Ideals Versus African Cultural Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, A. O.; Torimiro, D. O.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the global and African postures on the issues of child abuse and child labour. The global ethical ideals of the issues are characterized within their various theoretical perspectives while the African cultural realities are explored through the use of focus group discussion sessions, which were organized in six rural…

  2. PERANCANGAN KURSI RODA DAN LAY OUT KAMAR MANDI UNTUK MEMPERBAIKI POSTUR KERJA PERAWAT PANTI WREDHA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnawan Adi W

    2012-02-01

    Panti Wredha Berthany is a treatment for people who have been elderly. In this house most of the patients dapt not bathe without assistance of others. Nurses who help them a bath about the pain in the back of the spine that often dideritanya. This is due to bad postures nurse. To find out how bad postures nurses, the nurses conducted the analysis with the postures OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysis System. Method OWAS built as a tool to identify body postures which may be responsible for muscle problems (Musculoskeletal disorders. This method is based on the simple and systematic classification of work postures. OWAS postures in the workplace are categorized into 3 main body segment of the body, hands and feet. Kegunaanya improve conditions for workers in the work, so that work performance can be improved. Based on the results of analysis using the method OWAS, note that when the postures nurses bathe patients classified in category postures quite dangerous and very dangerous. Therefore, action needs to be improvements in form design wheelchair and lay out a bathroom can make it easier to work when the nurse wash the patient. With this design, the frequency of transfer of patients that must be done by the nurses decreased and postures during patient more better. Keywords: lay out, planning, postures in the workplace, OWAS

  3. Do posture correction exercises have to be boring? Using unstable surfaces to prevent poor posture in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymanska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poor posture in children is a common problem. It appears most often in early school-age children and, if not corrected, progresses quickly as they mature. Aim of the research: To find a method that can prevent poor posture, is effective and attractive for children, and can be used on a wide scale in state schools. Material and methods : Seventy-seven first year pupils were tested at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Nineteen children undertook corrective exercises using unstable surfaces; 41 children sat on sensorimotor pillows during classes; and 17 children were the control group. Body mass and body height were measured. Body mass index was calculated. The symmetry of the position of selected skeletal points was assessed: the acromions, lower angles of the scapulas, apexes of the iliac crests, antero-superior iliac spine, and postero-superior iliac spine using a Duometer electronic device. The differences between the groups and changes between the first and second study for each group were estimated. Results : In the first study there were no significant differences in quality of posture. In the second study a significant improvement was noted in symmetry of the shoulders, scapulas, and pelvis in children who sat on sensorimotor pillows, as well as the position of the iliac crests and iliac spines in children exercising regularly on unstable surfaces. Conclusions: Exercises using unstable surfaces and sitting on sensorimotor pillows during classes might be an effective alternative to traditional posture correction exercises.

  4. THE COMPARISON OF THE LUMBAR MULTIFIDUS MUSCLES FUNCTION BETWEEN GYMNASTIC ATHLETES WITH SWAY-BACK POSTURE AND NORMAL POSTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavie, Elnaz; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Simorgh, Leila

    2017-08-01

    The prevalence of sway back posture (SBP) is very high among elite gymnasts. This posture may be partly due to the improper function of lumbar multifidus muscles (LMM) as lumbar stabilizers muscles. The aim of this study was to compare the thicknesses of LMM measured at rest and during the contraction elicited during an arm lift between elite gymnasts with SBP and normal posture. Observational, descriptive, comparative. The participants consist of twenty gymnasts between the ages of 17 and 30 who had trained in gymnastics for more than ten years. They were assigned to two groups: SBP (n=10) and control (n=10). Posture analysis with grid paper and plumb line was performed for all subjects. The thickness of LMM on dominant side of spinal column was measured by a real-time ultrasound at five lumbar levels. The thickness of the LMM was measured both at rest and during the contraction elicited during an arm lift. The variation between the LMM thickness between the muscle at rest and muscle at the peak of contraction was regarded as LMM muscle function. The thickness of LMM was less in SBP group than the control group at all lumbar segments. The variation in LMM thickness between the state of rest and muscle contraction was significantly less in athletes with SBP than controls when compared at all levels of the lumbar spine (p antigravity and stabilizing muscle group was decreased during arm raising in gymnasts with SBP. 3a.

  5. Influence of head posture on the visual acuity of children with nystagmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Ramos Vieira da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Evaluate the relationship between the postural alignment of the head and possible interference in the view of children. Methods: We evaluated 11 children between 2 and 7 years of age of both sexes, with the visually impaired, who had nystagmus and head lock position. The test Lea Grating Acuity Test® was used to collect measurements of visual acuity. This applied on two occasions: with and without postural alignment of the head. For reliability of the postural alignment of the head, the slopes were measured by Fisiologic® software. Results: The children had a poorer performance after physiological postural alignment. This poor performance is possible due to loss of position lock nystagmus to gain postural alignment, said to be ideal. Postural compensations were observed, and sharply increased eyestrain. Conclusion: The pursuit of traditional postural alignment affect the visual response of children with visual impairments.

  6. Posture recognition based on fuzzy logic for home monitoring of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulin, Damien; Benezeth, Yannick; Courtial, Estelle

    2012-09-01

    We propose in this paper a computer vision-based posture recognition method for home monitoring of the elderly. The proposed system performs human detection prior to the posture analysis; posture recognition is performed only on a human silhouette. The human detection approach has been designed to be robust to different environmental stimuli. Thus, posture is analyzed with simple and efficient features that are not designed to manage constraints related to the environment but only designed to describe human silhouettes. The posture recognition method, based on fuzzy logic, identifies four static postures and is robust to variation in the distance between the camera and the person, and to the person's morphology. With an accuracy of 74.29% of satisfactory posture recognition, this approach can detect emergency situations such as a fall within a health smart home.

  7. Recognition of dance-like actions: memory for static posture or dynamic movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicary, Staci A; Robbins, Rachel A; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz; Stevens, Catherine J

    2014-07-01

    Dance-like actions are complex visual stimuli involving multiple changes in body posture across time and space. Visual perception research has demonstrated a difference between the processing of dynamic body movement and the processing of static body posture. Yet, it is unclear whether this processing dissociation continues during the retention of body movement and body form in visual working memory (VWM). When observing a dance-like action, it is likely that static snapshot images of body posture will be retained alongside dynamic images of the complete motion. Therefore, we hypothesized that, as in perception, posture and movement would differ in VWM. Additionally, if body posture and body movement are separable in VWM, as form- and motion-based items, respectively, then differential interference from intervening form and motion tasks should occur during recognition. In two experiments, we examined these hypotheses. In Experiment 1, the recognition of postures and movements was tested in conditions in which the formats of the study and test stimuli matched (movement-study to movement-test, posture-study to posture-test) or mismatched (movement-study to posture-test, posture-study to movement-test). In Experiment 2, the recognition of postures and movements was compared after intervening form and motion tasks. These results indicated that (1) the recognition of body movement based only on posture is possible, but it is significantly poorer than recognition based on the entire movement stimulus, and (2) form-based interference does not impair memory for movements, although motion-based interference does. We concluded that, whereas static posture information is encoded during the observation of dance-like actions, body movement and body posture differ in VWM.

  8. Causes, Prevention and Correction of Impaired Posture in Children of Primary School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Щирба

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Objective. The objective of our research was to provide theoretical substantiation and implement corrective gymnastics in practice for the purposes of prevention and correction of faults in schoolchildren’s posture. The main means for shaping the correct posture, preventing and correcting faults in posture are callisthenic routine and special corrective exercises. Research methods: anamnesis, somatoscopy, clinical and mathematical methods. Research results. The medical examination revealed that only six of 60 pupils had normal correctly shaped posture, which accounts for 10%. The posture of the other 90% of the pupils was impaired. The most common faults were: asymmetrical pectoral girdle and shoulder blades, stooping posture. The examination revealed 19 pupils with scoliotic posture, which accounts for 44 %. The posture of 24 pupils, or 40%, was hyperkyphotic and stooping. In other words, the posture of 84% of the pupils was scoliotic or hyperkyphotic. The rest of the pupils had flat and kypholordic posture. It is worth mentioning that some of the pupils examined had more serious disorders of their musculoskeletal system, namely: organic disorders, such as spinal disorders in the sagittal plane — the scoliosis types excluded from the study. Significantly, the first main reason of posture disorders is weakness of the pectoral muscle sling. Conclusions. The principal means of prevention and correction of impaired posture are using special physical exercises designed to create a muscular corpus and correct particular faults in posture. We therefore developed sets of exercises intended to correct posture defects and proposed them to the physical education teacher and class teachers.

  9. INFLUENCE OF INJURY ON DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL IN RUNNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meardon, Stacey; Klusendorf, Anna; Kernozek, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Injury has been linked with altered postural control in active populations. The association between running injury and dynamic postural control has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to examine dynamic postural control in injured and uninjured runners using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Time to Stabilization (TTS) of ground reaction forces following a single-leg landing, and postural stability indices reflecting the fluctuations in GRFs during single-leg landing and stabilization tasks (forward and lateral hop). It was hypothesized that dynamic postural control differences would exist between runners with a history of injury that interrupted training for ≥7 days (INJ) when compared to runners without injury (CON). Case-control study. Twenty-two INJ (14 F, 8 M; 23.7 ± 2.1 y; 22.3 ± 2.8 kg/m2; 29.5 ± 16.3 mi/wk) currently running > 50% pre-injury mileage without pain were compared with twenty-two matched CON (14F, 8M; 22.7 ± 1.2 y; 22.7 ± 2.7 kg/m2; 31.2 ± 19.6 mi/wk). INJ group was stratified by site of injury into two groups (Hip/Thigh/Knee and Lower Leg/Ankle/Foot) for secondary analysis. Leg length-normalized anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial reach distances on the SEBT, medial/lateral and anterior/posterior ground reaction force TTS, directional postural stability indices, and a composite dynamic postural stability index (DPSI), were assessed using mixed model ANOVA (α=0.05) and effect sizes (d). No group X direction interaction or group differences were observed for the SEBT (p=0.51, 0.71) or TTS (p=0.83, 0.72) measures. A group X direction interaction was found for postural stability indices during the forward landing task (ppostural stability index (VPSI) (p=0.01 for both, d=0.80, 0.95) and DPSI (p=0.01, 0.02, d=0.75, 0.93) when compared to CON suggesting impaired balance control. A group X direction interaction was also found for postural stability indices during the lateral landing

  10. Increased alertness, better than posture prioritization, explains dual-task performance in prosthesis users and controls under increasing postural and cognitive challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Charla L; Perry, Bonnie; Chow, John W; Wallace, Chris; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2017-11-01

    Sensorimotor impairments after limb amputation impose a threat to stability. Commonly described strategies for maintaining stability are the posture first strategy (prioritization of balance) and posture second strategy (prioritization of concurrent tasks). The existence of these strategies was examined in 13 below-knee prosthesis users and 15 controls during dual-task standing under increasing postural and cognitive challenge by evaluating path length, 95% sway area, and anterior-posterior and medial-lateral amplitudes of the center of pressure. The subjects stood on two force platforms under usual (hard surface/eyes open) and difficult (soft surface/eyes closed) conditions, first alone and while performing a cognitive task without and then with instruction on cognitive prioritization. During standing alone, sway was not significantly different between groups. After adding the cognitive task without prioritization instruction, prosthesis users increased sway more under the dual-task than single-task standing (p ≤ 0.028) during both usual and difficult conditions, favoring the posture second strategy. Controls, however, reduced dual-task sway under a greater postural challenge (p ≤ 0.017), suggesting the posture first strategy. With prioritization of the cognitive task, sway was unchanged or reduced in prosthesis users, suggesting departure from the posture second strategy, whereas controls maintained the posture first strategy. Individual analysis of dual tasking revealed that greater postural demand in controls and greater cognitive challenge in prosthesis users led to both reduced sway and improved cognitive performance, suggesting cognitive-motor facilitation. Thus, activation of additional resources through increased alertness, rather than posture prioritization, may explain dual-task performance in both prosthesis users and controls under increasing postural and cognitive challenge.

