WorldWideScience

Sample records for global plasma parameters

  1. Global parameter optimization of a Mather-type plasma focus in the framework of the Gratton–Vargas two-dimensional snowplow model

    Auluck, S K H

    2014-01-01

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) is known to produce highly energetic ions, electrons and plasma environment which can be used for breeding short-lived isotopes, plasma nanotechnology and other material processing applications. Commercial utilization of DPF in such areas would need a design tool that can be deployed in an automatic search for the best possible device configuration for a given application. The recently revisited (Auluck 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 112501) Gratton–Vargas (GV) two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus provides a numerical formula for dynamic inductance of a Mather-type plasma focus fitted to thousands of automated computations, which enables the construction of such a design tool. This inductance formula is utilized in the present work to explore global optimization, based on first-principles optimality criteria, in a four-dimensional parameter-subspace of the zero-resistance GV model. The optimization process is shown to reproduce the empirically observed constancy of the drive parameter over eight decades in capacitor bank energy. The optimized geometry of plasma focus normalized to the anode radius is shown to be independent of voltage, while the optimized anode radius is shown to be related to capacitor bank inductance. (paper)

  2. Measurement of plasma parameters

    1999-01-01

    The physics issues of the measurements of the plasma properties necessary to provide both the control and science data for achieving the goals of the ITER device are discussed. The assessment of the requirements for these measurements is first discussed, together with priorities that relate to the experimental program. Subsequently, some of the proposed measurement techniques, the plasma diagnostics, are described with particular emphasis on their implementation on ITER and their capability to meet the requirements. A judgement on the present status of the diagnostic program on ITER is provided with some indication of the research and development program necessary to demonstrate viability of techniques or their implementation. (author)

  3. Fast determination of plasma parameters

    Wijnands, T.J.; Parlange, F.; Joffrin, E.

    1995-01-01

    Fast analysis of diagnostic signals of a tokamak discharge is demonstrated by using 4 fundamentally different techniques. A comparison between Function Parametrization (FP), Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and a particular Neural Network (NN) configuration known as the Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) is carried out, thereby taking a unique linear model based on a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) as a reference. The various techniques provide all functional representations of characteristic plasma parameters in terms of the values of the measurements and are based on an analysis of a large, experimentally achieved database. A brief mathematical description of the various techniques is given, followed by two particular applications to Tore Supra diagnostic data. The first problem is concerned with the identification of the plasma boundary parameters using the poloidal field and differential poloidal flux measurements. A second application involves the interpretation of line integrated data from the multichannel interfero-polarimeter to obtain the central value of the safety factor. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  4. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  5. Sensitivity of transient synchrotron radiation to tokamak plasma parameters

    Fisch, N.J.; Kritz, A.H.

    1988-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from a hot plasma can inform on certain plasma parameters. The dependence on plasma parameters is particularly sensitive for the transient radiation response to a brief, deliberate, perturbation of hot plasma electrons. We investigate how such a radiation response can be used to diagnose a variety of plasma parameters in a tokamak. 18 refs., 13 figs

  6. Effect of Equilibrium Flow on Plasma Parameters

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Lahiri, S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Dasgupta, B.

    2003-01-01

    The transition to high confinement modes have been identified with the occurrence of strong shear flow near the plasma boundary. Plasma flow has also been associated with various instabilities, heating and other physical processes. As a result, it has become very important to study the effect of such flows on various plasma parameters. In this paper, we present the numerical solution of plasma equilibrium with incompressible toroidal and poloidal flows in several magnetic confinement configurations including tokamaks. The code, which was reported in the last conference, has been used to solve the problem in both circular and D-shaped devices. A parametric study on the generation of shear flow due to radial electric fields has been carried out. Through this study, it has been possible to generate plasma equilibria having sharp pressure gradients which are remarkably close to those reported in various H-mode experiments. The effects of flow on reverse shear equilibria and on the position of the magnetic axis has been studied. Finally, a detailed study has been carried out to understand the effect of flows on important plasma parameters, such as the poloidal flux function, β, energy confinement time

  7. Characterization of hot dense plasma with plasma parameters

    Singh, Narendra; Goyal, Arun; Chaurasia, S.

    2018-05-01

    Characterization of hot dense plasma (HDP) with its parameters temperature, electron density, skin depth, plasma frequency is demonstrated in this work. The dependence of HDP parameters on temperature and electron density is discussed. The ratio of the intensities of spectral lines within HDP is calculated as a function of electron temperature. The condition of weakly coupled for HDP is verified by calculating coupling constant. Additionally, atomic data such as transition wavelength, excitation energies, line strength, etc. are obtained for Be-like ions on the basis of MCDHF method. In atomic data calculations configuration interaction and relativistic effects QED and Breit corrections are newly included for HDP characterization and this is first result of HDP parameters from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiations.

  8. A lumped parameter model of plasma focus

    Gonzalez, Jose H.; Florido, Pablo C.; Bruzzone, H.; Clausse, Alejandro

    1999-01-01

    A lumped parameter model to estimate neutron emission of a plasma focus (PF) device is developed. The dynamic of the current sheet is calculated using a snowplow model, and the neutron production with the thermal fusion cross section for a deuterium filling gas. The results were contrasted as a function of the filling pressure with experimental measurements of a 3.68 KJ Mather-type PF. (author)

  9. Simultaneous measurement of 3 fluctuating plasma parameters

    Carlson, A.; Giannone, L.

    1991-01-01

    Langmuir triple probes can provide simultaneous measurements of n e , T e and V pl with good temporal and spatial resolution, and therefore are especially suited to detailed investigations of plasma turbulence in the scrape-off-layer. Unfortunately, the finite tip separation coupled with the fluctuating gradients prevents a simple interpretation of the results. We have developed a method using, essentially, two or more triple probes, which allows a good estimate of the three plasma parameters and their spatial derivatives at each point of time (assuming tip separation is much less than correlation length and dimensionless fluctuation levels are much less than unity). In particular, we can unambiguously measure the temperature fluctuations and the turbulent particle and heat flux. (author) 1 fig

  10. Simultaneous measurement of 3 fluctuating plasma parameters

    Carlson, A.; Giannone, L.

    1991-01-01

    Langmuir triple probes can provide simultaneous measurements of n e , T e , and V pl with good temporal and spatial resolution, and therefore are especially suited to detailed investigations of plasma turbulence in the scrape-off-layer. Unfortunately, the finite tip separation coupled with the fluctuating gradients prevents a simple interpretation of the results. We have developed a method using, essentially, two or more triple probes, which allows a good estimate of the three plasma parameters and their spatial derivatives at each point of time (assuming tip separation is much less than correlation length and dimensionless fluctuation levels are much less than unity). In particular, we can unambiguously measure the temperature fluctuations and the turbulent particle and heat flux. (orig.)

  11. Simultaneous measurement of 3 fluctuating plasma parameters

    Carlson, A; Giannone, L. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany))

    1991-01-01

    Langmuir triple probes can provide simultaneous measurements of n[sub e], T[sub e] and V[sub pl] with good temporal and spatial resolution, and therefore are especially suited to detailed investigations of plasma turbulence in the scrape-off-layer. Unfortunately, the finite tip separation coupled with the fluctuating gradients prevents a simple interpretation of the results. We have developed a method using, essentially, two or more triple probes, which allows a good estimate of the three plasma parameters and their spatial derivatives at each point of time (assuming tip separation is much less than correlation length and dimensionless fluctuation levels are much less than unity). In particular, we can unambiguously measure the temperature fluctuations and the turbulent particle and heat flux. (author) 1 fig.

  12. Intermittent and global transitions in plasma turbulence

    Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2003-07-01

    The dynamics of the transition processes in plasma turbulence described by the nonlinear Langevin equation (1) is studied. We show that intermittent or global transitions between metastable states can appear. The conditions for the generation of these transitions and their statistical characteristics are determined. (author)

  13. A proposed method for fast determination of plasma parameters

    Braams, B.J.; Lackner, K.

    1984-09-01

    The method of function parametrization, developed and applied by H. Wind for fast data evaluation in high energy physics, is presented in the context of controlled fusion research. This method relies on statistical analysis of a data base of simulated experiments in order to obtain a functional representation for the intrinsic physical parameters of a system in terms of the values of the measurements. Some variations on Wind's original procedure are suggested. A specific application for tokamak experiments would be the determination of certain global parameters of the plasma, characterizing the current profile, shape of the cross-section, plasma pressure, and the internal inductance. The relevant measurements for this application include values of the poloidal field and flux external to the plasma, and a diamagnetic measurement. These may be combined with other diagnostics, such as electron-cyclotron emission and laser interferometry, in order to obtain also density and temperature profiles. There appears to be a capability for on-line determination of basic physical parameters, in a millisecond timescale on a minicomputer instead of in seconds on a large mainframe. (orig.)

  14. Determination of global heart function parameters

    Adam, W.E.; Hoffmann, H.; Sigel, H.; Bitter, F.; Nechwatal, W.; Stauch, M.; Ulm Univ.; Freiburg Univ.

    1980-01-01

    1. ECG-triggered scintigraphy of the interior of the heart (radioactive ventriculography) is a reliable non-invasive technique for the acquisition of the global and regional function of the left ventricle. 2. The most important global parameter is the output function (OF) of the left ventricle. It can be measured exactly. The decrease of the OF under load is typical for coronary insufficience under load, but is not specifically. 3. A movement disturbance on the ground of a KHK is recognized with highest sensitivity at the decrease of the maximum relaxation velocity of the global left-ventricular time-activity characteristic (fast phase of filling). 4. Regional wall movement disturbances can be measured quantitatively by means of viewing the radioactive nucleid ventriculogramm at the display. 5. The quantitative measurement of the regional function needs an extensive analysis of the local time-activity characteristics of a representative coronary cycle. For this the amplitude and phase and the contraction and relaxation velocity of all time-activity characteristics is determined by Fourier analysis and their spatial distribution is drawn (parametric scan). 6. The parametric scans (distribution of amplitude, phase, contraction and relaxation velocities) describe the regional wall movement in detail, the reliability of its quantitative acquisition has to be approved by further investigations. (orig.) [de

  15. Global confinement characteristics of Jet limiter plasmas

    Campbell, D.J.; Christiansen, J.P.; Cordey, J.G.; Thomas, P.R.; Thomsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    Data from a wide variety of plasma pulses on JET (aux. heating, current, field, minority species, plasma shape, etc) are analysed in order to assess the characteristics of global confinement. The scaling of confinement in ohmically and auxiliary heated discharges is examined. The ohmic confinement in the present new JET configuration (Belt Limiter) is essentially the same as previously. Confinement in auxiliary heated discharges shows presently a slight improvement since 1986. Both ohmic and non-ohmic data is used in a set of confinement time regression analyses and certain constraints derived from theory are imposed

  16. Global variation of meteor trail plasma turbulence

    L. P. Dyrud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the first global simulations on the occurrence of meteor trail plasma irregularities. These results seek to answer the following questions: when a meteoroid disintegrates in the atmosphere, will the resulting trail become plasma turbulent? What are the factors influencing the development of turbulence? and how do these trails vary on a global scale? Understanding meteor trail plasma turbulence is important because turbulent meteor trails are visible as non-specular trails to coherent radars. Turbulence also influences the evolution of specular radar meteor trails; this fact is important for the inference of mesospheric temperatures from the trail diffusion rates, and their usage for meteor burst communication. We provide evidence of the significant effect that neutral atmospheric winds and ionospheric plasma density have on the variability of meteor trail evolution and on the observation of non-specular meteor trails. We demonstrate that trails are far less likely to become and remain turbulent in daylight, explaining several observational trends for non-specular and specular meteor trails.

  17. DAQ system for low density plasma parameters measurement

    Joshi, Rashmi S.; Gupta, Suryakant B.

    2015-01-01

    In various cases where low density plasmas (number density ranges from 1E4 to 1E6 cm -3 ) exist for example, basic plasma studies or LEO space environment measurement of plasma parameters becomes very critical. Conventional tip (cylindrical) Langmuir probes often result into unstable measurements in such lower density plasma. Due to larger surface area, a spherical Langmuir probe is used to measure such lower plasma densities. Applying a sweep voltage signal to the probe and measuring current values corresponding to these voltages gives V-I characteristics of plasma which can be plotted on a digital storage oscilloscope. This plot is analyzed for calculating various plasma parameters. The aim of this paper is to measure plasma parameters using a spherical Langmuir probe and indigenously developed DAQ system. DAQ system consists of Keithley source-meter and a host system connected by a GPIB interface. An online plasma parameter diagnostic system is developed for measuring plasma properties for non-thermal plasma in vacuum. An algorithm is developed using LabVIEW platform. V-I characteristics of plasma are plotted with respect to different filament current values and different locations of Langmuir probe with reference to plasma source. V-I characteristics is also plotted for forward and reverse voltage sweep generated programmatically from the source meter. (author)

  18. Hot plasma parameters in Neptune's magnetosphere

    Krimigis, S.M.; Mauk, B.H.; Cheng, A.F.; Keath, E.P.; Kane, M.; Armstrong, T.P.; Gloeckler, G.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Energy spectra of energetic protons and electrons (E p approx-gt 28 keV, E e approx-gt 22 keV, respectively) obtained with the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instrument during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune on August 24-25, 1989 are presented. The proton spectral form was a power law (dj/dE = KE -γ ), outside the orbit of Triton (∼14.3 R N ); inside that distance, it was found to be a hot (kT ≅ 60 keV) Maxwellian distribution. Such distributions, observed in other planets as well, have yet to be explained theoretically. Similarly, the electron spectral form changed from a simple power law outside Triton to a two-slope power law with a high energy tail inside. Intensity and spectral features in both proton and electron fluxes were identified in association with the crossings of the Triton and 1989 N1 L-shells, but these features do not occur simultaneously in both species. Such signatures were manifested by relative peaks in both kT and γ spectral indices. Peak proton pressures of ∼2x10 -9 dynes cm -2 , and β ∼ 0.2 were measured at successive magnetic equatorial crossings, both inbound and outbound. These parameters show Neptune's magnetosphere to be relatively undistorted by hot plasma loading, similar to that of Uranus and unlike those of Saturn and Jupiter. Trapped electron fluxes at Neptune, as at Uranus, exceed the whistler mode stably trapped flux limit. Whistler-induced pitch angle scattering of energetic electrons in the radiation belts can yield a precipitating energy flux sufficient to drive Neptune's aurora

  19. Coaxial discharge plasma parameters and radiation emission

    Solimen, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    Results are reported for experiments carried out on a Mather type coaxial discharge plasma device. Experimental measurements of the electron temperature and density for the plasma propagated from the coaxial discharge are determined by using a biased double electric probe. The experimental results illustrated that , there are two groups of the plasma in the ejected plasma bulk, at 9 cm from the muzzle axis, the plasma reached the probe at 20 μsec from the start of discharge. The first group has electron temperature and density 27 eV and 3 x 10 14 cm -3 respectively,while The second group has 25 eV and 3 x 10 14 cm -3 respectively. The decay rate of the electron temperature and density of each group is presented. The plasma radiation spectrum is detected by a dielectric filter at 3500 A degree or 6100 A degree . The experimental measurements showed that, without or with dielectric filters, the visible radiation consists from two pulses with different magnitudes within the same half cycle of discharge. The time resolution of the soft x-ray is achieved by means of scintillator detector. The detected x-ray pulse during the first half cycle of discharge had a double peaks with different structures. All the experimental results present in this paper showed that the plasma bulk propagated in the expansion chamber, consists of two-groups. 6 fig

  20. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Karthikeyan, J.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Venkatramani, N.; Chatterjee, U.K.

    1991-01-01

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  1. GA BASED GLOBAL OPTIMAL DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR ...

    Journal of Modeling, Design and Management of Engineering Systems ... DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR CONSECUTIVE REACTIONS IN SERIALLY CONNECTED ... for the process equipments such as chemical reactors used in industries.

  2. Measurement of performance parameters of plasma source for plasma opening switch on Qiangguang-Ⅰ generator

    Luo Weixi; Zeng Zhengzhong; Lei Tianshi; Wang Liangping; Hu Yixiang; Sun Tieping; Huang Tao

    2012-01-01

    The plasma source (cable guns) of the plasma opening switch (POS) on Qiangguang Ⅰ generator was chosen as the study object. The plasma source performance was investigated by using charge collectors. Experimental results show that the plasma ejection density is positively correlated with the structural parameter, the distance between gun core tip and muzzle plane, and the plasma ejection velocity is negatively correlated with the parameter. The increasing rate of plasma ejection density is less than that of drive current. As far as a plasma source with tens of cable plasma guns is concerned, the influence of single cable gun's discharge dispersancy on plasma uniformity is little. Analysis of uncertainty shows that the uncertainty of measurement can be reduced by increasing the number of experiments and averaging the results. The combined standard uncertainty of plasma ejection density is less than 10%. (authors)

  3. On the distribution of plasma parameters in RF glow discharge

    Ning Cheng; Liu Zuli; Liu Donghui; Han Caiyuan.

    1993-01-01

    A self-consistent numerical model based on the two-fluid equations for describing the transport of charged particles in the RF glow discharge is presented. For a plasma generator filled with low-pressure air and parallel-plate electrodes, the model is numerical solved. The space-time distribution of parameters and the spatial distribution of some time-averaged parameters in plasma, which show the physical picture of the RF glow discharge, are obtained

  4. A Global Modeling Framework for Plasma Kinetics: Development and Applications

    Parsey, Guy Morland

    The modern study of plasmas, and applications thereof, has developed synchronously with com- puter capabilities since the mid-1950s. Complexities inherent to these charged-particle, many- body, systems have resulted in the development of multiple simulation methods (particle-in-cell, fluid, global modeling, etc.) in order to both explain observed phenomena and predict outcomes of plasma applications. Recognizing that different algorithms are chosen to best address specific topics of interest, this thesis centers around the development of an open-source global model frame- work for the focused study of non-equilibrium plasma kinetics. After verification and validation of the framework, it was used to study two physical phenomena: plasma-assisted combustion and the recently proposed optically-pumped rare gas metastable laser. Global models permeate chemistry and plasma science, relying on spatial averaging to focus attention on the dynamics of reaction networks. Defined by a set of species continuity and energy conservation equations, the required data and constructed systems are conceptually similar across most applications, providing a light platform for exploratory and result-search parameter scan- ning. Unfortunately, it is common practice for custom code to be developed for each application-- an enormous duplication of effort which negatively affects the quality of the software produced. Presented herein, the Python-based Kinetic Global Modeling framework (KGMf) was designed to support all modeling phases: collection and analysis of reaction data, construction of an exportable system of model ODEs, and a platform for interactive evaluation and post-processing analysis. A symbolic ODE system is constructed for interactive manipulation and generation of a Jacobian, both of which are compiled as operation-optimized C-code. Plasma-assisted combustion and ignition (PAC/PAI) embody the modernization of burning fuel by opening up new avenues of control and optimization

  5. Limiting parameters of the plasma opening switch

    Dolgachev, G.I.; Ushakov, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Implementing programs for nuclear fusion research and X-ray generation requires the creation of superpower generators based on plasma opening switches (POSs) capable of commutating currents as high as several tens of megaamperes at output voltages of up to 5 MV and higher. The physical mechanisms limiting the POS voltage are investigated. It is shown that, as the generator voltage U g increases, the voltage multiplication factor k U POS /U g (where U POS is the POS voltage) decreases. An explanation for such a dependence is proposed, and the maximum value of the POS voltage is estimated. A POS design that enables operating in the above current and voltage ranges is considered. The design is based on applying an external magnetic field to the POS interelectrode gap, increasing the initial generator voltage, and decreasing the linear (along the perimeter of the outer electrode) density of the charge passing through the POS during the conduction phase

  6. Dependence of plasma characteristics on dc magnetron sputter parameters

    Wu, S.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma discharge characteristics of a dc magnetron system were measured by a single Langmuir probe at the center axis of the dual-side process chamber. Plasma potential, floating potential, electron and ion densities, and electron temperature were extracted with varying dc power and gas pressure during sputter deposition of a metal target; strong correlations were shown between these plasma parameters and the sputter parameters. The electron density was controlled mostly by secondary electron generation in constant power mode, while plasma potential reflects the confinement space variation due to change of discharge voltage. When discharge pressure was varied, plasma density increases with the increased amount of free stock molecules, while electron temperature inversely decreased, due to energy-loss collision events. In low-pressure discharges, the electron energy distribution function measurements show more distinctive bi-Maxwellian distribution, with the fast electron temperature gradually decreases with increased gas pressure

  7. Plasma parameters in the COMPASS divertor during Ohmic plasmas

    Dimitrova, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic); Emil Djakov Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Dejarnac, R.; Stoeckel, J.; Havlicek, J.; Janky, F.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic); Popov, Ts.K. [Faculty of Physics, St. Kl. Ohridski University of Sofia (Bulgaria); Ivanova, P.; Vasileva, E. [Emil Djakov Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Kovacic, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-04-15

    This paper reports on probe measurements of the electron energy distribution function and plasma potential in the divertor region of the COMPASS tokamak during D-shaped plasmas. The probe data have been processed using the novel first-derivative technique. A comparison with the results obtained by processing the same data with the classical probe technique, which assumes Maxwellian electron energy distribution functions is presented and discussed. In the vicinity of the inner and outer strike points of the divertor the electron energy distribution function can be approximated by a bi-Maxwellian, with a dominating low-energy electron population (4-7 eV) and a minority of higher energy electrons (12-25 eV). In the private flux region between the two strike points the electron energy distribution function is found to be Maxwellian with temperatures in the range of 7-10 eV. The comparative analysis using both techniques has allowed a better insight into the underlying physical processes at the divertor region of the COMPASS tokamak. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Investigation of the helicon discharge plasma parameters in a hybrid RF plasma system

    Aleksandrov, A. F.; Petrov, A. K.; Vavilin, K. V.; Kralkina, E. A.; Neklyudova, P. A.; Nikonov, A. M.; Pavlov, V. B.; Ayrapetov, A. A.; Odinokov, V. V.; Sologub, V. A.; Pavlov, G. Ya.

    2016-01-01

    Results of an experimental study of the helicon discharge plasma parameters in a prototype of a hybrid RF plasma system equipped with a solenoidal antenna are described. It is shown that an increase in the external magnetic field leads to the formation of a plasma column and a shift of the maximum ion current along the discharge axis toward the bottom flange of the system. The shape of the plasma column can be controlled via varying the configuration of the magnetic field.

  9. Investigation of the helicon discharge plasma parameters in a hybrid RF plasma system

    Aleksandrov, A. F.; Petrov, A. K., E-mail: alpetrov57@gmail.com; Vavilin, K. V.; Kralkina, E. A.; Neklyudova, P. A.; Nikonov, A. M.; Pavlov, V. B. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Ayrapetov, A. A.; Odinokov, V. V.; Sologub, V. A.; Pavlov, G. Ya. [Research Institute of Precision Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    Results of an experimental study of the helicon discharge plasma parameters in a prototype of a hybrid RF plasma system equipped with a solenoidal antenna are described. It is shown that an increase in the external magnetic field leads to the formation of a plasma column and a shift of the maximum ion current along the discharge axis toward the bottom flange of the system. The shape of the plasma column can be controlled via varying the configuration of the magnetic field.

  10. Electromagnetic microinstabilities in tokamak plasmas using a global spectral approach

    Falchetto, G. L

    2002-03-01

    Electromagnetic microinstabilities in tokamak plasmas are studied by means of a linear global eigenvalue numerical code. The code is the electromagnetic extension of an existing electrostatic global gyrokinetic spectral toroidal code, called GLOGYSTO. Ion dynamics is described by the gyrokinetic equation, so that ion finite Larmor radius effects are taken into account to all orders. Non adiabatic electrons are included in the model, with passing particles described by the drift-kinetic equation and trapped particles through the bounce averaged drift-kinetic equation. A low frequency electromagnetic perturbation is applied to a low -but finite- {beta}plasma (where the parameter {beta} identifies the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure); thus, the parallel perturbations of the magnetic field are neglected. The system is closed by the quasi-neutrality equation and the parallel component of Ampere's law. The formulation is applied to a large aspect ratio toroidal configuration, with circular shifted surfaces. Such a simple configuration enables one to derive analytically the gyrocenter trajectories. The system is solved in Fourier space, taking advantage of a decomposition adapted to the toroidal geometry. The major contributions of this thesis are as follows. The electromagnetic effects on toroidal Ion Temperature Gradient driven (ITG) modes are studied. The stabilization of these modes with increasing {beta}, as predicted in previous work, is confirmed. The inclusion of trapped electron dynamics enables the study of its coupling to the ITG modes and of Trapped Electron Modes (TEM) .The effects of finite {beta} are considered together with those of different magnetic shear profiles and of the Shafranov shift. The threshold for the destabilization of an electromagnetic mode is identified. Moreover, the global formulation yields for the first time the radial structure of this so-called Alfvenic Ion Temperature Gradient (AITG) mode. The stability of the

  11. Fast determination of plasma parameters through function parametrization

    Braams, B.J.; Jilge, W.; Lackner, K.

    1985-09-01

    The method of function parametrization, developed by H. Wind for fast data evaluation in high energy physics, is demonstrated in the context of controlled fusion research. This method relies on a statistical analysis of a large data base of simulated experiments in order to obtain a functional representation for intrinsic physical parameters of a system in terms of the values of the measurements. Rapid determination of characteristic equilibrium parameters of a tokamak discharge is shown to be a particularly indicated application. The method is employed on the ASDEX experiment to determine the following parameters of the plasma: position of the magnetic axis, geometric center, and current center; minor radius, elongation, and area of the plasma column; a normalized safety factor at the plasma boundary; the Shafranov parameter βsub(p)+lsub(i)/2; the flux difference between the plasma boundary and an external reference value; the position of the lower and upper saddle points, and the intersections of the separatrix with the four divertor plates. The relevant measurements consist of three differential poloidal flux measurements, four poloidal field measurements, the current through the multipole shaping coils, and the total plasma current. Function parametrization supplies a very accurate interpretation of these data, which is now used for online data analysis, and is also sufficiently fast to be suitable for real-time control of the plasma. (orig.)

  12. Calculation of stationary plasma parameters in an electromagnetic trap

    Karpukhin, V.I.; Lavrent'ev, O.A.; Sappa, N.N.

    1978-01-01

    The model of energy and particle balance is considered and the numerical calculations for stationary plasma parameters, supported by the electron injection, are obtained for a hypothetical electromagnetic trap with linear dimensions, magnetic field strength and energy contribution to plasma of the order of these parameters for the modern tokamak-type traps. The process of limitation of an effective injection current and energy contribution to plasma caused by returning of electrons to the injector due to diffusion in the velocity space is simulated. In approximation of a classical diffusion dependences are obtained of the effective energy contribution to plasma and of the parameters ntausub(E) and Tsub(i) (n is a plasma density; tausub(E)- energetic lifetime; Tsub(i) ion temperature) on electron injection current and power and on the confining magnetic field strength. It had been established that at classical character of diffusion in electromagnetic trap with above parameters one could obtain stationary plasma with ntausub(E)=10 12 cm -3 s and Tsub(i)=1keV, maintaining only by electron injection

  13. Connecting Global to Local Parameters in Barred Galaxy Models

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Key words. Galaxies: barred—orbits—global and local parameters. .... series near the stable Lagrange point L1, which coincides with the origin. Doing so, .... Toomre, A. 1981, In: The Structure and Evolution of Normal Galaxies, (eds) S. M. Fall,.

  14. Assessment of thermodynamic parameters of plasma shock wave

    Vasileva, O V; Isaev, Yu N; Budko, A A; Filkov, A I

    2014-01-01

    The work is devoted to the solution of the one-dimensional equation of hydraulic gas dynamics for the coaxial magneto plasma accelerator by means of Lax-Wendroff modified algorithm with optimum choice of the regularization parameter artificial viscosity. Replacement of the differential equations containing private derivatives is made by finite difference method. Optimum parameter of regularization artificial viscosity is added using the exact known decision of Soda problem. The developed algorithm of thermodynamic parameter calculation in a braking point is proved. Thermodynamic parameters of a shock wave in front of the plasma piston of the coaxial magneto plasma accelerator are calculated on the basis of the offered algorithm. Unstable high-frequency fluctuations are smoothed using modeling and that allows narrowing the ambiguity area. Results of calculation of gas dynamic parameters in a point of braking coincide with literary data. The chart 3 shows the dynamics of change of speed and thermodynamic parameters of a shock wave such as pressure, density and temperature just before the plasma piston

  15. Global low-frequency modes in weakly ionized magnetized plasmas: effects of equilibrium plasma rotation

    Sosenko, P.; Pierre, Th.; Zagorodny, A.

    2004-01-01

    The linear and non-linear properties of global low-frequency oscillations in cylindrical weakly ionized magnetized plasmas are investigated analytically for the conditions of equilibrium plasma rotation. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental observations of rotating plasmas in laboratory devices, such as Mistral and Mirabelle in France, and KIWI in Germany. (authors)

  16. A global data set of land-surface parameters

    Claussen, M.; Lohmann, U.; Roeckner, E.; Schulzweida, U.

    1994-01-01

    A global data set of land surface parameters is provided for the climate model ECHAM developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie in Hamburg. These parameters are: background (surface) albedo α, surface roughness length z 0y , leaf area index LAI, fractional vegetation cover or vegetation ratio c y , and forest ratio c F . The global set of surface parameters is constructed by allocating parameters to major exosystem complexes of Olson et al. (1983). The global distribution of ecosystem complexes is given at a resolution of 0.5 0 x 0.5 0 . The latter data are compatible with the vegetation types used in the BIOME model of Prentice et al. (1992) which is a potential candidate of an interactive submodel within a comprehensive model of the climate system. (orig.)

  17. Optimization of plasma flow parameters of the magnetoplasma compressor

    Dojcinovic, I P; Kuraica, M M; Obradovc, B M; Cvetanovic, N; Puric, J

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of the working conditions of the magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) has been performed through analysing discharge and compression plasma flow parameters in hydrogen, nitrogen and argon at different pressures. Energy conversion rate, volt-ampere curve exponent and plasma flow velocities have been studied to optimize the efficiency of energy transfer from the supply source to the plasma. It has been found that the most effective energy transfer from the supply to the plasma is in hydrogen as a working gas at 1000 Pa pressure. It was found that the accelerating regime exists for hydrogen up to 3000 Pa pressures, in nitrogen up to 2000 Pa and in argon up to 1000 Pa pressure. At higher pressures MPC in all the gases works in the decelerating regime. At pressures lower than 200 Pa, high cathode erosion is observed. MPC plasma flow parameter optimization is very important because this plasma accelerating system may be of special interest for solid surface modification and other technology applications

  18. North-South asymmetry of interplanetary plasma and solar parameters

    El-Borie, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Data of interplanetary plasma (field magnitude, solar wind speed, ion plasma density and temperature) and solar parameters (sunspot number, solar radio flux, and geomagnetic index) over the period 1965-1991, have been used to examine the asymmetry between the solar field north and south of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). The dependence of N-S asymmetry of field magnitude (B) upon the interplanetary solar polarities is statistically insignificant. There is no clear indication for the presence of N-S asymmetry in the grand-average field magnitude over the solar cycles. During the period 1981-89 (qA<0; negative solar polarity state), the solar plasma was more dense and cooler south of the HCS than north of it. The solar flux component of toward field vector is larger in magnitude than those of away field vector during the qA<0 epoch, and no asymmetry observed in the qA<0 epoch. Furthermore, the sign of the N-S asymmetry in the solar activity depends positively upon the solar polarity state. In addition, it was studied the N-S asymmetry of solar parameters near the HCS, throughout the periods of northern and southern hemispheres were more active than the other. Some asymmetries (with respect to the HCS) in plasma parameters existed during the periods of southern hemisphere predominance

  19. Typical parameters of the plasma chemical similarity in non-isothermal reactive plasmas

    Gundermann, S.; Jacobs, H.; Miethke, F.; Rutsher, A.; Wagner, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    The substance of physical similarity principles is contained in parameters which govern the comparison of different realizations of a model device. Because similarity parameters for non-isothermal plasma chemical reactors are unknown to a great extent, an analysis of relevant equations is given together with some experimental results. Modelling of the reactor and experimental results for the ozone synthesis are presented

  20. Relationship between plasma and tissue parameters of leucine metabolism

    Vazquez, J.A.; Paul, H.S.; Adibi, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using a primed continuous infusion of [1- 14 C] leucine, the authors investigated parameters of leucine metabolism in plasma, expired air, and tissues of fed and 48-hour starved rats. The ratios of muscle/plasma specific activity of α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) in fed and starved rats, respectively were not significantly different from one (1.07 +/- 0.14 and 0.97 +/- 0.10, mean +/- SE, 7 rats). The ratio of muscle/plasma specific activity of leucine was also not significantly different from one (0.86 +/- 0.11) in fed rats, but was significantly lower than one (0.80 +/- 0.07) in starved rats. The rate of leucine oxidation was approximately 32% higher when calculated based on plasma KIC rather than leucine specific activity. However, starvation significantly increased the rate of leucine oxidation with either specific activity. The rate of leucine incorporation into whole body protein was unaffected by starvation (32.7 +/- 3.5 vs 36.1 +/- 2.5 μmol/100 g/h), but the incorporation into total protein of liver (1350 +/- 140 vs 780 +/- 33 nmol) and of skeletal muscle (1940 +/- 220 vs 820 +/- 60 nmol) was significantly decreased. The authors conclude that a) leucine or KIC specific activity in muscle is better predicted by plasma KIC than leucine specific activity, and b) the tracer infusion technique is valid for the study of leucine oxidation but not for leucine incorporation into whole body protein

  1. Study of the transport parameters of cloud lightning plasmas

    Chang, Z. S.; Yuan, P.; Zhao, N.

