WorldWideScience

Sample records for global positioning automatic

  1. Position automatic determination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book tells of method of position determination and characteristic, control method of position determination and point of design, point of sensor choice for position detector, position determination of digital control system, application of clutch break in high frequency position determination, automation technique of position determination, position determination by electromagnetic clutch and break, air cylinder, cam and solenoid, stop position control of automatic guide vehicle, stacker crane and automatic transfer control.

  2. Test Results of an F/A-18 Automatic Carrier Landing Using Shipboard Relative Global Positioning System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sousa, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Defense's Joint Precision Approach and Landing System program, the Navy is responsible for developing the shipboard coreponent, termed Shipboard Relative Global Positioning System (SRGPS...

  3. Automatic positioning control device for automatic control rod exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Seiji; Sasaki, Masayoshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To attain accurate positioning for a control rod exchanger. Constitution: The present position for an automatic control rod exchanger is detected by a synchro generator. An aimed stopping position for the exchanger, a stop instruction range depending on the distantial operation delay in the control system and the inertia-running distance of the mechanical system, and a coincidence confirmation range depending on the required positioning accuracy are previously set. If there is a difference between the present position and the aimed stopping position, the automatic exchanger is caused to run toward the aimed stopping position. A stop instruction is generated upon arrival at the position within said stop instruction range, and a coincidence confirmation signal is generated upon arrival at the position within the coincidence confirmation range. Since uncertain factors such as operation delay in the control system and the inertia-running distance of the mechanical system that influence the positioning accuracy are made definite by the method of actual measurement or the like and the stop instruction range and the coincidence confirmation range are set based on the measured data, the accuracy for the positioning can be improved. (Ikeda, J.)

  4. Automatic approach to deriving fuzzy slope positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang-Jun; Zhu, A.-Xing; Qin, Cheng-Zhi; Liu, Jun-Zhi

    2018-03-01

    Fuzzy characterization of slope positions is important for geographic modeling. Most of the existing fuzzy classification-based methods for fuzzy characterization require extensive user intervention in data preparation and parameter setting, which is tedious and time-consuming. This paper presents an automatic approach to overcoming these limitations in the prototype-based inference method for deriving fuzzy membership value (or similarity) to slope positions. The key contribution is a procedure for finding the typical locations and setting the fuzzy inference parameters for each slope position type. Instead of being determined totally by users in the prototype-based inference method, in the proposed approach the typical locations and fuzzy inference parameters for each slope position type are automatically determined by a rule set based on prior domain knowledge and the frequency distributions of topographic attributes. Furthermore, the preparation of topographic attributes (e.g., slope gradient, curvature, and relative position index) is automated, so the proposed automatic approach has only one necessary input, i.e., the gridded digital elevation model of the study area. All compute-intensive algorithms in the proposed approach were speeded up by parallel computing. Two study cases were provided to demonstrate that this approach can properly, conveniently and quickly derive the fuzzy slope positions.

  5. Development of an Automatic Identification System Autonomous Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Hu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the vulnerability of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS and provide robust position, navigation and time (PNT information in marine navigation, the autonomous positioning system based on ranging-mode Automatic Identification System (AIS is presented in the paper. The principle of the AIS autonomous positioning system (AAPS is investigated, including the position algorithm, the signal measurement technique, the geometric dilution of precision, the time synchronization technique and the additional secondary factor correction technique. In order to validate the proposed AAPS, a verification system has been established in the Xinghai sea region of Dalian (China. Static and dynamic positioning experiments are performed. The original function of the AIS in the AAPS is not influenced. The experimental results show that the positioning precision of the AAPS is better than 10 m in the area with good geometric dilution of precision (GDOP by the additional secondary factor correction technology. This is the most economical solution for a land-based positioning system to complement the GNSS for the navigation safety of vessels sailing along coasts.

  6. Global positioning site environment evaluator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leffler, S.; Reeser, H.G.; Zaker, E.; Hansen, W.; Sikorski, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Development of an innovative, integrated, automated system (Global Positioning Site Environment Evaluator - GPSEETM) for surveying contaminated waste sites is described. This system makes novel use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite constellation for establishing specific locations and current times for surveying radioactive, hazardous, or mixed-waste sites. GPSEE may also be used for waste site contamination surveys after remediation activities to ensure environmental remediation is complete. A base station is established for collecting and recording data and directing field operations for field stations which may be located many miles from the base station. The field operators collect site surveying and contamination data utilizing a variety of chemical and radiological sensors. A major goal for the data collection process is to collect all data utilizing in situ sensors, thereby minimizing the need for collecting soil and water samples. Site contamination data is transmitted electronically to the base station for recording and processing. The GPSEE system is being developed for use at DOE/DOD and a variety of industrial facilities. 3 figs

  7. Tracking control mechanisms for positioning automatic CRD exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Akira; Takada, Satoshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable completely automatic positioning for the automatic CRD (control rod drives) exchanger, as well as shorten the time for the exchanging operation and save the operator's labour. Constitution: Images of a target attached to the lower flange face of CRD are picked up by a fiber scope mounted to a mounting head. The images are converted through I.T.V. into electrical signals, passed through a cable and then sent to a pattern recognition mechanism. The position for the images of the target is calculated and the calculated position is sent to a drive control section, where the position for the images of the target is compared with a reference position for the images (exactly aligned position) and the moving amount of the mounting head is calculated to move the driving section and thereby complete the positioning. (Kawakami, Y.)

  8. Structure of the automatic system for plasma equilibrium position control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubarev, V.F.; Krivonos, Yu.G.; Samojlenko, Yu.I.; Snegur, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the principles of construction of the automatic system for plasma filament equilibrium position control inside the discharge chamber for the installation of a tokamak type. The combined current control system in control winding is suggested. The most powerful subsystem creates current in the control winding according to the program calculated beforehand. This system provides plasma rough equilibrium along the ''big radius''. The subsystem performing the current change in small limits according to the principle of feed-back coupling is provided simultaneously. The stabilization of plasma position is achieved in the discharge chamber. The advantage of construction of such system is in decreasing of the automatic requlator power without lowering the requirements to the accuracy of equilibrium preservation. The subsystem of automatic control of plasma position over the vertical is put into the system. Such an approach to the construction of the automatic control system proves to be correct; it is based on the experience of application of similar devices for some existing thermonuclear plants

  9. Automatic Construction and Global Optimization of a Multisentiment Lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual annotation of sentiment lexicons costs too much labor and time, and it is also difficult to get accurate quantification of emotional intensity. Besides, the excessive emphasis on one specific field has greatly limited the applicability of domain sentiment lexicons (Wang et al., 2010. This paper implements statistical training for large-scale Chinese corpus through neural network language model and proposes an automatic method of constructing a multidimensional sentiment lexicon based on constraints of coordinate offset. In order to distinguish the sentiment polarities of those words which may express either positive or negative meanings in different contexts, we further present a sentiment disambiguation algorithm to increase the flexibility of our lexicon. Lastly, we present a global optimization framework that provides a unified way to combine several human-annotated resources for learning our 10-dimensional sentiment lexicon SentiRuc. Experiments show the superior performance of SentiRuc lexicon in category labeling test, intensity labeling test, and sentiment classification tasks. It is worth mentioning that, in intensity label test, SentiRuc outperforms the second place by 21 percent.

  10. Automatic multi-camera calibration for deployable positioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Maria; Karlsson, Mikael; Rudner, Staffan

    2012-06-01

    Surveillance with automated positioning and tracking of subjects and vehicles in 3D is desired in many defence and security applications. Camera systems with stereo or multiple cameras are often used for 3D positioning. In such systems, accurate camera calibration is needed to obtain a reliable 3D position estimate. There is also a need for automated camera calibration to facilitate fast deployment of semi-mobile multi-camera 3D positioning systems. In this paper we investigate a method for automatic calibration of the extrinsic camera parameters (relative camera pose and orientation) of a multi-camera positioning system. It is based on estimation of the essential matrix between each camera pair using the 5-point method for intrinsically calibrated cameras. The method is compared to a manual calibration method using real HD video data from a field trial with a multicamera positioning system. The method is also evaluated on simulated data from a stereo camera model. The results show that the reprojection error of the automated camera calibration method is close to or smaller than the error for the manual calibration method and that the automated calibration method can replace the manual calibration.

  11. Automatic Compensation of Workpiece Positioning Tolerances for Precise Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Stache

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise laser welding plays a fundamental role in the production of high-tech goods, particularly in precision engineering. In this working field, precise adjustment and compensation of positioning tolerances of the parts to be welded with respect to the laser beam is of paramount importance. This procedure mostly requires tedious and error-prone manual adjustment, which additionally results in a sharp increase in production costs. We therefore developed a system which automates and thus accelerates this procedure significantly. To this end, the welding machine is equipped with a camera to acquire high resolution images of the parts to be welded. In addition, a software framework is developed which enables precise automatic position detection of these parts and adjusts the position of the welding contour correspondingly. As a result, the machine is rapidly prepared for welding, and it is much more flexible in adapting to unknown parts.This paper describes the entire concept of extending a conventional welding machine with means for image acquisition and position estimation. In addition to this description, the algorithms, the results of an evaluation of position estimation, and a final welding result are presented. 

  12. The Mathematics of the Global Positioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Gail D.; Jabon, David; Nord, John

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that illustrates the application of mathematics to modern navigation and utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS is a constellation of 24 satellites that enables receivers to compute their position anywhere on the earth with great accuracy. (DDR)

  13. The Global Positioning System: Theory and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Lester Plunkett

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study is to document the theory, development, and training needs of the United States Global Positioning System for the United States Air Force. This subject area had very little information and to assess the United States Air Force training needs required an investigation into existing training accomplished on the Global Positioning System. The United States Air Force has only one place to obtain the data at Headquarters Air Education and Training Command. Findings and conclusion. The United States Air Force, at the time of this study, does not have a theory and operations course dealing with the newest technology advancement in world navigation. Although this new technology is being provided on aircraft in the form of new navigation hardware, no official course of study is provided by the United States Air Force to it's pilots and navigators dealing with theory and operation. Based on the latest reports dealing with the Global Positioning System, a course on the Global Positioning System was developed in the Instructional Systems Design format to provide background information and understanding of this new technology. Readers of this study must be aware that the information contained in this study is very dynamic. Technology is advancing so fast in this area that it might make this information obsolete in a short amount of time.

  14. Strategic Positioning of IT in Global Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur

    2010-01-01

    understanding of the role of IT in value creation from a business process perspective, and at the same time practitioners may use it to diagnose, communicate and plan IT positioning in their companies. The tool consists of visual maps assigning different steps of the business process management lifecycle......Executives in large global corporations are faced with a number of non-alternative decision parameters determining the strategic positioning of their IT units. These parameters include organizational structures, competence development and distribution among central and local levels, goal setting...... and type of value contributed to the organization. Although the existing body of research addresses these issues in numerous ways, the concepts have not been fully applied in practice. This paper proposes a tool for strategic positioning of IT in large global companies. It contributes to the overall...

  15. PHYSICS UPDATE: The global positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Alan J.; Black, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    A hand-held global positioning system receiver displays the operator's latitude, longitude and velocity. Knowledge of GCSE-level physics will allow the basic principles of the system to be understood; knowledge of A-level physics will allow many important aspects of their implementation to be comprehended. A discussion of the system provides many simple numerical calculations relevant to school and first-year undergraduate syllabuses.

  16. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  17. Current position on software for the automatic data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the current concepts for software to control the operation of the Automatic Data Acquisition System (ADAS) proposed for the Deaf Smith County, Texas, Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF). The purpose of this report is to provide conceptual details of how the ADAS software will execute the data acquisition function, and how the software will make collected information available to the test personnel, the Data Management Group (DMG), and other authorized users. It is not intended that this report describe all of the ADAS functions in exact detail, but the concepts included herein will form the basis for the formal ADAS functional requirements definition document. 5 refs., 14 figs

  18. Global Distribution Adjustment and Nonlinear Feature Transformation for Automatic Colorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terumasa Aoki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic colorization is generally classified into two groups: propagation-based methods and reference-based methods. In reference-based automatic colorization methods, color image(s are used as reference(s to reconstruct original color of a gray target image. The most important task here is to find the best matching pairs for all pixels between reference and target images in order to transfer color information from reference to target pixels. A lot of attractive local feature-based image matching methods have already been developed for the last two decades. Unfortunately, as far as we know, there are no optimal matching methods for automatic colorization because the requirements for pixel matching in automatic colorization are wholly different from those for traditional image matching. To design an efficient matching algorithm for automatic colorization, clustering pixel with low computational cost and generating descriptive feature vector are the most important challenges to be solved. In this paper, we present a novel method to address these two problems. In particular, our work concentrates on solving the second problem (designing a descriptive feature vector; namely, we will discuss how to learn a descriptive texture feature using scaled sparse texture feature combining with a nonlinear transformation to construct an optimal feature descriptor. Our experimental results show our proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of robustness for color reconstruction for automatic colorization applications.

  19. A modern automatic Carriage-Trolley Position Control System for Dhruva fuelling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Hari Balakrishna; Narvekar, J.P.; Sanadhya, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    A fully automatic absolute encoder based position control system has been designed developed implemented and commissioned for the Dhruva Fuelling Machine A (FM/A). This supports both the coarse and fine positioning modes. Provision for fully manual positioning as a standby system has been retained. This system replaces the ageing peg counting based incremental positioner used briefly during the early period after the Dhruva FM/A was commissioned. The older system suffered from peg detection skipping problems; hence it was not being used. Only full manual positioning was being carried out. This paper describes the automatic Carriage Trolley Position Control System (CTPCS). (author)

  20. Global Plate Velocities from the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Philipsen, Steven

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed 204 days of Global Positioning System (GPS) data from the global GPS network spanning January 1991 through March 1996. On the basis of these GPS coordinate solutions, we have estimated velocities for 38 sites, mostly located on the interiors of the Africa, Antarctica, Australia, Eurasia, Nazca, North America, Pacific, and South America plates. The uncertainties of the horizontal velocity components range from 1.2 to 5.0 mm/yr. With the exception of sites on the Pacific and Nazca plates, the GPS velocities agree with absolute plate model predictions within 95% confidence. For most of the sites in North America, Antarctica, and Eurasia, the agreement is better than 2 mm/yr. We find no persuasive evidence for significant vertical motions (less than 3 standard deviations), except at four sites. Three of these four were sites constrained to geodetic reference frame velocities. The GPS velocities were then used to estimate angular velocities for eight tectonic plates. Absolute angular velocities derived from the GPS data agree with the no net rotation (NNR) NUVEL-1A model within 95% confidence except for the Pacific plate. Our pole of rotation for the Pacific plate lies 11.5 deg west of the NNR NUVEL-1A pole, with an angular speed 10% faster. Our relative angular velocities agree with NUVEL-1A except for some involving the Pacific plate. While our Pacific-North America angular velocity differs significantly from NUVEL-1A, our model and NUVEL-1A predict very small differences in relative motion along the Pacific-North America plate boundary itself. Our Pacific-Australia and Pacific- Eurasia angular velocities are significantly faster than NUVEL-1A, predicting more rapid convergence at these two plate boundaries. Along the East Pacific Pise, our Pacific-Nazca angular velocity agrees in both rate and azimuth with NUVFL-1A.

  1. Global positioning system theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann-Wellenhof, Bernhard; Collins, James

    2001-01-01

    This book is dedicated to Dr. Benjamin William Remondi for many reasons. The project of writing a Global Positioning System (GPS) book was con­ ceived in April 1988 at a GPS meeting in Darmstadt, Germany. Dr. Remondi discussed with me the need for an additional GPS textbook and suggested a possible joint effort. In 1989, I was willing to commit myself to such a project. Unfortunately, the timing was less than ideal for Dr. Remondi. Therefore, I decided to start the project with other coauthors. Dr. Remondi agreed and indicated his willingness to be a reviewer. I selected Dr. Herbert Lichtenegger, my colleague from the Technical University Graz, Austria, and Dr. James Collins from Rockville, Maryland, U.S.A. In my opinion, the knowledge ofthe three authors should cover the wide spectrum of GPS. Dr. Lichtenegger is a geodesist with broad experience in both theory and practice. He has specialized his research to geodetic astron­ omy including orbital theory and geodynamical phenomena. Since 1986, Dr. Lichteneg...

  2. Automatic analysis of intrinsic positional verification films brachytherapy using MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiros Higueras, J. D.; Marco Blancas, N. de; Ruiz Rodriguez, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the essential tests in quality control of brachytherapy equipment is verification auto load intrinsic positional radioactive source. A classic method for evaluation is the use of x-ray film and measuring the distance between the marks left by autoradiography of the source with respect to a reference. In our center has developed an automated method of measurement by the radiochromic film scanning and implementation of a macro developed in Matlab, in order to optimize time and reduce uncertainty in the measurement. The purpose of this paper is to describe the method developed, assess their uncertainty and quantify their advantages over the manual method. (Author)

  3. Connect Global Positioning System RF Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Garth W.; Young, Lawrence E.; Ciminera, Michael A.; Tien, Jeffrey Y.; Gorelik, Jacob; Okihiro, Brian Bachman; Koelewyn, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    The CoNNeCT Global Positioning System RF Module (GPSM) slice is part of the JPL CoNNeCT Software Defined Radio (SDR). CoNNeCT is the Communications, Navigation, and Net working reconfigurable Testbed project that is part of NASA's Space Communication and Nav igation (SCaN) Program. The CoNNeCT project is an experimental dem onstration that will lead to the advancement of SDRs and provide a path for new space communication and navigation systems for future NASA exploration missions. The JPL CoNNeCT SDR will be flying on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2012 in support of the SCaN CoNNeCT program. The GPSM is a radio-frequency sampler module (see Figure 1) that directly sub-harmonically samples the filtered GPS L-band signals at L1 (1575.42 MHz), L2 (1227.6 MHz), and L5 (1176.45 MHz). The JPL SDR receives GPS signals through a Dorne & Margolin antenna mounted onto a choke ring. The GPS signal is filtered against interference, amplified, split, and fed into three channels: L1, L2, and L5. In each of the L-band channels, there is a chain of bandpass filters and amplifiers, and the signal is fed through each of these channels to where the GPSM performs a one-bit analog-to-digital conversion (see Figure 2). The GPSM uses a sub-harmonic, single-bit L1, L2, and L5 sampler that samples at a clock rate of 38.656 MHz. The new capability is the down-conversion and sampling of the L5 signal when previous hardware did not provide this capability. The first GPS IIF Satellite was launched in 2010, providing the new L5 signal. With the JPL SDR flying on the ISS, it will be possible to demonstrate navigation solutions with 10-meter 3-D accuracy at 10-second intervals using a field-program mable gate array (FPGA)-based feedback loop running at 50 Hz. The GPS data bits will be decoded and used in the SDR. The GPSM will also allow other waveforms that are installed in the SDR to demonstrate various GNSS tracking techniques.

  4. Discriminating between true-positive and false-positive clinical mastitis alerts from automatic milking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Gaag, van der L.C.; Ouweltjes, W.; Mollenhorst, H.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) generate alert lists reporting cows likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). Dutch farmers indicated that they use non-AMS cow information or the detailed alert information from the AMS to decide whether to check an alerted cow for CM. However, it is not yet known to

  5. Automatic beam position control at Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.; Pillai, C.; Zumbro, M.

    1997-01-01

    Historically the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) has used manual methods to control the position of the 800 kW, 800 MeV proton beam on targets. New experiments, however, require more stringent position control more frequently than can be done manually for long periods of time. Data from an existing harp is used to automatically adjust steering magnets to maintain beam position to required tolerances

  6. Automatic Type Recognition and Mapping of Global Tropical Cyclone Disaster Chains (TDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The catastrophic events caused by meteorological disasters are becoming more severe in the context of global warming. The disaster chains triggered by Tropical Cyclones induce the serious losses of population and economy. It is necessary to make the regional type recognition of Tropical Cyclone Disaster Chain (TDC effective in order to make targeted preventions. This study mainly explores the method of automatic recognition and the mapping of TDC and designs a software system. We constructed an automatic recognition system in terms of the characteristics of a hazard-formative environment based on the theory of a natural disaster system. The ArcEngine components enable an intelligent software system to present results by the automatic mapping approach. The study data comes from global metadata such as Digital Elevation Model (DEM, terrain slope, population density and Gross Domestic Product (GDP. The result shows that: (1 according to the characteristic of geomorphology type, we establish a type of recognition system for global TDC; (2 based on the recognition principle, we design a software system with the functions of automatic recognition and mapping; and (3 we validate the type of distribution in terms of real cases of TDC. The result shows that the automatic recognition function has good reliability. The study can provide the basis for targeted regional disaster prevention strategy, as well as regional sustainable development.

  7. Measuring Global Position Using the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Evan; Hughes, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The determination of latitude and longitude on Earth has always been of interest to explorers and cartographers alike. Accurate positional information is often needed for rescue purposes in locations where satellite navigational systems are inoperable. The activity described in this paper demonstrates a simple procedure to determine latitude and…

  8. SU-E-J-15: Automatically Detect Patient Treatment Position and Orientation in KV Portal Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, J [Washington University in St Louis, Taian, Shandong (China); Yang, D [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In the course of radiation therapy, the complex information processing workflow will Result in potential errors, such as incorrect or inaccurate patient setups. With automatic image check and patient identification, such errors could be effectively reduced. For this purpose, we developed a simple and rapid image processing method, to automatically detect the patient position and orientation in 2D portal images, so to allow automatic check of positions and orientations for patient daily RT treatments. Methods: Based on the principle of portal image formation, a set of whole body DRR images were reconstructed from multiple whole body CT volume datasets, and fused together to be used as the matching template. To identify the patient setup position and orientation shown in a 2D portal image, the 2D portal image was preprocessed (contrast enhancement, down-sampling and couch table detection), then matched to the template image so to identify the laterality (left or right), position, orientation and treatment site. Results: Five day’s clinical qualified portal images were gathered randomly, then were processed by the automatic detection and matching method without any additional information. The detection results were visually checked by physicists. 182 images were correct detection in a total of 200kV portal images. The correct rate was 91%. Conclusion: The proposed method can detect patient setup and orientation quickly and automatically. It only requires the image intensity information in KV portal images. This method can be useful in the framework of Electronic Chart Check (ECCK) to reduce the potential errors in workflow of radiation therapy and so to improve patient safety. In addition, the auto-detection results, as the patient treatment site position and patient orientation, could be useful to guide the sequential image processing procedures, e.g. verification of patient daily setup accuracy. This work was partially supported by research grant from

  9. SU-E-J-15: Automatically Detect Patient Treatment Position and Orientation in KV Portal Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, J; Yang, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In the course of radiation therapy, the complex information processing workflow will Result in potential errors, such as incorrect or inaccurate patient setups. With automatic image check and patient identification, such errors could be effectively reduced. For this purpose, we developed a simple and rapid image processing method, to automatically detect the patient position and orientation in 2D portal images, so to allow automatic check of positions and orientations for patient daily RT treatments. Methods: Based on the principle of portal image formation, a set of whole body DRR images were reconstructed from multiple whole body CT volume datasets, and fused together to be used as the matching template. To identify the patient setup position and orientation shown in a 2D portal image, the 2D portal image was preprocessed (contrast enhancement, down-sampling and couch table detection), then matched to the template image so to identify the laterality (left or right), position, orientation and treatment site. Results: Five day’s clinical qualified portal images were gathered randomly, then were processed by the automatic detection and matching method without any additional information. The detection results were visually checked by physicists. 182 images were correct detection in a total of 200kV portal images. The correct rate was 91%. Conclusion: The proposed method can detect patient setup and orientation quickly and automatically. It only requires the image intensity information in KV portal images. This method can be useful in the framework of Electronic Chart Check (ECCK) to reduce the potential errors in workflow of radiation therapy and so to improve patient safety. In addition, the auto-detection results, as the patient treatment site position and patient orientation, could be useful to guide the sequential image processing procedures, e.g. verification of patient daily setup accuracy. This work was partially supported by research grant from

  10. Euthanasia: India's position in the global scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Skand; Goel, Ashish

    2013-11-01

    Euthanasia requests have increased as the number of debilitated patients rises in both developed and developing countries such as India due to medical, psychosocial-emotional, socioenvironmental, and existential issues amid fears of potential misuse. WORLD'S POSITION: Albania, Colombia, the Netherlands, and Switzerland permit euthanasia conditionally. Australia's legalization of euthanasia has been withdrawn. The United States permits withdrawal of life support. Mexico and Norway permit active euthanasia. INDIA'S POSITION: Following the Aruna Shanbaug case the Supreme Court granted legal sanction to passive, but not active, euthanasia that is valid till the Parliament legislates on euthanasia. HANDLING EUTHANASIA REQUESTS: Acknowledging the complexity of the problem; individualizing the palliative approach; and accepting the 'There is no alternative' or 'There is no answer' (TINA) factor.

  11. Development of a Motion Sensing and Automatic Positioning Universal Planisphere Using Augmented Reality Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernhuar Tarng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study combines the augmented reality technology and the sensor functions of GPS, electronic compass, and 3-axis accelerometer on mobile devices to develop a motion sensing and automatic positioning universal planisphere. It can create local star charts according to the current date, time, and position and help users locate constellations on the planisphere easily through motion sensing operation. By holding the mobile device towards the target constellation in the sky, the azimuth and elevation angles are obtained automatically for mapping to its correct position on the star chart. The proposed system combines observational activities with physical operation and spatial cognition for developing correct astronomical concepts, thus making learning more effective. It contains a built-in 3D virtual starry sky to enable observation in classroom for supporting teaching applications. The learning process can be shortened by setting varying observation date, time, and latitude. Therefore, it is a useful tool for astronomy education.

  12. Error Analysis of Determining Airplane Location by Global Positioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Burat, Alper

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the error analysis of determining airplane location by global positioning system (GPS) using statistical testing method. The Newton Rhapson method positions the airplane at the intersection point of four spheres. Absolute errors, relative errors and standard deviation have been calculated The results show that the positioning error of the airplane varies with the coordinates of GPS satellite and the airplane.

  13. Automatic exchange of information: towards a new global standard of tax transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Eduardo Pecho Trigueros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax authorities are increasingly relying on mutual cooperation with their foreign peers to enforce more effectively their internal tax laws. After the banking scandals of 2008 and the subsequent global financial crisis, the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for TaxPurposes has proposed the exchange of information upon request as the fiscal transparency standard. However, some measures adopted by the European Union, previous initiatives from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD and, above all, the introduction of the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (Fatca by the United States in 2010 have promoted the need to adopt the automatic exchange of information as the new fiscal transparency standard. Automatic exchange of information allows home countries to verify whether their taxpayers have correctly included foreign income, allowing tax authorities to have early warning of possible noncompliance cases. In February 2014, the OECD published its proposal for a new global model of automatic exchange of financial account information. The new global model contains the necessary legal instruments and due diligence and reporting procedures, mainly for financial institutions.

  14. The availability of relatively cheap hand-held Global Positioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    conditions, so the approach failed to produce results ... Hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provide opportunities for detailed and rapid mapping of features ..... TICKELL, W. L. N. 1968 — The biology of the great albatrosses,.

  15. Comparison of Efficacy and Tolerance of Automatic Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Devices With the Optimum Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommi, George; Aronow, Wilbert S; Sheehan, John C; McCleay, Matthew T; Meyers, Patrick G

    Patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were randomly placed on automatic continuous positive airway pressure (ACPAP) for 2 hours followed by manual titration for the rest of the night. One hundred sixty-one patients entered the study, with at least 50 patients titrated with each of 3 ACPAP devices. The optimum continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was defined as the lowest pressure with an apnea-hypoxia index of ≤5/hr, which ranged from 4 cm to 18 cm. Success with ACPAP was approximately 60%-80% when the optimum CPAP was 4-6 cm but fell to below 30% if the optimum CPAP was ≥8 cm (P = 0.001). Average ACPAP ranged from 2 to 10 cm below the optimum level if the optimum CPAP was ≥8 cm. Patients who responded to a low CPAP but deteriorated on higher pressures failed to respond to any of the automatic devices. We recommend that CPAP titration be performed manually before initiation of ACPAP in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The basal pressure for ACPAP should be the optimum pressure obtained by manual titration. Limits on the upper level of ACPAP may be necessary for patients who deteriorate on higher positive pressures.

  16. Automatic Exchange of Information as the new global standard: the end of (offshore tax evasion) history?

    OpenAIRE

    Meinzer, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Automatic exchange of information (AEoI) for tax purposes has become the global standard for international tax cooperation in 2013. As a tool for containing offshore tax evasion, it has encountered opposition in the past and continues to be fraught with challenges. This paper recapitulates the rationale for AEoI, including estimates on the magnitudes of assets held offshore, with a specific focus on Turkish assets held in Germany (chapter 1). Subsequently, chapter 2 summarises the recent hist...

  17. Automatic associations with the sensory aspects of smoking: Positive in habitual smokers but negative in non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Huijding, Jorg; Jong, Peter

    2006-01-01

    textabstractTo test whether pictorial stimuli that focus on the sensory aspects of smoking elicit different automatic affective associations in smokers than in non-smokers, 31 smoking and 33 non-smoking students completed a single target IAT. Explicit attitudes were assessed using a semantic differential. Automatic affective associations were positive in smokers but negative in non-smokers. Only automatic affective associations but not self-reported attitudes were significantly correlated wit...

  18. The Ether Wind and the Global Positioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    Explains how students can perform a refutation of the ether theory using information from the Global Positioning System (GPS). Discusses the functioning of the GPS, qualitatively describes how position determination would be affected by an ether wind, and illustrates the pertinent ideas with a simple quantitative model. (WRM)

  19. 78 FR 22554 - Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System (NDGPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... accuracy and integrity of the Global Positioning System (GPS) derived positions for surface transportation..., contact LT Luke Byrd, Coast Guard, NDGPS Program Manager, telephone 202-372-1547 or email Robert.l.byrd... The NDGPS augments GPS with an additional differential correction signal. Differential GPS (DGPS...

  20. Capacitive beam position monitors and automatic beam centering in the transfer lines of Ganil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudewicz, P.; Petit, E.

    1991-01-01

    A non-interceptive beam position monitor, made of four capacitive electrodes, has been designed at GANIL in order to allow a permanent measurement of the ion beam position over a large intensity range (50 enA to 10 eμA). Signal processing is based on a 10 kHz heterodyne and on an amplitude to phase conversion in order to measure the beam position. An immediate application of these monitors is the automatic beam centering. For this, two algorithms have been developed using the information on the center of gravity given by the beam position monitors which is then fed back to the steerers, an iterative method and a variational method. Both methods have been used on a section of beam line and have given similar and encouraging results. The next step is to center the beam on the completely equipped line. (author) 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Towards automatic patient positioning and scan planning using continuously moving table MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koken, Peter; Dries, Sebastian P M; Keupp, Jochen; Bystrov, Daniel; Pekar, Vladimir; Börnert, Peter

    2009-10-01

    A concept is proposed to simplify patient positioning and scan planning to improve ease of use and workflow in MR. After patient preparation in front of the scanner the operator selects the anatomy of interest by a single push-button action. Subsequently, the patient table is moved automatically into the scanner, while real-time 3D isotropic low-resolution continuously moving table scout scanning is performed using patient-independent MR system settings. With a real-time organ identification process running in parallel and steering the scanner, the target anatomy can be positioned fully automatically in the scanner's sensitive volume. The desired diagnostic examination of the anatomy of interest can be planned and continued immediately using the geometric information derived from the acquired 3D data. The concept was implemented and successfully tested in vivo in 12 healthy volunteers, focusing on the liver as the target anatomy. The positioning accuracy achieved was on the order of several millimeters, which turned out to be sufficient for initial planning purposes. Furthermore, the impact of nonoptimal system settings on the positioning performance, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was investigated. The present work proved the basic concept of the proposed approach as an element of future scan automation. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Automatic luminous reflections detector using global threshold with increased luminosity contrast in images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo Petri; Naozuka, Gustavo Taiji; Mastelini, Saulo Martiello; Felinto, Alan Salvany

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of luminous reflections (LR) in captured images can interfere with the color of the affected regions. These regions tend to oversaturate, becoming whitish and, consequently, losing the original color information of the scene. Decision processes that employ images acquired from digital cameras can be impaired by the LR incidence. Such applications include real-time video surgeries, facial, and ocular recognition. This work proposes an algorithm called contrast enhancement of potential LR regions, which is a preprocessing to increase the contrast of potential LR regions, in order to improve the performance of automatic LR detectors. In addition, three automatic detectors were compared with and without the employment of our preprocessing method. The first one is a technique already consolidated in the literature called the Chang-Tseng threshold. We propose two automatic detectors called adapted histogram peak and global threshold. We employed four performance metrics to evaluate the detectors, namely, accuracy, precision, exactitude, and root mean square error. The exactitude metric is developed by this work. Thus, a manually defined reference model was created. The global threshold detector combined with our preprocessing method presented the best results, with an average exactitude rate of 82.47%.

  3. AUTOMATIC GLOBAL REGISTRATION BETWEEN AIRBORNE LIDAR DATA AND REMOTE SENSING IMAGE BASED ON STRAIGHT LINE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An automatic global registration approach for point clouds and remote sensing image based on straight line features is proposed which is insensitive to rotational and scale transformation. First, the building ridge lines and contour lines in point clouds are automatically detected as registration primitives by integrating region growth and topology identification. Second, the collinear condition equation is selected as registration transformation function which is based on rotation matrix described by unit quaternion. The similarity measure is established according to the distance between the corresponding straight line features from point clouds and the image in the same reference coordinate system. Finally, an iterative Hough transform is adopted to simultaneously estimate the parameters and obtain correspondence between registration primitives. Experimental results prove the proposed method is valid and the spectral information is useful for the following classification processing.

  4. Global positioning method based on polarized light compass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yang, Jiangtao; Wang, Yubo; Tang, Jun; Shen, Chong

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a global positioning method based on a polarized light compass system. A main limitation of polarization positioning is the environment such as weak and locally destroyed polarization environments, and the solution to the positioning problem is given in this paper which is polarization image de-noising and segmentation. Therefore, the pulse coupled neural network is employed for enhancing positioning performance. The prominent advantages of the present positioning technique are as follows: (i) compared to the existing position method based on polarized light, better sun tracking accuracy can be achieved and (ii) the robustness and accuracy of positioning under weak and locally destroyed polarization environments, such as cloudy or building shielding, are improved significantly. Finally, some field experiments are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed global positioning technique. The experiments have shown that our proposed method outperforms the conventional polarization positioning method, the real time longitude and latitude with accuracy up to 0.0461° and 0.0911°, respectively.

  5. Research on Automatic Positioning System of Ultrasonic Testing of Wind Turbine Blade Flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q. X.; Wang, Z. H.; Long, S. G.; Cai, M.; Cai, M.; Wang, X.; Chen, X. Y.; Bu, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    Ultrasonic testing technology has been used essentially in non-destructive testing of wind turbine blades. However, it is fact that the ultrasonic flaw detection method has inefficiently employed in recent years. This is because the testing result will illustrate a small deviation due to the artificial, environmental and technical factors. Therefore, it is an urgent technical demand for engineers to test the various flaws efficiently and quickly. An automatic positioning system has been designed in this paper to record the moving coordinates and the target distance in real time. Simultaneously, it could launch and acquire the sonic wave automatically. The ADNS-3080 optoelectronic chip is manufactured by Agilent Technologies Inc, which is also utilized in the system. With the combination of the chip, the power conversion module and the USB transmission module, the collected data can be transmitted from the upper monitor to the hardware that could process and control the data through software programming. An experiment has been designed to prove the reliability of automotive positioning system. The result has been validated by comparing the result collected form LABVIEW and actual plots on Perspex plane, it concludes that the system possesses high accuracy and magnificent meanings in practical engineering.

  6. A semi-automatic method for positioning a femoral bone reconstruction for strict view generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Federico; Ritacco, Lucas; Gomez, Adrian; Gonzalez Bernaldo de Quiros, Fernan; Risk, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a semi-automatic method for femoral bone positioning after 3D image reconstruction from Computed Tomography images. This serves as grounding for the definition of strict axial, longitudinal and anterior-posterior views, overcoming the problem of patient positioning biases in 2D femoral bone measuring methods. After the bone reconstruction is aligned to a standard reference frame, new tomographic slices can be generated, on which unbiased measures may be taken. This could allow not only accurate inter-patient comparisons but also intra-patient comparisons, i.e., comparisons of images of the same patient taken at different times. This method could enable medical doctors to diagnose and follow up several bone deformities more easily.

  7. Fast interpolation for Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite orbits

    OpenAIRE

    Clynch, James R.; Sagovac, Christopher Patrick; Danielson, D. A. (Donald A.); Neta, Beny

    1995-01-01

    In this report, we discuss and compare several methods for polynomial interpolation of Global Positioning Systems ephemeris data. We show that the use of difference tables is more efficient than the method currently in use to construct and evaluate the Lagrange polynomials.

  8. The Evolution of Global Positioning System (GPS) Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Moore, Kevin B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes technological advances in the Global Positioning System (GPS), which is also known as the NAVSTAR GPS satellite constellation program developed in 1937, and changes in the nature of our world by GPS in the areas of agriculture, health, military, transportation, environment, wildlife biology, surveying and mapping, space applications, and…

  9. A unified approach to global and local beam position feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will implement both global and local beam position feedback systems to stabilize the particle and X-ray beams for the storage ring. The global feedback system uses 40 BPMs and 40 correctors per plane. Singular value decomposition (SVD) of the response matrix is used for closed orbit correction. The local feedback system uses two X-ray BPMS, two rf BPMS, and the four-magnet local bump to control the angle and displacement of the X-ray beam from a bending magnet or an insertion device. Both the global and local feedback systems are based on digital signal processing (DSP) running at 4-kHz sampling rate with a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control algorithm. In this paper, we will discuss resolution of the conflict among multiple local feedback systems due to local bump closure error and decoupling of the global and local feedback systems to maximize correction efficiency. In this scheme, the global feedback system absorbs the local bump closure error and the local feedback systems compensate for the effect of global feedback on the local beamlines. The required data sharing between the global and local feedback systems is done through the fiber-optically networked reflective memory

  10. Position of the European Union in the Global Trade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević Mladen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago, the main drivers of globalization were the exchange of goods and capital flows, while the global trading system of today, fuelled by rapid technological changes increasingly bases itself on knowledge. The Key events - such as the use of the Internet and the increasingly important role of the rising countries economies - have contributed to a faster global exchange, but to a new nature as well. In order to illustrate the scope of the increase, perhaps it would be the best to mention the fact that in the 1970’s the share of trade in the world GDP amounted to 20%, whereas today it makes about one half. On the other hand, modern products represent compounds of raw materials, components, technologies and services originating from different areas and different continents, which has globalized the products themselves. In such conditions of the market competition, imposed by globalization and liberalization, for the European Union to remain as a leader, it had to prepare a sound and well-founded foreign policy strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current position of the European Union in the global trading system, instruments of foreign trade policy, goals, foreign trade and the main challenges placed before the Union.

  11. Impacts of GNSS position offsets on global frame stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jake; Ray, Jim

    2014-05-01

    Positional offsets appear in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) time series for a variety of reasons. Antenna or radome changes are the most common cause for these discontinuities. Many others are from earthquakes, receiver changes, and different anthropogenic modifications at or near the stations. Some jumps appear for unknown or undocumented reasons. The accurate determination of station velocities, and therefore geophysical parameters and terrestrial reference frames, requires that positional offsets be correctly found and compensated. Williams (2003) found that undetected offsets introduce a random walk error component in individual station time series. The topic of detecting positional offsets has received considerable attention in recent years (e.g., Detection of Offsets in GPS Experiment; DOGEx), and most research groups using GNSS have adopted a combination of manual and automated methods for finding them. The removal of a positional offset is usually handled by estimating the average station position on both sides of the discontinuity, assuming a constant, continuous velocity. This is sufficient in the absence of time-correlated errors. However, GNSS time series contain systematic and power-law errors (white to random walk noise). In this paper, we aim to evaluate the impact to both individual station results and the overall stability of the global reference frame from adding increasing numbers of positional discontinuities. We use the International GNSS Service (IGS) weekly SINEX files, and iteratively insert positional offset parameters at the midpoint of each data segment. Each iteration includes a restacking of the modified SINEX files using the CATREF software from Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN) to estimate: regularized station positions, secular velocities, Earth orientation parameters, Helmert frame alignment parameters, and the empirical shifts across all positional discontinuities. A comparison of the

  12. Automatic control of positioning along the joint during EBW in conditions of action of magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhinina, A. A.; Laptenok, V. D.; Murygin, A. V.; Laptenok, P. V.

    2016-11-01

    Positioning along the joint during the electron beam welding is a difficult scientific and technical problem to achieve the high quality of welds. The final solution of this problem is not found. This is caused by weak interference protection of sensors of the joint position directly in the welding process. Frequently during the electron beam welding magnetic fields deflect the electron beam from the optical axis of the electron beam gun. The collimated X-ray sensor is used to monitor the beam deflection caused by the action of magnetic fields. Signal of X-ray sensor is processed by the method of synchronous detection. Analysis of spectral characteristics of the X-ray sensor showed that the displacement of the joint from the optical axis of the gun affects on the output signal of sensor. The authors propose dual-circuit system for automatic positioning of the electron beam on the joint during the electron beam welding in conditions of action of magnetic interference. This system includes a contour of joint tracking and contour of compensation of magnetic fields. The proposed system is stable. Calculation of dynamic error of system showed that error of positioning does not exceed permissible deviation of the electron beam from the joint plane.

  13. Automatic laser beam position control on the Isolde-Rilis experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Grancharova, D; Fedosseev, V; Suberlucq, Guy; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE at CERN is a facility for production of radioactive ion beams by the interaction of proton beams with a thick target. One of the most widely used types of ion source at ISOLDE is a chemically selective laser ion source based on the method of laser ionization of atoms in a hot cavity - RILIS (Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source). The optical set-up of RILIS includes three copper vapour lasers, a set of dye lasers and frequency multiplication crystals giving up to three different beams of tuneable wavelengths. This paper will focus on the transport of the laser beams to the targets at distances of 18 m and 23 m, the development of the acquisition of their position and finally the automatic control of optics for an accurate alignment.

  14. Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Crowther, Thomas W; Picard, Nicolas; Wiser, Susan; Zhou, Mo; Alberti, Giorgio; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; McGuire, A David; Bozzato, Fabio; Pretzsch, Hans; de-Miguel, Sergio; Paquette, Alain; Hérault, Bruno; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Barrett, Christopher B; Glick, Henry B; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Viana, Helder; Vibrans, Alexander C; Ammer, Christian; Schall, Peter; Verbyla, David; Tchebakova, Nadja; Fischer, Markus; Watson, James V; Chen, Han Y H; Lei, Xiangdong; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Lu, Huicui; Gianelle, Damiano; Parfenova, Elena I; Salas, Christian; Lee, Eungul; Lee, Boknam; Kim, Hyun Seok; Bruelheide, Helge; Coomes, David A; Piotto, Daniel; Sunderland, Terry; Schmid, Bernhard; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Sonké, Bonaventure; Tavani, Rebecca; Zhu, Jun; Brandl, Susanne; Vayreda, Jordi; Kitahara, Fumiaki; Searle, Eric B; Neldner, Victor J; Ngugi, Michael R; Baraloto, Christopher; Frizzera, Lorenzo; Bałazy, Radomir; Oleksyn, Jacek; Zawiła-Niedźwiecki, Tomasz; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bussotti, Filippo; Finér, Leena; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Jucker, Tommaso; Valladares, Fernando; Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Peri, Pablo L; Gonmadje, Christelle; Marthy, William; O'Brien, Timothy; Martin, Emanuel H; Marshall, Andrew R; Rovero, Francesco; Bitariho, Robert; Niklaus, Pascal A; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Chamuya, Nurdin; Valencia, Renato; Mortier, Frédéric; Wortel, Verginia; Engone-Obiang, Nestor L; Ferreira, Leandro V; Odeke, David E; Vasquez, Rodolfo M; Lewis, Simon L; Reich, Peter B

    2016-10-14

    The biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on ecosystem functioning. Understanding BPR is critical for the accurate valuation and effective conservation of biodiversity. Using ground-sourced data from 777,126 permanent plots, spanning 44 countries and most terrestrial biomes, we reveal a globally consistent positive concave-down BPR, showing that continued biodiversity loss would result in an accelerating decline in forest productivity worldwide. The value of biodiversity in maintaining commercial forest productivity alone-US$166 billion to 490 billion per year according to our estimation-is more than twice what it would cost to implement effective global conservation. This highlights the need for a worldwide reassessment of biodiversity values, forest management strategies, and conservation priorities. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Integrating different tracking systems in football: multiple camera semi-automatic system, local position measurement and GPS technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Allen, Adam; Poon, Tsz Kit; Modonutti, Mattia; Gregson, Warren; Di Salvo, Valter

    2014-12-01

    Abstract During the past decade substantial development of computer-aided tracking technology has occurred. Therefore, we aimed to provide calibration equations to allow the interchangeability of different tracking technologies used in soccer. Eighty-two highly trained soccer players (U14-U17) were monitored during training and one match. Player activity was collected simultaneously with a semi-automatic multiple-camera (Prozone), local position measurement (LPM) technology (Inmotio) and two global positioning systems (GPSports and VX). Data were analysed with respect to three different field dimensions (small, systems were compared, and calibration equations (linear regression models) between each system were calculated for each field dimension. Most metrics differed between the 4 systems with the magnitude of the differences dependant on both pitch size and the variable of interest. Trivial-to-small between-system differences in total distance were noted. However, high-intensity running distance (>14.4 km · h -1 ) was slightly-to-moderately greater when tracked with Prozone, and accelerations, small-to-very largely greater with LPM. For most of the equations, the typical error of the estimate was of a moderate magnitude. Interchangeability of the different tracking systems is possible with the provided equations, but care is required given their moderate typical error of the estimate.

  16. Global Positioning System: Political Support, Directions of Development, and Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Czaplewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade the Global Positioning System has become a global, multifunctional tool which provides services that are an integral part of U.S. national security as well as the security of other highly developed countries. Economic development, transport security as well as homeland security are important elements of the global economic infrastructure. In 2000 the United States acknowledged the growing significance of GPS for civilian users and stopped intentionally degrading accuracy for non-military signals that are known as “Selective Availability”. Since then, commercial applications of satellite systems have been proliferating even more rapidly, and therefore, their importance in everyday life has greatly increased. Currently, services that depend on information obtained from the Global Positioning System are the driving force behind economic growth, economic development and the improvement in life safety. This economic development would not be possible without the financial and political support of the US government to maintain the operation of the GPS system. Therefore it is important to have knowledge about the intentions of the US government how system GPS will be developed in the future. Decisions taken in the last 3 months are the subject of this article.

  17. Helicopter precision approach capability using the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, David N.

    1992-01-01

    The period between 1 July and 31 December, 1992, was spent developing a research plan as well as a navigation system document and flight test plan to investigate helicopter precision approach capability using the Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition, all hardware and software required for the research was acquired, developed, installed, and verified on both the test aircraft and the ground-based reference station.

  18. Automatic, Global and Dynamic Student Modeling in a Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Graf

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous learning allows students to learn at any time and any place. Adaptivity plays an important role in ubiquitous learning, aiming at providing students with adaptive and personalized learning material, activities, and information at the right place and the right time. However, for providing rich adaptivity, the student model needs to be able to gather a variety of information about the students. In this paper, an automatic, global, and dynamic student modeling approach is introduced, which aims at identifying and frequently updating information about students’ progress, learning styles, interests and knowledge level, problem solving abilities, preferences for using the system, social connectivity, and current location. This information is gathered in an automatic way, using students’ behavior and actions in different learning situations provided by different components/services of the ubiquitous learning environment. By providing a comprehensive student model, students can be supported by rich adaptivity in every component/service of the learning environment. Furthermore, the information in the student model can help in giving teachers a better understanding about the students’ learning process.

  19. FliPer: checking the reliability of global seismic parameters from automatic pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnet, L.; García, R. A.; Davies, G. R.; Mathur, S.; Corsaro, E.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of stars through asteroseismic data analysis is limited by our ability to take advantage of the huge amount of observed stars provided by space missions such as CoRoT, \\keplerp, \\ktop, and soon TESS and PLATO. Global seismic pipelines provide global stellar parameters such as mass and radius using the mean seismic parameters, as well as the effective temperature. These pipelines are commonly used automatically on thousands of stars observed by K2 for 3 months (and soon TESS for at least ˜ 1 month). However, pipelines are not immune from misidentifying noise peaks and stellar oscillations. Therefore, new validation techniques are required to assess the quality of these results. We present a new metric called FliPer (Flicker in Power), which takes into account the average variability at all measured time scales. The proper calibration of \\powvar enables us to obtain good estimations of global stellar parameters such as surface gravity that are robust against the influence of noise peaks and hence are an excellent way to find faults in asteroseismic pipelines.

  20. High accuracy autonomous navigation using the global positioning system (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Son H.; Hart, Roger C.; Shoan, Wendy C.; Wood, Terri; Long, Anne C.; Oza, Dipak H.; Lee, Taesul

    1997-01-01

    The application of global positioning system (GPS) technology to the improvement of the accuracy and economy of spacecraft navigation, is reported. High-accuracy autonomous navigation algorithms are currently being qualified in conjunction with the GPS attitude determination flyer (GADFLY) experiment for the small satellite technology initiative Lewis spacecraft. Preflight performance assessments indicated that these algorithms are able to provide a real time total position accuracy of better than 10 m and a velocity accuracy of better than 0.01 m/s, with selective availability at typical levels. It is expected that the position accuracy will be increased to 2 m if corrections are provided by the GPS wide area augmentation system.

  1. Using RFID Positioning Technology to Construct an Automatic Rehabilitation Scheduling Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Sheng; Hung, Lun-Ping; Yen, Neil Y

    2016-01-01

    Accurately and efficiently identifying the location of patients during the course of rehabilitation is an important issue. Wireless transmission technology can reach this goal. Tracking technologies such as RFID (Radio frequency identification) can support process improvement and improve efficiencies of rehabilitation. There are few published models or methods to solve the problem of positioning and apply this technology in the rehabilitation center. We propose a mechanism to enhance the accuracy of positioning technology and provide information about turns and obstacles on the path; and user-centered services based on location-aware to enhanced quality care in rehabilitation environment. This paper outlines the requirements and the role of RFID in assisting rehabilitation environment. A prototype RFID hospital support tool is established. It is designed to provide assistance for monitoring rehabilitation patients. It can simultaneously calculate the rehabilitant's location and the duration of treatment, and automatically record the rehabilitation course of the rehabilitant, so as to improve the management efficiency of the rehabilitation program.