  11. Resistance versus Balance Training to Improve Postural Control in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Rater Blinded Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Christian; Paschen, Steffen; Kruse, Annika; Raethjen, Jan; Weisser, Burkhard; Deuschl, Günther

    2015-01-01

    Reduced muscle strength is an independent risk factor for falls and related to postural instability in individuals with Parkinson's disease. The ability of resistance training to improve postural control still remains unclear. To compare resistance training with balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease. 40 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Hoehn&Yahr: 2.5-3.0) were randomly assigned into resistance or balance training (2x/week for 7 weeks). Assessments were performed at baseline, 8- and 12-weeks follow-up: primary outcome: Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale; secondary outcomes: center of mass analysis during surface perturbations, Timed-up-and-go-test, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression, gait analysis, maximal isometric leg strength, PDQ-39, Beck Depression Inventory. Clinical tests were videotaped and analysed by a second rater, blind to group allocation and assessment time. 32 participants (resistance training: n = 17, balance training: n = 15; 8 drop-outs) were analyzed at 8-weeks follow-up. No significant difference was found in the FAB scale when comparing the effects of the two training types (p = 0.14; effect size (Cohen's d) = -0.59). Participants from the resistance training group, but not from the balance training group significantly improved on the FAB scale (resistance training: +2.4 points, Cohen's d = -0.46; balance training: +0.3 points, Cohen's d = -0.08). Within the resistance training group, improvements of the FAB scale were significantly correlated with improvements of rate of force development and stride time variability. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcome measures when comparing the training effects of both training types. The difference between resistance and balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease was small and not significant with this sample size. There was weak evidence that freely

  12. Resistance versus Balance Training to Improve Postural Control in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Rater Blinded Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schlenstedt

    Full Text Available Reduced muscle strength is an independent risk factor for falls and related to postural instability in individuals with Parkinson's disease. The ability of resistance training to improve postural control still remains unclear.To compare resistance training with balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease.40 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Hoehn&Yahr: 2.5-3.0 were randomly assigned into resistance or balance training (2x/week for 7 weeks. Assessments were performed at baseline, 8- and 12-weeks follow-up: primary outcome: Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB scale; secondary outcomes: center of mass analysis during surface perturbations, Timed-up-and-go-test, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression, gait analysis, maximal isometric leg strength, PDQ-39, Beck Depression Inventory. Clinical tests were videotaped and analysed by a second rater, blind to group allocation and assessment time.32 participants (resistance training: n = 17, balance training: n = 15; 8 drop-outs were analyzed at 8-weeks follow-up. No significant difference was found in the FAB scale when comparing the effects of the two training types (p = 0.14; effect size (Cohen's d = -0.59. Participants from the resistance training group, but not from the balance training group significantly improved on the FAB scale (resistance training: +2.4 points, Cohen's d = -0.46; balance training: +0.3 points, Cohen's d = -0.08. Within the resistance training group, improvements of the FAB scale were significantly correlated with improvements of rate of force development and stride time variability. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcome measures when comparing the training effects of both training types.The difference between resistance and balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease was small and not significant with this sample size. There was weak evidence that

  13. Sitting Posture Monitoring System Based on a Low-Cost Load Cell Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongryun Roh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sitting posture monitoring systems (SPMSs help assess the posture of a seated person in real-time and improve sitting posture. To date, SPMS studies reported have required many sensors mounted on the backrest plate and seat plate of a chair. The present study, therefore, developed a system that measures a total of six sitting postures including the posture that applied a load to the backrest plate, with four load cells mounted only on the seat plate. Various machine learning algorithms were applied to the body weight ratio measured by the developed SPMS to identify the method that most accurately classified the actual sitting posture of the seated person. After classifying the sitting postures using several classifiers, average and maximum classification rates of 97.20% and 97.94%, respectively, were obtained from nine subjects with a support vector machine using the radial basis function kernel; the results obtained by this classifier showed a statistically significant difference from the results of multiple classifications using other classifiers. The proposed SPMS was able to classify six sitting postures including the posture with loading on the backrest and showed the possibility of classifying the sitting posture even though the number of sensors is reduced.

  14. Validity and reliability of a dental operator posture assessment instrument (PAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Bonnie G; Williams, Karen B; Bray, Kimberly Krust; Mcllnay, Sandy L; Dickey, Diana

    2002-01-01

    Basic operating posture is considered an important occupational health issue for oral health care clinicians. It is generally agreed that the physical posture of the operator, while providing care, should be such that all muscles are in a relaxed, well-balanced, and neutral position. Postures outside of this neutral position are likely to cause musculoskeletal discomfort. To date, the range of the neutral operator position has not been well-defined; nor have any specific instruments been identified that can quantitatively or semi-quantitatively assess dental operator posture. This paper reports on the development of an instrument that can be used to semi-quantitatively evaluate postural components. During the first phase of the study, an expert panel defined the basic parameters for acceptable, compromised, and harmful operator postures and established face validity of a posture assessment instrument (PAI). During the second phase, the PAI was tested for reliability using generalizability theory. Four raters tested the instrument for reliability. Overall, total PAI scores were similar amongst three of the raters, with the fourth rater's scores being slightly greater than the other three. The main effect of the rater on individual postural components was moderate, indicating that rater variance contributed to 11.9% of total variance. The PAI measures posture as it occurs and will have numerous applications when evaluating operator performance in the dental and dental hygiene education setting. Also, the PAI will prove useful when examining the effects of operator posture and musculoskeletal disorders.

  15. Variation in posture quality across musical instruments and its impact during performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez Vidal, Aurora

    2018-06-01

    Bad posture increases the risk that a musician may suffer from musculoskeletal disorders. This study compared posture quality required by different instruments or families of instruments. Using an ad-hoc postural observation instrument embracing 11 postural variables, four experts evaluated the postures of 100 students attending a Spanish higher conservatory of music. The agreement of the experts' evaluations was statistically confirmed by a Cohen's κ value between 0.855 and 1.000 and a Kendall value between 0.709 and 1.000 (p instrument families and seated posture with respect to pelvic attitude, dorsal curvature and head alignment in both sagittal and frontal planes. This analysis also showed an association between instrument families and standing posture with respect to the frontal plane of the axis of gravity, pelvic attitude, head alignment in the frontal plane, the sagittal plane of the shoulders and overall posture. While certain postural defects appear to be common to all families of instruments, others are more characteristic of some families than others. The instrument associated with the best posture quality was the bagpipe, followed by percussion and strings.

  16. Meta-analysis: association between wrist posture and carpal tunnel syndrome among workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Doohee; Smith, Allan H; Rempel, David

    2014-03-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common work-related peripheral neuropathy. In addition to grip force and repetitive hand exertions, wrist posture (hyperextension and hyperflexion) may be a risk factor for CTS among workers. However, findings of studies evaluating the relationship between wrist posture and CTS are inconsistent. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a meta-analysis of existing studies to evaluate the evidence of the relationship between wrist posture at work and risk of CTS. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched to identify relevant studies published between 1980 and 2012. The following search terms were used: "work related", "carpal tunnel syndrome", "wrist posture", and "epidemiology". The studies defined wrist posture as the deviation of the wrist in extension or flexion from a neutral wrist posture. Relative risk (RR) of individual studies for postural risk was pooled to evaluate the overall risk of wrist posture on CTS. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. All were cross-sectional or case-control designs and relied on self-report or observer's estimates for wrist posture assessment. The pooled RR of work-related CTS increased with increasing hours of exposure to wrist deviation or extension/flexion [RR = 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.646-2.43; p Workplace interventions to prevent CTS should incorporate training and engineering interventions that reduce sustained non-neutral wrist postures.

  17. [Self-evaluation of posture by elderly people with or without thoracic kyphosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Lívia Pimenta Renó; Reis, Camila Costa Ibiapina; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Santos, José Francisco Quirino Dos

    2012-03-01

    This article lists the differences between self-perception of body posture among the elderly suffering from postural alterations or not, in order to ascertain whether self-evaluation of posture can lead to preventive measures. Eighteen cases from the elderly population participated in the EPIDOSO project at UNIFESP and were subjected to postural evaluation. Postures were photographed and copies given to the participants and their subsequent comments were analyzed by the qualitative method. The narratives were taped and cataloguedusingthe technique of theoretical axial and selective coding from the perspective of symbolic interactionism. A passive attitude was identified among the elderly in relation to postural alterations. There is a distortion of body image by those with postural deviation. Participants with adequate spinal alignment were more conscious about body posture and the importance of this being assimilated in the phases prior to aging. The adoption of postural self-care seems to occur in the earlier stages of aging and preventive measures should be implemented at this stage. Lack of concern about posture is linked to the concept of the elderly regarding the notion that aging is, in itself, the accumulation of inevitably simultaneous or successive dysfunctions.

  18. Body surface posture evaluation: construction, validation and protocol of the SPGAP system (Posture evaluation rotating platform system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertner, Debora Soccal; Oliveira, Raul; Mazo, Giovana Zarpellon; Gioda, Fabiane Rosa; Kelber, Christian Roberto; Swarowsky, Alessandra

    2016-05-04

    Several posture evaluation devices have been used to detect deviations of the vertebral column. However it has been observed that the instruments present measurement errors related to the equipment, environment or measurement protocol. This study aimed to build, validate, analyze the reliability and describe a measurement protocol for the use of the Posture Evaluation Rotating Platform System (SPGAP, Brazilian abbreviation). The posture evaluation system comprises a Posture Evaluation Rotating Platform, video camera, calibration support and measurement software. Two pilot studies were carried out with 102 elderly individuals (average age 69 years old, SD = ±7.3) to establish a protocol for SPGAP, controlling the measurement errors related to the environment, equipment and the person under evaluation. Content validation was completed with input from judges with expertise in posture measurement. The variation coefficient method was used to validate the measurement by the instrument of an object with known dimensions. Finally, reliability was established using repeated measurements of the known object. Expert content judges gave the system excellent ratings for content validity (mean 9.4 out of 10; SD 1.13). The measurement of an object with known dimensions indicated excellent validity (all measurement errors reality. To verify the images of objects with known dimensions the values for the width and height were, respectively, CV 0.88 (width) and 2.33 (height), SD 0.22 (width) and 0.35 (height), minimum and maximum values 24.83-25.2 (width) and 14.56 - 15.75 (height). In the analysis of different images (similar) of an individual, greater discrepancies were observed in the values found. The cervical index, for example, presented minimum and maximum values of 15.38 and 37.5, a coefficient of variation of 0.29 and a standard deviation of 6.78. The SPGAP was shown to be a valid and reliable instrument for the quantitative analysis of body posture with applicability and

  19. Posture manipulation for rescue activity via small traction robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwano, Yuki; Osuka, Koichi; Amano, Hisanori

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a conceptual design of rescue robots against nuclear-power plant accidents. We claim that the rescue robots in nuclear-power plants should have the following properties. (1) The size is small. (2) The structure is simple. (3) The number of the robots is large. This paper studies the rescue robots to rescue people in an area polluted with radioactive leakage in nuclear power institutions. In particular, we propose a rescue system which consists of a group of small mobile robots. First, small traction robots set the posture of the fainted victims to carry easily, and carry them to the safety space with the mobile robots for the stretcher composition. In this paper, we describe the produced small traction robots. And, we confirm that the robots can manipulate a 40 kg dummy doll's posture. We also examine the optimal number of robots from a perspective of working efficiency in the assumption spot. (author)

  20. [Postural control characteristics in elderly women with fallers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, A B; Dyomin, A V; Gribanov, A V

    Using computer posturografic (stabilometric) complex a study of postural control peculiarities was carried out in 108 women aged 65-74 years who had experienced two or more falls during the year (fallers). These tests were: Sensory Organization Test, Motor Control Test, Rhythmic Weight Shift. It was found that elderly women with fallers had a decrease of sensory information (somatosensory - by 1,8 %, of the visual - by 6 %, and of the vestibular - by 10,1 %), the neurophysiological mechanisms of postural control (by 5,7 points), violation of adaptation possibilities of sensory and motor components of the legs to respond quickly to changes in the center of gravity within the support base of its footing (7,3 ms), as well as reducing balance control in the frontal (by 7,2 %) and sagittal (by 23,2 % ) planes compared with the women of the same age without fallers.

  1. Characterizing the human postural control system using detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa Blázquez, M.; Anguiano, Marta; de Saavedra, Fernando Arias; Lallena, Antonio M.; Carpena, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis is used to study the behaviour of the time series of the position of the center of pressure, output from the activity of a human postural control system. The results suggest that these trajectories present a crossover in their scaling properties from persistent (for high frequencies, short-range time scale) to anti-persistent (for low frequencies, long-range time scale) behaviours. The values of the scaling exponent found for the persistent parts of the trajectories are very similar for all the cases analysed. The similarity of the results obtained for the measurements done with both eyes open and both eyes closed indicate either that the visual system may be disregarded by the postural control system, while maintaining quiet standing, or that the control mechanisms associated with each type of information (visual, vestibular and somatosensory) cannot be disentangled with this technique.

  2. Univariate and Bivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition for Postural Stability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Duchêne

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare empirical mode decomposition (EMD and two new extended methods of  EMD named complex empirical mode decomposition (complex-EMD and bivariate empirical mode decomposition (bivariate-EMD. All methods were used to analyze stabilogram center of pressure (COP time series. The two new methods are suitable to be applied to complex time series to extract complex intrinsic mode functions (IMFs before the Hilbert transform is subsequently applied on the IMFs. The trace of the analytic IMF in the complex plane has a circular form, with each IMF having its own rotation frequency. The area of the circle and the average rotation frequency of IMFs represent efficient indicators of the postural stability status of subjects. Experimental results show the effectiveness of these indicators to identify differences in standing posture between groups.