    2010-01-01

    Three spectra of cloud lightning have been acquired in Tibet (China) using a slitless grating spectrograph. The electrical conductivity, the electron thermal conductivity, and the electron thermal diffusivity of the cloud lightning, for the first time, are calculated by applying the transport theory of air plasma. In addition, we investigate the change behaviors of parameters (the temperature, the electron density, the electrical conductivity, the electron thermal conductivity, and the electron thermal diffusivity) in one of the cloud lightning channels. The result shows that these parameters decrease slightly along developing direction of the cloud lightning channel. Moreover, they represent similar sudden change behavior in tortuous positions and the branch of the cloud lightning channel.

  2. Scaling laws of design parameters for plasma wakefield accelerators

    Uhm, Han S.; Nam, In H.; Suk, Hyyong

    2012-01-01

    Simple scaling laws for the design parameters of plasma wakefield accelerators were obtained using a theoretical model, which were confirmed via particle simulation studies. It was found that the acceleration length was given by Δx=0.804λ p /(1−β g ), where λ p is the plasma wavelength and β g c the propagation velocity of the ion cavity. The acceleration energy can also be given by ΔE=(γ m −1)mc 2 =2.645mc 2 /(1−β g ), where m is the electron rest mass. As expected, the acceleration length and energy increase drastically as β g approached unity. These simple scaling laws can be very instrumental in the design of better-performing plasma wakefield accelerators. -- Highlights: ► Simple scaling laws for the design parameters of laser wakefield accelerators were obtained using a theoretical model. ► The scaling laws for acceleration length and acceleration energy were compared with particle-in-cell simulation results. ► The acceleration length and the energy increase drastically as β g approaches unity. ► These simple scaling laws can be very instrumental in the design of laser wakefield accelerators.

  3. Identification of metabolic system parameters using global optimization methods

    Gatzke Edward P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of estimating the parameters of dynamic models of complex biological systems from time series data is becoming increasingly important. Methods and results Particular consideration is given to metabolic systems that are formulated as Generalized Mass Action (GMA models. The estimation problem is posed as a global optimization task, for which novel techniques can be applied to determine the best set of parameter values given the measured responses of the biological system. The challenge is that this task is nonconvex. Nonetheless, deterministic optimization techniques can be used to find a global solution that best reconciles the model parameters and measurements. Specifically, the paper employs branch-and-bound principles to identify the best set of model parameters from observed time course data and illustrates this method with an existing model of the fermentation pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This is a relatively simple yet representative system with five dependent states and a total of 19 unknown parameters of which the values are to be determined. Conclusion The efficacy of the branch-and-reduce algorithm is illustrated by the S. cerevisiae example. The method described in this paper is likely to be widely applicable in the dynamic modeling of metabolic networks.

  4. Study on spatial distribution of plasma parameters in a magnetized inductively coupled plasma

    Cheong, Hee-Woon; Lee, Woohyun; Kim, Ji-Won; Whang, Ki-Woong, E-mail: kwhang@snu.ac.kr [Plasma Laboratory, Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyuk [Samsung Electronics Co., Banwol-dong, Hwaseong 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Wanjae [Tokyo Electron Miyagi Ltd., Taiwa-cho, Kurokawa-gun, Miyagi 981-3629 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Spatial distributions of various plasma parameters such as plasma density, electron temperature, and radical density in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and a magnetized inductively coupled plasma (M-ICP) were investigated and compared. Electron temperature in between the rf window and the substrate holder of M-ICP was higher than that of ICP, whereas the one just above the substrate holder of M-ICP was similar to that of ICP when a weak (<8 G) magnetic field was employed. As a result, radical densities in M-ICP were higher than those in ICP and the etch rate of oxide in M-ICP was faster than that in ICP without severe electron charging in 90 nm high aspect ratio contact hole etch.

  5. Global weak solution for a equations in plasma

    Guo Boling; Huang Daiwen

    2010-01-01

    The existence of global weak solutions of the initial boundary value problem to a simplified equations, derived from the equations of two fluid system in plasma, is proven by using energy method and some embedding theorems in Sobolev-Orlicz space.

  6. Stationary neoclassical profiles of plasma parameters in stellarators

    Danilkin, I.S.; Mineev, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Peculiarities of neoclassical model of heat and particle transfer, occuring by calculations of plasma stationary profile parameters in stellarators are considered. The main peculiarity out of all consists in ineadequate compatibility with real physical conditions on the boundary, requiring application of supplementary 'anomalous' transfer or special (but technically possible) adjustment of particle and heat sources to achieve solution in form of 'correct' monotonically sloping profile. It is stated, that neoclassical theory does not provide for well-known ambiguity of solutions for ambipolar electrical field by search of monotonous stationary profiles supported by outside sources

  7. Stationary neoclassical profiles of plasma parameters in stellarators

    Danilkin, I.S.; Mineev, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of the neoclassical model of heat and particle transport are considered in connection with calculations of stationary profiles of the plasma parameters in stellarators. The most important feature is the poor agreement with real physical conditions of the boundary, which imposes the necessity of invoking either an additional anomalous transport or a special (although technically possible) consistency between the particle and heat sources in order to obtain a solution in the form of a correct monotonically decreasing profile. In search for monotonic stationary profiles maintained by external sources, it is ascertained that the neoclassical theory does not give rise to the well-known multivalued solutions for the ambipolar electric field

  8. Effect of Kepler calibration on global seismic and background parameters

    Salabert David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Calibration issues associated to scrambled collateral smear affecting the Kepler short-cadence data were discovered in the Data Release 24 and were found to be present in all the previous data releases since launch. In consequence, a new Data Release 25 was reprocessed to correct for these problems. We perform here a preliminary study to evaluate the impact on the extracted global seismic and background parameters between data releases. We analyze the sample of seismic solar analogs observed by Kepler in short cadence between Q5 and Q17. We start with this set of stars as it constitutes the best sample to put the Sun into context along its evolution, and any significant differences on the seismic and background parameters need to be investigated before any further studies of this sample can take place. We use the A2Z pipeline to derive both global seismic parameters and background parameters from the Data Release 25 and previous data releases and report on the measured differences.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation of plasma parameters in the magnetosheath

    Dobreva Polya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the behaviour of the plasma parameters in the magnetosheath in a case when Interball-1 satellite stayed in the magnetosheath, crossing the tail magnetopause. In our analysis we apply the numerical magnetosheath-magnetosphere model as a theoretical tool. The bow shock and the magnetopause are self-consistently determined in the process of the solution. The flow in the magnetosheath is governed by the Euler equations of compressible ideal gas. The magnetic field in the magnetosphere is calculated by a variant of the Tsyganenko model, modified to account for an asymmetric magnetopause. Also, the magnetopause currents in Tsyganenko model are replaced by numericaly calulated ones. Measurements from WIND spacecraft are used as a solar wind monitor. The results demonstrate a good agreement between the model-calculated and measured values of the parameters under investigation.

  10. Development of global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in Z-pinch plasmas in the presence of nonideal effects

    Sotnikov, V.I.; Bauer, B.S.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Hellinger, P.; Travnicek, P.; Fiala, V.

    2004-01-01

    The development of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in Z-pinch plasmas has been studied with a three-dimensional hybrid simulation model. Plasma equilibria without and with axial sheared flow, and with different values of the parameter ε H , which appears as a coefficient before the Hall term in dimensionless nonideal MHD equations, have been considered. Increasing the parameter ε H leads to larger simulation growth rates for both m=0 sausage and m=1 kink modes. The hybrid simulations do however show that axial sheared flow severely curtails the linear and nonlinear development of both sausage and kink instabilities. In these respects, the hybrid simulations are in qualitative agreement with linear Hall MHD results. Moreover, in the nonlinear stage, long wavelength modes dominate the excited wave spectrum when the parameter ε H is small. For the larger value of the parameter ε H , small-scale structures do however develop nonlinearly in the excited wave spectrum at late times

  11. Effect of solar wind plasma parameters on space weather

    Rathore, Balveer S.; Gupta, Dinesh C.; Kaushik, Subhash C.

    2015-01-01

    Today's challenge for space weather research is to quantitatively predict the dynamics of the magnetosphere from measured solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Correlative studies between geomagnetic storms (GMSs) and the various interplanetary (IP) field/plasma parameters have been performed to search for the causes of geomagnetic activity and develop models for predicting the occurrence of GMSs, which are important for space weather predictions. We find a possible relation between GMSs and solar wind and IMF parameters in three different situations and also derived the linear relation for all parameters in three situations. On the basis of the present statistical study, we develop an empirical model. With the help of this model, we can predict all categories of GMSs. This model is based on the following fact: the total IMF B total can be used to trigger an alarm for GMSs, when sudden changes in total magnetic field B total occur. This is the first alarm condition for a storm's arrival. It is observed in the present study that the southward B z component of the IMF is an important factor for describing GMSs. A result of the paper is that the magnitude of B z is maximum neither during the initial phase (at the instant of the IP shock) nor during the main phase (at the instant of Disturbance storm time (Dst) minimum). It is seen in this study that there is a time delay between the maximum value of southward B z and the Dst minimum, and this time delay can be used in the prediction of the intensity of a magnetic storm two-three hours before the main phase of a GMS. A linear relation has been derived between the maximum value of the southward component of B z and the Dst, which is Dst = (−0.06) + (7.65) B z +t. Some auxiliary conditions should be fulfilled with this, for example the speed of the solar wind should, on average, be 350 km s −1 to 750 km s −1 , plasma β should be low and, most importantly, plasma temperature

  12. Global parameter estimation for thermodynamic models of transcriptional regulation.

    Suleimenov, Yerzhan; Ay, Ahmet; Samee, Md Abul Hassan; Dresch, Jacqueline M; Sinha, Saurabh; Arnosti, David N

    2013-07-15

    Deciphering the mechanisms involved in gene regulation holds the key to understanding the control of central biological processes, including human disease, population variation, and the evolution of morphological innovations. New experimental techniques including whole genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis have enabled comprehensive modeling approaches to study gene regulation. In many cases, it is useful to be able to assign biological significance to the inferred model parameters, but such interpretation should take into account features that affect these parameters, including model construction and sensitivity, the type of fitness calculation, and the effectiveness of parameter estimation. This last point is often neglected, as estimation methods are often selected for historical reasons or for computational ease. Here, we compare the performance of two parameter estimation techniques broadly representative of local and global approaches, namely, a quasi-Newton/Nelder-Mead simplex (QN/NMS) method and a covariance matrix adaptation-evolutionary strategy (CMA-ES) method. The estimation methods were applied to a set of thermodynamic models of gene transcription applied to regulatory elements active in the Drosophila embryo. Measuring overall fit, the global CMA-ES method performed significantly better than the local QN/NMS method on high quality data sets, but this difference was negligible on lower quality data sets with increased noise or on data sets simplified by stringent thresholding. Our results suggest that the choice of parameter estimation technique for evaluation of gene expression models depends both on quality of data, the nature of the models [again, remains to be established] and the aims of the modeling effort. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Global distribution of urban parameters derived from high-resolution global datasets for weather modelling

    Kawano, N.; Varquez, A. C. G.; Dong, Y.; Kanda, M.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical model such as Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with single-layer Urban Canopy Model (WRF-UCM) is one of the powerful tools to investigate urban heat island. Urban parameters such as average building height (Have), plain area index (λp) and frontal area index (λf), are necessary inputs for the model. In general, these parameters are uniformly assumed in WRF-UCM but this leads to unrealistic urban representation. Distributed urban parameters can also be incorporated into WRF-UCM to consider a detail urban effect. The problem is that distributed building information is not readily available for most megacities especially in developing countries. Furthermore, acquiring real building parameters often require huge amount of time and money. In this study, we investigated the potential of using globally available satellite-captured datasets for the estimation of the parameters, Have, λp, and λf. Global datasets comprised of high spatial resolution population dataset (LandScan by Oak Ridge National Laboratory), nighttime lights (NOAA), and vegetation fraction (NASA). True samples of Have, λp, and λf were acquired from actual building footprints from satellite images and 3D building database of Tokyo, New York, Paris, Melbourne, Istanbul, Jakarta and so on. Regression equations were then derived from the block-averaging of spatial pairs of real parameters and global datasets. Results show that two regression curves to estimate Have and λf from the combination of population and nightlight are necessary depending on the city's level of development. An index which can be used to decide which equation to use for a city is the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). On the other hand, λphas less dependence on GDP but indicated a negative relationship to vegetation fraction. Finally, a simplified but precise approximation of urban parameters through readily-available, high-resolution global datasets and our derived regressions can be utilized to estimate a

  14. Plasma Reactors and Plasma Thrusters Modeling by Ar Complete Global Models

    Chloe Berenguer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete global model for argon was developed and adapted to plasma reactor and plasma thruster modeling. It takes into consideration ground level and excited Ar and Ar+ species and the reactor and thruster form factors. The electronic temperature, the species densities, and the ionization percentage, depending mainly on the pressure and the absorbed power, have been obtained and commented for various physical conditions.

  15. Global and photospheric physical parameters of active dwarf stars

    Pettersen, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    Physical parameters (temperature, luminosity, radius, mass and chemical abundance) of the photospheres of red dwarf flare stars and spotted stars are determined for quiescent conditions. The interrelations between these quantities are compared to the results of theoretical investigation for low mass stars. The evolutionary state of flare stars is discussed. Observational results from spectroscopic and photometric methods to determine the rotation of active dwarfs are reviewed. The possibilities of global oscillations in dwarf stars are considered and preliminary results of a photometric search for oscillation in red dwarf luminosities are presented. (orig.)

  16. Derivation of global vegetation biophysical parameters from EUMETSAT Polar System

    García-Haro, Francisco Javier; Campos-Taberner, Manuel; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Laparra, Valero; Camacho, Fernando; Sánchez-Zapero, Jorge; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the algorithm developed in LSA-SAF (Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis) for the derivation of global vegetation parameters from the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) sensor on board MetOp (Meteorological-Operational) satellites forming the EUMETSAT (European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) Polar System (EPS). The suite of LSA-SAF EPS vegetation products includes the leaf area index (LAI), the fractional vegetation cover (FVC), and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR). LAI, FAPAR, and FVC characterize the structure and the functioning of vegetation and are key parameters for a wide range of land-biosphere applications. The algorithm is based on a hybrid approach that blends the generalization capabilities offered by physical radiative transfer models with the accuracy and computational efficiency of machine learning methods. One major feature is the implementation of multi-output retrieval methods able to jointly and more consistently estimate all the biophysical parameters at the same time. We propose a multi-output Gaussian process regression (GPRmulti), which outperforms other considered methods over PROSAIL (coupling of PROSPECT and SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrary Inclined Leaves) radiative transfer models) EPS simulations. The global EPS products include uncertainty estimates taking into account the uncertainty captured by the retrieval method and input errors propagation. A sensitivity analysis is performed to assess several sources of uncertainties in retrievals and maximize the positive impact of modeling the noise in training simulations. The paper discusses initial validation studies and provides details about the characteristics and overall quality of the products, which can be of interest to assist the successful use of the data by a broad user's community. The consistent generation and distribution of the EPS vegetation products will

  17. Global plasma oscillations in electron internal transport barriers in TCV

    Udintsev, V S; Sauter, O; Asp, E; Fable, E; Goodman, T P; Turri, G; Graves, J P; Zucca, C [Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, EPFL/SB/CRPP, Station 13, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Scarabosio, A [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Zhuang, G [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2008-12-15

    In the Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV) (Hofmann F et al1994 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 36 B277), global plasma oscillations have been discovered in fully non-inductively driven plasmas featuring electron internal transport barriers (ITB) with strong ECRH/ECCD. These oscillations are linked to the destabilization and stabilization of MHD modes near the foot of the ITB and can lead to large oscillations of the total plasma current and line-averaged density, among others. They are intrinsically related to the fact that ITBs have large pressure gradients in a region of low magnetic shear. Therefore, the ideal MHD limit is relatively low and infernal modes can be unstable. Depending on the proximity to the ideal limit, small crashes or resistive modes can appear which affect the time evolution of the discharge. Being near marginal stability, the modes can self-stabilize due to the modification of the pressure gradient and local q-profile. The plasma recovers good confinement, reverses shear and the ITB builds up, until a new MHD mode is destabilized. TCV results show that this cycling behaviour can be controlled by modifying the current density or the pressure profiles, either with Ohmic current density perturbation or by modifying the ECH/ECCD power. It is demonstrated that many observations such as q {>=} 2 sawteeth, beta collapses, minor disruptions and oscillation regimes in ITBs can be assigned to the same physics origin: the proximity to the infernal mode stability limit.

  18. Global plasma oscillations in electron internal transport barriers in TCV

    Udintsev, V. S.; Sauter, O.; Asp, E.; Fable, E.; Goodman, T. P.; Turri, G.; Graves, J. P.; Scarabosio, A.; Zhuang, G.; Zucca, C.; TCV Team

    2008-12-01

    In the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) (Hofmann F et al1994 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 36 B277), global plasma oscillations have been discovered in fully non-inductively driven plasmas featuring electron internal transport barriers (ITB) with strong ECRH/ECCD. These oscillations are linked to the destabilization and stabilization of MHD modes near the foot of the ITB and can lead to large oscillations of the total plasma current and line-averaged density, among others. They are intrinsically related to the fact that ITBs have large pressure gradients in a region of low magnetic shear. Therefore, the ideal MHD limit is relatively low and infernal modes can be unstable. Depending on the proximity to the ideal limit, small crashes or resistive modes can appear which affect the time evolution of the discharge. Being near marginal stability, the modes can self-stabilize due to the modification of the pressure gradient and local q-profile. The plasma recovers good confinement, reverses shear and the ITB builds up, until a new MHD mode is destabilized. TCV results show that this cycling behaviour can be controlled by modifying the current density or the pressure profiles, either with Ohmic current density perturbation or by modifying the ECH/ECCD power. It is demonstrated that many observations such as q >= 2 sawteeth, beta collapses, minor disruptions and oscillation regimes in ITBs can be assigned to the same physics origin: the proximity to the infernal mode stability limit.

  19. Revisiting linear plasma waves for finite value of the plasma parameter

    Grismayer, Thomas; Fahlen, Jay; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren

    2010-11-01

    We investigate through theory and PIC simulations the Landau-damping of plasma waves with finite plasma parameter. We concentrate on the linear regime, γφB, where the waves are typically small and below the thermal noise. We simulate these condition using 1,2,3D electrostatic PIC codes (BEPS), noting that modern computers now allow us to simulate cases where (nλD^3 = [1e2;1e6]). We study these waves by using a subtraction technique in which two simulations are carried out. In the first, a small wave is initialized or driven, in the second no wave is excited. The results are subtracted to provide a clean signal that can be studied. As nλD^3 is decreased, the number of resonant electrons can be small for linear waves. We show how the damping changes as a result of having few resonant particles. We also find that for small nλD^3 fluctuations can cause the electrons to undergo collisions that eventually destroy the initial wave. A quantity of interest is the the life time of a particular mode which depends on the plasma parameter and the wave number. The life time is estimated and then compared with the numerical results. A surprising result is that even for large values of nλD^3 some non-Vlasov discreteness effects appear to be important.

  20. Plasma-parameter measurements using neutral-particle-beam attenuation

    Foote, J.H.; Molvik, A.W.; Turner, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Intense and energetic neutral-particle-beam injection used for fueling or heating magnetically confined, controlled-fusion experimental plasmas can also provide diagnostic measurements of the plasmas. The attenuation of an atomic beam (mainly from charge-exchange and ionization interactions) when passing through a plasma gives the plasma line density. Orthogonal arrays of highly collimated detectors of the secondary-electron-emission type have been used in magnetic-mirror experiments to measure neutral-beam attenuation along chords through the plasma volume at different radial and axial positions. The radial array is used to infer the radial plasma-density profile; the axial array, to infer the axial plasma-density profile and the ion angular distribution at the plasma midplane

  1. Investigation of helium plasma stream parameters in experiments on surface modification

    Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Tsarenko, A.V. and eds.

    2005-01-01

    The main objection of this study is adjustment of plasma treatment regimes for different materials that allows achieving optimal thickness of modified layer with simultaneously minimal value of surface roughness. With use of optical spectroscopy, detailed information about the basic plasma parameters - electron density, electron and ion temperatures, plasma stream duration and velocity, was obtained. Integrated spectra of plasma radiation were analyzed. The majority of helium and impurity spectral lines were investigated on a subject of Stark broadening. Plasma pressure and energy density values measured with piezodetectors and calorimeters are in good agreement with plasma parameters obtained by optical techniques

  2. Radiation losses and global power balance of JT-60 plasmas

    Nishitani, T.; Itami, K.; Nagashima, K.; Tsuji, S.; Hosogane, N.; Yoshida, H.; Ando, T.; Kubo, H.; Takeuchi, H.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation losses and the global power balance for Ohmic and neutral beam heated plasmas have been investigated in different JT-60 configurations. Discharges with a TiC coated molybdenum wall and with a graphite wall, with limiter, outer and lower X-point configurations have been studied by bolometric measurements, thermocouples and an infrared TV camera. In neutral beam heated outer X-point discharges with a TiC coated molybdenum first wall, the radiation loss of the main plasma was very low (10% of the absorbed power). The radiation loss due to oxygen was dominant in this case. On the contrary, in discharges with TiC coated molybdenum limiters the radiation loss was very high (>60% of the absorbed power). In the discharges with a graphite wall the radiated power from the main plasma was 20-25% for both limiter and lower X-point configurations. In lower X-point discharges the main contributor to the radiation loss was oxygen, whereas in limiter discharges the loss due to carbon was equal to the loss due to oxygen. The radiation loss from the lower X-point divertor increased with increasing electron density of the main plasma. (author). 33 refs, 14 figs, 1 tab

  3. Voyager microwave scintillation measurements of solar wind plasma parameters

    Martin, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    During the solar conjunctions of Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in August 1979, September 1980, and November 1982, temporal variations of intensity and frequency of the dual-wavelength (3.6 and 13 cm) radio transmissions from the spacecraft were observed and subsequently analyzed to infer characteristics of the solar wind plasma flow. Measurements of the temporal wave structure function were used to estimate the spectral index of the power law spatial spectrum of irregularities. Theoretical-intensity scintillation spectra were compared with measured intensity spectra to obtain least-squares estimates of (1) mean velocity, (2) random velocity, (3) axial ratio, and (4) electron density standard deviation. Uncertainties in parameter estimates were calculated by standard propagation of errors techniques. Mean velocity and electron density standard deviations in 1979-1980 show little dependence on solar latitude. Density standard deviation estimates were 3-10% of the background mean density and mean velocity estimates ranged from approx.200 km/s inside 17 solar radii to approx.300 km/s at 25 solar radii. 1982 density standard deviation estimates increased rapidly with latitude near 45 0 N, then sharply decreased north of that latitude, indicating the existence of a polar region of reduced fluctuations surrounded by a thin cone of strong density irregularities

  4. Characterization of plasma parameters in shaped PBX-M discharges

    England, A. C.; Bell, R. E.; Hirshman, S. P.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. L.; Lee, D. K.; Okabayashi, M.; Sun, Y.-C.; Takahashi, H.

    1997-09-01

    The Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M) was run both with elliptical and with bean-shaped plasmas during the 1992 and 1993 operating periods. Two deuterium-fed neutral beams were used for auxiliary heating, and during 1992 the average power was 0741-3335/39/9/008/img13. This will be referred to as the lower neutral-beam power (LNBP) period. As many as four deuterium-fed neutral beams were used during 1993, and the average power was 0741-3335/39/9/008/img14. This will be referred to as the medium neutral-beam power (MNBP) period. The neutron source strength, Sn, showed a scaling with injected power 0741-3335/39/9/008/img15, 0741-3335/39/9/008/img16 for both the LMBP and MNBP periods. A much wider range of shaping parameters was studied during the MNBP as compared with the LNBP period. A weak positive dependence on bean shaping was observed for the LNBP, and a stronger positive dependence on shaping was observed for MNBP, viz 0741-3335/39/9/008/img17. High values of Sn were obtained in bean-shaped plasmas for the highest values of 0741-3335/39/9/008/img18 at 0741-3335/39/9/008/img19 for the LNBP. For the MNBP the highest values of Sn and stored energy were obtained at 0741-3335/39/9/008/img19, and the highest values of 0741-3335/39/9/008/img18 were obtained at 0741-3335/39/9/008/img22. The achievement of high Sn is aided by high neutral-beam power, high toroidal field, strong shaping, high electron temperature, and broad profiles. The achievement of high 0741-3335/39/9/008/img18 is aided by low toroidal field, high density, less shaping, broad profiles, and access to the H-mode, viz 0741-3335/39/9/008/img24. The achievement of high 0741-3335/39/9/008/img25 is aided by strong shaping, high density, broad profiles, and access to the H-mode, viz 0741-3335/39/9/008/img26. Some comparisons with the previous higher neutral-beam (HNBP) period in 1989 are also made.

  5. Ion source plasma parameters measurement based on Langmuir probe with commercial frequency sweep

    Xie, Y.H.; Hu, C.D.; Liu, S.; Shong, S.H.; Jiang, C.C.; Liu, Z.M.

    2010-01-01

    Langmuir probe is one of the main diagnostic tools to measure the plasma parameters in the ion source. In this article, the commercial frequency power, which is sine wave of 50 Hz, was supplied on the Langmuir probe to measure the plasma parameters. The best feature of this probe sweep voltage is that it does not need extra design. The probe I-V characteristic curve can be got in less than 5 ms and the plasma parameters, the electron temperature and the electron density, varying with the time can be got in one plasma discharge of 400 ms.

  6. Global modelling of plasma-wall interaction in reversed field pinches

    Bagatin, M.; Costa, S.; Ortolani, S.

    1989-01-01

    The impurity production and deuterium recycling mechanisms in ETA-BETA II and RFX are firstly discussed by means of a simple model applicable to a stationary plasma interacting with the wall. This gives the time constant and the saturation values of the impurity concentration as a function of the boundary temperature and density. If the latter is sufficiently high, the impurity buildup in the main plasma becomes to some extent stabilized by the shielding effect of the edge. A self-consistent global model of the time evolution of an RFP plasma interacting with the wall is then described. The bulk and edge parameters are derived by solving the energy and particle balance equations incorporating some of the basic plasma-surface processes, such as sputtering, backscattering and desorption. The application of the model to ETA-BETA II confirms the impurity concentrations of the light and metal impurities as well as the time evolution of the average electron density found experimentally under different conditions. The model is then applied to RFX, a larger RFP experiment under construction, whose wall will be protected by a full graphite armour. The time evolution of the discharge shows that carbon sputtering could increase Z eff to ≅ 4, but without affecting significantly the plasma performance. (orig.)

  7. Global modelling of plasma-wall interaction in reversed field pinches

    Bagatin, M.; Costa, S.; Ortolani, S.

    1989-04-01

    The impurity production and deuterium recycling mechanisms in ETA—BETA II and RFX are firstly discussed by means of a simple model applicable to a stationary plasma interacting with the wall. This gives the time constant and the saturation values of the impurity concentration as a function of the boundary temperature and density. If the latter is sufficiently high, the impurity buildup in the main plasma becomes to some extent stabilized by the shielding effect of the edge. A self-consistent global model of the time evolution of an RFP plasma interacting with the wall is then described. The bulk and edge parameters are derived by solving the energy and particle balance equations incorporating some of the basic plasma-surface processes, such as sputtering, backscattering and desorption. The application of the model to ETA-BETA II confirms the impurity concentrations of the light and metal impurities as well as the time evolution of the average electron density found experimentally under different conditions. The model is then applied to RFX, a larger RFP experiment under construction, whose wall will be protected by a full graphite armour. The time evolution of the discharge shows that carbon sputtering could increase Zeff to ~ 4, but without affecting significantly the plasma performance.

  8. Influence of plasma parameters in pulsed plasma gun on modification processes in exposed structural materials

    Byrka, O.V.; Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Garkusha, V.V.; Makhai, V.A.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is focused on investigation of helium, nitrogen and krypton plasma streams generated by pulsed plasma gun (PPA). The main objection of this study is adjustment of plasma treatment regimes for different materials that allows achieving optimal thickness of modified layer with simultaneously minimal value of surface roughness. Features of materials alloying from gas and metallic plasma as a result of the plasma ions mixing with the steel substrate in liquid phase are discussed also.

  9. Measured improvement of global magnetohydrodynamic mode stability at high-beta, and in reduced collisionality spherical torus plasmas

    Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Balbaky, A. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Manickam, J.; Menard, J. E.; Podestà, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Global mode stability is studied in high-β National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas to avoid disruptions. Dedicated experiments in NSTX using low frequency active magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy of applied rotating n = 1 magnetic fields revealed key dependencies of stability on plasma parameters. Observations from previous NSTX resistive wall mode (RWM) active control experiments and the wider NSTX disruption database indicated that the highest β{sub N} plasmas were not the least stable. Significantly, here, stability was measured to increase at β{sub N}∕l{sub i} higher than the point where disruptions were found. This favorable behavior is shown to correlate with kinetic stability rotational resonances, and an experimentally determined range of measured E × B frequency with improved stability is identified. Stable plasmas appear to benefit further from reduced collisionality, in agreement with expectation from kinetic RWM stabilization theory, but low collisionality plasmas are also susceptible to sudden instability when kinetic profiles change.

  10. Plasma jet source parameter optimisation and experiments on injection into Globus-M spherical tokamak

    Gusev, V.K.; Petrov, Yu.V.; Sakharov, N.V.; Semenov, A.A.; Voronin, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Results of theoretical and experimental research on the plasma sources and injection of plasma and gas jet produced by the modified source into tokamak Globus-M are presented. An experimental test stand was developed for investigation of intense plasma jet generation. Optimisation of pulsed coaxial accelerator parameters by means of analytical calculations is performed with the aim of achieving the highest flow velocity at limited coaxial electrode length and discharge current. The optimal parameters of power supply to generate a plasma jet with minimal impurity contamination and maximum flow velocity were determined. A comparison of experimental and calculation results is made. Plasma jet parameters are measured, such as: impurity species content, pressure distribution across the jet, flow velocity, plasma density, etc. Experiments on the interaction of a higher kinetic energy plasma jet with the magnetic field and plasma of the Globus-M tokamak were performed. Experimental results on plasma and gas jet injection into different Globus-M discharge phases are presented and discussed. Results are presented on the investigation of plasma jet injection as the source for discharge breakdown, plasma current startup and initial density rise. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the plasma parameters in COMPASS tokamak divertor area

    Dimitrova, M.; Ivanova, P.; Kotseva, I.; Popov, Tsv.K.; Benova, E.; Bogdanov, T.; Stöckel, Jan; Dejarnac, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 356, č. 1 (2012), s. 012007 ISSN 1742-6588. [InternationalSummerSchoolonVacuum,Electron, and IonTechnologies(VEIT2011)/17./. Sunny Beach, 19.09.2011-23.09.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma * tokamak * diagnostics * electric probe * magnetic-field * Langmuir probe * intermediate * pressures Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/356/1/012007/pdf/1742-6596_356_1_012007.pdf

  12. The effect of plasma parameter on the bootstrap current of fast ions in neutral beam injection

    Huang Qianhong; Gong Xueyu; Cao Jinjia; Yang Lei

    2014-01-01

    The effect of plasma parameters on the distribution of net current density of fast ions produced by neutral beam injection is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio Tokamak with circular cross-section under specific parameters. Numerical results show that the value of net current density increases with the temperature of plasma increasing and decreases with the density of plasma increasing. The value of net current density is weakly affected by the effective charge number, but the peak of net current density moves towards edge plasma with effective charge number increasing. (authors)

  13. RF plasma parameter determination by a Langmuir multipoint double probe array

    Rojas-Olmedo, I A; López-Callejas, R; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Barocio, S R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G

    2012-01-01

    A multipoint double Langmuir (MDL) probe system, which is exempt from interference, has been designed and assembled to be applied to an RF plasma. The system provides the measurement of fundamental plasma parameters such as density, temperature, plasma potential, etc. on the basis of the Bohm Approximation Theory and the Orbital Movement Limit. Thus, one pair of the MDL system is selected so as to consider the right plasma parameters within the prevailing pressure-power intervals. Both the hardware and software of the system have been applied to the modification of material properties by means of the PIII process.

  14. Measurements of egg shell plasma parameters using laser-induced ...

    In LIBS, a high-intensity laser is focussed onto the sample, which is strong ... Compared to the production of plasma, qualitative and quantitative analyses are ... In this paper, the elemental composition of the egg shell crushed to a size of about.

  15. Kinetic global analysis of Alfven eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas

    Fukuyama, A.

    2002-01-01

    Systematic study on low to medium n (toroidal mode number) Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in tokamaks and helical systems is presented. Linear stability of AE in the presence of energetic ions was studied using the kinetic full-wave code TASK/WM.We have reproduced the destabilizing effect of toroidal co-rotation on TAE for JT-60U parameters. We have found the existence of reversed-shear-induced Alfven eigenmode (RSAE) which localizes near the q minimum in a reversed magnetic shear configuration. Two kinds of mode structures are identified for energetic particle mode (EPM) below the TAE frequency gap. The coupling to lower-frequency modes such as drift waves and MHD modes as well as the effect of trapped particles are also taken into account. For a helical plasma, the existence of GAE in the central region and TAE in the off-axis region was confirmed. (author)

  16. Plasma Arc Cutting Dimensional Accuracy Optimization employing the Parameter Design approach

    Kechagias John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC is a thermal manufacturing process used for metal plates cutting. This work experimentally investigates the influence of process parameters onto the dimensional accuracy performance of the plasma arc cutting process. The cutting parameters studied were cutting speed (mm/min, torch standoff distance (mm, and arc voltage (volts. Linear dimensions of a rectangular workpiece were measured after PAC cutting following the full factorial design experimental approach. For each one of the three process parameters, three parameter levels were used. Analysis of means (ANOM and analysis of variances (ANOVA were performed in order for the effect of each parameter on the leaner dimensional accuracy to be assessed.