  2. Influence of Sample Size on Automatic Positional Accuracy Assessment Methods for Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ariza-López

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, new approaches aimed to increase the automation level of positional accuracy assessment processes for spatial data have been developed. However, in such cases, an aspect as significant as sample size has not yet been addressed. In this paper, we study the influence of sample size when estimating the planimetric positional accuracy of urban databases by means of an automatic assessment using polygon-based methodology. Our study is based on a simulation process, which extracts pairs of homologous polygons from the assessed and reference data sources and applies two buffer-based methods. The parameter used for determining the different sizes (which range from 5 km up to 100 km has been the length of the polygons’ perimeter, and for each sample size 1000 simulations were run. After completing the simulation process, the comparisons between the estimated distribution functions for each sample and population distribution function were carried out by means of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Results show a significant reduction in the variability of estimations when sample size increased from 5 km to 100 km.

  3. Fully automatic time-window selection using machine learning for global adjoint tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hill, J.; Lei, W.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Bozdag, E.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

    2017-12-01

    Selecting time windows from seismograms such that the synthetic measurements (from simulations) and measured observations are sufficiently close is indispensable in a global adjoint tomography framework. The increasing amount of seismic data collected everyday around the world demands "intelligent" algorithms for seismic window selection. While the traditional FLEXWIN algorithm can be "automatic" to some extent, it still requires both human input and human knowledge or experience, and thus is not deemed to be fully automatic. The goal of intelligent window selection is to automatically select windows based on a learnt engine that is built upon a huge number of existing windows generated through the adjoint tomography project. We have formulated the automatic window selection problem as a classification problem. All possible misfit calculation windows are classified as either usable or unusable. Given a large number of windows with a known selection mode (select or not select), we train a neural network to predict the selection mode of an arbitrary input window. Currently, the five features we extract from the windows are its cross-correlation value, cross-correlation time lag, amplitude ratio between observed and synthetic data, window length, and minimum STA/LTA value. More features can be included in the future. We use these features to characterize each window for training a multilayer perceptron neural network (MPNN). Training the MPNN is equivalent to solve a non-linear optimization problem. We use backward propagation to derive the gradient of the loss function with respect to the weighting matrices and bias vectors and use the mini-batch stochastic gradient method to iteratively optimize the MPNN. Numerical tests show that with a careful selection of the training data and a sufficient amount of training data, we are able to train a robust neural network that is capable of detecting the waveforms in an arbitrary earthquake data with negligible detection error

  4. Efficient Use of Automatic Exposure Control Systems in Computed Tomography Requires Correct Patient Positioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudjonsdottir, J.; Jonsdottir, B. (Roentgen Domus Medica, Reykjavik (Iceland)); Svensson, J.R.; Campling, S. (Faculty of Health and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Brennan, P.C. (Diagnostic Imaging, Biological Imaging Research, UCD School of Medicine and Medical Science, Univ. College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin (Ireland))

    2009-11-15

    Background: Image quality and radiation dose to the patient are important factors in computed tomography (CT). To provide constant image quality, tube current modulation (TCM) performed by automatic exposure control (AEC) adjusts the tube current to the patient's size and shape. Purpose: To evaluate the effects of patient centering on tube current-time product (mAs) and image noise. Material and Methods: An oval-shaped acrylic phantom was scanned in various off-center positions, at 30-mm intervals within a 500-mm field of view, using three different CT scanners. Acquisition parameters were similar to routine abdomen examinations at each site. The mAs was recorded and noise measured in the images. The correlation of mAs and noise with position was calculated using Pearson correlation. Results: In all three scanners, the mAs delivered by the AEC changed with y-position of the phantom (P<0.001), with correlation values of 0.98 for scanners A and B and -0.98 for scanner C. With x-position, mAs changes were 4.9% or less. As the phantom moved into the y-positions, compared with the iso-center, the mAs varied by up to +70%, -34%, and +56% in scanners A, B, and C, respectively. For scanners A and B, noise in two regions of interest in the lower part of the phantom decreased with elevation, with correlation factors from -0.95 to -0.86 (P<0.02). In the x-direction, significant noise relationships (P<0.005) were only seen in scanner A. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that patient centering markedly affects the efficacy of AEC function and that tube current changes vary between scanners. Tube position when acquiring the scout projection radiograph is decisive for the direction of the mAs change. Off-center patient positions cause errors in tube current modulation that can outweigh the dose reduction gained by AEC use, and image quality is affected

  5. Romania's Competitiveness and Competitive Position in Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness increase has become a primordial framework of the social and economic development strategies of most world countries (mainly the most developed ones over the last decades. The vigorous boost of the contemporary phenomenon of globalization, which has widened the global area of economies, sectors and firms confrontation, has laid an emphasis on their competitiveness importance for their favorable position in the international competition and has therefore force the status to take proper, broad and concerted measures to stimulate the determining factors of action and to take better advantage of their effects. The purpose of the paper is to determine whether an increase in competitiveness could reduce the disparities between regions. The E.U. Member States and regions need significant financial help to solve various structural problems and to achieve their potential of growth. Romania is no exception, one of the main problems being the low rate in attracting European funds.

  6. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

  7. Reproducibility of wrist home blood pressure measurement with position sensor and automatic data storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickenig Georg

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wrist blood pressure (BP devices have physiological limits with regards to accuracy, therefore they were not preferred for home BP monitoring. However some wrist devices have been successfully validated using etablished validation protocols. Therefore this study assessed the reproducibility of wrist home BP measurement with position sensor and automatic data storage. Methods To compare the reproducibility of three different(BP measurement methods: 1 office BP, 2 home BP (Omron wrist device HEM- 637 IT with position sensor, 3 24-hour ambulatory BP(24-h ABPM (ABPM-04, Meditech, Hunconventional sphygmomanometric office BP was measured on study days 1 and 7, 24-h ABPM on study days 7 and 14 and home BP between study days 1 and 7 and between study days 8 and 14 in 69 hypertensive and 28 normotensive subjects. The correlation coeffcient of each BP measurement method with echocardiographic left ventricular mass index was analyzed. The schedule of home readings was performed according to recently published European Society of Hypertension (ESH- guidelines. Results The reproducibility of home BP measurement analyzed by the standard deviation as well as the squared differeces of mean individual differences between the respective BP measurements was significantly higher than the reproducibility of office BP (p Conclusion The short-term reproducibility of home BP measurement with the Omron HEM-637 IT wrist device was superior to the reproducibility of office BP and 24- h ABPM measurement. Furthermore, home BP with the wrist device showed similar correlations to targed organ damage as recently reported for upper arm devices. Although wrist devices have to be used cautious and with defined limitations, the use of validated devices with position sensor according to recently recommended measurement schedules might have the potential to be used for therapy monitoring.

  8. The global positioning system and ArcGIS

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Foreword to the First EditionForeword to the Second EditionPreface for the Instructor, Third EditionAcknowledgmentsAbout the AuthorIntroductionChapter 1: Basic Concepts OverviewWhere Are You?What Time Is It?GPS and GISAnatomy of the Term ""Global Positioning System""How We Know Where Something IsStep-by-StepDisclaimerFirst OffDifferent Receivers and Different SoftwarePreparationProject 1AUnderstanding the Screens and ControlsProject 1BProject 1CChapter 2: Automated Data CollectionOverviewHow'd They Do That?How It Works: Measuring Distance by Measuring TimeFactors Affecting When and How to Coll

  9. Global optimization applied to GPS positioning by ambiguity functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baselga, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Differential GPS positioning with carrier-phase observables is commonly done in a process that involves determination of the unknown integer ambiguity values. An alternative approach, named the ambiguity function method, was already proposed in the early days of GPS positioning. By making use of a trigonometric function ambiguity unknowns are eliminated from the functional model before the estimation process. This approach has significant advantages, such as ease of use and insensitivity to cycle slips, but requires such high accuracy in the initial approximate coordinates that its use has been practically dismissed from consideration. In this paper a novel strategy is proposed so that the need for highly accurate initial coordinates disappears: the application of a global optimization method to the ambiguity functions model. The use of this strategy enables the ambiguity function method to compete with the present prevailing approach of ambiguity resolution

  10. The design and manufacture of the automatic distance position-fixing system in 60Co γ-ray calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Defeng; Guo Pingwen; Jiang Shan; Zhang Lei; Yang Lijun; Xiong Chuansheng; Liu Deheng; Chen Weijie; He Biao; Wang Wei

    1999-01-01

    The author introduces the design principle and technical index of the automatic position-fixing system. This system consists of the PC computer control, loading vehicle and track. The authors used Pentium PC and Intel 8089 as an intelligent card to drive the stepping motor and to power the vehicle by rack, so as to realize the function of the automatic position control, demonstration and output online. The fixed position of the track vehicle has a basic point. In used scope (it is 0.5-6.2 m distant from 60 Co source), the maximum deviation of the fixed position point is 0.5 mm , and the deviation of the fixed position point which is 1 m distant from 60 Co source is 0.05%

  11. Building resilience of the Global Positioning System to space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Genene; Kunches, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Almost every aspect of the global economy now depends on GPS. Worldwide, nations are working to create a robust Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), which will provide global positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) services for applications such as aviation, electric power distribution, financial exchange, maritime navigation, and emergency management. The U.S. government is examining the vulnerabilities of GPS, and it is well known that space weather events, such as geomagnetic storms, contribute to errors in single-frequency GPS and are a significant factor for differential GPS. The GPS industry has lately begun to recognize that total electron content (TEC) signal delays, ionospheric scintillation, and solar radio bursts can also interfere with daily operations and that these threats grow with the approach of the next solar maximum, expected to occur in 2013. The key challenges raised by these circumstances are, first, to better understand the vulnerability of GPS technologies and services to space weather and, second, to develop policies that will build resilience and mitigate risk.

  12. Automatic Detection and Reproduction of Natural Head Position in Stereo-Photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsung, Tai-Chiu; Lo, John; Li, Tik-Shun; Cheung, Lim-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an automatic orientation calibration and reproduction method for recording the natural head position (NHP) in stereo-photogrammetry (SP). A board was used as the physical reference carrier for true verticals and NHP alignment mirror orientation. Orientation axes were detected and saved from the digital mesh model of the board. They were used for correcting the pitch, roll and yaw angles of the subsequent captures of patients' facial surfaces, which were obtained without any markings or sensors attached onto the patient. We tested the proposed method on two commercial active (3dMD) and passive (DI3D) SP devices. The reliability of the pitch, roll and yaw for the board placement were within ±0.039904°, ±0.081623°, and ±0.062320°; where standard deviations were 0.020234°, 0.045645° and 0.027211° respectively. Orientation-calibrated stereo-photogrammetry is the most accurate method (angulation deviation within ±0.1°) reported for complete NHP recording with insignificant clinical error.

  13. Risk analysis of Leksell Gamma Knife Model C with automatic positioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetsch, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the decrease in risk from misadministration of the new Leksell Gamma Knife Model C with Automatic Positioning System compared with previous models. Methods and Materials: Elekta Instruments, A.B. of Stockholm has introduced a new computer-controlled Leksell Gamma Knife Model C which uses motor-driven trunnions to reposition the patient between isocenters (shots) without human intervention. Previous models required the operators to manually set coordinates from a printed list, permitting opportunities for coordinate transposition, incorrect helmet size, incorrect treatment times, missing shots, or repeated shots. Results: A risk analysis was conducted between craniotomy involving hospital admission and outpatient Gamma Knife radiosurgery. A report of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies dated November 29, 1999 estimated that medical errors kill between 44,000 and 98,000 people each year in the United States. Another report from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System estimates that 2.1 million nosocomial infections occur annually in the United States in acute care hospitals alone, with 31 million total admissions. Conclusions: All medical procedures have attendant risks of morbidity and possibly mortality. Each patient should be counseled as to the risk of adverse effects as well as the likelihood of good results for alternative treatment strategies. This paper seeks to fill a gap in the existing medical literature, which has a paucity of data involving risk estimates for stereotactic radiosurgery

  14. FirstAED emergency dispatch, global positioning of community first responders with distinct roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Finn Lund; Schorling, Per; Hansen, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    their roles in a team structure to reduce response times, ensure citizens' safety and offer equal possibility of early defibrillation. First aid is provided by community first responders who use their smartphone. FirstAED global positioning system (GPS)-tracks the nine nearby first responders and enables......FirstAED is a supplement to the existing emergency response systems. The aim is to shorten the community first responder response times at emergency calls to below five minutes in a bridge connected island area. FirstAED defines a way to dispatch the nearby three first responders and organise...... the emergency dispatcher to send an organised team of three first responders with distinct roles to the scene automatically. During the first 24 months the FirstAED system was used 718 times. Three first responders arrived in ∼89% of the cases, and they arrived before the ambulance in ∼94% of the cases. First...

  15. An automatic CT-guided adaptive radiation therapy technique by online modification of multileaf collimator leaf positions for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, Laurence E.; Dong Lei; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Bonnen, Mark D.; O'Daniel, Jennifer; Wang He; Mohan, Radhe; Kuban, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To propose and evaluate online adaptive radiation therapy (ART) using in-room computed tomography (CT) imaging that detects changes in the target position and shape of the prostate and seminal vesicles (SVs) and then automatically modifies the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf pairs in a slice-by-slice fashion. Methods and materials: For intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using a coplanar beam arrangement, each MLC leaf pair projects onto a specific anatomic slice. The proposed strategy assumes that shape deformation is a function of only the superior-inferior (SI) position. That is, there is no shape change within a CT slice, but each slice can be displaced in the anteroposterior (AP) or right-left (RL) direction relative to adjacent slices. First, global shifts (in SI, AP, and RL directions) were calculated by three-dimensional (3D) registration of the bulk of the prostate in the treatment planning CT images with the daily CT images taken immediately before treatment. Local shifts in the AP direction were then found using slice-by-slice registration, in which the CT slices were individually registered. The translational shift within a slice could then be projected to a translational shift in the position of the corresponding MLC leaf pair for each treatment segment for each gantry angle. Global shifts in the SI direction were accounted for by moving the open portal superiorly or inferiorly by an integral number of leaf pairs. The proposed slice-by-slice registration technique was tested by using daily CT images from 46 CT image sets (23 each from 2 patients) taken before the standard delivery of IMRT for prostate cancer. A dosimetric evaluation was carried out by using an 8-field IMRT plan. Results: The shifts and shape change of the prostate and SVs could be separated into 3D global shifts in the RL, AP, and SI directions, plus local shifts in the AP direction, which were different for each CT slice. The MLC leaf positions were successfully

  16. Device for positioning and generation of an element of track model and slice of the MELAS automatic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryutchenko, E.V.; Fedotov, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    The structure and organization of the device for positioning and generation of element of track model and slice of the MELAS automatic equipment which is developed for measuring films from big bubble chambers, is described. Main features of the device are studied and characteristics are given as well

  17. Automatic Optimization of Focal Point Position in CO2 Laser Welding with Neural Network in A Focus Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    CO2 lasers are increasingly being utilized for quality welding in production. Considering the high cost of equipment, the start-up time and the set-up time should be minimized. Ideally the parameters should be set up and optimized more or less automatically. In this paper a control system...... is designed and built to automatically optimize the focal point position, one of the most important parameters in CO2 laser welding, in order to perform a desired deep/full penetration welding. The control system mainly consists of a multi-axis motion controller - PMAC, a light sensor - Photo Diode, a data...

  18. Automatic real-time surveillance of eye position and gating for stereotactic radiotherapy of uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersch, Bernhard; Bogner, Joachim; Dieckmann, Karin; Poetter, Richard; Georg, Dietmar

    2004-01-01

    A new prototype (hardware and software) for monitoring eye movements using a noninvasive technique for gated linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) of uveal melanoma was developed. The prototype was tested within the scope of a study for 11 patients. Eye immobilization was achieved by having the patient fixate a light source integrated into the system. The system is used in conjunction with a Head and Neck mask system for immobilization, and uses infrared tracking technology for positioning (both BrainLAB AG Heimstetten/Germany). It was used during CT and MR image acquisition as well as during all of five treatment fractions (6 MeV, 5x12 Gy to 80% isodose) to guarantee identical patient setup and eye rotational state during treatment planning and treatment delivery. Maximum temporal and angular deviations tolerated during treatment delivery can be chosen by the physician, the radiation then being interrupted automatically and instantaneously if those criteria are being exceeded during irradiation. A graphical user interface displays life video images of the treated eye and information about the current and previous rotational deviation of the eye from its reference treatment position. The physician thus has online access to data directly linked to the success of the treatment and possible side effects. Mean angular deviations during CT/MR scans and treatment deliveries ranged from 1.61 deg. to 3.64 deg. (standard deviations 0.87 deg. to 2.09 deg.) which is in accordance with precision requirements for SRT. Typical situations when preset deviation criteria were exceeded are slow drifts (fatigue), sudden large eye movements (irritation), or if patients closed their eyes (fatigue). In these cases radiation was reliably interrupted by the gating system. In our clinical setup the novel system for computer-controlled eye movement gated treatments was well tolerated by all patients. The system yields quantitative real-time information about the eye's rotational state

  19. Reproducibility of wrist home blood pressure measurement with position sensor and automatic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uen, Sakir; Fimmers, Rolf; Brieger, Miriam; Nickenig, Georg; Mengden, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Wrist blood pressure (BP) devices have physiological limits with regards to accuracy, therefore they were not preferred for home BP monitoring. However some wrist devices have been successfully validated using etablished validation protocols. Therefore this study assessed the reproducibility of wrist home BP measurement with position sensor and automatic data storage. Methods To compare the reproducibility of three different(BP) measurement methods: 1) office BP, 2) home BP (Omron wrist device HEM- 637 IT with position sensor), 3) 24-hour ambulatory BP(24-h ABPM) (ABPM-04, Meditech, Hun)conventional sphygmomanometric office BP was measured on study days 1 and 7, 24-h ABPM on study days 7 and 14 and home BP between study days 1 and 7 and between study days 8 and 14 in 69 hypertensive and 28 normotensive subjects. The correlation coeffcient of each BP measurement method with echocardiographic left ventricular mass index was analyzed. The schedule of home readings was performed according to recently published European Society of Hypertension (ESH)- guidelines. Results The reproducibility of home BP measurement analyzed by the standard deviation as well as the squared differeces of mean individual differences between the respective BP measurements was significantly higher than the reproducibility of office BP (p ABPM (p ABPM was not significantly different (p = 0.80 systolic BP, p = 0.1 diastolic BP). The correlation coefficient of 24-h ABMP (r = 0.52) with left ventricular mass index was significantly higher than with office BP (r = 0.31). The difference between 24-h ABPM and home BP (r = 0.46) was not significant. Conclusion The short-term reproducibility of home BP measurement with the Omron HEM-637 IT wrist device was superior to the reproducibility of office BP and 24- h ABPM measurement. Furthermore, home BP with the wrist device showed similar correlations to targed organ damage as recently reported for upper arm devices. Although wrist devices have

  20. Physical Demands of Top-Class Soccer Friendly Matches in Relation to a Playing Position Using Global Positioning System Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallo, Javier; Mena, Esteban; Nevado, Fabio; Paredes, Víctor

    2015-09-29

    The aim of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on professional soccer players during 11-a-side friendly matches in relation to their playing position, using global positioning system (GPS) technology. One hundred and eleven match performances of a Spanish "La Liga" team during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 pre-seasons were selected for analysis. The activities of the players were monitored using GPS technology with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz. Total distance covered, distance in different speed categories, accelerations, and heart rate responses were analyzed in relation to five different playing positions: central defenders (n=23), full-backs (n=20), central midfielders (n=22), wide midfielders (n=26), and forwards (n=20). Distance covered during a match averaged 10.8 km, with wide and central midfielders covering the greatest total distance. Specifically, wide midfielders covered the greatest distances by very high-intensity running (>19.8 km·h-1) and central midfielders by jogging and running (7.2-19.7 km·h-1). On the other hand, central defenders covered the least total distance and at high intensity, although carried out more (pwork rate profile of the players obtained with the GPS was very similar to that obtained with semi-automatic image technologies. However, when comparing results from this study with data available in the literature, important differences were detected in the amount of distance covered by sprinting, which suggests that caution should be taken when comparing data obtained with the GPS with other motion analysis systems, especially regarding high-intensity activities.

  1. Physical Demands of Top-Class Soccer Friendly Matches in Relation to a Playing Position Using Global Positioning System Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallo Javier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on professional soccer players during 11-a-side friendly matches in relation to their playing position, using global positioning system (GPS technology. One hundred and eleven match performances of a Spanish “La Liga” team during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 pre-seasons were selected for analysis. The activities of the players were monitored using GPS technology with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz. Total distance covered, distance in different speed categories, accelerations, and heart rate responses were analyzed in relation to five different playing positions: central defenders (n=23, full-backs (n=20, central midfielders (n=22, wide midfielders (n=26, and forwards (n=20. Distance covered during a match averaged 10.8 km, with wide and central midfielders covering the greatest total distance. Specifically, wide midfielders covered the greatest distances by very high-intensity running (>19.8 km·h-1 and central midfielders by jogging and running (7.2-19.7 km·h-1. On the other hand, central defenders covered the least total distance and at high intensity, although carried out more (p<0.05-0.01 accelerations than forwards, wide midfielders, and fullbacks. The work rate profile of the players obtained with the GPS was very similar to that obtained with semi-automatic image technologies. However, when comparing results from this study with data available in the literature, important differences were detected in the amount of distance covered by sprinting, which suggests that caution should be taken when comparing data obtained with the GPS with other motion analysis systems, especially regarding high-intensity activities.

  2. Automatic and controlled attentional orienting in the elderly: A dual-process view of the positivity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronchi, G; Righi, S; Pierguidi, L; Giovannelli, F; Murasecco, I; Viggiano, M P

    2018-04-01

    The positivity effect in the elderly consists of an attentional preference for positive information as well as avoidance of negative information. Extant theories predict either that the positivity effect depends on controlled attentional processes (socio-emotional selectivity theory), or on an automatic gating selection mechanism (dynamic integration theory). This study examined the role of automatic and controlled attention in the positivity effect. Two dot-probe tasks (with the duration of the stimuli lasting 100 ms and 500 ms, respectively) were employed to compare the attentional bias of 35 elderly people to that of 35 young adults. The stimuli used were expressive faces displaying neutral, disgusted, fearful, and happy expressions. In comparison to young people, the elderly allocated more attention to happy faces at 100 ms and they tended to avoid fearful faces at 500 ms. The findings are not predicted by either theory taken alone, but support the hypothesis that the positivity effect in the elderly is driven by two different processes: an automatic attention bias toward positive stimuli, and a controlled mechanism that diverts attention away from negative stimuli. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Automatic spinal cord localization, robust to MRI contrasts using global curve optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Charley; De Leener, Benjamin; Dupont, Sara M; Martin, Allan R; Fehlings, Michael G; Bakshi, Rohit; Tummala, Subhash; Auclair, Vincent; McLaren, Donald G; Callot, Virginie; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Sdika, Michaël

    2018-02-01

    During the last two decades, MRI has been increasingly used for providing valuable quantitative information about spinal cord morphometry, such as quantification of the spinal cord atrophy in various diseases. However, despite the significant improvement of MR sequences adapted to the spinal cord, automatic image processing tools for spinal cord MRI data are not yet as developed as for the brain. There is nonetheless great interest in fully automatic and fast processing methods to be able to propose quantitative analysis pipelines on large datasets without user bias. The first step of most of these analysis pipelines is to detect the spinal cord, which is challenging to achieve automatically across the broad range of MRI contrasts, field of view, resolutions and pathologies. In this paper, a fully automated, robust and fast method for detecting the spinal cord centerline on MRI volumes is introduced. The algorithm uses a global optimization scheme that attempts to strike a balance between a probabilistic localization map of the spinal cord center point and the overall spatial consistency of the spinal cord centerline (i.e. the rostro-caudal continuity of the spinal cord). Additionally, a new post-processing feature, which aims to automatically split brain and spine regions is introduced, to be able to detect a consistent spinal cord centerline, independently from the field of view. We present data on the validation of the proposed algorithm, known as "OptiC", from a large dataset involving 20 centers, 4 contrasts (T 2 -weighted n = 287, T 1 -weighted n = 120, T 2 ∗ -weighted n = 307, diffusion-weighted n = 90), 501 subjects including 173 patients with a variety of neurologic diseases. Validation involved the gold-standard centerline coverage, the mean square error between the true and predicted centerlines and the ability to accurately separate brain and spine regions. Overall, OptiC was able to cover 98.77% of the gold-standard centerline, with a

  4. Automatic day-2 intervention by a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship-Team leads to multiple positive effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Willem H Dik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance rates are increasing. This is, among others, caused by incorrect or inappropriate use of antimicrobials. To target this, a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship-Team (A-Team was implemented at the University Medical Center Groningen on a urology ward. Goal of this study is to evaluate the clinical effects of the case-audits done by this team, looking at length of stay (LOS and antimicrobial use.Methods: Automatic e-mail alerts were sent after 48 hours of consecutive antimicrobial use triggering the case-audits, consisting of an A-Team member visiting the ward, discussing the patient’s therapy with the bed-side physician and together deciding on further treatment based on available diagnostics and guidelines. Clinical effects of the audits were evaluated through an Interrupted Time Series analysis and a retrospective historic cohort. Results: A significant systemic reduction of antimicrobial consumption for all patients on the ward, both with and without case-audits was observed. Furthermore, LOS for patients with case-audits who were admitted primarily due to infections decreased to 6.20 days (95% CI: 5.59-6.81 compared to the historic cohort (7.57 days; 95% CI: 6.92-8.21 (p=0.012. Antimicrobial consumption decreased for these patients from 8.17 DDD/patient (95% CI: 7.10-9.24 to 5.93 DDD/patient (95% CI: 5.02-6.83 (p=0.008. For patients with severe underlying diseases (e.g. cancer these outcome measures remained unchanged.Conclusions: The evaluation showed a considerable positive impact. Antibiotic use of the whole ward was reduced, transcending the intervened patients. Furthermore, LOS and mean antimicrobial consumption for a subgroup was reduced, thereby improving patient care and potentially lowering resistance rates.

  5. Impact of heated humidification with automatic positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Sara Moreira da Silva Trindade; Boléo-Tomé, José Pedro Correia Fernandes; Canhão, Cristina Maria Sardinha; Dias, Ana Rita Tavares; Teixeira, Joana Isaac; Pinto, Paula Maria Gonçalves; Caetano, Maria Cristina de Brito Eusébio Bárbara Prista

    2008-09-01

    To study the impact that heated humidification instituted in the beginning of automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) therapy has on compliance with and the side effects of the treatment. Thirty-nine treatment-naïve patients with obstructive sleep apnea were randomized into two groups to receive APAP using one of two modalities: with heated humidification (APAPwith group); and without heated humidification (APAPw/o group).Patients were evaluated at 7 and 30 days after APAP initiation. The following parameters were analyzed: compliance with treatment (mean number of hours/night); side effects (dry nose or mouth, nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea); daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale score) and subjective comfort (visual analog scale score). Patients were also evaluated in terms of residual apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), as well as mean pressures and leaks registered in the ventilators. There were no differences between the two groups in terms of mean age (APAPwith: 57.4 +/- 9.2; APAPw/o: 56.5 +/- 10.7 years), AHI (APAPwith: 28.1 +/- 14.0; APAPw/o: 28.8 +/- 20.5 events/hour of sleep), baseline Epworth score (APAPwith: 11.2 +/- 5.8; APAPw/o: 11.9 +/- 6.3) and initial nasal symptoms. Compliance was similar in both groups (APAPwith: 5.3 +/- 2.4; APAPw/o: 5.2 +/- 2.3 h/night). There were no differences in any of the other parameters analyzed. The introduction of heated humidification at the beginning of APAP therapy provided no advantage in terms of treatment compliance or side effects of treatment.

  6. Launch vehicle tracking enhancement through Global Positioning System Metric Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. C.; Li, Hanchu; Gray, T.; Doran, A.

    United Launch Alliance (ULA) initiated operational flights of both the Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicle families in 2002. The Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicles were developed jointly with the US Air Force (USAF) as part of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program. Both Launch Vehicle (LV) families have provided 100% mission success since their respective inaugural launches and demonstrated launch capability from both Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) on the Western Test Range and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on the Eastern Test Range. However, the current EELV fleet communications, tracking, & control architecture & technology, which date back to the origins of the space launch business, require support by a large and high cost ground footprint. The USAF has embarked on an initiative known as Future Flight Safety System (FFSS) that will significantly reduce Test Range Operations and Maintenance (O& M) cost by closing facilities and decommissioning ground assets. In support of the FFSS, a Global Positioning System Metric Tracking (GPS MT) System based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite constellation has been developed for EELV which will allow both Ranges to divest some of their radar assets. The Air Force, ULA and Space Vector have flown the first 2 Atlas Certification vehicles demonstrating the successful operation of the GPS MT System. The first Atlas V certification flight was completed in February 2012 from CCAFS, the second Atlas V certification flight from VAFB was completed in September 2012 and the third certification flight on a Delta IV was completed October 2012 from CCAFS. The GPS MT System will provide precise LV position, velocity and timing information that can replace ground radar tracking resource functionality. The GPS MT system will provide an independent position/velocity S-Band telemetry downlink to support the current man-in-the-loop ground-based commanded destruct of an anomalous flight- The system

  7. Development of Precise Point Positioning Method Using Global Positioning System Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Kyu Choi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Precise point positioning (PPP is increasingly used in several parts such as monitoring of crustal movement and maintaining an international terrestrial reference frame using global positioning system (GPS measurements. An accuracy of PPP data processing has been increased due to the use of the more precise satellite orbit/clock products. In this study we developed PPP algorithm that utilizes data collected by a GPS receiver. The measurement error modelling including the tropospheric error and the tidal model in data processing was considered to improve the positioning accuracy. The extended Kalman filter has been also employed to estimate the state parameters such as positioning information and float ambiguities. For the verification, we compared our results to other of International GNSS Service analysis center. As a result, the mean errors of the estimated position on the East-West, North-South and Up-Down direction for the five days were 0.9 cm, 0.32 cm, and 1.14 cm in 95% confidence level.

  8. Helicopter Approach Capability Using the Differential Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, David N.

    1994-01-01

    The results of flight tests to determine the feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the Differential mode (DGPS) to provide high accuracy, precision navigation and guidance for helicopter approaches to landing are presented. The airborne DGPS receiver and associated equipment is installed in a NASA UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The ground-based DGPS reference receiver is located at a surveyed test site and is equipped with a real-time VHF data link to transmit correction information to the airborne DGPS receiver. The corrected airborne DGPS information, together with the preset approach geometry, is used to calculate guidance commands which are sent to the aircraft's approach guidance instruments. The use of DGPS derived guidance for helicopter approaches to landing is evaluated by comparing the DGPS data with the laser tracker truth data. The errors indicate that the helicopter position based on DGPS guidance satisfies the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category 1 (CAT 1) lateral and vertical navigational accuracy requirements.

  9. Volcano monitoring using the Global Positioning System: Filtering strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, K.M.; Cervelli, Peter; Lisowski, M.; Miklius, Asta; Segall, P.; Owen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) networks are routinely used for producing improved orbits and monitoring secular tectonic deformation. For these applications, data are transferred to an analysis center each day and routinely processed in 24-hour segments. To use GPS for monitoring volcanic events, which may last only a few hours, real-time or near real-time data processing and subdaily position estimates are valuable. Strategies have been researched for obtaining station coordinates every 15 min using a Kalman filter; these strategies have been tested on data collected by a GPS network on Kilauea Volcano. Data from this network are tracked continuously, recorded every 30 s, and telemetered hourly to the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. A white noise model is heavily impacted by data outages and poor satellite geometry, but a properly constrained random walk model fits the data well. Using a borehole tiltmeter at Kilauea's summit as ground-truth, solutions using different random walk constraints were compared. This study indicates that signals on the order of 5 mm/h are resolvable using a random walk standard deviation of 0.45 cm/???h. Values lower than this suppress small signals, and values greater than this have significantly higher noise at periods of 1-6 hours. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Blind separation of positive sources by globally convergent gradient search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Erkki; Plumbley, Mark

    2004-09-01

    The instantaneous noise-free linear mixing model in independent component analysis is largely a solved problem under the usual assumption of independent nongaussian sources and full column rank mixing matrix. However, with some prior information on the sources, like positivity, new analysis and perhaps simplified solution methods may yet become possible. In this letter, we consider the task of independent component analysis when the independent sources are known to be nonnegative and well grounded, which means that they have a nonzero pdf in the region of zero. It can be shown that in this case, the solution method is basically very simple: an orthogonal rotation of the whitened observation vector into nonnegative outputs will give a positive permutation of the original sources. We propose a cost function whose minimum coincides with nonnegativity and derive the gradient algorithm under the whitening constraint, under which the separating matrix is orthogonal. We further prove that in the Stiefel manifold of orthogonal matrices, the cost function is a Lyapunov function for the matrix gradient flow, implying global convergence. Thus, this algorithm is guaranteed to find the nonnegative well-grounded independent sources. The analysis is complemented by a numerical simulation, which illustrates the algorithm.

  11. Workshop Builds Strategies to Address Global Positioning System Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Genene

    2011-01-01

    When we examine the impacts of space weather on society, do we really understand the risks? Can past experiences reliably predict what will happen in the future? As the complexity of technology increases, there is the potential for it to become more fragile, allowing for a single point of failure to bring down the entire system. Take the Global Positioning System (GPS) as an example. GPS positioning, navigation, and timing have become an integral part of daily life, supporting transportation and communications systems vital to the aviation, merchant marine, cargo, cellular phone, surveying, and oil exploration industries. Everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS. Understanding the risks of space weather to GPS and the many economic sectors reliant upon it, as well as how to build resilience, was the focus of a policy workshop organized by the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and held on 13-14 October 2010 in Washington, D. C. The workshop brought together a select group of policy makers, space weather scientists, and GPS experts and users.

  12. Application of the NAVSTAR/GLOBAL positioning system on instrumented ranges

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This report treats the application of the NAVSTAR/Global Positioning System as the Position/Location System in Real Time Casualty Assessment experiments. The desirable characteristics of a position/location system are listed. A current position/location system, the Range Measuring System, is used as a comparison reference for the Global Positioning System. Operation and parameters of the Global Positioning System are presented. A d...

  13. Global Positioning Radiometric Scanner System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The US DOE continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. To this end, the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE OST sponsors the Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDP). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of statements defining specific needs or problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One of the stated needs was for developing technologies that would reduce costs and shorten DDOE/EM--0552DOE/EM--0552 and D schedules by providing radiological characterizations to meet the free-release criteria. The Global Positioning Radiometric Scanner (GPRS system shown in Figure 1) utilizes a detection system; a portable computer, a differential global positioning system (d-gps), and a four wheel drive vehicle. Once the survey data has been collected, a software program called GeoSofttrademark generates a graphical representation of the radiological contamination extent. Baseline technology involves gridding the area and hand surveying each grid. This demonstration investigated the associated costs and the required time to evaluate the radiological characterization data from the GPRS with respect to the baseline technology. The GPRS system performs in-situ, real-time analyses to identify the extent of radiological contamination. Benefits expected from using the new innovative technology (GPRS) include: Reduced labor hours associated with performing the survey; Increased number of survey data points; Reduced

  14. 78 FR 13396 - 90th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department... 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the eighty-ninth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS). DATES...

  15. 78 FR 57672 - 91st Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department... 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the ninety-first meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) DATES...

  16. 77 FR 12106 - 88th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... 159, Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The..., Global Positioning System (GPS). DATES: The meeting will be held March 13-16, 2012, from 9 a.m.-4:30 p.m...

  17. Implementation status of the global and local beam position feedback systems for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Decker, G.; Galayda, J.; Kirchman, J.; Lenkszus, F.; Lumpkin, A.; Votaw, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is implementing an extensive beam position feedback system for both global and local stabilization of particle and photon beams based on digital signal processing. The description and operational experience of the system will be given in this paper. In particular, we will discuss the underlying fundamental principles, hardware layout, controls interface, and automatic software generation for multiple digital signal processors (DSPS) distributed in 20 VME crates around the ring. The feedback system runs at 4-kHz sampling frequency in order to achieve the correction bandwidth of approximately 100 Hz. For the maximum correction efficiency and resolution of conflicts among multiple local feedback systems due to the local bump closure error, the global and local feedback systems are combined into a single unified system. This novel approach is made possible through data sharing among the global and local systems via the fiber-optically networked reflective memories

  18. A semi-automatic traffic sign detection, classification and positioning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusen, I.M.; Hazelhoff, L.; With, de P.H.N.; Said, A.; Guleryuz, O.G.; Stevenson, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of large-scale databases containing street-level panoramic images offers the possibility to perform semi-automatic surveying of real-world objects such as traffic signs. These inventories can be performed significantly more efficiently than using conventional methods. Governmental

  19. Determination of global positioning system (GPS) receiver clock errors: impact on positioning accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Ta-Kang; Hwang, Cheinway; Xu, Guochang; Wang, Chuan-Sheng; Lee, Chien-Chih

    2009-01-01

    Enhancing the positioning precision is the primary pursuit of global positioning system (GPS) users. To achieve this goal, most studies have focused on the relationship between GPS receiver clock errors and GPS positioning precision. This study utilizes undifferentiated phase data to calculate GPS clock errors and to compare with the frequency of cesium clock directly, to verify estimated clock errors by the method used in this paper. The frequency stability calculated from this paper (the indirect method) and measured from the National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory (NSTFL) of Taiwan (the direct method) match to 1.5 × 10 −12 (the value from this study was smaller than that from NSTFL), suggesting that the proposed technique has reached a certain level of quality. The built-in quartz clocks in the GPS receivers yield relative frequency offsets that are 3–4 orders higher than those of rubidium clocks. The frequency stability of the quartz clocks is on average two orders worse than that of the rubidium clock. Using the rubidium clock instead of the quartz clock, the horizontal and vertical positioning accuracies were improved by 26–78% (0.6–3.6 mm) and 20–34% (1.3–3.0 mm), respectively, for a short baseline. These improvements are 7–25% (0.3–1.7 mm) and 11% (1.7 mm) for a long baseline. Our experiments show that the frequency stability of the clock, rather than relative frequency offset, is the governing factor of positioning accuracy

  20. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC Effects Reflect Controlled Rather than Automatic Mechanisms of Sentence Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kotchoubey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared automatic and controlled cognitive processes that underlie event-related potentials (ERPs effects during speech perception. Sentences were presented to French native speakers, and the final word could be congruent or incongruent, and presented at one of four levels of degradation (using a modulation with pink noise: no degradation, mild degradation (2 levels, or strong degradation. We assumed that degradation impairs controlled more than automatic processes. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC effects were defined as the differences between the corresponding wave amplitudes to incongruent words minus congruent words. Under mild degradation, where controlled sentence-level processing could still occur (as indicated by behavioral data, both N400 and LPC effects were delayed and the latter effect was reduced. Under strong degradation, where sentence processing was rather automatic (as indicated by behavioral data, no ERP effect remained. These results suggest that ERP effects elicited in complex contexts, such as sentences, reflect controlled rather than automatic mechanisms of speech processing. These results differ from the results of experiments that used word-pair or word-list paradigms.

  1. Real-time precision pedestrian navigation solution using Inertial Navigation System and Global Positioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Jin Yoon; King Ho Holden Li; Jiahe Steven Lee; Woo-Tae Park

    2015-01-01

    Global Positioning System and Inertial Navigation System can be used to determine position and velocity. A Global Positioning System module is able to accurately determine position without sensor drift, but its usage is limited in heavily urbanized environments and heavy vegetation. While high-cost tactical-grade Inertial Navigation System can determine position accurately, low-cost micro-electro-mechanical system Inertial Navigation System sensors are plagued by significant errors. Global Po...

  2. Automatic Detection and Positioning of Ground Control Points Using TerraSAR-X Multiaspect Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Sina; Gisinger, Christoph; Eineder, Michael; Zhu, Xiao xiang

    2018-05-01

    Geodetic stereo Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is capable of absolute three-dimensional localization of natural Persistent Scatterer (PS)s which allows for Ground Control Point (GCP) generation using only SAR data. The prerequisite for the method to achieve high precision results is the correct detection of common scatterers in SAR images acquired from different viewing geometries. In this contribution, we describe three strategies for automatic detection of identical targets in SAR images of urban areas taken from different orbit tracks. Moreover, a complete work-flow for automatic generation of large number of GCPs using SAR data is presented and its applicability is shown by exploiting TerraSAR-X (TS-X) high resolution spotlight images over the city of Oulu, Finland and a test site in Berlin, Germany.

  3. Global organization of a positive-strand RNA virus genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baodong Wu

    Full Text Available The genomes of plus-strand RNA viruses contain many regulatory sequences and structures that direct different viral processes. The traditional view of these RNA elements are as local structures present in non-coding regions. However, this view is changing due to the discovery of regulatory elements in coding regions and functional long-range intra-genomic base pairing interactions. The ∼4.8 kb long RNA genome of the tombusvirus tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV contains these types of structural features, including six different functional long-distance interactions. We hypothesized that to achieve these multiple interactions this viral genome must utilize a large-scale organizational strategy and, accordingly, we sought to assess the global conformation of the entire TBSV genome. Atomic force micrographs of the genome indicated a mostly condensed structure composed of interconnected protrusions extending from a central hub. This configuration was consistent with the genomic secondary structure model generated using high-throughput selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension (i.e. SHAPE, which predicted different sized RNA domains originating from a central region. Known RNA elements were identified in both domain and inter-domain regions, and novel structural features were predicted and functionally confirmed. Interestingly, only two of the six long-range interactions known to form were present in the structural model. However, for those interactions that did not form, complementary partner sequences were positioned relatively close to each other in the structure, suggesting that the secondary structure level of viral genome structure could provide a basic scaffold for the formation of different long-range interactions. The higher-order structural model for the TBSV RNA genome provides a snapshot of the complex framework that allows multiple functional components to operate in concert within a confined context.

  4. An artificial vision-based control system for automatic heliostat positioning offset correction in a central receiver solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Dept. de Lenguajes y Computacion, La Canada Almeria (Spain); Rubio, F.R.; Lara, P.J.; Arahal, M.R.; Camacho, E.F.; Lopez, M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Sevilla (Spain); Valverde, A. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA-CIEMAT), Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a simplified and automatic heliostat positioning offset correction control system using artificial vision techniques and common CCD devices. The heliostats of a solar power plant reflect solar radiation onto a receiver (in this case, a volumetric receiver) placed at the top of a tower in order to provide a desired energy flux distribution correlated with the coolant flow (in this case air mass flow) through the receiver, usually in an open loop control configuration. There exist error sources that increase the complexity of the control system, some of which are systematic ones, mainly due to tolerances, wrong mirror facets alignment (optical errors), errors due to the approximations made when calculating the solar position, etc., that produce errors (offsets) in the heliostat orientation (aiming point). The approximation adopted in this paper is based on the use of a B/W CCD camera to correct these deviations in an automatic way imitating the same procedure followed by the operators. The obtained images are used to estimate the distance between the sunbeam centroid projected by the heliostats and a target placed on the tower, this distance thus is used for low accuracy offset correction purposes. Basic threshold-based image processing techniques are used for automatic correction. (Author)

  5. Precise mean sea level measurements using the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelecy, Thomas M.; Born, George H.; Parke, Michael E.; Rocken, Christian

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a sea level measurement test conducted off La Jolla, California, in November of 1991. The purpose of this test was to determine accurate sea level measurements using a Global Positioning System (GPS) equipped buoy. These measurements were intended to be used as the sea level component for calibration of the ERS 1 satellite altimeter. Measurements were collected on November 25 and 28 when the ERS 1 satellite overflew the calibration area. Two different types of buoys were used. A waverider design was used on November 25 and a spar design on November 28. This provided the opportunity to examine how dynamic effects of the measurement platform might affect the sea level accuracy. The two buoys were deployed at locations approximately 1.2 km apart and about 15 km west of a reference GPS receiver located on the rooftop of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. GPS solutions were computed for 45 minutes on each day and used to produce two sea level time series. An estimate of the mean sea level at both locations was computed by subtracting tide gage data collected at the Scripps Pier from the GPS-determined sea level measurements and then filtering out the high-frequency components due to waves and buoy dynamics. In both cases the GPS estimate differed from Rapp's mean altimetric surface by 0.06 m. Thus, the gradient in the GPS measurements matched the gradient in Rapp's surface. These results suggest that accurate sea level can be determined using GPS on widely differing platforms as long as care is taken to determine the height of the GPS antenna phase center above water level. Application areas include measurement of absolute sea level, of temporal variations in sea level, and of sea level gradients (dominantly the geoid). Specific applications would include ocean altimeter calibration, monitoring of sea level in remote regions, and regional experiments requiring spatial and

  6. Automatic welding technologies for long-distance pipelines by use of all-position self-shielded flux cored wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Huilin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the automatic welding of pipes in a complex operation environment, an automatic welding system has been developed by use of all-position self-shielded flux cored wires due to their advantages, such as all-position weldability, good detachability, arc's stability, low incomplete fusion, no need for welding protective gas or protection against wind when the wind speed is < 8 m/s. This system consists of a welding carrier, a guide rail, an auto-control system, a welding source, a wire feeder, and so on. Welding experiments with this system were performed on the X-80 pipeline steel to determine proper welding parameters. The welding technique comprises root welding, filling welding and cover welding and their welding parameters were obtained from experimental analysis. On this basis, the mechanical properties tests were carried out on welded joints in this case. Results show that this system can help improve the continuity and stability of the whole welding process and the welded joints' inherent quality, appearance shape, and mechanical performance can all meet the welding criteria for X-80 pipeline steel; with no need for windbreak fences, the overall welding cost will be sharply reduced. Meanwhile, more positive proposals were presented herein for the further research and development of this self-shielded flux core wires.

  7. Positioning Multicultural Education across the Mirror of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The graduate level course described in this article provides one possible pathway to making the connection between the global and the local in multicultural education. The proposal is that among many other things, the journey to the development of critical approaches is a conceptual endeavor. It is not meant to replace an introductory course in…

  8. total electron content derived from global positioning system during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SULUNGU

    POSITIONING SYSTEM DURING SOLAR MAXIMUM OF 2012-2013. OVER THE ..... diffusion of the transported electrons from the equator (Panda et al. 2015). As the sun rises, the ..... Wang M and Christensen AB 2008 Features of annual and ...

  9. Environmental radiation monitoring system with GPS (global positioning system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoto, Itsuro

    2000-01-01

    This system combines a radiation monitoring car with GPS and a data processor (personal computer). It distributes the position information acquired through GPS to the data such as measured environmental radiation dose rate and energy spectrum. It also displays and edits the data for each measuring position on a map. Transmitting the data to the power station through mobile phone enables plan managers to easily monitor the environmental radiation dose rate nearby and proper emergency monitoring. (author)

  10. Estimation of Subdaily Polar Motion with the Global Positioning System During the Spoch '92 Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez-Meier, R.; Freedman, A. P.; Herring, T. A.; Gross, R. S.; Lichten, S. M.; Lindqwister, U. J.

    1994-01-01

    Data collected over six days from a worldwide Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking network during the Epoch '92 campaign are used to estimate variations of the Earth's pole position every 30 minutes.

  11. A description of QUALCOMM Automatic Satellite Position Reporting (QASPR(R)) for mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, William G.

    1990-01-01

    Two satellite position reporting has been introduced into the OmniTRACS mobile satellite communication system. This system significantly improves position reporting reliability and accuracy while simplifying the terminal's hardware. The positioning technique uses the original OmniTRACS TDMA timing signal formats in the forward and return link directions plus an auxiliary, low power forward link signal through a second satellite to derive distance values. The distances are then converted into the mobile terminal's latitude and longitude in real time. A minor augmentation of the spread spectrum profile of the return link allowed the resolution of periodic ambiguities. The system also locates the two satellites in real time with fixed platforms in known locations using identical mobile terminal hardware. Initial accuracies of 1/4 mile have been realized uniformly throughout the USA using a satellite separation of 22 degrees and there are no dead zones, skywaves, or cycle slips as found in terrestrial systems like LORAN-C.

  12. An integral, positive psychology paradigm for global coherence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article reviews research evidence in relation to psychophysiological coherence, which is characterised by a heart rhythm pattern of elevated amplitude in low frequency heart rate variability of around 0.1 Hz. This is associated with synchronisation between various physiological systems, positive emotions, athletes' ...

  13. Global regulation of robots using only position measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Harry; Berghuis, Harry; Nijmeijer, Henk

    1993-01-01

    In this note we propose a simple solution to the regulation problem of rigid robots based on the availability of only joint position measurements. The controller consists of two parts: (1) a gravitation compensation, (2) a linear dynamic first-order compensator. The gravitation compensation part can

  14. 75 FR 2581 - Eighty-First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159 meeting: Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is... System (GPS). DATES: The meeting will be held February 2-5, 2010, from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. (unless stated...

  15. 76 FR 27744 - Eighty-Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159 meeting: Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is... System (GPS). DATES: The meeting will be held May 26, 2011, from 9 a.m. to 11:45 a.m. ADDRESSES: The...

  16. 76 FR 67019 - Eighty-Seventh: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) 87th meeting. DATES: The meeting will be held November 14-18...

  17. 76 FR 33022 - Eighty-Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159 meeting: Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is... System (GPS). DATES: The meeting will be held June 13-17, 2011, from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. ADDRESSES: The...

  18. Brand Positioning Through Advertising in Asia, North America, and Europe : The Role of Global Consumer Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alden, D.L.; Steenkamp, J.E.B.M.; Batra, R.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the emergence of brand positioning strategies in advertising that parallel the growth of the global marketplace. A new construct, global consumer culture positioning (GCCP), is proposed, operationalized, and tested. This construct associates the brand with a widely

  19. 75 FR 14658 - Invitation for Public Comment on Mitigation Options for Global Positioning System Satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Public Comment on Mitigation Options for Global Positioning System Satellite Vehicle Number 49 AGENCY... options prior to changing the health status of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite IIR-20M (satellite vehicle number 49--SVN 49) from unhealthy to healthy. The potential mitigations are each designed...