  3. Evaluation of postural control in unilateral vestibular hypofunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Maia Quitschal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients with vestibular hypofunction, a typical finding in peripheral vestibular disorders, show body balance alterations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postural control of patients with vertigo and unilateral vestibular hypofunction. METHOD: This is a clinical cross-sectional study. Twenty-five patients with vertigo and unilateral vestibular hypofunction and a homogeneous control group consisting of 32 healthy individuals were submitted to a neurotological evaluation including the Tetrax Interactive Balance System posturography in eight different sensory conditions. RESULTS: For different positions, vertiginous patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction showed significantly higher values of general stability index, weight distribution index, right/left and tool/heel synchronizations, Fourier transformation index and fall index than controls. CONCLUSION: Increased values in the indices of weight distribution, right/left and tool/heel synchronizations, Fourier transformation and fall risk characterize the impairment of postural control in patients with vertigo and unilateral vestibular hypofunction.

  4. Catecholamine responses to changes in posture during human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, P G; Gerrard, J; Lind, T

    1985-06-01

    Human pregnancy may induce changes in the sensitivity of the cardiovascular system to endogenous catecholamines. This was investigated in multigravid women with little likelihood of unsuspected vascular disease. The responses of blood pressure, pulse rate, plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline to a change in posture from semi-recumbency to standing were assessed in six normotensive women at 36 weeks gestation and in six non-pregnant control subjects. Standing for 10 min caused a surge in blood pressure, pulse rate and plasma noradrenaline in non-pregnant women. The pregnant women, whose basal levels of noradrenaline were higher than those in non-pregnant women, showed a slower noradrenergic response to postural change, and this response had less effect upon the cardiovascular indices. Blood pressure dropped immediately on standing and pulse rate remained unaffected throughout. It is suggested that some women may maintain a non-pregnant level of pressor sensitivity during pregnancy and thereby become hypertensive.

  5. Postural stability is compromised by fatiguing overhead work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Maury A

    2003-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, 16 participants performed a repetitive overhead tapping task for 3 hours or until self-terminated due to substantial shoulder discomfort. Several measures of postural sway and stability were obtained using a force plate, both during quiet standing and during performance of the tapping task. Sway area and peak sway velocity showed consistent increases with time, whereas changes in average velocity and peak whole-body center-of-mass acceleration were either small or nonsignificant. Although relatively insensitive to several task variables, changes in sway areas and peak velocities were substantially larger in trials terminated by the participants. It is argued that fatigue plays a more important role than simple task duration in causing the observed increases in sway, and hence decreases in postural stability. Potential whole-body consequences of localized musculoskeletal stresses appear supported by the results, and implications for safety, risks of falls, and work scheduling are discussed.

  6. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...

  7. Perinatal Development of the Motor Systems Involved in Postural Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Vinay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor behaviors of some species, such as the rat and the human baby, are quite immature at birth. Here we review recent data on some of the mechanisms underlying the postnatal maturation of posture in the rat, in particular the development of pathways descending from the brain stem and projecting onto the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. A short-lasting depletion in serotonin affects both posture and the excitability of motoneurons. Here we try to extrapolate to human development and suggest that the abnormalities in motor control observed in childhood—e.g, deficits in motor coordination—might have their roots in the prenatal period, in particular serotonin depletion due to exposure to several environmental and toxicological factors during pregnancy.

  8. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  9. Associations between Tactile Sensory Threshold and Postural Performance and Effects of Healthy Aging and Subthreshold Vibrotactile Stimulation on Postural Outcomes in a Simple Dual Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Marius; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Specific activities that require concurrent processing of postural and cognitive tasks may increase the risk for falls in older adults. We investigated whether peripheral receptor sensitivity was associated with postural performance in a dual-task and whether an intervention in form of subthreshold vibration could affect performance. Ten younger (age: 20-35 years) and ten older adults (70-85 years) performed repeated auditory-verbal 1-back tasks while standing quietly on a force platform. Foot sole vibration was randomly added during several trials. Several postural control and performance measures were assessed and statistically analyzed (significance set to α-levels of .05). There were moderate correlations between peripheral sensitivity and several postural performance and control measures (r = .45 to .59). Several postural performance measures differed significantly between older and younger adults (p stimulation should focus on older adults whose balance is significantly affected.

  10. Anatomy and histochemistry of spread-wing posture in birds. I. Wing drying posture in the double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Ron A

    1997-07-01

    Spread-wing postures of birds often have been studied with respect to the function of behavior, but ignored with regard to the mechanism by which the birds accomplish posture. The double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, was used as a model for this study of spread-wing posture. Those muscles capable of positioning and maintaining the wing in extension and protraction were assayed histochemically for the presence of slow (postural) muscle fibers. Within the forelimb of Phalacrocorax, Mm. coracobrachialis cranialis, pectoralis thoracicus (cranial portion), deltoideus minor, triceps scapularis, and extensor metacarpi radialis pars dorsalis and ventralis were found to contain populations of slow-twitch or slow-tonic muscle fibers. These slow fibers in the above muscles are considered to function during spread-wing posture in this species. J Morphol 233:67-76, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Mobile Phone Use Behaviors and Postures on Public Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huey-Wen; Hwang, Yaw-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are common in our daily life, but the users' preferences for postures or screen operating styles have not been studied. This was a cross-sectional and observational study. We randomly sampled passengers who used mobile phones on the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system in metropolitan Taipei. A checklist was used to observe their body postures and screen operating styles while sitting or standing. As a result, 1,230 subjects from 400 trips were observed. Overall, of all the passengers who were sitting, 41% of them were using mobile phones. The majority of the tasks involved browsing (84%) with their phones in a portrait orientation (93%). Different-hand holding/operating was the most commonly used operating style while sitting (46%) and same-hand holding/operating was the most common while standing (46%). The distribution of screen operating styles was significantly different for those sitting than for those standing and for different genders and age groups. The most frequently observed postures while sitting were having one's trunk against a backrest, feet on the floor and with or without an arm supported (58%). As for the users who were standing, the both- and different-hands groups had a high proportion of arms unsupported, feet on the floor and either their trunk supported or not. In contrast, the same-hand group tended to have their trunk unsupported, were holding a pole or handstrap and had both feet on floor. Further studies are warranted to characterize the ergonomic exposure of these commonly used postures and operating styles, and our results will help guide the selection of experimental conditions for laboratory settings.

  12. Modification of male adult simulator posture of ICRP 110 reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeano, Diego C.; Souza, Divanizia N.; Santos, Willian S.; Carvalho Junior, Alberico B.

    2014-01-01

    Voxel simulators are usually constructed based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance, so the supine position (lying) is the most used. This may result in a overestimated or underestimated the radiation dose, depending on the exposure scenario adopted. Thus, the objective was to change the attitude of the male adult simulator reference ICRP 110, AM (Adult Male), to a sitting posture. For change of posture were possible, it was necessary increasing the number of slices that comprise AM simulator by reducing the height of the voxel of 8.0 mm to 2.0 mm, thus making each voxel approximately cubic. A subroutine was created in Visual Monte Carlo software (VMC) to rotate the thigh region of the simulator and position it between the region of the leg and trunk. The ScionImage software was used to rebuild and soften the contours of the knee and hip of the simulator in a sitting posture, and 3D visualization of the simulator was used VolView software. The AM simulator in the seated position has the same anatomical features of the simulator in the standing posture. Using the MCNPX code [ref] was carried out the conversion coefficients for calculating the AP irradiation geometry (anteroposterior) comparing the AM simulator standing and sitting in order to evaluate the difference scattering and absorption of radiation by the two simulators. The result shows a difference up to 100% in the fluency conversion coefficients in nearby organs located in the pelvic region and in organs with distribution in the whole body (such as skin, muscle, lymph nodes and skeletal)

  13. Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Rehabilitation with Improved Postural Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Menga

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a lower limb haptic exoskeleton suitable for patient rehabilitation, specifically in the presence of illness on postural equilibrium. Exoskeletons have been mostly conceived to increase strength, while in this work patient compliance with postural equilibrium enhancement is embedded. This is achieved with two hierarchical feedback loops. The internal one, closing the loop on the joint space of the exoskeleton offers compliance to the patient in the neighborhood of a reference posture. It exploits mechanical admittance control in a position loop, measuring the patient’s Electro Miographical (EMG signals. The problem is solved using multi variable robust control theory with a two degrees of freedom setting. A second control loop is superimposed on the first one, operating on the Cartesian space so as to guarantee postural equilibrium. It controls the patient’s Center of Gravity (COG and Zero Moment Point (ZMP by moving the internal loop reference. Special attention has been devoted to the mechanical multi-chain model of the exoskeleton which exploits Kane’s method using the Autolev symbolic computational environment. The aspects covered are: the switching system between single and double stance, the system’s non-holonomic nature, dependent and independent joint angles, redundancy in the torque controls and balancing weight in double stance. Physical experiments to validate the compliance method based on admittance control have been performed on an elbow joint at first. Then, to further validate the haptic interaction with the patient in a realistic situation, experiments have been conducted on a first exoskeleton prototype, while the overall system has been simulated in a realistic case study.

  14. Monkey pulvinar neurons fire differentially to snake postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quan Van; Isbell, Lynne A; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Le, Van Quang; Hori, Etsuro; Tran, Anh Hai; Maior, Rafael S; Tomaz, Carlos; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence from both behavioral and neurophysiological approaches that primates are able to rapidly discriminate visually between snakes and innocuous stimuli. Recent behavioral evidence suggests that primates are also able to discriminate the level of threat posed by snakes, by responding more intensely to a snake model poised to strike than to snake models in coiled or sinusoidal postures (Etting and Isbell 2014). In the present study, we examine the potential for an underlying neurological basis for this ability. Previous research indicated that the pulvinar is highly sensitive to snake images. We thus recorded pulvinar neurons in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) while they viewed photos of snakes in striking and non-striking postures in a delayed non-matching to sample (DNMS) task. Of 821 neurons recorded, 78 visually responsive neurons were tested with the all snake images. We found that pulvinar neurons in the medial and dorsolateral pulvinar responded more strongly to snakes in threat displays poised to strike than snakes in non-threat-displaying postures with no significant difference in response latencies. A multidimensional scaling analysis of the 78 visually responsive neurons indicated that threat-displaying and non-threat-displaying snakes were separated into two different clusters in the first epoch of 50 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting bottom-up visual information processing. These results indicate that pulvinar neurons in primates discriminate between poised to strike from those in non-threat-displaying postures. This neuronal ability likely facilitates behavioral discrimination and has clear adaptive value. Our results are thus consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which posits that snakes were instrumental in the evolution of primate visual systems.

  15. Craniocervical posture analysis in patients with temporomandibular disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Iunes,DH; Carvalho,LCF; Oliveira,AS; Bevilaqua-Grossi,D

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare head positioning and cervical spine alignment between individuals with and without temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), by means of positional evaluation using photographs, radiographs and visual observation, and to investigate whether the type of TMD influences head posture and cervical spine positioning. METHODS: Ninety randomly chosen women were diagnosed using the research diagnostic criteria for TMDs (RDC/TMD) by a trained examiner and were divided into three groups:...

  16. Attentional demands and postural recovery: the effects of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L A; Shumway-Cook, A; Woollacott, M H

    1999-04-01

    Cognitive demands associated with balance and locomotion may contribute to the incidence of falling among older adults. This study addressed issues related to the effects of aging on the attentional demands of recovering from an external disturbance to balance. This research also investigated whether performing a secondary cognitive task differentially affects postural recovery in young versus older adults. Fifteen young and 10 healthy older adults were exposed to a series of balance disturbances. Attentional demands were assessed using a dual task paradigm where postural recovery served as the primary task, and counting backwards served as a concurrent secondary cognitive task. The effect of the counting task was assessed by comparing kinematic variables related to feet-in-place and stepping recovery strategies. Recovering upright stance was found to be attentionally demanding in both age groups. The type of recovery strategy did not influence attentional demands in young adults; however, a hierarchy of increasing attentional demands between the ankle strategy and compensatory stepping was apparent among older adults. In addition, stepping appears to be more attentionally demanding for older adults than for younger adults. Counting backwards did not affect the type of strategy used; however, it did affect the kinematics of stepping. For both age groups, steps occurred when the center of mass was located in a more central location within the base of support when the secondary task was added. The ability to recover a stable posture following an external perturbation is more attentionally demanding for older adults than for younger adults. This would suggest that for some older adults, an increased risk for loss of balance and falls may result if sufficient attentional resources are not allocated to the task of postural recovery.

  17. Exergames to Improve Postural Balance in Older People with Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Majed, Lina; Hansen, Clint

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the study concerns the well-documented increased risk of falling in older adults that can lead sometimes to fatal consequences. Improving posture and motor skills is central to preventing falls. Further investigations targeting specific older people such as those suffering from cognitive impairment or dementia are still needed for fall prevention (Shaw, 2003). New technology-based methods, such as digital motion-sensitive games or exergames, appear promising for improving bala...