  17. Global gyrokinetic simulations of intrinsic rotation in ASDEX Upgrade Ohmic L-mode plasmas

    Hornsby, W. A.; Angioni, C.; Lu, Z. X.; Fable, E.; Erofeev, I.; McDermott, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Lebschy, A.; Peeters, A. G.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2018-05-01

    Non-linear, radially global, turbulence simulations of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) plasmas are performed and the nonlinear generated intrinsic flow shows agreement with the intrinsic flow gradients measured in the core of Ohmic L-mode plasmas at nominal parameters. Simulations utilising the kinetic electron model show hollow intrinsic flow profiles as seen in a predominant number of experiments performed at similar plasma parameters. In addition, significantly larger flow gradients are seen than in a previous flux-tube analysis (Hornsby et al 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 046008). Adiabatic electron model simulations can show a flow profile with opposing sign in the gradient with respect to a kinetic electron simulation, implying a reversal in the sign of the residual stress due to kinetic electrons. The shaping of the intrinsic flow is strongly determined by the density gradient profile. The sensitivity of the residual stress to variations in density profile curvature is calculated and seen to be significantly stronger than to neoclassical flows (Hornsby et al 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 046008). This variation is strong enough on its own to explain the large variations in the intrinsic flow gradients seen in some AUG experiments. Analysis of the symmetry breaking properties of the turbulence shows that profile shearing is the dominant mechanism in producing a finite parallel wave-number, with turbulence gradient effects contributing a smaller portion of the parallel wave-vector.

  18. Dependence of the source performance on plasma parameters at the BATMAN test facility

    Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of the dependence of the source performance (high jH-, low je) for optimum Cs conditions on the plasma parameters at the BATMAN (Bavarian Test MAchine for Negative hydrogen ions) test facility is desirable in order to find key parameters for the operation of the source as well as to deepen the physical understanding. The most relevant source physics takes place in the extended boundary layer, which is the plasma layer with a thickness of several cm in front of the plasma grid: the production of H-, its transport through the plasma and its extraction, inevitably accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons. Hence, a link of the source performance with the plasma parameters in the extended boundary layer is expected. In order to characterize electron and negative hydrogen ion fluxes in the extended boundary layer, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and Langmuir probes have been applied for the measurement of the H- density and the determination of the plasma density, the plasma potential and the electron temperature, respectively. The plasma potential is of particular importance as it determines the sheath potential profile at the plasma grid: depending on the plasma grid bias relative to the plasma potential, a transition in the plasma sheath from an electron repelling to an electron attracting sheath takes place, influencing strongly the electron fraction of the bias current and thus the amount of co-extracted electrons. Dependencies of the source performance on the determined plasma parameters are presented for the comparison of two source pressures (0.6 Pa, 0.45 Pa) in hydrogen operation. The higher source pressure of 0.6 Pa is a standard point of operation at BATMAN with external magnets, whereas the lower pressure of 0.45 Pa is closer to the ITER requirements (p ≤ 0.3 Pa).

  19. Dependence of the source performance on plasma parameters at the BATMAN test facility

    Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of the dependence of the source performance (high j H − , low j e ) for optimum Cs conditions on the plasma parameters at the BATMAN (Bavarian Test MAchine for Negative hydrogen ions) test facility is desirable in order to find key parameters for the operation of the source as well as to deepen the physical understanding. The most relevant source physics takes place in the extended boundary layer, which is the plasma layer with a thickness of several cm in front of the plasma grid: the production of H − , its transport through the plasma and its extraction, inevitably accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons. Hence, a link of the source performance with the plasma parameters in the extended boundary layer is expected. In order to characterize electron and negative hydrogen ion fluxes in the extended boundary layer, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and Langmuir probes have been applied for the measurement of the H − density and the determination of the plasma density, the plasma potential and the electron temperature, respectively. The plasma potential is of particular importance as it determines the sheath potential profile at the plasma grid: depending on the plasma grid bias relative to the plasma potential, a transition in the plasma sheath from an electron repelling to an electron attracting sheath takes place, influencing strongly the electron fraction of the bias current and thus the amount of co-extracted electrons. Dependencies of the source performance on the determined plasma parameters are presented for the comparison of two source pressures (0.6 Pa, 0.45 Pa) in hydrogen operation. The higher source pressure of 0.6 Pa is a standard point of operation at BATMAN with external magnets, whereas the lower pressure of 0.45 Pa is closer to the ITER requirements (p ≤ 0.3 Pa)

  20. Cutoff effects of electron velocity distribution to the properties of plasma parameters near the plasma-sheath boundary

    Jelic, N.

    2011-01-01

    The plasma properties under high thermodynamic non-equilibrium condition, established due to the presence of electrically biased electrode, are investigated. Assumption of electron cut-off velocity distribution function (VDF), as done by Andrews and Varey in their investigations of the sheath region [J. Phys. A 3, 413 (1970)], has been extended here to both plasma and sheath regions. Analytic expressions for the moments of electron VDF, as well as for the electron screening temperature function dependence on the plasma-sheath local potential are derived. In deriving the ion velocity distribution the ''standard'' assumption of strict plasma quasineutrality, or equivalently vanishing of the plasma Debye length, is employed, whereas the ions are assumed to be generated at rest over the plasma region. However, unlike the standard approach of solving the plasma equation, where pure Boltzmann electron density profile is used, here we employ modified Boltzmann's electron density profile, due to cutoff effect of the electron velocity distribution. It is shown that under these conditions the quasineutrality equation solution is characterised by the electric field singularity for any negative value of the electrode bias potential as measured with respect to the plasma potential. The point of singularity i.e., the plasma length and its dependence on the electrode bias and sheath potential is established for the particular case of ionization profile mechanism proportional to the local electron density. Relevant parameters for the kinetic Bohm criterion are explicitly calculated for both ions and electrons, for arbitrary electrode bias.

  1. The Influence of the Axial Magnetic Field Upon-the Coaxial Plasma Gun Parameters

    El-Aragi, G.M.; EL-Demrdash, A.

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns with the influence of an applied axial magnetic field upon the electrical parameters of a coaxial plasma gun device. The experimental results are investigated with 0.5 KJ plasma gun device operated with argon gas at a pressure of 3.5 Torr. An axial time independent magnetic field with intensity of 550 G is introduced along the plasma current sheath axial region, within the annular space between the two coaxial electrodes. From the measurements of the discharge current I(t) and the voltage V(t), the electrical discharge parameters of the plasma gun device and the plasma current sheath implosion velocity are estimated, in normal mode of plasma gun operation and in the mode of presence external axial magnetic field. A comparison between these two modes is studied

  2. Effects of boronisation on the plasma parameters in TCA

    Dudok de Wit, Th.; Duval, B.P.; Hollenstein, Ch.; Joye, B.

    1990-01-01

    Wall conditioning and deposition of low Z materials on the first wall and limiters play an important role in plasma impurity control. Carbon film deposition (carbonisation) is already used on many Tokamaks. As proposed by Veprek, a film containing boron and carbon would be more resistant to chemical erosion and could also getter the oxygen. This procedure (boronisation) has been tried on Textor, Asdex and recently on TCA. The TCA vacuum vessel, the 8 rf antenna groups and 4 antenna screens are stainless steel and there are 4 carbon limiters placed in one poloidal plane. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs

  3. Triple-probe method applied to the direct display of plasma parameters in a supersonic flowing continuum plasma

    Ogram, G.L.; Chang, J.; Hobson, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The calibration of electrostatic triple-probe voltage and current response in a supersonic continuum plasma has been carried out using a low-pressure shock tube. The electron temperature T/sub e/ and charge number density N/sub e/ are compared to probe voltage and current response, respectively, for a useful range of plasma parameters (1 13 13 is the nondimensional probe voltage). The dependence of probe response on Debye ratio R/sub p//lambda/sub D/ and various flow parameters was investigated. The probe voltage response was found to depend significantly on the Debye ratio. Expressions for electron temperature determination by triple probe are presented

  4. Study of plasma parameters influencing fractionation in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Gäckle, M.; Merten, D.

    2010-12-01

    Methods permitting to test the influence of the matrix as well as of its local and temporal distribution on the plasma conditions in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are developed. For this purpose, the MS interface is used as plasma probe allowing to investigate the average plasma condition within the ICP zone observed in terms of temporal and spatial distribution of the matrix. Inserted matrix particles, particularly when being atomized and ionized, can cause considerable changes in both electron density and plasma temperature thus influencing the ionization equilibrium of the individual analytes. In this context, the plasma probe covers a region of the plasma for which no local thermodynamic equilibrium can be assumed. The differences in temperature, identified within the region of the plasma observed, amounted up to 3000 K. While in the central region conditions were detected that would not allow efficient atomization and ionization of the matrix, these conditions improve considerably towards the margin of the area observed. Depending on the nature as well as on the temporally and locally variable density of the matrix, this can lead to varying intensity ratios of the analytes and explain fractionation effects. By means of a derived equation it is shown that the deviation of the intensity ratio from the concentration ratio turns out to be more serious the higher the difference of the ionization potential of the analytes observed, the lower the plasma temperature and the higher the matrix concentration within the area observed.

  5. Plasma parameter estimations for the Large Helical Device based on the gyro-reduced Bohm scaling

    Okamoto, Masao; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Sugama, Hideo.

    1991-10-01

    A model of gyro-reduced Bohm scaling law is incorporated into a one-dimensional transport code to predict plasma parameters for the Large Helical Device (LHD). The transport code calculations reproduce well the LHD empirical scaling law and basic parameters and profiles of the LHD plasma are calculated. The amounts of toroidal currents (bootstrap current and beam-driven current) are also estimated. (author)

  6. Plasma Arc Cutting Dimensional Accuracy Optimization employing the Parameter Design approach

    Kechagias John; Petousis Markos; Vidakis Nectarios; Mastorakis Nikos

    2017-01-01

    Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC) is a thermal manufacturing process used for metal plates cutting. This work experimentally investigates the influence of process parameters onto the dimensional accuracy performance of the plasma arc cutting process. The cutting parameters studied were cutting speed (mm/min), torch standoff distance (mm), and arc voltage (volts). Linear dimensions of a rectangular workpiece were measured after PAC cutting following the full factorial design experimental approach. For ...

  7. EFFECT OF PLASMA CUTTING PARAMETERS UPON SHAPES OF BEARING CURVE OF C45 STEEL SURFACE

    Agnieszka Skoczylas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the effect of plasma cutting technological parameters upon the shape of bearing curves and the parameters of the curve. The topography of surface formed by plasma cutting were analyzed. For measuring surface roughness and determining the bearing curve the appliance T8000 RC120 – 400 by Hommel-Etamic was used together with software.

  8. Analyses of plasma parameter profiles in JT-60U

    Shirai, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Nobuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Itakura, Hirofumi; Takase, Keizou [CSK Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    The methods how diagnostics data are treated as the surface quantity of magnetic surface and processed to the profile data in the JT-60U plasmas are summarized. The MHD equilibrium obtained by solving Grad-Shafranov equation on the MHD equilibrium calculation and registration software FBEQU are saved shot by shot as a database. Various experimental plasma data measured at various geometrical positions on JT-60 are mapped onto the MHD equilibrium and treated as functions of the volume averaged minor radius {rho} on the experimental data time slice monitoring software SLICE. Experimental data are integrated and edited on SLICE. The experimental data measured as the line integral values are transformed by Able inversion. The mapped data are fitted to a functional form and saved to the profile database MAP-DB. SLICE can also read data from MAP-DB and redisplay and transform them. In addition, SLICE can generate the profile data TOKRD as run data for orbit following Monte-Carlo (OFMC) code, analyzer for current drive consistent with MHD equilibrium (ACCOME) code and tokamak predictive and interpretive code system (TOPICS). (author)

  9. Analyses of plasma parameter profiles in JT-60U

    Shirai, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Nobuhiko

    2001-01-01

    The methods how diagnostics data are treated as the surface quantity of magnetic surface and processed to the profile data in the JT-60U plasmas are summarized. The MHD equilibrium obtained by solving Grad-Shafranov equation on the MHD equilibrium calculation and registration software FBEQU are saved shot by shot as a database. Various experimental plasma data measured at various geometrical positions on JT-60 are mapped onto the MHD equilibrium and treated as functions of the volume averaged minor radius ρ on the experimental data time slice monitoring software SLICE. Experimental data are integrated and edited on SLICE. The experimental data measured as the line integral values are transformed by Able inversion. The mapped data are fitted to a functional form and saved to the profile database MAP-DB. SLICE can also read data from MAP-DB and redisplay and transform them. In addition, SLICE can generate the profile data TOKRD as run data for orbit following Monte-Carlo (OFMC) code, analyzer for current drive consistent with MHD equilibrium (ACCOME) code and tokamak predictive and interpretive code system (TOPICS). (author)

  10. Plasma parameters for alternate operating modes of TIBER-II

    Fenstermacher, M.E.; Devoto, R.S.; Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Parameters for operating points of TIBER-II, different from the baseline steady-state operation, are presented. These results have been generated with the MUMAK tokamak power balance code. Pulsed ignited and high performance steady-state operating points are described. 20 refs

  11. Biochemical Nutritional Parameters in Breast-milk and Plasma of ...

    Undernourishment in HIV infected individuals exacerbates immunosuppression, acceleration of HIV replication and CD4 + T cell depletion. The production of human milk (lactogenesis) is dependent on factors in the blood therefore deranged blood parameters in HIV patients are expected to reflect in the components of ...

  12. Study of geometrical and operational parameters controlling the low frequency microjet atmospheric pressure plasma characteristics

    Kim, Dan Bee; Rhee, J. K.; Moon, S. Y.; Choe, W.

    2006-01-01

    Controllability of small size atmospheric pressure plasma generated at low frequency in a pin to dielectric plane electrode configuration was studied. It was shown that the plasma characteristics could be controlled by geometrical and operational parameters of the experiment. Under most circumstances, continuous glow discharges were observed, but both the corona and/or the dielectric barrier discharge characteristics were observed depending on the position of the pin electrode. The plasma size and the rotational temperature were also varied by the parameters. The rotational temperature was between 300 and 490 K, being low enough to treat thermally sensitive materials

  13. Experimental study on plasma parameters in the mushroom limiter shadow in the T-10 tokamak

    Alferov, A.A.; Vershkov, V.A.; Grashin, S.A.; Chankin, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma parameters in the shadow of mashroom limiter installed in the lower tokamak outlet are studied. Investigation into asymmetry of plasma fluxes to the ion and electrone limiter sides leads to a consumption concerning two meachanisms of its occurrance-toroidal plasma rotation and prevailing plasma departure to the wall through the external torus encirclement. Asymmetry of plasma drift potentials near the limiter observed during the experiment leads to current drift through the limiter close to Spitzer j s one. It is shown that with the increase of mean plasma density the plasma density in the limiter channels grows and its temperature is decreased so the charged particle losses for the limiter are weakly dependent on the mean density which is connected with plasma confinement degradation under the density reduction. A complete flux of charged particles to the limiter is comparable to their flux from plasma filament. Plasma flux into the channels is close to ambipolar one and the power fluxes to neutralization plates are of the order of 10 j s Te/e. Neutral gas pressure dependence in the volume under the limiter on the plasma fluxes to channels is nonlinear, the maximum pressure achieves 3x10 -2 T

  14. Coronal mass ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters in relation with geomagnetic storms

    Verma, P L; Singh, Puspraj; Singh, Preetam

    2014-01-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are the drastic solar events in which huge amount of solar plasma materials are ejected into the heliosphere from the sun and are mainly responsible to generate large disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters and geomagnetic storms in geomagnetic field. We have studied geomagnetic storms, (Dst ≤-75 nT) observed during the period of 1997-2007 with Coronal Mass Ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters (solar wind temperature, velocity, density and interplanetary magnetic field) .We have inferred that most of the geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs).The association rate of halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 72.37 % and 27.63 % respectively. Further we have concluded that geomagnetic storms are closely associated with the disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters. We have determined positive co-relation between magnitudes of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma temperature, jump in solar wind plasma density, jump in solar wind plasma velocity and jump in average interplanetary magnetic field with co-relation co-efficient 0 .35 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma temperature, 0.19 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind density, 0.34 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma velocity, 0.66 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in average interplanetary magnetic field respectively. We have concluded that geomagnetic storms are mainly caused by Coronal Mass Ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters that they generate.

  15. The spectral problem of global microinstabilities in tokamak-like plasmas using a gyrokinetic model

    Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.; Fivaz, M.; Appert, K.

    1996-01-01

    Tokamak-like plasmas are modeled by a periodic cylindrical system with magnetic shear and realistic density and temperature profiles. Linear electrostatic microinstabilities in such plasmas are studied by solving the eigenvalue problem starting from gyrokinetic theory. The actual eigenvalue equation is then of integral type. With this approach, finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects to all orders are taken into account. FLR effects provide for the only radial coupling in a cylinder and to lowest order correspond to polarization drift. This effectively one-dimensional problem helped us to gain useful knowledge for solving gyrokinetic equations in a curved system. When searching for the eigenfrequencies of the global modes, two different methods have been tested and compared. Either the true eigenvalue problem is solved by finding the zeros of the characteristic equation, or one considers a system driven by an antenna and looks for resonances in the power response of the plasma. In addition, mode structures were computed as well in direct as in Fourier space. The advantages and disadvantages of these various approaches are discussed. Ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities are studied over a wide range of parameters and for wavelengths perpendicular to the magnetic field down to the scale of ion Larmor radii. Flute instabilities driven by magnetic curvature drifts are also considered. Some of these results are compared with a time evolution PIC code. Such comparisons are valuable as the convergence of PIC results is often questioned. Work considering true toroidal geometry is in progress

  16. Effects of plasma jet parameters, ionization, thermal conduction, and radiation on stagnation conditions of an imploding plasma liner

    Stanic, Milos

    The disciplines of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are characterized by hypervelocity implosions and strong shocks. The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is focused on reaching HEDP and/or ICF relevant regimes in excess of 1 Mbar peak pressure by the merging and implosion of discrete plasma jets, as a potentially efficient path towards these extreme conditions in a laboratory. In this work we have presented the first 3D simulations of plasma liner, formation, and implosion by the merging of discrete plasma jets in which ionization, thermal conduction, and radiation are all included in the physics model. The study was conducted by utilizing a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHC) and was a part of the plasma liner experiment (PLX). The salient physics processes of liner formation and implosion are studied, namely vacuum propagation of plasma jets, merging of the jets (liner forming), implosion (liner collapsing), stagnation (peak pressure), and expansion (rarefaction wave disassembling the target). Radiative transport was found to significantly reduce the temperature of the liner during implosion, thus reducing the thermal expansion rates and leaving more pronounced gradients in the plasma liner during the implosion compared with ideal hydrodynamic simulations. These pronounced gradients lead to a greater sensitivity of initial jet geometry and symmetry on peak pressures obtained. Accounting for ionization and transport, many cases gave higher peak pressures than the ideal hydrodynamic simulations. Scaling laws were developed accordingly, creating a non-dimensional parameter space in which performance of an imploding plasma jet liner can be estimated. It is shown that HEDP regimes could be reached with ≈ 5 MJ of liner energy, which would translate to roughly 10 to 20 MJ of stored (capacitor) energy. This is a potentially significant improvement over the currently available means via ICF of achieving HEDP and nuclear

  17. Hidden parameters in the plasma deposition of microcrystalline silicon solar cells

    van den Donker, M.N.; Rech, B.; Schmitz, R.; Klomfass, J.; Dingemans, G.; Finger, F.; Houben, L.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of process parameters on the plasma deposition of µc-Si:H solar cells is reviewed in this article. Several in situ diagnostics are presented, which can be used to study the process stability as an additional parameter in the deposition process. The diagnostics were used to investigate the

  18. Parameter extraction using global particle swarm optimization approach and the influence of polymer processing temperature on the solar cell parameters

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A.; Dhar, A.

    2017-08-01

    The accurate estimation of the photovoltaic parameters is fundamental to gain an insight of the physical processes occurring inside a photovoltaic device and thereby to optimize its design, fabrication processes, and quality. A simulative approach of accurately determining the device parameters is crucial for cell array and module simulation when applied in practical on-field applications. In this work, we have developed a global particle swarm optimization (GPSO) approach to estimate the different solar cell parameters viz., ideality factor (η), short circuit current (Isc), open circuit voltage (Voc), shunt resistant (Rsh), and series resistance (Rs) with wide a search range of over ±100 % for each model parameter. After validating the accurateness and global search power of the proposed approach with synthetic and noisy data, we applied the technique to the extract the PV parameters of ZnO/PCDTBT based hybrid solar cells (HSCs) prepared under different annealing conditions. Further, we examine the variation of extracted model parameters to unveil the physical processes occurring when different annealing temperatures are employed during the device fabrication and establish the role of improved charge transport in polymer films from independent FET measurements. The evolution of surface morphology, optical absorption, and chemical compositional behaviour of PCDTBT co-polymer films as a function of processing temperature has also been captured in the study and correlated with the findings from the PV parameters extracted using GPSO approach.

  19. Mode transition of power dissipation and plasma parameters in an asymmetric capacitive discharge

    Lee, Soo-Jin; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Bang, Jin-young; Oh, Seung-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Electrical characteristics and plasma parameters were experimentally investigated in asymmetric capacitively coupled plasma with various argon gas pressures. At a low discharge current region, the transferred power to the plasma was proportional to the current, while the transferred power increased proportionally to square of the current at a high discharge current region. The mode transition of power dissipation occurred at the lower discharge current region with the high gas pressure. At the low radio-frequency power or low discharge current, the plasma density increased linearly with the discharge current, while at the high power or high discharge current, the rate of an increase in the plasma density depended on the gas pressures. A transition of the discharge resistance was also found when the mode transition of the power dissipation occurred. These changes in the electrical characteristics and the plasma parameters were mainly caused by the power dissipation mode transition from the plasma bulk to the sheath in the capacitive discharge with the asymmetric electrode, which has extremely high self-bias voltages. - Highlights: • Mode transition of the power dissipation in an asymmetrical capacitive discharge • Evolution of the discharge power, electrode voltage, and discharge impedance • Electron temperature and plasma density on the power dissipation mode transition

  20. Comparative Study of Plasma Parameters in Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys Olivacea and Hawksbill (Eretmochelys Imbricata During Nesting

    A.Y.A. Alkindi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the role of plasma level parameters during nesting activity and provide data potentially useful to future studies on the dynamics of reproductive and stress hormones in the most endangered sea turtle species in the world. Plasma parameters in the sea turtles, olive ridley (Lipodochelys oliveacea and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata from Masirah Island, Oman, were analyzed relative to nesting stress. To date, no study has been conducted on plasma parameter levels in sea turtles during nesting. Field observations were conducted under ideal temperature conditions. At the time of sampling, there was no significant difference for cloacal, sand, air or water temperature for the two species. Electrolytes (Cl¯, Ca++, K+, Na+ and Mg++, cholesterol, urea, uric acid and osmolarity were measured during nesting. Both species were observed to spend between 1.5 and 2.00 hours on the nesting grounds. Some had successful oviposition and completed all nesting phases, while others with incomplete nesting phases failed to oviposit their  eggs. Under both conditions, the turtles of both species had an exhaustive and stressful nesting exercise. Plasma parameter values, both intra-specifically and inter-specifically, were not significantly different for oviposited and non-oviposited turtles. This may indicate that both species have the same physiological adjustment relative to plasma parameters whether or not the turtles oviposited their eggs.

  1. Global High Resolution Sea Surface Flux Parameters From Multiple Satellites

    Zhang, H.; Reynolds, R. W.; Shi, L.; Bates, J. J.

    2007-05-01

    Advances in understanding the coupled air-sea system and modeling of the ocean and atmosphere demand increasingly higher resolution data, such as air-sea fluxes of up to 3 hourly and every 50 km. These observational requirements can only be met by utilizing multiple satellite observations. Generation of such high resolution products from multiple-satellite and in-situ observations on an operational basis has been started at the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center. Here we describe a few products that are directly related to the computation of turbulent air-sea fluxes. Sea surface wind speed has been observed from in-situ instruments and multiple satellites, with long-term observations ranging from one satellite in the mid 1987 to six or more satellites since mid 2002. A blended product with a global 0.25° grid and four snapshots per day has been produced for July 1987 to present, using a near Gaussian 3-D (x, y, t) interpolation to minimize aliases. Wind direction has been observed from fewer satellites, thus for the blended high resolution vector winds and wind stresses, the directions are taken from the NCEP Re-analysis 2 (operationally run near real time) for climate consistency. The widely used Reynolds Optimum Interpolation SST analysis has been improved with higher resolutions (daily and 0.25°). The improvements use both infrared and microwave satellite data that are bias-corrected by in- situ observations for the period 1985 to present. The new versions provide very significant improvements in terms of resolving ocean features such as the meandering of the Gulf Stream, the Aghulas Current, the equatorial jets and other fronts. The Ta and Qa retrievals are based on measurements from the AMSU sounder onboard the NOAA satellites. Ta retrieval uses AMSU-A data, while Qa retrieval uses both AMSU-A and AMSU-B observations. The retrieval algorithms are developed using the neural network approach. Training

  2. Global approach to the spectral problem of microinstabilities in tokamak plasmas using a gyrokinetic model

    Brunner, S.

    1997-08-01

    Ion temperature gradient (ITG)-related instabilities are studied in tokamak-like plasmas with the help of a new global eigenvalue code. Ions are modelled in the frame of gyrokinetic theory so that finite Larmor radius effects of these particles are retained to all orders. Non-adiabatic trapped electron dynamics is taken into account through the bounce-averaged drift kinetic equation. Assuming electrostatic perturbations, the system is closed with the quasineutrality relation. Practical methods are presented which make this global approach feasible. These include a non-standard wave decomposition compatible with the curved geometry as well as adapting an efficient root finding algorithm for computing the unstable spectrum. These techniques are applied to a low pressure configuration given by a large aspect ratio torus with circular, concentric magnetic surfaces. Simulations from a linear, time evolution, particle in cell code provide a useful benchmark. Comparisons with local ballooning calculations for different parameter scans enable further validation while illustrating the limits of that representation at low toroidal wave numbers or for non-interchange-like instabilities. The stabilizing effect of negative magnetic shear is also considered, in which case the global results show not only an attenuation of the growth rate but also a reduction of the radial extent induced by a transition from the toroidal- to the slab-ITG mode. Contributions of trapped electrons to the ITG instability as well as the possible coupling to the trapped electron mode are clearly brought to the fore. (author) figs., tabs., 69 refs

  3. Effect of plasma actuator control parameters on a transitional flow

    Das Gupta, Arnob; Roy, Subrata

    2018-04-01

    This study uses a wall-resolved implicit large eddy simulation to investigate the effects of different surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator parameters such as the geometry of the electrodes, frequency, amplitude of actuation and thermal effect. The actuator is used as a tripping device on a zero-pressure gradient laminar boundary layer flow. It is shown that the standard linear actuator creates structures like the Tollmien-Schlichting wave transition. The circular serpentine, square serpentine and spanwise actuators have subharmonic sinuous streak breakdown and behave like oblique wave transition scenario. The spanwise and square actuators cause comparably faster transition to turbulence. The square actuator adds energy into the higher spanwise wavenumber modes resulting in a faster transition compared to the circular actuator. When the Strouhal number of actuation is varied, the transition does not occur for a value below 0.292. Higher frequencies with same amplitude of actuation lead to faster transition. Small changes (<4%) in the amplitude of actuation can have a significant impact on the transition location which suggests that an optimal combination of frequency and amplitude exists for highest control authority. The thermal bumps approximating the actuator heating only shows localized effects on the later stages of transition for temperatures up to 373 K and can be ignored for standard actuators operating in subsonic regimes.

  4. Dynamical analysis of a cubic Liénard system with global parameters

    Chen, Hebai; Chen, Xingwu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we investigate the dynamical behaviour of a cubic Liénard system with global parameters. After analysing the qualitative properties of all the equilibria and judging the existences of limit cycles and homoclinic loops for the whole parameter plane, we give the bifurcation diagram and phase portraits. Phase portraits are global if there exist limit cycles and local otherwise. We prove that parameters lie in a connected region, not just on a curve, usually in the parameter plane when the system has one homoclinic loop. Moreover, for global parameters we give a positive answer to conjecture 3.2 of (1998 Nonlinearity 11 1505-19) in the case of exactly two equilibria about the existence of some function whose graph is exactly the surface of double limit cycles. Supported by NSFC 11471228, 11172246 and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

  5. A study of plasma parameters in hollow cathode plasma jet in pulse regime

    Kudrna, P.; Klusoň, J.; Leshkov, S.; Chichina, M.; Picková, I.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Tichý, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 9 (2010), s. 886-891 ISSN 0863-1042 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : thin-films * system * deposition * RF * nitride Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.006, year: 2010

  6. Global numerical modeling of magnetized plasma in a linear device

    Magnussen, Michael Løiten

    Understanding the turbulent transport in the plasma-edge in fusion devices is of utmost importance in order to make precise predictions for future fusion devices. The plasma turbulence observed in linear devices shares many important features with the turbulence observed in the edge of fusion dev...... with simulations performed at different ionization levels, using a simple model for plasma interaction with neutrals. It is found that the steady state and the saturated state of the system bifurcates when the neutral interaction dominates the electron-ion collisions.......Understanding the turbulent transport in the plasma-edge in fusion devices is of utmost importance in order to make precise predictions for future fusion devices. The plasma turbulence observed in linear devices shares many important features with the turbulence observed in the edge of fusion...... devices, and are easier to diagnose due to lower temperatures and a better access to the plasma. In order to gain greater insight into this complex turbulent behavior, numerical simulations of plasma in a linear device are performed in this thesis. Here, a three-dimensional drift-fluid model is derived...

  7. Temporal evolution of electron energy distribution function and plasma parameters in the afterglow of drifting magnetron plasma

    Seo, Sang-Hun; In, Jung-Hwan; Chang, Hong-Young

    2005-01-01

    The temporal behaviour of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and the plasma parameters such as electron density, electron temperature and plasma and floating potentials in a mid-frequency pulsed dc magnetron plasma are investigated using time-resolved probe measurements. A negative-voltage dc pulse with an average power of 160 W during the pulse-on period, a repetition frequency of 20 kHz and a duty cycle of 50% is applied to the cathode of a planar unbalanced magnetron discharge with a grounded substrate. The measured electron energy distribution is found to exhibit a bi-Maxwellian distribution, which can be resolved with the low-energy electron group and the high-energy tail part during the pulse-on period, and a Maxwellian distribution only with low-energy electrons as a consequence of initially rapid decay of the high-energy tail part during the pulse-off period. This characteristic evolution of the EEDF is reflected in the decay characteristics of the electron density and temperature in the afterglow. These parameters exhibit twofold decay represented by two characteristic decay times of an initial fast decay time τ 1 , and a subsequent slower decay time τ 2 in the afterglow when approximated with a bi-exponential function. While the initial fast decay times are of the order of 1 μs (τ T1 ∼ 0.99 μs and τ N1 ∼ 1.5 μs), the slower decay times are of the order of a few tens of microseconds (τ T2 ∼ 7 μs and τ N2 ∼ 40 μs). The temporal evolution of the plasma parameters are qualitatively explained by considering the formation mechanism of the bi-Maxwellian electron distribution function and the electron transports of these electron groups in bulk plasma

  8. Fast non-linear extraction of plasma equilibrium parameters using a neural network mapping

    Lister, J.B.; Schnurrenberger, H.

    1990-07-01

    The shaping of non-circular plasmas requires a non-linear mapping between the measured diagnostic signals and selected equilibrium parameters. The particular configuration of Neural Network known as the multi-layer perceptron provides a powerful and general technique for formulating an arbitrary continuous non-linear multi-dimensional mapping. This technique has been successfully applied to the extraction of equilibrium parameters from measurements of single-null diverted plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak; the results are compared with a purely linear mapping. The method is promising, and hardware implementation is straightforward. (author) 15 refs., 7 figs

  9. Fast non-linear extraction of plasma equilibrium parameters using a neural network mapping

    Lister, J.B.; Schnurrenberger, H.

    1991-01-01

    The shaping of non-circular plasmas requires a non-linear mapping between the measured diagnostic signals and selected equilibrium parameters. The particular configuration of neural network known as the multilayer perceptron provides a powerful and general technique for formulating an arbitrary continuous non-linear multi-dimensional mapping. This technique has been successfully applied to the extraction of equilibrium parameters from measurements of single-null diverted plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak; the results are compared with a purely linear mapping. The method is promising, and hardware implementation is straightforward. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 2 tab

  10. Production of a hot ion plasma at the lower hybrid resonance and measurement of its parameters

    Glagolev, V.M.; Dyubajlov, A.G.; Krivov, N.A.; Martynenko, V.V.; Skosyrev, Yu.V.