  20. Stereographic Targeting in Prostate Radiotherapy: Speed and Precision by Daily Automatic Positioning Corrections Using Kilovoltage/Megavoltage Image Pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutanga, Theodore F.; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Wielen, Gerard J. van der; Wentzler, Davy; Barnhoorn, Jaco; Incrocci, Luca; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: A fully automated, fast, on-line prostate repositioning scheme using implanted markers, kilovoltage/megavoltage imaging, and remote couch movements has been developed and clinically applied. The initial clinical results of this stereographic targeting (SGT) method, as well as phantom evaluations, are presented. Methods and Materials: Using the SGT method, portal megavoltage images are acquired with the first two to six monitor units of a treatment beam, immediately followed by acquisition of an orthogonal kilovoltage image without gantry motion. The image pair is automatically analyzed to obtain the marker positions and three-dimensional prostate displacement and rotation. Remote control couch shifts are applied to correct for the displacement. The SGT performance was measured using both phantom images and images from 10 prostate cancer patients treated using SGT. Results: With phantom measurements, the accuracy of SGT was 0.5, 0.2, and 0.3 mm (standard deviation [SD]) for the left-right, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior directions, respectively, for translations and 0.5 o (SD) for the rotations around all axes. Clinically, the success rate for automatic marker detection was 99.5%, and the accuracy was 0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 mm (SD) in the left-right, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior axes. The SDs of the systematic center-of-mass positioning errors (Σ) were reduced from 4.0 mm to <0.5 mm for all axes. The corresponding SD of the random (σ) errors was reduced from 3.0 to <0.8 mm. These small residual errors were achieved with a treatment time extension of <1 min. Conclusion: Stereographic targeting yields systematic and random prostate positioning errors of <1 mm with <1 min of added treatment time

  1. ROMANIAN BUSINESS POSITION ON THE CONTEMPORARY GLOBALIZATION CHESSBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurica Grec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that from the global hat appear, one by one, new dangers, threats and risks which are destabilizing market forces, nowadays we’re seeing a pattern with non-predictable EFS (economic, financial, social indicators. In this context, appear new paradoxes, so as the states desired to achieve a better and more sustainable networking, they found that such reaction generate, on the domino principle, other countries security. We refer here both to the military and security side and to the non military one, in order to underline the dimensions of the LRI (local, regional, international scenarios. They are becoming more complicated and also are fighting with lack of vision for to identify, in real time, the ways to counter the micro-macro effects on the current organizational level.

  2. Automatic detection of patient position for incorporation in exact 3D reconstruction for emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyme, A.; Hutton, B.; Hatton, R.; Skerrett, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: SPECT involves acquiring a set of projection images using one or more rotating gamma cameras. The projections are then reconstructed to create transverse slices. Patient motion during the scan can introduce inconsistencies into the data leading to artifacts. There remains a need for robust and effective motion correction. One approach uses the (corrupt) data itself to derive the patient position at each projection angle. Corrected data is periodically incorporated into a 3-D reconstruction. Fundamental aspects of the algorithm mechanics, particularly performance in the presence of Poisson noise, have been examined. Brain SPECT studies were simulated using a digital version of the Huffman brain phantom. Projection datasets with Poisson noise imposed, generated for different positions of the phantom, were combined and reconstructed to produce motion-corrupted reconstructions. To examine the behaviour of the cost function as the object position was changed, the corrupted re-construction was forward projected and the mean square difference (MSD) between the resulting re-projections and corresponding original projections was calculated. The ability to detect mis-positioned projections for different degrees of freedom, the importance of using dual-head camera geometry, and the effect of smoothing the original projections prior to the MSD calculation were assessed. Re-projection of the corrupt reconstruction was able to correctly identify mis-positioned projection data. The degree of movement as defined by MSD was more easily identified for translations than for rotations. Noise resulted in an increasing bias that made it difficult to distinguish the minimum MSD, particularly for z-axis rotations. This was improved by median filtering of projections. Right-angled dual-head geometry is necessary to provide stability to the algorithm and to better identify motion in all 6 degrees of freedom. These findings will assist the optimisation of a fully automated motion

  3. Automatic detection of patient identification and positioning errors in radiotherapy treatment using 3D setup images

    OpenAIRE

    Jani, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    The success of modern radiotherapy treatment depends on the correct alignment of the radiation beams with the target region in the patient. In the conventional paradigm of image-guided radiation therapy, 2D or 3D setup images are taken immediately prior to treatment and are used by radiation therapy technologists to localize the patient to the same position as defined from the reference planning CT dataset. However, numerous reports in the literature have described errors during this step, wh...

  4. Local Geoid Determination Using the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Positioning System by Ma, Wei-Ming September 1988 Co-Advisor: Kandiah Jeyapalan Co-Advisor: Stevens P. Tucker Approved for public release; distribution is... Jeyapalan and Stevens P. Tucker, my thesis advisors, for their dedicated assistance and guidance during the study. Without their encouragement...method of collocation is [ Jeyapalan , 1977]: x = A*X+S +n +O.S q q P where x the vector of the observation (x = Ah - N0(X,Y,Z) - H) A a given rectangular

  5. Automatic exchange of information: towards a new global standard of tax transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Eduardo Pecho Trigueros

    2014-01-01

    Tax authorities are increasingly relying on mutual cooperation with their foreign peers to enforce more effectively their internal tax laws. After the banking scandals of 2008 and the subsequent global financial crisis, the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for TaxPurposes has proposed the exchange of information upon request as the fiscal transparency standard. However, some measures adopted by the European Union, previous initiatives from the Organization for Economic...

  6. An automatic colour-based computer vision algorithm for tracking the position of piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Jover, J. M.; Alcaniz-Raya, M.; Gomez, V.; Balasch, S.; Moreno, J. R.; Grau-Colomer, V.; Torres, A.

    2009-07-01

    Artificial vision is a powerful observation tool for research in the field of livestock production. So, based on the search and recognition of colour spots in images, a digital image processing system which permits the detection of the position of piglets in a farrowing pen, was developed. To this end, 24,000 images were captured over five takes (days), with a five-second interval between every other image. The nine piglets in a litter were marked on their backs and sides with different coloured spray paints each one, placed at a considerable distance on the RGB space. The programme requires the user to introduce the colour patterns to be found, and the output is an ASCII file with the positions (column X, lineY) for each of these marks within the image analysed. This information may be extremely useful for further applications in the study of animal behaviour and welfare parameters (huddling, activity, suckling, etc.). The software programme initially segments the image in the RGB colour space to separate the colour marks from the rest of the image, and then recognises the colour patterns, using another colour space [B/(R+G+B), (G-R), (B-G)] more suitable for this purpose. This additional colour space was obtained testing different colour combinations derived from R, G and B. The statistical evaluation of the programmes performance revealed an overall 72.5% in piglet detection, 89.1% of this total being correctly detected. (Author) 33 refs.

  7. Global Positioning System: Observations on Quarterly Reports from the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Positioning System : Observations on Quarterly Reports from the Air Force The satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) provides positioning , navigation...infrastructure, and transportation safety. The Department of Defense (DOD)—specifically, the Air Force—develops and operates the GPS system , which...programs, including the most recent detailed assessment of the next generation operational control system (OCX)

  8. SU-G-JeP2-03: Automatic Quantification of MLC Positional Accuracy in An MRI Guided Radiotherapy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X; Studenski, M; Yang, F; Dogan, N; Lamichhane, N; Padgett, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: MRI-guided-radiotherapy (MRIGRT) systems lack many features of traditional Linac based RT systems and specialized tests need to be developed to evaluate MLC performance. This work describes automatic tools for the analysis of positional accuracy of an MLC equipped MRIGRT system. Methods: This MLC analysis tool was developed for the MRIdian™ RT system which has three Co-60 equipped treatment heads each with a double focused MLC containing 30 leaf pairs, leaf thickness is 1.05cm defined at isocenter (SAD 105 cm). For MLC positional analysis a picket fence test was performed using a 25.4cm × 25.4cm Gafchromic™ RTQA2 film placed between 5cm solidwater and a 30cm × 30cm × 1cm jigwire phantom with seven embedded parallel metal strips 4cm apart. A plan was generated to deliver 2Gy per field and seven 23.1cm × 2cm fields centered over each wire in the phantom. For each leaf pair the center of the radiation profile was determined by fitting the horizontal profile with a Gaussian model and determining the center of the FWHM. This was compared with the metal strip location to determine any deviation. The following metrics were used to evaluate the deviations per gantry angle including maximum, minimum, mean, Kurtosis, and skewness. Results: The identified maximum/mean leaf deviations are, 1.32/0.55 mm for gantry 0°, 1.59/0.76 mm for gantry 90°, and 1.19/0.39 mm for gantry 270°. The percentage of leaf deviation less than 1mm are 90.0% at 0°, 74.6% at 90°, and 97.0% at 270°. Kurtosis/skewness of the leaf deviation are 2.41/0.14 at 0°, 2.53/0.23 at 90°, 3.33/0.83 at 270°, respectively. Conclusion: This work presents an automatic tool for evaluation of the MLC position accuracy of the MRIdian™ radiotherapy system which can be used to benchmark the performance of the MLC system for each treatment head and track the results longitudinally.

  9. Sustaining Air Force Space Systems: A Model for the Global Positioning System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snyder, Don; Mills, Patrick; Comanor, Katherine; Roll, Jr, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    ... and sustainment affect the performance of space systems. In this monograph, we develop a pilot framework for analyzing these and related questions in the ground segment of the Global Positioning System and recommend steps for implementing this framework...

  10. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) ADJACENT BAND COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Global Positioning System (GPS) Adjacent Band Compatibility Assessment is to evaluate the maximum transmitted power levels of adjacent band radiofrequency (RF) systems that can be tolerated by G...

  11. Using The Global Positioning System For Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Haines, Bruce J.; Young, Lawrence E.; Dunn, Charles; Srinivasan, Jeff; Sweeney, Dennis; Nandi, Sumita; Spitzmesser, Don

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking.

  12. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  13. Report to Congress : recapitalization plan for the nationwide differential global positioning system (NDGPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) has developed a recpitlaization plan to reduce technical, cost, and programmatic risks of the DOT-funded inland segment of the Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System (NDGPS)

  14. MDOT implementation plan for global positioning systems (GPS) technology in planning, design, and construction delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers advantages to transportation agencies in the planning, design and construction stages of project delivery. This research study will develop a guide for Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) ...

  15. Positive feedback between global warming and atmospheric CO2 concentration inferred from past climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Brovkin, V.; Cox, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    There is good evidence that higher global temperatures will promote a rise of greenhouse gas levels, implying a positive feedback which will increase the effect of anthropogenic emissions on global temperatures. However, the magnitude of this effect predicted by the available models remains highly

  16. Category (CAT) IIIb Level 1 Test Plan for Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    applications. CAT 11Tb is defined in Advisory Circular ( AC ) 120-28C [1] as "a precision instrument approach and landing with no decision height (DH), or...2) FAA AC 20-57A (Automatic Landing Systems) [31, AC 120-28C (Criteria for Approval of CAT III Landing Weather Minima) [I] and the FAA tunnel-in...AD-A274 098I I~II l~iiUIRII 11111ilIII2 DOT/FAA/RD-93/21 Category ( CAT ) IIb Level 1 MTR 93W0000102 Research and Test Plan for Global Development

  17. Security and Hyper-accurate Positioning Monitoring with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightning Ridge Technologies, LLC, working in collaboration with The Innovation Laboratory, Inc., extend Automatic Dependent Surveillance -- Broadcast (ADS-B) into a...

  18. Security and Hyper-accurate Positioning Monitoring with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightning Ridge Technologies, working in collaboration with The Innovation Laboratory, Inc., extend Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) into a safe,...

  19. Building a Global Catalog of Nonvolcanic Tremor Events Using an Automatic Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, B. C.; Revenaugh, J.

    2009-12-01

    Nonvolcanic tremor is characterized by a long-period seismic event containing a series of low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs). Tremor has been detected in regions of subduction (e.g. Kao et. al. 2007, 2008; Shelly 2006) and beneath the San Andreas fault near Cholame, California (e.g. Nadeau and Dolenc, 2005). In some cases tremor events seem to have periodicity, and these are often referred to as episodic tremor and slip (ETS). The origin of nonvolcanic tremor has been ascribed to shear slip along plate boundaries and/or high pore-fluid pressure. The apparent periodicity and tectonic setting associated with ETS has led to the suggestion that there may be a link between ETS and megathrust earthquakes. Until recently tremor detection has been a manual process requiring visual inspection of seismic data. In areas that have dense seismic arrays (e.g. Japan) waveform cross correlation techniques have been successfully employed (e.g. Obara, 2002). Kao et al. (2007) developed an algorithm for automatic detection of seismic tremor that can be used in regions without dense arrays. This method has been used to create the Tremor Activity Monitoring System (TAMS), which is used by the Geologic Survey of Canada to monitor northern Cascadia. So far the study of nonvolcanic tremor has been limited to regions of subduction or along major transform faults. It is unknown if tremor events occur in other tectonic settings, or if the current detection schemes will be useful for finding them. We propose to look for tremor events in non-subduction regions. It is possible that if tremor exists in other regions it will have different characteristics and may not trigger the TAMS system or be amenable to other existing detection schemes. We are developing algorithms for searching sparse array data sets for quasi-harmonic energy bursts in hopes of recognizing and cataloging nonvolcanic tremor in an expanded tectonic setting. Statistical comparisons against the TAMS algorithm will be made if

  20. Improve wildlife species tracking—Implementing an enhanced global positioning system data management system for California condors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltermire, Robert G.; Emmerich, Christopher U.; Mendenhall, Laura C.; Bohrer, Gil; Weinzierl, Rolf P.; McGann, Andrew J.; Lineback, Pat K.; Kern, Tim J.; Douglas, David C.

    2016-05-03

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) staff in the Pacific Southwest Region and at the Hopper Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex requested technical assistance to improve their global positioning system (GPS) data acquisition, management, and archive in support of the California Condor Recovery Program. The USFWS deployed and maintained GPS units on individual Gymnogyps californianus (California condor) in support of long-term research and daily operational monitoring and management of California condors. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) obtained funding through the Science Support Program to provide coordination among project participants, provide GPS Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) transmitters for testing, and compare GSM/GPS with existing Argos satellite GPS technology. The USFWS staff worked with private companies to design, develop, and fit condors with GSM/GPS transmitters. The Movebank organization, an online database of animal tracking data, coordinated with each of these companies to automatically stream their GPS data into Movebank servers and coordinated with USFWS to improve Movebank software for managing transmitter data, including proofing/error checking of incoming GPS data. The USGS arranged to pull raw GPS data from Movebank into the USGS California Condor Management and Analysis Portal (CCMAP) (https://my.usgs.gov/ccmap) for production and dissemination of a daily map of condor movements including various automated alerts. Further, the USGS developed an automatic archiving system for pulling raw and proofed Movebank data into USGS ScienceBase to comply with the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002. This improved data management system requires minimal manual intervention resulting in more efficient data flow from GPS data capture to archive status. As a result of the project’s success, Pinnacles National Park and the Ventana Wildlife Society California condor programs became partners and adopted the same

  1. Towards automatic global error control: Computable weak error expansion for the tau-leap method

    KAUST Repository

    Karlsson, Peer Jesper; Tempone, Raul

    2011-01-01

    This work develops novel error expansions with computable leading order terms for the global weak error in the tau-leap discretization of pure jump processes arising in kinetic Monte Carlo models. Accurate computable a posteriori error approximations are the basis for adaptive algorithms, a fundamental tool for numerical simulation of both deterministic and stochastic dynamical systems. These pure jump processes are simulated either by the tau-leap method, or by exact simulation, also referred to as dynamic Monte Carlo, the Gillespie Algorithm or the Stochastic Simulation Slgorithm. Two types of estimates are presented: an a priori estimate for the relative error that gives a comparison between the work for the two methods depending on the propensity regime, and an a posteriori estimate with computable leading order term. © de Gruyter 2011.

  2. The Global Positioning System and Its Integration into College Geography Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikle, Thomas A.; Lambert, Dean P.

    1996-01-01

    Introduces global positioning system (GPS) technology to nonspecialist geographers and recommends a framework for implementing GPS instructional modules in college geography courses. GPS was developed as a worldwide satellite-based system by the U.S. Department of Defense to simplify and improve military and civilian navigation and positioning.…

  3. The Global Positioning System--Direction for the Future [and] GPS Technology and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Paul R.; Ginsburg, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Edmondson introduces a satellite-based radio navigation, positioning, and timing system that can be integrated into a variety of curriculum areas. Ginsburg describes how the global positioning system brings far-reaching benefits for crop growers and the environment. (Author)

  4. Contributions of Positive Psychology to Peace: Toward Global Well-Being and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, J. Christopher; Christie, Daniel J.; White, Mathew P.; Das, Chaitali

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between positive psychology and peace psychology. We discuss how positive emotions, engagement, meaning, personal well-being, and resilience may impact peace at different levels, ranging from the personal and interpersonal to community, national, and global peace. First, we argue that an…

  5. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM SCHEMES BASED ON BLOCK CODES

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad Janga; Dr. R. L. Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite based positioning system based on radio ranging technique. The GPS will provide very accurate three-dimensional position, velocity and timing information to users anywhere in the world. GPS can also be used in other applications such as vehicle monitoring for traffic management in urban areas, Geographical Information System (GIS), 4G Communications, marine navigation, search and rescue and military applications. As GPS accuracy is limited by ion...

  6. Dynamic tracking performance of indoor global positioning system: An experimental and theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The automation level has been improved rapidly with the introduction of large-scale measurement technologies, such as indoor global positioning system, into the production process among the fields of car, ship, and aerospace due to their excellent measurement characteristics. In fact, the objects are usually in motion during the real measurement process; however, the dynamic measurement characteristics of indoor global positioning system are much limited and still in exploration. In this research, we focused on the dynamic tracking performance of indoor global positioning system and then successfully built a mathematical model based on its measurement principles. We first built single and double station system models with the consideration of measurement objects’ movement. Using MATLAB simulation, we realized the dynamic measurement characteristics of indoor global positioning system. In the real measurement process, the experimental results also support the mathematical model that we built, which proves a great success in dynamic measurement characteristics. We envision that this dynamic tracking performance of indoor global positioning system would shed light on the dynamic measurement of a motion object and therefore make contribution to the automation production.

  7. Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachininskii Stanislav

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global context. Seven coastal regions are distinguished within this region, whose organising centers are the global coastal cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Malmö. The concept of a “global city-region” (Sassen can be used as a methodological framework for analyzing this connection. Within this hierarchy, the dominant alpha group global city is Stockholm. The authors argue that, as a global coastal city, St. Petersburg forms the St. Petersburg coastal region, which can be defined as a typical "global city region". The index method shows that the position of St. Petersburg in the system of global coastal cities of the Baltic region is relatively favorable in view of its transport, logistics, and demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea gate" of Russia. However, the level of high-tech services and ‘new economy’ development is not sufficient for the port to become a match for the top three cities (Stockholm, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. This is increasingly important because transboundary global city networks demonstrate that global cities are functions of global networks. Saint Petersburg is just starting to integrate into these networks through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.

  8. Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachninsky S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global context. Seven coastal regions are distinguished within this region, whose organising centers are the global coastal cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Malmö. The concept of a “global city-region” (Sassen can be used as a methodological framework for analyzing this connection. Within this hierarchy, the dominant alpha group global city is Stockholm. The authors argue that, as a global coastal city, St. Petersburg forms the St. Petersburg coastal region, which can be defined as a typical "global city region". The index method shows that the position of St. Petersburg in the system of global coastal cities of the Baltic region is relatively favorable in view of its transport, logistics, and demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea gate" of Russia. However, the level of high-tech services and ‘new economy’ development is not sufficient for the port to become a match for the top three cities (Stockholm, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. This is increasingly important because transboundary global city networks demonstrate that global cities are functions of global networks. Saint Petersburg is just starting to integrate into these networks through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.

  9. LEAP into the Pfizer Global Virtual Library (PGVL) space: creation of readily synthesizable design ideas automatically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiyue; Peng, Zhengwei; Kostrowicki, Jaroslav; Kuki, Atsuo

    2011-01-01

    Pfizer Global Virtual Library (PGVL) of 10(13) readily synthesizable molecules offers a tremendous opportunity for lead optimization and scaffold hopping in drug discovery projects. However, mining into a chemical space of this size presents a challenge for the concomitant design informatics due to the fact that standard molecular similarity searches against a collection of explicit molecules cannot be utilized, since no chemical information system could create and manage more than 10(8) explicit molecules. Nevertheless, by accepting a tolerable level of false negatives in search results, we were able to bypass the need for full 10(13) enumeration and enabled the efficient similarity search and retrieval into this huge chemical space for practical usage by medicinal chemists. In this report, two search methods (LEAP1 and LEAP2) are presented. The first method uses PGVL reaction knowledge to disassemble the incoming search query molecule into a set of reactants and then uses reactant-level similarities into actual available starting materials to focus on a much smaller sub-region of the full virtual library compound space. This sub-region is then explicitly enumerated and searched via a standard similarity method using the original query molecule. The second method uses a fuzzy mapping onto candidate reactions and does not require exact disassembly of the incoming query molecule. Instead Basis Products (or capped reactants) are mapped into the query molecule and the resultant asymmetric similarity scores are used to prioritize the corresponding reactions and reactant sets. All sets of Basis Products are inherently indexed to specific reactions and specific starting materials. This again allows focusing on a much smaller sub-region for explicit enumeration and subsequent standard product-level similarity search. A set of validation studies were conducted. The results have shown that the level of false negatives for the disassembly-based method is acceptable when the

  10. Automatic detection of patient identification and positioning errors in radiation therapy treatment using 3-dimensional setup images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Shyam S; Low, Daniel A; Lamb, James M

    2015-01-01

    To develop an automated system that detects patient identification and positioning errors between 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) and kilovoltage CT planning images. Planning kilovoltage CT images were collected for head and neck (H&N), pelvis, and spine treatments with corresponding 3-dimensional cone beam CT and megavoltage CT setup images from TrueBeam and TomoTherapy units, respectively. Patient identification errors were simulated by registering setup and planning images from different patients. For positioning errors, setup and planning images were misaligned by 1 to 5 cm in the 6 anatomical directions for H&N and pelvis patients. Spinal misalignments were simulated by misaligning to adjacent vertebral bodies. Image pairs were assessed using commonly used image similarity metrics as well as custom-designed metrics. Linear discriminant analysis classification models were trained and tested on the imaging datasets, and misclassification error (MCE), sensitivity, and specificity parameters were estimated using 10-fold cross-validation. For patient identification, our workflow produced MCE estimates of 0.66%, 1.67%, and 0% for H&N, pelvis, and spine TomoTherapy images, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 97.5% to 100%. MCEs of 3.5%, 2.3%, and 2.1% were obtained for TrueBeam images of the above sites, respectively, with sensitivity and specificity estimates between 95.4% and 97.7%. MCEs for 1-cm H&N/pelvis misalignments were 1.3%/5.1% and 9.1%/8.6% for TomoTherapy and TrueBeam images, respectively. Two-centimeter MCE estimates were 0.4%/1.6% and 3.1/3.2%, respectively. MCEs for vertebral body misalignments were 4.8% and 3.6% for TomoTherapy and TrueBeam images, respectively. Patient identification and gross misalignment errors can be robustly and automatically detected using 3-dimensional setup images of different energies across 3 commonly treated anatomical sites. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by

  11. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Technology to Study Vector-Pathogen-Host Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0175 TITLE: Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Technology to Study Vector-Pathogen-Host Interactions PRINCIPAL...Positioning Systems (GPS) Technology to Study Vector-Pathogen-Host Interactions 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0175 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...genetic diversity in the population, in hospitalized children with severe dengue illness and cluster investigation of their neighborhoods, and by using

  12. 77 FR 37430 - BSEE Information Collection Activity: Global Positioning System for MODUs, Extension of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... major weather event, like a hurricane, lessees and operators need to report new GPS information to BSEE...-0012; OMB Control Number 1014-0013] BSEE Information Collection Activity: Global Positioning System for... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), BSEE is inviting comments on a collection of information pertaining...

  13. 77 FR 56254 - 89th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... held March 16, 2012. Review Working Group (WG) Progress and Identify Issues for Resolution. GPS/3nd... Standards for Global Positioning System/Wide Area Augmentation System Airborne Equipment Assignment/Review of Future Work. Other Business. Date and Place of Next Meeting. Adjourn Attendance is open to the...

  14. Global positioning system for general aviation: Joint FAA-NASA Seminar. [conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Programs to examine and develop means to utilize the global positioning system (GPS) for civil aviation functions are described. User requirements in this regard are discussed, the development of technologies in the areas of antennas, receivers, and signal processors for the GPS are examined, and modifications to the GPS to fit operational and design criteria are evaluated.

  15. 76 FR 31943 - Global Positioning System Directorate (Gpsd); Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ...); Notice of Meeting ACTION: Notice of Meeting--Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) for Signals-in... that the Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate will be hosting a Public Interface Control... the Was/Is Matrix, current versions of the documents, and the official meeting notice will be posted...

  16. Using the Global Positioning System for Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-Earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking. This paper summarizes recent results demonstrating these unique and far-ranging applications of GPS.

  17. The Global Positioning System and Education in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikle, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    Students should have an understanding of basic Global Positioning System (GPS) principles as well as an awareness of how the technology will impact society in the future. Provides a brief overview of the evolution, principles, and applications of GPS together with suggested activities. (Contains 25 references.) (Author/WRM)

  18. Meteorological applications of a surface network of Global Positioning System receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de S.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents meteorological applications of water vapour observations from a surface network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. GPS signals are delayed by the atmo¬sphere due to atmospheric refraction and bending. Mapped to the zenith, this delay is called Zenith Total Delay

  19. Combining A Priori Knowledge and Sensor Information for Updating the Global Position of an Autonomous Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, Z.; Schoute, Albert L.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; van Amerongen, J.; Jonker, B.; Regtien, P.P.L; Stramigioli, S.

    The problem of updating the global position of an autonomous vehicle is considered. An iterative procedure is proposed to fit a map to a set of noisy measurements. The procedure is inspired by a non-parametric procedure for probability density function mode searching. We show how this could be used

  20. Causes and consequences of timing errors associated with global positioning system collar accelerometer activity monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam J. Gaylord; Dana M. Sanchez

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavioral observations of multiple free-ranging animals over long periods of time and large geographic areas is prohibitively difficult. However, recent improvements in technology, such as Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with motion-sensitive activity monitors, create the potential to remotely monitor animal behavior. Accelerometer-equipped...

  1. Observations of geographically correlated orbit errors for TOPEX/Poseidon using the global positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, E. J.; Haines, B. J.; Mccoll, K. C.; Nerem, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    We have compared Global Positioning System (GPS)-based dynamic and reduced-dynamic TOPEX/Poseidon orbits over three 10-day repeat cycles of the ground-track. The results suggest that the prelaunch joint gravity model (JGM-1) introduces geographically correlated errors (GCEs) which have a strong meridional dependence. The global distribution and magnitude of these GCEs are consistent with a prelaunch covariance analysis, with estimated and predicted global rms error statistics of 2.3 and 2.4 cm rms, respectively. Repeating the analysis with the post-launch joint gravity model (JGM-2) suggests that a portion of the meridional dependence observed in JGM-1 still remains, with global rms error of 1.2 cm.

  2. Automatic associations with the sensory aspects of smoking: Positive in habitual smokers but negative in non-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Huijding (Jorg); P.J. de Jong (Peter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractTo test whether pictorial stimuli that focus on the sensory aspects of smoking elicit different automatic affective associations in smokers than in non-smokers, 31 smoking and 33 non-smoking students completed a single target IAT. Explicit attitudes were assessed using a semantic

  3. Automatic associations with the sensory aspects of smoking : Positive in habitual smokers but negative in non-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijding, J; de Jong, PJ

    To test whether pictorial stimuli that focus on the sensory aspects of smoking elicit different automatic affective associations in smokers than in non-smokers, 31 smoking and 33 non-smoking students completed a single target IAT. Explicit attitudes were assessed using a semantic differential.

  4. Automatic control system of a linear actuator for positioning samples to neutron irradiation using low cost open-hardware boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunya, Eduardo; Chan, Renzo; Pacheco, Adison

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design criteria and implementation of an automatic control system based on embedded electronic circuits (microcontrollers) of different architectures (RISC, ARM) and open source framework software CanFestival, to develop user applications. Electronic devices are autonomous and support the functionality required for communication and remote control of the linear actuator. (author)

  5. Position Estimation and Local Mapping Using Omnidirectional Images and Global Appearance Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerai Berenguer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some methods to create local maps and to estimate the position of a mobile robot, using the global appearance of omnidirectional images. We use a robot that carries an omnidirectional vision system on it. Every omnidirectional image acquired by the robot is described only with one global appearance descriptor, based on the Radon transform. In the work presented in this paper, two different possibilities have been considered. In the first one, we assume the existence of a map previously built composed of omnidirectional images that have been captured from previously-known positions. The purpose in this case consists of estimating the nearest position of the map to the current position of the robot, making use of the visual information acquired by the robot from its current (unknown position. In the second one, we assume that we have a model of the environment composed of omnidirectional images, but with no information about the location of where the images were acquired. The purpose in this case consists of building a local map and estimating the position of the robot within this map. Both methods are tested with different databases (including virtual and real images taking into consideration the changes of the position of different objects in the environment, different lighting conditions and occlusions. The results show the effectiveness and the robustness of both methods.

  6. Forward Model Studies of Water Vapor Using Scanning Microwave Radiometers, Global Positioning System, and Radiosondes during the Cloudiness Intercomparison Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattioli, Vinia; Westwater, Ed R.; Gutman, S.; Morris, Victor R.

    2005-01-01

    Brightness temperatures computed from five absorption models and radiosonde observations were analyzed by comparing them with measurements from three microwave radiometers at 23.8 and 31.4 GHz. Data were obtained during the Cloudiness Inter-Comparison experiment at the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) site in North-Central Oklahoma in 2003. The radiometers were calibrated using two procedures, the so-called instantaneous ?tipcal? method and an automatic self-calibration algorithm. Measurements from the radiometers were in agreement, with less than a 0.4-K difference during clear skies, when the instantaneous method was applied. Brightness temperatures from the radiometer and the radiosonde showed an agreement of less than 0.55 K when the most recent absorption models were considered. Precipitable water vapor (PWV) computed from the radiometers were also compared to the PWV derived from a Global Positioning System station that operates at the ARM site. The instruments agree to within 0.1 cm in PWV retrieval

  7. Electron Flux Dropouts at L ˜ 4.2 From Global Positioning System Satellites: Occurrences, Magnitudes, and Main Driving Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, R. J.; Mourenas, D.; Balikhin, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    Dropouts in electron fluxes at L ˜ 4.2 were investigated for a broad range of energies from 120 keV to 10 MeV, using 16 years of electron flux data from Combined X-ray Dosimeter on board Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. Dropouts were defined as flux decreases by at least a factor 4 in 12 h, or 24 h during which a decrease by at least a factor of 1.5 must occur during each 12 h time bin. Such fast and strong dropouts were automatically identified from the GPS electron flux data and statistics of dropout magnitudes, and occurrences were compiled as a function of electron energy. Moreover, the Error Reduction Ratio analysis was employed to search for nonlinear relationships between electron flux dropouts and various solar wind and geomagnetic activity indices, in order to identify potential external causes of dropouts. At L ˜ 4.2, the main driving factor for the more numerous and stronger 1-10 MeV electron dropouts turns out to be the southward interplanetary magnetic field Bs, suggesting an important effect from precipitation loss due to combined electromagnetic ion cyclotron and whistler mode waves in a significant fraction of these events, supplementing magnetopause shadowing and outward radial diffusion which are also effective at lower energies.

  8. Search for domain wall dark matter with atomic clocks on board global positioning system satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin M; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Dailey, Conner; Murphy, Mac; Pospelov, Maxim; Rollings, Alex; Sherman, Jeff; Williams, Wyatt; Derevianko, Andrei

    2017-10-30

    Cosmological observations indicate that dark matter makes up 85% of all matter in the universe yet its microscopic composition remains a mystery. Dark matter could arise from ultralight quantum fields that form macroscopic objects. Here we use the global positioning system as a ~ 50,000 km aperture dark matter detector to search for such objects in the form of domain walls. Global positioning system navigation relies on precision timing signals furnished by atomic clocks. As the Earth moves through the galactic dark matter halo, interactions with domain walls could cause a sequence of atomic clock perturbations that propagate through the satellite constellation at galactic velocities ~ 300 km s -1 . Mining 16 years of archival data, we find no evidence for domain walls at our current sensitivity level. This improves the limits on certain quadratic scalar couplings of domain wall dark matter to standard model particles by several orders of magnitude.

  9. A Short Tutorial on Inertial Navigation System and Global Positioning System Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kyle M.; Eure, Kenneth W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe a simple method of integrating Inertial Navigation System (INS) information with Global Positioning System (GPS) information for an improved estimate of vehicle attitude and position. A simple two dimensional (2D) case is considered. The attitude estimates are derived from sensor data and used in the estimation of vehicle position and velocity through dead reckoning within the INS. The INS estimates are updated with GPS estimates using a Kalman filter. This tutorial is intended for the novice user with a focus on bringing the reader from raw sensor measurements to an integrated position and attitude estimate. An application is given using a remotely controlled ground vehicle operating in assumed 2D environment. The theory is developed first followed by an illustrative example.

  10. Using satellite technology (global positioning system) to teach the spherical polar coordinate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, William P Jr

    2003-01-01

    Students discover the equivalence between plausible geographic variables (co-latitude and longitude) of the Earth and less-familiar geometric variables (polar and azimuthal angles) of spherical polar coordinates by collecting and analysing positional data recorded during field exercises with a handheld global positioning system (GPS) receiver. This pedagogical approach to teaching spherical geometry, based on field experience rather than classroom theory, uses GPS technology to capture the curiosity of contemporary students, technical or otherwise, who might not normally find the topic of the spherical polar coordinate system comprehensible, relevant or interesting

  11. Upgrading to lead firm position via international acquisition: learning from the global biomass power plant industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Fold, Niels; Hansen, Teis

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the case of a Chinese firm that has upgraded to lead firm position in the global biomass power plant industry mainly through acquisitions of technological frontier firms in Denmark. Sustaining the lead firm position was, however, challenged by difficulties in developing...... innovative capability. Drawing on the literature on (i) firm-level technological capability and (ii) knowledge transfer in international acquisitions, we explain the reasons for insufficient innovative capability building. Based on these empirical findings, we suggest maintaining the existing upgrading...

  12. A review on bridge dynamic displacement monitoring using global positioning system and accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Zulkifli Mohd; Ibrahim, Nuremira; Ahmad, Fatimah Shafinaz

    2018-02-01

    This paper reviews previous research on bridge dynamic displacement monitoring using Global Positioning System (GPS) and an accelerometer for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of bridge. These include the review of the advantages and disadvantages of the measurement as well as the methodology of the measurements used in the recent research study. This review could provide a preliminary decision overview for students or researchers before initiating a research related to the bridge dynamic displacement monitoring.

  13. IMPELEMENTASI SISTEM PEMANTAUAN OBJEK BERGERAK DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN FREKUENSI RADIO MENGGUNAKAN GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM)

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Triandi

    2010-01-01

    GPS was developed by the United States Department of Defense as a reliable means for accurate navigation. The system provides highly accurate position and velocity information and precise time on a continuous global basis to an unlimited number of properly equipped users. By using combined GPS receiver and microcontroller together with radio system, we can design a monitoring system for our vehicles and display the result on the computer. This system consists of a master module that transmits...

  14. Development of a one side automatic TIG arc welding system in horizontal position for annular vessels in nuclear fuel cycle factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Takao; Ohsawa, Morihiko; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Habuta, Susumu; Hori, Tomiji; Fujiwara, Katsusi; Kitaguchi, Yoshihisa.

    1995-01-01

    Various annular vessels are planned to be equipped as a part of the plutonium refining facility in the nuclear fuel cycle factory. For manufacturing the high quality vessels, a one side automatic TIG arc welding system which is applied to the circumferencial joints in horizontal welding position have been completed. The automatic welding system is confirmed to be effective for improving the joint qualities and saving the manufacturing cost by our Mockup test. The main points of our welding system are as follows. (1) Low pulsed TIG arc welding process with a mixed shielding gas of Ar+5%H 2 is being employed. (2) Mechanical seam trucking system for the carriage and welding torch is equipped in the welding machine. (3) Arc voltage controlling system is employed for stabilizing the welding condition. (4) Magnetic wheels are equipped at the carriage for travelling without rails. The weight of this welding machine is designed to be less than 15 kg. (author)

  15. Positive enteric contrast material for abdominal and pelvic CT with automatic exposure control: What is the effect on patient radiation exposure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen J., E-mail: jane.wang@radiology.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Chen, Katherine S.; Gould, Robert; Coakley, Fergus V.; Fu Yanjun; Yeh, Benjamin M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Objective: To assess the effect of positive enteric contrast administration on automatic exposure control (AEC) CT radiation exposure in (1) a CT phantom, and (2) a retrospective review of patients. Materials and methods: We scanned a CT phantom containing simulated bowel that was sequentially filled with water and positive enteric contrast, and recorded the mean volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). We also identified 17 patients who had undergone 2 technically comparable CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis, one with positive enteric contrast and the other with oral water. Paired Student's t-tests were used to compare the mean CTDIvol between scans performed with and without positive enteric contrast. Both the phantom and patient CT scans were performed using AEC with a fixed noise index. Results: The mean CTDIvol for the phantom with simulated bowel containing water and positive enteric contrast were 8.2 {+-} 0.2 mGy, and 8.7 {+-} 0.1 mGy (6.1% higher than water, p = 0.02), respectively. The mean CTDIvol for patients scanned with oral water and with positive enteric contrast were 11.8 mGy and 13.1 mGy, respectively (p = 0.003). This corresponded to a mean CTDIvol which was 11.0% higher (range: 0.0-20.7% higher) in scans with positive enteric contrast than those with oral water in patients. Conclusions: When automatic exposure control is utilized for abdominopelvic CT, the radiation exposure, as measured by CTDIvol, is higher for scans performed with positive enteric contrast than those with oral water.

  16. Comparison of manual versus automatic continuous positive airway pressure titration and the development of a predictive equation for therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure in Chinese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaying; Xiao, Sichang; Qiu, Zhihui; Song, Ning; Luo, Yuanming

    2013-04-01

    Whether the therapeutic nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) derived from manual titration is the same as derived from automatic titration is controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the therapeutic pressure derived from manual titration with automatic titration. Fifty-one patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) (mean apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) = 50.6 ± 18.6 events/h) who were newly diagnosed after an overnight full polysomnography and who were willing to accept CPAP as a long-term treatment were recruited for the study. Manual titration during full polysomnography monitoring and unattended automatic titration with an automatic CPAP device (REMstar Auto) were performed. A separate cohort study of one hundred patients with OSA (AHI = 54.3 ± 18.9 events/h) was also performed by observing the efficacy of CPAP derived from manual titration. The treatment pressure derived from automatic titration (9.8 ± 2.2 cmH(2)O) was significantly higher than that derived from manual titration (7.3 ± 1.5 cmH(2)O; P titration (54.3 ± 18.9 events/h before treatment and 3.3 ± 1.7 events/h after treatment; P titration pressure derived from REMstar Auto is usually higher than the pressure derived from manual titration. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. Quantification of Competitive Game Demands of NCAA Division I College Football Players Using Global Positioning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Aaron D; Coad, Sam C; Goulet, Grant C; McLellan, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the competitive physiological movement demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college football players using portable global positioning system (GPS) technology during games and to examine positional groups within offensive and defensive teams, to determine if a player's physiological requirements during games are influenced by playing position. Thirty-three NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision football players were monitored using GPS receivers with integrated accelerometers (GPSports) during 12 regular season games throughout the 2014 season. Individual data sets (n = 295) from players were divided into offensive and defensive teams and subsequent position groups. Movement profile characteristics, including total, low-intensity, moderate-intensity, high-intensity, and sprint running distances (m), sprint counts, and acceleration and deceleration efforts, were assessed during games. A one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni statistical analysis were used to determine differences in movement profiles between each position group within offensive and defensive teams. For both offensive and defensive teams, significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences exist between positional groups for game physical performance requirements. The results of the present study identified that wide receivers and defensive backs completed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater total distance, high-intensity running, sprint distance, and high-intensity acceleration and deceleration efforts than their respective offensive and defensive positional groups. Data from the present study provide novel quantification of position-specific physical demands of college football games and support the use of position-specific training in the preparation of NCAA Division I college football players for competition.

  18. Automatic Assessment of Global Craniofacial Differences between Crouzon mice and Wild-type mice in terms of the Cephalic Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Oubel, Estanislao; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2006-01-01

    of landmark matching is limited using only affine transformations, the errors were considered acceptable. The automatic estimation of the cephalic index was in full agreement with the gold standard measurements. Discriminant analysis of the three scaling parameters resulted in a good classification...

  19. Observing Tropospheric Water Vapor by Radio Occultation using the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Hajj, G. A.; Hardy, K. R.; Romans, L. J.; Schofield, J. T.

    1995-01-01

    Given the importance of water vapor to weather, climate and hydrology, global humidity observations from satellites are critical. At low latitudes, radio occultation observations of Earth's atmosphere using the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites allow water vapor profiles to be retrieved with accuracies of 10 to 20% below 6 to 7 km altitude and approx. 5% or better within the boundary layer. GPS observations provide a unique combination of accuracy, vertical resolution (less than or equal to 1 km) and insensitivity to cloud and aerosol particles that is well suited to observations of the lower troposphere. These characteristics combined with the inherent stability of radio occultation observations make it an excellent candidate for the measurement of long term trends.

  20. Global attractivity of positive periodic solution to periodic Lotka-Volterra competition systems with pure delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianhua; Cao, Daomin; Zou, Xingfu

    We consider a periodic Lotka-Volterra competition system without instantaneous negative feedbacks (i.e., pure-delay systems) x(t)=x(t)[r(t)-∑j=1na(t)x(t-τ(t))], i=1,2,…,n. We establish some 3/2-type criteria for global attractivity of a positive periodic solution of the system, which generalize the well-known Wright's 3/2 criteria for the autonomous delay logistic equation, and thereby, address the open problem proposed by both Kuang [Y. Kuang, Global stability in delayed nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra type systems without saturated equilibria, Differential Integral Equations 9 (1996) 557-567] and Teng [Z. Teng, Nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra systems with delays, J. Differential Equations 179 (2002) 538-561].

  1. Global asymptotic stabilization of large-scale hydraulic networks using positive proportional controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    An industrial case study involving a large-scale hydraulic network underlying a district heating system subject to structural changes is considered. The problem of controlling the pressure drop across the so-called end-user valves in the network to a designated vector of reference values under...... directional actuator constraints is addressed. The proposed solution consists of a set of decentralized positively constrained proportional control actions. The results show that the closed-loop system always has a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium point independently on the number of end......-users. Furthermore, by a proper design of controller gains the closed-loop equilibrium point can be designed to belong to an arbitrarily small neighborhood of the desired equilibrium point. Since there exists a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium point independently on the number of end-users in the system...

  2. Geometrically constrained kinematic global navigation satellite systems positioning: Implementation and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Jamal; Mohammadloo, Tannaz H.; Amiri-Simkooei, Ali Reza

    2015-09-01

    GNSS kinematic techniques are capable of providing precise coordinates in extremely short observation time-span. These methods usually determine the coordinates of an unknown station with respect to a reference one. To enhance the precision, accuracy, reliability and integrity of the estimated unknown parameters, GNSS kinematic equations are to be augmented by possible constraints. Such constraints could be derived from the geometric relation of the receiver positions in motion. This contribution presents the formulation of the constrained kinematic global navigation satellite systems positioning. Constraints effectively restrict the definition domain of the unknown parameters from the three-dimensional space to a subspace defined by the equation of motion. To test the concept of the constrained kinematic positioning method, the equation of a circle is employed as a constraint. A device capable of moving on a circle was made and the observations from 11 positions on the circle were analyzed. Relative positioning was conducted by considering the center of the circle as the reference station. The equation of the receiver's motion was rewritten in the ECEF coordinates system. A special attention is drawn onto how a constraint is applied to kinematic positioning. Implementing the constraint in the positioning process provides much more precise results compared to the unconstrained case. This has been verified based on the results obtained from the covariance matrix of the estimated parameters and the empirical results using kinematic positioning samples as well. The theoretical standard deviations of the horizontal components are reduced by a factor ranging from 1.24 to 2.64. The improvement on the empirical standard deviation of the horizontal components ranges from 1.08 to 2.2.

  3. Global stabilisation of large-scale hydraulic networks with quantised and positive proportional controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    a set of decentralised, logarithmic quantised and constrained control actions with properly designed quantisation parameters. That is, an attractor set with a compact basin of attraction exists. Subsequently, the basin can be increased by increasing the control gains. In our work, this result...... is extended by showing that an attractor set with a global basin of attraction exists for arbitrary values of positive control gains, given that the upper level of the quantiser is properly designed. Furthermore, the proof is given for general monotone quantisation maps. Since the basin of attraction...

  4. Improved treatment of global positioning system force parameters in precise orbit determination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigue, Y.; Lichten, S. M.; Muellerschoen, R. J.; Blewitt, G.; Heflin, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    Data collected from a worldwide 1992 experiment were processed at JPL to determine precise orbits for the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). A filtering technique was tested to improve modeling of solar-radiation pressure force parameters for GPS satellites. The new approach improves orbit quality for eclipsing satellites by a factor of two, with typical results in the 25- to 50-cm range. The resultant GPS-based estimates for geocentric coordinates of the tracking sites, which include the three DSN sites, are accurate to 2 to 8 cm, roughly equivalent to 3 to 10 nrad of angular measure.

  5. Cost analysis of Navy acquisition alternatives for the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, T. F.; Smith, G. P.

    1982-12-01

    This research analyzes the life cycle cost (LCC) of the Navy's current and two hypothetical procurement alternatives for NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) user equipment. Costs are derived by the ARINC Research Corporation ACBEN cost estimating system. Data presentation is in a comparative format describing individual alternative LCC and differential costs between alternatives. Sensitivity analysis explores the impact receiver-processor unit (RPU) first unit production cost has on individual alternative LCC, as well as cost differentials between each alternative. Several benefits are discussed that might provide sufficient cost savings and/or system effectiveness improvements to warrant a procurement strategy other than the existing proposal.

  6. Autonomous Navigation of the SSTI/Lewis Spacecraft Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, R. C.; Long, A. C.; Lee, T.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) is pursuing the application of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to improve the accuracy and economy of spacecraft navigation. High-accuracy autonomous navigation algorithms are being flight qualified in conjunction with GSFC's GPS Attitude Determination Flyer (GADFLY) experiment on the Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI) Lewis spacecraft, which is scheduled for launch in 1997. Preflight performance assessments indicate that these algorithms can provide a real-time total position accuracy of better than 10 meters (1 sigma) and velocity accuracy of better than 0.01 meter per second (1 sigma), with selective availability at typical levels. This accuracy is projected to improve to the 2-meter level if corrections to be provided by the GPS Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) are included.

  7. Global Application of TaiWan Ionospheric Model to Single-Frequency GPS Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalalad, E.; Tsai, L. C.; Wu, J.

    2012-04-01

    Ionospheric delay is one the major sources of error in GPS positioning and navigation. This error in both pseudorange and phase ranges vary depending on the location of observation, local time, season, solar cycle and geomagnetic activity. For single-frequency receivers, this delay is usually removed using ionospheric models. Two of them are the Klobuchar, or broadcast, model and the global ionosphere map (GIM) provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS). In this paper, a three dimensional ionospheric electron (ne) density model derived from FormoSat3/COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation measurements, called the TaiWan Ionosphere Model, is used. It was used to calculate the slant total electron content (STEC) between receiver and GPS satellites to correct the pseudorange single-frequency observations. The corrected pseudorange for every epoch was used to determine a more accurate position of the receiver. Observations were made in July 2, 2011(Kp index = 0-2) in five randomly selected sites across the globe, four of which are IGS stations (station ID: cnmr, coso, irkj and morp) while the other is a low-cost single-frequency receiver located in Chungli City, Taiwan (ID: isls). It was illustrated that TEC maps generated using TWIM exhibited a detailed structure of the ionosphere, whereas Klobuchar and GIM only provided the basic diurnal and geographic features of the ionosphere. Also, it was shown that for single-frequency static point positioning TWIM provides more accurate and more precise positioning than the Klobuchar and GIM models for all stations. The average %error of the corrections made by Klobuchar, GIM and TWIM in DRMS are 3.88%, 0.78% and 17.45%, respectively. While the average %error in VRMS for Klobuchar, GIM and TWIM are 53.55%, 62.09%, 66.02%, respectively. This shows the capability of TWIM to provide a good global 3-dimensional ionospheric model.

  8. Performance evaluation of an automatic positioning system for photovoltaic panels; Avaliacao de desempenho de um sistema de posicionamento automatico para paineis fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Alceu Ferreira; Cagnon, Jose Angelo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEB/UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia], Emails: alceu@feb.unesp.br, jacagnon@feb.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    The need of using electric energy in localities not attended by the utilities has motivated the development of this research, whose main approach was photovoltaic systems and the search for better performance of these systems with the solar panels positioning toward the sun. This work presents the performance evaluation of an automatic positioning system for photovoltaic panels taking in account the increase in generation of electric energy and its costs of implantation. It was designed a simplified electromechanical device, which is able to support and to move a photovoltaic panel along the day and along the year, keeping its surface aimed to the sun rays, without using sensors and with optimization of movements, due the adjustment of panel's inclination take place only once a day. The obtained results indicated that the proposal is viable, showing a compatible cost compared to the increase in the generation of electricity. (author)

  9. Ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning with hourly data for global single receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Pan; Guo, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) can improve precise point positioning (PPP) performance significantly. IAR for PPP became a highlight topic in global positioning system (GPS) community in recent years. More and more researchers focus on this issue. Progress has been made in the latest years. In this paper, we aim at investigating and demonstrating the performance of a global zero-differenced (ZD) PPP IAR service for GPS users by providing routine ZD uncalibrated fractional offsets (UFOs) for wide-lane and narrow-lane. Data sets from all IGS stations collected on DOY 1, 100, 200 and 300 of 2010 are used to validate and demonstrate this global service. Static experiment results show that an accuracy better than 1 cm in horizontal and 1-2 cm in vertical could be achieved in ambiguity-fixed PPP solution with only hourly data. Compared with PPP float solution, an average improvement reaches 58.2% in east, 28.3% in north and 23.8% in vertical for all tested stations. Results of kinematic experiments show that the RMS of kinematic PPP solutions can be improved from 21.6, 16.6 and 37.7 mm to 12.2, 13.3 and 34.3 mm for the fixed solutions in the east, north and vertical components, respectively. Both static and kinematic experiments show that wide-lane and narrow-lane UFO products of all satellites can be generated and provided in a routine way accompanying satellite orbit and clock products for the PPP user anywhere around the world, to obtain accurate and reliable ambiguity-fixed PPP solutions.