  18. Postural control is altered in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Martin E; O'Shea, Finbar D; Inman, Robert D; Gage, William H

    2012-05-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that can lead to increased axial and peripheral joint stiffness, impairing joint mobility. Impaired axial mobility due to vertebral ankylosis may result in changes in standing postural control. Little research has addressed changes in standing postural control in the ankylosing spondylitis population, nor how these issues might affect clinical understanding and treatment. Sixteen ankylosing spondylitis patients, and 17 healthy controls participated. Each individual completed two 120-second quiet standing trials with eyes open and eyes closed, while standing upon two force platforms. Net center of pressure displacement and mean power frequency in the frontal and sagittal planes were calculated. A Spearman's rank correlation analysis was performed between net center of pressure measures and several clinical measures of disease activity. Frontal plane net center of pressure displacement and frequency content, and sagittal plane net center of pressure displacement were significantly greater within the ankylosing spondylitis patient group. Ankylosing spondylitis patients demonstrated a significant increase in frontal plane net center of pressure displacement in the eyes-closed condition. Net center of pressure displacement and frequency were significantly correlated to the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, and individual components of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index. Quiet standing postural control was altered particularly so in the frontal plane in patients with ankylosing spondylitis, which may be associated with increased fall risk. Posturographic measures of postural control may serve as valuable clinical tools for the monitoring of disease progression and disease status in ankylosing spondylitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of three conditions were performed: 1) constant 12 cm optic flow amplitude (24 cm peak-to-peak), 2) constant 4 cm amplitude (8 cm p-t-p), and 3) a transition in amplitude from 4 to 12 cm. The average power of head sway velocity (Pvel) was calculated for consecutive 5 s intervals during the trial to examine the changes in sway within and between trials. A mixed factor repeated measures ANOVA was performed to examine the effects of subject Group, Trial, and Interval on the Pvel. Pvel was greater in older adults in all conditions (p Pvel of the older adults decreased significantly between all 3 trials, but decreased only between trial 1 and 2 in young adults. While the responses of the young adults to the transition in optic flow from 4 to 12 cm did not significantly change, older adults had an increase in Pvel following the transition, ranging from 6.5 dB for the first trial to 3.4 dB for the third trial. These results show that older adults can habituate to repeated visual perturbation exposures; however, this habituation requires a greater number of exposures than young adults. This suggests aging impacts the ability to quickly modify the relative weighting of the sensory feedback for postural stabilization. PMID:18329878

  20. Asymmetry of Anticipatory Postural Adjustment During Gait Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nikaido, Yasutaka; Jono, Yasutomo; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the...

  1. Single night postoperative prone posturing in idiopathic macular hole surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the role of postoperative prone posturing for a single night in the outcome of trans pars plana vitrectomy (TPPV) with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peel and 20% perfluoroethane (C2F6) internal tamponade for idiopathic macular hole. Methods. This prospective trial enrolled 14 eyes in 14 consecutive patients with idiopathic macular hole. All eyes underwent TPPV with vision blue assisted ILM peeling with and without phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) for macular hole. Intraocular gas tamponade (20% C2F6) was used in all cases with postoperative face-down posturing overnight and without specific posturing afterwards. LogMAR visual acuity, appearance by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and ocular coherence tomography (OCT) scans were compared preoperatively and postoperatively to assess outcome. Results. Among 14 eyes recruited, all eyes were phakic; 50% of patients underwent concurrent phacoemulsification with IOL. The macular holes were categorized preoperatively by OCT appearance, 4 (28.57%) were stage 2, 7 (50%) were stage 3, and 3 (21.43%) were stage 4. Mean macular hole size was 0.35 disk diameters. Symptoms of macular hole had been present for an average of 6.5 months. All holes (100%) were closed 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Mean visual acuity (logMAR) was improved to 0.61 at 3 months and was stable at 6 months after the surgery. None of the eyes had worse vision postoperatively. Conclusions. Vitrectomy with ILM peeling and 20% C2F6 gas with a brief postoperative 1 night prone posturing regimen is a reasonable approach to achieve anatomic closure in idiopathic macular hole. Concurrent cataract extraction did not alter outcomes and was not associated with any additional complications.

  2. Methomyl poisoning presenting with decorticate posture and cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming

    2014-01-17

    Methomyl is a potent pesticide that is widely used in the field of agriculture. The systemic toxic effects of methomyl have been well described. However, the neurological effects of methomyl intoxication are not well understood. In this study, we report a 61-year-old Taiwanese man sent to our emergency department because of altered mental status. His family stated that he had consumed liquid methomyl in a suicide attempt. He was provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of unstable vital signs. He was then sent to an intensive care unit for close observation. On the second day of admission, he regained consciousness but exhibited irregular limb and torso posture. On the sixth day, he started to complain of blurred vision. An ophthalmologist was consulted but no obvious abnormalities could be identified. On suspicion of cerebral disease, a neurologist was consulted. Further examination revealed cortical blindness and decorticate posture. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was arranged, which identified bilateral occipital regions lesions. The patient was administered normal saline and treated with aspirin and piracetam for 3 weeks in hospital. During the treatment period, his symptom of cortical blindness resolved, whereas his decorticate posture was refractory. Follow-up brain MRI results supported our clinical observations by indicating the disappearance of the bilateral occipital lesions and symmetrical putaminal high signal abnormalities. In this article, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the cerebral effects of methomyl poisoning. Our study can provide clinicians with information on the manifestations of methomyl intoxication and an appropriate treatment direction.

  3. Postural control in blind individuals: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Rodolfo Borges; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2017-09-01

    Postural control (PC) requires the interaction of the three sensory systems for a good maintenance of the balance, and in blind people, lack of visual input can harm your PC. Thus the objective is to perform a literature review concerning role of sight in the maintenance of PC and the adaptation of brain structures when vision is absent. Studies were searched from Pubmed, and EMBASE that included individuals with congenital blindness. Articles studying person with acquired blindness or low vision was excluded from this review. 26 out of 322 articles were selected for review, and we found that 1) blind individuals exhibit PC deficits and that is compensated by the intensification of the remaining systems; 2) Neuroplastic adaptation occurs throughout the entire cerebral cortex; and 3) Sensorimotor stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation seem to be a rehabilitation strategy. According to this review, the findings suggest that improved remaining sensations in the presence of adaptations and neuroplasticity, does not translate into better postural control performance. Regarding rehabilitation strategies, more studies are needed to show which therapeutic modality best contributes to postural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Aging worsens the effects of sleep deprivation on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Falls increase with age and cause significant injuries in the elderly. This study aimed to determine whether age modulates the interactions between sleep deprivation and postural control and to evaluate how attention influences these interactions in the elderly. Fifteen young (24±2.7 y.o.) and 15 older adults (64±3.2 y.o.) stood still on a force plate after a night of sleep and after total sleep deprivation. Center of pressure range and velocity were measured with eyes open and with eyes closed while participants performed an interference task, a control task, and no cognitive task. Sleep deprivation increased the antero-posterior range of center of pressure in both age groups and center of pressure speed in older participants only. In elderly participants, the destabilizing effects of sleep deprivation were more pronounced with eyes closed. The interference task did not alter postural control beyond the destabilization induced by sleep loss in older subjects. It was concluded that sleep loss has greater destabilizing effects on postural control in older than in younger participants, and may therefore increase the risk of falls in the elderly.

  5. Role of brain hemispheric dominance in anticipatory postural control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioncoloni, David; Rosignoli, Deborah; Feurra, Matteo; Rossi, Simone; Bonifazi, Marco; Rossi, Alessandro; Mazzocchio, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Most of the cerebral functions are asymmetrically represented in the two hemispheres. Moreover, dexterity and coordination of the distal segment of the dominant limbs depend on cortico-motor lateralization. In this study, we investigated whether postural control may be also considered a lateralized hemispheric brain function. To this aim, 15 young subjects were tested in standing position by measuring center of pressure (COP) shifts along the anteroposterior axis (COP-Y) during dynamic posturography before and after continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) intervention applied to the dominant or non-dominant M1 hand area as well as to the vertex. We show that when subjects were expecting a forward platform translation, the COP-Y was positioned significantly backward or forward after dominant or non-dominant M1 stimulation, respectively. We postulate that cTBS applied on M1 may have disrupted the functional connectivity between intra- and interhemispheric areas implicated in the anticipatory control of postural stability. This study suggests a functional asymmetry between the two homologous primary motor areas, with the dominant hemisphere playing a critical role in the selection of the appropriate postural control strategy.

  6. Aging Worsens the Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Falls increase with age and cause significant injuries in the elderly. This study aimed to determine whether age modulates the interactions between sleep deprivation and postural control and to evaluate how attention influences these interactions in the elderly. Fifteen young (24±2.7 y.o.) and 15 older adults (64±3.2 y.o.) stood still on a force plate after a night of sleep and after total sleep deprivation. Center of pressure range and velocity were measured with eyes open and with eyes closed while participants performed an interference task, a control task, and no cognitive task. Sleep deprivation increased the antero-posterior range of center of pressure in both age groups and center of pressure speed in older participants only. In elderly participants, the destabilizing effects of sleep deprivation were more pronounced with eyes closed. The interference task did not alter postural control beyond the destabilization induced by sleep loss in older subjects. It was concluded that sleep loss has greater destabilizing effects on postural control in older than in younger participants, and may therefore increase the risk of falls in the elderly. PMID:22163330

  7. Dual task and postural control in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Pires de Andrade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with neurodegenerative diseases are required to use cognitive resources while maintaining postural control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a frontal cognitive task on postural control in patients with Alzheimer, Parkinson and controls. Thirty-eight participants were instructed to stand upright on a force platform in two experimental conditions: single and dual task. Participants with Parkinson's disease presented an increase in the coefficient of variation greater than 100% in the dual task as compared to the single task for center of pressure (COP area and COP path. In addition, patients with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease had a higher number of errors during the execution of the cognitive task when compared to the group of elderly without neurodegenerative diseases. The motor cortex, which is engaged in postural control, does not seem to compete with frontal brain regions in the performance of the cognitive task. However, patients with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease presented worsened performance in cognitive task.

  8. Methomyl poisoning presenting with decorticate posture and cortical blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ming Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Methomyl is a potent pesticide that is widely used in the field of agriculture. The systemic toxic effects of methomyl have been well described. However, the neurological effects of methomyl intoxication are not well understood. In this study, we report a 61-year-old Taiwanese man sent to our emergency department because of altered mental status. His family stated that he had consumed liquid methomyl in a suicide attempt. He was provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of unstable vital signs. He was then sent to an intensive care unit for close observation. On the second day of admission, he regained consciousness but exhibited irregular limb and torso posture. On the sixth day, he started to complain of blurred vision. An ophthalmologist was consulted but no obvious abnormalities could be identified. On suspicion of cerebral disease, a neurologist was consulted. Further examination revealed cortical blindness and decorticate posture. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was arranged, which identified bilateral occipital regions lesions. The patient was administered normal saline and treated with aspirin and piracetam for 3 weeks in hospital. During the treatment period, his symptom of cortical blindness resolved, whereas his decorticate posture was refractory. Follow-up brain MRI results supported our clinical observations by indicating the disappearance of the bilateral occipital lesions and symmetrical putaminal high signal abnormalities. In this article, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the cerebral effects of methomyl poisoning. Our study can provide clinicians with information on the manifestations of methomyl intoxication and an appropriate treatment direction.

  9. DTN routing in body sensor networks with dynamic postural partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quwaider, Muhannad; Biswas, Subir

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents novel store-and-forward packet routing algorithms for Wireless Body Area Networks ( WBAN ) with frequent postural partitioning. A prototype WBAN has been constructed for experimentally characterizing on-body topology disconnections in the presence of ultra short range radio links, unpredictable RF attenuation, and human postural mobility. On-body DTN routing protocols are then developed using a stochastic link cost formulation, capturing multi-scale topological localities in human postural movements. Performance of the proposed protocols are evaluated experimentally and via simulation, and are compared with a number of existing single-copy DTN routing protocols and an on-body packet flooding mechanism that serves as a performance benchmark with delay lower-bound. It is shown that via multi-scale modeling of the spatio-temporal locality of on-body link disconnection patterns, the proposed algorithms can provide better routing performance compared to a number of existing probabilistic, opportunistic, and utility-based DTN routing protocols in the literature.

  10. Postural Stability Analysis with Inertial Measurement Units in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel F. Gago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cause of frequent falls in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD is still not well understood. Nevertheless, balance control and sensory organization are known to be critical for moving safely and adapting to the environment. Methods: We evaluated postural stability in 20 AD patients (11 fallers and 9 nonfallers and 16 healthy controls with an inertial measurement unit (triaxial accelerometers and gyroscopes attached to the center of mass (COM in different balance conditions (Romberg on flat surface and frontward/backward-inclined surface, with or without visual suppression in a motor lab. Results: In AD patients, the group of fallers showed a different kinetic pattern of postural stability characterized by higher vulnerability to visual suppression, higher total/maximal displacement and a mediolateral/anteroposterior range of sway, and a consequent need for more corrections of COM pitch and roll angles. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to consolidate the normative values of the discriminatory kinetic variables with the potential of inclusion in a multifactorial analysis of the risk of falls. Nevertheless, these results highlight signs of impairment of central postural control in AD, which may require early therapeutic intervention.