    1975-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields delayed along a magnetic field have been created within a plasma with the aid of a coil encircling the plasma column. When these waves were propagated transversely in relation to the magnetic field in a plasma with density rising along its radius, they were delayed in the direction of propagation. The amplitude and phase distributions of the electromagentic fields along the radius of the plasma column were measured at different moments in time. The existence of an absorption band of these waves within the plasma was detected. The absorption band was shifted towards the outer boundary from the plasma when plasma density was increased. By four independent methods it was established that the gas-kinetic pressure of the plasma, measured according to its diamagnetism, is determined by the ion component. It was found that the energy of electrons at right angles to the magnetic field is considerably less than that of the ions. The cause of limited heating was an increase in density and energy losses in the charge-exchange process. In order to improve vacuum conditions, the coil around the plasma was placed in a metallic chamber, and the UHF plasma source used in the original experiments was replaced by a hydride-film source. This made it possible to increase the internal energy of the plasma to 3x10 15 eV cm -3 at a density of (1-3)x10 12 cm -3 . The mean energy of atoms leaving the plasma at right angles to the magnetic field as a result of charge exchange reached 1 keV. The region of change in plasma parameters (density and magnetic field) for which heating was observed corresponded to the linear transformation theory. Non-linear effects could occur only in the first stage of heating, when the electric fields were strong, but plasma temperature was low. Heating efficiency was measured by a reflectometer installed in the coaxial line connecting the generator and the HF input coil to the plasma. The measurements showed that about 20% of the power

  11. Seasonal variation of photosynthetic model parameters and leaf area index from global Fluxnet eddy covariance data

    Groenendijk, M.; Dolman, A.J.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Cescatti, A.; Molen, van der M.K.; Moors, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Global vegetation models require the photosynthetic parameters, maximum carboxylation capacity (Vcm), and quantum yield (a) to parameterize their plant functional types (PFTs). The purpose of this work is to determine how much the scaling of the parameters from leaf to ecosystem level through a

  12. Determination of atmospheric parameters to estimate global radiation in areas of complex topography: Generation of global irradiation map

    Batlles, F.J.; Bosch, J.L. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Tovar-Pescador, J. [Dpto. Fisica, Universidad de Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Martinez-Durban, M. [Dpto. Ingenieria Lenguajes y Computacion, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Ortega, R. [Dpto. Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Miralles, I. [Dpto. Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Granada, 28071 Granada (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    Incoming shortwave solar radiation is an important parameter in environmental applications. A detailed spatial and temporal analysis of global solar radiation on the earth surface is needed in many applications, ranging from solar energy uses to the study of agricultural, forest and biological processes. At local scales, the topography is the most important factor in the distribution of solar radiation on the surface. The variability of the elevation, the surface orientation and the obstructions due to elevations are a source of great local differences in insolation and, consequently, in other variables as ground temperature. For this reason, several models based on GIS techniques have been recently developed, integrating topography to obtain the solar radiation on the surface. In this work, global radiation is analyzed with the Solar Analyst, a model implemented on ArcView, that computes the topographic parameters: altitude, latitude, slope and orientation (azimuth) and shadow effects. Solar Analyst uses as input parameters the diffuse fraction and the transmittance. These parameters are not usually available in radiometric networks in mountainous areas. In this work, a method to obtain both parameters from global radiation is proposed. Global radiation data obtained in two networks of radiometric stations is used: one located in Sierra Magina Natural Park (Spain) with 11 stations and another one located on the surroundings of Sierra Nevada Natural Park (Spain) with 14 stations. Daily solar irradiation is calculated from a digital terrain model (DTM), the daily diffuse fraction, K, and daily atmospheric transmittivity, {tau}. Results provided by the model have been compared with measured values. An overestimation for high elevations is observed, whereas low altitudes present underestimation. The best performance was also reported during summer months, and the worst results were obtained during winter. Finally, a yearly global solar irradiation map has been

  13. The Influence of the Axial Magnetic Field Upon- the Coaxial Plasma Gun Parameters

    El-Aragi, G.M.; El-Demardash, A.

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns with the influence of an applied axial magnetic field upon the electrical parameters and on the brightness (luminance) of argon plasma. The brightness was measured by with a photomultiplier type of IP28 RCA. The experimental results are investigated with plasma gun device operated with argon gas at a pressure of 3.5 Torr. An axial time independent magnetic field with intensity of 550 G is introduced along the plasma current sheath axial region, within the annular space between the two coaxial electrodes. From the measurements of the discharge current I(t) and the voltage V(t), the electrical discharge parameters of the plasma gun device and the plasma current sheath implosion velocity are estimated, in normal mode of plasma gun operation and in the mode of presence external axial magnetic field. A comparison between these two modes is studied. It was found that the thickness of skin-layer δ about 0.01 cm and the wavelength λ, of the perturbation about 1.3 cm i.e. the instability has been satisfied. The growth rate γ of the instability about 10 6 sec -1 . (author)

  14. Investigation of shock compressed plasma parameters by interaction with magnetic field

    Dudin, S. V.; Fortov, V. E.; Gryaznov, V. K.; Mintsev, V. B.; Shilkin, N. S.; Ushnurtsev, A. E.

    1998-01-01

    The Hall effect parameters in shock compressed air, helium and xenon have been estimated and results of experiments with air and helium plasma are presented. Explosively driven shock tubes were used for the generation of strong shock waves. To obtain magnetic field a solenoid was winded over the shock tube. Calculations of dense shock compressed plasma parameters were carried out to plan the experiments. In the experiments with the magnetic field of ∼5 T it was found, that air plasma slug was significantly heated by the whirlwind electrical field. The reflected shock waves technique was used in the experiments with helium. Results on measurements of electrical conductivity and electron concentration of helium are presented

  15. The effects of varying plasma parameters on silicon thin film growth by ECR plasma CVD

    Summers, S.; Reehal, H.S.; Shirkoohi, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    The technique of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is increasingly being used in electronic and photonic device applications. ECR offers a number of advantages including improved control of the deposition process, less damage to the growing film and the possibility of high deposition rates. ECR occurs in a plasma under appropriate magnetic and electric field conditions. In most cases, as in our system, this is achieved with a combination of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation and a 0.0875 T magnetic field, due to the use of standardized microwave supplies. We have studied the effects on silicon film growth of changing the magnetic field configuration to produce one or more planes of ECR within the system, and of changing the positions of the plane(s) relative to the deposition substrate. The films were grown in silane-hydrogen discharges. The magnetic field in our system was provided by two electromagnets. It was measured experimentally for a number of operating current values and then a detailed profile achieved by modelling using a proprietary software package. A process condition discharge under identical magnetic field configurations to growth was analysed by the use of a Langmuir probe and the results correlated with film properties determined by Raman spectroscopy and Dektak profilometry. (author)

  16. Implementation of the Global Parameters Determination in Gaia's Astrometric Solution (AGIS)

    Raison, F.; Olias, A.; Hobbs, D.; Lindegren, L.

    2010-12-01

    Gaia is ESA’s space astrometry mission with a foreseen launch date in early 2012. Its main objective is to perform a stellar census of the 1000 Million brightest objects in our galaxy (completeness to V=20 mag) from which an astrometric catalog of micro-arcsec level accuracy will be constructed. A key element in this endeavor is the Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS). A core part of AGIS is to determine the accurate spacecraft attitude, geometric instrument calibration and astrometric model parameters for a well-behaved subset of all the objects (the ‘primary stars’). In addition, a small number of global parameters will be estimated, one of these being PPN γ. We present here the implementation of the algorithms dedicated to the determination of the global parameters.

  17. Identification of Plasma Parameters and Optimization of Magnetic Sensors in the Superconducting Steady-State Tokamak-1 Using Neural Networks

    Sengupta, A.; Ranjan, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the possibility of using a multilayered feedforward neural network to extract tokamak plasma parameters from magnetic measurements as an improvement over the traditional methodology of function parametrization. It is also used to optimize the number and locations of the magnetic diagnostics designed for the tokamak. This work has been undertaken with the specific purpose of application of the neural network technique to the newly designed (and currently under fabrication) Superconducting Steady-State Tokamak-1 (SST-1). The magnetic measurements will be utilized to achieve real-time control of plasma shape, position, and some global profiles. A trained neural network is tested, and the results of parameter identification are compared with function parametrization. Both techniques appear well suited for the purpose, but a definite improvement with neural networks is observed. Although simulated measurements are used in this work, confidence regarding the network performance with actual experimental data is ensured by testing the network's noise tolerance with Gaussian noise of up to 10%. Finally, three possible methods of ranking the diagnostics in decreasing order of importance are suggested, and the neural network is used to optimize the number and locations of the magnetic sensors designed for SST-1. The results from the three methods are compared with one another and also with function parametrization. Magnetic probes within the plasma-facing side of the outboard limiter have been ranked high. Function parametrization and one of the neural network methods show a distinct tendency to favor the probes in the remote regions of the vacuum vessel, proving the importance of redundancy. Fault tolerance of the optimized network is tested. The results obtained should, in the long run, help in the decision regarding the final effective set of magnetic diagnostics to be used in SST-1 for reconstruction of the control parameters

  18. Deriving global parameter estimates for the Noah land surface model using FLUXNET and machine learning

    Chaney, Nathaniel W.; Herman, Jonathan D.; Ek, Michael B.; Wood, Eric F.

    2016-11-01

    With their origins in numerical weather prediction and climate modeling, land surface models aim to accurately partition the surface energy balance. An overlooked challenge in these schemes is the role of model parameter uncertainty, particularly at unmonitored sites. This study provides global parameter estimates for the Noah land surface model using 85 eddy covariance sites in the global FLUXNET network. The at-site parameters are first calibrated using a Latin Hypercube-based ensemble of the most sensitive parameters, determined by the Sobol method, to be the minimum stomatal resistance (rs,min), the Zilitinkevich empirical constant (Czil), and the bare soil evaporation exponent (fxexp). Calibration leads to an increase in the mean Kling-Gupta Efficiency performance metric from 0.54 to 0.71. These calibrated parameter sets are then related to local environmental characteristics using the Extra-Trees machine learning algorithm. The fitted Extra-Trees model is used to map the optimal parameter sets over the globe at a 5 km spatial resolution. The leave-one-out cross validation of the mapped parameters using the Noah land surface model suggests that there is the potential to skillfully relate calibrated model parameter sets to local environmental characteristics. The results demonstrate the potential to use FLUXNET to tune the parameterizations of surface fluxes in land surface models and to provide improved parameter estimates over the globe.

  19. Determining global parameters of the oscillations of solar-like stars

    Mathur, S.; García, R. A.; Régulo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Helioseismology has enabled us to better understand the solar interior, while also allowing us to better constrain solar models. But now is a tremendous epoch for asteroseismology as space missions dedicated to studying stellar oscillations have been launched within the last years (MOST....... Aims. The goal of this research work is to estimate the global parameters of any solar-like oscillating target in an automatic manner. We want to determine the global parameters of the acoustic modes (large separation, range of excited pressure modes, maximum amplitude, and its corresponding frequency...

  20. Stepwise optimization and global chaos of nonlinear parameters in exact calculations of few-particle systems

    Frolov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of exact variational calculations of few-particle systems in the exponential basis of the relative coordinates using nonlinear parameters is studied. The techniques of stepwise optimization and global chaos of nonlinear parameters are used to calculate the S and P states of homonuclear muonic molecules with an error of no more than +0.001 eV. The global-chaos technique also has proved to be successful in the case of the nuclear systems 3 H and 3 He

  1. Effect of Mucuna pruriens on semen profile and biochemical parameters in seminal plasma of infertile men.

    Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Islam, Najmul; Jaiswar, Shyam Pyari; Ahmad, Sohail

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the impact of Mucuna pruriens seeds on semen profiles and biochemical levels in seminal plasma of infertile men. Prospective study. Departments of Biochemistry and Obstetrics and Gynecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India. Sixty normal healthy fertile men (controls) and 60 men undergoing infertility screening. High-performance liquid chromatography assay procedure for quantitation of vitamin A and E in seminal plasma. Biochemical parameters in seminal plasma, namely lipids, fructose, and vitamin C, were estimated by standard spectrophotometric procedures. Before and after the treatment, seminal plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxide, fructose, and antioxidant vitamin levels were measured. Treatment with M. pruriens significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation, elevated spermatogenesis, and improved sperm motility. Treatment also recovered the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and vitamin A, C, and E and corrected fructose in seminal plasma of infertile men. Treatment with M. pruriens increased sperm concentration and motility in all the infertile study groups. Oligozoospermic patients recovered sperm concentration significantly, but sperm motility was not restored to normal levels in asthenozoospermic men. Furthermore, in the seminal plasma of all the infertile groups, the levels of lipids, antioxidant vitamins, and corrected fructose were recovered after a decrease in lipid peroxides after treatment. The present study is likely to open new vistas on the possible role of M. pruriens seed powder as a restorative and invigorating agent for infertile men.

  2. Scaling study of edge plasma parameters using a multi-device database

    Tsui, H.Y.W.; Miner, W.H.; Wootton, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    A database consisting of edge equilibrium, turbulence and transport related plasma parameters has been compiled. Scaling laws for edge density, electron temperature, and radial particle flux are derived in an initial study using a subset of data obtained from tokamaks Phaedrus-T, Tokamak de Varennes, TEXT and TEXT-U. A comparison of edge particle transport in divertor and limiter plasmas shows that the magnetic topology of a separatrix or a divertor improves particle confinement. The particle diffusion coefficient varies radially in a manner opposite to that of Bohm diffusion. ((orig.))

  3. Modelling of an intermediate pressure microwave oxygen discharge reactor: from stationary two-dimensional to time-dependent global (volume-averaged) plasma models

    Kemaneci, Efe; Graef, Wouter; Rahimi, Sara; Van Dijk, Jan; Kroesen, Gerrit; Carbone, Emile; Jimenez-Diaz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A microwave-induced oxygen plasma is simulated using both stationary and time-resolved modelling strategies. The stationary model is spatially resolved and it is self-consistently coupled to the microwaves (Jimenez-Diaz et al 2012 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 335204), whereas the time-resolved description is based on a global (volume-averaged) model (Kemaneci et al 2014 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 23 045002). We observe agreement of the global model data with several published measurements of microwave-induced oxygen plasmas in both continuous and modulated power inputs. Properties of the microwave plasma reactor are investigated and corresponding simulation data based on two distinct models shows agreement on the common parameters. The role of the square wave modulated power input is also investigated within the time-resolved description. (paper)

  4. Emulation of a complex global aerosol model to quantify sensitivity to uncertain parameters

    L. A. Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity analysis of atmospheric models is necessary to identify the processes that lead to uncertainty in model predictions, to help understand model diversity through comparison of driving processes, and to prioritise research. Assessing the effect of parameter uncertainty in complex models is challenging and often limited by CPU constraints. Here we present a cost-effective application of variance-based sensitivity analysis to quantify the sensitivity of a 3-D global aerosol model to uncertain parameters. A Gaussian process emulator is used to estimate the model output across multi-dimensional parameter space, using information from a small number of model runs at points chosen using a Latin hypercube space-filling design. Gaussian process emulation is a Bayesian approach that uses information from the model runs along with some prior assumptions about the model behaviour to predict model output everywhere in the uncertainty space. We use the Gaussian process emulator to calculate the percentage of expected output variance explained by uncertainty in global aerosol model parameters and their interactions. To demonstrate the technique, we show examples of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN sensitivity to 8 model parameters in polluted and remote marine environments as a function of altitude. In the polluted environment 95 % of the variance of CCN concentration is described by uncertainty in the 8 parameters (excluding their interaction effects and is dominated by the uncertainty in the sulphur emissions, which explains 80 % of the variance. However, in the remote region parameter interaction effects become important, accounting for up to 40 % of the total variance. Some parameters are shown to have a negligible individual effect but a substantial interaction effect. Such sensitivities would not be detected in the commonly used single parameter perturbation experiments, which would therefore underpredict total uncertainty. Gaussian process

  5. Photosynthesis–irradiance parameters of marine phytoplankton: synthesis of a global data set

    Bouman, HA; Platt, T; Doblin, M; Figueiras, FG; Gudmundsson, K; Gudfinnsson, HG; Huang, B; Hickman, A; Hiscock, M; Jackson, T; Lutz, VA; Melin, F; Rey, F; Pepin, P; Segura, V

    2018-01-01

    The photosynthetic performance of marine phytoplankton varies in response to a variety of factors, environmental and taxonomic. One of the aims of the MArine primary Production: model Parameters from Space (MAPPS) project of the European Space Agency is to assemble a global database of photosynthesis–irradiance (P-E) parameters from a range of oceanographic regimes as an aid to examining the basin-scale variability in the photophysiological response of marine phytoplankto...

  6. Global structures of Alfven-ballooning modes in magnetospheric plasmas

    Vetoulis, G.; Chen, Liu.

    1994-03-01

    The authors show that a steep plasma pressure gradient can lead to radially localized Alfven modes, which are damped through coupling to filed line resonances. These have been called drift Alfven balloning modes (DABM) and are the prime candidates to explain Pc4-Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations observed during storms. A strong dependence of the damping rate on the azimuthal wave number m is established, as well as on the equilibrium profile. A minimum azimuthal mode number can be found for the DABM to be radially trapped. The authors find that higher m DABMs are better localized, which is consistent with high-m observations

  7. Global magnetospheric perturbations stimulated by the plasma wave discharge in the lower ionosphere

    Markov, G.A.; Chugunov, Yu.V.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a new method of controlled stimulation of global perturbations and the diagnostics of plasma physical processes in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere of the Earth. The method was realized with a series of rocket experiments by means of excitation of the radio frequency plasma wave discharge in the near field of the dipole antenna. We focus considerable attention on the results obtained in these experiments testifying to the wide choice and diversity of potentialities of this new method

  8. Global magnetic fluctuations in S-1 spheromak plasmas and relaxation toward a minimum-energy state

    Janos, A.; Hart, G.W.; Yamada, M.

    1986-01-01

    Globally coherent modes have been observed during formation in the S-1 Spheromak plasma. These modes play an important role in flux conversion and plasma relaxation toward a minimum-energy state. A significant finding is the temporal progression through the n = 5, 4, 3, 2; m = 1 mode sequence as q rises through rational fractions m/n. Peak amplitudes of the modes relative to the unperturbed field are typically less than 5%, while amplitudes as high as 20% have been observed

  9. The Diagnosis of Plasma Parameters in Surface Alloying Technique by Optical Emission Spectrometry

    Fu Yabo; Zhang Yuefei; Chen Qiang; Zhang Guangqiu; Gao Yuan; Wang Jianzhong; Kui Xiaoyun

    2006-01-01

    Electron density (Ne) in a glow discharge plasma for the surface alloying technique is diagnosed by optical emission spectrometry (OES). With CH 4 as the feeding gas, Ne is obtained by comparing the Hβ spectrum according to the Stark broadening effect. It is noticed that Ne varies with the working pressures (30 Pa to 70 Pa) and cathode voltages (500 V to 1000 V), respectively. Due to an abnormal glow discharge, Ne is between 1.71x10 15 /cm 3 to 6.64x10 15 /cm 3 and increases rapidly with working gas pressures and cathode voltages. The results show that OES is a useful method to measure the plasma parameters in a surface alloying glow discharge plasma

  10. Relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters in infertile subjects

    Ali, H.; Ahmed, M.; Baig, M.; Ali, M.

    2007-01-01

    To find out relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters between fertile and infertile men. (JPMC), Karachi and Department of Biochemistry. Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC, Karachi. Fifty eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, were selected from Infertility Clinic Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty five known fertile male selected from general population and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria. Serum and seminal plasma zinc were estimated by 5Br. PAPS Colorimetric method. This study showed significant difference in serum and seminal zinc levels in normospermic, oligospermic (p<0.05) and azoospermic (p<0.005). Seminal plasma zinc showed a positive correlation with sperm count and negative with sperm motility in normospermic and oligospermic and negative correlation with volume, pH, WBC concentration in all three groups. There was no correlation found with sperm morphology. On the basis of the findings of this study and those of other reports, zinc may contribute to fertility through its significant effects on various semen parameters. It seems that the estimation of seminal plasma zinc may help in investigation and treatment of infertile males. (author)

  11. [Measurement of plasma parameters in cluster hexagon pattern discharge by optical emission spectrum].

    Dong, Li-Fang; Shen, Zhong-Kai; Li, Xin-Chun; Liu, Liang; Lu, Ning; Shang, Jie

    2012-09-01

    The cluster hexagon pattern was obtained in a dielectric barrier discharge in air/argon for the first time. Three plasma parameters, i. e. the molecular vibrational temperature, the molecular rotational temperature and the average electron energy of individual cluster in cluster hexagon pattern discharge, were studied by changing the air content. The molecular vibrational temperature and the molecular rotational temperature were calculated using the second positive band system of nitrogen molecules (C 3IIu --> B 3IIg) and the first negative band system of nitrogen molecular ions (B 2Sigma(u)+ --> Chi2 Sigma(g)+). The relative intensities of the first negative system of nitrogen molecular ions (391. 4 nm) and nitrogen molecules emission spectrum line (337.1 nm) were analyzed for studying the variations of the electron energy. It was found that the three plasma parameters of individual cluster in cluster hexagon pattern increase with air content increasing from 16% to 24%.

  12. Effect of different parameters governing the stability of drift wave in a magnetised plasma

    Elashkar, F.F.

    1990-01-01

    Influence of the governing parameters, such as electron drift parallel speed, parallel wave length, electron-neutral and ion-neutral collision frequencies, electron temperature and magnetic field, on the stability of drift wave in a magnetized plasma has been studied experimentally and theoretically using a full numerical solution of the exact equation. Drift wave has been excited by a positively biased grid; at a threshold grid potential secondary excitation and ionisation processes take place in the ejected beam of plasma. Effect of the applied magnetic field on the probability of these processes is discussed. Grid positive potential, electron-neutral collision, parallel wave length, electron temperature and speed are found to be destabilizing, While ion neutral collision is stabilizing. Using a new parameter β, the effect of magnetic field is investigated and it is destabilizing only upto a certain limit. (author). 11 figs., 21 refs

  13. Long-time integrator for the study on plasma parameter fluctuations

    Zalkind, V.M.; Tarasenko, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    A device measuring the absolute value (x) of a fluctuating quantity x(t) averaged over a large number of realizations is described. The specific features of the device are the use of the time selector (Δ t = 50 μs - 1 ms) and the large time integration constant (tau = 30 hrs). The device is meant for studying fluctuations of parameters of a pulse plasma with a small repetition frequency

  14. Seasonal variation of photosynthetic model parameters and leaf area index from global Fluxnet eddy covariance data

    Groenendijk, M.; Dolman, A. J.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Cescatti, A.; Dragoni, D.; Gash, J. H. C.; Gianelle, D.; Gioli, B.; Kiely, G.; Knohl, A.; Law, B. E.; Lund, M.; Marcolla, B.; van der Molen, M. K.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Richardson, A. D.; Roupsard, O.; Verbeeck, H.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2011-12-01

    Global vegetation models require the photosynthetic parameters, maximum carboxylation capacity (Vcm), and quantum yield (α) to parameterize their plant functional types (PFTs). The purpose of this work is to determine how much the scaling of the parameters from leaf to ecosystem level through a seasonally varying leaf area index (LAI) explains the parameter variation within and between PFTs. Using Fluxnet data, we simulate a seasonally variable LAIF for a large range of sites, comparable to the LAIM derived from MODIS. There are discrepancies when LAIF reach zero levels and LAIM still provides a small positive value. We find that temperature is the most common constraint for LAIF in 55% of the simulations, while global radiation and vapor pressure deficit are the key constraints for 18% and 27% of the simulations, respectively, while large differences in this forcing still exist when looking at specific PFTs. Despite these differences, the annual photosynthesis simulations are comparable when using LAIF or LAIM (r2 = 0.89). We investigated further the seasonal variation of ecosystem-scale parameters derived with LAIF. Vcm has the largest seasonal variation. This holds for all vegetation types and climates. The parameter α is less variable. By including ecosystem-scale parameter seasonality we can explain a considerable part of the ecosystem-scale parameter variation between PFTs. The remaining unexplained leaf-scale PFT variation still needs further work, including elucidating the precise role of leaf and soil level nitrogen.

  15. The scaling of edge parameters in jet with plasma input power

    Erents, S.K.; McCracken, G.M.; Harbour, P.J.; Clement, S.; Summers, D.D.R.; Tagle, J.A.; Kock, L. de

    1989-01-01

    The scaling of edge parameters of density and temperature with central density and ohmic power in JET has been presented previously for the discrete limiter geometry and more recently for the new belt limiter configuration. However, the scaling with plasma current (I p ) is difficult to interpret because varying I p does not only change the input power but also the safety factor qs and consequently the SOL thickness. The use of additional heating at constant current allows more direct observation of the effects of changing heating power. In this paper we present data in which the plasma input power is increased by ICRH, (Pt<20MW), using a 3MA target plasma, and compare data for different plasma currents using discrete and belt limiter geometries. Edge data is presented from Langmuir probes in tiles at the top of the torus, when the tokamak is operated in single null magnetic separatrix (divertor) mode, as well as for probes in the main plasma boundary to contrast these data with limiter data. (author) 3 refs., 4 figs

  16. Some parameters of uranium hexafluoride plasma produced by products of nuclear reaction

    Batyrbekov, G.A.; Belyakova, Eh.A.

    1996-01-01

    The probe experimental results of investigation of uranium hexafluoride plasma produced in the centre of nuclear reactor core were demonstrated. Study of uranium hexafluoride plasma is continued by the following reasons: a possibility of U F 6 utilization as nuclear fuel, the utilization of U F 6 as volume source o ionization, search of active laser media compatible with U F 6 that is complicated by lack of constant rates data for most of plasma-chemical reactions with U F 6 and his dissociation products. Cylindrical probe volt-ampere characteristics (VAC) measured in U F 6 plasma at pressure 20 Torr and different thermal neutron fluxes and have following features: -firstly, it is possible to choose a linear part in the field of small positive potentials of probe (0-1) V; - secondary, ion branches of VAC have typical break which current of satiation corresponds to; -thirdly, probe VAC measured at small values of thermal neutron flux density are symmetrical. Diagnostics approaches were used for interpretation VAC of probe. The values of satiation current and linear part of electron branch were calculated, and such plasma parameters as conductivity, diffusion coefficient values of positive and negative ions were determined. The resonance recharge cross section was estimated on diffusion coefficient value

  17. Impact of gas puffing location on density control and plasma parameters in TJ-II

    Tabares, F.L.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Estrada, T.; Tafalla, D.; Hidalgo, A.; Ferreira, J.A.; Pastor, I.; Herranz, J.; Ascasibar, E.

    2005-01-01

    Under pure Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) conditions in TJ-II plasmas (P<300 kW, 53.2 GHz, 2nd harmonic X-mode, power density < 25 W/m''3), plasma start-up and good density control are obtained only by the proper combination of wall conditions and gas puffing characteristics. Such a control is particularly critical for the optimisation of the NBI power transfer to the target plasmas. The relatively low cut-off limit is easily reached due not only to the unfavourable wall/puffing-fuelling ratio but also due to the steep density profiles developed during the Enhanced Particle Confinement (EPC) modes. These modes are triggered by the gas puffing waveform, and they cannot be achieved for high iota magnetic configurations in TJ-II. Comparative experiments under metallic and boronised wall conditions have shown that the sensitivity of the EPC modes to the puffing rate is at least partially related to the energy balance at the plasma periphery under central heating scenarios. In this work, the impact of gas-fuelling location on the plasma parameters and density control is described. For that purpose, three different fuelling locations have been investigated; broad distribution from a side ports, localized injection from long tubes at different poloidal positions and highly localized injection through a movable limiter. Edge density and temperature profiles from a broad set of diagnostics (atomic beams, reflectometry, Thompson Scattering ECE, etc...) are analysed and compared. It has been found that preventing from transition to the EPC mode is achieved by using slow puffing rates, while neutral penetration into the plasma core can be enhanced for highly localized gas sources. Wall inventory, however, has been found to pl ay a dominant role in the fuelling of the plasma under most conditions. (author)

  18. Neural network-based preprocessing to estimate the parameters of the X-ray emission of a single-temperature thermal plasma

    Ichinohe, Y.; Yamada, S.; Miyazaki, N.; Saito, S.

    2018-04-01

    We present data preprocessing based on an artificial neural network to estimate the parameters of the X-ray emission spectra of a single-temperature thermal plasma. The method finds appropriate parameters close to the global optimum. The neural network is designed to learn the parameters of the thermal plasma (temperature, abundance, normalization and redshift) of the input spectra. After training using 9000 simulated X-ray spectra, the network has grown to predict all the unknown parameters with uncertainties of about a few per cent. The performance dependence on the network structure has been studied. We applied the neural network to an actual high-resolution spectrum obtained with Hitomi. The predicted plasma parameters agree with the known best-fitting parameters of the Perseus cluster within uncertainties of ≲10 per cent. The result shows that neural networks trained by simulated data might possibly be used to extract a feature built in the data. This would reduce human-intensive preprocessing costs before detailed spectral analysis, and would help us make the best use of the large quantities of spectral data that will be available in the coming decades.

  19. The LXCat project: Electron scattering cross sections and swarm parameters for low temperature plasma modeling

    Pancheshnyi, S.; Biagi, S.; Bordage, M.C.; Hagelaar, G.J.M.; Morgan, W.L.; Phelps, A.V.; Pitchford, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: LXCat is an open-access website containing data needed for low temperature plasma modeling as well as on-line tools useful for their manipulation. Highlights: ► LXCat: an open-access website with data for low temperature plasma modeling. ► Contains compilations of electron scattering cross sections and transport data. ► Data from different contributors for many neutral, ground-state species. ► On-line tools for browsing, plotting, up/downloading data. ► On-line Boltzmann solver for calculating electron swarm parameters. - Abstract: LXCat is a dynamic, open-access, website for collecting, displaying, and downloading ELECtron SCATtering cross sections and swarm parameters (mobility, diffusion coefficient, reaction rates, etc.) required for modeling low temperature, non-equilibrium plasmas. Contributors set up individual databases, and the available databases, indicated by the contributor’s chosen title, include mainly complete sets of electron-neutral scattering cross sections, although the option for introducing partial sets of cross sections exists. A database for measured swarm parameters is also part of LXCat, and this is a growing activity. On-line tools include options for browsing, plotting, and downloading cross section data. The electron energy distribution functions (edfs) in low temperature plasmas are in general non-Maxwellian, and LXCat provides an option for execution of an on-line Boltzmann equation solver to calculate the edf in homogeneous electric fields. Thus, the user can obtain electron transport and rate coefficients (averages over the edfs) in pure gases or gas mixtures over a range of values of the reduced electric fields strength, E/N, the ratio of the electric field strength to the neutral density, using cross sections from the available databases. New contributors are welcome and anyone wishing to create a database and upload data can request a username and password. LXCat is part of a larger, community

  20. Parameter identification and global sensitivity analysis of Xin'anjiang model using meta-modeling approach

    Xiao-meng Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parameter identification, model calibration, and uncertainty quantification are important steps in the model-building process, and are necessary for obtaining credible results and valuable information. Sensitivity analysis of hydrological model is a key step in model uncertainty quantification, which can identify the dominant parameters, reduce the model calibration uncertainty, and enhance the model optimization efficiency. There are, however, some shortcomings in classical approaches, including the long duration of time and high computation cost required to quantitatively assess the sensitivity of a multiple-parameter hydrological model. For this reason, a two-step statistical evaluation framework using global techniques is presented. It is based on (1 a screening method (Morris for qualitative ranking of parameters, and (2 a variance-based method integrated with a meta-model for quantitative sensitivity analysis, i.e., the Sobol method integrated with the response surface model (RSMSobol. First, the Morris screening method was used to qualitatively identify the parameters' sensitivity, and then ten parameters were selected to quantify the sensitivity indices. Subsequently, the RSMSobol method was used to quantify the sensitivity, i.e., the first-order and total sensitivity indices based on the response surface model (RSM were calculated. The RSMSobol method can not only quantify the sensitivity, but also reduce the computational cost, with good accuracy compared to the classical approaches. This approach will be effective and reliable in the global sensitivity analysis of a complex large-scale distributed hydrological model.

  1. Net, Plasma, Plebs. Margins of the Global City

    Matteo Vegetti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay aim at reading the spatial paradigm, dominant today, based on the flows, the net, the networking, as element of a complex discourse designed to offer epistemological legitimation to the economic-spatial restructuring effects generated by globalization. A paradigm whose functioning produces exclusions, selections, cuts and it maybe constitutes the instrument of new governamental policies. The term “plasma”, introduced by Latour to indicate what is exceeding that model, is here used to refine the more classical concept of plebs. In Hegel as in Foucault, the plebs is a social spread that depends on the forms of material and ideal organizations which liberal society assumes time by time, and that problematizes the political centre of the discourse on the city exactly because is not reducible to it.

  2. Global full-f gyrokinetic simulations of plasma turbulence

    Grandgirard, V [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sarazin, Y [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Angelino, P [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bottino, A [Max Plank Institut fr Plasmaphysik, IPP-EURATOM AssociationGarching (Germany); Crouseilles, N [IRMA, Universite Louis Pasteur, 7, rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Darmet, G [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Dif-Pradalier, G [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Garbet, X [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ghendrih, Ph [CEA/DSM/DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Jolliet, S [CRPP, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Latu, G [LaBRI, 341 Cours Liberation, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Sonnendruecker, E [IRMA, Universite Louis Pasteur, 7, rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Villard, L [CRPP, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-12-15

    Critical physical issues can be specifically tackled with the global full-f gyrokinetic code GYSELA. Three main results are presented. First, the self-consistent treatment of equilibrium and fluctuations highlights the competition between two compensation mechanisms for the curvature driven vertical charge separation, namely, parallel flow and polarization. The impact of the latter on the turbulent transport is discussed. In the non-linear regime, the benchmark with the Particle-In-Cell code ORB5 looks satisfactory. Second, the transport scaling with {rho}{sub *} is found to depend both on {rho}{sub *} itself and on the distance to the linear threshold. Finally, a statistical steady-state turbulent regime is achieved in a reduced version of GYSELA by prescribing a constant heat source.