  10. Match-play demands of elite youth Gaelic football using global positioning system tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Brian; Akubat, Ibrahim; Lyons, Mark; Collins, D Kieran

    2015-04-01

    Global positioning systems (GPS) technology has made athlete-tracking a convenient and accepted technique to specify movement patterns and physical demands in sport. The purpose of this study was to examine positional demands of elite youth Gaelic football match-play using portable GPS technology to examine movement patterns and heart rates across match periods. Fifty-six elite youth male Gaelic footballers (age, 15 ± 0.66 years) fitted with portable 4-Hz GPS units were observed during 6 competitive matches (60 minutes). Data provided from the GPS unit included total distance, high-intensity (≥17·km·h(-1)) distance, sprint (≥22 km·h(-1)) distance, and total number of sprints. Heart rate was monitored continuously throughout the games. Players covered a mean distance of 5732 ± 1047 m, and the mean intensity of match-play was 85% of the peak heart rate. There was a significant (p = 0.028) drop in the total distance covered in the second half (2783 ± 599 m) compared with the first half (2948 ± 580 m). In particular, there is a noticeable drop in the distance covered in the third quarter of the game (after half-time), which has implications for re-warming up at the end of the half-time interval. There was a highly significant (p < .001) difference in the distance traveled across the 5 positional groups with midfielders covering the greatest total distance (6740 ± 384 m). The significant differences found with respect to positional groups support the implementation of individual, position-specific strength and conditioning programs.

  11. The Role of Trust and Interaction in Global Positioning System Related Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris W.; Shea, Christine; Holloway, C. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses a network of satellites to calculate the position of a receiver over time. This technology has revolutionized a wide range of safety-critical industries and leisure applications. These systems provide diverse benefits; supplementing the users existing navigation skills and reducing the uncertainty that often characterizes many route planning tasks. GPS applications can also help to reduce workload by automating tasks that would otherwise require finite cognitive and perceptual resources. However, the operation of these systems has been identified as a contributory factor in a range of recent accidents. Users often come to rely on GPS applications and, therefore, fail to notice when they develop faults or when errors occur in the other systems that use the data from these systems. Further accidents can stem from the over confidence that arises when users assume automated warnings will be issued when they stray from an intended route. Unless greater attention is paid to the role of trust and interaction in GPS applications then there is a danger that we will see an increasing number of these failures as positioning technologies become integral in the functioning of increasing numbers of applications.

  12. Semiautomatic imputation of activity travel diaries : use of global positioning system traces, prompted recall, and context-sensitive learning algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moiseeva, A.; Jessurun, A.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Stopher, P.

    2016-01-01

    Anastasia Moiseeva, Joran Jessurun and Harry Timmermans (2010), ‘Semiautomatic Imputation of Activity Travel Diaries: Use of Global Positioning System Traces, Prompted Recall, and Context-Sensitive Learning Algorithms’, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board,

  13. Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) web service to support Area Navigation (RNAV) flight planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-28

    The Volpe Center designed, implemented, and deployed a Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) prediction system in the mid 1990s to support both Air Force and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) use of TSO C...

  14. Integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and global positioning system techniques with hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jay Krishna; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Ekanthalu, Vicky Shettigondahalli

    2017-07-01

    Integration of remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) are emerging research areas in the field of groundwater hydrology, resource management, environmental monitoring and during emergency response. Recent advancements in the fields of RS, GIS, GPS and higher level of computation will help in providing and handling a range of data simultaneously in a time- and cost-efficient manner. This review paper deals with hydrological modeling, uses of remote sensing and GIS in hydrological modeling, models of integrations and their need and in last the conclusion. After dealing with these issues conceptually and technically, we can develop better methods and novel approaches to handle large data sets and in a better way to communicate information related with rapidly decreasing societal resources, i.e. groundwater.

  15. An updated prediction model of the global risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Nina; Ryom, Lene; Smith, Colette

    2016-01-01

    ,663 HIV-positive persons from 20 countries in Europe and Australia, who were free of CVD at entry into the Data-collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study. Cox regression models (full and reduced) were developed that predict the risk of a global CVD endpoint. The predictive performance...... significantly predicted risk more accurately than the recalibrated Framingham model (Harrell's c-statistic of 0.791, 0.783 and 0.766 for the D:A:D full, D:A:D reduced, and Framingham models respectively; p models also more accurately predicted five-year CVD-risk for key prognostic subgroups...... to quantify risk and to guide preventive care....

  16. Relative motions of the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates estimated by the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Freymueller, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements spanning approximately 3 years have been used to determine velocities for 7 sites on the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates. The site velocities agree with both plate model predictions and other space geodetic techniques. We find no evidence for internal deformation of the interior of the Australian plate. Wellington, New Zealand, located in the Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, moves 20 +/- 5 mm/yr west-southwest relative to the Australian plate. Its velocity lies midway between the predicted velocities of the two plates. Relative Euler vectors for the Australia-Antarctica and Pacific-Antarctica plates agree within one standard deviation with the NUVEL-1A predictions.

  17. Development of an accurate transmission line fault locator using the global positioning system satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harry

    1994-01-01

    A highly accurate transmission line fault locator based on the traveling-wave principle was developed and successfully operated within B.C. Hydro. A transmission line fault produces a fast-risetime traveling wave at the fault point which propagates along the transmission line. This fault locator system consists of traveling wave detectors located at key substations which detect and time tag the leading edge of the fault-generated traveling wave as if passes through. A master station gathers the time-tagged information from the remote detectors and determines the location of the fault. Precise time is a key element to the success of this system. This fault locator system derives its timing from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. System tests confirmed the accuracy of locating faults to within the design objective of +/-300 meters.

  18. Modular Software for Spacecraft Navigation Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S. H.; Hartman, K. R.; Weidow, D. A.; Berry, D. L.; Oza, D. H.; Long, A. C.; Joyce, E.; Steger, W. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics and Mission Operations Divisions have jointly investigated the feasibility of engineering modular Global Positioning SYSTEM (GPS) navigation software to support both real time flight and ground postprocessing configurations. The goals of this effort are to define standard GPS data interfaces and to engineer standard, reusable navigation software components that can be used to build a broad range of GPS navigation support applications. The paper discusses the GPS modular software (GMOD) system and operations concepts, major requirements, candidate software architecture, feasibility assessment and recommended software interface standards. In additon, ongoing efforts to broaden the scope of the initial study and to develop modular software to support autonomous navigation using GPS are addressed,

  19. On the measurement of the neutrino velocity applying the standard time of the Global Positioning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeivalas, J; Parseliunas, E

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the neutrino velocity applying the standard time of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is presented in the paper. The practical data were taken from the OPERA experiment, in which neutrino emission from the CERN LHC accelerator to Gran Sasso detector was investigated. The distance between accelerator and detector is about 730 km. The time interval was measured by benchmark clocks, which were calibrated by the standard GPS time signals received from GPS satellites. The calculation of the accuracy of the GPS time signals with respect to changes of the signals' frequencies due to the Doppler effect is presented. It is shown that a maximum error of about 200 ns could occur when GPS time signals are applied for the calibration of the clocks for the neutrino velocity measurements. (paper)

  20. Some tests of wet tropospheric calibration for the CASA Uno Global Positioning System experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, T. H.; Wolf, S. Kornreich

    1990-01-01

    Wet tropospheric path delay can be a major error source for Global Positioning System (GPS) geodetic experiments. Strategies for minimizing this error are investigted using data from CASA Uno, the first major GPS experiment in Central and South America, where wet path delays may be both high and variable. Wet path delay calibration using water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and residual delay estimation is compared with strategies where the entire wet path delay is estimated stochastically without prior calibration, using data from a 270-km test baseline in Costa Rica. Both approaches yield centimeter-level baseline repeatability and similar tropospheric estimates, suggesting that WVR calibration is not critical for obtaining high precision results with GPS in the CASA region.

  1. IMPELEMENTASI SISTEM PEMANTAUAN OBJEK BERGERAK DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN FREKUENSI RADIO MENGGUNAKAN GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Triandi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available GPS was developed by the United States Department of Defense as a reliable means for accurate navigation. The system provides highly accurate position and velocity information and precise time on a continuous global basis to an unlimited number of properly equipped users. By using combined GPS receiver and microcontroller together with radio system, we can design a monitoring system for our vehicles and display the result on the computer. This system consists of a master module that transmits and receives signals from computer and two slave modules to collect GPS data from vehicles. The result of experiment shows that this system is able to track the vehicle on digital map with accuracy as high as 95%.Keywords: GPS, microcontroller, monitoring, RF

  2. The limits of direct satellite tracking with the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertiger, W. I.; Yunck, T. P.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in high precision differential Global Positioning System-based satellite tracking can be applied to the more conventional direct tracking of low earth satellites. To properly evaluate the limiting accuracy of direct GPS-based tracking, it is necessary to account for the correlations between the a-priori errors in GPS states, Y-bias, and solar pressure parameters. These can be obtained by careful analysis of the GPS orbit determination process. The analysis indicates that sub-meter accuracy can be readily achieved for a user above 1000 km altitude, even when the user solution is obtained with data taken 12 hours after the data used in the GPS orbit solutions.

  3. Plate Motion and Crustal Deformation Estimated with Geodetic Data from the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Donald F.; Heflin, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    We use geodetic data taken over four years with the Global Positioning System (GPS) to estimate: (1) motion between six major plates and (2) motion relative to these plates of ten sites in plate boundary zones. The degree of consistency between geodetic velocities and rigid plates requires the (one-dimensional) standard errors in horizontal velocities to be approx. 2 mm/yr. Each of the 15 angular velocities describing motion between plate pairs that we estimate with GPS differs insignificantly from the corresponding angular velocity in global plate motion model NUVEL-1A, which averages motion over the past 3 m.y. The motion of the Pacific plate relative to both the Eurasian and North American plates is observed to be faster than predicted by NUVEL-1A, supporting the inference from Very Long B ase- line Interferometry (VLBI) that motion of the Pacific plate has speed up over the past few m.y. The Eurasia-North America pole of rotation is estimated to be north of NUVEL-1A, consistent with the independent hypothesis that the pole has recently migrated northward across northeast Asia to near the Lena River delta. Victoria, which lies above the main thrust at the Cascadia subduction zone, moves relative to the interior of the overriding plate at 30% of the velocity of the subducting plate, reinforcing the conclusion that the thrust there is locked beneath the continental shelf and slope.

  4. Repigmentation in vitiligo: position paper of the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Emily Y; Eleftheriadou, Viktoria; Esmat, Samia; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Passeron, Thierry; Böhm, Markus; Anbar, Tag; Goh, Boon Kee; Lan, Cheng-Che E; Lui, Harvey; Ramam, M; Raboobee, Noufal; Katayama, Ichiro; Suzuki, Tamio; Parsad, Davinder; Seth, Vaneeta; Lim, Henry W; van Geel, Nanja; Mulekar, Sanjeev; Harris, John; Wittal, Richard; Benzekri, Laila; Gauthier, Yvon; Kumarasinghe, Prasad; Thng, Steven T G; Silva de Castro, Caio Cesar; Abdallah, Marwa; Vrijman, Charlotte; Bekkenk, Marcel; Seneschal, Julien; Pandya, Amit G; Ezzedine, Khaled; Picardo, Mauro; Taïeb, Alain

    2017-01-01

    The Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference (VGICC), through an international e-Delphi consensus, concluded that 'repigmentation' and 'maintenance of gained repigmentation' are essential core outcome measures in future vitiligo trials. This VGICC position paper addresses these core topics in two sections and includes an atlas depicting vitiligo repigmentation patterns and color match. The first section delineates mechanisms and characteristics of vitiligo repigmentation, and the second section summarizes the outcomes of international meeting discussions and two e-surveys on vitiligo repigmentation, which had been carried out over 3 yr. Treatment is defined as successful if repigmentation exceeds 80% and at least 80% of the gained repigmentation is maintained for over 6 months. No agreement was found on the best outcome measure for assessing target or global repigmentation, therefore highlighting the limitations of e-surveys in addressing clinical measurements. Until there is a clear consensus, existing tools should be selected according to the specific needs of each study. A workshop will be conducted to address the remaining issues so as to achieve a consensus. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Global Positioning System Use in the Community to Evaluate Improvements in Walking After Revascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernigon, Marie; Le Faucheur, Alexis; Fradin, Dominique; Noury-Desvaux, Bénédicte; Landron, Cédric; Mahe, Guillaume; Abraham, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Revascularization aims at improving walking ability in patients with arterial claudication. The highest measured distance between 2 stops (highest-MDCW), the average walking speed (average-WSCW), and the average stop duration (average-DSCW) can be measured by global positioning system, but their evolution after revascularization is unknown. We included 251 peripheral artery diseased patients with self-reported limiting claudication. The patients performed a 1-hour stroll, recorded by a global positioning system receiver. Patients (n = 172) with confirmed limitation (highest-MDCW the follow-up period were compared with reference patients (ie, with unchanged lifestyle medical or surgical status). Other patients (lost to follow-up or treatment change) were excluded (n = 89). We studied 44 revascularized and 39 reference patients. Changes in highest-MDCW (+442 vs. +13 m) and average-WSCW (+0.3 vs. −0.2 km h−1) were greater in revascularized than in reference patients (both P the groups. Among the revascularized patients, 13 (29.5%) had a change in average-WSCW, but not in highest-MDCW, greater than the mean + 1 standard deviation of the change observed for reference patients. Revascularization may improve highest-MDCW and/or average-WSCW. This first report of changes in community walking ability in revascularized patients suggests that, beyond measuring walking distances, average-WSCW measurement is essential to monitor these changes. Applicability to other surgical populations remains to be evaluated. Registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01141361 PMID:25950694

  6. Sensitivity Range Analysis of Infrared (IR) Transmitter and Receiver Sensor to Detect Sample Position in Automatic Sample Changer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Nolida Yussup; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Maslina Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity range of IR Transmitter and Receiver Sensor influences the effectiveness of the sensor to detect position of a sample. Then the purpose of this analysis is to determine the suitable design and specification the electronic driver of the sensor to gain appropriate sensitivity range for required operation. The related activities to this analysis cover electronic design concept and specification, calibration of design specification and evaluation on design specification for required application. (author)

  7. Geometric modeling of controlled third-class hinged mechanisms with a stand in one extreme position for cyclic automatic machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomchenko, V. G.; Varepo, L. G.; Glukhov, V. I.; Krivokhatko, E. A.

    2017-06-01

    The geometric model for the synthesis of third-class lever mechanisms is proposed, which allows, by changing the length of the auxiliary link and the position of its fixed hinge, to rearrange the movement of the working organ onto the cyclograms with different predetermined dwell times. It is noted that with the help of the proposed model, at the expense of the corresponding geometric constructions, the best uniform Chebyshev approximation can be achieved at the interval of the standstill.

  8. Helicopter approach capability using the differential global positioning system. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, David N.

    1993-01-01

    The results of flight tests to determine the feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the differential mode (DGPS) to provide high accuracy, precision navigation, and guidance for helicopter approaches to landing are presented. The airborne DGPS receiver and associated equipment is installed in a NASA UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The ground-based DGPS reference receiver is located at a surveyed test site and is equipped with a real-time VHF data link to transmit correction information to the airborne DGPS receiver. The corrected airborne DGPS information, together with the preset approach geometry, is used to calculate guidance commands which are sent to the aircraft's approach guidance instruments. The use of DGPS derived guidance for helicopter approaches to landing is evaluated by comparing the DGPS data with the laser tracker truth data. Both standard (3 deg) and steep (6 deg and 9 deg) glideslope straight-in approaches were flown. DGPS positioning accuracy based on a time history analysis of the entire approach was 0.2 m (mean) +/- 1.8 m (2 sigma) laterally and -2.0 m (mean) +/- 3.5 m (2 sigma) vertically for 3 deg glideslope approaches, -0.1 m (mean) +/- 1.5 m (2 sigma) laterally and -1.1 m (mean) +/- 3.5 m (2 sigma) vertically for 6 deg glideslope approaches and 0.2 m (mean) +/- 1.3 m (2 sigma) laterally and -1.0 m (mean) +/- 2.8 m (2 sigma) vertically for 9 deg glideslope approaches. DGPS positioning accuracy at the 200 ft decision height (DH) on a standard 3 deg slideslope approach was 0.3 m (mean) +/- 1.5 m (2 sigma) laterally and -2.3 m (mean) +/- 1.6 m (2 sigma) vertically. These errors indicate that the helicopter position based on DGPS guidance satisfies the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category 1 (CAT 1) lateral and vertical navigational accuracy requirements.

  9. Consumer worldmindedness and attitudes to product positioning in advertising : an examination of global vs. foreign vs. local positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.; Douglas, S.P.

    In recent years, increasing interest has emerged in examining global consumer culture and its impact on consumer product preferences and choices, lifestyles, and exposure to mass media from other countries. In turn, this has sparked interest in concepts such as consumer world-mindedness and its

  10. Robotics in hostile environment I. S. I. S. robot - automatic positioning and docking with proximity and force feed back sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gery, D

    1987-01-01

    Recent improvements in control command systems and the development of tactile proximity and force feed back sensors make it possible to robotize complex inspection and maintenance operations in hostile environment, which could have not been possible by classical remotely operated manipulators. We describe the I.S.I.S. robot characteristics, the control command system software principles and the tactile and force-torque sensors which have been developed for the different sequences of an hostile environment inspection and repair: access trajectories generation with obstacles shunning, final positioning and docking using parametric algorithms taking into account measurement of the end of arm proximity and force-torque sensors.

  11. A scalable global positioning system-free localization scheme for underwater wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, A.M.

    2013-05-07

    Seaweb is an acoustic communication technology that enables communication between sensor nodes. Seaweb technology utilizes the commercially available telesonar modems that has developed link and network layer firmware to provide a robust undersea communication capability. Seaweb interconnects the underwater nodes through digital signal processing-based modem by using acoustic links between the neighboring sensors. In this paper, we design and investigate a global positioning system-free passive localization protocol by integrating the innovations of levelling and localization with the Seaweb technology. This protocol uses the range data and planar trigonometry principles to estimate the positions of the underwater sensor nodes. Moreover, for precise localization, we consider more realistic conditions namely, (a) small displacement of sensor nodes due to watch circles and (b) deployment of sensor nodes over non-uniform water surface. Once the nodes are localized, we divide the whole network field into circular levels and sectors to minimize the traffic complexity and thereby increases the lifetime of the sensor nodes in the network field. We then form the mesh network inside each of the sectors that increases the reliability. The algorithm is designed in such a way that it overcomes the ambiguous nodes errata and reflected paths and therefore makes the algorithm more robust. The synthetic network geometries are so designed which can evaluate the algorithm in the presence of perfect or imperfect ranges or in case of incomplete data. A comparative study is made with the existing algorithms which proves the efficiency of our newly proposed algorithm. 2013 Mohammed et al.

  12. Hybrid extended particle filter (HEPF) for integrated inertial navigation and global positioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Priyanka; Syed, Zainab; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2009-01-01

    Navigation includes the integration of methodologies and systems for estimating time-varying position, velocity and attitude of moving objects. Navigation incorporating the integrated inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) generally requires extensive evaluations of nonlinear equations involving double integration. Currently, integrated navigation systems are commonly implemented using the extended Kalman filter (EKF). The EKF assumes a linearized process, measurement models and Gaussian noise distributions. These assumptions are unrealistic for highly nonlinear systems like land vehicle navigation and may cause filter divergence. A particle filter (PF) is developed to enhance integrated INS/GPS system performance as it can easily deal with nonlinearity and non-Gaussian noises. In this paper, a hybrid extended particle filter (HEPF) is developed as an alternative to the well-known EKF to achieve better navigation data accuracy for low-cost microelectromechanical system sensors. The results show that the HEPF performs better than the EKF during GPS outages, especially when simulated outages are located in periods with high vehicle dynamics

  13. Method of steering the gain of a multiple antenna global positioning system receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alan G.; Hermann, Bruce R.

    1992-06-01

    A method for steering the gain of a multiple antenna Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver toward a plurality of a GPS satellites simultaneously is provided. The GPS signals of a known wavelength are processed digitally for a particular instant in time. A range difference or propagation delay between each antenna for GPS signals received from each satellite is first resolved. The range difference consists of a fractional wavelength difference and an integer wavelength difference. The fractional wavelength difference is determined by each antenna's tracking loop. The integer wavelength difference is based upon the known wavelength and separation between each antenna with respect to each satellite position. The range difference is then used to digitally delay the GPS signals at each antenna with respect to a reference antenna. The signal at the reference antenna is then summed with the digitally delayed signals to generate a composite antenna gain. The method searches for the correct number of integer wavelengths to maximize the composite gain. The range differences are also used to determine the attitude of the array.

  14. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Kie, John G.; Bates, Kirk K.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS 'rapid fixing' technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives.

  15. Delay-Range-Dependent H∞ Control for Automatic Mooring Positioning System with Time-Varying Input Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the economy and security of the positioning system in semi-submersible platform, the paper presents a new scheme based on the mooring line switching strategy. Considering the input delay in switching process, H∞ control with time-varying input delay is designed to calculate the control forces to resist disturbing forces. In order to reduce the conservativeness, the information of the lower bound of delay is taken into account, and a Lyapunov function which contains the range of delay is constructed. Besides, the input constraint is considered to avoid breakage of mooring lines. The sufficient conditions for delay-range-dependent stabilization are derived in terms of LMI, and the controller is also obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by a realistic design example.

  16. TU-AB-201-05: Automatic Adaptive Per-Operative Re-Planning for HDR Prostate Brachytherapy - a Simulation Study On Errors in Needle Positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borot de Battisti, M; Maenhout, M; Lagendijk, J J W; Van Vulpen, M; Moerland, M A; Senneville, B Denis de; Hautvast, G; Binnekamp, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop adaptive planning with feedback for MRI-guided focal HDR prostate brachytherapy with a single divergent needle robotic implant device. After each needle insertion, the dwell positions for that needle are calculated and the positioning of remaining needles and dosimetry are both updated based on MR imaging. Methods: Errors in needle positioning may occur due to inaccurate needle insertion (caused by e.g. the needle’s bending) and unpredictable changes in patient anatomy. Consequently, the dose plan quality might dramatically decrease compared to the preplan. In this study, a procedure was developed to re-optimize, after each needle insertion, the remaining needle angulations, source positions and dwell times in order to obtain an optimal coverage (D95% PTV>19 Gy) without exceeding the constraints of the organs at risk (OAR) (D10% urethra<21 Gy, D1cc bladder<12 Gy and D1cc rectum<12 Gy). Complete HDR procedures with 6 needle insertions were simulated for a patient MR-image set with PTV, prostate, urethra, bladder and rectum delineated. Random angulation errors, modeled by a Gaussian distribution (standard deviation of 3 mm at the needle’s tip), were generated for each needle insertion. We compared the final dose parameters for the situations (I) without re-optimization and (II) with the automatic feedback. Results: The computation time of replanning was below 100 seconds on a current desk computer. For the patient tested, a clinically acceptable dose plan was achieved while applying the automatic feedback (median(range) in Gy, D95% PTV: 19.9(19.3–20.3), D10% urethra: 13.4(11.9–18.0), D1cc rectum: 11.0(10.7–11.6), D1cc bladder: 4.9(3.6–6.8)). This was not the case without re-optimization (median(range) in Gy, D95% PTV: 19.4(14.9–21.3), D10% urethra: 12.6(11.0–15.7), D1cc rectum: 10.9(8.9–14.1), D1cc bladder: 4.8(4.4–5.2)). Conclusion: An automatic guidance strategy for HDR prostate brachytherapy was developed to compensate

  17. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help to create the positive ionospheric

  18. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help

  19. "His" and "her" marriage? The role of positive and negative marital characteristics in global marital satisfaction among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Kathrin; Jopp, Daniela S; Carr, Deborah; Sosinsky, Laura; Kim, Se-Kang

    2014-07-01

    We explore gender differences in older adults' appraisals of positive and negative aspects of their marriages, examine how these appraisals relate to global marital satisfaction, and identify distinctive marital profiles associated with global satisfaction in men and women. Data are from the Changing Lives of Older Couples Study (n = 1,110). We used a variant of principal components analysis to generate marital quality profiles, based on one's endorsement of positive and negative marital characteristics. OLS regression was used to detect associations between marital profiles and global marital satisfaction. Men offered more positive marital assessments than women, particularly on items reflecting positive treatment by one's wife. Three marital quality profiles emerged: Positive, Positive-Negative, and Negative. Although marital satisfaction was best explained by positive appraisals in both genders, they were less important for men than for women. The negative profile showed a tendency for a stronger prediction in men. Prior studies show small differences in men's and women's global marital satisfaction. Our work provides evidence that the presence and magnitude of such gender differences may vary based on the specific marital component considered. We discuss ways that gender shapes marital interactions, expectations, and perceptions, and the implications of our results for the well-being of married older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Detecting grizzly bear use of ungulate carcasses using global positioning system telemetry and activity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Michael R.; Haroldson, Mark A.; van Manen, Frank T.; Costello, Cecily M.; Bjornlie, Daniel D.; Thompson, Daniel J.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Teisberg, Justin E.; Pils, Shannon R; White, P J; Cain, Steven L.; Cross, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) wildlife collars have revolutionized wildlife research. Studies of predation by free-ranging carnivores have particularly benefited from the application of location clustering algorithms to determine when and where predation events occur. These studies have changed our understanding of large carnivore behavior, but the gains have concentrated on obligate carnivores. Facultative carnivores, such as grizzly/brown bears (Ursus arctos), exhibit a variety of behaviors that can lead to the formation of GPS clusters. We combined clustering techniques with field site investigations of grizzly bear GPS locations (n = 732 site investigations; 2004–2011) to produce 174 GPS clusters where documented behavior was partitioned into five classes (large-biomass carcass, small-biomass carcass, old carcass, non-carcass activity, and resting). We used multinomial logistic regression to predict the probability of clusters belonging to each class. Two cross-validation methods—leaving out individual clusters, or leaving out individual bears—showed that correct prediction of bear visitation to large-biomass carcasses was 78–88%, whereas the false-positive rate was 18–24%. As a case study, we applied our predictive model to a GPS data set of 266 bear-years in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (2002–2011) and examined trends in carcass visitation during fall hyperphagia (September–October). We identified 1997 spatial GPS clusters, of which 347 were predicted to be large-biomass carcasses. We used the clustered data to develop a carcass visitation index, which varied annually, but more than doubled during the study period. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness and utility of identifying GPS clusters associated with carcass visitation by a facultative carnivore.

  1. Implementasi Sistem Informasi Geografis Daerah Pariwisata Kabupaten Temanggung Berbasis Android dengan Global Positioning System (GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Imam Santoso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pariwisata merupakan aspek yang berharga bagi suatu daerah, dan semakin banyak pengunjung maka dapat memajukan kesejahteraan masyarakat di sekitar obyek pariwisata. Kabupaten Temanggung memiliki banyak obyek pariwisata, penggunaan teknologi informasi seperti menggunakan aplikasi smartphone berbasis Android dapat digunakan untuk membantu wisatawan untuk mengenal daerah pariwisata dan mengetahui rute menuju ke obyek pariwisata yang diinginkan. Implementasi Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG di daerah wisata Temanggung bertujuan untuk membangun aplikasi Wisata Temanggung berbasis Android dan menerapkan layanan Google Maps Application Programming Interface (API untuk memudahkan wisatawan dalam memperoleh informasi pemetaan lokasi objek wisata, rute dan fasilitas pendukung wisata yang ada di Kabupaten Temanggung. Metode yang digunakan adalah model proses air terjun (waterfall. Implementasi Aplikasi Wisata Temanggung menggunakan pemrograman Javascript dengan Eclipse Luna, basis data SQLite, serta peta yang bersumber dari Google Maps API. Hasilnya berupa aplikasi Wisata Temanggung berbasis Android yang membantu memudahkan wisatawan dalam memperoleh informasi tentang obyek wisata alam, buatan, budaya, kuliner, hotel dan rute dari lokasi sekarang ke lokasi obyek wisata yang diinginkan di Kabupaten Temanggung dengan bantuan Global Positioning System (GPS.  

  2. Distributions of positive correlations in sectoral value added growth in the global economic network*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluck, Julian; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-02-01

    International trade has grown considerably during the process of globalization. Complex supply chains for the production of goods have resulted in an increasingly connected International Trade Network (ITN). Traditionally, direct trade relations between industries have been regarded as mediators of supply and demand spillovers. With increasing network connectivity the question arises if higher-order relations become more important in explaining a national sector's susceptibility to supply and demand changes of its trading partner. In this study we address this question by investigating empirically to what extent the topological properties of the ITN provide information about positive correlations in the production of two industry sectors. We observe that although direct trade relations between industries serve as important indicators for correlations in the industries' value added growth, opportunities of substitution for required production inputs as well as second-order trade relations cannot be neglected. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the relation between trade and economic productivity and can serve as a basis for the improvement of crisis spreading models that evaluate contagion threats in the case of a node's failure in the ITN.

  3. Implementasi Sistem Informasi Geografis Daerah Pariwisata Kota Semarang Berbasis Android dengan Global Positioning System (GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard RF Siahaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pariwisata merupakan aspek yang berharga bagi suatu daerah, dengan adanya daerah wisata maka dapat memajukan kesejahteraan masyarakat sekitar. Kota Semarang memiliki daerah pariwisata yang sangat banyak, apabila sarana dan prasarana yang ada dikembangkan lebih lanjut maka dipastikan peningkatan parwisata di Kota Semarang akan semakin bertambah. Penggunaan Teknologi Informasi dapat memajukan daerah pariwisata, sehingga daerah pariwisata dapat dikenal oleh wisatawan yang ingin berkunjung ke Semarang. Sistem Informasi Geografis yang dibangun menggunakan platform android. Pada Tugas Akhir ini menggunakan Java sebagai bahasa pemorgraman dengan eclipse sebagai perangkat lunak pengembangan. Penggunaan Google Map API sebagai fungsi utama peta dalam menjalankan aplikasi serta PHP sebagai bahasa pemorgaraman sisi server dan MySQL dalam penggunaan basis data. Hasil dari perancangan Aplikasi Sistem Infomasi Geografis Kota Semarang berbasis Android ini nantinya akan memberikan informasi dalam bentuk peta yang dapat digunakan sebagai referensi bagi wisatawan yang berkunjung. Penggunaan Global Positioning System (GPS dalam aplikasi ini menjadi hal yang sangat penting dalam menentukan keberadaan wisatawan. Selain itu terdapat rute untuk menuju objek wisata yang dipilih, dalam aplikasi ini juga tersedia fasilitas-fasilitas umum seperti ATM dan Bank, Bandara, Mesjid, Gereja, Rumah Sakit dan lainnya.

  4. Current and planned use of the Navstar Global Positioning System by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Harold L.

    1993-01-01

    NASA was quick to realize the potential that the Global Positioning System (GPS) had to offer for its many diverse vehicles, experiments and platforms. Soon after the first Block 1 GPS satellites were launched, NASA began to use the tremendous capabilities that they had to offer. Even with a partial GPS constellation in place, important results have been obtained about the shape, orientation and rotation of the earth and calibration of the ionosphere and troposphere. These calibrations enhance geophysical science and facilitate the navigation of interplanetary spacecraft. Some very important results have been obtained in the continuing NASA program for aircraft terminal area operations. Currently, a large amount of activity is being concentrated on real time kinematic carrier phase tracking which has the potential to revolutionize aircraft navigation. This year marks the launch of the first GPS receiver equipped earth-orbiting NASA spacecraft: the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer and the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX/Poseidon). This paper describes a cross section of GPS-based research at NASA.

  5. Global Positioning System Energetic Particle Data: The Next Space Weather Data Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipp, Delores J.; Giles, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has revolutionized the process of getting from point A to point Band so much more. A large fraction of the worlds population relies on GPS (and its counterparts from other nations) for precision timing, location, and navigation. Most GPS users are unaware that the spacecraft providing the signals they rely on are operating in a very harsh space environment the radiation belts where energetic particles trapped in Earths magnetic field dash about at nearly the speed of light. These subatomic particles relentlessly pummel GPS satellites. So by design, every GPS satellite and its sensors are radiation hardened. Each spacecraft carries particle detectors that provide health and status data to system operators. Although these data reveal much about the state of the space radiation environment, heretofore they have been available only to system operators and supporting scientists. Research scientists have long sought a policy shift to allow more general access. With the release of the National Space Weather Strategy and Action Plan organized by the White House Office of Science Technology Policy (OSTP) a sample of these data have been made available to space weather researchers. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the National Center for Environmental Information released a months worth of GPS energetic particle data from an interval of heightened space weather activity in early 2014 with the hope of stimulating integration of these data sets into the research arena. Even before the public data release GPS support scientists from LANL showed the extraordinary promise of these data.

  6. Detection of traveling ionospheric disturbances induced by atmospheric gravity waves using the global positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.

    1993-01-01

    Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.

  7. Methodological Considerations When Quantifying High-Intensity Efforts in Team Sport Using Global Positioning System Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Matthew C; Jaspers, Arne; Helsen, Werner F; Malone, James J

    2017-09-01

    Sprints and accelerations are popular performance indicators in applied sport. The methods used to define these efforts using athlete-tracking technology could affect the number of efforts reported. This study aimed to determine the influence of different techniques and settings for detecting high-intensity efforts using global positioning system (GPS) data. Velocity and acceleration data from a professional soccer match were recorded via 10-Hz GPS. Velocity data were filtered using either a median or an exponential filter. Acceleration data were derived from velocity data over a 0.2-s time interval (with and without an exponential filter applied) and a 0.3-second time interval. High-speed-running (≥4.17 m/s 2 ), sprint (≥7.00 m/s 2 ), and acceleration (≥2.78 m/s 2 ) efforts were then identified using minimum-effort durations (0.1-0.9 s) to assess differences in the total number of efforts reported. Different velocity-filtering methods resulted in small to moderate differences (effect size [ES] 0.28-1.09) in the number of high-speed-running and sprint efforts detected when minimum duration was GPS. Changes to how high-intensity efforts are defined affect reported data. Therefore, consistency in data processing is advised.

  8. CT dose modulation using automatic exposure control in whole-body PET/CT: effects of scout imaging direction and arm positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Nagahara, Kazunori; Kudo, Hiroko; Itoh, Hiroyasu

    2018-01-01

    Automatic exposure control (AEC) modulates tube current and consequently X-ray exposure in CT. We investigated the behavior of AEC systems in whole-body PET/CT. CT images of a whole-body phantom were acquired using AEC on two scanners from different manufactures. The effects of scout imaging direction and arm positioning on dose modulation were evaluated. Image noise was assessed in the chest and upper abdomen. On one scanner, AEC using two scout images in the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (Lat) directions provided relatively constant image noise along the z-axis with the arms at the sides. Raising the arms increased tube current in the head and neck and decreased it in the body trunk. Image noise increased in the upper abdomen, suggesting excessive reduction in radiation exposure. AEC using the PA scout alone strikingly increased tube current and reduced image noise in the shoulder. Raising the arms did not substantially influence dose modulation and decreased noise in the abdomen. On the other scanner, AEC using the PA scout alone or Lat scout alone resulted in similar dose modulation. Raising the arms increased tube current in the head and neck and decreased it in the trunk. Image noise was higher in the upper abdomen than in the middle and lower chest, and was not influenced by arm positioning. CT dose modulation using AEC may vary greatly depending on scout direction. Raising the arms tended to decrease radiation exposure; however, the effect depends on scout direction and the AEC system.

  9. Error Analysis System for Spacecraft Navigation Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S. H.; Hart, R. C.; Hartman, K. R.; Tomcsik, T. L.; Searl, J. E.; Bernstein, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing improved space-navigation filtering algorithms to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) for autonomous real-time onboard orbit determination. In connection with a GPS technology demonstration on the Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI)/Lewis spacecraft, FDD analysts and programmers have teamed with the GSFC Guidance, Navigation, and Control Branch to develop the GPS Enhanced Orbit Determination Experiment (GEODE) system. The GEODE system consists of a Kalman filter operating as a navigation tool for estimating the position, velocity, and additional states required to accurately navigate the orbiting Lewis spacecraft by using astrodynamic modeling and GPS measurements from the receiver. A parallel effort at the FDD is the development of a GPS Error Analysis System (GEAS) that will be used to analyze and improve navigation filtering algorithms during development phases and during in-flight calibration. For GEAS, the Kalman filter theory is extended to estimate the errors in position, velocity, and other error states of interest. The estimation of errors in physical variables at regular intervals will allow the time, cause, and effect of navigation system weaknesses to be identified. In addition, by modeling a sufficient set of navigation system errors, a system failure that causes an observed error anomaly can be traced and accounted for. The GEAS software is formulated using Object Oriented Design (OOD) techniques implemented in the C++ programming language on a Sun SPARC workstation. The Phase 1 of this effort is the development of a basic system to be used to evaluate navigation algorithms implemented in the GEODE system. This paper presents the GEAS mathematical methodology, systems and operations concepts, and software design and implementation. Results from the use of the basic system to evaluate

  10. Automatic identification approach for high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring fatty acid global profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Cai; Hu, Ting; Jia, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Jin-Lan

    2015-08-18

    Fatty acids (FAs) are a group of lipid molecules that are essential to organisms. As potential biomarkers for different diseases, FAs have attracted increasing attention from both biological researchers and the pharmaceutical industry. A sensitive and accurate method for globally profiling and identifying FAs is required for biomarker discovery. The high selectivity and sensitivity of high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (HPLC-MRM) gives it great potential to fulfill the need to identify FAs from complicated matrices. This paper developed a new approach for global FA profiling and identification for HPLC-MRM FA data mining. Mathematical models for identifying FAs were simulated using the isotope-induced retention time (RT) shift (IRS) and peak area ratios between parallel isotope peaks for a series of FA standards. The FA structures were predicated using another model based on the RT and molecular weight. Fully automated FA identification software was coded using the Qt platform based on these mathematical models. Different samples were used to verify the software. A high identification efficiency (greater than 75%) was observed when 96 FA species were identified in plasma. This FAs identification strategy promises to accelerate FA research and applications.

  11. Automatic Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  12. Global positioning systems (GPS) and microtechnology sensors in team sports: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Cloe; Orr, Rhonda; O'Connor, Helen; West, Cameron

    2013-10-01

    Use of Global positioning system (GPS) technology in team sport permits measurement of player position, velocity, and movement patterns. GPS provides scope for better understanding of the specific and positional physiological demands of team sport and can be used to design training programs that adequately prepare athletes for competition with the aim of optimizing on-field performance. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the depth and scope of reported GPS and microtechnology measures used within individual sports in order to present the contemporary and emerging themes of GPS application within team sports. A systematic review of the application of GPS technology in team sports was conducted. We systematically searched electronic databases from earliest record to June 2012. Permutations of key words included GPS; male and female; age 12-50 years; able-bodied; and recreational to elite competitive team sports. The 35 manuscripts meeting the eligibility criteria included 1,276 participants (age 11.2-31.5 years; 95 % males; 53.8 % elite adult athletes). The majority of manuscripts reported on GPS use in various football codes: Australian football league (AFL; n = 8), soccer (n = 7), rugby union (n = 6), and rugby league (n = 6), with limited representation in other team sports: cricket (n = 3), hockey (n = 3), lacrosse (n = 1), and netball (n = 1). Of the included manuscripts, 34 (97 %) detailed work rate patterns such as distance, relative distance, speed, and accelerations, with only five (14.3 %) reporting on impact variables. Activity profiles characterizing positional play and competitive levels were also described. Work rate patterns were typically categorized into six speed zones, ranging from 0 to 36.0 km·h⁻¹, with descriptors ranging from walking to sprinting used to identify the type of activity mainly performed in each zone. With the exception of cricket, no standardized speed zones or definitions were observed within or

  13. Localization of Physical Activity in Primary School Children Using Accelerometry and Global Positioning System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel Bürgi

    Full Text Available Ecological approaches have highlighted the importance of the built environment as a factor affecting physical activity. However, knowledge on children's activity patterns is still incomplete. Particularly, data on the spatial context of physical activity is limited, which limits the potential to design location-based interventions effectively. Using global positioning system (GPS and accelerometry, this study aimed to identify locations where children engage in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA.Participants included 119 children (11-14 years, 57% girls from public schools in Winterthur, Switzerland. During a regular school week between February and April 2013, children wore an accelerometer and GPS sensor for seven consecutive days. Time-matched accelerometer and GPS data was mapped with a geographic information system and each data point was assigned to one of seven defined activity settings. Both the absolute amount of MVPA and proportion of time in MVPA were calculated for every setting. Multilevel analyses accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data were conducted to investigate any gender differences.Children achieved most MVPA on streets (34.5% and on school grounds (33.4%. The proportion children spent in MVPA was highest in recreational facilities (19.4%, at other schools (19.2% and on streets (18.6%. Boys accumulated significantly more MVPA overall and on other school grounds (p < 0.05 and showed a significantly higher proportion of time in MVPA at own school and outside of Winterthur (p < 0.05.The results indicate the importance of streets and school grounds as activity-promoting environments. The high use of streets may be an indicator for active transportation, which appears to contribute to an active lifestyle in both genders. In contrast, the school setting is more likely to encourage physical activity in boys. Recreational facilities seem to be conducive for MVPA among both genders, although infrequently visited

  14. Environmental supportiveness for physical activity in English schoolchildren: a study using Global Positioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin Simon J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that the environment plays a role in influencing physical activity in children and adults. As children have less autonomy in their behavioural choices, neighbourhood environment supportiveness may be an important determinant of their ability to be active. Yet we know rather little about the types of environment that children use for bouts of physical activity. This study uses accelerometery and global positioning system technologies to identify the charactieristics of environments being used for bouts of continuous moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA in a sample of English schoolchildren. Methods The study used a convenience sample of 100 children from SPEEDY (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people, a cohort of 2064 9–10 year-olds from Norfolk, England, recruited in 2007. Children wore an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer and a Garmin Forerunner 205 GPS unit over four consecutive days. Accelerometery data points were matched to GPS locations and bouts (5 minutes or more of MVPA were identified. Bout locations were overlaid with a detailed landcover dataset developed in a GIS to identify the types of environment supporting MVPA. Findings are presented using descriptive statistics. Results Boys were also more active than girls, spending an average of 20 (SD 23 versus 11 (SD 15 minutes per day in MVPA bouts. Children who spent more time outside the home were more active (p = 0.002, especially girls and children living in rural locations (both p Conclusion The study has developed a new methodology for the identification of environments in which bouts of continuous physical activity are undertaken. The results highlight the importance of the provision of urban gardens and greenspaces, and the maintenance of safe street environments as places for children to be active.

  15. Identification of underground mine workings with the use of global positioning system technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canty, G.A.; Everett, J.W. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science; Sharp, M. [Oklahoma Conservation Commission, Oklahoma City, OK (United States). Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program

    1998-12-31

    Identification of underground mine workings for well drilling is a difficult task given the limited resources available and lack of reliable information. Relic mine maps of questionable accuracy and difficulty in correlating the subsurface to the surface, make the process of locating wells arduous. With the development of global positioning system (GPS), specific locations on the earth can be identified with the aid of satellites. This technology can be applied to mine workings identification given a few necessary, precursory details. For an abandoned mine treatment project conducted by the University of Oklahoma, in conjunction with the Oklahoma Conservation Commission, a Trimble ProXL 8 channel GPS receiver was employed to locate specific points on the surface with respect to a mine map. A 1925 mine map was digitized into AutoCAD version 13 software. Surface features identified on the map, such as mine adits, were located and marked in the field using the GPS receiver. These features were than imported into AutoCAD and referenced with the same points drawn on the map. A rubber sheeting program, Multric, was used to tweak the points so the map features correlated with the surface points. The correlation of these features allowed the map to be geo-referenced with the surface. Specific drilling points were located on the digitized map and assigned a latitude and longitude. The GPS receiver, using real time differential correction, was used to locate these points in the field. This method was assumed to be relatively accurate, to within 5 to 15 feet.

  16. Localization of Physical Activity in Primary School Children Using Accelerometry and Global Positioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgi, Rahel; Tomatis, Laura; Murer, Kurt; de Bruin, Eling D

    2015-01-01

    Ecological approaches have highlighted the importance of the built environment as a factor affecting physical activity. However, knowledge on children's activity patterns is still incomplete. Particularly, data on the spatial context of physical activity is limited, which limits the potential to design location-based interventions effectively. Using global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometry, this study aimed to identify locations where children engage in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Participants included 119 children (11-14 years, 57% girls) from public schools in Winterthur, Switzerland. During a regular school week between February and April 2013, children wore an accelerometer and GPS sensor for seven consecutive days. Time-matched accelerometer and GPS data was mapped with a geographic information system and each data point was assigned to one of seven defined activity settings. Both the absolute amount of MVPA and proportion of time in MVPA were calculated for every setting. Multilevel analyses accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data were conducted to investigate any gender differences. Children achieved most MVPA on streets (34.5%) and on school grounds (33.4%). The proportion children spent in MVPA was highest in recreational facilities (19.4%), at other schools (19.2%) and on streets (18.6%). Boys accumulated significantly more MVPA overall and on other school grounds (p activity-promoting environments. The high use of streets may be an indicator for active transportation, which appears to contribute to an active lifestyle in both genders. In contrast, the school setting is more likely to encourage physical activity in boys. Recreational facilities seem to be conducive for MVPA among both genders, although infrequently visited during the week of measurement.

  17. Identification of underground mine workings with the use of global positioning system technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, G.A.; Everett, J.W.; Sharp, M.

    1998-01-01

    Identification of underground mine workings for well drilling is a difficult task given the limited resources available and lack of reliable information. Relic mine maps of questionable accuracy and difficulty in correlating the subsurface to the surface, make the process of locating wells arduous. With the development of global positioning system (GPS), specific locations on the earth can be identified with the aid of satellites. This technology can be applied to mine workings identification given a few necessary, precursory details. For an abandoned mine treatment project conducted by the University of Oklahoma, in conjunction with the Oklahoma Conservation Commission, a Trimble ProXL 8 channel GPS receiver was employed to locate specific points on the surface with respect to a mine map. A 1925 mine map was digitized into AutoCAD version 13 software. Surface features identified on the map, such as mine adits, were located and marked in the field using the GPS receiver. These features were than imported into AutoCAD and referenced with the same points drawn on the map. A rubber sheeting program, Multric, was used to tweak the points so the map features correlated with the surface points. The correlation of these features allowed the map to be geo-referenced with the surface. Specific drilling points were located on the digitized map and assigned a latitude and longitude. The GPS receiver, using real time differential correction, was used to locate these points in the field. This method was assumed to be relatively accurate, to within 5 to 15 feet

  18. Use of global positioning system for physical activity research in youth: ESPAÇOS Adolescentes, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberico, Claudia Oliveira; Schipperijn, Jasper; Reis, Rodrigo S

    2017-10-01

    The built environment is an important factor associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB) during adolescence. This study presents the methods for objective assessment of context-specific moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB, as well as describes results from the first project using such methodology in adolescents from a developing country. An initial sample of 381 adolescents was recruited from 32 census tracts in Curitiba, Brazil (2013); 80 had their homes geocoded and wore accelerometer and GPS devices for seven days. Four domains were defined as important contexts: home, school, transport and leisure. The majority of participants (n=80) were boys (46; 57.5%), with a normal BMI (52; 65.0%) and a mean age (SD) of 14.5 (5.5) years. Adolescents spent most of their time at home, engaging in SB. Overall, the largest proportion of MVPA was while in transport (17.1% of time spent in this context) and SB while in leisure (188.6min per day). Participants engaged in MVPA for a median of 28.7 (IQR 18.2-43.2) and 17.9 (IQR 9.2-32.1) minutes during week and weekend days, respectively. Participants spent most of their day in the leisure and home domains. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer data allowed objective identification of the amount of time spent in MVPA and SB in four different domains. Though the combination of objective measures is still an emerging methodology, this is a promising and feasible approach to understanding interactions between people and their environments in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Global Exponential Stability of Positive Almost Periodic Solutions for a Fishing Model with a Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a nonautonomous fishing model with a time-varying delay. Under proper conditions, we employ a novel argument to establish a criterion on the global exponential stability of positive almost periodic solutions of the model with almost periodic coefficients and delays. Moreover, an example and its numerical simulation are given to illustrate the main results.

  20. A Group-learning Approach to Academic and Transferable Skills through an Exercise in the Global Positioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Giles H.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a project based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) that offers students a chance to design and implement a mini-research program to prepare them for an undergraduate research project. Discusses the context of the GPS exercise, teaching and learning outcomes, and advantages and evaluation of the exercise. (CMK)

  1. Field evaluation of personal digital assistant enabled by global positioning system : impact on quality of activity and diary data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellemans, T.; Kochan, B.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Stopher, P.

    2016-01-01

    Tom Bellemans, Bruno Kochan, Davy Janssens, Geert Wets and Harry Timmermans (2008), ‘Field Evaluation of Personal Digital Assistant Enabled by Global Positioning System: Impact on Quality of Activity and Diary Data’, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No.

  2. Semiautomatic imputation of activity travel diaries : use of global positioning system traces, prompted recall, and context-sensitive learning algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moiseeva, A.; Jessurun, J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The new generation of dynamic activity-based models requires multiday or multiweek activity-travel data. Global Positioning System (GPS) tracers may be a powerful technology to collect such data, but previous applications of this technology to collect data of full activity travel patterns (not just

  3. An Inquiry-Based Approach to Teaching the Spherical Earth Model to Preservice Teachers Using the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngjin; Schwenz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an inquiry-based lesson to deepen preservice teachers' understanding of the spherical Earth model using the Global Positioning System. The lesson was designed with four learning goals: (1) to increase preservice teachers' conceptual knowledge of the spherical Earth model; (2) to develop preservice teachers'…

  4. Getting from Here to There and Knowing Where: Teaching Global Positioning Systems to Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Craig L.