  11. Identification of the unstable human postural control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjae eHwang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining upright bipedal posture requires a control system that continually adapts to changing environmental conditions, such as different support surfaces. Behavioral changes associated with different support surfaces, such as the predominance of an ankle or hip strategy, is considered to reflect a change in the control strategy. However, tracing such behavioral changes to a specific component in a closed loop control system is challenging. Here we used the joint input-output (JIO method of closed-loop system identification to identify the musculoskeletal and neural feedback components of the human postural control loop. The goal was to establish changes in the control loop corresponding to behavioral changes observed on different support surfaces. Subjects were simultaneously perturbed by two independent mechanical and two independent sensory perturbations while standing on a normal or short support surface. The results show a dramatic phase reversal between visual input and body kinematics due to the change in surface condition from trunk leads legs to legs lead trunk with increasing frequency of the visual perturbation. Through decomposition of the control loop, we found that behavioral change is not necessarily due to a change in control strategy, but in the case of different support surfaces, is linked to changes in properties of the plant. The JIO method is an important tool to identify the contribution of specific components within a closed loop control system to overall postural behavior and may be useful to devise better treatment of balance disorders.

  12. Is there a relationship between foetal position and both preferred lying posture after birth and pattern of subsequent postural deformity in non-ambulant people with cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D; Michael, S; Kirkwood, C

    2010-09-01

    A pattern of postural deformity was observed in a previous study that included an association between direction of spinal curvature and direction of windsweeping with more windswept deformities occurring to the right and lateral spinal curvatures occurring convex to the left. The direction of this pattern was found to be associated with preferred lying posture in early life. The aim of this study was to test the association between foetal position and both the preferred lying posture after birth, and the direction of subsequent postural deformity in non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy (CP). A retrospective cohort study was carried out involving 60 participants at level five on the gross motor function classification for CP. Foetal position during the last month of pregnancy was taken from antenatal records and parents were interviewed to identify preferred lying posture in the first year of life. At the time of the physical assessment ages ranged from 1 year and 1 month to 19 years with a median age of 13 years and 1 month. Foetal presentation was found to be associated with the preferred lying posture with participants carried in a left occipito-anterior/lateral position more likely to adopt a supine head right lying posture, and vice versa. An association was also observed between the foetal position and asymmetrical postural deformity occurring later in life with participants carried in a left occipito-anterior/lateral presentation more likely to have a convex left spinal curve, a lower left pelvic obliquity, and a windswept hip pattern to the right. Clinicians should be aware of the association between foetal presentation, asymmetrical lying posture, and the direction of subsequent postural deformity for severely disabled children. A hypothesis is described that might help to explain these findings.

  13. [Research on respiration course of human at different postures by electrical impedance tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Wu, Jun; Wang, Huaxiang; Li, Da

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, the respiration courses of human at different postures are reconstructed by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). Conjugate gradient least squares (CGLS) algorithm is applied to reconstruct the resistivity distribution during respiration courses, and the EIT images taken from human at flat lying, left lying, right lying, sitting and prone postures are reconstructed and compared. The relative changes of the resistivity in region of interest (ROI) are analyzed to evidence the influences caused by different postures. Results show that the changes in postures are the most influential factors for the reconstructions, and the EIT images vary with the postures. In human at flat-lying posture, the left and right lungs have larger pulmonary ventilation volume simultaneously, and the EIT-measured data are of lower variability.

  14. Effect of different head-neck-jaw postures on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, H; Alghadir, A H; Iqbal, Z A

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck relocation error among healthy subjects. 30 healthy adult male subjects participated in this study. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense was measured while standing, habitual sitting, habitual sitting with clenched jaw and habitual sitting with forward head posture during right rotation, left rotation, flexion and extension using kinesthetic sensibility test. Head-neck relocation error was least while standing, followed by habitual sitting, habitual sitting with forward head posture and habitual sitting with jaw clenched. However, there was no significant difference in error between different tested postures during all the movements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to see the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck position sense among healthy subjects. Assuming a posture for a short duration of time doesn't affect head-neck relocation error in normal healthy subjects.

  15. Assessment and affects hamstrings contracture on the formation of posture defects in children of preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Kucharczuk-Kopycińska

    2016-12-01

    Results. Executed tests shown that 47,5% from examined group of children have fault posture. Occurrence of hamstrings contracture, which was diagnosed in 40%, disrupts pelvis balance causing oblique position of pelvis. Conclusion. 1. Posture faults are major problem in our population. During examination near half of the group possessed at least one of the fault posture. 2. Hamstrings contracture disrupts pelvis balance causing oblique position of pelvis. Further it leads to increase frequency of fault posture. 3. Proper rehabilitation can prevent hamstring contracture, in advance prevents also occurrence of fault posture. 4. Rehabilitation study, in which analysis of specified anthropometric points and a few functional tests will be a component, can detect and correct diagnose fault posture among children.

  16. Relations between Biomechanical Parameters and Static Power of Arms in Children with Disturbed Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Andrašić

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining the parameters and biomechanical analysis of their impact on the static arm strength in children with impaired posture as poor kyphotic posture, lordotic poor posture and children with flat feet. A transversal study included a sample of 67 children on the territory of the municipality of Subotica. The structure of the sample is as follows: 22 subjects with impaired kyphotic posture, 18 patients with impaired lordotic posture, and 27 subjects with flat feet. Measuring the level of static arm strength was done by the standardized "folding endurance" test. Observing the morphological development of children with kyphotic, lordotic poor posture and flat feet determined statistically significant differences in biomechanical variables.

  17. Analysis of postural load during tasks related to milking cows-a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groborz, Anna; Tokarski, Tomasz; Roman-Liu, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse postural load during tasks related to milking cows of 2 farmers on 2 different farms (one with a manual milk transport system, the other with a fully automated milk transport system) as a case study. The participants were full-time farmers, they were both healthy and experienced in their job. The Ovako Working Posture Analyzing System (OWAS) was used to evaluate postural load and postural risk. Postural load was medium for the farmer on the farm with a manual milk transport system and high for the farmer working on the farm with a fully automated milk transport system. Thus, it can be concluded that a higher level of farm mechanization not always mean that the farmer's postural load is lower, but limitation of OWAS should be considered.

  18. Postural stability disorders in rural patients with lumbar spinal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Truszczyńska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hard work in farming may lead to lumbar spinal stenosis, and consequently, to pain. The pain and neurological disorders may lead to disability and postural disorders. Objective. The aim of the presented study was to analyse postural stability and its correlation with functional disability of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis living in rural areas. Materials and methods. The study population consisted of 30 rural patients with lumbar spinal stenosis; mean age: 51.40 (±12.92; mean BMI: 28.60 (±3.77. The control group consisted of 30 rural inhabitants without spinal disorders. Postural stability was tested on the Biodex Balance System. The patients were also evaluated according to the ODI, the Rolland- Morris disability questionnaire, and VAS. Results. The mean results of the patients studied were as follows: 49.37 (±17.39 according to ODI, 15 (±6.19 according to the Rolland-Morris disability scale, and pain intensity of 7 (±1.93 according to the VAS. The following statistically significant differences were found: the mean balance index result was 1.8 (±1.88 and 0.64 (±0.41 in the control group. The mean centre of mass deviation in the A/P plane was 1.39 (±1.88 and 0.46 (±0.41 in the control group. The mean centre of mass deviation in the M/L plane was 0.8 (±0.51 and 0.32 (±0.22 in the control group. The balance in the studied population correlated significantly with the Rolland-Morris disability questionnaire and the VAS. Conclusions: 1 Serious disability was found in rural patients with spinal stenosis. There was a statistically significant correlation between the disability and postural stability disorders. 2 Most of the patients (84% were overweight. 3 Postural stability disorders were statistically significant for both the stability index and the A/P plane deviation.

  19. A mathematical model for incorporating biofeedback into human postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersal Tulga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofeedback of body motion can serve as a balance aid and rehabilitation tool. To date, mathematical models considering the integration of biofeedback into postural control have represented this integration as a sensory addition and limited their application to a single degree-of-freedom representation of the body. This study has two objectives: 1 to develop a scalable method for incorporating biofeedback into postural control that is independent of the model’s degrees of freedom, how it handles sensory integration, and the modeling of its postural controller; and 2 to validate this new model using multidirectional perturbation experimental results. Methods Biofeedback was modeled as an additional torque to the postural controller torque. For validation, this biofeedback modeling approach was applied to a vibrotactile biofeedback device and incorporated into a two-link multibody model with full-state-feedback control that represents the dynamics of bipedal stance. Average response trajectories of body sway and center of pressure (COP to multidirectional surface perturbations of subjects with vestibular deficits were used for model parameterization and validation in multiple perturbation directions and for multiple display resolutions. The quality of fit was quantified using average error and cross-correlation values. Results The mean of the average errors across all tactor configurations and perturbations was 0.24° for body sway and 0.39 cm for COP. The mean of the cross-correlation value was 0.97 for both body sway and COP. Conclusions The biofeedback model developed in this study is capable of capturing experimental response trajectory shapes with low average errors and high cross-correlation values in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions for all perturbation directions and spatial resolution display configurations considered. The results validate that biofeedback can be modeled as an additional

  20. Constrained posture in dentistry - a kinematic analysis of dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, Daniela; Erbe, Christina; Nowak, Jennifer; Hauck, Imke; Hermanns, Ingo; Ditchen, Dirk; Ellegast, Rolf; Groneberg, David A

    2017-07-05

    How a dentist works, such as the patterns of movements performed daily, is also largely affected by the workstation Dental tasks are often executed in awkward body positions, thereby causing a very high degree of strain on the corresponding muscles. The objective of this study is to detect those dental tasks, during which awkward postures occur most frequently. The isolated analysis of static postures will examine the duration for which these postures are maintained during the corresponding dental, respectively non-dental, activities. 21 (11f/10 m) dentists (age: 40.1 ± 10.4 years) participated in this study. An average dental workday was collected for every subject. To collect kinematic data of all activities, the CUELA system was used. Parallel to the kinematic examination, a detailed computer-based task analysis was conducted. Afterwards, both data sets were synchronized based on the chronological order of the postures assumed in the trunk and the head region. All tasks performed were assigned to the categories "treatment" (I), "office" (II) and "other activities" (III). The angle values of each body region (evaluation parameter) were examined and assessed corresponding to ergonomic standards. Moreover, this study placed a particular focus on static positions, which are held statically for 4 s and longer. For "treatment" (I), the entire head and trunk area is anteriorly tilted while the back is twisted to the right, in (II) and (III) the back is anteriorly tilted and twisted to the right (non-neutral position). Static positions in (I) last for 4-10s, static postures (approx. 60%) can be observed while in (II) and (III) in the back area static positions for more than 30 s are most common. Moreover, in (II) the back is twisted to the right for more than 60 s in 26.8%. Awkward positions are a major part of a dentists' work. This mainly pertains to static positions of the trunk and head in contrast to "office work." These insights facilitate the quantitative

  1. Posture And Dorsal Shape At A Sitted Workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoutre, F. X.; Cloup, P.; Guerra, T. M.

    1986-07-01

    The ergonomic analysis of a control or a supervision workstation for a vehicle or a process, necessitates to take into account the biomecanical visuo-postural system. The measurements, which are necessary to do, must give informations about the spatial direction of the limbs, the dorsal shape, eventually the eyes direction, and the postural evolution during the working time. More, the smallness of the work station, the backrest and sometime a vibratory environment made use specific, strong and small devices wich do not disturb the operator. The measurement system which we propose is made of an optical device. This system is studied in relation with the french "Institute de Recherche pour les Transports" for an ergonomic analysis of a truck cabin. The optical device consists on placing on the body of the driver on particular places materializing specially members and trunck joint points, some drops which reflect the infra-red raies coming from a specific light. Several cameras whose relative positions depend on the experiment site, transmit video signals to the associated treatment systems which extract the coordinates (Xi, Yi) of each drop in the observation scope of any camera. By regrouping the informations obtained from every view, it is possible to obtain the spatial drop position and then to restore the individual's posture in three dimensions. Therefore, this device doesn't enable us, in consideration of the backrest, to analyse the dorsal posture, which is important with regard to dorsal pains frequency. For that reason, we complete the measurements by using a "curvometer". This device consists of a flexible stick fixed upon the individual back with elastic belts, whose distorsions (curvature in m-1) are measured, in the individual's sagittal plane, with 4 strain gauges pairs; located approximately at the level of vertebra D1, D6, D10 and L3. A fifth measurement, concerning the inclination (in degree) of the lower part of the stick, makes it is possible to