  3. Global full-f gyrokinetic simulations of plasma turbulence

    Grandgirard, V; Sarazin, Y; Angelino, P; Bottino, A; Crouseilles, N; Darmet, G; Dif-Pradalier, G; Garbet, X; Ghendrih, Ph; Jolliet, S; Latu, G; Sonnendruecker, E; Villard, L

    2007-01-01

    Critical physical issues can be specifically tackled with the global full-f gyrokinetic code GYSELA. Three main results are presented. First, the self-consistent treatment of equilibrium and fluctuations highlights the competition between two compensation mechanisms for the curvature driven vertical charge separation, namely, parallel flow and polarization. The impact of the latter on the turbulent transport is discussed. In the non-linear regime, the benchmark with the Particle-In-Cell code ORB5 looks satisfactory. Second, the transport scaling with ρ * is found to depend both on ρ * itself and on the distance to the linear threshold. Finally, a statistical steady-state turbulent regime is achieved in a reduced version of GYSELA by prescribing a constant heat source

  4. Correlation of Magnetic Fields with Solar Wind Plasma Parameters at 1AU

    Shen, F.

    2017-12-01

    The physical parameters of the solar wind observed in-situ near 1AU have been studied for several decades, and relationships between them, such as the positive correlation between the solar wind plasma temperature T and velocity V, and the negative correlation between density N and velocity V, are well known. However, the magnetic field intensity does not appear to be well correlated with any individual plasma parameter. In this paper, we discuss previously under-reported correlations between B and the combined plasma parameters √NV2 as well as between B and √NT. These two correlations are strong during the periods of corotating interaction regions and high speed streams, moderate during intervals of slow solar wind, and rather poor during the passage of interplanetary coronal mass ejections. The results indicate that the magnetic pressure in the solar wind is well correlated both with the plasma dynamic pressure and the thermal pressure. Then, we employ a 3D MHD model to simulate the formation of the relationships between the magnetic strength B and √NV2 as well as √NT observed at 1AU. The inner boundary condition is derived by empirical models, with the magnetic field and density are optional. Five kinds of boundary conditions at the inner boundary of heliosphere are tested. In the cases that the magnetic field is related to speed at the inner boundary, the correlation coefficients between B and √NV2 as well as between B and √NT are even higher than that in the observational results. At 1AU the simulated radial magnetic field shows little latitude dependence, which matches the observation of Ulysses. Most of the modeled characters in these cases are closer to observation than others. This inner boundary condition may more accurately characterize Sun's magnetic influence on the heliosphere. The new input may be able to improve the simulation of CME propagation in the inner heliosphere and the space weather forecasting.

  5. The Plasma Parameters and Geometry of Cool and Warm Active Region Loops

    Xie, Haixia; Li, Bo; Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Fu, Hui; Mou, Chaozhou [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, 264209 Shandong (China); Madjarska, Maria S.; Wiegelmann, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077, Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-06-10

    How the solar corona is heated to high temperatures remains an unsolved mystery in solar physics. In the present study we analyze observations of 50 whole active region loops taken with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode satellite. Eleven loops were classified as cool loops (<1 MK) and 39 as warm loops (1–2 MK). We study their plasma parameters, such as densities, temperatures, filling factors, nonthermal velocities, and Doppler velocities. We combine spectroscopic analysis with linear force-free magnetic field extrapolation to derive the 3D structure and positioning of the loops, their lengths and heights, and the magnetic field strength along the loops. We use density-sensitive line pairs from Fe xii, Fe xiii, Si x, and Mg vii ions to obtain electron densities by taking special care of intensity background subtraction. The emission measure loci method is used to obtain the loop temperatures. We find that the loops are nearly isothermal along the line of sight. Their filling factors are between 8% and 89%. We also compare the observed parameters with the theoretical Rosner–Tucker–Vaiana (RTV) scaling law. We find that most of the loops are in an overpressure state relative to the RTV predictions. In a follow-up study, we will report a heating model of a parallel-cascade-based mechanism and will compare the model parameters with the loop plasma and structural parameters derived here.

  6. Reconstruction of the ion plasma parameters from the current measurements: mathematical tool

    E. Séran

    Full Text Available Instrument d’Analyse du Plasma (IAP is one of the instruments of the newly prepared ionospheric mission Demeter. This analyser was developed to measure flows of thermal ions at the altitude of ~ 750 km and consists of two parts: (i retarding potential analyser (APR, which is utilised to measure the energy distribution of the ion plasma along the sensor look direction, and (ii velocity direction analyser (ADV, which is used to measure the arrival angle of the ion flow with respect to the analyser axis. The necessity to obtain quick and precise estimates of the ion plasma parameters has prompted us to revise the existing mathematical tool and to investigate different instrumental limitations, such as (i finite angular aperture, (ii grid transparency, (iii potential depression in the space between the grid wires, (iv losses of ions during their passage between the entrance diaphragm and the collector. Simple analytical expressions are found to fit the currents, which are measured by the APR and ADV collectors, and show a very good agreement with the numerical solutions. It was proven that the fitting of the current with the model functions gives a possibility to properly resolve even minor ion concentrations and to find the arrival angles of the ion flow in the multi-species plasma. The discussion is illustrated by an analysis of the instrument response in the ionospheric conditions which are predicted by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model.

    Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection; instruments and techniques – Space plasma physics (experimental and mathematical techniques

  7. Reconstruction of the ion plasma parameters from the current measurements: mathematical tool

    E. Séran

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Instrument d’Analyse du Plasma (IAP is one of the instruments of the newly prepared ionospheric mission Demeter. This analyser was developed to measure flows of thermal ions at the altitude of ~ 750 km and consists of two parts: (i retarding potential analyser (APR, which is utilised to measure the energy distribution of the ion plasma along the sensor look direction, and (ii velocity direction analyser (ADV, which is used to measure the arrival angle of the ion flow with respect to the analyser axis. The necessity to obtain quick and precise estimates of the ion plasma parameters has prompted us to revise the existing mathematical tool and to investigate different instrumental limitations, such as (i finite angular aperture, (ii grid transparency, (iii potential depression in the space between the grid wires, (iv losses of ions during their passage between the entrance diaphragm and the collector. Simple analytical expressions are found to fit the currents, which are measured by the APR and ADV collectors, and show a very good agreement with the numerical solutions. It was proven that the fitting of the current with the model functions gives a possibility to properly resolve even minor ion concentrations and to find the arrival angles of the ion flow in the multi-species plasma. The discussion is illustrated by an analysis of the instrument response in the ionospheric conditions which are predicted by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model.Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection; instruments and techniques – Space plasma physics (experimental and mathematical techniques

  8. Plasma sheath dynamics and parameters in focus and defocus conditions. Vol. 2

    Masoud, M.M.; Soliman, H.M.; El-Aragi, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The study deals with the effect of the inner electrode polarity on the dynamic behaviour and parameters of plasma sheath in a coaxial discharge. The experimental investigations presented here were carried out in a coaxial plasma focus discharge device of mather geometry. It consisted of coaxial stainless steel hollow cylindrical electrodes with inner electrode 18.2 cm length and outer-electrode 31.5 cm length. The diameter of the inner and outer electrodes are 3.2 cm and 6.6 cm, respectively. The two electrodes are separated by a teflon disc at the breech. The outer electrode muzzle is connected to stainless steel expansion chamber of 23 cm length and 17 cm diameter. The discharge takes place in hydrogen gas with a base pressure of 1 torr. The experiments were conducted with 10 kV bank voltage, which corresponds to 100 K A peak discharge current. By using a double electric probe, It was found that the plasma electron density was higher near the negative electrode. Investigations using a miniature rogovsky coil have shown that, the radial and azimuthal current density increased with radial distance from negative electrode to positive electrode. The shape and the axial velocity of plasma sheath were measured using a magnetic probe. The experimental results indicate that, the plasma is thick near the negative electrode, in both cases of the outer or the inner electrode. Also it has been found that the axial plasma sheath velocity reaches its maximum value at the muzzle for positive and negative inner electrode. The magnitude of maximum axial velocity reaches 1.7 x 10 60 cm/s for positive inner electrode and decreased by 25% for negative inner electrode further investigations revealed that on interchanging the polarity from normal operation (positive inner electrode), it was found that with negative inner electrode the soft x-ray emission intensity dropped by three orders of magnitude from that with positive inner electrode. 9 figs

  9. Plasma sheath dynamics and parameters in focus and defocus conditions. Vol. 2

    Masoud, M M; Soliman, H M; El-Aragi, G M [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Aurhority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The study deals with the effect of the inner electrode polarity on the dynamic behaviour and parameters of plasma sheath in a coaxial discharge. The experimental investigations presented here were carried out in a coaxial plasma focus discharge device of mather geometry. It consisted of coaxial stainless steel hollow cylindrical electrodes with inner electrode 18.2 cm length and outer-electrode 31.5 cm length. The diameter of the inner and outer electrodes are 3.2 cm and 6.6 cm, respectively. The two electrodes are separated by a teflon disc at the breech. The outer electrode muzzle is connected to stainless steel expansion chamber of 23 cm length and 17 cm diameter. The discharge takes place in hydrogen gas with a base pressure of 1 torr. The experiments were conducted with 10 kV bank voltage, which corresponds to 100 K A peak discharge current. By using a double electric probe, It was found that the plasma electron density was higher near the negative electrode. Investigations using a miniature rogovsky coil have shown that, the radial and azimuthal current density increased with radial distance from negative electrode to positive electrode. The shape and the axial velocity of plasma sheath were measured using a magnetic probe. The experimental results indicate that, the plasma is thick near the negative electrode, in both cases of the outer or the inner electrode. Also it has been found that the axial plasma sheath velocity reaches its maximum value at the muzzle for positive and negative inner electrode. The magnitude of maximum axial velocity reaches 1.7 x 10{sup 60} cm/s for positive inner electrode and decreased by 25% for negative inner electrode further investigations revealed that on interchanging the polarity from normal operation (positive inner electrode), it was found that with negative inner electrode the soft x-ray emission intensity dropped by three orders of magnitude from that with positive inner electrode. 9 figs.

  10. Dependence of electron beam instability growth rates on the beam-plasma system parameters

    Strangeway, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Electron beam instabilites are studied by using a simple model for an electron beam streaming through a cold plasma, the beam being of finite width perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. Through considerations of finite geometry and the coldness of the beam and background plasma, an instability similar to the two stream instability is assumed to be the means for wave growth in the system. Having found the maximum growth rate for one set of beam-plasma system parameters, this maximum growth rate is traced as these parameters are varied. The parameters that describe the system are the beam velocity (v/sub b/), electron gyrofrequency to ambient electron plasma frequency ratio (Ω/sub e//ω/sub p/e), the beam to background number density ratio (n/sub b//n/sub a/), and the beam width (a). When Ω/sub e//ω/sub p/e>1, a mode with Ω/sub e/<ω<ω/sub u/hr is found to be unstable, where Ω is the wave frequency and ω/sub u/hr is the upper hybrid resonance frequency. For low values of n/sub b//n/sub a/ and Ω/sub e/<ω/sub p/e, this mode is still present with ω/sub p/e<ω<ω/sub u/hr. If the beam density is large, n/sub b//n/sub a/approx. =1, the instability occures for frequencies just above the electron gyrofrequency. This mode may well be that observed in laboratory plasma before the system undergoes the beam-plasma discharge. There is another instability present, which occurs for ωapprox. =ω/sub p/e. The growth rates for this mode, which are generally larger than those found for the ωapprox. =ωuhr mode, are only weakly dependent on Ω/sub d//ω/sub p/e. That this mode is not always observed in the laboratory implies that some factors not considered in the present theory suppress this mode, specifically, finite beam length

  11. Rocket measurements within a polar cap arc - Plasma, particle, and electric circuit parameters

    Weber, E. J.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Basu, S.; Carlson, H. C.; Hardy, D. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Kelley, M. C.; Fleischman, J. R.; Pfaff, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from the Polar Ionospheric Irregularities Experiment (PIIE), conducted from Sondrestrom, Greenland, on March 15, 1985, designed for an investigation of processes which lead to the generation of small-scale (less than 1 km) ionospheric irregularities within polar-cap F-layer auroras. An instrumented rocket was launched into a polar cap F layer aurora to measure energetic electron flux, plasma, and electric circuit parameters of a sun-aligned arc, coordinated with simultaneous measurements from the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar and the AFGL Airborne Ionospheric Observatory. Results indicated the existence of two different generation mechanisms on the dawnside and duskside of the arc. On the duskside, parameters are suggestive of an interchange process, while on the dawnside, fluctuation parameters are consistent with a velocity shear instability.

  12. A New Filled Function Method with One Parameter for Global Optimization

    Fei Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filled function method is an effective approach to find the global minimizer of multidimensional multimodal functions. The conventional filled functions are numerically unstable due to exponential or logarithmic term and sensitive to parameters. In this paper, a new filled function with only one parameter is proposed, which is continuously differentiable and proved to satisfy all conditions of the filled function definition. Moreover, this filled function is not sensitive to parameter, and the overflow can not happen for this function. Based on these, a new filled function method is proposed, and it is numerically stable to the initial point and the parameter variable. The computer simulations indicate that the proposed filled function method is efficient and effective.

  13. Optimization of process parameters for spark plasma sintering of nano structured SAF 2205 composite

    Samuel Ranti Oke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research optimized spark plasma sintering (SPS process parameters in terms of sintering temperature, holding time and heating rate for the development of a nano-structured duplex stainless steel (SAF 2205 grade reinforced with titanium nitride (TiN. The mixed powders were sintered using an automated spark plasma sintering machine (model HHPD-25, FCT GmbH, Germany. Characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Density and hardness of the composites were investigated. The XRD result showed the formation of FeN0.068. SEM/EDS revealed the presence of nano ranged particles of TiN segregated at the grain boundaries of the duplex matrix. A decrease in hardness and densification was observed when sintering temperature and heating rate were 1200 °C and 150 °C/min respectively. The optimum properties were obtained in composites sintered at 1150 °C for 15 min and 100 °C/min. The composite grades irrespective of the process parameters exhibited similar shrinkage behavior, which is characterized by three distinctive peaks, which is an indication of good densification phenomena. Keywords: Spark plasma sintering, Duplex stainless steel (SAF 2205, Titanium nitride (TiN, Microstructure, Density, Hardness

  14. DYNAMIC OF CHANGES OF BLOOD PLASMA ENERGY METABOLISM PARAMETERS IN SUCKLING COWS DURING CALVING INTERVAL

    Ales Pavlik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of environmental condition changes during gazing period on energy metabolism parameters was investigated. Totally 40 Aberdeen Angus cows were selected for observation. Calving all of cows was situated into March. The feeding ration for the animals was comprised by pasture during the grazing period and corn silage, hay and granulated distiller’s grains during the winter period. At average age 9 days before calving, and subsequently 10, 81, 151, 189 and 273 days after calving, blood was sampled and analysed for glucose and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on KONELAB T20xt automatic analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Finland and currently available commercial kits (Biovendor-Laboratorni medicina, Czech Republic. A rapid increase (p < 0.05 of glucose concentration was detected in blood plasma of cows in period before calving to 81 days post partum. Average value of glucose concentration at 273 days postpartum was significant (p < 0.05 lower comparing to day 189. The highest concentrations of NEFA in blood plasma of cows were found at 10 day postpartum. After that, during the persisted higher temperature period the NEFA concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01 till 189 days postpartum. At the end of monitored period concentration of NEFA in blood plasma significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Changes of hot and cold season during the grazing period probably according to forage quality and had significant effects on blood plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations.

  15. Numerical study for determining PF coil system parameters in MHD equilibrium of KT-2 tokamak plasma

    Ryu, J.; Hong, S.H.; Lee, K.W.; Hong, B.G.; In, S.R.; Kim, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    The KT-2 is a large-aspect-ratio medium-sized divertor tokamak in the conceptual design phase and planned to be operational in 1998 at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Plasma equilibrium in tokamak can be acquired by controlling the current of poloidal field (PF) coils in appropriate geometries and positions. In this study, the authors have performed numerical calculations to achieve the various equilibrium conditions fitting given plasma shapes and satisfying PF current limitations. Usually an ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equation is used to obtain the equilibrium solution of tokamak plasma, and it is practical to take advantage of a numerical method in solving the MHD equation because it has nonlinear source terms. Two equilibrium codes have been applied to find a double-null configuration of free-boundary tokamak plasma in KT-2: one is of the authors' own developing and the other is a free-boundary tokamak equilibrium code (FBT) that has been used mainly for the verification of developed code's results. PF coil system parameters including their positions and currents are determined for the optimization of input power required when the specifications of KT-2 tokamak are met. Then, several sets of equilibrium conditions during the tokamak operation are found to observe the changes of poloidal field currents with the passing of operation time step, and the basic stability problems related with the magnetic field structure is also considered

  16. The effect of processing parameters on plasma sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Jacobson, L.A.; Cowgill, D.F.; Snead, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma spraying is being investigated as a potential coating technique for applying thin (0.1--5mm) layers of beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of blanket modules in ITER and also as an in-situ repair technique for repairing eroded beryllium surfaces in high heat flux divertor regions. High density spray deposits (>98% of theoretical density) of beryllium will be required in order to maximize the thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. A preliminary investigation was done to determine the effect of various processing parameters (particle size, particle morphology, secondary gas additions and reduced chamber pressure) on the as-deposited density of beryllium. The deposits were made using spherical beryllium feedstock powder which was produced by centrifugal atomization at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Improvements in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the beryllium spray deposits will be discussed along with the corresponding thermal conductivity and outgassing behavior of these deposits

  17. Some necessary parameters for a critical velocity interaction between the ionospheric plasma and a xenon cloud

    Axnaes, I.

    1979-12-01

    The conditions for an experiment to study the critical ionization velocity effect in the interaction between a Xenon cloud, released from a satellite, and the ionospheric plasma are investigated. The model used is based on the assumption that there exists an effective process that transfers the energy, that is available in the relative motion, to the electrons. Some necessary conditions to obtain significant heating or deceleration of the plasma penetrating the cloud are calculated. The conditions are mainly given by the energy available in the relative motion and the rates of the different binary collision processes involved. As the released gas cloud expands the possibilities for a critical velocity interaction will exist only within a certain range of cloud radii. It is shown that the charge transfer collision cross section between the ionospheric ions and the cloud atoms is an important parameter and that Xenon is a very suitable gas in that respect. (author)

  18. The effect of processing parameters on plasma sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Jacobson, L.W.; Cowgill, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma spraying is being investigated as a potential coating technique for applying thin (0.1-5mm) layers of beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of blanket modules in ITER and also as an in-situ repair technique for repairing eroded beryllium surfaces in high heat flux divertor regions. High density spray deposits (>98% of theoretical density) of beryllium will be required in order to maximize the thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. A preliminary investigation was done to determine the effect of various processing parameters (particle size, particle morphology, secondary gas additions and reduced chamber pressure) on the as-deposited density of beryllium. The deposits were made using spherical beryllium feedstock powder which was produced by centrifugal atomization at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Improvements in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the beryllium spray deposits will be discussed along with the corresponding thermal conductivity and outgassing behavior of these deposits. (orig.)

  19. Temporal evolution of the spectral lines emission and temperatures in laser induced plasmas through characteristic parameters

    Bredice, F.; Pacheco Martinez, P.; Sánchez-Aké, C.; Villagrán-Muniz, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose an extended Boltzmann plot method to determine the usefulness of spectral lines for plasma parameter calculations. Based on the assumption that transient plasmas are under ideal conditions during an specific interval of time Δt, (i.e. thin, homogeneous and in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE)), the associated Boltzmann plots describe a surface in the space defined by the coordinates X = Energy, Y = Time and Z = ln (λ jl I j /g j A jl ), where I j is the integrated intensity of the spectral line, g j is the statistical weight of the level j, λ jl is the wavelength of the considered line and A jl is its transition rate. In order to express the Boltzmann plot surface in terms of a reduced set of constants B i , and δ i , we developed as a power series of time, the logarithm of I n (t)/I n (t 0 ), where I n (t) is the integrated intensity of any spectral line at time t, and I n (t 0 ) at initial time. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the intensity of any spectral line and consequently the temperature of the plasma can be also expressed with these constants. The comparison of the temporal evolution of the line intensity calculated using these constants with their experimental values, can be used as a criterion for selecting useful lines in plasma analysis. Furthermore, this method can also be applied to determine self-absorption or enhancement of the spectral lines, to evaluate a possible departure of LTE, and to check or estimate the upper level energy value of any spectral line. An advantage of this method is that the value of these constants does not depend on the spectral response of the detection system, the uncertainty of the transition rates belonging to the analyzed spectral lines or any other time-independent parameters. In order to prove our method, we determined the constants B i and δ i and therefore the Boltzmann plot surface from the temporal evolution of carbon lines obtained from a plasma generated by a Nd:YAG laser

  20. Temporal evolution of the spectral lines emission and temperatures in laser induced plasmas through characteristic parameters

    Bredice, F., E-mail: faustob@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas, P.O. Box 3 C. P.1897 Gonnet, La Plata (Argentina); Pacheco Martinez, P. [Grupo de Espectroscopía Óptica de Emisión y Láser, Universidad del Atlántico, Barranquilla (Colombia); Sánchez-Aké, C.; Villagrán-Muniz, M. [Laboratorio de Fotofísica, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-186, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose an extended Boltzmann plot method to determine the usefulness of spectral lines for plasma parameter calculations. Based on the assumption that transient plasmas are under ideal conditions during an specific interval of time Δt, (i.e. thin, homogeneous and in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE)), the associated Boltzmann plots describe a surface in the space defined by the coordinates X = Energy, Y = Time and Z = ln (λ{sub jl}I{sub j}/g{sub j}A{sub jl}), where I{sub j} is the integrated intensity of the spectral line, g{sub j} is the statistical weight of the level j, λ{sub jl} is the wavelength of the considered line and A{sub jl} is its transition rate. In order to express the Boltzmann plot surface in terms of a reduced set of constants B{sub i}, and δ{sub i}, we developed as a power series of time, the logarithm of I{sub n}(t)/I{sub n}(t{sub 0}), where I{sub n}(t) is the integrated intensity of any spectral line at time t, and I{sub n}(t{sub 0}) at initial time. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the intensity of any spectral line and consequently the temperature of the plasma can be also expressed with these constants. The comparison of the temporal evolution of the line intensity calculated using these constants with their experimental values, can be used as a criterion for selecting useful lines in plasma analysis. Furthermore, this method can also be applied to determine self-absorption or enhancement of the spectral lines, to evaluate a possible departure of LTE, and to check or estimate the upper level energy value of any spectral line. An advantage of this method is that the value of these constants does not depend on the spectral response of the detection system, the uncertainty of the transition rates belonging to the analyzed spectral lines or any other time-independent parameters. In order to prove our method, we determined the constants B{sub i} and δ{sub i} and therefore the Boltzmann plot surface from the temporal

  1. Comparison of human embryomorphokinetic parameters in sequential or global culture media.

    Kazdar, Nadia; Brugnon, Florence; Bouche, Cyril; Jouve, Guilhem; Veau, Ségolène; Drapier, Hortense; Rousseau, Chloé; Pimentel, Céline; Viard, Patricia; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Ravel, Célia

    2017-08-01

    A prospective study on randomized patients was conducted to determine how morphokinetic parameters are altered in embryos grown in sequential versus global culture media. Eleven morphokinetic parameters of 160 single embryos transferred were analyzed by time lapse imaging involving two University-affiliated in vitro fertilization (IVF) centers. We found that the fading of the two pronuclei occurred earlier in global (22.56±2.15 hpi) versus sequential media (23.63±2.71 hpi; p=0.0297). Likewise, the first cleavage started earlier at 24.52±2.33 hpi vs 25.76±2.95 hpi (p=0.0158). Also, the first cytokinesis was shorter in global medium, lasting 18±10.2 minutes in global versus 36±37.8 minutes in sequential culture medium (p culture medium. Our study highlights the need to adapt morphokinetic analysis accordingly to the type of media used to best support human early embryo development.

  2. FliPer: checking the reliability of global seismic parameters from automatic pipelines

    Bugnet, L.; García, R. A.; Davies, G. R.; Mathur, S.; Corsaro, E.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of stars through asteroseismic data analysis is limited by our ability to take advantage of the huge amount of observed stars provided by space missions such as CoRoT, \\keplerp, \\ktop, and soon TESS and PLATO. Global seismic pipelines provide global stellar parameters such as mass and radius using the mean seismic parameters, as well as the effective temperature. These pipelines are commonly used automatically on thousands of stars observed by K2 for 3 months (and soon TESS for at least ˜ 1 month). However, pipelines are not immune from misidentifying noise peaks and stellar oscillations. Therefore, new validation techniques are required to assess the quality of these results. We present a new metric called FliPer (Flicker in Power), which takes into account the average variability at all measured time scales. The proper calibration of \\powvar enables us to obtain good estimations of global stellar parameters such as surface gravity that are robust against the influence of noise peaks and hence are an excellent way to find faults in asteroseismic pipelines.

  3. The impact of BMI on sperm parameters and the metabolite changes of seminal plasma concomitantly.

    Guo, Dan; Wu, Wei; Tang, Qiuqin; Qiao, Shanlei; Chen, Yiqiu; Chen, Minjian; Teng, Mengying; Lu, Chuncheng; Ding, Hongjuan; Xia, Yankai; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2017-07-25

    The development of male infertility increased rapidly worldwide, which coinciding with the epidemic of obesity. However, the impact of weight abnormalities on sperm quality is still contestable. To assess the correlation between BMI and sperm parameters, we searched relevant articles in PubMed, Embase, Web of science, and Wanfang database published until June 2015 without language restriction. Otherwise, we also recruited some participants who attended fertility clinic as well as some general populations in this report. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis about BMI and sperm parameters containing total sperm count, concentration, semen volume and sperm motility (overall and progressive). Metabolomic analysis of seminal plasma was performed to explore the mechanism from a new perspective. This study found standardized weighted mean differences (SMD) in sperm parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, and semen volume) of abnormal weight groups decreased to different degree compared to normal weight. Dose-response analysis found SMD of sperm count, sperm concentration and semen volume respectively fell 2.4%, 1.3% and 2.0% compared with normal weight for every 5-unit increase in BMI. Metabolomic analysis of seminal plasma showed that spermidine and spermine were likely to play a vital role in the spermatogenesis progress. This systematic review with meta-analysis has confirmed there was a relationship between BMI and sperm quality, suggesting obesity may be a detrimental factor of male infertility.

  4. Rocket measurements within a polar cap arc: Plasma, particle, and electric circuit parameters

    Weber, E.J.; Ballenthin, J.O.; Basu, S.; Carlson, H.C.; Hardy, D.A.; Maynard, N.C.; Smiddy, M.; Kelley, M.C.; Fleischman, J.R.; Sheehan, R.E.; Pfaff, R.F.; Rodriguez, P.

    1989-01-01

    An instrumented rocket payload was launched into a polar cap F layer aurora to investigate the energetic particle, plasma, and electric circuit parameters of a Sun-aligned arc. On-board instruments measured energetic electron flux, ion composition and density fluctuations, electron density and temperature, electron density fluctuations, and ac and dc electric fields. Real-time all-sky imaging photometer measurements of the location and motion of the aurora, were used to determine the proper geophysical situation for launch. Comparison of the in situ measurements with remote optical measurements shows that the arc was produced by fluxes of low-energy (< 1 keV) electrons. Field-aligned potentials in the arc inferred from the electron spectra had a maximum value of approximately 300 V, and from the spectral shape a parent population of preaccelerated electrons characteristic of the boundary plasma sheet or magnetosheath was inferred. Electric field components along and across the arc show sunward flow within the arc and duskward drift of the arc consistent with the drift direction and speed determined from optical imaging. Thus this arc is drifting duskward under the influence of the convection electric field. Three possible explanations for this (field-aligned currents, chemistry, and transport) are considered. Finally, ionospheric irregularity and electric field fluctuations indicate two different generation mechanisms on the dawnside and duskside of the arc. On the duskside, parameters are suggestive of an interchange process, while on the dawnside, fluctuation parameters are consistent with a velocity shear instability

  5. Penentuan Efektifitas Oksitetrasiklin Melalui Parameter Farmakokinetik/farmakodinamik pada Plasma dan Jaringan Ayam Broiler

    Agustina Dwi Wijayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of oxytetracycline on the basis of itspharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD parameters in the plasma and tissues of broiler following a50 mg/kg single dose of intravenous administration. The male broiler were injected with oxytetracycline attarsal medial venous. The blood, liver, kidney and abdominal muscle were collected at 14 points of timesamplings. Blood was centrifuged to obtain plasma and all tissues were extracted with Mc Ilvine buffer.Drug concentration in samples was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLCusing AOAC standard reference for tetracycline. The pharmacokinetic parameters of oxytetracycline werecalculated using non compartment method. The results were as follows. For plasma: the AUC was 790,615,5 ?g/mL minute , Clearance was 63,242 mL/min/kg bb, Tmax/Cmax was 1 minute/0,7 ?g/mL, T1/2elimination was 6,4, hours, Vd was 37 L/kg. For liver ; AUC was 36418,89, minute , Tmax/Cmax was 16hours/17,15 ?g/g, and T1/2 elimination was 24,5, hours. For kidney; AUC6808,41 ?g/g minute , Tmax/Cmax 1 minute/16,73 ?g/g, , T1/2 elimination was 11,55 hours. For muscle; AUC was 3502 ?g/g minute,Tmax/Cmax was 1 minute/2,58 ?g/g, T1/2 elimination was 167,39 hours. The ratio of AUC/MIC inplasma and tissues appeared to a good pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameter to determine theeffectiveness of oxytetracycline.

  6. Approaches to characterise chromatographic column performance based on global parameters accounting for peak broadening and skewness.

    Baeza-Baeza, J J; Pous-Torres, S; Torres-Lapasió, J R; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2010-04-02

    Peak broadening and skewness are fundamental parameters in chromatography, since they affect the resolution capability of a chromatographic column. A common practice to characterise chromatographic columns is to estimate the efficiency and asymmetry factor for the peaks of one or more solutes eluted at selected experimental conditions. This has the drawback that the extra-column contributions to the peak variance and skewness make the peak shape parameters depend on the retention time. We propose and discuss here the use of several approaches that allow the estimation of global parameters (non-dependent on the retention time) to describe the column performance. The global parameters arise from different linear relationships that can be established between the peak variance, standard deviation, or half-widths with the retention time. Some of them describe exclusively the column contribution to the peak broadening, whereas others consider the extra-column effects also. The estimation of peak skewness was also possible for the approaches based on the half-widths. The proposed approaches were applied to the characterisation of different columns (Spherisorb, Zorbax SB, Zorbax Eclipse, Kromasil, Chromolith, X-Terra and Inertsil), using the chromatographic data obtained for several diuretics and basic drugs (beta-blockers). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assimilation of Earth rotation parameters into a global ocean model (FESOM)

    Androsov, A.; Schröter, J.; Brunnabend, S.; Saynisch, J.

    2012-04-01

    Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP) are used to improve estimates of the ocean circulation and mass budget. GRACE data can be used for verification or for further improvements. The Finite Element Sea-ice Ocean Model (FESOM) is used to simulate weekly ocean circulation and mass variations. The FESOM model is a hydrostatic ocean circulation model with a fully non-linear free surface. It solves the hydrostatic primitive equations with volume (Boussinesq approximation) and mass (Greatbatch correction) conservation. Fresh water exchange with the atmosphere and land is modelled as mass flux. This flux is the weakest part of the mass budget as it is the difference of large and uncertain quantities: evaporation, precipitation and river runoff. All uncertainties included in these parameters are directly reflected in the model results. ERP help in closing the budget in a realistic manner. Our strategy is designed for testing parametric estimation on a weekly basis. First, Oceanographic Earth rotation parameters (OERP) are calculated by subtracting atmospheric and hydrologic estimates from observed ERP. They are compared to OERP derived from a global ocean circulation model. The difference can be inverted to diagnose a correction of the oceanic mass budget. Additionally mass variations measured by GRACE are used for verification. In a second step, the global mass correction parameter, derived by the inversion, is used to improve the fresh water budget of FESOM.

  8. On scattering diagnostics with periodically pulsed lasers to follow the continuous evolution of time dependent plasma parameters

    Hellermann, M. von; Hirsch, K.; Doeble, H.F.

    1977-04-01

    The possibilities to use periodically pulsed lasers for plasma scattering diagnostics are discussed. An experiment with succesful application of a periodically pulsed frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser is described and results are given. Application of the method to monitor continuously, with millisecond time resolution, parameters of Tokamak type plasmas, is considered. (orig.) [de

  9. The producing of an ECR plasma using 2450MHz Whistler Wave and the investigating of its parameters

    Fang Yude; Zhang Jiande; Fu Keming; Lu Xiangyu; Liu Dengcheng; Wang Xianyu; Xie Weidong; Bao Dinghua; Yin Xiejin

    1988-12-01

    A stable ECR plasma was produced and sustained in HER mirror using 2450MHz Whistler wave. The parameters of the ECR plasma and their chaining characters were studied in detail and were compared with those of the DC discharge plasmas. The conclusion is that the ECR plasma is a high ionizability, low temperature, middle density plasma, its peak density may much exceed the cutoff density of the pump wave (when ω = ω pe ) and arrive at the order of 10 12 cm -3 . The ECR plasma includes some high energy hot electrons (20Kev-200Kev) and middle energy warm electrons (< 20Kev). Those two kinds of electron created some strong X-ray emissions in a wide frequency range. The ECR plasma has higher edge density and can strongly interact with the wall. (author). 9 refs, 17 figs

  10. Global and nonglobal parameters of horizontal-branch morphology of globular clusters

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Dotter, A.; Norris, J. E.; Jerjen, H.; Asplund, M.