    2011-01-01

    Global Positioning Systems' (GPS) technology is available for individuals with visual impairments to use in wayfinding and address Lowenfeld's "three limitations of blindness." The considerations and methodologies for teaching GPS usage have developed over time as GPS information and devices have been integrated into orientation and mobility…

  5. RESEARCH PAPERS : Ionospheric signature of surface mine blasts from Global Positioning System measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calais, Eric; Bernard Minster, J.; Hofton, Michelle; Hedlin, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Sources such as atmospheric or buried explosions and shallow earthquakes are known to produce infrasonic pressure waves in the atmosphere Because of the coupling between neutral particles and electrons at ionospheric altitudes, these acoustic and gravity waves induce variations of the ionospheric electron density. The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides a way of directly measuring the total electron content in the ionosphere and, therefore, of detecting such perturbations in the upper atmosphere. In July and August 1996, three large surface mine blasts (1.5 Kt each) were detonated at the Black Thunder coal mine in eastern Wyoming. As part of a seismic and acoustic monitoring experiment, we deployed five dual-frequency GPS receivers at distances ranging from 50 to 200 km from the mine and were able to detect the ionospheric perturbation caused by the blasts. The perturbation starts 10 to 15 min after the blast, lasts for about 30 min, and propagates with an apparent horizontal velocity of 1200 m s- 1. Its amplitude reaches 3 × 1014 el m- 2 in the 7-3 min period band, a value close to the ionospheric perturbation caused by the M=6.7 Northridge earthquake (Calais & Minster 1995). The small signal-to-noise ratio of the perturbation can be improved by slant-stacking the electron content time-series recorded by the different GPS receivers taking into account the horizontal propagation of the perturbation. The energy of the perturbation is concentrated in the 200 to 300 s period band, a result consistent with previous observations and numerical model predictions. The 300 s band probably corresponds to gravity modes and shorter periods to acoustic modes, respectively. Using a 1-D stratified velocity model of the atmosphere we show that linear acoustic ray tracing fits arrival times at all GPS receivers. We interpret the perturbation as a direct acoustic wave caused by the explosion itself. This study shows that even relatively small subsurface events can produce

  6. Predicting Ambulance Time of Arrival to the Emergency Department Using Global Positioning System and Google Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Ross J.; Lundquist, Mark; Jui, Jonathan; Newgard, Craig D.; Warden, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate a model that accurately predicts ambulance arrival time that could be implemented as a Google Maps web application. Methods This was a retrospective study of all scene transports in Multnomah County, Oregon, from January 1 through December 31, 2008. Scene and destination hospital addresses were converted to coordinates. ArcGIS Network Analyst was used to estimate transport times based on street network speed limits. We then created a linear regression model to improve the accuracy of these street network estimates using weather, patient characteristics, use of lights and sirens, daylight, and rush-hour intervals. The model was derived from a 50% sample and validated on the remainder. Significance of the covariates was determined by p times recorded by computer-aided dispatch. We then built a Google Maps-based web application to demonstrate application in real-world EMS operations. Results There were 48,308 included transports. Street network estimates of transport time were accurate within 5 minutes of actual transport time less than 16% of the time. Actual transport times were longer during daylight and rush-hour intervals and shorter with use of lights and sirens. Age under 18 years, gender, wet weather, and trauma system entry were not significant predictors of transport time. Our model predicted arrival time within 5 minutes 73% of the time. For lights and sirens transports, accuracy was within 5 minutes 77% of the time. Accuracy was identical in the validation dataset. Lights and sirens saved an average of 3.1 minutes for transports under 8.8 minutes, and 5.3 minutes for longer transports. Conclusions An estimate of transport time based only on a street network significantly underestimated transport times. A simple model incorporating few variables can predict ambulance time of arrival to the emergency department with good accuracy. This model could be linked to global positioning system data and an automated Google Maps web

  7. Refining Time-Activity Classification of Human Subjects Using the Global Positioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Maogui; Li, Wei; Li, Lianfa; Houston, Douglas; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Detailed spatial location information is important in accurately estimating personal exposure to air pollution. Global Position System (GPS) has been widely used in tracking personal paths and activities. Previous researchers have developed time-activity classification models based on GPS data, most of them were developed for specific regions. An adaptive model for time-location classification can be widely applied to air pollution studies that use GPS to track individual level time-activity patterns. Time-activity data were collected for seven days using GPS loggers and accelerometers from thirteen adult participants from Southern California under free living conditions. We developed an automated model based on random forests to classify major time-activity patterns (i.e. indoor, outdoor-static, outdoor-walking, and in-vehicle travel). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the contribution of the accelerometer data and the supplemental spatial data (i.e. roadway and tax parcel data) to the accuracy of time-activity classification. Our model was evaluated using both leave-one-fold-out and leave-one-subject-out methods. Maximum speeds in averaging time intervals of 7 and 5 minutes, and distance to primary highways with limited access were found to be the three most important variables in the classification model. Leave-one-fold-out cross-validation showed an overall accuracy of 99.71%. Sensitivities varied from 84.62% (outdoor walking) to 99.90% (indoor). Specificities varied from 96.33% (indoor) to 99.98% (outdoor static). The exclusion of accelerometer and ambient light sensor variables caused a slight loss in sensitivity for outdoor walking, but little loss in overall accuracy. However, leave-one-subject-out cross-validation showed considerable loss in sensitivity for outdoor static and outdoor walking conditions. The random forests classification model can achieve high accuracy for the four major time-activity categories. The model also performed well

  8. Automated time activity classification based on global positioning system (GPS) tracking data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Jiang, Chengsheng; Houston, Douglas; Baker, Dean; Delfino, Ralph

    2011-11-14

    Air pollution epidemiological studies are increasingly using global positioning system (GPS) to collect time-location data because they offer continuous tracking, high temporal resolution, and minimum reporting burden for participants. However, substantial uncertainties in the processing and classifying of raw GPS data create challenges for reliably characterizing time activity patterns. We developed and evaluated models to classify people's major time activity patterns from continuous GPS tracking data. We developed and evaluated two automated models to classify major time activity patterns (i.e., indoor, outdoor static, outdoor walking, and in-vehicle travel) based on GPS time activity data collected under free living conditions for 47 participants (N = 131 person-days) from the Harbor Communities Time Location Study (HCTLS) in 2008 and supplemental GPS data collected from three UC-Irvine research staff (N = 21 person-days) in 2010. Time activity patterns used for model development were manually classified by research staff using information from participant GPS recordings, activity logs, and follow-up interviews. We evaluated two models: (a) a rule-based model that developed user-defined rules based on time, speed, and spatial location, and (b) a random forest decision tree model. Indoor, outdoor static, outdoor walking and in-vehicle travel activities accounted for 82.7%, 6.1%, 3.2% and 7.2% of manually-classified time activities in the HCTLS dataset, respectively. The rule-based model classified indoor and in-vehicle travel periods reasonably well (Indoor: sensitivity > 91%, specificity > 80%, and precision > 96%; in-vehicle travel: sensitivity > 71%, specificity > 99%, and precision > 88%), but the performance was moderate for outdoor static and outdoor walking predictions. No striking differences in performance were observed between the rule-based and the random forest models. The random forest model was fast and easy to execute, but was likely less robust

  9. Travel patterns during pregnancy: comparison between Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking and questionnaire data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Jiang, Chengsheng; Jaimes, Guillermo; Bartell, Scott; Dang, Andy; Baker, Dean; Delfino, Ralph J

    2013-10-09

    Maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposures to traffic-related air pollutants are strongly influenced by time spent near traffic. However, little is known about women's travel activities during pregnancy and whether questionnaire-based data can provide reliable information on travel patterns during pregnancy. Examine women's in-vehicle travel behavior during pregnancy and examine the difference in travel data collected by questionnaire and global positioning system (GPS) and their potential for exposure error. We measured work-related travel patterns in 56 pregnant women using a questionnaire and one-week GPS tracking three times during pregnancy (30 weeks of gestation). We compared self-reported activities with GPS-derived trip distance and duration, and examined potentially influential factors that may contribute to differences. We also described in-vehicle travel behavior by pregnancy periods and influences of demographic and personal factors on daily travel times. Finally, we estimated personal exposure to particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PB-PAH) and examined the magnitude of exposure misclassification using self-reported vs. GPS travel data. Subjects overestimated both trip duration and trip distance compared to the GPS data. We observed moderately high correlations between self-reported and GPS-recorded travel distance (home to work trips: r = 0.88; work to home trips: r = 0.80). Better agreement was observed between the GPS and the self-reported travel time for home to work trips (r = 0.77) than work to home trips (r = 0.64). The subjects on average spent 69 and 93 minutes traveling in vehicles daily based on the GPS and self-reported data, respectively. Longer daily travel time was observed among participants in early pregnancy, and during certain pregnancy periods in women with higher education attainment, higher income, and no children. When comparing

  10. Development of a automatic positioning system of photovoltaic panels for electric energy generation; Desenvolvimento de um sistema de posicionamento automatico de placas fotovoltaicas para a geracao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Alceu F.; Cagnon, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DEE/FEB/UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Seraphin, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DER/FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    This work presents an automatic positioning system for photovoltaic panels, in order to improve the conversion of solar energy to electric energy. A prototype with automatic movement was developed, and its efficiency in generating electric energy was compared to another one with the same characteristics, but fixed in space. Preliminary results point to a significant increase in efficiency, obtained from a simplified process of movement, in which sensors are not used to determine the apparent sun's position, but instead of it, the relative Sun-Earth's position equations are used. An innovative movement mechanical system is also presented, using two stepper motors to move the panel along two-axis, but with independent movement, contributing, this way, to save energy during the positioning times. The use of this proposed system in rural areas is suggested. (author)

  11. Control of OSA during automatic positive airway pressure titration in a clinical case series: predictors and accuracy of device download data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Chia Carol; Hillman, David R; McArdle, Nigel

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the factors associated with physiologic control of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) titration in a clinical series. To also assess the usefulness of apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) data downloaded from the APAP device (Dev AHI). Retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with OSA who underwent APAP titration (Autoset Spirit, ResMed, Bella Vista, New South Wales, Australia ) with simultaneous polysomnographic (PSG) monitoring in the sleep laboratory. Tertiary sleep clinic. There were 190 consecutive patients with OSA referred for APAP titration. There were 58% of patients who achieved optimal or good control of OSA (titration PSG AHI titration. The independent predictors of titration PSG AHI were a history of cardiac disease and elevated central apnea and arousal indices during the diagnostic study. Although the median and interquartile range (IQR) AHI from the device (7.0, 3.9-11.6 events/hr) was only slightly less than the PSG AHI (7.8, 3.9-14.4 events/hr, P = 0.04) during titration, case-by-case agreement between the two measures was poor (chi-square titration is often poor, and close clinical follow-up is particularly needed in patients with a history of cardiac disease or with high arousal or central apnea indices on the diagnostic study. Device AHI does not reliably assess control during APAP titration, and PSG assessment may be required if clinical response to treatment is poor. The findings relate to the ResMed AutoSet device and may not apply to other devices.

  12. Incentive Compatible and Globally Efficient Position Based Routing for Selfish Reverse Multicast in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh Varatharajan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of all-to-one selfish routing in the absence of a payment scheme in wireless sensor networks, where a natural model for cost is the power required to forward, referring to the resulting game as a Locally Minimum Cost Forwarding (LMCF. Our objective is to characterize equilibria and their global costs in terms of stretch and diameter, in particular finding incentive compatible algorithms that are also close to globally optimal. We find that although social costs for equilibria of LMCF exhibit arbitrarily bad worst-case bounds and computational infeasibility of reaching optimal equilibria, there exist greedy and local incentive compatible heuristics achieving near-optimal global costs.

  13. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  14. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  15. Positioning Global Education for the 1990s: Strategies for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert A.

    All colleges and universities should be considering how they will incorporate global aspects of education and society into their curricula. The degree of program development will depend upon the goals and missions of each campus, but the programs should build from each campus' strength. The purpose of this paper is to discuss: (1) the principles…

  16. Existence and global attractivity of positive periodic solution for competition-predator system with variable delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongyong; Ding Nan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, Lotka-Volterra competition-predator system with variable delays is considered. Some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence and global attractivity of periodic solution for this system are obtained by using coincidence degree theory and Lyapunov functional method. An example is also worked out to demonstrate the advantages of our results

  17. Opening up to the world? Khartoum's position within a global city network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents three arguments for a new research perspective on global city networks analysis and introduces possible modifications to existing assessment tools in order to investigate the role of emerging market cities. The first argument highlights the need to investigate more ‘peripheral’

  18. Invited review: A position on the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, M J; Vellinga, T; Opio, C; Falcucci, A; Tempio, G; Henderson, B; Makkar, H; Mottet, A; Robinson, T; Steinfeld, H; Gerber, P J

    2018-02-01

    The livestock sector is one of the fastest growing subsectors of the agricultural economy and, while it makes a major contribution to global food supply and economic development, it also consumes significant amounts of natural resources and alters the environment. In order to improve our understanding of the global environmental impact of livestock supply chains, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has developed the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM). The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of GLEAM. Specifically, it explains the model architecture, methods and functionality, that is the types of analysis that the model can perform. The model focuses primarily on the quantification of greenhouse gases emissions arising from the production of the 11 main livestock commodities. The model inputs and outputs are managed and produced as raster data sets, with spatial resolution of 0.05 decimal degrees. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model v1.0 consists of five distinct modules: (a) the Herd Module; (b) the Manure Module; (c) the Feed Module; (d) the System Module; (e) the Allocation Module. In terms of the modelling approach, GLEAM has several advantages. For example spatial information on livestock distributions and crops yields enables rations to be derived that reflect the local availability of feed resources in developing countries. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model also contains a herd model that enables livestock statistics to be disaggregated and variation in livestock performance and management to be captured. Priorities for future development of GLEAM include: improving data quality and the methods used to perform emissions calculations; extending the scope of the model to include selected additional environmental impacts and to enable predictive modelling; and improving the utility of GLEAM output.

  19. Geoscience Australia Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) Station Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruddick, R. [Geoscience Australia, Symonston (Australia); Twilley, B. [Geoscience Australia, Symonston (Australia)

    2016-03-01

    This station formed part of the Australian Regional GPS Network (ARGN) and South Pacific Regional GPS Network (SPRGN), which is a network of continuous GPS stations operating within Australia and its Territories (including Antarctica) and the Pacific. These networks support a number of different science applications including maintenance of the Geospatial Reference Frame, both national and international, continental and tectonic plate motions, sea level rise, and global warming.

  20. Dialogical Self Theory and the increasing multiplicity of I-positions in a globalizing society: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Hubert J M

    2012-01-01

    Dialogical Self Theory is a recent development in the social sciences, based on a conception of the self as a society of mind. In this conception, the self is considered as extended to significant others in the environment, who populate the self as a dynamic multiplicity of I-positions between which dialogical or monological relationships may emerge. While from a spatial perspective the self is engaged in a process of positioning and counterpositioning in a globalizing society, from a temporal point of view the self is part of a process of positioning and repositioning in collective history and personal development. Some phenomena that are necessary for the understanding of the dialogical self are discussed: dominance and social power, the processes of globalization and localization, the experience of uncertainty and possible reactions to uncertainty in a globalizing world. Finally, the different contributions of this special issue are placed in the context of the presented conceptual framework. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  1. Study of the Impact of the Global Positioning System on Army Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    be introduced to those who will be in positions of leadership and/or decision making at the time of system implementation. This is particularly true...These officers may well be in positions of decision making relative to methods, techniques and unit missions employing GPS. Maintenance, and...the time cf measurement with the aid of auxillary equipment. . TeU2wometeA MRA-1) - This is the oldest type of microwave instrument is the Army

  2. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  3. Automatic and deliberate affective associations with sexual stimuli in women with lifelong vaginismus before and after therapist-aided exposure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, Reinhilde J; ter Kuile, Moniek M; Dewitte, Marieke; van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Brauer, Marieke; de Jong, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    The intense fear response to vaginal penetration in women with lifelong vaginismus, who have never been able to experience coitus, may reflect negative automatic and deliberate appraisals of vaginal penetration stimuli which might be modified by exposure treatment. The aim of this study is to examine whether (i) sexual stimuli elicit relatively strong automatic and deliberate threat associations in women with vaginismus, as well as relatively negative automatic and deliberate global affective associations, compared with symptom-free women; and (ii) these automatic and more deliberate attitudes can be modified by therapist-aided exposure treatment. A single target Implicit Association Test (st-IAT) was used to index automatic threat associations, and an Affective Simon Task (AST) to index global automatic affective associations. Participants were women with lifelong vaginismus (N = 68) and women without sexual problems (N = 70). The vaginismus group was randomly allocated to treatment (n = 34) and a waiting list control condition (n = 34). Indices of automatic threat were obtained by the st-IAT and automatic global affective associations by the AST, visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to assess deliberate appraisals of the sexual pictures (fear and global positive affect). More deliberate fear and less global positive affective associations with sexual stimuli were found in women with vaginismus. Following therapist-aided exposure treatment, the strength of fear was strongly reduced, whereas global positive affective associations were strengthened. Automatic associations did not differ between women with and without vaginismus and did not change following treatment. Relatively stronger negative (threat or global affect) associations with sexual stimuli in vaginismus appeared restricted to the deliberate level. Therapist-aided exposure treatment was effective in reducing subjective fear of sexual penetration stimuli and led to more global positive affective

  4. The sustainable management and protection of forests: analysis of the current position globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer-Smith, Peter; Carnus, Jean-Michel

    2008-06-01

    The loss of forest area globally due to change of land use, the importance of forests in the conservation of biodiversity and in carbon and other biogeochemical cycles, together with the threat to forests from pollution and from the impacts of climate change, place forestry policy and practice at the center of global environmental and sustainability strategy. Forests provide important economic, environmental, social, and cultural benefits, so that in forestry, as in other areas of environmental policy and management, there are tensions between economic development and environmental protection. In this article we review the current information on global forest cover and condition, examine the international processes that relate to forest protection and to sustainable forest management, and look at the main forest certification schemes. We consider the link between the international processes and certification schemes and also their combined effectiveness. We conclude that in some regions of the world neither mechanism is achieving forest protection, while in others local or regional implementation is occurring and is having a significant impact. Choice of certification scheme and implementation of management standards are often influenced by a consideration of the associated costs, and there are some major issues over the monitoring of agreed actions and of the criteria and indicators of sustainability. There are currently a number of initiatives seeking to improve the operation of the international forestry framework (e.g., The Montreal Process, the Ministerial Convention of the Protection of Forests in Europe and European Union actions in Europe, the African Timber Organisation and International Tropical Timber Organisation initiative for African tropical forest, and the development of a worldwide voluntary agreement on forestry in the United Nations Forum on Forests). We suggest that there is a need to improve the connections between scientific understanding

  5. The absence of global positive solutions of systems of semilinear elliptic inequalities in cones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, G G

    2000-01-01

    Let K be a cone in R N , N>=2. We establish conditions for the absence of global non-trivial non-negative solutions of semilinear elliptic inequalities and systems of inequalities of the form -div(|x| α Du)>=|x| β u q , u| ∂K =0. We find the critical exponent q* that divides the domains of existence of these solutions from those of their absence. We prove that in the limiting case q=q* there are no solutions. The method is to multiply the system by a special factor and integrate the inequalities thus obtained

  6. Automatic NAA. Saturation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Grass, F.; Kuhnert, M.

    2008-01-01

    A system for Automatic NAA is based on a list of specific saturation activities determined for one irradiation position at a given neutron flux and a single detector geometry. Originally compiled from measurements of standard reference materials, the list may be extended also by the calculation of saturation activities from k 0 and Q 0 factors, and f and α values of the irradiation position. A systematic improvement of the SRM approach is currently being performed by pseudo-cyclic activation analysis, to reduce counting errors. From these measurements, the list of saturation activities is recalculated in an automatic procedure. (author)

  7. Non-existence of global solutions to generalized dissipative Klein-Gordon equations with positive energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Olegovich Korpusov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article the initial-boundary-value problem for generalized dissipative high-order equation of Klein-Gordon type is considered. We continue our study of nonlinear hyperbolic equations and systems with arbitrary positive energy. The modified concavity method by Levine is used for proving blow-up of solutions.

  8. Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Cooperative Fault Detection Employing Differential Global Positioning (DGPS), Inertial and Vision Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Guillermo; Caballero, Fernando; Maza, Iván; Merino, Luis; Viguria, Antidio; Ollero, Aníbal

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method to increase the reliability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) in a multi-UAV context. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and inertial sensors are used for sensor FDI in each UAV. The method uses additional position estimations that augment individual UAV FDI system. These additional estimations are obtained using images from the same planar scene taken from two different UAVs. Since accuracy and noise level of the estimation depends on several factors, dynamic replanning of the multi-UAV team can be used to obtain a better estimation in case of faults caused by slow growing errors of absolute position estimation that cannot be detected by using local FDI in the UAVs. Experimental results with data from two real UAVs are also presented.

  9. A hand-held 3D laser scanning with global positioning system of subvoxel precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Nestor; Meneses, Nestor; Meneses, Jaime; Gharbi, Tijani

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a hand-held 3D laser scanner composed of an optical head device to extract 3D local surface information and a stereo vision system with subvoxel precision to measure the position and orientation of the 3D optical head. The optical head is manually scanned over the surface object by the operator. The orientation and position of the 3D optical head is determined by a phase-sensitive method using a 2D regular intensity pattern. This phase reference pattern is rigidly fixed to the optical head and allows their 3D location with subvoxel precision in the observation field of the stereo vision system. The 3D resolution achieved by the stereo vision system is about 33 microns at 1.8 m with an observation field of 60cm x 60cm.

  10. Additional Insights Into Problem Definition and Positioning From Social Science Comment on "Four Challenges That Global Health Networks Face".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quissell, Kathryn

    2017-09-10

    Commenting on a recent editorial in this journal which presented four challenges global health networks will have to tackle to be effective, this essay discusses why this type of analysis is important for global health scholars and practitioners, and why it is worth understanding and critically engaging with the complexities behind these challenges. Focusing on the topics of problem definition and positioning, I outline additional insights from social science theory to demonstrate how networks and network researchers can evaluate these processes, and how these processes contribute to better organizing, advocacy, and public health outcomes. This essay also raises multiple questions regarding these processes for future research. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  11. Automatic affective appraisal of sexual penetration stimuli in women with vaginismus or dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijding, Jorg; Borg, Charmaine; Weijmar-Schultz, Willibrord; de Jong, Peter J

    2011-03-01

    Current psychological views are that negative appraisals of sexual stimuli lie at the core of sexual dysfunctions. It is important to differentiate between deliberate appraisals and more automatic appraisals, as research has shown that the former are most relevant to controllable behaviors, and the latter are most relevant to reflexive behaviors. Accordingly, it can be hypothesized that in women with vaginismus, the persistent difficulty to allow vaginal entry is due to global negative automatic affective appraisals that trigger reflexive pelvic floor muscle contraction at the prospect of penetration. To test whether sexual penetration pictures elicited global negative automatic affective appraisals in women with vaginismus or dyspareunia and to examine whether deliberate appraisals and automatic appraisals differed between the two patient groups. Women with persistent vaginismus (N = 24), dyspareunia (N = 23), or no sexual complaints (N = 30) completed a pictorial Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST), and then made a global affective assessment of the EAST stimuli using visual analogue scales (VAS). The EAST assessed global automatic affective appraisals of sexual penetration stimuli, while the VAS assessed global deliberate affective appraisals of these stimuli. Automatic affective appraisals of sexual penetration stimuli tended to be positive, independent of the presence of sexual complaints. Deliberate appraisals of the same stimuli were significantly more negative in the women with vaginismus than in the dyspareunia group and control group, while the latter two groups did not differ in their appraisals. Unexpectedly, deliberate appraisals seemed to be most important in vaginismus, whereas dyspareunia did not seem to implicate negative deliberate or automatic affective appraisals. These findings dispute the view that global automatic affect lies at the core of vaginismus and indicate that a useful element in therapeutic interventions may be the modification of

  12. Inverse spiking filter based acquisition enhancement in software based global positioning system receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arul Elango

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower visibility of the satellite in the acquisition stage of a GPS receiver under worst noisy situation leads to reacquisition of the data and thereby takes a longer time to obtain the first position fix. If the impulse noise affects the GPS signal, the conventional ways of acquiring the satellites do not guarantee to meet the minimum requirement of four satellites to find the user position. The performance of GPS receiver acquisition can be improved in the low SNR level using inverse spiking filtering technique. In the proposed method, the estimate of the desired GPS L1 signal corrupted by impulse noise (gn is obtained by the prediction error filter (hopt, which is the optimum inverse filter that reshapes the noisy signal (yn into a desired GPS signal (xn. In the proposed method, to detect the visible satellites under weak signal conditions the traditional differential coherent approach is combined with the inverse spiking filter method to increase the number of visible satellites and to avoid the reacquisition process. Montecarlo simulation is carried out to assess the performance of the proposed method for C/N0 of 20 dB-Hz and results indicate that the modified differential coherent method effectively excises the noise with 90% probability of detection. Subsequently tracking operation is also tested to confirm the acquisition performance by demodulating the navigation data successfully.

  13. Existence and Global Asymptotic Behavior of Positive Solutions for Nonlinear Fractional Dirichlet Problems on the Half-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Bachar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We are interested in the following fractional boundary value problem: Dαu(t+atuσ=0, t∈(0,∞, limt→0⁡t2-αu(t=0, limt→∞⁡t1-αu(t=0, where 1<α<2, σ∈(-1,1, Dα is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, and a is a nonnegative continuous function on (0,∞ satisfying some appropriate assumptions related to Karamata regular variation theory. Using the Schauder fixed point theorem, we prove the existence and the uniqueness of a positive solution. We also give a global behavior of such solution.

  14. GNSS global real-time augmentation positioning: Real-time precise satellite clock estimation, prototype system construction and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhao, Qile; Hu, Zhigang; Jiang, Xinyuan; Geng, Changjiang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang

    2018-01-01

    Lots of ambiguities in un-differenced (UD) model lead to lower calculation efficiency, which isn't appropriate for the high-frequency real-time GNSS clock estimation, like 1 Hz. Mixed differenced model fusing UD pseudo-range and epoch-differenced (ED) phase observations has been introduced into real-time clock estimation. In this contribution, we extend the mixed differenced model for realizing multi-GNSS real-time clock high-frequency updating and a rigorous comparison and analysis on same conditions are performed to achieve the best real-time clock estimation performance taking the efficiency, accuracy, consistency and reliability into consideration. Based on the multi-GNSS real-time data streams provided by multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and Wuhan University, GPS + BeiDou + Galileo global real-time augmentation positioning prototype system is designed and constructed, including real-time precise orbit determination, real-time precise clock estimation, real-time Precise Point Positioning (RT-PPP) and real-time Standard Point Positioning (RT-SPP). The statistical analysis of the 6 h-predicted real-time orbits shows that the root mean square (RMS) in radial direction is about 1-5 cm for GPS, Beidou MEO and Galileo satellites and about 10 cm for Beidou GEO and IGSO satellites. Using the mixed differenced estimation model, the prototype system can realize high-efficient real-time satellite absolute clock estimation with no constant clock-bias and can be used for high-frequency augmentation message updating (such as 1 Hz). The real-time augmentation message signal-in-space ranging error (SISRE), a comprehensive accuracy of orbit and clock and effecting the users' actual positioning performance, is introduced to evaluate and analyze the performance of GPS + BeiDou + Galileo global real-time augmentation positioning system. The statistical analysis of real-time augmentation message SISRE is about 4-7 cm for GPS, whlile 10 cm for Beidou IGSO/MEO, Galileo and about 30 cm

  15. Global health and climate change: moving from denial and catastrophic fatalism to positive action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Anthony; Maslin, Mark; Montgomery, Hugh; Johnson, Anne M; Ekins, Paul

    2011-05-13

    The health effects of climate change have had relatively little attention from climate scientists and governments. Climate change will be a major threat to population health in the current century through its potential effects on communicable disease, heat stress, food and water security, extreme weather events, vulnerable shelter and population migration. This paper addresses three health-sector strategies to manage the health effects of climate change-promotion of mitigation, tackling the pathways that lead to ill-health and strengthening health systems. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is affordable, and low-carbon technologies are available now or will be in the near future. Pathways to ill-health can be managed through better information, poverty reduction, technological innovation, social and cultural change and greater coordination of national and international institutions. Strengthening health systems requires increased investment in order to provide effective public health responses to climate-induced threats to health, equitable treatment of illness, promotion of low-carbon lifestyles and renewable energy solutions within health facilities. Mitigation and adaptation strategies will produce substantial benefits for health, such as reductions in obesity and heart disease, diabetes, stress and depression, pneumonia and asthma, as well as potential cost savings within the health sector. The case for mitigating climate change by reducing GHGs is overwhelming. The need to build population resilience to the global health threat from already unavoidable climate change is real and urgent. Action must not be delayed by contrarians, nor by catastrophic fatalists who say it is all too late. © 2011 Royal Society

  16. On stochastic modeling of the modernized global positioning system (GPS) L2C signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsobeiey, Mohamed; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    In order to take full advantage of the modernized GPS L2C signal, it is essential that its stochastic characteristics and code bias be rigorously determined. In this paper, long sessions of GPS measurements are used to study the stochastic characteristics of the modernized GPS L2C signal. As a byproduct, the stochastic characteristics of the legacy GPS signals, namely C/A and P2 codes, are also determined, which are used to verify the developed stochastic model of the modernized signal. The differential code biases between P2 and C2, DCB P2-C2 , are also estimated using the Bernese GPS software. It is shown that the developed models improved the precise point positioning (PPP) solution and convergence time

  17. Development of building security integration system using sensors, microcontroller and GPS (Global Positioning System) based android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, P.; Siregar, Y. M.; Tarigan, J. T.; Jaya, I.; Turnip, A.

    2018-03-01

    Security system is one of the common problems to protect an environment such as personal house or a warehouse. There are numerous methods and technologies that can be used as part of a security system. In this paper, we present a security system that offers a better efficiency. The purpose of this study is to build a system that can monitor home security at any time in particular fire and theft. Through sensors, the system will be able to provide warning information of hazard conditions via LCD monitor, sound, and alarm. This information will be sent automatically to the home owner’s smartphone as well as to the corresponding to the security agency. Thus the prevention of theft and fire hazards can be immediately anticipated by the police and firefighters. The system will also notify the position of the coordinates of the location of the building (the house) by a link to the Google map in order to make it easier to get the location quickly.

  18. Precise positioning with current multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ren, Xiaodong; Fritsche, Mathias; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-02-09

    The world of satellite navigation is undergoing dramatic changes with the rapid development of multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs). At the moment more than 70 satellites are already in view, and about 120 satellites will be available once all four systems (BeiDou + Galileo + GLONASS + GPS) are fully deployed in the next few years. This will bring great opportunities and challenges for both scientific and engineering applications. In this paper we develop a four-system positioning model to make full use of all available observations from different GNSSs. The significant improvement of satellite visibility, spatial geometry, dilution of precision, convergence, accuracy, continuity and reliability that a combining utilization of multi-GNSS brings to precise positioning are carefully analyzed and evaluated, especially in constrained environments.

  19. Visual-based simultaneous localization and mapping and global positioning system correction for geo-localization of a mobile robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrabah, Sid Ahmed; Baudoin, Yvan; Sahli, Hichem

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces an approach combining visual-based simultaneous localization and mapping (V-SLAM) and global positioning system (GPS) correction for accurate multi-sensor localization of an outdoor mobile robot in geo-referenced maps. The proposed framework combines two extended Kalman filters (EKF); the first one, referred to as the integration filter, is dedicated to the improvement of the GPS localization based on data from an inertial navigation system and wheels' encoders. The second EKF implements the V-SLAM process. The linear and angular velocities in the dynamic model of the V-SLAM EKF filter are given by the GPS/INS/Encoders integration filter. On the other hand, the output of the V-SLAM EKF filter is used to update the dynamics estimation in the integration filter and therefore the geo-referenced localization. This solution increases the accuracy and the robustness of the positioning during GPS outage and allows SLAM in less featured environments

  20. Discourses of positionality and the challenges of democratization in the global south: The case of Nepal and Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Thorsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we argue that to conceptually and empirically grasp the dynamics and challenges of processes of civic participation, i.e., the deliberation and empowerment of disenfranchised and marginalized populations in the Global South, communication for social change scholars need to pay more attention to three issues: the quality of citizens’ self-perceptions in relation to their local milieu, inter-citizen perceptions and relations at the local level and lastly, the attendant consequences of these on citizens’ sense of efficacy. To grasp and comprehend the interplay of these three issues, we propose the adoption of Floya Anthias’ concept of narratives of location and positionality and demonstrate the heuristic vitality of this notion through a discussion of some local discourses of positionality in Nepal and Cameroon.

  1. A Flexible Binding Site Architecture Provides New Insights into CcpA Global Regulation in Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Lu; Huang, He; Yang, Chen; Yang, Sheng; Gu, Yang; Jiang, Weihong

    2017-01-24

    Catabolite control protein A (CcpA) is the master regulator in Gram-positive bacteria that mediates carbon catabolite repression (CCR) and carbon catabolite activation (CCA), two fundamental regulatory mechanisms that enable competitive advantages in carbon catabolism. It is generally regarded that CcpA exerts its regulatory role by binding to a typical 14- to 16-nucleotide (nt) consensus site that is called a catabolite response element (cre) within the target regions. However, here we report a previously unknown noncanonical flexible architecture of the CcpA-binding site in solventogenic clostridia, providing new mechanistic insights into catabolite regulation. This novel CcpA-binding site, named cre var , has a unique architecture that consists of two inverted repeats and an intervening spacer, all of which are variable in nucleotide composition and length, except for a 6-bp core palindromic sequence (TGTAAA/TTTACA). It was found that the length of the intervening spacer of cre var can affect CcpA binding affinity, and moreover, the core palindromic sequence of cre var is the key structure for regulation. Such a variable architecture of cre var shows potential importance for CcpA's diverse and fine regulation. A total of 103 potential cre var sites were discovered in solventogenic Clostridium acetobutylicum, of which 42 sites were picked out for electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), and 30 sites were confirmed to be bound by CcpA. These 30 cre var sites are associated with 27 genes involved in many important pathways. Also of significance, the cre var sites are found to be widespread and function in a great number of taxonomically different Gram-positive bacteria, including pathogens, suggesting their global role in Gram-positive bacteria. In Gram-positive bacteria, the global regulator CcpA controls a large number of important physiological and metabolic processes. Although a typical consensus CcpA-binding site, cre, has been identified, it remains

  2. Positioning in the Global Value Chain as a Sustainable Strategy: A Case Study in a Mature Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Albors-Garrigos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the development of new industrialized countries, such as Brazil, China and other Southern Asian economies, as well as a globalized economy, traditional competitive paradigms based on advantages associated with costs and quality efficiencies or even innovation are no longer sufficient. These previous classical paradigms related competitiveness either to costs or technology innovation and the resources of industry incumbents. However, the combination of adequate knowledge and relationship management with marketing efforts brings forth a reconsideration of the present competitive models that go beyond those analyses from the point of view of global value chains. The objective of this investigation will analyze the governance structure of the territorial value chain in the Spanish and Italian ceramic tile industry, through the understanding of the previous and current roles of several industries involved in the value creation system. By way of both a case study and quantitative methodology approach, we will explore the paradigm change where traditional chain actors are losing their grip on their contribution to the territorial value creation system as new actors appear with a more stable status. The article concludes that proper positioning in the global value chain is a key strategy for the sustainability of the involved firms, especially Small and Medium Enterprises (SME.

  3. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  4. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  5. Return to play in elite rugby union: application of global positioning system technology in return-to-running programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Laura C; Cowman, Jason R; Green, Brian S; Coughlan, Garrett F

    2013-05-01

    Global positioning systems (GPS) are widely used in sport settings to evaluate the physical demands on players in training and competition. The use of these systems in the design and implementation of rehabilitation and return-to-running programs has not yet been elucidated. To demonstrate the application of GPS technology in the management of return to play in elite-club Rugby Union. Case series. Professional Rugby Union club team. 8 elite Rugby Union players (age 27.86 ± 4.78 y, height 1.85 ± 0.08 m, weight 99.14 ± 9.96 kg). Players wore GPS devices for the entire duration of a club game. Variables of locomotion speed and distance were measured. Differences in physical demands between playing positions were observed for all variables. An analysis of the position-specific physical demands measured by GPS provides key information regarding the level and volume of loads sustained by a player in a game environment. Using this information, sports-medicine practitioners can develop rehabilitation and return-to-running protocols specific to the player position to optimize safe return to play.

  6. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori and CagA-Positive Infections and Global Variations in Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Young Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a major health burden and is the fifth most common malignancy and the third most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Development of gastric cancer involves several aspects, including host genetics, environmental factors, and Helicobacter pylori infection. There is increasing evidence from epidemiological studies of the association of H. pylori infection and specific virulence factors with gastric cancer. Studies in animal models indicate H. pylori is a primary factor in the development of gastric cancer. One major virulence factor in H. pylori is the cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA, which encodes the CagA protein in the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI. Meta-analysis of studies investigating CagA seropositivity irrespective of H. pylori status identified that CagA seropositivity increases the risk of gastric cancer (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 1.95–4.22 relative to the risk of H. pylori infection alone (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.58–3.39. Eradicating H. pylori is a strategy for reducing gastric cancer incidence. A meta-analysis of six randomised controlled trials (RCTs suggests that searching for and eradicating H. pylori infection reduces the subsequent incidence of gastric cancer with a pooled relative risk of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46–0.95. The introduction in regions of high gastric cancer incidence of population-based H. pylori screening and treatment programmes, with a scientifically valid assessment of programme processes, feasibility, effectiveness and possible adverse consequences, would impact the incidence of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer. Given the recent molecular understanding of the oncogenic role of CagA, targeting H. pylori screening and treatment programmes in populations with a high prevalence of H. pylori CagA-positive strains, particularly the more oncogenic East Asian H. pylori CagA strains, may be worth further investigation to optimise the benefits of such strategies.

  7. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori and CagA-Positive Infections and Global Variations in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, David; Crabtree, Jean E.

    2018-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a major health burden and is the fifth most common malignancy and the third most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Development of gastric cancer involves several aspects, including host genetics, environmental factors, and Helicobacter pylori infection. There is increasing evidence from epidemiological studies of the association of H. pylori infection and specific virulence factors with gastric cancer. Studies in animal models indicate H. pylori is a primary factor in the development of gastric cancer. One major virulence factor in H. pylori is the cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA), which encodes the CagA protein in the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI). Meta-analysis of studies investigating CagA seropositivity irrespective of H. pylori status identified that CagA seropositivity increases the risk of gastric cancer (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 1.95–4.22) relative to the risk of H. pylori infection alone (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.58–3.39). Eradicating H. pylori is a strategy for reducing gastric cancer incidence. A meta-analysis of six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) suggests that searching for and eradicating H. pylori infection reduces the subsequent incidence of gastric cancer with a pooled relative risk of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46–0.95). The introduction in regions of high gastric cancer incidence of population-based H. pylori screening and treatment programmes, with a scientifically valid assessment of programme processes, feasibility, effectiveness and possible adverse consequences, would impact the incidence of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer. Given the recent molecular understanding of the oncogenic role of CagA, targeting H. pylori screening and treatment programmes in populations with a high prevalence of H. pylori CagA-positive strains, particularly the more oncogenic East Asian H. pylori CagA strains, may be worth further investigation to optimise the benefits of such strategies. PMID:29671784

  8. Global Positioning System Technology (GPS for Psychological Research: A Test of Convergent and Nomological Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eWolf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the convergent and nomological validity of a GPS-based measure of daily activity, operationalized as Number of Places Visited (NPV. Relations among the GPS-based measure and two self-report measures of NPV, as well as relations among NPV and two factors made up of self-reported individual differences were examined. The first factor was composed of variables related to an Active Lifestyle (AL (e.g. positive affect, extraversion… and the second factor was composed of variables related to a Sedentary Lifestyle (SL (e.g. depression, neuroticism…. NPV was measured over a four-day period. This timeframe was made up of two week and two weekend days. A bi-variate analysis established one level of convergent validity and a Split-Plot GLM examined convergent validity, nomological validity, and alternative hypotheses related to constraints on activity throughout the week simultaneously. The first analysis revealed significant correlations among NPV measures- weekday, weekend, and the entire four day blocks, supporting the convergent validity of the Diary-, Google Maps-, and GPS-NPV measures. Results from the second analysis, indicating non-significant mean differences in NPV regardless of method, also support this conclusion. We also found that AL is a statistically significant predictor of NPV no matter how NPV was measured. We did not find a statically significant relation among NPV and SL. These results permit us to infer that the GPS-based NPV measure has convergent and nomological validity.

  9. Using the global positioning system in support of environmental characterization at the Hanford Site in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.B.; Tzemos, S.; Dietz, L.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's 1,450 km 2 Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State accumulated hazardous wastes for more than 50 years. To support the Site's mission of environmental restoration and cleanup, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is being used to verify waste site locations and provide location information for field samples. Collected GPS data are stored for use in the Hanford Geographic Information System (HGIS). The NAVSTAR GPS is a space-based electronic navigation and positioning system designed and operated by the US Department of Defense (DOD). The system consists of three major components: (1) the space segment, comprising 24 earth-orbiting satellites; (2) the control segment, made up of 5 control and monitoring stations placed around the globe; and (3) the user segment, which includes users worldwide. When declared fully operational by the DOD, the NAVSTAR GPS will allow users to identify their geographical position anywhere on earth at any time. There are no user fees for the service and anyone with a GPS receiver may use the system worldwide. The one major hindrance to the system is the DOD policy concerning a security option called Selective Availability (SA). Selective Availability affects the usability of the system by intentional manipulation of the GPS signals to degrade the accuracy of the user's positions. The period and magnitude of degradation is solely a DOD privilege. The DOD policy on SA is to vary the error in position calculated from the Standard Positioning Service code to approximately 100 m root-mean squared (RMS). With SA on and other possible errors included, users may know their location to within a few hundred meters. While this accuracy is good for many applications, it is too inaccurate for others

  10. Towards automatic exchange of information

    OpenAIRE

    Oberson, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the various steps that led towards automatic exchange of information as the global standard and the issues that remain to be solved. First, the various competing models of exchange information, such as Double Tax Treaty (DTT), TIEA's, FATCA or UE Directives are described with a view to show how they interact between themselves. Second, the so-called Rubik Strategy is summarized and compared with an automatic exchange of information (AEOI). The third part then describes ...

  11. Global Positioning System data collection, processing, and analysis conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jessica R.; Svarc, Jerry L.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Science Center collects and processes Global Positioning System (GPS) data throughout the western United States to measure crustal deformation related to earthquakes and tectonic processes as part of a long‐term program of research and monitoring. Here, we outline data collection procedures and present the GPS dataset built through repeated temporary deployments since 1992. This dataset consists of observations at ∼1950 locations. In addition, this article details our data processing and analysis procedures, which consist of the following. We process the raw data collected through temporary deployments, in addition to data from continuously operating western U.S. GPS stations operated by multiple agencies, using the GIPSY software package to obtain position time series. Subsequently, we align the positions to a common reference frame, determine the optimal parameters for a temporally correlated noise model, and apply this noise model when carrying out time‐series analysis to derive deformation measures, including constant interseismic velocities, coseismic offsets, and transient postseismic motion.

  12. Radiological walkover survey at the site of the world's first nuclear reactor using the NAVSTAR global positioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, J.; Barry, C.; Efird, C.

    1994-01-01

    A radiological walkover survey was conducted by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) in the spring of 1994 at Site A, the site of the world's first nuclear reactor pilot plant facility. The objective of this survey was to provide comprehensive information regarding surface radiation levels to support identification and documentation of unknown contaminated areas and selection of future sample locations, and provide information for health and safety coverage during field investigations. The technique used represented a new application integrating the radiation measuring instrumentation with the global positioning system (GPS) in real-time differential mode. The integrated mapping and radiation survey system (MARSS) developed by J.S. Bland Associates, Inc. (JSB) simultaneously recorded direct radiation, exposure rate, and position data. Site A is in the Palos Forest Preserve, about 20 miles southwest of downtown Chicago, Illinois. The topography of the site is relatively flat (usually less than 5 % grade), with a maximum grade of 10%. Prior to the survey, the site was staked on 100-ft. centers and roughly 75% of the site was cleared of dense vegetation including trees less than 6 in. in diameter. The survey covered approximately 2 acres each day, including background determinations, source checks, calibrations, and downloading of integrated position data and radiological measurements

  13. Supine Versus Prone Position During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Report from the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Global Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Vadivia, José; M. Scarpa, Roberto; Duvdevani, Mordechai

    2011-01-01

    To determine differences in patients' characteristics, operative time and procedures, and perioperative outcomes between prone and supine positioning in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) using the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) PCNL Global Study database....

  14. An integer ambiguity resolution method for the global positioning system (GPS)-based land vehicle attitude determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bo; Miao, Lingjuan; Wang, Shunting; Shen, Jun

    2009-01-01

    During attitude determination using a global positioning system (GPS), cycle slips occur due to the loss of lock and noise disturbance. Therefore, the integer ambiguity needs re-computation to isolate the error in carrier phase. This paper presents a fast method for integer ambiguity resolution for land vehicle application. After the cycle slips are detected, the velocity vector is utilized to obtain the rough baseline vector. The obtained baseline vector is substituted into carrier phase observation equations to solve the float ambiguity solution which can be used as a constraint to accelerate the integer ambiguity search procedure at next epochs. The probability of correct integer estimation in the expanded search space is analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a fast approach to obtain new fixed ambiguities while the regular method takes longer time and sometimes results in incorrect solutions

  15. A motion-based integer ambiguity resolution method for attitude determination using the global positioning system (GPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bo; Deng, Zhihong; Wang, Shunting; Fu, Mengyin

    2010-01-01

    Loss of the satellite signal and noise disturbance will cause cycle slips to occur in the carrier phase observation of the attitude determination system using the global positioning system (GPS), especially in the dynamic situation. Therefore, in order to reject the error by cycle slips, the integer ambiguity should be re-computed. A motion model-based Kalman predictor is used for the ambiguity re-computation in dynamic applications. This method utilizes the correct observation of the last step to predict the current ambiguities. With the baseline length as a constraint to reject invalid values, we can solve the current integer ambiguity and the attitude angles, by substituting the obtained ambiguities into the constrained LAMBDA method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more efficient in the dynamic situation, which takes less time to obtain new fixed ambiguities with a higher mean success rate

  16. A pilot study using global positioning systems (GPS) devices and surveys to ascertain older adults' travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Irene H; Leung, Cindy W; Lan, Mars; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Kayekjian, Karen C; Duru, O Kenrik

    2015-04-01

    Some studies indicate that older adults lead active lives and travel to many destinations including those not in their immediate residential neighborhoods. We used global positioning system (GPS) devices to track the travel patterns of 40 older adults (mean age: 69) in San Francisco and Los Angeles. Study participants wore the GPS devices for 7 days in fall 2010 and winter 2011. We collected survey responses concurrently about travel patterns. GPS data showed a mean of four trips/day, and a mean trip distance of 7.6 km. Survey data indicated that older adults commonly made trips for four activities (e.g., volunteering, work, visiting friends) at least once each week. Older adults regularly travel outside their residential neighborhoods. GPS can document the mode of travel, the path of travel, and the destinations. Surveys can document the purpose of the travel and the impressions or experiences in the specific locations. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Maintenance of time and frequency in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Deep Space Network using the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, P. A.; Borutzki, S. E.; Kirk, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA, must maintain time and frequency within specified limits in order to accurately track the spacecraft engaged in deep space exploration. Various methods are used to coordinate the clocks among the three tracking complexes. These methods include Loran-C, TV Line 10, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Calculations are made to obtain frequency offsets and Allan variances. These data are analyzed and used to monitor the performance of the hydrogen masers that provide the reference frequencies for the DSN Frequency and Timing System (DFT). Areas of discussion are: (1) a brief history of the GPS timing receivers in the DSN, (2) a description of the data and information flow, (3) data on the performance of the DSN master clocks and GPS measurement system, and (4) a description of hydrogen maser frequency steering using these data.

  18. Assistive technology and people: a position paper from the first global research, innovation and education on assistive technology (GREAT) summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Deirdre; Layton, Natasha; Bentley, Jacob; Boot, Fleur Heleen; Borg, Johan; Dhungana, Bishnu Maya; Gallagher, Pamela; Gitlow, Lynn; Gowran, Rosemary Joan; Groce, Nora; Mavrou, Katerina; Mackeogh, Trish; McDonald, Rachael; Pettersson, Cecilia; Scherer, Marcia

    2018-05-17

    Assistive technology (AT) is a powerful enabler of participation. The World Health Organization's Global Collaboration on Assistive Technology (GATE) programme is actively working towards access to assistive technology for all. Developed through collaborative work as a part of the Global Research, Innovation and Education on Assistive Technology (GREAT) Summit, this position paper provides a "state of the science" view of AT users, conceptualized as "People" within the set of GATE strategic "P"s. People are at the core of policy, products, personnel and provision. AT is an interface between the person and the life they would like to lead. People's preferences, perspectives and goals are fundamental to defining and determining the success of AT. Maximizing the impact of AT in enabling participation requires an individualized and holistic understanding of the value and meaning of AT for the individual, taking a universal model perspective, focusing on the person, in context, and then considering the condition and/or the technology. This paper aims to situate and emphasize people at the centre of AT systems: we highlight personal meanings and perspectives on AT use and consider the role of advocacy, empowerment and co-design in developing and driving AT processes.