  2. A mathematical model for incorporating biofeedback into human postural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Biofeedback of body motion can serve as a balance aid and rehabilitation tool. To date, mathematical models considering the integration of biofeedback into postural control have represented this integration as a sensory addition and limited their application to a single degree-of-freedom representation of the body. This study has two objectives: 1) to develop a scalable method for incorporating biofeedback into postural control that is independent of the model’s degrees of freedom, how it handles sensory integration, and the modeling of its postural controller; and 2) to validate this new model using multidirectional perturbation experimental results. Methods Biofeedback was modeled as an additional torque to the postural controller torque. For validation, this biofeedback modeling approach was applied to a vibrotactile biofeedback device and incorporated into a two-link multibody model with full-state-feedback control that represents the dynamics of bipedal stance. Average response trajectories of body sway and center of pressure (COP) to multidirectional surface perturbations of subjects with vestibular deficits were used for model parameterization and validation in multiple perturbation directions and for multiple display resolutions. The quality of fit was quantified using average error and cross-correlation values. Results The mean of the average errors across all tactor configurations and perturbations was 0.24° for body sway and 0.39 cm for COP. The mean of the cross-correlation value was 0.97 for both body sway and COP. Conclusions The biofeedback model developed in this study is capable of capturing experimental response trajectory shapes with low average errors and high cross-correlation values in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions for all perturbation directions and spatial resolution display configurations considered. The results validate that biofeedback can be modeled as an additional torque to the postural

  3. On the importance of local dynamics in statokinesigram: A multivariate approach for postural control evaluation in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiotas, Ioannis; Audiffren, Julien; Vayatis, Nicolas; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Buffat, Stephane; Yelnik, Alain P; Ricard, Damien

    2018-01-01

    The fact that almost one third of population >65 years-old has at least one fall per year, makes the risk-of-fall assessment through easy-to-use measurements an important issue in current clinical practice. A common way to evaluate posture is through the recording of the center-of-pressure (CoP) displacement (statokinesigram) with force platforms. Most of the previous studies, assuming homogeneous statokinesigrams in quiet standing, used global parameters in order to characterize the statokinesigrams. However the latter analysis provides little information about local characteristics of statokinesigrams. In this study, we propose a multidimensional scoring approach which locally characterizes statokinesigrams on small time-periods, or blocks, while highlighting those which are more indicative to the general individual's class (faller/non-faller). Moreover, this information can be used to provide a global score in order to evaluate the postural control and classify fallers/non-fallers. We evaluate our approach using the statokinesigram of 126 community-dwelling elderly (78.5 ± 7.7 years). Participants were recorded with eyes open and eyes closed (25 seconds each acquisition) and information about previous falls was collected. The performance of our findings are assessed using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and the area under the curve (AUC). The results show that global scores provided by splitting statokinesigrams in smaller blocks and analyzing them locally, classify fallers/non-fallers more effectively (AUC = 0.77 ± 0.09 instead of AUC = 0.63 ± 0.12 for global analysis when splitting is not used). These promising results indicate that such methodology might provide supplementary information about the risk of fall of an individual and be of major usefulness in assessment of balance-related diseases such as Parkinson's disease.

  4. On the importance of local dynamics in statokinesigram: A multivariate approach for postural control evaluation in elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Bargiotas

    Full Text Available The fact that almost one third of population >65 years-old has at least one fall per year, makes the risk-of-fall assessment through easy-to-use measurements an important issue in current clinical practice. A common way to evaluate posture is through the recording of the center-of-pressure (CoP displacement (statokinesigram with force platforms. Most of the previous studies, assuming homogeneous statokinesigrams in quiet standing, used global parameters in order to characterize the statokinesigrams. However the latter analysis provides little information about local characteristics of statokinesigrams. In this study, we propose a multidimensional scoring approach which locally characterizes statokinesigrams on small time-periods, or blocks, while highlighting those which are more indicative to the general individual's class (faller/non-faller. Moreover, this information can be used to provide a global score in order to evaluate the postural control and classify fallers/non-fallers. We evaluate our approach using the statokinesigram of 126 community-dwelling elderly (78.5 ± 7.7 years. Participants were recorded with eyes open and eyes closed (25 seconds each acquisition and information about previous falls was collected. The performance of our findings are assessed using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC analysis and the area under the curve (AUC. The results show that global scores provided by splitting statokinesigrams in smaller blocks and analyzing them locally, classify fallers/non-fallers more effectively (AUC = 0.77 ± 0.09 instead of AUC = 0.63 ± 0.12 for global analysis when splitting is not used. These promising results indicate that such methodology might provide supplementary information about the risk of fall of an individual and be of major usefulness in assessment of balance-related diseases such as Parkinson's disease.

  5. Posture and lumbar puncture headache: a controlled trial in 50 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Handler, C E; Smith, F R; Perkin, G D; Rose, F C

    1982-01-01

    A prospective single blind trial in 50 patients was performed to investigate the effect of posture on post lumbar puncture headache (LPH). A difference between the frequency of headache at five hours between the two groups (prone for four hours, versus 30 degrees head down tilt for 30 minutes followed by supine posture for 3 1/2 hours) did not reach significance. These findings do not support the suggestion that a prone posture, by possibly reducing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, signific...

  6. Relationship between postural changes and injuries of the locomotor system in indoor soccer athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Cintia Zucareli Pinto; Akashi, Paula Marie Hanai; Sacco, Isabel de Camargo Neves; Pedrinelli, André

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, the sport practice has been initiated precociously. These precocious beginning of competitive sports may result in changes on the young athletes' posture alignment, because the child's bone and muscle systems are still developing and these systems are more susceptible to stress and injuries. The purpose of this study was to verify the indoor soccer (Futsal) injuries and the changes of posture alignment in players between 9 to 16 years old. We examined the posture of 50 volunteers yo...

  7. Postural alignment in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its relationship with balance

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Cyntia R. J. A.; Costa, Andreia A.; Pizzato, Tatiana M.; Souza, Francine B.; Mattiello-Sverzut, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, functional deficits seem to arise from body misalignment, deconditioning, and obesity secondary to weakness and immobility. The question remains about the effects of postural deviations on the functional balance of these children. Objectives: To identify and quantify postural deviations in children with DMD in comparison to non-affected children (eutrophic and overweight/obese), exploring relationships between posture and function. Method: Thi...

  8. Fitness, Balance Efficacy, and Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Lee; John R. Biggan; Christopher Ray

    2016-01-01

    Age-related declines in postural control and physical fitness are strong risk factors for falls in older adults. Balance efficacy has been utilized to identify poor postural control, reduced physical function, and fall risk. However, it is not clear as to whether balance efficacy is truly a better predictor of functional fitness outcomes or postural control. Distinguishing these associations is an important step in the...

  9. Vliv těhotenství na statickou a dynamickou posturální stabilitu

    OpenAIRE

    Palanová, Alžběta

    2017-01-01

    Title: Influence of pregnancy on static and dynamic postural stability Objectives: The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the influence of pregnancy on the static and dynamic postural stability using the dynamic computerized posturography. Another objective of this thesis is to determine which one of sensory inputs (visual, somatosensory, vestibular) plays the most important role in the control of postural stability during pregnancy with the help of various posturographic tests. Based on liter...

  10. The Effect of Wearing Different Types of Respirators on Postural Stability and Comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Farhang Akbar-Khanzadeh; Sandra M. Woolley; Kent Huang

    2012-01-01

    Respirators are commonly used to protect workers against workplace airborne contaminants, but this equipment may become a safety hazard by creating discomfort, disorientation and postural instability.Although postural stability is critical to workers, especially those working near moving objects or on surfaces where a loss of balance may become life threatening, little attention has been given to the effect of respirators on wearers’ postural stability. The purpose of this study was to examin...

  11. Postural Control in Workplace Safety: Role of Occupational Footwear and Workload

    OpenAIRE

    Harish Chander; John C. Garner; Chip Wade; Adam C. Knight

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining postural stability is crucial, especially in hazardous occupational environments. The purpose of the study was to assess the role of three occupational footwear (low top shoe (LT); tactical work boot (TB) and steel-toed work boot (WB)) on postural stability when exposed to an occupational workload (4-h) involving standing/walking using the sensory organization test (SOT) equilibrium (EQ) scores and comparing current results with previously published postural sway variables from th...

  12. The effects of breath alcohol concentration on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Dary D

    2018-05-19

    Two of the 3 standardized field sobriety tests that U.S. law enforcement uses at roadside checks have a postural equilibrium component to them. Those tests have been validated to detect impairment caused by blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.08 g/dL or above. Many medical and traffic safety associations support a lower limit, and one state, Utah, has passed a law to lower the limit to 0.05 g/dL. Many studies have examined the effects of alcohol on postural control (of which postural equilibrium is a component), with a consensus emerging that impairment is usually found at BACs greater than 0.06 g/dL. Most of these studies, however, had a relatively small number of subjects, usually between 10 and 30. The current study collected data from a much larger sample. The objective of this study was to provide additional evidence that posture control is negatively affected at BACs greater than 0.06 g/dL or breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) of 0.06 g/210 L. This was a between-subjects study, with BrAC group as the independent variable (5 levels: 0.00, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/210 L); 4 measures of postural control as the dependent variables; and age, height, and weight as the covariates. Posture control was measured with a force-sensing platform connected to a computer. The feet's center of pressure (CoP) on the platform was recorded and the corresponding movement of the body in the anterior-posterior and lateral planes was derived. Participants (N = 96) were randomly assigned to one of the BrAC groups. Positive BrAC groups were compared to the zero BrAC group. Data were examined with hierarchical multiple regression. Adjusted for age, height, and weight, the main effect of lateral CoP with eyes open was not statistically significant. There was a statistically significant main effect of alcohol on anterior-posterior CoP excursion with eyes open and with eyes closed and lateral CoP excursion with eyes closed. For all 3 of those variables, only BrACs of 0

  13. Global power: Markets and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirer, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The author will first present an updated view of the global power market activity, including opportunities in power generation, transmission and distribution. This will include a review of the trends in closings and transaction flowed by type of activity and geographic area. Estimates will be based on Hagler Bailly's comprehensive database on global power transactions and project announcements. The firm has also worked with dozens of global power companies since 1990. Second, the author will review trends in terms of regulatory changes, project cost trends, developers' project experiences, and financing issues. This systematic review will be the foundation for projection of future market activity (e.g., number of closing by type of project through 2000). A forecast of future greenfield and privatization activity will be provided and the key markets will be highlighted. Third, the author will present an updated view of the competition in the global power market (including the various types of competitors and changes in their respective market posture). Finally, the author will discuss the various types of strategies and business models that are followed by key global power players

  14. Light and heavy touch reduces postural sway and modifies axial tone in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Erika; Paquette, Caroline; Gurfinkel, Victor; Horak, Fay

    2012-10-01

    Light touch with a stable object reduces postural sway by increasing axial postural tone in healthy subjects. However, it is unknown whether subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD), who have more postural sway and higher axial postural tone than healthy subjects, can benefit from haptic touch. To investigate the effect of light and heavy touch on postural stability and hip tone in subjects with PD. Fourteen subjects with mid-stage PD and 14 healthy control subjects were evaluated during quiet standing with eyes closed with their arms (a) crossed, (b) lightly touching a fixed rigid bar in front of them, and (c) firmly gripping the bar. Postural sway was measured with a forceplate, and axial hip tone was quantified using a unique device that measures the resistance of the hips to yaw rotation while maintaining active stance. Subjects with PD significantly decreased their postural sway with light or heavy touch (P touch, hip tone was larger in PD subjects. With touch, however, tone values were similar in both groups. This change in hip tone with touch was highly correlated with the initial amount of tone (PD, r = -.72 to -.95; controls, r = -.74 to -.85). The authors showed, for the first time, that subjects with PD benefit from touch similarly to control subjects and that despite higher axial postural tone, PD subjects are able to modulate their tone with touch. Future studies should investigate the complex relationship between touch and postural tone.

  15. Electromyography of the thigh muscles during lifting tasks in kneeling and squatting postures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, S.; Pollard, J.; Porter, W.L. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Laboratory

    2011-07-01

    Underground coal miners who work in low-seam mines frequently handle materials in kneeling or squatting postures. To assess quadriceps and hamstring muscle demands in these postures, nine participants performed lateral load transfers in kneeling and squatting postures, during which electromyographic (EMG) data were collected. EMG activity was obtained at five points throughout the transfer for three quadriceps muscles and two hamstring muscles from each thigh. ANOVA results indicated that EMG data for nine of 10 thigh muscles were affected by an interaction between posture and angular position of the load lifted (p <0.001). Muscles of the right thigh were most active during the lifting portion of the task (lifting a block from the participant's right) and activity decreased as the block was transferred to the left. Left thigh muscles showed the opposite pattern. EMG activity for the majority of thigh muscles was affected by the size of the base of support provided by different postures, with lower EMG activity observed with a larger base of support and increased activity in postures where base of support was reduced (p<0.05). Thigh EMG activity was lowest in postures with fully flexed knees, which may explain worker preference for this posture. However, such postures are also associated with increased risk of meniscal damage.

  16. An analysis of posture and back pain in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M E; Conner-Kerr, T

    1998-09-01

    While the incidence of back pain during pregnancy has been shown to be high, few studies have investigated postural changes that occur during pregnancy and their relationship to back pain. The purpose of this study was to determine if posture and back pain changed from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy and whether there was a relationship between the two. Twelve healthy women who were having uncomplicated pregnancies participated in the study. During the first and third trimesters, each subject had their standing posture and back pain assessed by a Metrecom Skeletal Analysis System and a 0- to 10-cm line pain scale, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated on or between back pain and nine posture variables and revealed significant increases in third trimester back pain and postures compared with first trimester back pain (p postures for lumbar angle (p change in posture and back pain. These results suggest that in the standing position the lumbar lordosis and sagittal pelvic tilt increased and head position become more posterior as women progressed from the first trimester to the last trimester of pregnancy. These postural changes, however, were not related to back pain. This suggests that many of the posture-correcting clinical exercise regimens given to pregnant women need to be investigated.