    2014-01-01

    The horizontal-branch (HB) morphology of globular clusters (GCs) is mainly determined by metallicity. However, the fact that GCs with almost the same metallicity exhibit different HB morphologies demonstrates that at least one more parameter is needed to explain the HB morphology. It has been suggested that one of these should be a global parameter that varies from GC to GC and the other a nonglobal parameter that varies within the GC. In this study we provide empirical evidence corroborating this idea. We used the photometric catalogs obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys of the Hubble Space Telescope and analyze the color-magnitude diagrams of 74 GCs. The HB morphology of our sample of GCs has been investigated on the basis of the two new parameters L1 and L2 that measure the distance between the red giant branch and the coolest part of the HB and the color extension of the HB, respectively. We find that L1 correlates with both metallicity and age, whereas L2 most strongly correlates with the mass of the hosting GC. The range of helium abundance among the stars in a GC, characterized by ΔY and associated with the presence of multiple stellar populations, has been estimated in a few GCs to date. In these GCs we find a close relationship among ΔY, GC mass, and L2. We conclude that age and metallicity are the main global parameters, while the range of helium abundance within a GC is the main nonglobal parameter defining the HB morphology of Galactic GCs.

  11. Mercury-free electrodeless discharge lamp: effect of xenon pressure and plasma parameters on luminance

    Nazri Dagang Ahmad; Kondo, Akira; Motomura, Hideki; Jinno, Masafumi

    2009-01-01

    Since there is much concern about environmental preservation, the authors have paid attention to the uses of mercury in lighting application. They have focused on the application of the xenon low-pressure inductively coupled plasma (ICP) discharge in developing cylindrical type mercury-free light sources. ICP can be operated at low filling gas pressures and demonstrates significant potential in producing high density plasma. Xenon pressure was varied from 0.1 to 100 Torr and the lamp luminance was measured. The gas pressure dependence shows an increase in luminance at pressures below 1 Torr. In order to clarify this behaviour, measurement of plasma parameters was carried out using the double probe method and its relation to lamp luminance is discussed. As the gas pressure is decreased (from 1 to 0.01 Torr), the electron temperature increases while the electron density decreases while at the same time the lamp luminance increases. There are several factors that are believed to contribute to the increase in luminance in the very low pressure region. Increases in luminance are considered to be due to the electron-ion recombination process which brings a strong recombination radiation in continuum in the visible region and also due to the effect of stochastic heating.

  12. Global and local confinement scaling laws of NBI-heated gas-puffing plasmas on LHD

    Yamazaki, K.; Miyazawa, J.; Sakakibara, S.; Yamada, H.; Narihara, K.; Tanaka, K.; Osakabe, M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between global confinement scaling laws and local transport characteristics is evaluated on the Large Helical Device (LHD). Previous 'new LHD' global scaling laws are revised using the precise plasma edge definition and the recent LHD data of 4th, 5th and 6th experimental campaigns. Strong Gyro-Bohm-like feature of global confinement is reconfirmed. The magnetic field dependence and geometrical scale dependence are stronger than the conventional scaling laws. Using same database of LHD data, the radial profiles of transport coefficients are evaluated, and it is reconfirmed that the local transport in the core is Gyro-Bohm-like, and that near the boundary is strong Gyro-Bohm-like. The global confinement property is consistent with effective transport coefficient near the edge. (author)

  13. Global (volume-averaged) model of inductively coupled chlorine plasma : influence of Cl wall recombination and external heating on continuous and pulse-modulated plasmas

    Kemaneci, E.H.; Carbone, E.A.D.; Booth, J.P.; Graef, W.A.A.D.; Dijk, van J.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    An inductively coupled radio-frequency plasma in chlorine is investigated via a global (volume-averaged) model, both in continuous and square wave modulated power input modes. After the power is switched off (in a pulsed mode) an ion–ion plasma appears. In order to model this phenomenon, a novel

  14. Lindhard's polarization parameter and atomic sum rules in the local plasma approximation

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R.; Apell, P.; Oddershede, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the effects of Lindhard polarization parameter, χ, on the sum rule, Sp, within the local plasma approximation (LPA) as well as on the logarithmic sum rule Lp = dSp/dp, in both cases for the system in an initial excited state. We show results for a hydrogenic atom with nuc......In this work, we analyze the effects of Lindhard polarization parameter, χ, on the sum rule, Sp, within the local plasma approximation (LPA) as well as on the logarithmic sum rule Lp = dSp/dp, in both cases for the system in an initial excited state. We show results for a hydrogenic atom...... in terms of a screened charge Z* for the ground state. Our study shows that by increasing χ, the sum rule for p0 it increases, and the value p=0 provides the normalization/closure relation which remains fixed to the number of electrons for the same initial state. When p is fixed...

  15. Influence of the plasma pedestal parameters on ELM mitigation at low collisionality

    Leuthold, Nils [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Universitaet Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Suttrop, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The control of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) is of great importance for future fusion devices in order to provide longevity of the plasma facing components and a better overall plasma performance. In recent magnetic perturbation ELM mitigation experiments in ASDEX Upgrade at low pedestal collisionality, the dependence of ELM losses on pedestal parameters is investigated. It is found that the reduction of the stored energy loss associated with ELMs occurs in correlation with a reduction of edge density and edge pedestal pressure induced by the applied magnetic perturbation (''pedestal pump-out''). Significant ELM mitigation occurs at lowest densities, in a region of pedestal n-T parameter space that has not been accessible in ASDEX Upgrade without magnetic perturbations, and which is occupied by type-IV ELMs in DIII-D. The role of magnetic perturbations for ELM mitigation will be discussed in this context and attempts to counteract the confinement loss by increasing neutral beam injection power or pellet injection increases the ELM energy losses.

  16. Performance Testing of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced with Varied Suspension Parameters

    Nicholas Curry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying has become an emerging technology for the production of thermal barrier coatings for the gas turbine industry. Presently, though commercial systems for coating production are available, coatings remain in the development stage. Suitable suspension parameters for coating production remain an outstanding question and the influence of suspension properties on the final coatings is not well known. For this study, a number of suspensions were produced with varied solid loadings, powder size distributions and solvents. Suspensions were sprayed onto superalloy substrates coated with high velocity air fuel (HVAF -sprayed bond coats. Plasma spray parameters were selected to generate columnar structures based on previous experiments and were maintained at constant to discover the influence of the suspension behavior on coating microstructures. Testing of the produced thermal barrier coating (TBC systems has included thermal cyclic fatigue testing and thermal conductivity analysis. Pore size distribution has been characterized by mercury infiltration porosimetry. Results show a strong influence of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the microstructure of the produced coatings.

  17. Dielectric parameters of blood plasma of rats treated with cerium-144 and external irradiation

    Hadzhidekova, E.; Kiradzhiev, G.; Paskalev, Z.; Miloslavov, V.

    1988-01-01

    Investigation was carried out of the dielectric parameters of blood plasma of male Wistar rats treated with cerium 144 in doses of 370 kBq/animal and external gamma irradiation in doses of 200 cGy and 400 cGy. The radioactive cerium was introduced intraperitoneally 1 h after the external irradiation with dose rate of 1,6 cGy/sec. The permittivity ε, the time of relaxation τ and the coefficient of Debaye κ of plasma protein molecules were determined at the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 15th, and 30th days after treatement for frequence ranges of 1,4, 2,2, 3,6 and 6 MHz. At the same terms the content of cerium 144 was measured in the organs of predilectional accumulation of cerium. It was established that the treatment only with cerium lead to most essential changes of dielectric parameters at frequence of 3,6 MHz. The external irradiation didn't influence essentially the kinetics of absorbed cerium. In combination of both radiation factors the action of cerium was predominant

  18. Visualizing the influence of the process parameters on the keyhole dimensions in plasma arc welding

    Liu, Z M; Wu, C S; Chen, M A

    2012-01-01

    The keyhole status and its dimensions are critical information determining both the process quality and weld quality in plasma arc welding (PAW). It is of great significance to measure the keyhole shape and size and to correlate them with the main process parameters. In this study, a low-cost vision system is developed to visualize the keyhole at the backside of the test-pieces in PAW. Three stages of keyhole evolution, i.e. initial blind stage (non-penetrated keyhole), unstable stage with momentarily disappeared keyhole and quasi-steady open keyhole stage (fully-penetrated keyhole), are measured in real-time during the PAW tests on stainless steel test-pieces of thickness 8 mm. Based on the captured images of keyhole under different welding conditions, the correlations of the main welding process parameters (welding current, welding speed, plasma gas flow rate) with the keyhole length, width and area are visualized through vision measurement. It lays a solid foundation for implementing keyhole stability control and process optimization in keyhole PAW. (paper)

  19. Photosynthesis-irradiance parameters of marine phytoplankton: synthesis of a global data set

    Bouman, Heather A.; Platt, Trevor; Doblin, Martina; Figueiras, Francisco G.; Gudmundsson, Kristinn; Gudfinnsson, Hafsteinn G.; Huang, Bangqin; Hickman, Anna; Hiscock, Michael; Jackson, Thomas; Lutz, Vivian A.; Mélin, Frédéric; Rey, Francisco; Pepin, Pierre; Segura, Valeria; Tilstone, Gavin H.; van Dongen-Vogels, Virginie; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    2018-02-01

    The photosynthetic performance of marine phytoplankton varies in response to a variety of factors, environmental and taxonomic. One of the aims of the MArine primary Production: model Parameters from Space (MAPPS) project of the European Space Agency is to assemble a global database of photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) parameters from a range of oceanographic regimes as an aid to examining the basin-scale variability in the photophysiological response of marine phytoplankton and to use this information to improve the assignment of P-E parameters in the estimation of global marine primary production using satellite data. The MAPPS P-E database, which consists of over 5000 P-E experiments, provides information on the spatio-temporal variability in the two P-E parameters (the assimilation number, PmB, and the initial slope, αB, where the superscripts B indicate normalisation to concentration of chlorophyll) that are fundamental inputs for models (satellite-based and otherwise) of marine primary production that use chlorophyll as the state variable. Quality-control measures consisted of removing samples with abnormally high parameter values and flags were added to denote whether the spectral quality of the incubator lamp was used to calculate a broad-band value of αB. The MAPPS database provides a photophysiological data set that is unprecedented in number of observations and in spatial coverage. The database will be useful to a variety of research communities, including marine ecologists, biogeochemical modellers, remote-sensing scientists and algal physiologists. The compiled data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.874087 (Bouman et al., 2017).

  20. Photosynthesis–irradiance parameters of marine phytoplankton: synthesis of a global data set

    H. A. Bouman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic performance of marine phytoplankton varies in response to a variety of factors, environmental and taxonomic. One of the aims of the MArine primary Production: model Parameters from Space (MAPPS project of the European Space Agency is to assemble a global database of photosynthesis–irradiance (P-E parameters from a range of oceanographic regimes as an aid to examining the basin-scale variability in the photophysiological response of marine phytoplankton and to use this information to improve the assignment of P-E parameters in the estimation of global marine primary production using satellite data. The MAPPS P-E database, which consists of over 5000 P-E experiments, provides information on the spatio-temporal variability in the two P-E parameters (the assimilation number, PmB, and the initial slope, αB, where the superscripts B indicate normalisation to concentration of chlorophyll that are fundamental inputs for models (satellite-based and otherwise of marine primary production that use chlorophyll as the state variable. Quality-control measures consisted of removing samples with abnormally high parameter values and flags were added to denote whether the spectral quality of the incubator lamp was used to calculate a broad-band value of αB. The MAPPS database provides a photophysiological data set that is unprecedented in number of observations and in spatial coverage. The database will be useful to a variety of research communities, including marine ecologists, biogeochemical modellers, remote-sensing scientists and algal physiologists. The compiled data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.874087 (Bouman et al., 2017.

  1. Understanding system dynamics of an adaptive enzyme network from globally profiled kinetic parameters.

    Chiang, Austin W T; Liu, Wei-Chung; Charusanti, Pep; Hwang, Ming-Jing

    2014-01-15

    A major challenge in mathematical modeling of biological systems is to determine how model parameters contribute to systems dynamics. As biological processes are often complex in nature, it is desirable to address this issue using a systematic approach. Here, we propose a simple methodology that first performs an enrichment test to find patterns in the values of globally profiled kinetic parameters with which a model can produce the required system dynamics; this is then followed by a statistical test to elucidate the association between individual parameters and different parts of the system's dynamics. We demonstrate our methodology on a prototype biological system of perfect adaptation dynamics, namely the chemotaxis model for Escherichia coli. Our results agreed well with those derived from experimental data and theoretical studies in the literature. Using this model system, we showed that there are motifs in kinetic parameters and that these motifs are governed by constraints of the specified system dynamics. A systematic approach based on enrichment statistical tests has been developed to elucidate the relationships between model parameters and the roles they play in affecting system dynamics of a prototype biological network. The proposed approach is generally applicable and therefore can find wide use in systems biology modeling research.

  2. Automated parameter tuning applied to sea ice in a global climate model

    Roach, Lettie A.; Tett, Simon F. B.; Mineter, Michael J.; Yamazaki, Kuniko; Rae, Cameron D.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis that a significant portion of spread in climate model projections of sea ice is due to poorly-constrained model parameters. New automated methods for optimization are applied to historical sea ice in a global coupled climate model (HadCM3) in order to calculate the combination of parameters required to reduce the difference between simulation and observations to within the range of model noise. The optimized parameters result in a simulated sea-ice time series which is more consistent with Arctic observations throughout the satellite record (1980-present), particularly in the September minimum, than the standard configuration of HadCM3. Divergence from observed Antarctic trends and mean regional sea ice distribution reflects broader structural uncertainty in the climate model. We also find that the optimized parameters do not cause adverse effects on the model climatology. This simple approach provides evidence for the contribution of parameter uncertainty to spread in sea ice extent trends and could be customized to investigate uncertainties in other climate variables.

  3. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men.

    Jin-Chun Lu

    Full Text Available This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters.631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT, estradiol (E2 and SHBG levels were detected.Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P < 0.001, while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P < 0.05. For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042. There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV, sperm concentration (SC, total sperm count (TSC, sperm motility, progressive motility (PR and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS. Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012, both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002, and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051.The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility.

  4. Improved treatment of global positioning system force parameters in precise orbit determination applications

    Vigue, Y.; Lichten, S. M.; Muellerschoen, R. J.; Blewitt, G.; Heflin, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    Data collected from a worldwide 1992 experiment were processed at JPL to determine precise orbits for the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). A filtering technique was tested to improve modeling of solar-radiation pressure force parameters for GPS satellites. The new approach improves orbit quality for eclipsing satellites by a factor of two, with typical results in the 25- to 50-cm range. The resultant GPS-based estimates for geocentric coordinates of the tracking sites, which include the three DSN sites, are accurate to 2 to 8 cm, roughly equivalent to 3 to 10 nrad of angular measure.

  5. Probing the parameter space of HD 49933: A comparison between global and local methods

    Creevey, O L [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bazot, M, E-mail: orlagh@iac.es, E-mail: bazot@astro.up.pt [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-01-01

    We present two independent methods for studying the global stellar parameter space (mass M, age, chemical composition X{sub 0}, Z{sub 0}) of HD 49933 with seismic data. Using a local minimization and an MCMC algorithm, we obtain consistent results for the determination of the stellar properties: M 1.1-1.2 M{sub sun} Age {approx} 3.0 Gyr, Z{sub 0} {approx} 0.008. A description of the error ellipses can be defined using Singular Value Decomposition techniques, and this is validated by comparing the errors with those from the MCMC method.

  6. Adjoint sensitivity of global cloud droplet number to aerosol and dynamical parameters

    V. A. Karydis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the development of the adjoint of a comprehensive cloud droplet formation parameterization for use in aerosol-cloud-climate interaction studies. The adjoint efficiently and accurately calculates the sensitivity of cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC to all parameterization inputs (e.g., updraft velocity, water uptake coefficient, aerosol number and hygroscopicity with a single execution. The adjoint is then integrated within three dimensional (3-D aerosol modeling frameworks to quantify the sensitivity of CDNC formation globally to each parameter. Sensitivities are computed for year-long executions of the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI Chemical Transport Model (CTM, using wind fields computed with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS Global Circulation Model (GCM II', and the GEOS-Chem CTM, driven by meteorological input from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS of the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO. We find that over polluted (pristine areas, CDNC is more sensitive to updraft velocity and uptake coefficient (aerosol number and hygroscopicity. Over the oceans of the Northern Hemisphere, addition of anthropogenic or biomass burning aerosol is predicted to increase CDNC in contrast to coarse-mode sea salt which tends to decrease CDNC. Over the Southern Oceans, CDNC is most sensitive to sea salt, which is the main aerosol component of the region. Globally, CDNC is predicted to be less sensitive to changes in the hygroscopicity of the aerosols than in their concentration with the exception of dust where CDNC is very sensitive to particle hydrophilicity over arid areas. Regionally, the sensitivities differ considerably between the two frameworks and quantitatively reveal why the models differ considerably in their indirect forcing estimates.

  7. Global Modeling of Uranium Molecular Species Formation Using Laser-Ablated Plasmas

    Curreli, Davide; Finko, Mikhail; Azer, Magdi; Armstrong, Mike; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Radousky, Harry; Rose, Timothy; Stavrou, Elissaios; Weisz, David; Zaug, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    Uranium is chemically fractionated from other refractory elements in post-detonation nuclear debris but the mechanism is poorly understood. Fractionation alters the chemistry of the nuclear debris so that it no longer reflects the chemistry of the source weapon. The conditions of a condensing fireball can be simulated by a low-temperature plasma formed by vaporizing a uranium sample via laser heating. We have developed a global plasma kinetic model in order to model the chemical evolution of U/UOx species within an ablated plasma plume. The model allows to track the time evolution of the density and energy of an uranium plasma plume moving through an oxygen atmosphere of given fugacity, as well as other relevant quantities such as average electron and gas temperature. Comparison of model predictions with absorption spectroscopy of uranium-ablated plasmas provide preliminary insights on the key chemical species and evolution pathways involved during the fractionation process. This project was sponsored by the DoD, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Grant HDTRA1-16-1-0020. This work was performed in part under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. A study of evolution/suppression parameters of equatorial postsunset plasma instability

    O. S. Oyekola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evening equatorial pre-reversal vertical ion E×B drift (VZP and the peak of the ionospheric F2 maximum altitude (hmF2P of the postsunset equatorial F-layer, which are the essential parameters requisite for the generation or inhibition of postsunset bottomside equatorial irregularities were deduced from ionosonde observations made in the Africa region (Ouagadougou: ~3° N dip latitude between January 1987 and December 1990 for solar activity minimum, medium, and maxima (F10.7=85, 141, 214, and 190, respectively for quiet geomagnetic conditions. We investigate variations of evening equatorial pre-reversal drift and the corresponding altitude at four levels of solar activity. Our observations show strong variations with solar variability. Correlation analysis between these parameters indicates that the correlation coefficient value between hmF2P versus VZP decreases considerably with increasing solar flux value. There seems to be no significant link between these parameters under high solar activity, especially for solar intensity F10.7>200 units. We conclude that meridional neutral wind in the F-region contributes substantially to the variations of the pre-reversal vertical plasma drifts enhancement and the peak hmF2, particularly the electrodynamics during twilight high solar flux conditions.

  9. Analysis of a global energy confinement database for JET ohmic plasmas

    Bracco, G.; Thomsen, K.

    1997-01-01

    A database containing global energy confinement data for JET ohmic plasmas in the campaigns from 1984 to 1992 has been established. An analysis is presented of this database and the results are compared with data from other tokamaks, such as the Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment (ASDEX), Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) and Tore Supra. The trends of JET ohmic confinement appear to be similar to those observed on other tokamaks: a linear dependence of the global energy confinement time on density is observed up to a density value where a saturation is attained; this density value defines the border between the linear and the saturated ohmic confinement regimes; this border is shifted towards higher density values if the q value of the discharge is decreased; the global confinement time in the saturated ohmic regime increases less than linearly with the value of the magnetic field. (author). 20 refs, 13 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Dependence of H-mode power threshold on global and local edge parameters

    Groebner, R.J.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Burrell, K.H.

    1995-12-01

    Measurements of local electron density n e , electron temperature T e , and ion temperature T i have been made at the very edge of the plasma just prior to the transition into H-mode for four different single parameter scans in the DIII-D tokamak. The means and standard derivations of n e , T e , and T i under these conditions for a value of the normalized toroidal flux of 0.98 are respectively, 1.5 ± 0.7 x 10 19 m -3 , 0.051 ± 0.016 keV, and 0.14 ± 0.03 keV. The threshold condition for the transition is more sensitive to temperature than to density. The data indicate that the dependence is not as simple as a requirement for a fixed value of the ion collisionality

  11. Dynamical analysis of a cubic Liénard system with global parameters (II)

    Chen, Hebai; Chen, Xingwu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we continue to study the global dynamics of a cubic Liénard system for global parameters in the case of three equilibria to follow (2015 Nonlinearity 28 3535-62), which deals with the case of two equilibria. We first analyse qualitative properties of all equilibria and judge the existences of limit cycles and homoclinic loops and their numbers. Then we obtain the bifurcation diagram and all phase portraits as our main results. Based on these results, in the case of three equilibria a positive answer to conjecture 3.2 of (1998 Nonlinearity 11 1505-19), which is about the existence of some function whose graph is exactly the surface of double limit cycles, is obtained. Moreover, a parameter region for the nonexistence of figure-eight loops is given theoretically to compensate for previous numerical results and is illustrated numerically. Supported by NSFC 11471228, 11572263, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities and Cultivation Foundation of Excellent Doctoral Dissertation of Southwest Jiaotong University (2015).

  12. Optimal correction and design parameter search by modern methods of rigorous global optimization

    Makino, K.; Berz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Frequently the design of schemes for correction of aberrations or the determination of possible operating ranges for beamlines and cells in synchrotrons exhibit multitudes of possibilities for their correction, usually appearing in disconnected regions of parameter space which cannot be directly qualified by analytical means. In such cases, frequently an abundance of optimization runs are carried out, each of which determines a local minimum depending on the specific chosen initial conditions. Practical solutions are then obtained through an often extended interplay of experienced manual adjustment of certain suitable parameters and local searches by varying other parameters. However, in a formal sense this problem can be viewed as a global optimization problem, i.e. the determination of all solutions within a certain range of parameters that lead to a specific optimum. For example, it may be of interest to find all possible settings of multiple quadrupoles that can achieve imaging; or to find ahead of time all possible settings that achieve a particular tune; or to find all possible manners to adjust nonlinear parameters to achieve correction of high order aberrations. These tasks can easily be phrased in terms of such an optimization problem; but while mathematically this formulation is often straightforward, it has been common belief that it is of limited practical value since the resulting optimization problem cannot usually be solved. However, recent significant advances in modern methods of rigorous global optimization make these methods feasible for optics design for the first time. The key ideas of the method lie in an interplay of rigorous local underestimators of the objective functions, and by using the underestimators to rigorously iteratively eliminate regions that lie above already known upper bounds of the minima, in what is commonly known as a branch-and-bound approach. Recent enhancements of the Differential Algebraic methods used in particle

  13. The Disposition Parameters of the Technological and Innovation Gap in the Global Economy

    Mikaelian Suren G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to specify the disposition parameters of the technological and innovation gap in the global economy and determine the directions for overcoming it. It is proved that the process of technological asymmetry is reflected in the technological and innovation gap in the global economy. The positions of the countries-innovation leaders are clarified with the attention being focused on the growth of China’s influence through its efforts in technological innovations. There described the transformation of the positions in two planes: production of and trade in high-tech products. A hypothesis about the change in the nature of innovations during the last decade is confirmed. It is proved that the affordability of the formation of advanced technologies in China has become a reason for its transformation into the powerhouse of the world economic development. There identified and characterized the directions for bridging the gap between economies, which include increasing investment on the global innovation scale; promoting the spread of technologies and their adaptation; ensuring an unimpeded flow of talents and knowledge; using intellectual property rights to promote innovation for the poor, improve the innovation efficiency; entering markets.

  14. Study of thermal and electrical parameters of workpieces during spray coating by electrolytic plasma jet

    Khafizov, A A; Shakirov, Yu I; Valiev, R A; Valiev, R I; Khafizova, G M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the results are presented of thermal and electrical parameters of products in the system bottom layer - intermediate layer when applying protective coatings of ferromagnetic powder by plasma spray produced in an electric discharge with a liquid cathode, on steel samples. Temperature distribution and gradients in coating and intermediate coating were examined. Detailed descriptions of spray coating with ferromagnetic powder by plasma jet obtained in electrical discharge with liquid cathode and the apparatus for obtaining thereof is provided. Problem has been solved by using of Fourier analysis. Initial data for calculations is provided. Results of numerical analysis are provided as temporal functions of temperature in contiguity between coating and intermediate coating as well as temporal function of the value Q=q-φ; where q is density of heat current directed to the free surface of intermediate coating, φ is density of heat current in contiguity between coating and intermediate coating. The analysis of data given shows that in the systems of contact heat exchange bottom layer-intermediate layer with close values of the thermophysical characteristics of constituting materials is observed a slow increase of the temperature of the contact as a function of time. (paper)

  15. Using sensitivity derivatives for design and parameter estimation in an atmospheric plasma discharge simulation

    Lange, Kyle J.; Anderson, W. Kyle

    2010-01-01

    The problem of applying sensitivity analysis to a one-dimensional atmospheric radio frequency plasma discharge simulation is considered. A fluid simulation is used to model an atmospheric pressure radio frequency helium discharge with a small nitrogen impurity. Sensitivity derivatives are computed for the peak electron density with respect to physical inputs to the simulation. These derivatives are verified using several different methods to compute sensitivity derivatives. It is then demonstrated how sensitivity derivatives can be used within a design cycle to change these physical inputs so as to increase the peak electron density. It is also shown how sensitivity analysis can be used in conjunction with experimental data to obtain better estimates for rate and transport parameters. Finally, it is described how sensitivity analysis could be used to compute an upper bound on the uncertainty for results from a simulation.

  16. GEOS-1 observations of electrostatic waves, and their relationship with plasma parameters

    Christiansen, P.J.; Gough, M.P.; Martelli, G.; Beghin, C.; Decreau, P.; Jones, D.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe and discuss the occurrence of natural wave emissions detected by GEOS-1 at frequencies above the electron gyrofrequency. The bulk of the data presented comes from the first six months of satellite operation and thus concerns mainly dayside phenomena. A classification of the wave phenomena is developed, and experimental evidence and morphological information relevant to this classification are given. Some preliminary comments on nightside observations are included. The results are discussed, and it is argued that they can be understood as manifestations of electron cyclotron harmonic (Bernstein) wave emission in a plasma parameter range which has only very recently received any theoretical examinations. This theme is further developed in a companion paper (Roennmark et al., 1978). (Auth.)

  17. Effect of low density H-mode operation on edge and divertor plasma parameters

    Maingi, R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Cuthbertson, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    We present a study of the impact of H-mode operation at low density on divertor plasma parameters on the DIII-D tokamak. The line-average density in H-mode was scanned by variation of the particle exhaust rate, using the recently installed divertor cryo-condensation pump. The maximum decrease (50%) in line-average electron density was accompanied by a factor of 2 increase in the edge electron temperature, and 10% and 20% reductions in the measured core and divertor radiated power, respectively. The measured total power to the inboard divertor target increased by a factor of 3, with the major contribution coming from a factor of 5 increase in the peak heat flux very close to the inner strike point. The measured increase in power at the inboard divertor target was approximately equal to the measured decrease in core and divertor radiation

  18. Internal oscillating current-sustained RF plasmas: Parameters, stability, and potential for surface engineering

    Ostrikov, K.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Tsakadze, Z.L.

    2005-01-01

    . Moreover, under certain conditions, the plasma becomes unstable due to spontaneous transitions between low-density (electrostatic, E) and high-density (electromagnetic, H) operating modes. Excellent uniformity of high-density plasmas makes the plasma reactor promising for various plasma processing...... applications and surface engineering. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. A global climatology for equatorial plasma bubbles in the topside ionosphere

    L. C. Gentile

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a global climatology of equatorial plasma bubble (EPB occurrence based on evening sector plasma density measurements from polar-orbiting Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP spacecraft during 1989-2004. EPBs are irregular plasma density depletions in the post-sunset ionosphere that degrade communication and navigation signals. More than 14400 EPBs were identified in ~134000 DMSP orbits. DMSP observations basically agree with Tsunoda's (1985 hypothesis that EPB rates peak when the terminator is aligned with the Earth's magnetic field, but there are also unpredicted offsets in many longitude sectors. We present an updated climatology for the full database from 1989-2004 along with new plots for specific phases of the solar cycle: maximum 1989-1992 and 1999-2002, minimum 1994-1997, and transition years 1993, 1998, and 2003. As expected, there are significant differences between the climatologies for solar maximum and minimum and between the two solar maximum phases as well. We also compare DMSP F12, F14, F15, and F16 observations at slightly different local times during 2000-2004 to examine local time effects on EPB rates. The global climatologies developed using the DMSP EPB database provide an environmental context for the long-range prediction tools under development for the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS mission.

  20. Investigation of the influence of divertor recycling on global plasma confinement in JET ITER-like wall

    Tamain, P.; Joffrin, E.; Bufferand, H.; Jarvinen, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Ciraolo, G.; Delabie, E.; Frassinetti, L.; Giroud, C.; Groth, M.; Lipschultz, B.; Lomas, P.; Marsen, S.; Menmuir, S.; Oberkofler, M.; Stamp, M.; Wiesen, S.; JET-EFDA Contributors,

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The impact of the divertor geometry on global plasma confinement in type I ELMy H-mode has been investigated in the JET tokamak equipped with ITER-Like Wall. Discharges have been performed in which the position of the strike-points was changed while keeping the bulk plasma equilibrium

  1. Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates

    Portnoy, David, E-mail: david.portnoy@jhuapl.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the 'threat' set of

  2. Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates

    Portnoy, David; Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the 'threat' set of spectra

  3. Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates

    Portnoy, David; Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the "threat" set of spectra

  4. Jet quenching parameter in an expanding QCD plasma arXiv

    Iancu, Edmond; Wu, Bin

    We study the phenomenon of transverse momentum broadening for a high-$p_T$ parton propagating through a weakly-coupled quark-gluon plasma undergoing boost-invariant longitudinal expansion. We propose a boost-invariant description for this phenomenon, in which the broadening refers to the angular variables $\\eta$ (the pseudo-rapidity) and $\\phi$ (the azimuthal angle). The jet quenching parameter $\\hat{q}$ which enters this description depends upon the proper time alone. We furthermore consider radiative corrections to $\\hat q$. As in the case of a static medium, we find potentially large corrections enhanced by a double logarithm. But unlike for the static medium, these corrections are now local in time: they depend upon the local (proper) time characterizing the expansion, and not upon the overall path length. We resum such corrections to all orders into a renormalized jet quenching parameter. The main effect of this resummation is to slow down the decrease of $\\hat q$ with increasing proper time.

  5. Dielectric parameters of blood plasma in rats at external and internal irradiation with sublethal doses

    Khadzhidekova, E.; Kiradzhiev, G.

    1991-01-01

    Sexually mature male rats have received external gamma irradiation with 50, 200 or 380 cGy, treated with 89 Sr (333 or 1665 kBq per rat, femur dose 70, resp. 290 cGy), or 144 Ce (370 kBq per rat, liver dose 70 cGy). Dielectric parameters (permittivity and conductivity) have been measured in the frequency range 1.4 - 17 Mhz on different terms (1 to 30th day after the treatment). For all groups and terms the coefficients and equations describing the relationship between the dielectric permittivity ε and the frequency ν of the changing electric field have been calculated. On the basis of dielectric parameters the relaxation time of the plasma protein molecules is determined. It has been shown that the changes in dielectric permittivity are expressed at different frequencies specific for a given dose; the same is established for the conditions of internal irradiation. The frequency dependence of the permittivity is described as an exponential curve analogous to that of the control but with a changed exponent. In applying higher doses or activities the relationship turns from exponential to parabolic. The relaxation time, expressing the changes in conformal state of macromolecules, varies but is in all cases longer than one of the controls for the whole period of study at external irradiation with 50 and 380 cGy. It is lower at irradiation with 200 cGy, as well as at internal irradiation. 3 tabs., 13 refs

  6. A study of evolution/suppression parameters of equatorial postsunset plasma instability

    O. S. Oyekola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evening equatorial pre-reversal vertical ion E×B drift (VZP and the peak of the ionospheric F2 maximum altitude (hmF2P of the postsunset equatorial F-layer, which are the essential parameters requisite for the generation or inhibition of postsunset bottomside equatorial irregularities were deduced from ionosonde observations made in the Africa region (Ouagadougou: ~3° N dip latitude between January 1987 and December 1990 for solar activity minimum, medium, and maxima (F10.7=85, 141, 214, and 190, respectively for quiet geomagnetic conditions. We investigate variations of evening equatorial pre-reversal drift and the corresponding altitude at four levels of solar activity. Our observations show strong variations with solar variability. Correlation analysis between these parameters indicates that the correlation coefficient value between hmF2P versus VZP decreases considerably with increasing solar flux value. There seems to be no significant link between these parameters under high solar activity, especially for solar intensity F10.7>200 units. We conclude that meridional neutral wind in the F-region contributes substantially to the variations of the pre-reversal vertical plasma drifts enhancement and the peak hmF2, particularly the electrodynamics during twilight high solar flux conditions.