  19. Inequalities in Global Trade: A Cross-Country Comparison of Trade Network Position, Economic Wealth, Pollution and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Christina; Sun, Laixiang; Feng, Kuishuang; Myroniuk, Tyler W

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how structural patterns of international trade give rise to emissions inequalities across countries, and how such inequality in turn impact countries' mortality rates. We employ Multi-regional Input-Output analysis to distinguish between sulfur-dioxide (SO2) emissions produced within a country's boarders (production-based emissions) and emissions triggered by consumption in other countries (consumption-based emissions). We use social network analysis to capture countries' level of integration within the global trade network. We then apply the Prais-Winsten panel estimation technique to a panel data set across 172 countries over 20 years (1990-2010) to estimate the relationships between countries' level of integration and SO2 emissions, and the impact of trade integration and SO2 emission on mortality rates. Our findings suggest a positive, (log-) linear relationship between a country's level of integration and both kinds of emissions. In addition, although more integrated countries are mainly responsible for both forms of emissions, our findings indicate that they also tend to experience lower mortality rates. Our approach offers a unique combination of social network analysis with multiregional input-output analysis, which better operationalizes intuitive concepts about global trade and trade structure.

  20. The interchangeability of global positioning system and semiautomated video-based performance data during elite soccer match play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Jamie A; Lovell, Ric J; Barnes, Christopher A; Portas, Matthew D; Weston, Matthew

    2011-08-01

    In elite-level soccer, player motion characteristics are commonly generated from match play and training situations using semiautomated video analysis systems and global positioning system (GPS) technology, respectively. Before such data are used collectively to quantify global player load, it is necessary to understand both the level of agreement and direction of bias between the systems so that specific interventions can be made based on the reported results. The aim of this report was to compare data derived from both systems for physical match performances. Six elite-level soccer players were analyzed during a competitive match using semiautomated video analysis (ProZone® [PZ]) and GPS (MinimaxX) simultaneously. Total distances (TDs), high speed running (HSR), very high speed running (VHSR), sprinting distance (SPR), and high-intensity running distance (HIR; >4.0 m·s(-1)) were reported in 15-minute match periods. The GPS reported higher values than PZ did for TD (GPS: 1,755.4 ± 245.4 m; PZ: 1,631.3 ± 239.5 m; p < 0.05); PZ reported higher values for SPR and HIR than GPS did (SPR: PZ, 34.1 ± 24.0 m; GPS: 20.3 ± 15.8 m; HIR: PZ, 368.1 ± 129.8 m; GPS: 317.0 ± 92.5 m; p < 0.05). Caution should be exercised when using match-load (PZ) and training-load (GPS) data interchangeably.

  1. Inequalities in Global Trade: A Cross-Country Comparison of Trade Network Position, Economic Wealth, Pollution and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Christina; Sun, Laixiang; Feng, Kuishuang; Myroniuk, Tyler W.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how structural patterns of international trade give rise to emissions inequalities across countries, and how such inequality in turn impact countries’ mortality rates. We employ Multi-regional Input-Output analysis to distinguish between sulfur-dioxide (SO2) emissions produced within a country’s boarders (production-based emissions) and emissions triggered by consumption in other countries (consumption-based emissions). We use social network analysis to capture countries’ level of integration within the global trade network. We then apply the Prais-Winsten panel estimation technique to a panel data set across 172 countries over 20 years (1990–2010) to estimate the relationships between countries’ level of integration and SO2 emissions, and the impact of trade integration and SO2 emission on mortality rates. Our findings suggest a positive, (log-) linear relationship between a country’s level of integration and both kinds of emissions. In addition, although more integrated countries are mainly responsible for both forms of emissions, our findings indicate that they also tend to experience lower mortality rates. Our approach offers a unique combination of social network analysis with multiregional input-output analysis, which better operationalizes intuitive concepts about global trade and trade structure. PMID:26642202

  2. Estimating the position and orientation of a mobile robot with respect to a trajectory using omnidirectional imaging and global appearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Payá

    Full Text Available Along the past years, mobile robots have proliferated both in domestic and in industrial environments to solve some tasks such as cleaning, assistance, or material transportation. One of their advantages is the ability to operate in wide areas without the necessity of introducing changes into the existing infrastructure. Thanks to the sensors they may be equipped with and their processing systems, mobile robots constitute a versatile alternative to solve a wide range of applications. When designing the control system of a mobile robot so that it carries out a task autonomously in an unknown environment, it is expected to take decisions about its localization in the environment and about the trajectory that it has to follow in order to arrive to the target points. More concisely, the robot has to find a relatively good solution to two crucial problems: building a model of the environment, and estimating the position of the robot within this model. In this work, we propose a framework to solve these problems using only visual information. The mobile robot is equipped with a catadioptric vision sensor that provides omnidirectional images from the environment. First, the robot goes along the trajectories to include in the model and uses the visual information captured to build this model. After that, the robot is able to estimate its position and orientation with respect to the trajectory. Among the possible approaches to solve these problems, global appearance techniques are used in this work. They have emerged recently as a robust and efficient alternative compared to landmark extraction techniques. A global description method based on Radon Transform is used to design mapping and localization algorithms and a set of images captured by a mobile robot in a real environment, under realistic operation conditions, is used to test the performance of these algorithms.

  3. Algorithms for Global Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Kai; Strang, Gilbert

    and replaces the authors' previous work, Linear Algebra, Geodesy, and GPS (1997). An initial discussion of the basic concepts, characteristics and technical aspects of different satellite systems is followed by the necessary mathematical content which is presented in a detailed and self-contained fashion...

  4. A Flexible Binding Site Architecture Provides New Insights into CcpA Global Regulation in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catabolite control protein A (CcpA is the master regulator in Gram-positive bacteria that mediates carbon catabolite repression (CCR and carbon catabolite activation (CCA, two fundamental regulatory mechanisms that enable competitive advantages in carbon catabolism. It is generally regarded that CcpA exerts its regulatory role by binding to a typical 14- to 16-nucleotide (nt consensus site that is called a catabolite response element (cre within the target regions. However, here we report a previously unknown noncanonical flexible architecture of the CcpA-binding site in solventogenic clostridia, providing new mechanistic insights into catabolite regulation. This novel CcpA-binding site, named crevar, has a unique architecture that consists of two inverted repeats and an intervening spacer, all of which are variable in nucleotide composition and length, except for a 6-bp core palindromic sequence (TGTAAA/TTTACA. It was found that the length of the intervening spacer of crevar can affect CcpA binding affinity, and moreover, the core palindromic sequence of crevar is the key structure for regulation. Such a variable architecture of crevar shows potential importance for CcpA’s diverse and fine regulation. A total of 103 potential crevar sites were discovered in solventogenic Clostridium acetobutylicum, of which 42 sites were picked out for electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs, and 30 sites were confirmed to be bound by CcpA. These 30 crevar sites are associated with 27 genes involved in many important pathways. Also of significance, the crevar sites are found to be widespread and function in a great number of taxonomically different Gram-positive bacteria, including pathogens, suggesting their global role in Gram-positive bacteria.

  5. Succinate production positively correlates with the affinity of the global transcription factor Cra for its effector FBP in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li-Na; Zhu, Li-Wen; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Effector binding is important for transcription factors, affecting both the pattern and function of transcriptional regulation to alter cell phenotype. Our previous work suggested that the affinity of the global transcription factor catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) for its effector fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) may contribute to succinate biosynthesis. To support this hypothesis, single-point and three-point mutations were proposed through the semi-rational design of Cra to improve its affinity for FBP. For the first time, a positive correlation between succinate production and the affinity of Cra for FBP was revealed in Escherichia coli . Using the best-fit regression function, a cubic equation was used to examine and describe the relationship between succinate production and the affinity of Cra for FBP, demonstrating a significant positive correlation between the two factors (coefficient of determination R 2  = 0.894, P  = 0.000 Cra and DNA showed that Cra bound to the promoter regions of pck and aceB to activate the corresponding genes. Normally, Cra-regulated operons under positive control are deactivated in the presence of FBP. Therefore, theoretically, the enhanced affinity of Cra for FBP will inhibit the activation of pck and aceB . However, the activation of genes involved in CO 2 fixation and the glyoxylate pathway was further improved by the Cra mutant, ultimately contributing to succinate biosynthesis. Enhanced binding of Cra to FBP or active site mutations may eliminate the repressive effect caused by FBP, thus leading to increased activation of genes associated with succinate biosynthesis in the Cra mutant. This work demonstrates an important transcriptional regulation strategy in the metabolic engineering of succinate production and provides useful information for better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of transcription factors.

  6. Thermal Band Atmospheric Correction Using Atmospheric Profiles Derived from Global Positioning System Radio Occultation and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Stewart, Randy; Vaughan, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    This Rapid Prototyping Capability study explores the potential to use atmospheric profiles derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation measurements and by AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) onboard the Aqua satellite to improve surface temperature retrieval from remotely sensed thermal imagery. This study demonstrates an example of a cross-cutting decision support technology whereby NASA data or models are shown to improve a wide number of observation systems or models. The ability to use one data source to improve others will be critical to the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) where a large number of potentially useful systems will require auxiliary datasets as input for decision support. Atmospheric correction of thermal imagery decouples TOA radiance and separates surface emission from atmospheric emission and absorption. Surface temperature can then be estimated from the surface emission with knowledge of its emissivity. Traditionally, radiosonde sounders or atmospheric models based on radiosonde sounders, such as the NOAA (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) ARL (Air Resources Laboratory) READY (Real-time Environmental Application and Display sYstem), provide the atmospheric profiles required to perform atmospheric correction. Unfortunately, these types of data are too spatially sparse and too infrequently taken. The advent of high accuracy, global coverage, atmospheric data using GPS radio occultation and AIRS may provide a new avenue for filling data input gaps. In this study, AIRS and GPS radio occultation derived atmospheric profiles from the German Aerospace Center CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload), the Argentinean Commission on Space Activities SAC-C (Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C), and the pair of NASA GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are used as input data in atmospheric radiative transport modeling based on the MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric

  7. Performances of different global positioning system devices for time-location tracking in air pollution epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Jiang, Chengsheng; Liu, Zhen; Houston, Douglas; Jaimes, Guillermo; McConnell, Rob

    2010-11-23

    People's time-location patterns are important in air pollution exposure assessment because pollution levels may vary considerably by location. A growing number of studies are using global positioning systems (GPS) to track people's time-location patterns. Many portable GPS units that archive location are commercially available at a cost that makes their use feasible for epidemiological studies. We evaluated the performance of five portable GPS data loggers and two GPS cell phones by examining positional accuracy in typical locations (indoor, outdoor, in-vehicle) and factors that influence satellite reception (building material, building type), acquisition time (cold and warm start), battery life, and adequacy of memory for data storage. We examined stationary locations (eg, indoor, outdoor) and mobile environments (eg, walking, traveling by vehicle or bus) and compared GPS locations to highly-resolved US Geological Survey (USGS) and Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quadrangle (DOQQ) maps. The battery life of our tested instruments ranged from acquisition of location time after startup ranged from a few seconds to >20 minutes and varied significantly by building structure type and by cold or warm start. No GPS device was found to have consistently superior performance with regard to spatial accuracy and signal loss. At fixed outdoor locations, 65%-95% of GPS points fell within 20-m of the corresponding DOQQ locations for all the devices. At fixed indoor locations, 50%-80% of GPS points fell within 20-m of the corresponding DOQQ locations for all the devices except one. Most of the GPS devices performed well during commuting on a freeway, with >80% of points within 10-m of the DOQQ route, but the performance was significantly impacted by surrounding structures on surface streets in highly urbanized areas. All the tested GPS devices had limitations, but we identified several devices which showed promising performance for tracking subjects' time location patterns in

  8. Comparison of bottom-track to global positioning system referenced discharges measured using an acoustic Doppler current profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Chad R.; Mueller, David S.

    2011-01-01

    A negative bias in discharge measurements made with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) can be caused by the movement of sediment on or near the streambed. The integration of a global positioning system (GPS) to track the movement of the ADCP can be used to avoid the systematic negative bias associated with a moving streambed. More than 500 discharge transects from 63 discharge measurements with GPS data were collected at sites throughout the US, Canada, and New Zealand with no moving bed to compare GPS and bottom-track-referenced discharges. Although the data indicated some statistical bias depending on site conditions and type of GPS data used, these biases were typically about 0.5% or less. An assessment of differential correction sources was limited by a lack of data collected in a range of different correction sources and different GPS receivers at the same sites. Despite this limitation, the data indicate that the use of Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) corrected positional data is acceptable for discharge measurements using GGA as the boat-velocity reference. The discharge data based on GPS-referenced boat velocities from the VTG data string, which does not require differential correction, were comparable to the discharges based on GPS-referenced boat velocities from the differentially-corrected GGA data string. Spatial variability of measure discharges referenced to GGA, VTG and bottom-tracking is higher near the channel banks. The spatial variability of VTG-referenced discharges is correlated with the spatial distribution of maximum Horizontal Dilution of Precision (HDOP) values and the spatial variability of GGA-referenced discharges is correlated with proximity to channel banks.

  9. CytR Is a Global Positive Regulator of Competence, Type VI Secretion, and Chitinases in Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samit S Watve

    Full Text Available The facultative pathogen Vibrio cholerae transitions between its human host and aquatic reservoirs where it colonizes chitinous surfaces. Growth on chitin induces expression of chitin utilization genes, genes involved in DNA uptake by natural transformation, and a type VI secretion system that allows contact-dependent killing of neighboring bacteria. We have previously shown that the transcription factor CytR, thought to primarily regulate the pyrimidine nucleoside scavenging response, is required for natural competence in V. cholerae. Through high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq, we show that CytR positively regulates the majority of competence genes, the three type VI secretion operons, and the four known or predicted chitinases. We used transcriptional reporters and phenotypic analysis to determine the individual contributions of quorum sensing, which is controlled by the transcription factors HapR and QstR; chitin utilization that is mediated by TfoX; and pyrimidine starvation that is orchestrated by CytR, toward each of these processes. We find that in V. cholerae, CytR is a global regulator of multiple behaviors affecting fitness and adaptability in the environment.

  10. Analysis of Radiosonde Daily Bias by Comparing Precipitable Water Vapor Obtained from Global Positioning System and Radiosonde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Geun Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the precipitable water vapor (PWV data derived from the radiosonde observation data at Sokcho Observatory and the PWV data at Sokcho Global Positioning System (GPS Observatory provided by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, from 0000 UTC, June 1, 2007 to 1200 UTC, May 31, 2009, and analyzed the radiosonde bias between the day and the night. In the scatter diagram of the daytime and nighttime radiosonde PWV data and the GPS PWV data, dry bias was found in the daytime radiosonde observation as known in the previous study. In addition, for all the rainfall events, the tendency that the wet bias of the radiosonde PWV increased as the GPS PWV decreased and the dry bias of the radiosonde PWV increased as the GPS PWV increased was significantly less distinctive in nighttime than in daytime. The quantitative analysis of the bias and error of the radiosonde PWV data showed that the mean bias decreased in the second year, regardless of nighttime or daytime rainfall, and the non-rainfall root mean square error (RMSE was similar to that of the previous studies, while the rainfall RMSE was larger to a certain extent.

  11. Enhanced 911/global position system wizard: a telemedicine application for the prevention of severe hypoglycemia--monitor, alert, and locate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassau, Eyal; Jovanovic, Lois; Doyle, Francis J; Zisser, Howard C

    2009-11-01

    Intensive insulin therapy has an inherent risk of hypoglycemia that can lead to loss of consciousness, cardiac arrhythmia, seizure, and death ("dead-in-bed syndrome"). This risk of hypoglycemia is a major concern for patients, families, and physicians. The need for an automated system that can alert in the event of severe hypoglycemia is evident. In engineering systems, where there is a risk of malfunction of the primary control system, alert and safety mechanisms are implemented in layers of protection. This concept has been adopted in the proposed system that integrates a hypoglycemia prediction algorithm with a global position system (GPS) locator and short message service such that the current glucose value with the rate of change (ROC) and the location of the subject can be communicated to a predefined list. Furthermore, if the system is linked to the insulin pump, it can suspend the pump or decrease the basal insulin infusion rate to prevent the pending event. The system was evaluated on clinical datasets of glucose tracings from the DexCom Seven system. Glucose tracings were analyzed for hypoglycemia events and then a text message was broadcast to a predefined list of people who were notified with the glucose value, ROC, GPS coordinates, and a Google map of the location. In addition to providing a safety layer to a future artificial pancreas, this system also can be easily implemented in current continuous glucose monitors to help provide information and alerts to people with diabetes.

  12. Ground penetrating radar and differential global positioning system data collected in April 2016 from Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Arnell S.; Bernier, Julie C.; Miselis, Jennifer L.

    2018-02-22

    Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a long-term coastal morphologic-change study at Fire Island, New York, prior to and after Hurricane Sandy impacted the area in October 2012. The Fire Island Coastal Change project objectives include understanding the morphologic evolution of the barrier island system on a variety of time scales (months to centuries) and resolving storm-related impacts, post-storm beach response, and recovery. In April 2016, scientists from the USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted geophysical and sediment sampling surveys on Fire Island to characterize and quantify spatial variability in the subaerial geology with the goal of subsequently integrating onshore geology with other surf zone and nearshore datasets.  This report, along with the associated USGS data release, serves as an archive of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and post-processed differential global positioning system (DGPS) data collected from beach and back-barrier environments on Fire Island, April 6–13, 2016 (USGS Field Activity Number 2016-322-FA). Data products, including unprocessed GPR trace data, processed DGPS data, elevation-corrected subsurface profile images, geographic information system files, and accompanying Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata are available for download.

  13. Results of using the global positioning system to maintain the time and frequency synchronization in the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, P. A.; Kirk, A.; Unglaub, R.

    1987-01-01

    There are two hydrogen maser clocks located at each signal processing center (SPC) in the DSN. Close coordination of the time and frequency of the SPC clocks is needed to navigate spacecraft to the outer planets. A recent example was the Voyager spacecraft's encounter with Uranus in January 1986. The clocks were adjusted with the goal of minimizing time and frequency offsets between the SPCs at encounter. How time and frequency at each SPC is estimated using data acquired from the Global Positioning System Timing Receivers operating on the NBS-BIH (National Bureau of Standards-Bureau International de l'Heure) tracking schedule is described. These data are combined with other available timing receiver data to calculate the time offset estimates. The adjustment of the clocks is described. It was determined that long range hydrogen maser drift is quite predictable and adjustable within limits. This enables one to minimize time and frequency differences between the three SPCs for many months by matching the drift rates of the three standards. Data acquisition and processing techniques using a Kalman filter to make estimates of time and frequency offsets between the clocks at the SPCs and UTC(NBS) (Coordinated Universal Time realized at NBS) are described.

  14. Physical activity measured using global positioning system tracking in non-small cell lung cancer: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Catherine L; Denehy, Linda; McDonald, Christine F; Irving, Louis; Clark, Ross A

    2014-11-01

    Increasingly physical activity (PA) is being recognized as an important outcome in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated PA using novel global positioning system (GPS) tracking individuals with NSCLC and a group of similar-aged healthy individuals. A prospective cross-sectional multicenter study. Fifty individuals with NSCLC from 3 Australian tertiary hospitals and 35 similar-aged healthy individuals without cancer were included. Individuals with NSCLC were assessed pretreatment. Primary measures were triaxial accelerometery (steps/day) and GPS tracking (outdoor PA behavior). Secondary measures were questionnaires assessing depression, motivation to exercise, and environmental barriers to PA. Between-group comparisons were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Individuals with NSCLC engaged in significantly less PA than similar-aged healthy individuals (mean difference 2363 steps/day, P = .007) and had higher levels of depression (P = .027) and lower motivation to exercise (P = .001). Daily outdoor walking time (P = .874) and distance travelled away from home (P = .883) were not different between groups. Individuals with NSCLC spent less time outdoors in their local neighborhood area (P system tracking appears to be a feasible methodology for adult cancer patients and holds promise for use in future studies investigating PA and or lifestyle behaviors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Comparison of mapped and measured total ionospheric electron content using global positioning system and beacon satellite observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanyi, G.E.; Roth, T.

    1988-01-01

    Total ionospheric electron contents (TEC) were measured by global positioning system (GPS) dual-frequency receivers developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The measurements included P-code (precise ranging code) and carrier phase data for six GPS satellites during multiple five-hour observing sessions. A set of these GPS TEC measurements were mapped from the GPS lines of sight to the line of sight of a Faraday beacon satellite by statistically fitting the TEC data to a simple model of the ionosphere. The mapped GPS TEC values were compared with the Faraday rotation measurements. Because GPS transmitter offsets are different for each satellite and because some GPS receiver offsets were uncalibrated, the sums of the satellite and receiver offsets were estimated simultaneously with the TEC in a least squares procedure. The accuracy of this estimation procedure is evaluated indicating that the error of the GPS-determined line of sight TEC can be at or below 1 x 10 to the 16th el/sq cm. Consequently, the current level of accuracy is comparable to the Faraday rotation technique; however, GPS provides superior sky coverage. 15 references

  16. Comprehensive Comparisons of Satellite Data, Signals, and Measurements between the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and the Global Positioning System †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Tao, An-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) aims to provide global positioning service by 2020. The combined use of BDS and Global Positioning System (GPS) is proposed to provide navigation service with more stringent requirements. Actual satellite data, signals and measurements were collected for more than one month to analyze the positioning service qualities from both BDS and GPS. In addition to the conversions of coordinate and timing system, five data quality analysis (DQA) methods, three signal quality analysis (SQA) methods, and four measurement quality analysis (MQA) methods are proposed in this paper to improve the integrated positioning performance of BDS and GPS. As shown in the experiment results, issues related to BDS and GPS are resolved by the above proposed quality analysis methods. Thus, the anomalies in satellite data, signals and measurements can be detected by following the suggested resolutions to enhance the positioning performance of the combined use of BDS and GPS in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:27187403

  17. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section 23...: Installation § 23.1329 Automatic pilot system. If an automatic pilot system is installed, it must meet the following: (a) Each system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be quickly and positively...

  18. Automatic analysis of intrinsic positional verification films brachytherapy using MATLAB; Analisis automatico de peliculas de verificacion posicional intrinsica en braqueterapia mediante MATLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros Higueras, J. D.; Marco Blancas, N. de; Ruiz Rodriguez, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    One of the essential tests in quality control of brachytherapy equipment is verification auto load intrinsic positional radioactive source. A classic method for evaluation is the use of x-ray film and measuring the distance between the marks left by autoradiography of the source with respect to a reference. In our center has developed an automated method of measurement by the radiochromic film scanning and implementation of a macro developed in Matlab, in order to optimize time and reduce uncertainty in the measurement. The purpose of this paper is to describe the method developed, assess their uncertainty and quantify their advantages over the manual method. (Author)

  19. On Fast Post-Processing of Global Positioning System Simulator Truth Data and Receiver Measurements and Solutions Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Post-Processing of data related to a Global Positioning System (GPS) simulation is an important activity in qualification of a GPS receiver for space flight. Because a GPS simulator is a critical resource it is desirable to move off the pertinent simulation data from the simulator as soon as a test is completed. The simulator data files are usually moved to a Personal Computer (PC), where the post-processing of the receiver logged measurements and solutions data and simulated data is performed. Typically post-processing is accomplished using PC-based commercial software languages and tools. Because of commercial software systems generality their general-purpose functions are notoriously slow and more than often are the bottleneck problem even for short duration experiments. For example, it may take 8 hours to post-process data from a 6-hour simulation. There is a need to do post-processing faster, especially in order to use the previous test results as feedback for a next simulation setup. This paper demonstrates that a fast software linear interpolation algorithm is applicable to a large class of engineering problems, like GPS simulation data post-processing, where computational time is a critical resource and is one of the most important considerations. An approach is developed that allows to speed-up post-processing by an order of magnitude. It is based on improving the post-processing bottleneck interpolation algorithm using apriori information that is specific to the GPS simulation application. The presented post-processing scheme was used in support of a few successful space flight missions carrying GPS receivers. A future approach to solving the post-processing performance problem using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology is described.

  20. A new analytical method for the classification of time-location data obtained from the global positioning system (GPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Kiyoung; Yang, Wonho; Yu, Seung Do

    2012-08-01

    Although the global positioning system (GPS) has been suggested as an alternative way to determine time-location patterns, its use has been limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new analytical method of classifying time-location data obtained by GPS. A field technician carried a GPS device while simulating various scripted activities and recorded all movements by the second in an activity diary. The GPS device recorded geological data once every 15 s. The daily monitoring was repeated 18 times. The time-location data obtained by the GPS were compared with the activity diary to determine selection criteria for the classification of the GPS data. The GPS data were classified into four microenvironments (residential indoors, other indoors, transit, and walking outdoors); the selection criteria used were used number of satellites (used-NSAT), speed, and distance from residence. The GPS data were classified as indoors when the used-NSAT was below 9. Data classified as indoors were further classified as residential indoors when the distance from the residence was less than 40 m; otherwise, they were classified as other indoors. Data classified as outdoors were further classified as being in transit when the speed exceeded 2.5 m s(-1); otherwise, they were classified as walking outdoors. The average simple percentage agreement between the time-location classifications and the activity diary was 84.3 ± 12.4%, and the kappa coefficient was 0.71. The average differences between the time diary and the GPS results were 1.6 ± 2.3 h for the time spent in residential indoors, 0.9 ± 1.7 h for the time spent in other indoors, 0.4 ± 0.4 h for the time spent in transit, and 0.8 ± 0.5 h for the time spent walking outdoors. This method can be used to determine time-activity patterns in exposure-science studies.

  1. Comparison of global positioning system (GPS) tracking and parent-report diaries to characterize children's time-location patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgethun, Kai; Yost, Michael G; Fitzpatrick, Cole T E; Nyerges, Timothy L; Fenske, Richard A

    2007-03-01

    Respondent error, low resolution, and study participant burden are known limitations of diary timelines used in exposure studies such as the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS). Recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology have produced tracking devices sufficiently portable, functional and affordable to utilize in exposure assessment science. In this study, a differentially corrected GPS (dGPS) tracking device was compared to the NHEXAS diary timeline. The study also explored how GPS can be used to evaluate and improve such diary timelines by determining which location categories and which respondents are least likely to record "correct" time-location responses. A total of 31 children ages 3-5 years old wore a dGPS device for all waking hours on a weekend day while their parents completed the NHEXAS diary timeline to document the child's time-location pattern. Parents misclassified child time-location approximately 48% of the time using the NHEXAS timeline in comparison to dGPS. Overall concordance between methods was marginal (kappa=0.33-0.35). The dGPS device found that on average, children spent 76% of the 24-h study period in the home. The diary underestimated time the child spent in the home by 17%, while overestimating time spent inside other locations, outside at home, outside in other locations, and time spent in transit. Diary data for time spent outside at home and time in transit had the lowest response concordance with dGPS. The diaries of stay-at-home mothers and mothers working unskilled labor jobs had lower concordance with dGPS than did those of the other participants. The ability of dGPS tracking to collect continuous rather than categorical (ordinal) data was also demonstrated. It is concluded that automated GPS tracking measurements can improve the quality and collection efficiency of time-location data in exposure assessment studies, albeit for small cohorts.

  2. Combined ecological momentary assessment and global positioning system tracking to assess smoking behavior: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T; Schick, Robert S; Hallyburton, Matt; Dennis, Michelle F; Kollins, Scott H; Beckham, Jean C; McClernon, F Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods have provided a rich assessment of the contextual factors associated with a wide range of behaviors including alcohol use, eating, physical activity, and smoking. Despite this rich database, this information has not been linked to specific locations in space. Such location information, which can now be easily acquired from global positioning system (GPS) tracking devices, could provide unique information regarding the space-time distribution of behaviors and new insights into their determinants. In a proof of concept study, we assessed the acceptability and feasibility of acquiring and combining EMA and GPS data from adult smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were adults with ADHD who were enrolled in a larger EMA study on smoking and psychiatric symptoms. Among those enrolled in the latter study who were approached to participate (N = 11), 10 consented, provided daily EMA entries, and carried a GPS device with them during a 7-day assessment period to assess aspects of their smoking behavior. The majority of those eligible to participate were willing to carry a GPS device and signed the consent (10 out of 11, 91%). Of the 10 who consented, 7 participants provided EMA entries and carried the GPS device with them daily for at least 70% of the sampling period. Data are presented on the spatial distribution of smoking episodes and ADHD symptoms on a subset of the sample to demonstrate applications of GPS data. We conclude by discussing how EMA and GPS might be used to study the ecology of smoking and make recommendations for future research and analysis.

  3. An Assessment of Positive Organizational Behavior in Service Sector of Pakistan: Role of Organization Based Self-Esteem and Global Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Wafa Khurram; Kamariah Bte Ismail; Syed Khurram Ali Jafri; Khairiah Soehod

    2013-01-01

    This study is an attempt to investigate prevalence of positive organizational behavior in the organizations in the service sector of Pakistan. We tested effects of organization based self-esteem, role stressors (role conflict, role overload and role ambiguity), leader-member exchange and perceived organizational support on positive organizational behavior as well as mediation of organization-based-self-esteem in this regard. Moreover, moderation of global self-esteem was also estimated in rel...

  4. Automatic affective-motivational regulation processes underlying supportive dyadic coping: the role of increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals in response to a stressed relationship partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koranyi, Nicolas; Hilpert, Peter; Job, Veronika; Bodenmann, Guy

    2017-09-01

    We examined the implicit affective mechanisms underlying provision of support in intimate dyads. Specifically, we hypothesized that in individuals with high relationship satisfaction, the perception that one's partner is stressed leads to increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals. In turn, this change in implicit attitudes facilitates supportive behavior. In two studies, we induced partner stress by instructing participants to either recall a situation where their partner was highly stressed (Study 1; N = 47 university students) or imagine a specific stressful event (excessive workload; Study 2; N = 85 university students). Subsequently, implicit attitudes toward communal goals were assessed with an Implicit Association Test. In both studies, we found that among participants with high relationship satisfaction partner stress increases preferences for communal goals. In addition, implicit preferences for communal goals predicted stronger inclinations to engage in supportive dyadic coping (Study 2). The current findings provide important insights into the implicit cognitive-affective mechanics of dyadic coping. Moreover, they can explain how people manage to avoid experiencing motivational conflicts between partner-oriented and self-oriented goals in situations characterized by high partner stress.

  5. Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis of mobile harvesting equipment and sediment delivery to streams during forest harvest operations on steep terrain: Experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Bowker; Jeff Stringer; Chris Barton; Songlin Fei

    2011-01-01

    Sediment mobilized by forest harvest machine traffic contributes substantially to the degradation of headwater stream systems. This study monitored forest harvest machine traffic to analyze how it affects sediment delivery to stream channels. Harvest machines were outfitted with global positioning system (GPS) dataloggers, recording machine movements and working status...

  6. Is outdoor use of the six-minute walk test with a global positioning system in stroke patients' own neighbourhoods reproducible and valid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.E.; Kwakkel, G.; van de Port, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the reproducibility, responsiveness and concurrent validity of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) when tested outdoors in patients' own neighbourhoods using a global positioning system (GPS) or a measuring wheel. Methods: A total of 27 chronic stroke patients, discharged to their

  7. Positive affect and negative affect correlate differently with distress and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiac conditions: Validation of the Danish Global Mood Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Denollet, Johan; Kruse, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health-related qual...

  8. Existence and global attractivity of positive periodic solutions of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems with several deviating arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M; Wang, K; Jiang, D

    1999-08-01

    In this paper, we study the existence and global attractivity of positive periodic solutions of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems. By using the method of coincidence degree and Lyapunov functional, a set of easily verifiable sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of at least one strictly positive (componentwise) periodic solution of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition systems with several deviating arguments and the existence of a unique globally asymptotically stable periodic solution with strictly positive components of periodic n-species Lotka-Volterra competition system with several delays. Some new results are obtained. As an application, we also examine some special cases of the system we considered, which have been studied extensively in the literature. Some known results are improved and generalized.

  9. Examination of the Locus of Positional Effects on Children's Production of Plural -"s": Considerations from Local and Global Speech Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Rachel M.; Demuth, Katherine; Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Prosodic and articulatory factors influence children's production of inflectional morphemes. For example, plural -"s" is produced more reliably in utterance-final compared to utterance-medial position (i.e., the positional effect), which has been attributed to the increased planning time in utterance-final position. In previous…

  10. Automatic exchange unit for control rod drive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Seiji; Sasaki, Masayoshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic reoperation and continuation without external power interruption remedy device at the time of recovering the interrupted power soruce during automatic positioning operation. Constitution: In case of an automatic exchange unit for a control rod drive device of the control type for setting the deviation between the positioning target position and the present position of the device to zero, the position data of the drive device of the positioning target value of the device is automatically read, and an interlock of operation inhibit is applied to a control system until the data reading is completed and automatic operation start or restart conditions are sequentially confirmed. After the confirmation, the interlock is released to start the automatic operation or reoperation. Accordingly, the automatic operation can be safely restarted and continued. (Yoshihara, H.)

  11. Is outdoor use of the six-minute walk test with a global positioning system in stroke patients' own neighbourhoods reproducible and valid?

    OpenAIRE

    Wevers, L.E.; Kwakkel, G.; Port, van de, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the reproducibility, responsiveness and concurrent validity of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) when tested outdoors in patients' own neighbourhoods using a global positioning system (GPS) or a measuring wheel. Methods: A total of 27 chronic stroke patients, discharged to their own homes, were tested twice, within 5 consecutive days. The 6MWT was conducted using a GPS and an measuring wheel simultaneously to determine walking distance. Reproducibility was determined as te...

  12. [Development of a Computer-aided Diagnosis System to Distinguish between Benign and Malignant Mammary Tumors in Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Images: Automatic Detection of the Position with the Strongest Washout Effect in the Tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yoshiaki; Tabata, Nobuyuki; Taroura, Tomomi; Shinozaki, Kenji; Kubo, Yuichiro; Tokunaga, Eriko; Taguchi, Kenichi

    We propose a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that uses time-intensity curves to distinguish between benign and malignant mammary tumors. Many malignant tumors show a washout pattern in time-intensity curves. Therefore, we designed a program that automatically detects the position with the strongest washout effect using the technique, such as the subtraction technique, which extracts only the washout area in the tumor, and by scanning data in 2×2 pixel region of interest (ROI). Operation of this independently developed program was verified using a phantom system that simulated tumors. In three cases of malignant tumors, the washout pattern detection rate in images with manually set ROI was ≤6%, whereas the detection rate with our novel method was 100%. In one case of a benign tumor, when the same method was used, we checked that there was no washout effect and detected the persistent pattern. Thus, the distinction between benign and malignant tumors using our method was completely consistent with the pathological diagnoses made. Our novel method is therefore effective for differentiating between benign and malignant mammary tumors in dynamic magnetic resonance images.

  13. Global Positioning System : significant challenges in sustaining and upgrading widely used capabilities : report to the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), which provides positioning, navigation, and timing data to users worldwide, has become essential to U.S. national security and a key tool in an expanding array of public service and commercial applications at home...

  14. Automatic sample changers maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.A.

    1978-10-01

    This manual describes and provides trouble-shooting aids for the Automatic Sample Changer electronics on the automatic beta counting system, developed by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Group CNC-11. The output of a gas detector is shaped by a preamplifier, then is coupled to an amplifier. Amplifier output is discriminated and is the input to a scaler. An identification number is associated with each sample. At a predetermined count length, the identification number, scaler data plus other information is punched out on a data card. The next sample to be counted is automatically selected. The beta counter uses the same electronics as the prior count did, the only difference being the sample identification number and sample itself. This manual is intended as a step-by-step aid in trouble-shooting the electronics associated with positioning the sample, counting the sample, and getting the needed data punched on an 80-column data card

  15. Examination of the Locus of Positional Effects on Children's Production of Plural -s: Considerations From Local and Global Speech Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Rachel M; Demuth, Katherine; Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie

    2015-06-01

    Prosodic and articulatory factors influence children's production of inflectional morphemes. For example, plural -s is produced more reliably in utterance-final compared to utterance-medial position (i.e., the positional effect), which has been attributed to the increased planning time in utterance-final position. In previous investigations of plural -s, utterance-medial plurals were followed by a stop consonant (e.g., dogsbark), inducing high articulatory complexity. We examined whether the positional effect would be observed if the utterance-medial context were simplified to a following vowel. An elicited imitation task was used to collect productions of plural nouns from 2-year-old children. Nouns were elicited utterance-medially and utterance-finally, with the medial plural followed by either a stressed or an unstressed vowel. Acoustic analysis was used to identify evidence of morpheme production. The positional effect was absent when the morpheme was followed by a vowel (e.g., dogseat). However, it returned when the vowel-initial word contained 2 syllables (e.g., dogsarrive), suggesting that the increased processing load in the latter condition negated the facilitative effect of the easy articulatory context. Children's productions of grammatical morphemes reflect a rich interaction between emerging levels of linguistic competence, raising considerations for diagnosis and rehabilitation of language disorders.

  16. Citizen Journalism and Digital Voices: Instituting a Collaborative Process between Global Youth, Technology and Media for Positive Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Millions of youths in developing countries are described by UNICEF as "invisible and excluded." They live at the margins of society, facing challenges to their daily existence, powerless to make positive changes. But the emergence of citizen journalism and digital storytelling may offer these youths a chance to share their voices and…

  17. Georeferenced cartography dataset of the La Fossa crater fumarolic field at Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy: conversion and comparison of data from local to global positioning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Sammarco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study illustrates the procedures applied for the coordinate system conversion of the historical fumarole positions at La Fossa crater, to allow their comparison with newly acquired global positioning system (GPS data. Due to the absence of ground control points in the field and on both the old Gauss Boaga and the new UTM WGS 1984 maps, we had to model the transformation errors between the two systems using differential GPS techniques. Once corrected, the maps show a residual Easting shifting, due to erroneous georeferencing of the original base maps; this is corrected by morphological comparative methods. The good correspondence between the corrected positions of the historical data and the results of the new GPS survey that was carried out in 2009 highlights the good quality of the old surveys, although they were carried out without the use of accurate topographical instruments.

  18. Finding weak points automatically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinger, P.; Wassenberg, M.

    1999-01-01

    Operators of nuclear power stations have to carry out material tests at selected components by regular intervalls. Therefore a full automaticated test, which achieves a clearly higher reproducibility, compared to part automaticated variations, would provide a solution. In addition the full automaticated test reduces the dose of radiation for the test person. (orig.) [de

  19. 14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 29.1329 Section 29... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and positively...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 27.1329 Section 27... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and positively...

  1. Characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar and GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    The wind velocity and temperature profiles observed in the middle atmosphere (altitude: 10-100 km) show perturbations resulting from superposition of various atmospheric waves, including atmospheric gravity waves. Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in determining the general circulation in the middle atmosphere by dynamical stresses caused by gravity wave breaking. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan, as well as novel satellite data obtained from global positioning system radio occultation (GPS RO) measurements. In particular, we focus on the behavior of gravity waves in the mesosphere (50-90 km), where considerable gravity wave attenuation occurs. We also report on the global distribution of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere (10-50 km), highlighting various excitation mechanisms such as orographic effects, convection in the tropics, meteorological disturbances, the subtropical jet and the polar night jet.

  2. Assistive technology policy: a position paper from the first global research, innovation, and education on assistive technology (GREAT) summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Banes, David; Bell, Diane; Borg, Johan; Donnelly, Brian; Fembek, Michael; Ghosh, Ritu; Gowran, Rosemary Joan; Hannay, Emma; Hiscock, Diana; Hoogerwerf, Evert-Jan; Howe, Tracey; Kohler, Friedbert; Layton, Natasha; Long, Siobhán; Mannan, Hasheem; Mji, Gubela; Odera Ongolo, Thomas; Perry, Katherine; Pettersson, Cecilia; Power, Jessica; Delgado Ramos, Vinicius; Slepičková, Lenka; Smith, Emma M; Tay-Teo, Kiu; Geiser, Priscille; Hooks, Hilary

    2018-07-01

    Increased awareness, interest and use of assistive technology (AT) presents substantial opportunities for many citizens to become, or continue being, meaningful participants in society. However, there is a significant shortfall between the need for and provision of AT, and this is patterned by a range of social, demographic and structural factors. To seize the opportunity that assistive technology offers, regional, national and sub-national assistive technology policies are urgently required. This paper was developed for and through discussion at the Global Research, Innovation and Education on Assistive Technology (GREAT) Summit; organized under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Global Collaboration on Assistive Technology (GATE) program. It outlines some of the key principles that AT polices should address and recognizes that AT policy should be tailored to the realities of the contexts and resources available. AT policy should be developed as a part of the evolution of related policy across a number of different sectors and should have clear and direct links to AT as mediators and moderators for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. The consultation process, development and implementation of policy should be fully inclusive of AT users, and their representative organizations, be across the lifespan, and imbued with a strong systems-thinking ethos. Six barriers are identified which funnel and diminish access to AT and are addressed systematically within this paper. We illustrate an example of good practice through a case study of AT services in Norway, and we note the challenges experienced in less well-resourced settings. A number of economic factors relating to AT and economic arguments for promoting AT use are also discussed. To address policy-development the importance of active citizenship and advocacy, the need to find mechanisms to scale up good community practices to a higher level, and the importance of political engagement for the

  3. Automatic alignment of radionuclide images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The variability of the position, dimensions and orientation of a radionuclide image within the field of view of a gamma camera hampers attempts to analyse the image numerically. This paper describes a method of using a set of training images of a particular type, in this case right lateral brain images, to define the likely variations in the position, dimensions and orientation for that type of image and to provide alignment data for a program that automatically aligns new images of the specified type to a standard position, size and orientation. Examples are given of the use of this method on three types of radionuclide image. (author)

  4. Environmental charging of spacecraft-tests of thermal control materials for use on the global positioning system flight space vehicle. Part 2: Specimen 6 to 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Blech, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA/USAF program on the Environmental Charging of Spacecraft Surfaces consists, in part, of experimental efforts directed toward evaluating the response of materials to the environmental charged particle flux. Samples of thermal blankets of the type to be used on the Global Positioning System Flight Space Vehicles were tested to determine their response to electron flux. The primary result observed was that no discharges were obtained with the quartz-fiber-fabric-covered multilayer insulation specimen. The taped aluminized polyester grounding system used on all specimens did not appear to grossly deteriorate with time; however, the specimens require specific external pressure to maintain constant grounding system resistance.

  5. Determination of locational error associated with global positioning system (GPS) radio collars in relation to vegetation and topography in north-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-02-01

    In 1996, a study was initiated to assess seasonal habitat use and movement patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. As part of this study, the authors attempted to assess the accuracies of GPS (non-differentially corrected) positions under various vegetation canopies and terrain conditions with the use of a GPS ``test`` collar. The test collar was activated every twenty minutes to obtain a position location and continuously uplinked to Argos satellites to transfer position data files. They used a Telonics, Inc. uplink receiver to intercept the transmission and view the results of the collar in real time. They placed the collar on a stand equivalent to the neck height of an adult elk and then placed the stand within three different treatment categories: (1) topographical influence (canyon and mesa tops), (2) canopy influence (open and closed canopy), and (3) vegetation type influence (ponderosa pine and pinion pine-juniper). The collar was kept at each location for one hour (usually obtaining three fixes). In addition, the authors used a hand-held GPS to obtain a position of the test collar at the same time and location.

  6. Image matching as a data source for forest inventory - Comparison of Semi-Global Matching and Next-Generation Automatic Terrain Extraction algorithms in a typical managed boreal forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, M.; Maltamo, M.; Packalen, P.

    2017-08-01

    Image matching is emerging as a compelling alternative to airborne laser scanning (ALS) as a data source for forest inventory and management. There is currently an open discussion in the forest inventory community about whether, and to what extent, the new method can be applied to practical inventory campaigns. This paper aims to contribute to this discussion by comparing two different image matching algorithms (Semi-Global Matching [SGM] and Next-Generation Automatic Terrain Extraction [NGATE]) and ALS in a typical managed boreal forest environment in southern Finland. Spectral features from unrectified aerial images were included in the modeling and the potential of image matching in areas without a high resolution digital terrain model (DTM) was also explored. Plot level predictions for total volume, stem number, basal area, height of basal area median tree and diameter of basal area median tree were modeled using an area-based approach. Plot level dominant tree species were predicted using a random forest algorithm, also using an area-based approach. The statistical difference between the error rates from different datasets was evaluated using a bootstrap method. Results showed that ALS outperformed image matching with every forest attribute, even when a high resolution DTM was used for height normalization and spectral information from images was included. Dominant tree species classification with image matching achieved accuracy levels similar to ALS regardless of the resolution of the DTM when spectral metrics were used. Neither of the image matching algorithms consistently outperformed the other, but there were noticeably different error rates depending on the parameter configuration, spectral band, resolution of DTM, or response variable. This study showed that image matching provides reasonable point cloud data for forest inventory purposes, especially when a high resolution DTM is available and information from the understory is redundant.

  7. Global Positive Periodic Solutions of Generalized n-Species Gilpin-Ayala Delayed Competition Systems with Impulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the following generalized n-species Lotka-Volterra type and Gilpin-Ayala type competition systems with multiple delays and impulses: xi′(t=xi(t[ai(t-bi(txi(t-∑j=1n‍cij(txjαij(t-ρij(t-∑j=1n‍dij(txjβij(t-τij(t-∑j=1n‍eij(t∫-ηij0‍kij(sxjγij(t+sds-∑j=1n‍fij(t∫-θij0‍Kij(ξxiδij(t+ξxjσij(t+ξdξ],a.e, t>0, t≠tk; xi(tk+-xi(tk-=hikxi(tk, i=1,2,…,n, k∈Z+. By applying the Krasnoselskii fixed-point theorem in a cone of Banach space, we derive some verifiable necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of positive periodic solutions of the previously mentioned. As applications, some special cases of the previous system are examined and some earlier results are extended and improved.

  8. Tracking Adolescents With Global Positioning System-Enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Wiebe, Douglas J; Morrison, Christopher N; Remer, Lillian G; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2015-08-01

    Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents' activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Adolescents (N = 18) aged 16-17 years carried global positioning system (GPS)-enabled smartphones for 1 week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting global positioning system points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained nine times more alcohol outlets than that of residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low-socioeconomic status exposure was related to marijuana use. Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparison of temporal and location-based sampling strategies for global positioning system-triggered electronic diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnros, Tobias; Dorn, Helen; Reichert, Markus; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Zipf, Alexander

    2016-11-21

    Self-reporting is a well-established approach within the medical and psychological sciences. In order to avoid recall bias, i.e. past events being remembered inaccurately, the reports can be filled out on a smartphone in real-time and in the natural environment. This is often referred to as ambulatory assessment and the reports are usually triggered at regular time intervals. With this sampling scheme, however, rare events (e.g. a visit to a park or recreation area) are likely to be missed. When addressing the correlation between mood and the environment, it may therefore be beneficial to include participant locations within the ambulatory assessment sampling scheme. Based on the geographical coordinates, the database query system then decides if a self-report should be triggered or not. We simulated four different ambulatory assessment sampling schemes based on movement data (coordinates by minute) from 143 voluntary participants tracked for seven consecutive days. Two location-based sampling schemes incorporating the environmental characteristics (land use and population density) at each participant's location were introduced and compared to a time-based sampling scheme triggering a report on the hour as well as to a sampling scheme incorporating physical activity. We show that location-based sampling schemes trigger a report less often, but we obtain more unique trigger positions and a greater spatial spread in comparison to sampling strategies based on time and distance. Additionally, the location-based methods trigger significantly more often at rarely visited types of land use and less often outside the study region where no underlying environmental data are available.

  10. Automatic Photoelectric Telescope Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, R.M.; Boyd, L.J.; Kissell, K.E.; Crawford, D.L.; Hall, D.S.; BDM Corp., McLean, VA; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Dyer Observatory, Nashville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    Automatic observatories have the potential of gathering sizable amounts of high-quality astronomical data at low cost. The Automatic Photoelectric Telescope Service (APT Service) has realized this potential and is routinely making photometric observations of a large number of variable stars. However, without observers to provide on-site monitoring, it was necessary to incorporate special quality checks into the operation of the APT Service at its multiple automatic telescope installation on Mount Hopkins. 18 references

  11. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  12. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. [comp.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  13. Automatic Morphological Sieving: Comparison between Different Methods, Application to DNA Ploidy Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Boudry

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to propose alternative automatic methods to time consuming interactive sorting of elements for DNA ploidy measurements. One archival brain tumour and two archival breast carcinoma were studied, corresponding to 7120 elements (3764 nuclei, 3356 debris and aggregates. Three automatic classification methods were tested to eliminate debris and aggregates from DNA ploidy measurements (mathematical morphology (MM, multiparametric analysis (MA and neural network (NN. Performances were evaluated by reference to interactive sorting. The results obtained for the three methods concerning the percentage of debris and aggregates automatically removed reach 63, 75 and 85% for MM, MA and NN methods, respectively, with false positive rates of 6, 21 and 25%. Information about DNA ploidy abnormalities were globally preserved after automatic elimination of debris and aggregates by MM and MA methods as opposed to NN method, showing that automatic classification methods can offer alternatives to tedious interactive elimination of debris and aggregates, for DNA ploidy measurements of archival tumours.

  14. Neural Bases of Automaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Mathieu; Cassey, Peter; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2018-01-01

    Automaticity allows us to perform tasks in a fast, efficient, and effortless manner after sufficient practice. Theories of automaticity propose that across practice processing transitions from being controlled by working memory to being controlled by long-term memory retrieval. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies have sought to test this…

  15. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  16. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...

  17. Automatic differentiation of functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.R.

    1990-06-01

    Automatic differentiation is a method of computing derivatives of functions to any order in any number of variables. The functions must be expressible as combinations of elementary functions. When evaluated at specific numerical points, the derivatives have no truncation error and are automatically found. The method is illustrated by simple examples. Source code in FORTRAN is provided

  18. An approach to regional wetland digital elevation model development using a differential global positioning system and a custom-built helicopter-based surveying system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.W.; Desmond, G.B.; Henkle, C.; Glover, R.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate topographic data are critical to restoration science and planning for the Everglades region of South Florida, USA. They are needed to monitor and simulate water level, water depth and hydroperiod and are used in scientific research on hydrologic and biologic processes. Because large wetland environments and data acquisition challenge conventional ground-based and remotely sensed data collection methods, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) adapted a classical data collection instrument to global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) technologies. Data acquired with this instrument were processed using geostatistics to yield sub-water level elevation values with centimetre accuracy (??15 cm). The developed database framework, modelling philosophy and metadata protocol allow for continued, collaborative model revision and expansion, given additional elevation or other ancillary data. ?? 2012 Taylor & Francis.