  17. Can Postural Instability Respond to Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kataoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS activates the vestibular afferents, and these changes in vestibular input exert a strong influence on the subject’s posture or standing balance. In patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD, vestibular dysfunction might contribute to postural instability and gait disorders. Methods Current intensity was increased to 0.7 mA, and the current was applied to the patients for 20 minutes. To perform a sham stimulation, the current intensity was increased as described and then decreased to 0 mA over the course of 10 seconds. The patient’s status was recorded continuously for 20 minutes with the patient in the supine position. Results Three out of 5 patients diagnosed with PD with postural instability and/or abnormal axial posture showed a reduction in postural instability after GVS. The score for item 12 of the revised Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part 3 was decreased in these patients. Conclusions The mechanism of postural instability is complex and not completely understood. In 2 out of the 5 patients, postural instability was not changed in response to GVS. Nonetheless, the GVS-induced change in postural instability for 3 patients in our study suggests that GVS might be a therapeutic option for postural instability.

  18. SHOULDER EXTERNAL ROTATOR STRENGTH IN RESPONSE TO VARIOUS SITTING POSTURES: A CONTROLLED LABORATORY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheasant, Steven; Haydt, Richard; Gottstein, Thomas; Grasso, Anthony; Lombard, Nicholas; Stone, Brandon

    2018-02-01

    The forward head rounded shoulder (FHRS) sitting posture has been associated with decreased shoulder complex muscle strength and function. Upon clinical observation, the adverse effects of the FHRS sitting posture on shoulder complex isometric muscle strength is also present when testing controls for scapular position. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of various sitting postures on shoulder external rotator muscle isometric strength when the strength testing controls for scapular position. A cohort study, with subjects serving as their own controls. One hundred subjects ages 20-26 participated in the study. Each subject was placed in a neutral cervical sitting (NCS) posture which was maintained for five minutes after which the strength of the dominant shoulder external rotators was immediately tested with the glenohumeral joint in the neutral position using a Micro-FET3 Hand Held Muscle Testing Dynamometer (HHMTD). Each subject was returned to the NCS posture for subsequent external rotator strength testing after five minutes in a FHRS sitting posture, five additional minutes in the NCS posture and five minutes in a retracted cervical sitting (RCS) posture resulting in each subjects' external rotator strength being tested on four occasions. Subjects were randomized for order between the FHRS and RCS postures. Mean strength values for each condition were normalized to the mean strength value for the 1 st NCS condition for each subject. A statistically significant decline in shoulder external rotator strength following the FHRS sitting posture occurred compared to the appropriate postural conditions (pexternal rotator strength following five minutes in the FHRS sitting posture. The average percentage of strength decline in those with greater than a 10% reduction in external rotator strength was 19%. Sixty-four percent of the subjects experienced less than a 10% decline in shoulder external rotator strength in response to the FHRS sitting posture

  19. A validation study using a modified version of Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients: Postural Stroke Study in Gothenburg (POSTGOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielsson Anna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A modified version of Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS was created with some changes in the description of the items and clarifications in the manual (e.g. much help was defined as support from 2 persons. The aim of this validation study was to assess intrarater and interrater reliability using this modified version of PASS, at a stroke unit, for patients in the acute phase after their first event of stroke. Methods In the intrarater reliability study 114 patients and in the interrater reliability study 15 patients were examined twice with the test within one to 24 hours in the first week after stroke. Spearman's rank correlation, Kappa coefficients, Percentage Agreement and the newer rank-invariant methods; Relative Position, Relative Concentration and Relative rank Variance were used for the statistical analysis. Results For the intrarater reliability Spearman's rank correlations were 0.88-0.98 and k were 0.70-0.93 for the individual items. Small, statistically significant, differences were found for two items regarding Relative Position and for one item regarding Relative Concentration. There was no Relative rank Variance for any single item. For the interrater reliability, Spearman's rank correlations were 0.77-0.99 for individual items. For some items there was a possible, even if not proved, reliability problem regarding Relative Position and Relative Concentration. There was no Relative rank Variance for the single items, except for a small Relative rank Variance for one item. Conclusions The high intrarater and interrater reliability shown for the modified Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients, the Swedish version of Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients, with traditional and newer statistical analyses, particularly for assessments performed by the same rater, support the use of the Swedish version of Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients, in the acute stage after stroke both

  20. Global warning, global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  1. Postural stability in patients with knee osteoarthritis: comparison with controls and evaluation of relationships between postural stability scores and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Lee, Wen-Chung; Lo, Min-Tzu; Liao, Wei-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    To assess the differences in postural stability between patients with knee osteoarthritis and controls without knee osteoarthritis, and to evaluate possible relations between postural stability scores and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) components. An age-matched, case-controlled trial with a cross-sectional design. A teaching hospital. Patients with knee osteoarthritis (n=73) and age-matched controls (n=60). Data on patients' postural stability and additional health-related variables were collected using various instruments. These included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Version, the physical function test (chair-rising time), the Chinese version of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, the Chinese version of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and the Biodex Stability System. A comparison of postural stability in patients with knee osteoarthritis versus that of controls was performed. The relation between postural stability scores for patients with knee osteoarthritis and ICF components was evaluated. Pearson correlation tests were used to determine the variables that correlated with postural stability among these patients. Patients with knee osteoarthritis displayed lower overall postural stability than controls (scores of 0.7 vs. 0.5, P=.006) and scored lower on the environmental domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Version (62.2 vs 66.8, P=.014). For patients with knee osteoarthritis, postural stability was weakly associated with the ICF components of body functions and structures, including pain (r=.33-.34, P=.004), physical fatigue (r=.28, P=.016), and reduced motivation (r=.30, P=.011). Weak to moderate associations between postural stability and the ICF components of activities and participation were found; the relevant ICF variables included

  2. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  3. Cardio-postural interactions and short-arm centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, Andrew; Goswami, Nandu; Xu, Da; Laurin, Alexendre

    INTRODUCTION: We are interested in mechanisms associated with orthostatic tolerance. In previous studies we have shown that postural muscles in the calf contribute to both posture and blood pressure regulation during orthostatic stress. In this study we investigated the relationship between cardiovascular and postural muscle control before, during and after short arm human centrifuge (SAHC) up to 2.2 G. METHODS: Eleven healthy young subjects (6 m, 5 f), with no history of cardiovascular disease, falls or orthostatic hypotension, participated. All were familiarized with the SAHC with 10 minutes at 1-G at the feet. Each subject was instrumented in the supine position on the SAHC for beat-to-beat ECG and blood pressure (Portapres derived SBP). Bilateral lower leg EMG was collected from four leg postural muscles: tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, and medial soleus. Transdermal differential recording of signals was performed using an 8-channel EMG system, (Myosystem 1200, Noraxon Inc., Arizona, USA). Postural sway data of the body COP was computed from the force and moment data collected with a force platform (Accusway, AMTI, MA, USA). Before and after SAHC, the subject stood on a force platform with their gaze fixed on a point at eye level, closed their eyes and stood quietly for 5 min. A final stand was conducted 30 min after centrifugation with supine rest in between. During clockwise centrifugation (10-min 1g and 10-min 2.2g at the foot) the subjects’ head was hooded and in the dark. The subject’s body was restrained into the rotation arm with a parachute harness and given additional body support with a foot-plate. ECG, EMG and BP data were collected throughout and centre of pressure trajectory (COP) collected during the stand test. Subjects were requested to relax and not to voluntarily contract the leg muscles; however, they were not to suppress contractions as they occurred involuntarily or by reflex. A Continuous Wavelet

  4. Photographic measurement of head and cervical posture when viewing mobile phone: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Fan, Guoxin; Wu, Xinbo; Zeng, Ying; Su, Hang; Gu, Guangfei; Zhou, Qi; Gu, Xin; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-12-01

    With the dramatic growth of mobile phone usage, concerns have been raised with regard to the adverse health effects of mobile phone on spinal posture. The aim of this study was to determine the head and cervical postures by photogrammetry when viewing the mobile phone screen, compared with those in neutral standing posture. A total of 186 subjects (81 females and 105 males) aged from 17 to 31 years old participated in this study. Subjects were instructed to stand neutrally and using mobile phone as in daily life. Using a photographic method, the sagittal head and cervical postures were assessed by head tilt angle, neck tilt angle, forward head shift and gaze angle. The photographic method showed a high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability in measuring the sagittal posture of cervical spine and gaze angle (ICCs ranged from 0.80 to 0.99). When looking at mobile phone, the head tilt angle significantly increased (from 74.55° to 95.22°, p = 0.000) and the neck angle decreased (from 54.68° to 38.77°, p = 0.000). The forward head posture was also confirmed by the significantly increased head shift (from 10.90 to 13.85 cm, p = 0.000). The posture assumed in mobile phone use was significantly correlated with neutral posture (p phone use. Compared to neutral standing, subjects display a more forward head posture when viewing the mobile phone screen, which is correlated with neutral posture, gaze angle and gender. Future studies will be needed to investigate a dose-response relationship between mobile phone use and assumed posture.

  5. Prevalence of incorrect body posture in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciałczyk-Paprocka, Katarzyna; Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Barbara; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Sowińska, Anna; Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata

    2017-05-01

    The ever increasing epidemics of overweight and obesity in school children may be one of the reasons of the growing numbers of children with incorrect body posture. The purpose of the study was the assessment of the prevalence of incorrect body posture in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity in Poznań, Poland. The population subject to study consisted of 2732 boys and girls aged 3-18 with obesity, overweight, and standard body mass. The assessment of body mass was performed based on BMI, adopting Cole's cutoff values. The evaluation of body posture was performed according to the postural error chart based on criteria complied by professor Dega. The prevalence rates of postural errors were significantly higher among children and adolescents with overweight and obesity than among the group with standard body mass. In the overweight group, it amounted to 69.2% and in the obese group to 78.6%.  The most common postural deviations in obese children and adolescents were valgus knees and flat feet. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, predisposing to higher incidence of some types of postural errors, call for prevention programs addressing both health problems. What is Known: • The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has drawn attention to additional health complications which may occur in this population such as occurrence of incorrect body posture. What is New: • The modified chart of postural errors proved to be an effective tool in the assessment of incorrect body posture. • This chart may be used in the assessment of posture during screening tests and prevention actions at school.

  6. Foot posture in basketball players with history of the shin splint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Forghany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shin splint is one of the common injuries in most athletes. Although the relationship between abnormal foot posture and shin splint has been reported previously but, the relation between foot posture and shin splint has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between foot postures in basketball players and the history of shin splint. Materials and Methods: Thirty Iranian male basketball players who had experience of shin splint during last three months were participated in this study. Foot Posture Index (FPI-6 was used as the measure of foot posture. Talar head palpation, curvature at the lateral malleoli, inversion/eversion of the calcaneus, prominence in the region of the talonavicular joint, congruence of the medial longitudinal arch, abduction /adduction of the forefoot on the rear foot were 6 items which were assessed with FPI in the standing position. Foot posture was defined as ‘normal’, ‘supinated’ or ‘pronated. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS, version16. Results: Most participants showed abnormal foot posture (%80. Fifty-three percent of subjects had pronated foot (%53 and 10% did hyper-pronation. The foot postures of 17% of participants were in supination. The results of this study did not show a significant difference in foot posture between right and left foot (P > 0.05. Conclusion: abnormal foot posture were common (%80 in basketball players with the history of shin splints. These findings could support this idea that the footwear and orthotic prescription both can prevent and treat basketball players with history of shin splints. Keywords: Foot posture, Shin splints, Basketball

  7. The effect of posture and repetition on urodynamic parameters: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joon Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of posture and repetition of filling cystometry on urodynamic parameters. Materials and Methods: Seventy-one men with benign prostatic hyperplasia participated in a urodynamic study between September 2015 and August 2016 and were randomly assigned to a supine to supine (group SS, n=16, erect to erect (group EE, n=16, supine to erect (group SE, n=19 or erect to supine (group ES, n=20 group. The patients underwent filling cystometry twice. We evaluated the effect of posture and the effect of repetition on filling cystometric parameters. We also evaluated the correlation between overactive bladder (OAB and detrusor overactivity (DO and between maximum voided volume (MVV and maximum cystometric capacity (MCC for each posture and filling cystometry time. Results: There was a decrease in bladder sensation and occurrence of DO, and an increase in bladder compliance and MCC in the supine posture group compared to that in the erect posture group. A more significant decrease in bladder sensation and occurrence of DO as well as an increase in MCC was seen during the second filling cystometry than the first one. The supine posture during first filling cystometry showed a better correlation between OAB and DO and between MVV and MCC than erect posture. Conclusions: There were clear effects of posture and filling cystometry repetition on urodynamic parameters. The supine posture and repeated filling cystometry caused the bladder to be less sensitive and less overactive. The supine posture showed a better correlation to OAB symptoms than erect posture during first filling cystometry.