  7. A frequency domain global parameter estimation method for multiple reference frequency response measurements

    Shih, C. Y.; Tsuei, Y. G.; Allemang, R. J.; Brown, D. L.

    1988-10-01

    A method of using the matrix Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model in the Laplace domain for multiple-reference global parameter identification is presented. This method is particularly applicable to the area of modal analysis where high modal density exists. The method is also applicable when multiple reference frequency response functions are used to characterise linear systems. In order to facilitate the mathematical solution, the Forsythe orthogonal polynomial is used to reduce the ill-conditioning of the formulated equations and to decouple the normal matrix into two reduced matrix blocks. A Complex Mode Indicator Function (CMIF) is introduced, which can be used to determine the proper order of the rational polynomials.

  8. Characterization of PV panel and global optimization of its model parameters using genetic algorithm

    Ismail, M.S.; Moghavvemi, M.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Genetic Algorithm optimization ability had been utilized to extract parameters of PV panel model. • Effect of solar radiation and temperature variations was taken into account in fitness function evaluation. • We used Matlab-Simulink to simulate operation of the PV-panel to validate results. • Different cases were analyzed to ascertain which of them gives more accurate results. • Accuracy and applicability of this approach to be used as a valuable tool for PV modeling were clearly validated. - Abstract: This paper details an improved modeling technique for a photovoltaic (PV) module; utilizing the optimization ability of a genetic algorithm, with different parameters of the PV module being computed via this approach. The accurate modeling of any PV module is incumbent upon the values of these parameters, as it is imperative in the context of any further studies concerning different PV applications. Simulation, optimization and the design of the hybrid systems that include PV are examples of these applications. The global optimization of the parameters and the applicability for the entire range of the solar radiation and a wide range of temperatures are achievable via this approach. The Manufacturer’s Data Sheet information is used as a basis for the purpose of parameter optimization, with an average absolute error fitness function formulated; and a numerical iterative method used to solve the voltage-current relation of the PV module. The results of single-diode and two-diode models are evaluated in order to ascertain which of them are more accurate. Other cases are also analyzed in this paper for the purpose of comparison. The Matlab–Simulink environment is used to simulate the operation of the PV module, depending on the extracted parameters. The results of the simulation are compared with the Data Sheet information, which is obtained via experimentation in order to validate the reliability of the approach. Three types of PV modules

  9. Properties and parameters of the electron beam injected into the mirror magnetic trap of a plasma accelerator

    Andreev, V. V., E-mail: temple18@mail.ru; Novitsky, A. A.; Vinnichenko, L. A.; Umnov, A. M.; Ndong, D. O. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    The parameters of the injector of an axial plasma beam injected into a plasma accelerator operating on the basis of gyroresonance acceleration of electrons in the reverse magnetic field are determined. The trapping of the beam electrons into the regime of gyroresonance acceleration is numerically simulated by the particle- in-cell method. The optimal time of axial injection of the beam into a magnetic mirror trap is determined. The beam parameters satisfying the condition of efficient particle trapping into the gyromagnetic autoresonance regime are found.

  10. Global Hybrid Simulations of Energetic Particle-driven Modes in Toroidal Plasmas

    Fu, G.Y.; Breslau, J.; Fredrickson, E.; Park, W.; Strauss, H.R.

    2004-01-01

    Global hybrid simulations of energetic particle-driven MHD modes have been carried out for tokamaks and spherical tokamaks using the hybrid code M3D. The numerical results for the National Spherical Tokamak Experiments (NSTX) show that Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes are excited by beam ions with their frequencies consistent with the experimental observations. Nonlinear simulations indicate that the n=2 mode frequency chirps down as the mode moves out radially. For ITER, it is shown that the alpha-particle effects are strongly stabilizing for internal kink mode when central safety factor q(0) is sufficiently close to unity. However, the elongation of ITER plasma shape reduces the stabilization significantly

  11. Comparison of global optimization approaches for robust calibration of hydrologic model parameters

    Jung, I. W.

    2015-12-01

    Robustness of the calibrated parameters of hydrologic models is necessary to provide a reliable prediction of future performance of watershed behavior under varying climate conditions. This study investigated calibration performances according to the length of calibration period, objective functions, hydrologic model structures and optimization methods. To do this, the combination of three global optimization methods (i.e. SCE-UA, Micro-GA, and DREAM) and four hydrologic models (i.e. SAC-SMA, GR4J, HBV, and PRMS) was tested with different calibration periods and objective functions. Our results showed that three global optimization methods provided close calibration performances under different calibration periods, objective functions, and hydrologic models. However, using the agreement of index, normalized root mean square error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency as the objective function showed better performance than using correlation coefficient and percent bias. Calibration performances according to different calibration periods from one year to seven years were hard to generalize because four hydrologic models have different levels of complexity and different years have different information content of hydrological observation. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant (14AWMP-B082564-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  12. Assessing parameter variability in a photosynthesis model within and between plant functional types using global Fluxnet eddy covariance data

    Groenendijk, M.; Dolman, A.J.; Molen, van der M.K.; Leuning, R.; Arneth, A.; Delpierre, N.; Gash, J.H.C.; Lindroth, A.; Richardson, A.D.; Verbeeck, H.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vegetation component in climate models has advanced since the late 1960s from a uniform prescription of surface parameters to plant functional types (PFTs). PFTs are used in global land-surface models to provide parameter values for every model grid cell. With a simple photosynthesis model we

  13. Global characteristics of zonal flows generated by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence in tokamak plasmas

    Miyato, Naoaki; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Li, Jiquan

    2004-08-01

    Global structure of zonal flows driven by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence in tokamak plasmas is investigated using a global electromagnetic Landau fluid code. Characteristics of the coupled system of the zonal flows and the turbulence change with the safety factor q. In a low q region stationary zonal flows are excited and suppress the turbulence effectively. Coupling between zonal flows and poloidally asymmetric pressure perturbations via a geodesic curvature makes the zonal flows oscillatory in a high q region. Also we identify energy transfer from the zonal flows to the turbulence via the poloidally asymmetric pressure perturbations in the high q region. Therefore in the high q region the zonal flows cannot quench the turbulent transport completely. (author)

  14. Stability of the Global Alfven Eigenmode in the presence of fusion alpha particles in an ignited tokamak plasma

    Fu, G.Y.; Van Dam, J.W.

    1989-05-01

    The stability of the Global Alfven Eigenmodes is investigated in the presence of super-Alfvenic energetic particles, such as the fusion-product alpha particles in an ignited deuterium-tritium tokamak plasma. Alpha particles tend to destabilize these modes when ω *α > ω A , where ω A is the shear-Alfven modal frequency and ω *α is the alpha particle diamagnetic drift frequency. This destabilization due to alpha particles is found to be significantly enhanced when the alpha particles are modeled with a slowing-down distribution function rather than with a Maxwellian. However, previously neglected electron damping due to the magnetic curvature drift is found to be comparable in magnitude to the destabilizing alpha particle term. Furthermore, the effects of toroidicity are also found to be stabilizing, since the intrinsic toroidicity induces poloidal mode coupling, which enhances the parallel electron damping from the sideband shear-Alfven Landau resonance. In particular, for the parameters of the proposed Compact Ignition Tokamak, the Global Alfven Eigenmodes are found to be completely stabilized by either the electron damping that enters through the magnetic curvature drift or the damping introduced by finite toroidicity. 29 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  15. Optimization of the plasma parameters for the high current and uniform large-scale pulse arc ion source of the VEST-NBI system

    Jung, Bongki; Park, Min; Heo, Sung Ryul; Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • High power magnetic bucket-type arc plasma source for the VEST NBI system is developed with modifications based on the prototype plasma source for KSTAR. • Plasma parameters in pulse duration are measured to characterize the plasma source. • High plasma density and good uniformity is achieved at the low operating pressure below 1 Pa. • Required ion beam current density is confirmed by analysis of plasma parameters and results of a particle balance model. - Abstract: A large-scale hydrogen arc plasma source was developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for a high power pulsed NBI system of VEST which is a compact spherical tokamak at Seoul national university. One of the research target of VEST is to study innovative tokamak operating scenarios. For this purpose, high current density and uniform large-scale pulse plasma source is required to satisfy the target ion beam power efficiently. Therefore, optimizing the plasma parameters of the ion source such as the electron density, temperature, and plasma uniformity is conducted by changing the operating conditions of the plasma source. Furthermore, ion species of the hydrogen plasma source are analyzed using a particle balance model to increase the monatomic fraction which is another essential parameter for increasing the ion beam current density. Conclusively, efficient operating conditions are presented from the results of the optimized plasma parameters and the extractable ion beam current is calculated.

  16. Effect of basic physical parameters to control plasma meniscus and beam halo formation in negative ion sources

    Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2013-09-14

    Our previous study shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources: the negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. In this article, the detail physics of the plasma meniscus and beam halo formation is investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that the basic physical parameters such as the H{sup −} extraction voltage and the effective electron confinement time significantly affect the formation of the plasma meniscus and the resultant beam halo since the penetration of electric field for negative ion extraction depends on these physical parameters. Especially, the electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of electron diffusion across the magnetic field. The plasma meniscus penetrates deeply into the source plasma region when the effective electron confinement time is short. In this case, the curvature of the plasma meniscus becomes large, and consequently the fraction of the beam halo increases.

  17. Effect of basic physical parameters to control plasma meniscus and beam halo formation in negative ion sources

    Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources: the negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. In this article, the detail physics of the plasma meniscus and beam halo formation is investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that the basic physical parameters such as the H − extraction voltage and the effective electron confinement time significantly affect the formation of the plasma meniscus and the resultant beam halo since the penetration of electric field for negative ion extraction depends on these physical parameters. Especially, the electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of electron diffusion across the magnetic field. The plasma meniscus penetrates deeply into the source plasma region when the effective electron confinement time is short. In this case, the curvature of the plasma meniscus becomes large, and consequently the fraction of the beam halo increases

  18. Collision Time Measurements in a Sonoluminescing Microplasma with a Large Plasma Parameter

    Bataller, A.; Kappus, B.; Camara, C.; Putterman, S.

    2014-07-01

    The plasma which forms inside of a micron-sized sonoluminescing bubble in water for under a nanosecond has been probed with 3 ns long laser pulses. A comparison of the response to 532 and 1064 nm light indicates that the plasma number density is about 2×1021 cm-3 and that transport properties are dominated by strong screening and correlation effects. The spherical shape, well-defined atomic density, and blackbody temperature make the sonoluminescing plasma a test bed for theories of strongly coupled plasmas. The plasma in this experiment distinguishes between competing theories of strong, intermediate, and weak effective screening.

  19. Correlation of III/V semiconductor etch results with physical parameters of high-density reactive plasmas excited by electron cyclotron resonance

    Gerhard, FRANZ; Ralf, MEYER; Markus-Christian, AMANN

    2017-12-01

    Reactive ion etching is the interaction of reactive plasmas with surfaces. To obtain a detailed understanding of this process, significant properties of reactive composite low-pressure plasmas driven by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) were investigated and compared with the radial uniformity of the etch rate. The determination of the electronic properties of chlorine- and hydrogen-containing plasmas enabled the understanding of the pressure-dependent behavior of the plasma density and provided better insights into the electronic parameters of reactive etch gases. From the electrical evaluation of I(V) characteristics obtained using a Langmuir probe, plasmas of different compositions were investigated. The standard method of Druyvesteyn to derive the electron energy distribution functions by the second derivative of the I(V) characteristics was replaced by a mathematical model which has been evolved to be more robust against noise, mainly, because the first derivative of the I(V) characteristics is used. Special attention was given to the power of the energy dependence in the exponent. In particular, for plasmas that are generated by ECR with EM modes, the existence of Maxwellian distribution functions is not to be taken as a self-evident fact, but the bi-Maxwellian distribution was proven for Ar- and Kr-stabilized plasmas. In addition to the electron temperature, the global uniform discharge model has been shown to be useful for calculating the neutral gas temperature. To what extent the invasive method of using a Langmuir probe could be replaced with the non-invasive optical method of emission spectroscopy, particularly actinometry, was investigated, and the resulting data exhibited the same relative behavior as the Langmuir data. The correlation with etchrate data reveals the large chemical part of the removal process—most striking when the data is compared with etching in pure argon. Although the relative amount of the radial variation of plasma density and

  20. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    Xiaocui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50. The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%, had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p0.05 and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p0.05. Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality.

  1. Effect of electrical stunning frequency on meat quality, plasma parameters, and protein solubility of broilers.

    Huang, J C; Yang, J; Zhang, B H; Huang, M; Chen, K J; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2017-08-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of different stunning frequencies of pulsed direct current on meat quality of broilers. This was achieved by investigating plasma parameters, blood loss, carcass damage, meat water-holding capacity, meat color, meat shear value, muscle pH, and protein solubility. A total of 400 broilers was divided into 5 treatment groups and stunned with 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 Hz at 15 V for 10 seconds. Blood samples were collected immediately after cutting the neck. Pectoralis major muscles were removed from the carcass after chilling and placed in ice. Breast muscle pH and meat color were determined at both 2 and 24 h postmortem. Drip loss, cooking loss, pressing loss, and cooked breast meat-shear values were determined at 24 h postmortem. Treatment at 500 and 900 Hz significantly increased (P meat color were not affected by stunning frequency. In the 500 and 900 Hz groups, the protein solubility and shear force values were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and drip loss was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the 700 Hz group. This study indicates that the waveform of the pulsed direct current is acceptable for stunning broilers at a stunning frequency of 700 Hz. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Kinetic parameters for plasma β-endorphin in lean and obese Zucker rats

    Rodd, D.; Farrell, P.A.; Caston, A.L.; Green, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    To determine plasma clearance kinetics for β-endorphin (BE) by empirical compartmental analysis, a bolus of radioactive labeled 125I-BE was rapidly injected into a carotid artery catheter of unanesthetized lean (L) and obese (O) Zucker rats. The plasma disappearance of 125I was followed over a 3-h period. A 3-component exponential equation provided the best fit for plasma data. Plasma transit times were very short (10 s); however, plasma fractional catabolic rate was much slower. Plasma mean residence time was similar for both groups (50 min) as was recycle time (1.3 min). These data suggest that BE plasma disappearance kinetics are similar in L and O rats

  3. Kinetic parameters for plasma. beta. -endorphin in lean and obese Zucker rats

    Rodd, D.; Farrell, P.A.; Caston, A.L.; Green, M.H. (Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park (USA))

    1991-03-01

    To determine plasma clearance kinetics for {beta}-endorphin (BE) by empirical compartmental analysis, a bolus of radioactive labeled 125I-BE was rapidly injected into a carotid artery catheter of unanesthetized lean (L) and obese (O) Zucker rats. The plasma disappearance of 125I was followed over a 3-h period. A 3-component exponential equation provided the best fit for plasma data. Plasma transit times were very short (10 s); however, plasma fractional catabolic rate was much slower. Plasma mean residence time was similar for both groups (50 min) as was recycle time (1.3 min). These data suggest that BE plasma disappearance kinetics are similar in L and O rats.

  4. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    Radhi, Hassan, E-mail: h_alradhi@yahoo.com [Global Engineering Bureau, P.O Box 33130, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain (Bahrain); Sharples, Stephen, E-mail: steve.sharples@liverpool.ac.uk [School of Architecture, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO{sub 2} emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco{sub 2}), embodied energy (Eco{sub 2}) and operational energy (OPco{sub 2}). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80-90%). However, embodied CO{sub 2} emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco{sub 2} emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO{sub 2} emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle

  5. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    Radhi, Hassan; Sharples, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO 2 emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO 2 emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO 2 emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco 2 ), embodied energy (Eco 2 ) and operational energy (OPco 2 ). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80–90%). However, embodied CO 2 emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70–90% of the total CO 2 emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco 2 emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO 2 emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO 2 emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO 2 emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO 2 emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: ► Life cycle carbon assessment of façade parameters. ► Greatest environmental impact occurs

  6. Development of plasma diagnostics technologies - Measurement of transport= parameters in tokamak edge plasma by using electric transport probes

    Chung, Kyu Sun; Chang, Do Hee; Sim, Yeon Gun; Kim, Jin Hee [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    Electric transport probe system is developed for the measurement of electron temperature, floating potential, plasma density and flow velocity of= edge plasmas in the KT-2 medium size tokamak. Experiments have been performed in KT-1 small size tokamak. Electric transport probe is composed of a single probe(SP) and a Mach probe (MP). SP is used for the measurements of electron density, floating potential, and plasma density and measured values are {approx} 3*10{sup 11}/cm{sup -3}, -20 volts, 15 {approx} 25 eV. For the most discharges, respectively. MP is for the measurements of toroidal(M{sub T}) and poloidal(M{sub P}) flow velocities, and density, which are M{sub T} {approx_equal} .0.85, M{sub P} {approx_equal}. 0.17, n. {approx_equal} 2.1*10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}, respectively. A triple probe is also developed for the direct reading of T{sub e} and n{sub e}, and is used for DC, RF, and RF+DC plasma in APL of Hanyang university. 38 refs., 36 figs. (author)

  7. Influence of laser design parameters on the hydrodynamics of microfusion plasmas; Influencia de los parametros basicos del laser sobre la hidrodinamica de plasmas para microfusion

    Sanmartin, J A; Barrero, A

    1976-07-01

    The quasi neutral, one dimensional motion generated in a cold, infinite, uniform plasma of density n{sub 0}, by the absorption, In a given plane, of a linear pulse of energy per unit time and area {phi} - {phi}{sub 0}t/{tau}, 0< t {<=} {tau}, is considered; the analysis allows for thermal conduction and viscosity of ions and electrons, their energy exchange, and an electron thermal flux limiter. The motion is found to be self similar and governed by single non dimensional parameter {alpha} similar{sub t}o(n{sup 2}{sub 0} {tau}/{phi}{sub 0}){sup 2}/3. Detailed asymptotic results are obtained for both {alpha}<<1and {alpha}>>1; the general (behaviour of the solution for arbitrary {alpha} is discussed. The analysis can be easily extended to the case of a plasma initially occupying a half-space, and throws light on the hydrodynamics of laser fusion plasmas. (Author) 51 refs.

  8. Global Source Parameters from Regional Spectral Ratios for Yield Transportability Studies

    Phillips, W. S.; Fisk, M. D.; Stead, R. J.; Begnaud, M. L.; Rowe, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    We use source parameters such as moment, corner frequency and high frequency rolloff as constraints in amplitude tomography, ensuring that spectra of well-studied earthquakes are recovered using the ensuing attenuation and site term model. We correct explosion data for path and site effects using such models, which allows us to test transportability of yield estimation techniques based on our best source spectral estimates. To develop a background set of source parameters, we applied spectral ratio techniques to envelopes of a global set of regional distance recordings from over 180,000 crustal events. Corner frequencies and moment ratios were determined via inversion using all event pairs within predetermined clusters, shifting to absolute levels using independently determined regional and teleseismic moments. The moment and corner frequency results can be expressed as stress drop, which has considerable scatter, yet shows dramatic regional patterns. We observe high stress in subduction zones along S. America, S. Mexico, the Banda Sea, and associated with the Yakutat Block in Alaska. We also observe high stress at the Himalayan syntaxes, the Pamirs, eastern Iran, the Caspian, the Altai-Sayan, and the central African rift. Low stress is observed along mid ocean spreading centers, the Afar rift, patches of convergence zones such as Nicaragua, the Zagros, Tibet, and the Tien Shan, among others. Mine blasts appear as low stress events due to their low corners and steep rolloffs. Many of these anomalies have been noted by previous studies, and we plan to compare results directly. As mentioned, these results will be used to constrain tomographic imaging, but can also be used in model validation procedures similar to the use of ground truth in location problems, and, perhaps most importantly, figure heavily in quality control of local and regional distance amplitude measurements.

  9. A mathematical correlation between variations in solar radiation parameters - I: Daily sums of global radiation and midday global radiation

    Njau, E.C.

    1987-11-01

    An equation that simply relates variations in the daily sums of global radiation and the corresponding midday global radiation data over an arbitrarily chosen location on the Earth is derived from first principles. Although this equation is specifically tailored for periods incorporating only cloudless days, it is modified slightly in order also to suit any period that incorporates either cloudless days or consistently cloudy days or days characterised by consistently distributed cloud patches or any combination of these. Global radiation data for Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, calculated on the basis of the slightly modified version of the equation mentioned above agree with actual measurements to at least 89% if each of the days involved is either fairly cloudless or consistently cloudy or is characterised by fairly consistent cloud patches from sunrise to sunset. This clearly demonstrates that it is quite possible to work out reasonable estimates of the overall global radiation incident on a given area using only the corresponding midday global radiation data for that particular area. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  10. Calculation of high-pressure argon plasma parameters produced by excimer laser

    Tsuda, Norio; Yamada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    When a XeCl excimer laser light was focused in a high-pressure argon gas up to 150 atm, a dense plasma developed not only backward but also forward. It is important to study on the electron density and temperature of the laser-induced plasma in the high-pressure gas. The electron density and temperature in high-pressure argon plasma produced by XeCl excimer laser has been calculated and compared with the experimental data. (author)

  11. Powder Particle Penetration into Steam-argon Plasma Jet and its Relation with Particle Parameters

    Chumak, Oleksiy; Kopecký, Vladimír; Konrád, Miloš; Hrabovský, Milan; Kavka, Tetyana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, suppl. C (2004), C931-C936 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /21st/. Praha, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2043105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma sprazing, torch with hybrid stabilization, particle temperature Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  12. Using numerical simulations to extract parameters of toroidal electron plasmas from experimental data

    Ha, B. N.; Stoneking,, M. R.; Marler, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of the image charge induced on electrodes provide the primary means of diagnosing plasmas in the Lawrence Non-neutral Torus II (LNT II) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155001 (2008)]. Therefore, it is necessary to develop techniques that determine characteristics of the electron plasma from......, as in the cylindrical case. In the toroidal case, additional information about the m=1 motion of the plasma can be obtained by analysis of the image charge signal amplitude and shape. Finally, results from the numerical simulations are compared to experimental data from the LNT II and plasma characteristics...

  13. Remote sensing of refractivity from space for global observations of atmospheric parameters

    Gorbunov, M.E.; Sokolovskiy, S.V.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the first results of computational simulations on the retrieval of meteorological parameters from space refractometric data on the basis of the ECHAM 3 model developed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (Roeckner et al. 1992). For this purpose the grid fields of temperature, geopotential and humidity available from the model were interpolated and a continuous spatial field of refractivity (together with its first derivative) was generated. This field was used for calculating the trajectories of electromagnetic rays for the given orbits of transmitting and receiving satellites and for the determination of the quantities (incident angles or Doppler frequency shifts) being measured at receiving satellite during occultation. These quantities were then used for solving the inverse problem - retrieving the distribution of refractivity in the vicinity of the ray perigees. The retrieved refractivity was used to calculate pressure and temperature (using the hydrostatic equation and the equation of state). The results were compared with initial data, and the retrieval errors were evaluated. The study shows that the refractivity can be retrieved with very high accuracy in particular if a tomographic reconstruction is applied. Effects of humidity and temperature are not separable. Stratospheric temperatures globally and upper tropospheric temperatures at middle and high latitudes can be accurately retrieved, other areas require humidity data. Alternatively humidity data can be retrieved if the temperature fields are known. (orig.)

  14. Simulation of Main Plasma Parameters of a Cylindrical Asymmetric Capacitively Coupled Plasma Micro-Thruster using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Amelia eGreig

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations of a radio-frequency (13.56 MHz electro-thermal capacitively coupled plasma (CCP micro-thruster have been performed using the commercial CFD-ACE+ package. Standard operating conditions of a 10 W, 1.5 Torr argon discharge were used to compare with previously obtained experimental results for validation. Results show that the driving force behind plasma production within the thruster is ion-induced secondary electrons ejected from the surface of the discharge tube, accelerated through the sheath to electron temperatures up to 33.5 eV. The secondary electron coefficient was varied to determine the effect on the discharge, with results showing that full breakdown of the discharge did not occur for coefficients coefficients less than or equal to 0.01.

  15. Design and construction the identification of nitriding plasma process parameters using personal computer based on serial communication

    Frida Iswinning Diah; Slamet Santosa

    2012-01-01

    Design and construction the identification of process parameters using personal computer based on serial communication PLC M-series has been done. The function of this device is to identify the process parameters of a system (plan), to which then be analyzed and conducted a follow-up given to the plan by the user. The main component of this device is the M-Series T100MD1616 PLC and personal computer (PC). In this device the data plan parameters obtained from the corresponding sensor outputs in the form of voltage or current. While the analog parameter data is adjusted to the ADC analog input of the PLC using a signal conditioning system. Then, as the parameter is processed by the PLC then sent to a PC via RS232 to be displayed in the form of graphs or tables and stored in the database. Software to program the database is created using Visual Basic Programming V-6. The device operation test is performed for the measurement of temperature parameter and vacuum level on the plasma nitriding machine. The results indicate that the device has functioning as an identification device parameters process of plasma nitriding machine. (author)

  16. Step-by-step optimization and global chaos of nonlinear parameters in exact calculations of few-particle systems

    Frolov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Exact variational calculations are treated for few-particle systems in the exponential basis of relative coordinates using nonlinear parameters. The methods of step-by-step optimization and global chaos of nonlinear parameters are applied to calculate the S and P states of ppμ, ddμ, ttμ homonuclear mesomolecules within the error ≤±0.001 eV. The global chaos method turned out to be well applicable to nuclear 3 H and 3 He systems

  17. Step-by-step optimization and global chaos of nonlinear parameters in exact calculations of few-particle systems

    Frolov, A M

    1986-09-01

    Exact variational calculations are treated for few-particle systems in the exponential basis of relative coordinates using nonlinear parameters. The methods of step-by-step optimization and global chaos of nonlinear parameters are applied to calculate the S and P states of pp..mu.., dd..mu.., tt..mu.. homonuclear mesomolecules within the error less than or equal to+-0.001 eV. The global chaos method turned out to be well applicable to nuclear /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He systems.

  18. Global dependence of optical potential parameters for alpha particles with energies up to 80 MeV

    Kuterbekov, K.A.; Zholdybaev, T.K.; Sadykov, B.M.; Mukhambetzhan, A.; Kukhtina, I.N.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.

    2002-01-01

    Global (energy and mass) dependences of optical potential for α-particles with energies up to 80 MeV have been received. A Woods-Saxon form factor for macroscopic potential has been used. Energy and mass dependences of the semi-microscopic α-particle potential parameters have been investigated for the first time. In general, a good description of elastic and inelastic differential and total reactions cross sections for different nuclei using the revealed global parameters has been received within the framework of macroscopic and semi-microscopic approaches

  19. The influence of pulse parameters on film composition during pulsed plasma polymerization of diaminocyclohexane

    Choukourov, A.; Biederman, H.; Slavínská, D.; Trchová, Miroslava; Hollander, A.

    174-175, - (2003), s. 863-866 ISSN 0257-8972. [International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering /8./. Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 09.09.2002-13.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Keywords : plasma polymerization * chemical derivation * primary and secondary amino groups Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.410, year: 2003

  20. An adaptive least-squares global sensitivity method and application to a plasma-coupled combustion prediction with parametric correlation

    Tang, Kunkun; Massa, Luca; Wang, Jonathan; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2018-05-01

    We introduce an efficient non-intrusive surrogate-based methodology for global sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification. Modified covariance-based sensitivity indices (mCov-SI) are defined for outputs that reflect correlated effects. The overall approach is applied to simulations of a complex plasma-coupled combustion system with disparate uncertain parameters in sub-models for chemical kinetics and a laser-induced breakdown ignition seed. The surrogate is based on an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) expansion, such as widely used in statistics, with orthogonal polynomials representing the ANOVA subspaces and a polynomial dimensional decomposition (PDD) representing its multi-dimensional components. The coefficients of the PDD expansion are obtained using a least-squares regression, which both avoids the direct computation of high-dimensional integrals and affords an attractive flexibility in choosing sampling points. This facilitates importance sampling using a Bayesian calibrated posterior distribution, which is fast and thus particularly advantageous in common practical cases, such as our large-scale demonstration, for which the asymptotic convergence properties of polynomial expansions cannot be realized due to computation expense. Effort, instead, is focused on efficient finite-resolution sampling. Standard covariance-based sensitivity indices (Cov-SI) are employed to account for correlation of the uncertain parameters. Magnitude of Cov-SI is unfortunately unbounded, which can produce extremely large indices that limit their utility. Alternatively, mCov-SI are then proposed in order to bound this magnitude ∈ [ 0 , 1 ]. The polynomial expansion is coupled with an adaptive ANOVA strategy to provide an accurate surrogate as the union of several low-dimensional spaces, avoiding the typical computational cost of a high-dimensional expansion. It is also adaptively simplified according to the relative contribution of the different polynomials to the total

  1. Rosiglitazone Reduces Plasma Levels of Inflammatory and Hemostatic Biomarkers and Improves Global Endothelial Function in Habitual Heavy Smokers Without Diabetes Mellitus or Metabolic Syndrome

    I-Chih Chen

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Rosiglitazone significantly reduces plasma levels of inflammatory and hemostatic biomarkers, and restores global endothelial dysfunction, independently from insulin sensitization, in healthy smokers.

  2. Strong 'Quantum' Chaos in the Global Ballooning Mode Spectrum of Three-dimensional Plasmas

    Dewar, R. L.; Cuthbert, P.; Ball, R.

    2000-01-01

    The spectrum of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure-driven (ballooning) modes in strongly nonaxisymmetric toroidal systems is difficult to analyze numerically owing to the singular nature of ideal MHD caused by lack of an inherent scale length. In this paper, ideal MHD is regularized by using a k-space cutoff, making the ray tracing for the WKB ballooning formalism a chaotic Hamiltonian billiard problem. The minimum width of the toroidal Fourier spectrum needed for resolving toroidally localized ballooning modes with a global eigenvalue code is estimated from the Weyl formula. This phase-space-volume estimation method is applied to ballooning-unstable plasma equilibria in the H-1NF helical axis stellarator and the Large Helical Device (LHD)

  3. Evaluation of metabolism, plasma protein binding and other biological parameters after administration of (−)-[18 F]Flubatine in humans

    Patt, Marianne; Becker, Georg A.; Grossmann, Udo; Habermann, Bernd; Schildan, Andreas; Wilke, Stephan; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Graef, Susanne; Fischer, Steffen; Smits, René; Hoepping, Alexander; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Steinbach, Jörg; Gertz, Hermann-Josef; Hesse, Swen; Schönknecht, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: (−)-[ 18 F]Flubatine is a PET tracer with high affinity and selectivity for the nicotinic acetylcholine α 4 β 2 receptor subtype. A clinical trial assessing the availability of this subtype of nAChRs was performed. From a total participant number of 21 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and 20 healthy controls (HCs), the following parameters were determined: plasma protein binding, metabolism and activity distribution between plasma and whole blood. Methods: Plasma protein binding and fraction of unchanged parent compound were assessed by ultracentrifugation and HPLC, respectively. The distribution of radioactivity (parent compound + metabolites) between plasma and whole blood was determined ex vivo at different time-points after injection by gamma counting after separation of whole blood by centrifugation into the cellular and non-cellular components. In additional experiments in vitro, tracer distribution between these blood components was assessed for up to 90 min. Results: A fraction of 15% ± 2% of (−)-[ 18 F]Flubatine was found to be bound to plasma proteins. Metabolic degradation of (−)-[ 18 F]Flubatine was very low, resulting in almost 90% unchanged parent compound at 90 min p.i. with no significant difference between AD and HC. The radioactivity distribution between plasma and whole blood changed in vivo only slightly over time from 0.82 ± 0.03 at 3 min p.i. to 0.87 ± 0.03 at 270 min p.i. indicating the contribution of only a small amount of metabolites. In vitro studies revealed that (−)-[ 18 F]Flubatine was instantaneously distributed between cellular and non-cellular blood parts. Discussion: (−)-[ 18 F]Flubatine exhibits very favourable characteristics for a PET radiotracer such as slow metabolic degradation and moderate plasma protein binding. Equilibrium of radioactivity distribution between plasma and whole blood is reached instantaneously and remains almost constant over time allowing both convenient sample handling and

  4. Effect of plasma spraying parameter on wear resistance of NiCrBSiCFe plasma coatings on austenitic stainless steel at elevated temperatures at various loads

    Parthasarathi, N.L.; Duraiselvam, Muthukannan; Borah, Utpal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of plasma spraying parameters, especially the stand-off distance. ► Effect of microstructure and applied load on coating in sliding wear. ► The reason for maximum wear rate at 250 °C and the minimum wear at 350 °C were explained. ► The worn debris were characterised by SEM analysis and correlated with wear rate. -- Abstract: The dry sliding wear tests were carried out on AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) plasma coated with NiCrBSiCFe alloy powder under two set of plasma spraying parameters (PSP-1 and PSP-2). EN 8 medium carbon steel was used as a counterface material. The tests were carried out at loads of 20 N and 40 N with a constant sliding velocity of 1 m/s at room temperature (35°), 150 °C, 250 °C and 350 °C. Metallographic characterisation was carried out by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Between the two plasma parameters tested, stand-off distance of 125 mm was found to be more suitable for producing uniform lamellar microstructure with fewer amounts of pores which shows better wear resistance. The wear rate at 250 °C was comparatively more due to the material softening and adhesion by intermolecular bonding. The worn debris collected during sliding at 350 °C turn into oxides which further behaves like a protective and lubricative film eliminating the chances of severe material loss. SEM was used to characterise the worn track and debris to identity the wear mechanism.