  19. A Decade of Global mRNA and miRNA Profiling of HPV-Positive Cell Lines and Clinical Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Morevati, Marya; Rossing, Maria

    2012-01-01

    For more than a decade, global gene expression profiling has been extensively used to elucidate the biology of human papillomaviruses (HPV) and their role in cervical- and head-and-neck cancers. Since 2008, the expression profiling of miRNAs has been reported in multiple HPV studies. Two major...... as the fragmented miRNA-mRNA target correlation evidence. Furthermore, we propose an approach for future research to include more comprehensive miRNA-mRNA target correlation analysis and to apply systems biology/gene networks methodology....... strategies have been employed in the gene and miRNA profiling studies: In the first approach, HPV positive tumors were compared to normal tissues or to HPV negative tumors. The second strategy relied on analysis of cell cultures transfected with single HPV oncogenes or with HPV genomes compared...

  20. Global Positioning System Navigation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    Historical Remarks on Navigation In Greek mythology , Odysseus sailed safely by the Sirens only to encounter the monsters Scylla and Charybdis...TNED 000 00 1(.7 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Pinsent, John. Greek Mythology . Paul Hamlyn, London, 1969. 2. Kline, Morris. Mathematical Thought from Ancient to

  1. The ‘Continuing Misfortune’ of Automatism in Early Surrealism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessel M. Bauduin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 1924 Manifesto of Surrealism surrealist leader André Breton (1896-1966 defined Surrealism as ‘psychic automatism in its pure state,’ positioning ‘psychic automatism’ as both a concept and a technique. This definition followed upon an intense period of experimentation with various forms of automatism among the proto-surrealist group; predominantly automatic writing, but also induced dream states. This article explores how surrealist ‘psychic automatism’ functioned as a mechanism for communication, or the expression of thought as directly as possible through the unconscious, in the first two decades of Surrealism. It touches upon automatic writing, hysteria as an automatic bodily performance of the unconscious, dreaming and the experimentation with induced dream states, and automatic drawing and other visual arts-techniques that could be executed more or less automatically as well. For all that the surrealists reinvented automatism for their own poetic, artistic and revolutionary aims, the automatic techniques were primarily drawn from contemporary Spiritualism, psychical research and experimentation with mediums, and the article teases out the connections to mediumistic automatism. It is demonstrated how the surrealists effectively and successfully divested automatism of all things spiritual. It furthermore becomes clear that despite various mishaps, automatism in many forms was a very successful creative technique within Surrealism.

  2. Thai Automatic Speech Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suebvisai, Sinaporn; Charoenpornsawat, Paisarn; Black, Alan; Woszczyna, Monika; Schultz, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    .... We focus on the discussion of the rapid deployment of ASR for Thai under limited time and data resources, including rapid data collection issues, acoustic model bootstrap, and automatic generation of pronunciations...

  3. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  4. Automatic Test Systems Aquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    We are providing this final memorandum report for your information and use. This report discusses the efforts to achieve commonality in standards among the Military Departments as part of the DoD policy for automatic test systems (ATS...

  5. Brand and automaticity

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J.

    2008-01-01

    A presumption of most consumer research is that consumers endeavor to maximize the utility of their choices and are in complete control of their purchasing and consumption behavior. However, everyday life experience suggests that many of our choices are not all that reasoned or conscious. Indeed, automaticity, one facet of behavior, is indispensable to complete the portrait of consumers. Despite its importance, little attention is paid to how the automatic side of behavior can be captured and...

  6. Automatic intelligent cruise control

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, NA; Young, MS

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the evaluation of automatic intelligent cruise control (AICC) from a psychological perspective. It was anticipated that AICC would have an effect upon the psychology of driving—namely, make the driver feel like they have less control, reduce the level of trust in the vehicle, make drivers less situationally aware, but might reduce the workload and make driving might less stressful. Drivers were asked to drive in a driving simulator under manual and automatic inte...

  7. In Vitro Activity of Imipenem against Carbapenemase-Positive Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Collected by the SMART Global Surveillance Program from 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlowsky, James A; Lob, Sibylle H; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Badal, Robert E; Young, Katherine; Motyl, Mary R; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-06-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) global surveillance program collected 103,960 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from 2008 to 2014. From this isolate collection, all ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates (MIC, ≥1 μg/ml; n = 3,428) and 9,371 isolates of Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella oxytoca , and Proteus mirabilis with an ertapenem-susceptible extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive phenotype were assessed for the presence of common carbapenemase genes using a Check-MDR CT101 microarray (Check-Points, Wageningen, the Netherlands) and published multiplex PCR assays. Testing identified 1,493 isolates that harbored a carbapenemase gene (1,485 ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates and 8 ertapenem-susceptible ESBL-positive isolates) and accounted for 1.4% (1,493/103,960) of all isolates of Enterobacteriaceae The most frequently identified carbapenemase genes were the KPC ( n = 794), OXA-48-like ( n = 300), and NDM ( n = 290) genes. Carbapenemase genes were most frequently identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae ( n = 1,127), Escherichia coli ( n = 149), and Enterobacter cloacae ( n = 110). Among the carbapenemase-positive isolates, 66.7% (2/3), 37.0% (111/300), 20.0% (8/40), 3.3% (3/92), 2.3% (18/794), and 0% (0/290) of the isolates with genes for GES, OXA-48-like, IMP, VIM, KPC, and NDM, respectively, were susceptible to imipenem (MIC, ≤1 μg/ml). Isolates that tested as susceptible to imipenem were not uncommon among carbapenemase-positive isolates (9.4%, 141/1,493) and most frequently carried OXA-48-like enzymes (78.7%; 111/141); however, overall, these isolates remained rare (0.1%, 141/103,960). The practice of screening clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that test as susceptible to carbapenems in vitro for the presence of carbapenemase genes remains controversial and requires further study. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Positioning and locking apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  9. Applying the global positioning system and google earth to evaluate the accessibility of birth services for pregnant women in northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Wang, Jung-Der; Yu, Joseph Kwong-Leung; Rn, Tzu-Yi Chiang; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Rn, Hsiu-Hung Wang; Nyasulu, Yohane M Z; Kolola-Dzimadzi, Rose

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the combined use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Google Earth for measuring the accessibility of health care facilities for pregnant women in northern Malawi. We used GPS and Google Earth to identify 5 major health care facilities in Mzuzu (Malawi) and the homes of 79 traditional birth attendants (TBAs). The distance and time required for each TBA to reach the nearest health care facility were measured by both GPS and by self-report of the TBAs. A convenience sample of 1138 pregnant women was interviewed about their choices of birth sites for current and previous pregnancies and the time and cost required to access health care facilities. The correlation coefficient between the objective measurements by GPS and subjective reports by TBAs for time required from their homes to health care facilities was 0.654 (P birth at a health care facility. However, only 48.7% of women actually gave birth in a health care facility in a previous pregnancy, and 32.6% were assisted by TBAs. Combined GPS and Google Earth can be useful in the evaluation of accessibility of health care facilities, especially for emergency obstetric care. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. Investigation of land subsidence in the Houston-Galveston region of Texas by using the Global Positioning System and interferometric synthetic aperture radar, 1993-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawden, Gerald W.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Kasmarek, Mark C.; Brandt, Justin; Middleton, Clifton S.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1900s, groundwater has been the primary source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water supplies for the Houston-Galveston region, Texas. The region's combination of hydrogeology and nearly century-long use of groundwater has resulted in one of the largest areas of subsidence in the United States; by 1979, as much as 3 meters (m) of subsidence had occurred, and approximately 8,300 square kilometers of land had subsided more than 0.3 m. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, used interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data obtained for four overlapping scenes from European remote sensing satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 to analyze land subsidence in the Houston-Galveston region of Texas. The InSAR data were processed into 27 interferograms that delineate and quantify land-subsidence patterns and magnitudes. Contemporaneous data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) were reprocessed by the National Geodetic Survey and analyzed to support, verify, and provide temporal resolution to the InSAR investigation.

  11. Global Positioning System – A new tool to measure the distribution of anaemia and nutritional status of children (5-10years in a rural area, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Chandra MR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Global Positioning System (GPS is a satellite based navigation system which is of late being used in the health field. Objectives: 1.To describe the geographical distribution of anaemia and malnutrition with GPS; 2.To assess the prevalence of anaemia and malnutrition in children aged 5-10 years. Subjects and methods: This exploratory study was conducted over a period of 2 months in the rural field practice area of a medical college situated in Bangalore during the months of June - July, 2012. Children in the age group of 5-10 years of age were the study subjects. Results: GPS was used for the describing the geographical distribution of anaemia and nutrition status on the Google earth map. The prevalence of anaemia in the study subjects was 8.7%.The prevalence of underweight, stunting, thinness and severe thinness among the study subjects was 52.8%, 28.5%, 23.5 % and 29.1% respectively, however  overweight  and obesity was observed only in 0.9 % and 1.2% of the study subjects respectively. Conclusion: GPS was easy to use and was able to demonstrate the actual distribution of morbidity at the household level in the rural area.

  12. Differences in Spatial Physical Activity Patterns between Weekdays and Weekends in Primary School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study Using Accelerometry and Global Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel Bürgi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Targeting the weekend to promote physical activity (PA in children seems to be promising given that they tend to be less physically active and, particularly, as the age-related decline in PA is more marked during weekends. Considering the ambiguity of why children are not able to maintain their PA level on weekends, the aim of the present study was to objectively investigate differences in children’s spatial PA patterns between week and weekend days using the combination of Global Positioning System (GPS and accelerometry. Seventy-four second graders (aged 7–9 years and 98 sixth graders (aged 11–14 years wore an accelerometer and GPS sensor for seven consecutive days to determine where children spend time and engage in PA. Time-matched accelerometer and GPS data was mapped with a geographic information system and multilevel analyses accounting for the hierarchical structure of the data were conducted. Differences between weekdays and weekends regarding the total time spent and the absolute and relative level of PA in various settings were found in both age groups. The findings support previous research pointing to the importance of targeting weekend PA, especially when children grow older. Future interventions should encourage children to use outdoor spaces more frequently on weekends, rather than stay at home, and to commute actively to destinations other than school.

  13. Assessing worst case scenarios in movement demands derived from global positioning systems during international rugby union matches: Rolling averages versus fixed length epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Daniel J.; Shearer, David A.; Carter, Neil; Drawer, Scott; Pollard, Ben; Bennett, Mark; Eager, Robin; Cook, Christian J.; Farrell, John; Russell, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The assessment of competitive movement demands in team sports has traditionally relied upon global positioning system (GPS) analyses presented as fixed-time epochs (e.g., 5–40 min). More recently, presenting game data as a rolling average has become prevalent due to concerns over a loss of sampling resolution associated with the windowing of data over fixed periods. Accordingly, this study compared rolling average (ROLL) and fixed-time (FIXED) epochs for quantifying the peak movement demands of international rugby union match-play as a function of playing position. Elite players from three different squads (n = 119) were monitored using 10 Hz GPS during 36 matches played in the 2014–2017 seasons. Players categorised broadly as forwards and backs, and then by positional sub-group (FR: front row, SR: second row, BR: back row, HB: half back, MF: midfield, B3: back three) were monitored during match-play for peak values of high-speed running (>5 m·s-1; HSR) and relative distance covered (m·min-1) over 60–300 s using two types of sample-epoch (ROLL, FIXED). Irrespective of the method used, as the epoch length increased, values for the intensity of running actions decreased (e.g., For the backs using the ROLL method, distance covered decreased from 177.4 ± 20.6 m·min-1 in the 60 s epoch to 107.5 ± 13.3 m·min-1 for the 300 s epoch). For the team as a whole, and irrespective of position, estimates of fixed effects indicated significant between-method differences across all time-points for both relative distance covered and HSR. Movement demands were underestimated consistently by FIXED versus ROLL with differences being most pronounced using 60 s epochs (95% CI HSR: -6.05 to -4.70 m·min-1, 95% CI distance: -18.45 to -16.43 m·min-1). For all HSR time epochs except one, all backs groups increased more (p < 0.01) from FIXED to ROLL than the forward groups. Linear mixed modelling of ROLL data highlighted that for HSR (except 60 s epoch), SR was the only group not

  14. Fault model of the 2017 Jiuzhaigou Mw 6.5 earthquake estimated from coseismic deformation observed using Global Positioning System and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhaosheng; Wang, Di-Jin; Jia, Zhige; Yu, Pengfei; Li, Liangfa

    2018-04-01

    On August 8, 2017, the Jiuzhaigou Mw 6.5 earthquake occurred in Sichuan province, southwestern China, along the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The epicenter is surrounded by the Minjiang, Huya, and Tazang Faults. As the seismic activity and tectonics are very complicated, there is controversy regarding the accurate location of the epicenter and the seismic fault of the Jiuzhaigou earthquake. To investigate these aspects, first, the coseismic deformation field was derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements. Second, the fault geometry, coseismic slip model, and Coulomb stress changes around the seismic region were calculated using a homogeneous elastic half-space model. The coseismic deformation field derived from InSAR measurements shows that this event was mainly dominated by a left-lateral strike-slip fault. The maximal and minimal displacements were approximately 0.15 m and - 0.21 m, respectively, along line-of-sight observation. The whole deformation field follows a northwest-trending direction and is mainly concentrated west of the fault. The coseismic slip is 28 km along the strike and 18 km along the dip. It is dominated by a left-lateral strike-slip fault. The average and maximal fault slip is 0.18 and 0.85 m, respectively. The rupture did not fully reach the ground surface. The focal mechanism derived from GPS and InSAR data is consistent with the kinematics and geometry of the Huya Fault. Therefore, we conclude that the northern section or the Shuzheng segment of the Huya Fault is the seismogenic fault. The maximal fault slip is located at 33.25°N and 103.82°E at a depth of 11 km, and the release moment is approximately 6.635 × 1018 Nm, corresponding to a magnitude of Mw 6.49, which is consistent with results reported by the US Geological Survey, Global Centroid Moment Tensor, and other researchers. The coseismic Coulomb stress changes enhanced the stress on the northwest and

  15. Automatic programming of grinding robot restoration of contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Are Willersrud

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available A new programming method has been developed for grinding robots. Instead of using the conventional jog-and-teach method, the workpiece contour is automatically tracked by the robot. During the tracking, the robot position is stored in the robot control system every 8th millisecond. After filtering and reducing this contour data, a robot program is automatically generated.

  16. Automatic programming of grinding robot restoration of contours

    OpenAIRE

    Are Willersrud; Fred Godtliebsen; Trygve Thomessen

    1995-01-01

    A new programming method has been developed for grinding robots. Instead of using the conventional jog-and-teach method, the workpiece contour is automatically tracked by the robot. During the tracking, the robot position is stored in the robot control system every 8th millisecond. After filtering and reducing this contour data, a robot program is automatically generated.

  17. Automatic gamma spectrometry analytical apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamargot, J.-P.; Wanin, Maurice.

    1980-01-01

    This invention falls within the area of quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis by gamma spectrometry and particularly refers to a device for bringing the samples into the counting position. The purpose of this invention is precisely to provide an automatic apparatus specifically adapted to the analysis of hard gamma radiations. To this effect, the invention relates to a gamma spectrometry analytical device comprising a lead containment, a detector of which the sensitive part is located inside the containment and additionally comprising a transfer system for bringing the analyzed samples in succession to a counting position inside the containment above the detector. A feed compartment enables the samples to be brought in turn one by one on to the transfer system through a duct connecting the compartment to the transfer system. Sequential systems for the coordinated forward feed of the samples in the compartment and the transfer system complete this device [fr

  18. Automatic Program Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Automatic Program Development is a tribute to Robert Paige (1947-1999), our accomplished and respected colleague, and moreover our good friend, whose untimely passing was a loss to our academic and research community. We have collected the revised, updated versions of the papers published in his...... honor in the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation Journal in the years 2003 and 2005. Among them there are two papers by Bob: (i) a retrospective view of his research lines, and (ii) a proposal for future studies in the area of the automatic program derivation. The book also includes some papers...... by members of the IFIP Working Group 2.1 of which Bob was an active member. All papers are related to some of the research interests of Bob and, in particular, to the transformational development of programs and their algorithmic derivation from formal specifications. Automatic Program Development offers...

  19. Automatic text summarization

    CERN Document Server

    Torres Moreno, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This new textbook examines the motivations and the different algorithms for automatic document summarization (ADS). We performed a recent state of the art. The book shows the main problems of ADS, difficulties and the solutions provided by the community. It presents recent advances in ADS, as well as current applications and trends. The approaches are statistical, linguistic and symbolic. Several exemples are included in order to clarify the theoretical concepts.  The books currently available in the area of Automatic Document Summarization are not recent. Powerful algorithms have been develop

  20. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...... on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...

  1. Global Positioning System Derived Performance Measures Are Responsive Indicators of Physical Activity, Disease and the Success of Clinical Treatments in Domestic Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Elizabeth A.; Guthrie, James W.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Mellanby, Richard J.; Clements, Dylan N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the use of Global Positioning System receiver (GPS) derived performance measures for differentiating between: 1) different outdoor activities in healthy dogs; 2) healthy dogs and those with osteoarthritis; 3) osteoarthritic dogs before and after treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia. Design Prospective study. Animals Ten healthy dogs and seven dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint (OA dogs). Procedure Healthy dogs were walked on a standard route on-lead, off-lead and subjected to playing activity (chasing a ball) whilst wearing a GPS collar. Each dog was walked for five consecutive days. Dogs with OA were subjected to a single off-lead walk whilst wearing a GPS collar, and then administered oral Carprofen analgesia daily for two weeks. OA dogs were then subjected to the same walk, again wearing a GPS collar. Results GPS derived measures of physical performance could differentiate between on-lead activity, off-lead activity and playing activity in healthy dogs, and between healthy dogs and OA dogs. Variation in the performance measures analysed was greater between individual dogs than for individual dogs on different days. Performance measures could differentiate healthy dogs from OA dogs. OA Dogs treated with Carprofen analgesia showed improvements in their physical performance, which returned to values indistinguishable from those of healthy dogs on nearly all the measures assessed. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance GPS derived measures of physical performance in dogs are objective, easy to quantify, and can be used to gauge the effects of disease and success of clinical treatments. Specific stimuli can be used to modulate physical performance beyond the self-governed boundaries that dogs will naturally express when allowed to exercise freely without stimulation. PMID:25692761

  2. Global positioning system derived performance measures are responsive indicators of physical activity, disease and the success of clinical treatments in domestic dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Bruno

    Full Text Available To assess the use of Global Positioning System receiver (GPS derived performance measures for differentiating between: 1 different outdoor activities in healthy dogs; 2 healthy dogs and those with osteoarthritis; 3 osteoarthritic dogs before and after treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia.Prospective study.Ten healthy dogs and seven dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint (OA dogs.Healthy dogs were walked on a standard route on-lead, off-lead and subjected to playing activity (chasing a ball whilst wearing a GPS collar. Each dog was walked for five consecutive days. Dogs with OA were subjected to a single off-lead walk whilst wearing a GPS collar, and then administered oral Carprofen analgesia daily for two weeks. OA dogs were then subjected to the same walk, again wearing a GPS collar.GPS derived measures of physical performance could differentiate between on-lead activity, off-lead activity and playing activity in healthy dogs, and between healthy dogs and OA dogs. Variation in the performance measures analysed was greater between individual dogs than for individual dogs on different days. Performance measures could differentiate healthy dogs from OA dogs. OA Dogs treated with Carprofen analgesia showed improvements in their physical performance, which returned to values indistinguishable from those of healthy dogs on nearly all the measures assessed.GPS derived measures of physical performance in dogs are objective, easy to quantify, and can be used to gauge the effects of disease and success of clinical treatments. Specific stimuli can be used to modulate physical performance beyond the self-governed boundaries that dogs will naturally express when allowed to exercise freely without stimulation.

  3. The use of Global Positioning System units and ArcGIS Online to engage K-12 Students in Research Being Done in their Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, C. E.; Sparrow, E. B.; Clucas, T.

    2015-12-01

    Incorporating K-12 students in scientific research processes and opportunities in their communities is a great way to bridge the gap between research and education and to start building science research capacity at an early age. One goal of the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) Alaska Adapting to Changing Environments project is to engage the local community in the research as well as to share results with the people. By giving K-12 students Global Positioning System (GPS) units, and allowing them to collect and map their own data, they are being exposed to some of the research methods being used by scientists in the Alaska ACE project. This hands-on, minds-on method has been successfully used in formal education settings such as a Junior High School classroom in Nuiqsut, Alaska as well as in informal education settings such as summer camps in Barrow, Alaska and Kenai, Alaska. The students progress from mapping by hand to collecting location data with their GPS units and cameras, and imputing this information into ArcGIS Online to create map products. The data collected were from sites ranging from important places in the community to sites visited during summer camps, with students reflecting on data and site significance. Collecting data, using technology, and creating map products contribute to science skills and practices students need to conduct research of their own and to understand research being done around them. The goal of this education outreach implementation is to bring students closer to the research, understand the process of science, and have the students continue to collect data and contribute to research in their communities. Support provided for this work from the Alaska EPSCoR NSF Award #OIA-1208927 and the state of Alaska is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, August 3-8, 2000: data processing, geodetic coordinates and comparison with prior geodetic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauk, Benjamin A.; Power, John A.; Lisowski, Mike; Dzurisin, Daniel; Iwatsubo, Eugene Y.; Melbourne, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Between August 3 and 8,2000,the Alaska Volcano Observatory completed a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey at Augustine Volcano, Alaska. Augustine is a frequently active calcalkaline volcano located in the lower portion of Cook Inlet (fig. 1), with reported eruptions in 1812, 1882, 1909?, 1935, 1964, 1976, and 1986 (Miller et al., 1998). Geodetic measurements using electronic and optical surveying techniques (EDM and theodolite) were begun at Augustine Volcano in 1986. In 1988 and 1989, an island-wide trilateration network comprising 19 benchmarks was completed and measured in its entirety (Power and Iwatsubo, 1998). Partial GPS surveys of the Augustine Island geodetic network were completed in 1992 and 1995; however, neither of these surveys included all marks on the island.Additional GPS measurements of benchmarks A5 and A15 (fig. 2) were made during the summers of 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1996. The goals of the 2000 GPS survey were to:1) re-measure all existing benchmarks on Augustine Island using a homogeneous set of GPS equipment operated in a consistent manner, 2) add measurements at benchmarks on the western shore of Cook Inlet at distances of 15 to 25 km, 3) add measurements at an existing benchmark (BURR) on Augustine Island that was not previously surveyed, and 4) add additional marks in areas of the island thought to be actively deforming. The entire survey resulted in collection of GPS data at a total of 24 sites (fig. 1 and 2). In this report we describe the methods of GPS data collection and processing used at Augustine during the 2000 survey. We use this data to calculate coordinates and elevations for all 24 sites surveyed. Data from the 2000 survey is then compared toelectronic and optical measurements made in 1988 and 1989. This report also contains a general description of all marks surveyed in 2000 and photographs of all new marks established during the 2000 survey (Appendix A).

  5. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  6. Cliff : the automatized zipper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baharom, M.Z.; Toeters, M.J.; Delbressine, F.L.M.; Bangaru, C.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2016-01-01

    It is our strong believe that fashion - more specifically apparel - can support us so much more in our daily life than it currently does. The Cliff project takes the opportunity to create a generic automatized zipper. It is a response to the struggle by elderly, people with physical disability, and

  7. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract...

  8. Automatic Oscillating Turret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Final Report: February 1978 ZAUTOMATIC OSCILLATING TURRET SYSTEM September 1980 * 6. PERFORMING 01G. REPORT NUMBER .J7. AUTHOR(S) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT...o....e.... *24 APPENDIX P-4 OSCILLATING BUMPER TURRET ...................... 25 A. DESCRIPTION 1. Turret Controls ...Other criteria requirements were: 1. Turret controls inside cab. 2. Automatic oscillation with fixed elevation to range from 20* below the horizontal to

  9. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  10. Automatic sweep circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input is described. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found

  11. Automatic sweep circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  12. Recursive automatic classification algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, E V; Dorofeyuk, A A

    1982-03-01

    A variational statement of the automatic classification problem is given. The dependence of the form of the optimal partition surface on the form of the classification objective functional is investigated. A recursive algorithm is proposed for maximising a functional of reasonably general form. The convergence problem is analysed in connection with the proposed algorithm. 8 references.

  13. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  14. Oocytes Polar Body Detection for Automatic Enucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Enucleation is a crucial step in cloning. In order to achieve automatic blind enucleation, we should detect the polar body of the oocyte automatically. The conventional polar body detection approaches have low success rate or low efficiency. We propose a polar body detection method based on machine learning in this paper. On one hand, the improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG algorithm is employed to extract features of polar body images, which will increase success rate. On the other hand, a position prediction method is put forward to narrow the search range of polar body, which will improve efficiency. Experiment results show that the success rate is 96% for various types of polar bodies. Furthermore, the method is applied to an enucleation experiment and improves the degree of automatic enucleation.

  15. Automatic generation of tourist brochures

    KAUST Repository

    Birsak, Michael

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel framework for the automatic generation of tourist brochures that include routing instructions and additional information presented in the form of so-called detail lenses. The first contribution of this paper is the automatic creation of layouts for the brochures. Our approach is based on the minimization of an energy function that combines multiple goals: positioning of the lenses as close as possible to the corresponding region shown in an overview map, keeping the number of lenses low, and an efficient numbering of the lenses. The second contribution is a route-aware simplification of the graph of streets used for traveling between the points of interest (POIs). This is done by reducing the graph consisting of all shortest paths through the minimization of an energy function. The output is a subset of street segments that enable traveling between all the POIs without considerable detours, while at the same time guaranteeing a clutter-free visualization. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. ACIR: automatic cochlea image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhamari, Ibraheem; Bauer, Sabine; Paulus, Dietrich; Lissek, Friedrich; Jacob, Roland

    2017-02-01

    Efficient Cochlear Implant (CI) surgery requires prior knowledge of the cochlea's size and its characteristics. This information helps to select suitable implants for different patients. To get these measurements, a segmentation method of cochlea medical images is needed. An important pre-processing step for good cochlea segmentation involves efficient image registration. The cochlea's small size and complex structure, in addition to the different resolutions and head positions during imaging, reveals a big challenge for the automated registration of the different image modalities. In this paper, an Automatic Cochlea Image Registration (ACIR) method for multi- modal human cochlea images is proposed. This method is based on using small areas that have clear structures from both input images instead of registering the complete image. It uses the Adaptive Stochastic Gradient Descent Optimizer (ASGD) and Mattes's Mutual Information metric (MMI) to estimate 3D rigid transform parameters. The use of state of the art medical image registration optimizers published over the last two years are studied and compared quantitatively using the standard Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). ACIR requires only 4.86 seconds on average to align cochlea images automatically and to put all the modalities in the same spatial locations without human interference. The source code is based on the tool elastix and is provided for free as a 3D Slicer plugin. Another contribution of this work is a proposed public cochlea standard dataset which can be downloaded for free from a public XNAT server.

  17. The Unanticipated Challenges Associated With Implementing an Observational Study Protocol in a Large-Scale Physical Activity and Global Positioning System Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David; Ellaway, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Background Large-scale primary data collections are complex, costly, and time-consuming. Study protocols for trial-based research are now commonplace, with a growing number of similar pieces of work being published on observational research. However, useful additions to the literature base are publications that describe the issues and challenges faced while conducting observational studies. These can provide researchers with insightful knowledge that can inform funding proposals or project development work. Objectives In this study, we identify and reflectively discuss the unforeseen or often unpublished issues associated with organizing and implementing a large-scale objectively measured physical activity and global positioning system (GPS) data collection. Methods The SPACES (Studying Physical Activity in Children’s Environments across Scotland) study was designed to collect objectively measured physical activity and GPS data from 10- to 11-year-old children across Scotland, using a postal delivery method. The 3 main phases of the project (recruitment, delivery of project materials, and data collection and processing) are described within a 2-stage framework: (1) intended design and (2) implementation of the intended design. Results Unanticipated challenges arose, which influenced the data collection process; these encompass four main impact categories: (1) cost, budget, and funding; (2) project timeline; (3) participation and engagement; and (4) data challenges. The main unforeseen issues that impacted our timeline included the informed consent process for children under the age of 18 years; the use of, and coordination with, the postal service to deliver study information and equipment; and the variability associated with when participants began data collection and the time taken to send devices and consent forms back (1-12 months). Unanticipated budgetary issues included the identification of some study materials (AC power adapter) not fitting through

  18. Global Positioning System Total Electron Content Variation over King Sejong Station in Antarctic under the Solar Minimum Condition Between 2005 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jong-Kyun; Jee, Geonhwa; Lee, Chi-Na

    2011-12-01

    The total electron content (TEC) using global positioning system (GPS) is analyzed to see the characteristics of ionosphere over King Sejong station (KSJ, geographic latitude 62°13' S, longitude 58° 47' W, corrected geomagnetic latitude 48° S) in Antarctic. The GPS operational ratio during the observational period between 2005 and 2009 is 90.1%. The annual variation of the daily mean TEC decreases from January 2005 to February 2009, but increase from the June 2009. In summer (December-February), the seasonal mean TEC values have the maximum of 26.2 ± 2.4 TEC unit (TECU) in 2005 and the minimum of 16.5 ± 2.8 TECU in 2009, and the annual differences decrease from 3.0 TECU (2005-2006) to 1.4 TECU (2008-2009). However, on November 2010, it significantly increases to 22.3 ± 2.8 TECU which is up to 5.8 TECU compared with 2009 in summer. In winter (June-August), the seasonal mean TEC slightly decreases from 13.7 ± 4.5 TECU in 2005 to 8.9 ± 0.6 TECU in 2008, and the a! nnual difference is constantly about 1.6 TECU, and increases to 10.3 ± 1.8 TECU in 2009. The annual variations of diurnal amplitude show the seasonal features that are scattered in summer and the enhancements near equinoxes are apparent in the whole years. In contrast, the semidiurnal amplitudes show the disturbed annual peaks in winter and its enhancements near equinoxes are unapparent. The diurnal phases are not constant in winter and show near 12 local time (LT). The semidiurnal phases have a seasonal pattern between 00 LT and 06 LT. Consequently, the KSJ GPS TEC variations show the significant semidiurnal variation in summer from December to February under the solar minimum between 2005 and 2009. The feature is considered as the Weddell Sea anomaly of larger nighttime electron density than a daytime electron density that has been observed around the Antarctica peninsula.

  19. Global Positioning System Total Electron Content Variation over King Sejong Station in Antarctic under the Solar Minimum Condition Between 2005 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Kyun Chung

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The total electron content (TEC using global positioning system (GPS is analyzed to see the characteristics of ionosphere over King Sejong station (KSJ, geographic latitude 62°13′ S, longitude 58° 47′ W, corrected geomagnetic latitude 48° S in Antarctic. The GPS operational ratio during the observational period between 2005 and 2009 is 90.1%. The annual variation of the daily mean TEC decreases from January 2005 to February 2009, but increase from the June 2009. In summer (December-February, the seasonal mean TEC values have the maximum of 26.2 ± 2.4 TEC unit (TECU in 2005 and the minimum of 16.5 ± 2.8 TECU in 2009, and the annual differences decrease from 3.0 TECU (2005-2006 to 1.4 TECU (2008-2009. However, on November 2010, it significantly increases to 22.3 ± 2.8 TECU which is up to 5.8 TECU compared with 2009 in summer. In winter (June-August, the seasonal mean TEC slightly decreases from 13.7 ± 4.5 TECU in 2005 to 8.9 ± 0.6 TECU in 2008, and the annual difference is constantly about 1.6 TECU, and increases to 10.3 ± 1.8 TECU in 2009. The annual variations of diurnal amplitude show the seasonal features that are scattered in summer and the enhancements near equinoxes are apparent in the whole years. In contrast, the semidiurnal amplitudes show the disturbed annual peaks in winter and its enhancements near equinoxes are unapparent. The diurnal phases are not constant in winter and show near 12 local time (LT. The semidiurnal phases have a seasonal pattern between 00 LT and 06 LT. Consequently, the KSJ GPS TEC variations show the significant semidiurnal variation in summer from December to February under the solar minimum between 2005 and 2009. The feature is considered as the Weddell Sea anomaly of larger nighttime electron density than a daytime electron density that has been observed around the Antarctica peninsula.

  20. The Unanticipated Challenges Associated With Implementing an Observational Study Protocol in a Large-Scale Physical Activity and Global Positioning System Data Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrorie, Paul; Walker, David; Ellaway, Anne

    2018-04-30

    Large-scale primary data collections are complex, costly, and time-consuming. Study protocols for trial-based research are now commonplace, with a growing number of similar pieces of work being published on observational research. However, useful additions to the literature base are publications that describe the issues and challenges faced while conducting observational studies. These can provide researchers with insightful knowledge that can inform funding proposals or project development work. In this study, we identify and reflectively discuss the unforeseen or often unpublished issues associated with organizing and implementing a large-scale objectively measured physical activity and global positioning system (GPS) data collection. The SPACES (Studying Physical Activity in Children's Environments across Scotland) study was designed to collect objectively measured physical activity and GPS data from 10- to 11-year-old children across Scotland, using a postal delivery method. The 3 main phases of the project (recruitment, delivery of project materials, and data collection and processing) are described within a 2-stage framework: (1) intended design and (2) implementation of the intended design. Unanticipated challenges arose, which influenced the data collection process; these encompass four main impact categories: (1) cost, budget, and funding; (2) project timeline; (3) participation and engagement; and (4) data challenges. The main unforeseen issues that impacted our timeline included the informed consent process for children under the age of 18 years; the use of, and coordination with, the postal service to deliver study information and equipment; and the variability associated with when participants began data collection and the time taken to send devices and consent forms back (1-12 months). Unanticipated budgetary issues included the identification of some study materials (AC power adapter) not fitting through letterboxes, as well as the employment of

  1. Expression of the alaE gene is positively regulated by the global regulator Lrp in response to intracellular accumulation of l-alanine in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Kohei; Sato, Kazuki; Hori, Hatsuhiro; Makino, Yumiko; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The alaE gene in Escherichia coli encodes an l-alanine exporter that catalyzes the active export of l-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. In our previous study, alaE expression was shown to increase in the presence of l-alanyl-l-alanine (Ala-Ala). In this study, the global regulator leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) was identified as an activator of the alaE gene. A promoter less β-galactosidase gene was fused to an alaE upstream region (240 nucleotides). Cells that were lacZ-deficient and harbored this reporter plasmid showed significant induction of β-galactosidase activity (approximately 17-fold) in the presence of 6 mM l-alanine, l-leucine, and Ala-Ala. However, a reporter plasmid possessing a smaller alaE upstream region (180 nucleotides) yielded transformants with strikingly low enzyme activity under the same conditions. In contrast, lrp-deficient cells showed almost no β-galactosidase induction, indicating that Lrp positively regulates alaE expression. We next performed an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and a DNase I footprinting assay using purified hexahistidine-tagged Lrp (Lrp-His). Consequently, we found that Lrp-His binds to the alaE upstream region spanning nucleotide -161 to -83 with a physiologically relevant affinity (apparent K D , 288.7 ± 83.8 nM). Furthermore, the binding affinity of Lrp-His toward its cis-element was increased by l-alanine and l-leucine, but not by Ala-Ala and d-alanine. Based on these results, we concluded that the gene expression of the alaE is regulated by Lrp in response to intracellular levels of l-alanine, which eventually leads to intracellular homeostasis of l-alanine concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceived spatial stigma, body mass index and blood pressure: a global positioning system study among low-income housing residents in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin T. Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has highlighted the salience of spatial stigma on the lives of low-income residents, but has been theoretical in nature and/or has predominantly utilised qualitative methods with limited generalisability and ability to draw associations between spatial stigma and measured cardiovascular health outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate relationships between perceived spatial stigma, body mass index (BMI, and blood pressure among a sample of low-income housing residents in New York City (NYC. Data come from the community-based NYC Low-income Housing, Neighborhoods and Health Study. We completed a crosssectional analysis with survey data, which included the four items on spatial stigma, as well objectively measured BMI and blood pressure data (analytic n=116; 96.7% of the total sample. Global positioning systems (GPS tracking of the sample was conducted for a week. In multivariable models (controlling for individual-level age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level, employment status, total household income, neighborhood percent non-Hispanic Black and neighborhood median household income we found that participants who reported living in an area with a bad neighborhood reputation had higher BMI (B=4.2, 95%CI: -0.01, 8.3, P=0.051, as well as higher systolic blood pressure (B=13.2, 95%CI: 3.2, 23.1, P=0.01 and diastolic blood pressure (B=8.5, 95%CI: 2.8, 14.3, P=0.004. In addition, participants who reported living in an area with a bad neighborhood reputation had increased risk of obesity/overweight [relative risk (RR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.1, 1.4, P=0.02 and hypertension/pre-hypertension (RR=1.66, 95%CI: 1.2, 2.4, P=0.007. However, we found no differences in spatial mobility (based GPS data among participants who reported living in neighborhoods with and without spatial stigma (P>0.05. Further research is needed to investigate how placebased stigma may be associated with impaired cardiovascular health among individuals

  3. Timing of warm water refuge use in Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge by manatees—Results and insights from Global Positioning System telemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Daniel H.; Butler, Susan M.; Reid, James P.; Haase, Catherine G.

    2017-11-21

    Managers at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR) desire to update their management plan regarding the operation of select springs including Three Sisters Springs. They wish to refine existing parameters used to predict the presence of federally threatened Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee) in the springs and thereby improve their manatee management options. The U.S. Geological Survey Sirenia Project has been tracking manatees in the CRNWR area since 2006 with floating Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite-monitored telemetry tags. Analyzing movements of these tagged manatees will provide valuable insight into their habitat use patterns.A total of 136 GPS telemetry bouts were available for this project, representing 730,009 locations generated from 40 manatees tagged in the Gulf of Mexico north of Tampa, Florida. Dates from October through March were included to correspond to the times that cold ambient temperatures were expected, thus requiring a need for manatee thermoregulation and a physiologic need for warm water. Water level (tide) and water temperatures were obtained for the study from Salt River, Crystal River mouth, Bagley Cove, Kings Bay mouth, and Magnolia Spring. Polygons were drawn to subdivide the manatee locations into areas around the most-used springs (Three Sisters/Idiots Delight, House/Hunter/Jurassic, Magnolia and King), Kings Bay, Crystal/Salt Rivers and the Gulf of Mexico.Manatees were found in the Crystal or Salt Rivers or in the Gulf of Mexico when ambient temperatures were warmer (>20 °C), while they were found in or near the springs (especially Three Sisters Springs) at colder ambient water temperatures. There was a trend of manatees entering springs early in the morning and leaving in the afternoon. There was a strong association of manatee movements in and out of the Three Sisters/Idiots Delight polygon with tide cycles: manatees were more likely to enter the Three Sisters

  4. Dynamic Analysis of a Pendulum Dynamic Automatic Balancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Seung Sohn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic dynamic balancer is a device to reduce the vibration from unbalanced mass of rotors. Instead of considering prevailing ball automatic dynamic balancer, pendulum automatic dynamic balancer is analyzed. For the analysis of dynamic stability and behavior, the nonlinear equations of motion for a system are derived with respect to polar coordinates by the Lagrange's equations. The perturbation method is applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the system around the equilibrium position. Based on the linearized equations, the dynamic stability of the system around the equilibrium positions is investigated by the eigenvalue analysis.

  5. Automatic indexing, compiling and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreewsky, Alexandre; Fluhr, Christian.

    1975-06-01

    A review of the principles of automatic indexing, is followed by a comparison and summing-up of work by the authors and by a Soviet staff from the Moscou INFORM-ELECTRO Institute. The mathematical and linguistic problems of the automatic building of thesaurus and automatic classification are examined [fr

  6. Gendered globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  7. Automatization of welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Tomita, Jinji; Nishihara, Katsunori.

    1978-01-01

    Automatization of welding is one of the effective measures for securing high degree of quality of nuclear power equipment, as well as for correspondence to the environment at the site of plant. As the latest ones of the automatic welders practically used for welding of nuclear power apparatuses in factories of Toshiba and IHI, those for pipes and lining tanks are described here. The pipe welder performs the battering welding on the inside of pipe end as the so-called IGSCC countermeasure and the succeeding butt welding through the same controller. The lining tank welder is able to perform simultaneous welding of two parallel weld lines on a large thin plate lining tank. Both types of the welders are demonstrating excellent performance at the shops as well as at the plant site. (author)

  8. Automatic structural scene digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Wang, Yuhan; Cosker, Darren; Li, Wenbin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic system for the analysis and labeling of structural scenes, floor plan drawings in Computer-aided Design (CAD) format. The proposed system applies a fusion strategy to detect and recognize various components of CAD floor plans, such as walls, doors, windows and other ambiguous assets. Technically, a general rule-based filter parsing method is fist adopted to extract effective information from the original floor plan. Then, an image-processing based recovery method is employed to correct information extracted in the first step. Our proposed method is fully automatic and real-time. Such analysis system provides high accuracy and is also evaluated on a public website that, on average, archives more than ten thousands effective uses per day and reaches a relatively high satisfaction rate.

  9. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin

    2013-01-01

    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  10. Automatic food decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....

  11. Automatic LOD selection

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a method to automatically generate transition distances for LOD, improving image stability and performance is presented. Three different methods were tested all measuring the change between two level of details using the spatial frequency. The methods were implemented as an optional pre-processing step in order to determine the transition distances from multiple view directions. During run-time both view direction based selection and the furthest distance for each direction was ...

  12. Mental imagery affects subsequent automatic defense responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel A Hagenaars

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing during subsequent analogue trauma (affective picture viewing. Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders, and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 51, again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations.

  13. Automatic River Network Extraction from LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderal, E. N.; Valcarcel, N.; Delgado, J.; Sevilla, C.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    National Geographic Institute of Spain (IGN-ES) has launched a new production system for automatic river network extraction for the Geospatial Reference Information (GRI) within hydrography theme. The goal is to get an accurate and updated river network, automatically extracted as possible. For this, IGN-ES has full LiDAR coverage for the whole Spanish territory with a density of 0.5 points per square meter. To implement this work, it has been validated the technical feasibility, developed a methodology to automate each production phase: hydrological terrain models generation with 2 meter grid size and river network extraction combining hydrographic criteria (topographic network) and hydrological criteria (flow accumulation river network), and finally the production was launched. The key points of this work has been managing a big data environment, more than 160,000 Lidar data files, the infrastructure to store (up to 40 Tb between results and intermediate files), and process; using local virtualization and the Amazon Web Service (AWS), which allowed to obtain this automatic production within 6 months, it also has been important the software stability (TerraScan-TerraSolid, GlobalMapper-Blue Marble , FME-Safe, ArcGIS-Esri) and finally, the human resources managing. The results of this production has been an accurate automatic river network extraction for the whole country with a significant improvement for the altimetric component of the 3D linear vector. This article presents the technical feasibility, the production methodology, the automatic river network extraction production and its advantages over traditional vector extraction systems.

  14. AUTOMATIC RIVER NETWORK EXTRACTION FROM LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Maderal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available National Geographic Institute of Spain (IGN-ES has launched a new production system for automatic river network extraction for the Geospatial Reference Information (GRI within hydrography theme. The goal is to get an accurate and updated river network, automatically extracted as possible. For this, IGN-ES has full LiDAR coverage for the whole Spanish territory with a density of 0.5 points per square meter. To implement this work, it has been validated the technical feasibility, developed a methodology to automate each production phase: hydrological terrain models generation with 2 meter grid size and river network extraction combining hydrographic criteria (topographic network and hydrological criteria (flow accumulation river network, and finally the production was launched. The key points of this work has been managing a big data environment, more than 160,000 Lidar data files, the infrastructure to store (up to 40 Tb between results and intermediate files, and process; using local virtualization and the Amazon Web Service (AWS, which allowed to obtain this automatic production within 6 months, it also has been important the software stability (TerraScan-TerraSolid, GlobalMapper-Blue Marble , FME-Safe, ArcGIS-Esri and finally, the human resources managing. The results of this production has been an accurate automatic river network extraction for the whole country with a significant improvement for the altimetric component of the 3D linear vector. This article presents the technical feasibility, the production methodology, the automatic river network extraction production and its advantages over traditional vector extraction systems.

  15. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dengwang; Kapp, Daniel S; Xing, Lei; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems.The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours.The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  16. Strategic planning of developing automatic optical inspection (AOI) technologies in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, K C; Hsu, C

    2005-01-01

    In most domestic hi-tech industries in Taiwan, the automatic optical inspection (AOI) equipment is mostly imported. In view of the required specifications, AOI consists of the integration of mechanical-electrical-optical-information technologies. In the past two decades, traditional industries have lost their competitiveness due to the low profit rate. It is possible to promote a new AOI industry in Taiwan through the integration of its strong background in mechatronic technology in positioning stages with the optical image processing techniques. The market requirements are huge not only in domestic need but also in global need. This is the main reason to promote the AOI research for the coming years in Taiwan. Focused industrial applications will be in IC, PCB, LCD, communication, and MEMS parts. This paper will analyze the domestic and global AOI equipment market, summarize the necessary fish bone technology diagrams, survey the actual industrial needs, and propose the strategic plan to be promoted in Taiwan

  17. Strategic planning of developing automatic optical inspection (AOI) technologies in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, K. C.; Hsu, C.

    2005-01-01

    In most domestic hi-tech industries in Taiwan, the automatic optical inspection (AOI) equipment is mostly imported. In view of the required specifications, AOI consists of the integration of mechanical-electrical-optical-information technologies. In the past two decades, traditional industries have lost their competitiveness due to the low profit rate. It is possible to promote a new AOI industry in Taiwan through the integration of its strong background in mechatronic technology in positioning stages with the optical image processing techniques. The market requirements are huge not only in domestic need but also in global need. This is the main reason to promote the AOI research for the coming years in Taiwan. Focused industrial applications will be in IC, PCB, LCD, communication, and MEMS parts. This paper will analyze the domestic and global AOI equipment market, summarize the necessary fish bone technology diagrams, survey the actual industrial needs, and propose the strategic plan to be promoted in Taiwan.

  18. Automatic quantitative renal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeyre, J.; Deltour, G.; Delisle, M.J.; Bouchard, A.

    1976-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy data may be analyzed automatically by the use of a processing system coupled to an Anger camera (TRIDAC-MULTI 8 or CINE 200). The computing sequence is as follows: normalization of the images; background noise subtraction on both images; evaluation of mercury 197 uptake by the liver and spleen; calculation of the activity fractions on each kidney with respect to the injected dose, taking into account the kidney depth and the results referred to normal values; edition of the results. Automation minimizes the scattering parameters and by its simplification is a great asset in routine work [fr

  19. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  20. Automatic dipole subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Catani-Seymour dipole subtraction is a general procedure to treat infrared divergences in real emission processes at next-to-leading order in QCD. We automatized the procedure in a computer code. The code is useful especially for the processes with many parton legs. In this talk, we first explain the algorithm of the dipole subtraction and the whole structure of our code. After that we show the results for some processes where the infrared divergences of real emission processes are subtracted. (author)

  1. Automatic programmable air ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubarev, S.P.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Opaleva, G.P.; Taran, V.S.; Zolototrubova, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact, economical, easy to manage auto air ozonator developed at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT. It is designed for sanitation, disinfection of premises and cleaning the air from foreign odors. A distinctive feature of the developed device is the generation of a given concentration of ozone, approximately 0.7 maximum allowable concentration (MAC), and automatic maintenance of a specified level. This allows people to be inside the processed premises during operation. The microprocessor controller to control the operation of the ozonator was developed

  2. Space Weather, from the Sun to the Earth, the key role of GNSS. Part II: Training on daily Global Positioning System (GPS) data

    OpenAIRE

    Amory Mazaudier , Christine; Fleury , Rolland; Gadimova , Sharafat; Touzani , Abderrahmane

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The goal of this paper is to give a clear view of the Sun Earth relationships that are complex. The phenomena acting at large scales and essentially related to dynamic and electromagnetic physical processes have been addressed. Besides physics, the work done to develop the training in Space Weather by focusing on Global Navigation Satellite Systems has also been presented. Readers may recall that we published the first part of this article which focused on physics of t...

  3. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  4. Terminal Sliding Mode Tracking Controller Design for Automatic Guided Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    Based on sliding mode variable structure control theory, the path tracking problem of automatic guided vehicle is studied, proposed a controller design method based on the terminal sliding mode. First of all, through analyzing the characteristics of the automatic guided vehicle movement, the kinematics model is presented. Then to improve the traditional expression of terminal sliding mode, design a nonlinear sliding mode which the convergence speed is faster than the former, verified by theoretical analysis, the design of sliding mode is steady and fast convergence in the limited time. Finally combining Lyapunov method to design the tracking control law of automatic guided vehicle, the controller can make the automatic guided vehicle track the desired trajectory in the global sense as well as in finite time. The simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of the control law.

  5. Automatic contact in DYNA3D for vehicle crashworthiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a new formulation for the automatic definition and treatment of mechanical contact in explicit, nonlinear, finite element analysis. Automatic contact offers the benefits of significantly reduced model construction time and fewer opportunities for user error, but faces significant challenges in reliability and computational costs. The authors have used a new four-step automatic contact algorithm. Key aspects of the proposed method include (1) automatic identification of adjacent and opposite surfaces in the global search phase, and (2) the use of a smoothly varying surface normal that allows a consistent treatment of shell intersection and corner contact conditions without ad hoc rules. Three examples are given to illustrate the performance of the newly proposed algorithm in the public DYNA3D code

  6. Generating Impact Maps from Automatically Detected Bomb Craters in Aerial Wartime Images Using Marked Point Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Christian; Rottensteiner, Franz; Hoberg, Thorsten; Ziems, Marcel; Rebke, Julia; Heipke, Christian

    2018-04-01

    The aftermath of wartime attacks is often felt long after the war ended, as numerous unexploded bombs may still exist in the ground. Typically, such areas are documented in so-called impact maps which are based on the detection of bomb craters. This paper proposes a method for the automatic detection of bomb craters in aerial wartime images that were taken during the Second World War. The object model for the bomb craters is represented by ellipses. A probabilistic approach based on marked point processes determines the most likely configuration of objects within the scene. Adding and removing new objects to and from the current configuration, respectively, changing their positions and modifying the ellipse parameters randomly creates new object configurations. Each configuration is evaluated using an energy function. High gradient magnitudes along the border of the ellipse are favored and overlapping ellipses are penalized. Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling in combination with simulated annealing provides the global energy optimum, which describes the conformance with a predefined model. For generating the impact map a probability map is defined which is created from the automatic detections via kernel density estimation. By setting a threshold, areas around the detections are classified as contaminated or uncontaminated sites, respectively. Our results show the general potential of the method for the automatic detection of bomb craters and its automated generation of an impact map in a heterogeneous image stock.