  8. Development of polygonal surface version of ICRP reference phantoms: Preliminary study for posture change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tat Thang; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2013-01-01

    Even though International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) officially adopted a set of adult male and female voxel phantoms as the ICRP reference phantoms, there are several critical limitations due to the nature of voxel geometry and their low voxel resolutions. In order to overcome these limitations of the ICRP phantoms, we are currently developing polygonal surface version of ICRP reference phantoms by directly converting the ICRP voxel phantoms to polygonal surface geometries. Among the many advantages of the ICRP polygonal surface phantom, especially, it is flexible and deformable. In principle, it is, therefore, possible to make the posture-changed ICRP phantoms which can provide more accurate dose values for exposure situations strongly relevant to worker's postures. As a preliminary study for developing the posture-changed ICRP phantoms, in this work we changed the posture of the preliminary version of ICRP male polygon-surface phantom constructed in the previous study. Organ doses were then compared between original and posture-changed phantoms. In the present study, we successfully changed a posture of the preliminary version of ICRP male polygon-surface phantom to the walking posture. From this results, it was explicitly shown that the polygon-surface version of the ICRP phantoms can be sufficiently modified to be various postures with the posture-changing method used in this study. In addition, it was demonstrated that phantom's posture must be considered in certain exposure situations, which can differ dose values from the conventional standing-posture phantom

  9. First-Person Perspective Virtual Body Posture Influences Stress: A Virtual Reality Body Ownership Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Ilias; Kilteni, Konstantina; Slater, Mel

    2016-01-01

    In immersive virtual reality (IVR) it is possible to replace a person’s real body by a life-sized virtual body that is seen from first person perspective to visually substitute their own. Multisensory feedback from the virtual to the real body (such as the correspondence of touch and also movement) can also be present. Under these conditions participants typically experience a subjective body ownership illusion (BOI) over the virtual body, even though they know that it is not their real one. In most studies and applications the posture of the real and virtual bodies are as similar as possible. Here we were interested in whether the BOI is diminished when there are gross discrepancies between the real and virtual body postures. We also explored whether a comfortable or uncomfortable virtual body posture would induce feelings and physiological responses commensurate with the posture. We carried out an experiment with 31 participants in IVR realized with a wide field-of-view head-mounted display. All participants were comfortably seated. Sixteen of them were embodied in a virtual body designed to be in a comfortable posture, and the remainder in an uncomfortable posture. The results suggest that the uncomfortable body posture led to lesser subjective BOI than the comfortable one, but that participants in the uncomfortable posture experienced greater awareness of their autonomic physiological responses. Moreover their heart rate, heart rate variability, and the number of mistakes in a cognitive task were associated with the strength of their BOI in the uncomfortable posture: greater heart rate, lower heart rate variability and more mistakes were associated with higher levels of the BOI. These findings point in a consistent direction—that the BOI over a body that is in an uncomfortable posture can lead to subjective, physiological and cognitive effects consistent with discomfort that do not occur with the BOI over a body in a comfortable posture. PMID:26828365

  10. The Effect of Breast Hypertrophy on Patient Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Lapid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOne of the reasons women with macromastia chose to undergo a breast reduction is to relieve their complaints of back, neck, and shoulder pain. We hypothesized that changes in posture after surgery may be the reason for the pain relief and that patient posture may correlate with symptomatic macromastia and may serve as an objective measure for complaints. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of reduction mammaplasty on the posture of women with macromastia.MethodsA prospective controlled study at a university medical center. Forty-two patients that underwent breast reduction were studied before surgery and an average of 4.3 years following surgery. Thirty-seven healthy women served as controls. Standardized lateral photos were taken. The inclination angle of the back was measured. Regression analysis was performed for the inclination angle.ResultsPreoperatively, the mean inclination angle was 1.61 degrees ventrally; this diminished postoperatively to 0.72 degrees ventrally. This change was not significant (P-value=0.104. In the control group that angle was 0.28 degrees dorsally. Univariate regression analysis revealed that the inclination was dependent on body mass index (BMI and having symptomatic macromastia; on multiple regression it was only dependent on BMI.ConclusionsThe inclination angle of the back in breast reduction candidates is significantly different from that of controls; however, this difference is small and probably does not account for the symptoms associated with macromastia. Back inclination should not be used as a surrogate "objective" measure for symptomatic macromastia.

  11. Postural Balance in Women with Osteoporosis and Effective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Ünlüsoy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most common cause of mortality and morbidity among osteoporotic individuals is bone fracture which in many cases is a direct result of falls. Individual factors contributing to the risk of fall are poor postural balance and lack of muscle strength. Our aims were to assess postural dynamic balance in osteoporotic women and to describe the effective factors on the balance performance. Methods: Twenty osteoporotic women with kyphosis, 50 osteoporotic women without kyphosis, and 30 healthy women were included in the study. Anterior/Posterior (AP, Medial/Lateral (ML and Overall (OA stability indices were obtained using Biodex Stability System (Biodex Medical System, Shirley, NY. Subjects were tested both with eyes open and eyes closed. Quadriceps-hamstring muscles’ strength were measured with isokinetic system at angular speeds of 60-180-300°/sec. Results: OA, AP, ML stability indices in the group with osteoporosis were found to be statistically significantly higher in the open-eyed balance test. When a correlation analysis was performed on all osteoporotic patients, a negative correlation was detected between balance stability indices and knee flexion-extension strength at 60°/sec and knee flexion strength at 300°/sec. Multivariable regression analysis revealed knee extension strength at 60°/sec to be the most effective factor contributing to balance in osteoporotic patients. Conclusion: Postural balance in osteoporotic women presenting is significantly worse than in the healthy women and the factor exerting the greatest influence on balance is quadriceps muscle strength. Therefore, particular importance must be given to balance and quadriceps strengthening exercises in order to prevent falls in osteoporotic patients. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:37-43

  12. Postural instability in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozza, Stefano; Aceto, Maria Gabriella; Pisciotta, Chiara; Bruzzese, Dario; Iodice, Rosa; Santoro, Lucio; Manganelli, Fiore

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of somatosensory impairment, distal muscle weakness and foot deformities on the balance in 21 CMT1A patients using a baropodometric platform. Stabilometric analysis by measuring sway area and velocity of a centre of pressure (CoP) both at open and closed eyes were used to assess postural imbalance. Static analysis, by measuring the load and the plantar surface of forefoot, midfoot and hindfoot was used to define the footprint shape and to assess as a whole foot deformities. Stabilometric and static results were compared with those of a control group. In CMT1A patients, stabilometric findings were correlated with static parameters, Achilles' tendon retraction, distal muscle strength and CMT examination score (CMTES). CMT1A patients compared to controls had lower plantar surface and load on midfoot, and higher load on a forefoot. CMT1A patients had a greater postural instability, since they had a higher CoP velocity, both at open and closed eyes. Moreover, the CoP velocity correlated inversely with the strength of ankle dorsi-flexion muscles and directly with CMTES as whole and with the item "motor symptoms legs". Postural imbalance was not correlated with sensory impairment and foot deformities as expressed by static analysis and Achilles' tendon retraction. In this study we demonstrated an altered balance in CMT1A patients during upright standing. The imbalance in our CMT patients seems to be related to the weakness of ankle dorsi-flexor muscles rather than sensory impairment or foot deformities. These results could be due to a mildly affected CMT1A population, evaluated in an early stage of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Craniocervical Posture in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccin, Chaiane Facco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. Objective The objective of this study is to verify the craniofacial characteristics and craniocervical posture of OSA and healthy subjects, determining possible relationships with the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI. Methods This case-control study evaluated 21 subjects with OSA, who comprised the OSA group (OSAG, and 21 healthy subjects, who constituted the control group (CG. Cephalometry analyzed head posture measurements, craniofacial measurements, and air space. Head posture was also assessed by means of photogrammetry. Results The groups were homogeneous regarding gender (12 men and 9 women in each group, age (OSAG = 41.86 ± 11.26 years; GC = 41.19 ± 11.20 years, and body mass index (OSAG = 25.65 ± 2.46 kg/m2; CG = 24.72 ± 3.01 kg/m2. We found significant differences between the groups, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance between the hyoid bone and the mandibular plane in OSAG, when compared with CG. A positive correlation was found between higher head hyperextension and head anteriorization, with greater severity of OSA as assessed by AHI. Conclusion OSAG subjects showed changes in craniofacial morphology, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane, as compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, in OSA subjects, the greater the severity of OSA, the greater the head hyperextension and anteriorization.

  14. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beek Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that pictures with negative valence have a greater impact on postural control than neutral or positive ones. Thirty-four healthy subjects passively viewed a series of emotion eliciting images, while standing either in a bipedal or unipedal stance on a force plate. The images were adopted from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. We analysed mean and variability of the COP and the length of the associated sway path as a function of emotion. Results The mean position of the COP was unaffected by emotion, but unipedal stance resulted in overall greater body sway than bipedal stance. We found a modest effect of emotion on COP: viewing pictures of mutilation resulted in a smaller sway path, but only in unipedal stance. We obtained valence and arousal ratings of the images with an independent sample of viewers. These subjects rated the unpleasant images as significantly less pleasant than neutral images, and the pleasant images as significantly more pleasant than neutral images. However, the subjects rated the images as overall less pleasant and less arousing than viewers in a closely comparable American study, pointing to unknown differences in viewer characteristics. Conclusion Overall, viewing emotion eliciting images had little effect on body sway. Our finding of a reduction in sway path length when viewing pictures of mutilation was indicative of a freezing strategy, i.e. fear bradycardia. The results are consistent with current knowledge about the

  15. Effects of affective picture viewing on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stins, John F; Beek, Peter J

    2007-10-04

    Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP) trajectories. From those studies it appears that posture is modulated most when viewing pictures with negative valence. The present experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that pictures with negative valence have a greater impact on postural control than neutral or positive ones. Thirty-four healthy subjects passively viewed a series of emotion eliciting images, while standing either in a bipedal or unipedal stance on a force plate. The images were adopted from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). We analysed mean and variability of the COP and the length of the associated sway path as a function of emotion. The mean position of the COP was unaffected by emotion, but unipedal stance resulted in overall greater body sway than bipedal stance. We found a modest effect of emotion on COP: viewing pictures of mutilation resulted in a smaller sway path, but only in unipedal stance. We obtained valence and arousal ratings of the images with an independent sample of viewers. These subjects rated the unpleasant images as significantly less pleasant than neutral images, and the pleasant images as significantly more pleasant than neutral images. However, the subjects rated the images as overall less pleasant and less arousing than viewers in a closely comparable American study, pointing to unknown differences in viewer characteristics. Overall, viewing emotion eliciting images had little effect on body sway. Our finding of a reduction in sway path length when viewing pictures of mutilation was indicative of a freezing strategy, i.e. fear bradycardia. The results are consistent with current knowledge about the neuroanatomical organization of the emotion system and

  16. Ankylosing Spondylitis and Posture Control: The Role of Visual Input

    OpenAIRE

    De Nunzio, Alessandro Marco; Iervolino, Salvatore; Zincarelli, Carmela; Di Gioia, Luisa; Rengo, Giuseppe; Multari, Vincenzo; Peluso, Rosario; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Pappone, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the motor control during quiet stance in patients with established ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to evaluate the effect of visual input on the maintenance of a quiet posture. Methods. 12 male AS patients (mean age 50.1 ± 13.2 years) and 12 matched healthy subjects performed 2 sessions of 3 trials in quiet stance, with eyes open (EO) and with eyes closed (EC) on a baropodometric platform. The oscillation of the centre of feet pressure (CoP) was acquired. Indices of stab...

  17. Proper and incorrect body posture in students from music schools

    OpenAIRE

    Hadlich, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Hadlich Roland. Proper and incorrect body posture in students from music schools. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(2):562-584. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.556100 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4405 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7 © The Author...

  18. NATO Defence Planning Process. Implications for defence posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Fleischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP is the most important element affecting the Alliance's defence posture. Under the process states commit themselves to provide capabilities and forces required to fulfil NATO missions, defined in the NATO Strategic Concept. The NDPP directly affects national defence plans by harmonizing them with identified security and defence objectives as well by influencing development of the novel national defence capabilities. The emergence of new threats in the NATO environment, demands modifications in the defense planning process and establishing new goals for the Alliance. Enhancement of the NDPP should be priority during the time of unrest.

  19. The Survey of Noise and Light Effects on Body Posture During the Study in Male Dormitory of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Zamanian

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Posture of students during the study has correlation with light. Therefore, improved lightening can improve student posture and consequently a remarkable help to increase the students comfort.

  20. Postural balance, its sensory-motor correlates and self-reported functional ability in 75-year-old men and women: A cross-national comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Marianne; Pertti, Era; Avlund, Kirsten

    1999-01-01

    Social medicine, postural balance, functional ability, activities of daily living, physical activity, ageing......Social medicine, postural balance, functional ability, activities of daily living, physical activity, ageing...