  7. Automatic and objective oral cancer diagnosis by Raman spectroscopic detection of keratin with multivariate curve resolution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Hsiung; Shimada, Rintaro; Yabumoto, Sohshi; Okajima, Hajime; Ando, Masahiro; Chang, Chiou-Tzu; Lee, Li-Tzu; Wong, Yong-Kie; Chiou, Arthur; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an automatic and objective method for detecting human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues with Raman microspectroscopy. We measure 196 independent Raman spectra from 196 different points of one oral tissue sample and globally analyze these spectra using a Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) analysis. Discrimination of OSCC tissues is automatically and objectively made by spectral matching comparison of the MCR decomposed Raman spectra and the standard Raman spectrum of keratin, a well-established molecular marker of OSCC. We use a total of 24 tissue samples, 10 OSCC and 10 normal tissues from the same 10 patients, 3 OSCC and 1 normal tissues from different patients. Following the newly developed protocol presented here, we have been able to detect OSCC tissues with 77 to 92% sensitivity (depending on how to define positivity) and 100% specificity. The present approach lends itself to a reliable clinical diagnosis of OSCC substantiated by the “molecular fingerprint” of keratin.

  8. Training shortest-path tractography: Automatic learning of spatial priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew George; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    Tractography is the standard tool for automatic delineation of white matter tracts from diffusion weighted images. However, the output of tractography often requires post-processing to remove false positives and ensure a robust delineation of the studied tract, and this demands expert prior...... knowledge. Here we demonstrate how such prior knowledge, or indeed any prior spatial information, can be automatically incorporated into a shortest-path tractography approach to produce more robust results. We describe how such a prior can be automatically generated (learned) from a population, and we...

  9. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, A; Haeseler, F von

    2004-01-01

    Automatic sets D part of Z m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D part of Z m to be a Delone set in R m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples

  10. Automatic Design of a Maglev Controller in State Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Design of a Maglev Controller in State Space Feng Zhao Richard Thornton Abstract We describe the automatic synthesis of a global nonlinear controller for...the global switching points of the controller is presented. The synthesized control system can stabilize the maglev vehicle with large initial displace...NUMBERS Automation Desing of a Maglev Controller in State Space N00014-89-J-3202 MIP-9001651 6. AUTHOR(S) Feng Zhao and Richard Thornton 7. PERFORMING

  11. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  12. Shadow Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  13. Automatic extraction of left ventricle in SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Li; Zhao Shujun; Yao Zhiming; Wang Daoyu

    1999-01-01

    An automatic method of extracting left ventricle from SPECT myocardial perfusion data was introduced. This method was based on the least square analysis of the positions of all short-axis slices pixels from the half sphere-cylinder myocardial model, and used a iterative reconstruction technique to automatically cut off the non-left ventricular tissue from the perfusion images. Thereby, this technique provided the bases for further quantitative analysis

  14. Automatic 3D modeling of the urban landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteban, I.; Dijk, J.; Groen, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a fully automatic system for building 3D models of urban areas at the street level. We propose a novel approach for the accurate estimation of the scale consistent camera pose given two previous images. We employ a new method for global optimization and use a novel sampling

  15. Automatic identification in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, D; Patrick, C [Mine Computers and Electronics Inc., Morehead, KY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The feasibility of monitoring the locations and vital statistics of equipment and personnel in surface and underground mining operations has increased with advancements in radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. This paper addresses the use of RFID technology, which is relatively new to the mining industry, to track surface equipment in mine pits, loading points and processing facilities. Specific applications are discussed, including both simplified and complex truck tracking systems and an automatic pit ticket system. This paper concludes with a discussion of the future possibilities of using RFID technology in mining including monitoring heart and respiration rates, body temperatures and exertion levels; monitoring repetitious movements for the study of work habits; and logging air quality via personnel sensors. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Automatic quantitative metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelos, E.J.B.V.; Ambrozio Filho, F.; Cunha, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The quantitative determination of metallographic parameters is analysed through the description of Micro-Videomat automatic image analysis system and volumetric percentage of perlite in nodular cast irons, porosity and average grain size in high-density sintered pellets of UO 2 , and grain size of ferritic steel. Techniques adopted are described and results obtained are compared with the corresponding ones by the direct counting process: counting of systematic points (grid) to measure volume and intersections method, by utilizing a circunference of known radius for the average grain size. The adopted technique for nodular cast iron resulted from the small difference of optical reflectivity of graphite and perlite. Porosity evaluation of sintered UO 2 pellets is also analyzed [pt

  17. Semi-automatic fluoroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpley, M.W.

    1976-10-01

    Extruded aluminum-clad uranium-aluminum alloy fuel tubes must pass many quality control tests before irradiation in Savannah River Plant nuclear reactors. Nondestructive test equipment has been built to automatically detect high and low density areas in the fuel tubes using x-ray absorption techniques with a video analysis system. The equipment detects areas as small as 0.060-in. dia with 2 percent penetrameter sensitivity. These areas are graded as to size and density by an operator using electronic gages. Video image enhancement techniques permit inspection of ribbed cylindrical tubes and make possible the testing of areas under the ribs. Operation of the testing machine, the special low light level television camera, and analysis and enhancement techniques are discussed

  18. Automatic surveying techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, R.

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of automatic surveying methods in a more systematic manner, the PEP organization signed a contract in late 1975 for TRW Systems Group to undertake a feasibility study. The completion of this study resulted in TRW Report 6452.10-75-101, dated December 29, 1975, which was largely devoted to an analysis of a survey system based on an Inertial Navigation System. This PEP note is a review and, in some instances, an extension of that TRW report. A second survey system which employed an ''Image Processing System'' was also considered by TRW, and it will be reviewed in the last section of this note. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  19. AUTOMATIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the field of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classification of architectural styles from facade images. Our classifier first identifies the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classifier to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.

  20. Automatic anatomy recognition via multiobject oriented active shape models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinjian; Udupa, Jayaram K; Alavi, Abass; Torigian, Drew A

    2010-12-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of developing an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system in clinical radiology and demonstrates its operation on clinical 2D images. The anatomy recognition method described here consists of two main components: (a) multiobject generalization of OASM and (b) object recognition strategies. The OASM algorithm is generalized to multiple objects by including a model for each object and assigning a cost structure specific to each object in the spirit of live wire. The delineation of multiobject boundaries is done in MOASM via a three level dynamic programming algorithm, wherein the first level is at pixel level which aims to find optimal oriented boundary segments between successive landmarks, the second level is at landmark level which aims to find optimal location for the landmarks, and the third level is at the object level which aims to find optimal arrangement of object boundaries over all objects. The object recognition strategy attempts to find that pose vector (consisting of translation, rotation, and scale component) for the multiobject model that yields the smallest total boundary cost for all objects. The delineation and recognition accuracies were evaluated separately utilizing routine clinical chest CT, abdominal CT, and foot MRI data sets. The delineation accuracy was evaluated in terms of true and false positive volume fractions (TPVF and FPVF). The recognition accuracy was assessed (1) in terms of the size of the space of the pose vectors for the model assembly that yielded high delineation accuracy, (2) as a function of the number of objects and objects' distribution and size in the model, (3) in terms of the interdependence between delineation and recognition, and (4) in terms of the closeness of the optimum recognition result to the global optimum. When multiple objects are included in the model, the delineation accuracy in terms of TPVF can be improved to 97%-98% with a low FPVF of 0.1%-0.2%. Typically, a

  1. THEMIS Global Mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, N. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed techniques to make seamless, controlled global mosaics from the more than 50,000 multi-spectral infrared images of the Mars returned by the THEMIS instrument aboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. These images cover more than 95% of the surface at 100m/pixel resolution at both day and night local times. Uncertainties in the position and pointing of the spacecraft, varying local time, and imaging artifacts make creating well-registered mosaics from these datasets a challenging task. In preparation for making global mosaics, many full-resolution regional mosaics have been made. These mosaics typically cover an area 10x10 degrees or smaller, and are constructed from only a few hundred images. To make regional mosaics, individual images are geo-rectified using the USGS ISIS software. This dead-reckoning is sufficient to approximate position to within 400m in cases where the SPICE information was downlinked. Further coregistration of images is handled in two ways: grayscale differences minimization in overlapping regions through integer pixel shifting, or through automatic tie-point generation using a radial symmetry transformation (RST). The RST identifies points within an image that exhibit 4-way symmetry. Martian craters tend to to be very radially symmetric, and the RST can pin-point a crater center to sub-pixel accuracy in both daytime and nighttime images, independent of lighting, time of day, or seasonal effects. Additionally, the RST works well on visible-light images, and in a 1D application, on MOLA tracks, to provide precision tie-points across multiple data sets. The RST often finds many points of symmetry that aren't related to surface features. These "false-hits" are managed using a clustering algorithm that identifies constellations of points that occur in multiple images, independent of scaling or other affine transformations. This technique is able to make use of data in which the "good" tie-points comprise even less than 1% of total

  2. An automatic sample changer for use on the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    A design for an Automatic Room Temperature Sample Changer suitable for any completely contained sample, gas, liquid or solid, has been produced. Samples can be moved in any sequence into the neutron beam. The design was evolved primarily to suit SNS instruments. A prototype was constructed specifically for the LAD spectrometer having ten sample positions. The accuracy of the sample positioning was determined. (author)

  3. Ma and LLFP transmutation in MTPs and ADSs: the typical SCK.CEN case of transmutations in BR2 and Myrrha. Position with respect to the global needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raedt, Ch. de; Verboomen, B.; Aoust, Th.; Malambu, E.; Beeckmans de West-Meerbeeck, A.; Kupschus, P.; Benoit, Ph.; Ait Abderrahim, H.; Baetsle, L.H.

    2001-01-01

    The proposed paper indicates the performances, in the domain of the transmutation of MAs and LLFPs, of the high flux materials testing reactor BR2 located at SCK-CEN, and compares them with those of the multipurpose ADS MYRRHA, the pre-design of which is at the present time being finalized at SCK-CEN. With thermal neutron fluxes reaching 9.10 14 n/cm 2 s in thermal positions and 4.10 14 n/cm 2 s in the reactor core and, in the latter position, a fast flux (E>0.1 MeV) of 7.10 14 n/cm 2 s, BR2 has a transmutation throughput of the order of 1.5 kg Np+Am per 200 EFPD. This capacity can be used for investigating at the technological scale the transmutation of MAs and LLFPs in a thermal neutron spectrum with a high contribution of epithermal and fast neutrons. The metallurgical behaviour of the targets can hence be studied. In MYRRHA, higher fast fluxes are expected to be attained in irradiation positions near the spallation source, viz fast fluxes (E>0.75 MeV) up to 10. 15 n/cm 2 s. One of the purposes of MYRRHA is therefore its utilisation for the investigation of actinide transmutation feasibility with ADSs. (author)

  4. Positive criminology in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronel, Natti; Segev, Dana

    2014-11-01

    The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by placing emphasis on human encounters and forces of inclusion that are experienced positively by target individuals and that can promote crime desistance. However, as the concept is relatively new, there are still no guiding principles for the practice of positive criminology that could direct research and the criminal justice system. This article attempts to fill that gap by providing principles that could be practiced by criminal justice personnel and examples of different interventions that reflect positive criminology. The article also provides ideological explanations for adopting the concept of positive criminology in practice. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Global co-existence of two evolutionary lineages of parvovirus B19 1a, different in genome-wide synonymous positions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke W A Molenaar-de Backer

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (B19V can cause infection in humans. To date, three genotypes of B19V, with subtypes, are known, of which genotype 1a is the most prevalent genotype in the Western world. We sequenced the genome of B19V strains of 65 asymptomatic, recently infected Dutch blood donors, to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of B19V strains, in the years 2003-2009. The sequences were compared to B19V sequences from Dutch patients with fifth disease, and to global B19V sequences as available from GenBank. All Dutch B19V strains belonged to genotype 1a. Phylogenetic analysis of the strains from Dutch blood donors showed that two groups of genotype 1a co-exist. A clear-cut division into the two groups was also found among the B19V strains from Dutch patients, and among the B19V sequences in GenBank. The two groups of genotype 1a co-exist around the world and do not appear to differ in their ability to cause disease. Strikingly, the two groups of B19V predominantly differ in synonymous mutations, distributed throughout the entire genome of B19V. We propose to call the two groups of B19V genotype 1a respectively subtype 1a1 and 1a2.

  6. Automatic EEG spike detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Richard

    2009-10-01

    Since the 1970s advances in science and technology during each succeeding decade have renewed the expectation of efficient, reliable automatic epileptiform spike detection (AESD). But even when reinforced with better, faster tools, clinically reliable unsupervised spike detection remains beyond our reach. Expert-selected spike parameters were the first and still most widely used for AESD. Thresholds for amplitude, duration, sharpness, rise-time, fall-time, after-coming slow waves, background frequency, and more have been used. It is still unclear which of these wave parameters are essential, beyond peak-peak amplitude and duration. Wavelet parameters are very appropriate to AESD but need to be combined with other parameters to achieve desired levels of spike detection efficiency. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and expert-system methods may have reached peak efficiency. Support Vector Machine (SVM) technology focuses on outliers rather than centroids of spike and nonspike data clusters and should improve AESD efficiency. An exemplary spike/nonspike database is suggested as a tool for assessing parameters and methods for AESD and is available in CSV or Matlab formats from the author at brainvue@gmail.com. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is presented as a graphic method for finding better spike parameters and for the step-wise evaluation of the spike detection process.

  7. Prevalence of Influenza A (H1N1) Sero positivity in Unvaccinated Health care Workers in Scotland at the Height of the Global Pandemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.; Katikireddi, S.V.; Mackenzie, D.G.; Warner, P.; Williams, L.J.; Adamson, W.E.; Carman, W.F.; Dewart, P.; Templeton, K.; Denison, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background. We set out to identify the level of previous exposure to influenza A (H1N1) in unvaccinated health care workers (HCWs) at the peak of the pandemic outbreak in the UK, with control samples collected prior to the outbreak. Methods. Cross-sectional study (sero prevalence assessed before and at pandemic peak, with questionnaire data collected at peak of outbreak) in HCWs in Scotland. Results. The prevalence of sero positivity in 493 HCWs at pandemic peak was 10.3%, which was higher than the pre pandemic level by 3.7 percentage points (95% CI 0.3% to 7.3%, P=0.048). Sero positivity rates for front line and non front line HCWs were similar. Conclusion. At pandemic peak, only 10.3% of HCWs were seropositive for influenza A (H1N1), so the great majority were still susceptible to infection at the introduction of the vaccination programme. Few studies have reported on sero prevalence in unvaccinated and asymptomatic participants, so our findings may have relevance to the wider population

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of quinupristin/dalfopristin tested against gram-positive cocci from Latin America: results from the Global SMART (GSMART surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sader Helio S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive cocci are important causes of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections, and antimicrobial resistance among these pathogens has become an important problem worldwide. Since resistance among these organisms can vary substantially by geographic location, we conducted a multicenter surveillance study with isolates from five Latin American countries (15 medical centers. Quinupristin/dalfopristin (formerly RP-59500 is a novel streptogramin combination with focused activity against Gram-positive cocci, many exhibiting emerging resistance. The in vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin and 12 other antimicrobial agents were evaluated against 1,948 strains including Staphylococcus aureus (747 strains, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 446 strains, enterococci (429 strains, and various Streptococcus spp. (326 strains. Oxacillin resistance was observed in 41% of S. aureus (MIC, or = 13 mm and 40% of CoNS (MIC, or = 18 mm. Vancomycin, teicoplanin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin (MIC90, 0.25 - 1 mug/ml remained effective against all strains, but cross-resistance was high among other tested drugs. The quinupristin/dalfopristin MIC50 for Streptococcus pneumoniae and other streptococci was only 0.5 mug/ml (13% to 28% were penicillin-resistant; 12% to 22% were macrolide-resistant. Enterococci demonstrated variable inhibition by quinupristin/dalfopristin depending upon identification and the susceptibility testing method used. The demonstrated quinupristin/dalfopristin activity against Enterococcus faecium was confirmed, but potential species identification errors with various commercial systems continue to confuse susceptibility statistics, even though some strains of E. faecium confirmed by PCR-based or other molecular identification techniques did have quinupristin/dalfopristin MICs of > or = 4 mug/mL. Most important, glycopeptide-resistant enterococci are rapidly emerging in Latin America, and quinupristin/dalfopristin appears

  9. AUTOMATIC MULTILEVEL IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED ON FUZZY REASONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An automatic multilevel image segmentation method based on sup-star fuzzy reasoning (SSFR is presented. Using the well-known sup-star fuzzy reasoning technique, the proposed algorithm combines the global statistical information implied in the histogram with the local information represented by the fuzzy sets of gray-levels, and aggregates all the gray-levels into several classes characterized by the local maximum values of the histogram. The presented method has the merits of determining the number of the segmentation classes automatically, and avoiding to calculating thresholds of segmentation. Emulating and real image segmentation experiments demonstrate that the SSFR is effective.

  10. Next Generation Model 8800 Automatic TLD Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbeck, K.J.; Streetz, K.L.; Rotunda, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    BICRON NE has developed an advanced version of the Model 8800 Automatic TLD Reader. Improvements in the reader include a Windows NT TM -based operating system and a Pentium microprocessor for the host controller, a servo-controlled transport, a VGA display, mouse control, and modular assembly. This high capacity reader will automatically read fourteen hundred TLD Cards in one loading. Up to four elements in a card can be heated without mechanical contact, using hot nitrogen gas. Improvements in performance include an increased throughput rate and more precise card positioning. Operation is simplified through easy-to-read Windows-type screens. Glow curves are displayed graphically along with light intensity, temperature, and channel scaling. Maintenance and diagnostic aids are included for easier troubleshooting. A click of a mouse will command actions that are displayed in easy-to-understand English words. Available options include an internal 90 Sr irradiator, automatic TLD calibration, and two different extremity monitoring modes. Results from testing include reproducibility, reader stability, linearity, detection threshold, residue, primary power supply voltage and frequency, transient voltage, drop testing, and light leakage. (author)

  11. Development of an automatic reactor inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hee; Eom, Heung Seop; Lee, Jae Cheol; Choi, Yoo Raek; Moon, Soon Seung

    2002-02-01

    Using recent technologies on a mobile robot computer science, we developed an automatic inspection system for weld lines of the reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection of the reactor pressure vessel is currently performed by commercialized robot manipulators. Since, however, the conventional fixed type robot manipulator is very huge, heavy and expensive, it needs long inspection time and is hard to handle and maintain. In order to resolve these problems, we developed a new automatic inspection system using a small mobile robot crawling on the vertical wall of the reactor vessel. According to our conceptual design, we developed the reactor inspection system including an underwater inspection robot, a laser position control subsystem, an ultrasonic data acquisition/analysis subsystem and a main control subsystem. We successfully carried out underwater experiments on the reactor vessel mockup, and real reactor ready for Ulchine nuclear power plant unit 6 at Dusan Heavy Industry in Korea. After this project, we have a plan to commercialize our inspection system. Using this system, we can expect much reduction of the inspection time, performance enhancement, automatic management of inspection history, etc. In the economic point of view, we can also expect import substitution more than 4 million dollars. The established essential technologies for intelligent control and automation are expected to be synthetically applied to the automation of similar systems in nuclear power plants

  12. Development of the automatic control rod operation system for JOYO. Verification of automatic control rod operation guide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terakado, Tsuguo; Suzuki, Shinya; Kawai, Masashi; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ohkubo, Toshiyuki

    1999-10-01

    The automatic control rod operation system was developed to control the JOYO reactor power automatically in all operation modes(critical approach, cooling system heat up, power ascent, power descent), development began in 1989. Prior to applying the system, verification tests of the automatic control rod operation guide system was conducted during 32nd duty cycles of JOYO' from Dec. 1997 to Feb. 1998. The automatic control rod operation guide system consists of the control rod operation guide function and the plant operation guide function. The control rod operation guide function provides information on control rod movement and position, while the plant operation guide function provide guidance for plant operations corresponding to reactor power changes(power ascent or power descent). Control rod insertion or withdrawing are predicted by fuzzy algorithms. (J.P.N.)

  13. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  14. Automatic detection and classification of human epicardial atrial unipolar electrograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubé, B; Vinet, A; Xiong, F; Yin, Y; LeBlanc, A-R; Pagé, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an unsupervised signal processing method applied to three-channel unipolar electrograms recorded from human atria. These were obtained by epicardial wires sutured on the right and left atria after coronary artery bypass surgery. Atrial (A) and ventricular (V) activations had to be detected and identified on each channel, and gathered across the channels when belonging to the same global event. The algorithm was developed and optimized on a training set of 19 recordings of 5 min. It was assessed on twenty-seven 2 h recordings taken just before the onset of a prolonged atrial fibrillation for a total of 1593697 activations that were validated and classified as normal atrial or ventricular activations (A, V) and premature atrial or ventricular activations (PAA, PVA). 99.93% of the activations were detected, and amongst these, 99.89% of the A and 99.75% of the V activations were correctly labelled. In the subset of the 39705 PAA, 99.83% were detected and 99.3% were correctly classified as A. The false positive rate was 0.37%. In conclusion, a reliable fully automatic detection and classification algorithm was developed that can detect and discriminate A and V activations from atrial recordings. It can provide the time series needed to develop a monitoring system aiming to identify dynamic predictors of forthcoming cardiac events such as postoperative atrial fibrillation

  15. Automatic Identification System modular receiver for academic purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, F.; Molina, N.; Tichavska, M.; Araña, V.

    2016-07-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) standard is encompassed within the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS), in force since 1999. The GMDSS is a set of procedures, equipment, and communication protocols designed with the aim of increasing the safety of sea crossings, facilitating navigation, and the rescue of vessels in danger. The use of this system not only is increasingly attractive to security issues but also potentially creates intelligence products throughout the added-value information that this network can transmit from ships on real time (identification, position, course, speed, dimensions, flag, among others). Within the marine electronics market, commercial receivers implement this standard and allow users to access vessel-broadcasted information if in the range of coverage. In addition to satellite services, users may request actionable information from private or public AIS terrestrial networks where real-time feed or historical data can be accessed from its nodes. This paper describes the configuration of an AIS receiver based on a modular design. This modular design facilitates the evaluation of specific modules and also a better understanding of the standard and the possibility of changing hardware modules to improve the performance of the prototype. Thus, the aim of this paper is to describe the system's specifications, its main hardware components, and to present educational didactics on the setup and use of a modular and terrestrial AIS receiver. The latter is for academic purposes and in undergraduate studies such as electrical engineering, telecommunications, and maritime studies.

  16. Automatic pattern localization across layout database and photolithography mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Philippe; Brault, Frederic; Beisser, Eric; Ache, Oliver; Röth, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Advanced process photolithography masks require more and more controls for registration versus design and critical dimension uniformity (CDU). The distribution of the measurement points should be distributed all over the whole mask and may be denser in areas critical to wafer overlay requirements. This means that some, if not many, of theses controls should be made inside the customer die and may use non-dedicated patterns. It is then mandatory to access the original layout database to select patterns for the metrology process. Finding hundreds of relevant patterns in a database containing billions of polygons may be possible, but in addition, it is mandatory to create the complete metrology job fast and reliable. Combining, on one hand, a software expertise in mask databases processing and, on the other hand, advanced skills in control and registration equipment, we have developed a Mask Dataprep Station able to select an appropriate number of measurement targets and their positions in a huge database and automatically create measurement jobs on the corresponding area on the mask for the registration metrology system. In addition, the required design clips are generated from the database in order to perform the rendering procedure on the metrology system. This new methodology has been validated on real production line for the most advanced process. This paper presents the main challenges that we have faced, as well as some results on the global performances.

  17. Automatic Planning of External Search Engine Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Jasevičiūtė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation of the external search engine optimization (SEO action planning tool, dedicated to automatically extract a small set of most important keywords for each month during whole year period. The keywords in the set are extracted accordingly to external measured parameters, such as average number of searches during the year and for every month individually. Additionally the position of the optimized web site for each keyword is taken into account. The generated optimization plan is similar to the optimization plans prepared manually by the SEO professionals and can be successfully used as a support tool for web site search engine optimization.

  18. Automatic focusing system of BSST in Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Peng-Yi; Liu, Jia-Jing; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Automatic focusing (AF) technology plays an important role in modern astronomical telescopes. Based on the focusing requirement of BSST (Bright Star Survey Telescope) in Antarctic, an AF system is set up. In this design, functions in OpenCV is used to find stars, the algorithm of area, HFD or FWHM are used to degree the focus metric by choosing. Curve fitting method is used to find focus position as the method of camera moving. All these design are suitable for unattended small telescope.

  19. Automatic Angular alignment of LHC Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Azzopardi, Gabriella; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Mereghetti, Alessio; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a complex collimation system to protect sensitive equipment from unavoidable beam losses. Collimators are positioned close to the beam using an alignment procedure. Until now they have always been aligned assuming no tilt between the collimator and the beam, however, tank misalignments or beam envelope angles at large-divergence locations could introduce a tilt limiting the collimation performance. Three different algorithms were implemented to automatically align a chosen collimator at various angles. The implementation was tested on a number of collimators during this MD and no human intervention was required.

  20. Automatic measurement of images on astrometric plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Gil, A.; Lopez Garcia, A.; Martinez Gonzalez, J. M.; Yershov, V.

    1994-04-01

    We present some results on the process of automatic detection and measurement of objects in overlapped fields of astrometric plates. The main steps of our algorithm are the following: determination of the Scale and Tilt between charge coupled devices (CCD) and microscope coordinate systems and estimation of signal-to-noise ratio in each field;--image identification and improvement of its position and size;--image final centering;--image selection and storage. Several parameters allow the use of variable criteria for image identification, characterization and selection. Problems related with faint images and crowded fields will be approached by special techniques (morphological filters, histogram properties and fitting models).

  1. Küresel Enerji Jeopolitiğinde Türkiye: Fırsatlar ve Riskler / The Position of Turkey in Global Energy Geopolitics: Opportunities and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Oral

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Turkey has various social, economic, cultural and geostrategic advantages and opportunities thanks to its location. However, it is also located between the Middle East, Balkans, and Caucasus, which are among the most depraved and unstable places in the world. This brings geopolitical risks to Turkey. With respect to energy geography, Turkey draws attention both as a center and as a natural route country that connects supply and demand territories. More than 70% of the world’s oil and natural gas reserves and about 30% of global consumption currently take place in Europe. Accordingly, Turkey is a terminal country with its energy demand security for resource territories and with its energy supply security for supply territories. The purpose of this study is to discuss the roles of Turkey with its strategic location in the energy geopolitics centered on oil and natural gas. The study uses the data provided by organizations that engage in significant international and national activities in the industry such as the International Energy Agency (IEA, U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA, British Petroleum (BP, World Energy Council (WEC, and the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources. Thus, this study uses a quantitative research method through the collection and analysis of secondary data.  Öz Türkiye konum itibariyle sosyal, ekonomik, kültürel ve jeostratejik açıdan çeşitli avantajlara/fırsatlara sahiptir. Ancak söz konusu coğrafya, aynı zamanda dünyanın en buhranlı, istikrarsız mekânlarından olan Orta Doğu, Balkanlar ve Kafkaslar bölgesinde yer almaktadır. Bu durum Türkiye için jeopolitik riskleri de beraberinde getirmektedir. Enerji Coğrafyası özelinde ise Türkiye, bir merkez ve arz-talep coğrafyalarını birleştiren doğal bir güzergâh ülkesi olarak dikkat çekmektedir. Mevcut durum itibariyle dünya petrol ve doğal gaz rezervlerinin %70’ten fazlası ve küresel t

  2. Artificial Intelligence In Automatic Target Recognizers: Technology And Timelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.

    1984-12-01

    The recognition of targets in thermal imagery has been a problem exhaustively analyzed in its current localized dimension. This paper discusses the application of artificial intelligence (AI) technology to automatic target recognition, a concept capable of expanding current ATR efforts into a new globalized dimension. Deficiencies of current automatic target recognition systems are reviewed in terms of system shortcomings. Areas of artificial intelligence which show the most promise in improving ATR performance are analyzed, and a timeline is formed in light of how near (as well as far) term artificial intelligence applications may exist. Current research in the area of high level expert vision systems is reviewed and the possible utilization of artificial intelligence architectures to improve low level image processing functions is also discussed. Additional application areas of relevance to solving the problem of automatic target recognition utilizing both high and low level processing are also explored.

  3. Individual differences in automatic emotion regulation affect the asymmetry of the LPP component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to investigate how automatic emotion regulation altered the hemispheric asymmetry of ERPs elicited by emotion processing. We examined the effect of individual differences in automatic emotion regulation on the late positive potential (LPP when participants were viewing blocks of positive high arousal, positive low arousal, negative high arousal and negative low arousal pictures from International affect picture system (IAPS. Two participant groups were categorized by the Emotion Regulation-Implicit Association Test which has been used in previous research to identify two groups of participants with automatic emotion control and with automatic emotion express. The main finding was that automatic emotion express group showed a right dominance of the LPP component at posterior electrodes, especially in high arousal conditions. But no right dominance of the LPP component was observed for automatic emotion control group. We also found the group with automatic emotion control showed no differences in the right posterior LPP amplitude between high- and low-arousal emotion conditions, while the participants with automatic emotion express showed larger LPP amplitude in the right posterior in high-arousal conditions compared to low-arousal conditions. This result suggested that AER (Automatic emotion regulation modulated the hemispheric asymmetry of LPP on posterior electrodes and supported the right hemisphere hypothesis.

  4. Individual differences in automatic emotion regulation affect the asymmetry of the LPP component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Renlai

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate how automatic emotion regulation altered the hemispheric asymmetry of ERPs elicited by emotion processing. We examined the effect of individual differences in automatic emotion regulation on the late positive potential (LPP) when participants were viewing blocks of positive high arousal, positive low arousal, negative high arousal and negative low arousal pictures from International affect picture system (IAPS). Two participant groups were categorized by the Emotion Regulation-Implicit Association Test which has been used in previous research to identify two groups of participants with automatic emotion control and with automatic emotion express. The main finding was that automatic emotion express group showed a right dominance of the LPP component at posterior electrodes, especially in high arousal conditions. But no right dominance of the LPP component was observed for automatic emotion control group. We also found the group with automatic emotion control showed no differences in the right posterior LPP amplitude between high- and low-arousal emotion conditions, while the participants with automatic emotion express showed larger LPP amplitude in the right posterior in high-arousal conditions compared to low-arousal conditions. This result suggested that AER (Automatic emotion regulation) modulated the hemispheric asymmetry of LPP on posterior electrodes and supported the right hemisphere hypothesis.

  5. Executive functions and motivation as moderators of the relationship between automatic associations and alcohol use in problem drinkers seeking online help

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, D.S.; Salemink, E.; Boendermaker, W.J.; Pronk, T.; Hofmann, W.; Wiers, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dual process models posit that problem drinking is maintained by an imbalance between relatively strong automatic processes and weak controlled processes, a combination of executive functions and motivation. Few studies have examined how the interplay between automatic processes and

  6. Individual Differences in Automatic Emotion Regulation Affect the Asymmetry of the LPP Component

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Renlai

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate how automatic emotion regulation altered the hemispheric asymmetry of ERPs elicited by emotion processing. We examined the effect of individual differences in automatic emotion regulation on the late positive potential (LPP) when participants were viewing blocks of positive high arousal, positive low arousal, negative high arousal and negative low arousal pictures from International affect picture system (IAPS). Two participant groups were catego...

  7. AUTOMATIC LIGHT CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, M.

    1957-08-27

    A control system for a projection kinescope used in a facsimile scanning system and, in particular, meams for maintaining substantially constant the light emanating from the flying spot on the face of the kinescope are described. In general, the invention provides a feeler member disposed in such a position with respect to a projecting lens as to intercept a portion of the light striking the lens. Suitable circuitry in conjunction with a photomultiplier tube provides a signal proportional to the light intensity of the flying spot. The grid bias on the kinescope is controlled by this signal to maintain the intensity of the spot substantially constant.

  8. Automatic control of cryogenic wind tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna, S.

    1989-01-01

    Inadequate Reynolds number similarity in testing of scaled models affects the quality of aerodynamic data from wind tunnels. This is due to scale effects of boundary-layer shock wave interaction which is likely to be severe at transonic speeds. The idea of operation of wind tunnels using test gas cooled to cryogenic temperatures has yielded a quantrum jump in the ability to realize full scale Reynolds number flow similarity in small transonic tunnels. In such tunnels, the basic flow control problem consists of obtaining and maintaining the desired test section flow parameters. Mach number, Reynolds number, and dynamic pressure are the three flow parameters that are usually required to be kept constant during the period of model aerodynamic data acquisition. The series of activity involved in modeling, control law development, mechanization of the control laws on a microcomputer, and the performance of a globally stable automatic control system for the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) are discussed. A lumped multi-variable nonlinear dynamic model of the cryogenic tunnel, generation of a set of linear control laws for small perturbation, and nonlinear control strategy for large set point changes including tunnel trajectory control are described. The details of mechanization of the control laws on a 16 bit microcomputer system, the software features, operator interface, the display and safety are discussed. The controller is shown to provide globally stable and reliable temperature control to + or - 0.2 K, pressure to + or - 0.07 psi and Mach number to + or - 0.002 of the set point value. This performance is obtained both during large set point commands as for a tunnel cooldown, and during aerodynamic data acquisition with intrusive activity like geometrical changes in the test section such as angle of attack changes, drag rake movements, wall adaptation and sidewall boundary-layer removal. Feasibility of the use of an automatic Reynolds number control mode with

  9. Automatically Annotated Mapping for Indoor Mobile Robot Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Howard, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new and practical method for mapping and annotating indoor environments for mobile robot use. The method makes use of 2D occupancy grid maps for metric representation, and topology maps to indicate the connectivity of the ‘places-of-interests’ in the environment. Novel use...... localization and mapping in topology space, and fuses camera and robot pose estimations to build an automatically annotated global topo-metric map. It is developed as a framework for a hospital service robot and tested in a real hospital. Experiments show that the method is capable of producing globally...... consistent, automatically annotated hybrid metric-topological maps that is needed by mobile service robots....

  10. Choosing Actuators for Automatic Control Systems of Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, A. I., E-mail: gor@tornado.nsk.ru [JSC “Tornado Modular Systems” (Russian Federation); Serdyukov, O. V. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation and Electrometry (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Two types of actuators for automatic control systems of thermal power plants are analyzed: (i) pulse-controlled actuator and (ii) analog-controlled actuator with positioning function. The actuators are compared in terms of control circuit, control accuracy, reliability, and cost.

  11. Projector : automatic contig mapping for gap closure purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hijum, SAFT; Zomer, AL; Kuipers, OP; Kok, J

    2003-01-01

    Projector was designed for automatic positioning of contigs from an unfinished prokaryotic genome onto a template genome of a closely related strain or species. Projector mapped 84 contigs of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 (corresponding to 81% of the assembly nucleotides) against the genome of L.lactis

  12. Automatic validation of numerical solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with ``Automatic Validation of Numerical Solutions''. The basic theory of interval analysis and self-validating methods is introduced. The mean value enclosure is applied to discrete mappings for obtaining narrow enclosures of the iterates when applying these mappings...... differential equations, but in this thesis, we describe how to use the methods for enclosing iterates of discrete mappings, and then later use them for discretizing solutions of ordinary differential equations. The theory of automatic differentiation is introduced, and three methods for obtaining derivatives...... are described: The forward, the backward, and the Taylor expansion methods. The three methods have been implemented in the C++ program packages FADBAD/TADIFF. Some examples showing how to use the three metho ds are presented. A feature of FADBAD/TADIFF not present in other automatic differentiation packages...

  13. Automatic quantification of local and global articular cartilage surface curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Jenny; Dam, Erik B; Olsen, Ole F

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the surface curvature of the articular cartilage from low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, and to investigate its role in populations with varying radiographic signs of osteoarthritis (OA), cross-sectionally and longitudinally...

  14. Global positioning system use in the community to evaluate improvements in walking after revascularization: a prospective multicenter study with 6-month follow-up in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernigon, Marie; Le Faucheur, Alexis; Fradin, Dominique; Noury-Desvaux, Bénédicte; Landron, Cédric; Mahe, Guillaume; Abraham, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Revascularization aims at improving walking ability in patients with arterial claudication. The highest measured distance between 2 stops (highest-MDCW), the average walking speed (average-WSCW), and the average stop duration (average-DSCW) can be measured by global positioning system, but their evolution after revascularization is unknown.We included 251 peripheral artery diseased patients with self-reported limiting claudication. The patients performed a 1-hour stroll, recorded by a global positioning system receiver. Patients (n = 172) with confirmed limitation (highest-MDCW the follow-up period were compared with reference patients (ie, with unchanged lifestyle medical or surgical status). Other patients (lost to follow-up or treatment change) were excluded (n = 89).We studied 44 revascularized and 39 reference patients. Changes in highest-MDCW (+442 vs. +13 m) and average-WSCW (+0.3 vs. -0.2 km h) were greater in revascularized than in reference patients (both P the groups. Among the revascularized patients, 13 (29.5%) had a change in average-WSCW, but not in highest-MDCW, greater than the mean + 1 standard deviation of the change observed for reference patients.Revascularization may improve highest-MDCW and/or average-WSCW. This first report of changes in community walking ability in revascularized patients suggests that, beyond measuring walking distances, average-WSCW measurement is essential to monitor these changes. Applicability to other surgical populations remains to be evaluated. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01141361.

  15. Automatic Construction of Finite Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with model generation for equational theories,i.e.,automatically generating (finite)models of a given set of (logical) equations.Our method of finite model generation and a tool for automatic construction of finite algebras is described.Some examples are given to show the applications of our program.We argue that,the combination of model generators and theorem provers enables us to get a better understanding of logical theories.A brief comparison betwween our tool and other similar tools is also presented.

  16. Development of an automatic scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yuehong

    2009-04-01

    A self-designed automatic scaler is introduced. A microcontroller LPC936 is used as the master chip in the scaler. A counter integrated with the micro-controller is configured to operate as external pulse counter. Software employed in the scaler is based on a embedded real-time operating system kernel named Small RTOS. Data storage, calculation and some other functions are also provided. The scaler is designed for applications with low cost, low power consumption solutions. By now, the automatic scaler has been applied in a surface contamination instrument. (authors)

  17. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming focuses on the techniques of automatic programming used with digital computers. Topics covered range from the design of machine-independent programming languages to the use of recursive procedures in ALGOL 60. A multi-pass translation scheme for ALGOL 60 is described, along with some commercial source languages. The structure and use of the syntax-directed compiler is also considered.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the basic ideas involved in the description of a computing process as a program for a computer, expressed in

  18. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  19. Remarks on global anomalies in RCFT orientifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands) and Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain) and IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: t58@nikhef.nl

    2006-01-26

    We check the list of supersymmetric standard model orientifold spectra of Dijkstra, Huiszoon and Schellekens for the presence of global anomalies, using probe branes. Absence of global anomalies is found to impose strong constraints, but in nearly all cases they are automatically satisfied by the solutions to the tadpole cancellation conditions.

  20. Global Positioning System Disaster Notification Messaging Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    jammer.” In early 2013, a team from MIT with the cooperation of a witting yacht crew performed a proof of concept navigation attack as if a malicious...attacker were spoofing GPS. GPS signals were slowly overpowered with a compilation of artificial signals which successfully steered the yacht 100...2013, July 30). Students hijack luxury yacht with GPS spoofing. Retrieved from SC magazine website http://www.scmagazine.com.au/News/ Schnabel, J

  1. Teaching Motion with the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budisa, Marko; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2003-01-01

    We have used the GPS receiver and a PC interface to track different types of motion. Various hands-on experiments that enlighten the physics of motion at the secondary school level are suggested (visualization of 2D and 3D motion, measuring car drag coefficient and fuel consumption). (Contains 8 figures.)

  2. Global positioning system: theory and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hofmann-Wellenhof, B; Lichtenegger, Herbert; Collins, James

    1993-01-01

    ... (i.e, surveying) is treated as well as navigation and attitude determination. The basic mathematical models for various modes of GPS operations and detailed explanation of the practical use of GPS are developed precisely in this book...

  3. Global Positioning System (GPS) Energetic Particle Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Energetic particle data from the CXD and BDD instrument on the GPS constellation are available to the space weather research community. The release of these data...

  4. Enhancing global positioning by image recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Marimon Sanjuan, David; Adamek, Tomasz; Bonnin, Arturo; Trzcinski, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Current commercial outdoor Mobile AR applications rely mostly on GPS antennas, digital compasses and accelerometers. Due to imprecise readings, the 2D placement of points of interest (POI) on the display can be uncorrelated with reality. We present a novel method to geo-locate a mobile device by rec- ognizing what is captured by its camera. A visual recognition algo- rithm in the cloud is used to identify geo-located reference images that match the camera’s view. Upon correct identification, ...

  5. Global Positioning System: theory and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hofmann-Wellenhof, B; Lichtenegger, Herbert; Collins, James

    2001-01-01

    ... (i.e., surveying) is treated as well as navigation and attitude determination. The basic mathematical models for various modes of GPS operations and detailed explanation of the practical use of GPS are developed precisely in this book...

  6. Location - Global Positioning System (GPS) Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Digital photos tagged with GPS location information. The St. Paul District maintains a digital library of over 10,000 GPS photos. Photos are often associated with...

  7. Neural-network classifiers for automatic real-world aerial image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Shlomo; Guterman, Hugo

    1996-08-01

    We describe the application of the multilayer perceptron (MLP) network and a version of the adaptive resonance theory version 2-A (ART 2-A) network to the problem of automatic aerial image recognition (AAIR). The classification of aerial images, independent of their positions and orientations, is required for automatic tracking and target recognition. Invariance is achieved by the use of different invariant feature spaces in combination with supervised and unsupervised neural networks. The performance of neural-network-based classifiers in conjunction with several types of invariant AAIR global features, such as the Fourier-transform space, Zernike moments, central moments, and polar transforms, are examined. The advantages of this approach are discussed. The performance of the MLP network is compared with that of a classical correlator. The MLP neural-network correlator outperformed the binary phase-only filter (BPOF) correlator. It was found that the ART 2-A distinguished itself with its speed and its low number of required training vectors. However, only the MLP classifier was able to deal with a combination of shift and rotation geometric distortions.

  8. Model design and simulation of automatic sorting machine using proximity sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole I. Oladapo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The automatic sorting system has been reported to be complex and a global problem. This is because of the inability of sorting machines to incorporate flexibility in their design concept. This research therefore designed and developed an automated sorting object of a conveyor belt. The developed automated sorting machine is able to incorporate flexibility and separate species of non-ferrous metal objects and at the same time move objects automatically to the basket as defined by the regulation of the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC with a capacitive proximity sensor to detect a value range of objects. The result obtained shows that plastic, wood, and steel were sorted into their respective and correct position with an average, sorting, time of 9.903 s, 14.072 s and 18.648 s respectively. The proposed developed model of this research could be adopted at any institution or industries, whose practices are based on mechatronics engineering systems. This is to guide the industrial sector in sorting of object and teaching aid to institutions and hence produce the list of classified materials according to the enabled sorting program commands.

  9. Automatic Texture and Orthophoto Generation from Registered Panoramic Views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krispel, Ulrich; Evers, Henrik Leander; Tamke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    are automatically identified from the geometry and an image per view is created via projection. We combine methods of computer vision to train a classifier to detect the objects of interest from these orthographic views. Furthermore, these views can be used for automatic texturing of the proxy geometry....... from range data only. In order to detect these elements, we developed a method that utilizes range data and color information from high-resolution panoramic images of indoor scenes, taken at the scanners position. A proxy geometry is derived from the point clouds; orthographic views of the scene...

  10. Global overeksponering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus A. Foss

    2007-01-01

    forandringer. Den globale orientering kommer blandt andet til udtryk i det relativt store internationale netværk, som bakker de unge op i deres protester - enten ved tilstedeværelse i København eller andre sympatiaktioner. Siden den 11. september, 2001, er globale realiteter blevet eksponeret i massemedierne...... så bliver der blændet fuldt op for linsen d. 11. september, 2001 til en global verden, hvor de demokratiske værdier ikke gælder. Lad mig blot give et eksempel: Guatanamo. Jeg skal hverken tale for eller imod den måde verden er indrettet på - da det er denne analyse uvedkommende - men blot pege på...... med væsentligt større kraft end tidligere. Før den 11. september blev globaliseringen udelukkende tegnet af jetsettet. Altså internationale politikere, kulturkoryfæer, videnskabsfolk og forretningsfolk, der har handler ud fra kendte rationaler. Men jetsettet har ikke længere den privilegeret position...

  11. In vitro activity of tigecycline and comparator agents against a global collection of Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms: tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial 2004 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Mark W; Mutters, Reinier; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2009-11-01

    The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial began in 2004 to monitor the in vitro activity of tigecycline and comparator agents against a global collection of Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens. Against Gram negatives (n = 63 699), tigecycline MIC(90)'s ranged from 0.25 to 2 mg/L for Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens (but was > or =32 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Against Gram-positive organisms (n = 32 218), tigecycline MIC(90)'s were between 0.06 and 0.25 mg/L for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. The in vitro activity of tigecycline was maintained against resistant phenotypes, including multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (9.2% of isolates), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli (7.0%) and K. pneumoniae (14.0%), beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae (22.2%), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (44.5%), vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (45.9%) and E. faecalis (2.8%), and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (13.8%). Tigecycline represents a welcome addition to the armamentarium against difficult to treat organisms.

  12. Dynamic Anthropometry – Deffning Protocols for Automatic Body Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavenka Petrak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research on possibilities of protocol development for automatic computer-based determination of measurements on a 3D body model in defined dynamic positions. Initially, two dynamic body positions were defined for the research on dimensional changes of targeted body lengths and surface segments during body movement from basic static position into a selected dynamic body position. The assumption was that during body movement, specifi c length and surface dimensions would change significantly from the aspect of clothing construction and functionality of a garment model. 3D body scanning of a female test sample was performed in basic static and two defined dynamic positions. 3D body models were processed and measurement points were defined as a starting point for the determination of characteristic body measurements. The protocol for automatic computer measurement was defined for every dynamic body position by the systematic set of activities based on determined measurement points. The verification of developed protocols was performed by automatic determination of defined measurements on the test sample and by comparing the results with the conventional manual measurement.

  13. The automatic lumber planing mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  14. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  15. Automatically Preparing Safe SQL Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Prithvi; Sistla, A. Prasad; Venkatakrishnan, V. N.

    We present the first sound program source transformation approach for automatically transforming the code of a legacy web application to employ PREPARE statements in place of unsafe SQL queries. Our approach therefore opens the way for eradicating the SQL injection threat vector from legacy web applications.

  16. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range...... interactive software is also part of a computer-assisted learning program on digital photogrammetry....

  17. Automatic analysis of ultrasonic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horteur, P.; Colin, J.; Benoist, P.; Bonis, M.; Paradis, L.

    1986-10-01

    This paper describes an automatic and self-contained data processing system, transportable on site, able to perform images such as ''A. Scan'', ''B. Scan'', ... to present very quickly the results of the control. It can be used in the case of pressure vessel inspection [fr

  18. Automatic classification for mammogram backgrounds based on bi-rads complexity definition and on a multi content analysis framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Besnehard, Quentin; Marchessoux, Cédric

    2011-03-01

    Clinical studies for the validation of new medical imaging devices require hundreds of images. An important step in creating and tuning the study protocol is the classification of images into "difficult" and "easy" cases. This consists of classifying the image based on features like the complexity of the background, the visibility of the disease (lesions). Therefore, an automatic medical background classification tool for mammograms would help for such clinical studies. This classification tool is based on a multi-content analysis framework (MCA) which was firstly developed to recognize image content of computer screen shots. With the implementation of new texture features and a defined breast density scale, the MCA framework is able to automatically classify digital mammograms with a satisfying accuracy. BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting Data System) density scale is used for grouping the mammograms, which standardizes the mammography reporting terminology and assessment and recommendation categories. Selected features are input into a decision tree classification scheme in MCA framework, which is the so called "weak classifier" (any classifier with a global error rate below 50%). With the AdaBoost iteration algorithm, these "weak classifiers" are combined into a "strong classifier" (a classifier with a low global error rate) for classifying one category. The results of classification for one "strong classifier" show the good accuracy with the high true positive rates. For the four categories the results are: TP=90.38%, TN=67.88%, FP=32.12% and FN =9.62%.

  19. Affective Evaluations of Exercising: The Role of Automatic-Reflective Evaluation Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Ralf; Antoniewicz, Franziska

    2016-12-01

    Sometimes our automatic evaluations do not correspond well with those we can reflect on and articulate. We present a novel approach to the assessment of automatic and reflective affective evaluations of exercising. Based on the assumptions of the associative-propositional processes in evaluation model, we measured participants' automatic evaluations of exercise and then shared this information with them, asked them to reflect on it and rate eventual discrepancy between their reflective evaluation and the assessment of their automatic evaluation. We found that mismatch between self-reported ideal exercise frequency and actual exercise frequency over the previous 14 weeks could be regressed on the discrepancy between a relatively negative automatic and a more positive reflective evaluation. This study illustrates the potential of a dual-process approach to the measurement of evaluative responses and suggests that mistrusting one's negative spontaneous reaction to exercise and asserting a very positive reflective evaluation instead leads to the adoption of inflated exercise goals.

  20. Fully automatic CNC machining production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jeng-Dao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Customized manufacturing is increasing years by years. The consumption habits change has been cause the shorter of product life cycle. Therefore, many countries view industry 4.0 as a target to achieve more efficient and more flexible automated production. To develop an automatic loading and unloading CNC machining system via vision inspection is the first step in industrial upgrading. CNC controller is adopted as the main controller to command to the robot, conveyor, and other equipment in this study. Moreover, machine vision systems are used to detect position of material on the conveyor and the edge of the machining material. In addition, Open CNC and SCADA software will be utilized to make real-time monitor, remote system of control, alarm email notification, and parameters collection. Furthermore, RFID has been added to employee classification and management. The machine handshaking has been successfully proposed to achieve automatic vision detect, edge tracing measurement, machining and system parameters collection for data analysis to accomplish industrial automation system integration with real-time monitor.