  5. V-I curves and plasma parameters in a high density DC glow discharge generated by a current-source

    Granda-Gutierrez, E E; Lopez-Callejas, R; Piedad-Beneitez, A de la; BenItez-Read, J S; Pacheco-Sotelo, J O; Pena-Eguiluz, R; A, R Valencia; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Barocio, S R

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen DC glow discharges, conducted in a cylindrical geometry, have been characterized using a new current-source able to provide 10 -3 - 3 A for the sustainment of the discharge, instead of a conventional voltage-source. The V-I characteristic curves obtained from these discharges were found to fit the general form i(v) = A(p)v k(p) , whereby the plasma itself can be modeled as a voltage-controlled current-source. We conclude that the fitting parameters A and k, which mainly depend on the gas pressure p, are strongly related to the plasma characteristics, so much so that they can indicate the pressure interval in which the maximum plasma density is located, with values in the order of 10 16 m -3 at reduced discharge potential (300-600 V) and low working pressure (10 -1 - 10 1 Pa)

  6. Influence of laser design parameters on the hydrodynamics of microfusion plasmas

    Sanmartin, J. A.; Barrero, A.

    1976-01-01

    The quasi neutral, one dimensional motion generated in a cold, infinite, uniform plasma of density n 0 , by the absorption, In a given plane, of a linear pulse of energy per unit time and area φ - φ 0 t/τ, 0 t o(n 2 0 τ/φ 0 ) 2 /3. Detailed asymptotic results are obtained for both α >1; the general (behaviour of the solution for arbitrary α is discussed. The analysis can be easily extended to the case of a plasma initially occupying a half-space, and throws light on the hydrodynamics of laser fusion plasmas. (Author) 51 refs

  7. The effect of plasma fluctuations on parallel transport parameters in the SOL

    Havlíčková, Eva; Fundameski, W.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.; Wiesen, S.; Horáček, Jan; Seidl, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 415, č. 1 (2011), S471-S474 ISSN 0022-3115. [International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Device/19th./. San Diego, 24.05.2010-28.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2055; GA MŠk 7G09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak * plasma * transport Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.052, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002231151000560X

  8. Influence of laser design parameters on the hydrodynamics of microfusion plasmas

    Sanmartin, J.R.; Barrero, A.

    1976-01-01

    The quasineutral, oned ) 7mensional motion generated in a cold, infinite, uniform plasma of density n 0 , by the absorption, in a given plane, of a linear pulse of energy per unit time and area phi - phi 0 t/tau, 0 0 2 tau/phi 0 ) 2 /3. )etailed asymptotic results are obtained for both α > 1; the general behaviour of the solution for arbitrary α is discused. The analysis can be easily extended to the case of a plasma initially occuping a half-space, and throws light on the hydrodynamics of laser fusion plasmas. Approximate results existing in the literature for constant irradiation (phi) of a plasma are recovered under appropiate limiting processes. (author). )] [es

  9. Plasma parameters effects on the properties, aging and stability behaviors of allylamine plasma coated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) films

    Aziz, Gaelle, E-mail: gaelle.aziz@ugent.be; Thukkaram, Monica; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Medium to atmospheric pressure DBD is used to deposit amino rich films. • Process parameters affect the films’ surface chemical and physical properties. • High deposition rates can be reached by varying the power and/or monomer flow rate. • High amino selectivity (NH{sub 2}/N in %) is obtained at low powers and high monomer concentration. • Aging and stability behaviors of the deposited coatings can be controlled by carefully choosing the plasma parameters. - Abstract: In this work, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated at medium to atmospheric pressure has been used for the deposition of thin polyallylamine (PAA) films on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) substrates. The effect of treatment time (1–5 min), discharge power (5.7–24.0 W), monomer concentration (1–2 g/h) and pressure (10–100 kPa) on the films properties, aging and stability behaviors have been investigated. The used characterization techniques are X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle and optical reflectance spectroscopy. In this paper, it is shown that plasma treatment time does not affect the coatings chemistry; whereas plasma power, monomer concentration and pressure control the coatings properties. It is also shown that the deposition rate of the deposited films changes with varying W/FM values. At low W/FM values, high deposition rates of up to 2 nm/s are observed. Plasma treatments were also characterized by their amino efficiency ([NH{sub 2}]/[C] in %) and amino selectivity ([NH{sub 2}]/[N] in %). Depending on the used parameters, these varied between 12.3% and 20% and between 71.2% and 91.1%, respectively. For the aging study, coatings that preserved most of their hydrophilicity were obtained at power ≤11.3 W, monomer concentration ≥1.5 g/h and pressure ≥50 kPa. For the stability study, coatings that showed the highest [N] (%) and lowest percentage of thickness decrease were obtained at ≤2 min, 24.0 W, 1 g/h and

  10. Streamer-induced emission and spectrometric determination of basic plasma parameters

    Šimek, Milan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, suppl.C (2004), C778-C783 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /21./. Praha, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1043403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : optical diagnostics * discharge * streamer Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  11. Effect of substrate and cathode parameters on the properties of suspension plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Waldbillig, D.; Tang, Z.; Burgess, A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, O. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An axial injection suspension plasma spray system has been used to produce layers of fully stabilized yttriastabilized zirconia (YSZ) that could be used as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolytes. Suspension plasma spraying is a promising technique for the rapid production of coatings with fine microstructures and controlled porosity without requiring a post-deposition heat treatment. This new manufacturing technique to produce SOFC active layers requires the build up of a number of different plasma sprayed SOFC functional layers (cathode, electrolyte and anode) sequentially on top of each other. To understand the influence of the substrate and previouslydeposited coating layers on subsequent coating layer properties, YSZ layers were deposited on top of plasma sprayed composite lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM)/YSZ cathode layers that were first deposited on porous ferritic stainless steel substrates. Three layer half cells consisting of the porous steel substrate, composite cathode, and suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layer were then characterized. A systematic study was performed in order to investigate the effect of parameters such as substrate and cathode layer roughness, substrate surface pore size, and cathode microstructure and thickness on electrolyte deposition efficiency, cathode and electrolyte permeability, and layer microstructure. (orig.)

  12. GPS IPW as a Meteorological Parameter and Climate Global Change Indicator

    Kruczyk, M.; Liwosz, T.

    2011-12-01

    Paper focuses on comprehensive investigation of the GPS derived IPW (Integrated Precipitable Water, also IWV) as a geophysical tool. GPS meteorology is now widely acknowledged indirect method of atmosphere sensing. First we demonstrate GPS IPW quality. Most thorough inter-technique comparisons of directly measured IPW are attainable only for some observatories (note modest percentage of GPS stations equipped with meteorological devices). Nonetheless we have managed to compare IPW series derived from GPS tropospheric solutions (ZTD mostly from IGS and EPN solutions) and some independent techniques. IPW values from meteorological sources we used are: radiosoundings, sun photometer and input fields of numerical weather prediction model. We can treat operational NWP models as meteorological database within which we can calculate IWV for all GPS stations independently from network of direct measurements (COSMO-LM model maintained by Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management was tried). Sunphotometer (CIMEL-318, Central Geophysical Observatory IGF PAS, Belsk, Poland) data seems the most genuine source - so we decided for direct collocation of GPS measurements and sunphotometer placing permanent GPS receiver on the roof of Belsk Observatory. Next we analyse IPW as geophysical parameter: IPW demonstrates some physical effects evoked by station location (height and series correlation coefficient as a function of distance) and weather patterns like dominant wind directions (in case of neighbouring stations). Deficiency of surface humidity data to model IPW is presented for different climates. This inadequacy and poor humidity data representation in NWP model extremely encourages investigating information exchange potential between Numerical Model and GPS network. The second and most important aspect of this study concerns long series of IPW (daily averaged) which can serve as climatological information indicator (water vapour role in climate system is hard to

  13. Plasma parameters, fluctuations and kinetics in a magnetic field line reconnection experiment

    Wild, N.C. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The processes associated with reconnecting magnetic field lines have been studied in a large experimental laboratory plasma. Detailed time- and space-resolved probe measurements of the plasma density, temperature, potential and electric and magnetic fields are discussed. Plasma currents are seen to modify the vacuum magnetic field topology. A flat neutral sheet develops along the separatrix where magnetic flux is transferred from regions of private to common flux. Forced tearing and magnetic island formation are also observed. Rapid electron heating, density and temperature nonuniformities and plasma potential gradients are all observed. The pressure is found to peak at the two edges of the neutral sheet. The dissipation E.J is determined and analyzed in terms of particle heating and fluid acceleration. A consistent, detailed picture of the energy flow via Poynting's theorem is also described. Significant temporal fluctuations in the magnetic fields and electron velocity distribution are measured and seen to give rise to anomalously high values for the plasma resistivity, the ion viscosity and the cross-field thermal conductivity. Electron temperature fluctuations, double layers associated with partial current disruptions, and whistler wave magnetic turbulence have all been identified and studied during the course of the reconnection event

  14. Dependence of polar effect on parameters of coaxial plasma-erosive switches

    Bystritskij, V.M.; Ivanov, I.B.; Krasik, Ya.E.; Ryzhakin, N.N.; Sinebryukhov, A.A.; Tolmacheva, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations and numerical simulation of the polar effect in a coaxial plasma-erosive switch (PES) established in a circuit of a strong-current nanosecond accelerator are presented. PES characteristics (energy losses, impedance, rate of its increase, etc.) are investigated depending on mutual direction of accelerator current and plasma flow as well as on the cathode radius in the PES region. It is experimentally shown that the magnetic fields near the cathode determined by this electrode radius influences mainly on PES characteristics. Mutual direction of accelerator current and plasma flow is the second significance factor influencing on PES characteristics. The optimal mode of PES operation is realized when providing the less with respect to the positive electrode, cathode radius and coinciding in direction accelerator current and plasma flow. Numerical simulation of dynamic processes in coaxial PES for different ratios of cathode and anode radii and mutual directions of accelerator current and plasma flow gives qualitative agreement with the experimental results

  15. A global plasma model for reactive deposition of compound films by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering discharges

    Zheng, B. C.; Wu, Z. L.; Wu, B.; Li, Y. G.; Lei, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    A spatially averaged, time-dependent global plasma model has been developed to describe the reactive deposition of a TiAlSiN thin film by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) discharges in Ar/N2 mixture gas, based on the particle balance and the energy balance in the ionization region, and considering the formation and erosion of the compound at the target surface. The modeling results show that, with increasing the N2 partial pressure from 0% to 40% at a constant working pressure of 0.3 Pa, the electron temperature during the strongly ionized period increases from 4 to 7 eV and the effective power transfer coefficient, which represents the power fraction that effectively heats the electrons and maintains the discharge, increases from about 4% to 7%; with increasing the working pressure from 0.1 to 0.7 Pa at a constant N2 partial pressure of 25%, the electron temperature decreases from 10 to 4 eV and the effective power transfer coefficient decreases from 8% to 5%. Using the modeled plasma parameters to evaluate the kinetic energy of arriving ions, the ion-to-neutral flux ratio of deposited species, and the substrate heating, the variations of process parameters that increase these values lead to an enhanced adatom mobility at the target surface and an increased input energy to the substrate, corresponding to the experimental observation of surface roughness reduction, the microstructure transition from the columnar structure to the dense featureless structure, and the enhancement of phase separation. At higher N2 partial pressure or lower working pressure, the modeling results demonstrate an increase in electron temperature, which shifts the discharge balance of Ti species from Ti+ to Ti2+ and results in a higher return fraction of Ti species, corresponding to the higher Al/Ti ratio of deposited films at these conditions. The modeling results are well correlated with the experimental observation of the composition variation and the microstructure

  16. L-carnitine plasma levels in dogs and cats. A diagnostic parameter?

    Fischer, J.

    1993-04-01

    The relation between levels of carnitine in plasma and lesions of organs should be demonstrated. 52 dogs and 58 cats examined in veterinary clinics for several reasons and routinely screened for blood chemistry also were analysed for free plasma carnitine by a radiocarbon method. Increased carnitine levels were observed in both species in case of heart, liver and kidney disorders. Additionally the influence of food intake on carnitine levels in dogs was studied. Postprandial changes were insignificant. Because of lack of information about carnitine levels in cats and changes with age plasma carnitine was determined in cats and kittens. The range of normal values was 8.2 to 24.2 μmol/l without any significance of age

  17. Main error sources in sorbtion technique and plasma electron component parameter definition by continuous X radiation

    Gavrilov, V.V.; Torokhova, N.V.; Fasakhov, I.K.

    1986-01-01

    Recombination radiation effect on the relation of signals behind the filters depending on the plasma temperature(sorption method for T determination) is demonstrated. This factor produces the main effect on the method accuracy (100-400%), the other factors analysed in combination make an error in temperature at the level of 50%. Method of plasma electron distribution function reconstruction by continuous x-radiation spectrum, based on the correctness (under certain limitations for the required function) of the equation, linking the electron distribution function with bremmsstrahlung spectral density is presented

  18. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the expanding laser ablation plume of silver

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen; Hansen, T.N.

    2002-01-01

    The angular and radial variation of the ion density and electron temperature in the plasma plume produced by laser ablation of silver at fluences of 0.8-1.3 J cm(-2) at 355 nm have been studied using a time-resolving Langmuir probe. The angular dependence of the electron temperature...... and the magnitude of the ion flux, at the time when the ion flux is maximised, agree with the predictions of the self-similar isentropic model of the plasma expansion by Anisimov et al. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Plasma surrounding the global heliosphere at large distances controlled by the solar cycle

    Dialynas, Konstantinos; Krimigis, Stamatios; Mitchell, Donald; Decker, Robert; Roelof, Edmond

    2016-04-01

    The past decade can be characterized by a series of key, groundbreaking remote energetic neutral atom (ENA) images (INCA, IBEX) and in-situ ion (Voyager 1 & 2) observations concerning the characteristics and interactions of the heliosphere with the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM). Voyagers 1 and 2 (V1, V2) discovered the reservoir of ions and electrons that constitute the heliosheath (HS) after crossing the termination shock (TS) 35deg north and 32deg south of the ecliptic plane at 94 and 84 astronomical units (1 AU= 1.5 x108 km), respectively. The in situ measurements by each Voyager were placed in a global context by remote sensing images using ENA obtained with the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) onboard Cassini orbiting Saturn. The ENA images contain a 5.2-55 keV hydrogen (H) ENA region (Belt) that loops through the celestial sphere and contributes to balancing the pressure of the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). The success of any future mission with dedicated ENA detectors (e.g. the IMAP mission), highly depends on the antecedent understanding of the details of the plasma processes in the Heliosphere as revealed by remote sensing of the plasma environment characteristics. Therefore, we address here one of the remaining and most important questions: "Where do the 5-55 keV ENAs that INCA measures come from?". We analyzed INCA all-sky maps from 2003 to 2015 and compare the solar cycle (SC) variation of the ENAs in both the nose (upstream) and anti-nose (downstream) directions with the intensities of > 30 keV ions (source of ENA through charge exchange-CE with H) measured in-situ by V1 and V2, in overlapping energy bands ~30-55 keV. ENA intensities decrease during the declining phase of SC23 by ~x3 from 2003 to 2011 but recover through 2014 (SC24); similarly, V1 and V2 ion intensities also decrease and then recover through 2014. The similarity of time profiles of remotely sensed ENA and locally measured ions are consistent with (a) ENA originating in the HS

  20. Error estimation and global fitting in transverse-relaxation dispersion experiments to determine chemical-exchange parameters

    Ishima, Rieko; Torchia, Dennis A.

    2005-01-01

    Off-resonance effects can introduce significant systematic errors in R 2 measurements in constant-time Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation dispersion experiments. For an off-resonance chemical shift of 500 Hz, 15 N relaxation dispersion profiles obtained from experiment and computer simulation indicated a systematic error of ca. 3%. This error is three- to five-fold larger than the random error in R 2 caused by noise. Good estimates of total R 2 uncertainty are critical in order to obtain accurate estimates in optimized chemical exchange parameters and their uncertainties derived from χ 2 minimization of a target function. Here, we present a simple empirical approach that provides a good estimate of the total error (systematic + random) in 15 N R 2 values measured for the HIV protease. The advantage of this empirical error estimate is that it is applicable even when some of the factors that contribute to the off-resonance error are not known. These errors are incorporated into a χ 2 minimization protocol, in which the Carver-Richards equation is used fit the observed R 2 dispersion profiles, that yields optimized chemical exchange parameters and their confidence limits. Optimized parameters are also derived, using the same protein sample and data-fitting protocol, from 1 H R 2 measurements in which systematic errors are negligible. Although 1 H and 15 N relaxation profiles of individual residues were well fit, the optimized exchange parameters had large uncertainties (confidence limits). In contrast, when a single pair of exchange parameters (the exchange lifetime, τ ex , and the fractional population, p a ), were constrained to globally fit all R 2 profiles for residues in the dimer interface of the protein, confidence limits were less than 8% for all optimized exchange parameters. In addition, F-tests showed that quality of the fits obtained using τ ex , p a as global parameters were not improved when these parameters were free to fit the R

  1. Deterministic global optimization algorithm based on outer approximation for the parameter estimation of nonlinear dynamic biological systems.

    Miró, Anton; Pozo, Carlos; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo; Egea, Jose A; Jiménez, Laureano

    2012-05-10

    The estimation of parameter values for mathematical models of biological systems is an optimization problem that is particularly challenging due to the nonlinearities involved. One major difficulty is the existence of multiple minima in which standard optimization methods may fall during the search. Deterministic global optimization methods overcome this limitation, ensuring convergence to the global optimum within a desired tolerance. Global optimization techniques are usually classified into stochastic and deterministic. The former typically lead to lower CPU times but offer no guarantee of convergence to the global minimum in a finite number of iterations. In contrast, deterministic methods provide solutions of a given quality (i.e., optimality gap), but tend to lead to large computational burdens. This work presents a deterministic outer approximation-based algorithm for the global optimization of dynamic problems arising in the parameter estimation of models of biological systems. Our approach, which offers a theoretical guarantee of convergence to global minimum, is based on reformulating the set of ordinary differential equations into an equivalent set of algebraic equations through the use of orthogonal collocation methods, giving rise to a nonconvex nonlinear programming (NLP) problem. This nonconvex NLP is decomposed into two hierarchical levels: a master mixed-integer linear programming problem (MILP) that provides a rigorous lower bound on the optimal solution, and a reduced-space slave NLP that yields an upper bound. The algorithm iterates between these two levels until a termination criterion is satisfied. The capabilities of our approach were tested in two benchmark problems, in which the performance of our algorithm was compared with that of the commercial global optimization package BARON. The proposed strategy produced near optimal solutions (i.e., within a desired tolerance) in a fraction of the CPU time required by BARON.

  2. Measurement and interpretation of swarm parameters and their application in plasma modelling

    Petrovic, Z Lj; Dujko, S; Maric, D; Malovic, G; Nikitovic, Z; Sasic, O; Jovanovic, J; Stojanovic, V; Radmilovic-Radenovic, M

    2009-01-01

    In this review paper, we discuss the current status of the physics of charged particle swarms, mainly electrons, having plasma modelling in mind. The measurements of the swarm coefficients and the availability of the data are briefly discussed. We try to give a summary of the past ten years and cite the main reviews and databases, which store the majority of the earlier work. The need for reinitiating the swarm experiments and where and how those would be useful is pointed out. We also add some guidance on how to find information on ions and fast neutrals. Most space is devoted to interpretation of transport data, analysis of kinetic phenomena, and accuracy of calculation and proper use of transport data in plasma models. We have tried to show which aspects of kinetic theory developed for swarm physics and which segments of data would be important for further improvement of plasma models. Finally, several examples are given where actual models are mostly based on the physics of swarms and those include Townsend discharges, afterglows, breakdown and some atmospheric phenomena. Finally we stress that, while complex, some of the results from the kinetic theory of swarms and the related phenomenology must be used either to test the plasma models or even to bring in new physics or higher accuracy and reliability to the models. (review article)

  3. Surface temperature: A key parameter to control the propanethiol plasma polymer chemistry

    Thiry, Damien, E-mail: damien.thiry@umons.ac.be; Aparicio, Francisco J. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Laha, Priya; Terryn, Herman [Research Group Electrochemical and Surface Engineering (SURF), Department of Materials and Chemistry (MACH), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Snyders, Rony [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons, Belgium and Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2014-09-01

    In this work, the influence of the substrate temperature (T{sub s}) on the chemical composition of propanethiol plasma polymers was investigated for a given set of plasma conditions. In a first study, a decrease in the atomic sulfur content (at. %S) with the deposition time (t{sub d}) was observed. This behavior is explained by the heating of the growing film during deposition process, limiting the incorporation of stable sulfur-based molecules produced in the plasma. Experiments carried out by controlling the substrate temperature support this hypothesis. On the other hand, an empirical law relating the T{sub s} and the at. %S was established. This allows for the formation of gradient layer presenting a heterogeneous chemical composition along the thickness, as determined by depth profile analysis combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and C{sub 60} ion gun sputtering. The experimental data fit with the one predicted from our empiric description. The whole set of our results provide new insights in the relationship between the substrate temperature and the sulfur content in sulfur-based plasma polymers, essential for future developments.

  4. The effect of plasma fluctuations on parallel transport parameters in the SOL

    Havlíčková, E.; Fundamenski, W.; Naulin, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The effect of plasma fluctuations due to turbulence at the outboard midplane on parallel transport properties is investigated. Time-dependent fluctuating signals at different radial locations are used to study the effect of signal statistics. Further, a computational analysis of parallel transport...... to a comparison of steady-state and time-dependent modelling....

  5. Abatement of global warming gas emissions from semiconductor manufacturing processes by non-thermal plasma-catalyst systems

    Chang, J-S.; Urashima, K. [McMaster Univ., McIARS and Dept. Eng. Phys., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Emission of various hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and greenhouse gases including perfluoro-compounds (PFCs) from semiconductor industries may cause significant impact on human health and the global environment, has attracted much public attention. In this paper, an application of nonthermal plasma-adsorbent system for a removal of PFCs emission from semiconductor process flue gases is experimentally investigated. The non-thermal plasma reactor used is the ferro-electric packed-bed type barrier discharge plasma and adsorbent reactor used is Zeolite bed reactor. The results show that for a simulated semiconductor process flue gas with C{sub 2}F{sub 6} (2000ppm)/ CF{sub 4}(1000ppm)/ N{sub 2}O(1000ppm)/ N{sub 2}/ Air mixture, 54% of C{sub 2}F{sub 6} and 32% of CF{sub 4} were decomposed by the plasma reactor and 100% of C{sub 2}F{sub 6} and 98% of CF{sub 4} were removed by plasma reactor/Zeolite adsorbent hybrid system. For a simulated semiconductor process flue gas with NF{sub 3} (2000ppm)/ SiF{sub 4}(1000ppm)/ N{sub 2}O(200ppm)/ N{sub 2}/ Air mixture, 92% of NF{sub 3} and 32% of SiF{sub 4} were decomposed by the plasma reactor and total (100%) removal of the pollutant gases was achieved by plasma reactor/Zeolite adsorbent hybrid system. (author)

  6. Abatement of global warming gas emissions from semiconductor manufacturing processes by non-thermal plasma-catalyst systems

    Chang, J-S.; Urashima, K.

    2009-01-01

    Emission of various hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and greenhouse gases including perfluoro-compounds (PFCs) from semiconductor industries may cause significant impact on human health and the global environment, has attracted much public attention. In this paper, an application of nonthermal plasma-adsorbent system for a removal of PFCs emission from semiconductor process flue gases is experimentally investigated. The non-thermal plasma reactor used is the ferro-electric packed-bed type barrier discharge plasma and adsorbent reactor used is Zeolite bed reactor. The results show that for a simulated semiconductor process flue gas with C 2 F 6 (2000ppm)/ CF 4 (1000ppm)/ N 2 O(1000ppm)/ N 2 / Air mixture, 54% of C 2 F 6 and 32% of CF 4 were decomposed by the plasma reactor and 100% of C 2 F 6 and 98% of CF 4 were removed by plasma reactor/Zeolite adsorbent hybrid system. For a simulated semiconductor process flue gas with NF 3 (2000ppm)/ SiF 4 (1000ppm)/ N 2 O(200ppm)/ N 2 / Air mixture, 92% of NF 3 and 32% of SiF 4 were decomposed by the plasma reactor and total (100%) removal of the pollutant gases was achieved by plasma reactor/Zeolite adsorbent hybrid system. (author)

  7. Association of Irisin Plasma Levels with Anthropometric Parameters in Children with Underweight, Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obesity

    Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlations between irisin levels, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements have been extensively described in adults with considerable controversy, but little evidence about these relationships has been found in children. The objective of this study is to correlate the plasma levels of irisin in underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese children with anthropometric parameters and physical activity levels. A cross-sample of 40 children was divided into the following groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI percentile. The correlations of plasma irisin levels with physical activity, anthropometric, and metabolic measurements were determined. Plasma irisin levels (ng/mL were lower for the underweight group (164.2 ± 5.95 than for the normal weight and obese groups (182.8 ± 5.58; p<0.05. Irisin levels correlated positively with BMI percentile (0.387, waist circumference (0.373, and fat-free mass (0.353; p<0.05, but not with body muscle mass (−0.027. After a multiple linear regression analysis, only BMI percentile (0.564; p<0.008 showed a positive correlation with irisin. Our results indicated no association with metabolic parameters. A negative correlation with physical activity was observed. Interrelationships among body components might influence irisin levels in children.

  8. Influence of the low-frequency source parameters on the plasma characteristics in a dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma reactor: Two dimensional simulations

    Xiang Xu; Hao Ge; Shuai Wang; Zhongling Dai; Younian Wang; Aimin Zhu

    2009-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) fluid model is presented to study the discharge of argon in a dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) reactor. We are interested in the influence of low-frequency (LF) source parameters such as applied voltage amplitudes and low frequencies on the plasma characteristics. In this paper, the high frequency is set to 60 MHz with voltage 50 V. The simulations were carried out for low frequencies of 1, 2 and 6 MHz with LF voltage 100 V, and for LF voltages of 60, 90 and 120 V with low frequency 2 MHz. The results of 2D distributions of electric field and ion density, the ion flux impinging on the substrate and the ion energy on the powered electrode are shown. As the low frequency increases, two sources become from uncoupling to coupling, When two sources are uncoupling, the increase in LF has little impact on the plasma characteristics, but when two sources are coupling, the increase in LF decreases the uniformities of ion density and ion flux noticeably. It is also found that with the increase in LF voltage, the uniformities in the radial direction of ion density distribution and ion flux at the powered electrode decreases significantly, and the energy of ions bombarding on the powered electrode increases significantly.

  9. Global sensitivity analysis of the joint kinematics during gait to the parameters of a lower limb multi-body model.

    El Habachi, Aimad; Moissenet, Florent; Duprey, Sonia; Cheze, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël

    2015-07-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a typical part of biomechanical models evaluation. For lower limb multi-body models, sensitivity analyses have been mainly performed on musculoskeletal parameters, more rarely on the parameters of the joint models. This study deals with a global sensitivity analysis achieved on a lower limb multi-body model that introduces anatomical constraints at the ankle, tibiofemoral, and patellofemoral joints. The aim of the study was to take into account the uncertainty of parameters (e.g. 2.5 cm on the positions of the skin markers embedded in the segments, 5° on the orientation of hinge axis, 2.5 mm on the origin and insertion of ligaments) using statistical distributions and propagate it through a multi-body optimisation method used for the computation of joint kinematics from skin markers during gait. This will allow us to identify the most influential parameters on the minimum of the objective function of the multi-body optimisation (i.e. the sum of the squared distances between measured and model-determined skin marker positions) and on the joint angles and displacements. To quantify this influence, a Fourier-based algorithm of global sensitivity analysis coupled with a Latin hypercube sampling is used. This sensitivity analysis shows that some parameters of the motor constraints, that is to say the distances between measured and model-determined skin marker positions, and the kinematic constraints are highly influencing the joint kinematics obtained from the lower limb multi-body model, for example, positions of the skin markers embedded in the shank and pelvis, parameters of the patellofemoral hinge axis, and parameters of the ankle and tibiofemoral ligaments. The resulting standard deviations on the joint angles and displacements reach 36° and 12 mm. Therefore, personalisation, customisation or identification of these most sensitive parameters of the lower limb multi-body models may be considered as essential.

  10. Lupin seeds lower plasma lipid concentrations and normalize antioxidant parameters in rats

    Osman, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test bitter and sweet lupin seeds for lipid-lowering and for their antioxidative activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. The levels of plasma lipid, malondialdehyde (MDA and whole blood reduced glutathione (GSH, as well as the activities of transaminases (ALT and AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in plasma, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in erythrocytes and plasma glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and catalase (CAT were examined. A hypercholesterolemia-induced diet manifested in the elevation of total lipids (TL, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, LDL-C and MDA levels, ALT, AST, LDH activities and the depletion of GSH and enzymic antioxidants. The supplementation of a hypercholesterolemia-induced diet with bitter and sweet lupin seeds significantly lowered the plasma levels of TL, TC, TG and LDL-C. ALT, AST and LDH activities slightly decreased in treated groups compared with the hypercholesterolemic group (HC. Furthermore, the content of GSH significantly increased while MDA significantly decreased in treated groups compared with the HC group. In addition, the bitter lupin seed group improved enzymic antioxidants compared with the HC group. In general, the results indicated that the bitter lupin seed supplements are better than those containing sweet lupin seeds. These results suggested that the hypocholesterolemic effect of bitter and sweet lupin seed supplements might be due to their abilities to lower the plasma cholesterol level as well as to slow down the lipid peroxidation process and to enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Este estudio fue diseñado para evaluar semillas de altramuces dulces y amargas como agentes que bajan los lípidos y estudiar su efecto en la actividad antioxidante en ratas hipercolesterolémicas. El nivel de lípidos en plasma, malondialdehido (MDA y glutatión reducido (GSH, así como la actividad transaminasa (ALT y AST

  11. Solar-like oscillations in red giants observed with Kepler: comparison of global oscillation parameters from different methods

    Hekker, Saskia; Elsworth, Yvonne; De Ridder, Joris

    2011-01-01

    investigate the differences in results for global oscillation parameters of G and K red-giant stars due to different methods and definitions. We also investigate uncertainties originating from the stochastic nature of the oscillations. Methods: For this investigation we use Kepler data obtained during...... obtain results for the frequency of maximum oscillation power (ν_max) and the mean large separation () from different methods for over one thousand red-giant stars. The results for these parameters agree within a few percent and seem therefore robust to the different analysis methods and definitions...

  12. Impact of elevated plasma serotonin on global gene expression of murine megakaryocytes.

    Charles P Mercado

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT is a biogenic amine that also acts as a mitogen and a developmental signal early in rodent embryogenesis. Genetic and pharmacological disruption of 5-HT signaling causes various diseases and disorders via mediating central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and serious abnormalities on a growing embryo. Today, neither the effective modulators on 5-HT signaling pathways nor the genes affected by 5-HT signal are well known yet.In an attempt to identify the genes altered by 5-HT signaling pathways, we analyzed the global gene expression via the Illumina array platform using the mouse WG-6 v2.0 Expression BeadChip containing 45,281 probe sets representing 30,854 genes in megakaryocytes isolated from mice infused with 5-HT or saline. We identified 723 differentially expressed genes of which 706 were induced and 17 were repressed by elevated plasma 5-HT.Hierarchical gene clustering analysis was utilized to represent relations between groups and clusters. Using gene ontology mining tools and canonical pathway analyses, we identified multiple biological pathways that are regulated by 5-HT: (i cytoskeletal remodeling, (ii G-protein signaling, (iii vesicular transport, and (iv apoptosis and survival. Our data encompass the first extensive genome-wide based profiling in the progenitors of platelets in response to 5-HT elevation in vivo.

  13. Use of a hybrid code for global-scale plasma simulation

    Swift, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a demonstration of the use of a hybrid code to model the Earth's magnetosphere on a global scale. The typical hybrid code calculates the interaction of fully kinetic ions and a massless electron fluid with the magnetic field. This code also includes a fluid ion component to approximate the cold ionospheric plasma that spatially overlaps with the discrete particle component. Other innovative features of the code include a numerically generated curvilinear coordinate system and subcycling of the magnetic field update to the particle push. These innovations allow the code to accommodate disparate time and distance scales. The demonstration is a simulation of the noon meridian plane of the magnetosphere. The code exhibits the formation of fast and slow-mode shocks and tearing reconnection at the magnetopause. New results include particle acceleration in the cusp and nearly field aligned currents linking the cusp and polar ionosphere. The paper also describes a density depletion instability and measures to avoid it. 27 refs., 4 figs

  14. Investigation of parameters of the working substance - low temperature plasma in the ionization resonator chamber of the RF reactive engine

    Vdovin, V.S.; Zajtzev, B.V.; Kobetz, A.F.; Bomko, V.A.; Rashkovan, V.M.; Bazyma, L.A.; Belokon, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is the extension of investigations of the RF engine designed for orientation and stabilization of the spacecrafts orbit, and it is undertaken for measuring of plasma parameters of RF discharge in the ionization resonator chamber. The experiments were performed at the frequency of 80 MHz on the model engine, in which a length of coaxial line with shortening capacities at the ends was used as the ionization resonator chamber. As the result of the experiments, conditions of the RF discharge ignition in the resonator chamber are studied; dependencies of plasma density and temperature versus applied power and working body pressure are obtained for various gases. The measurements of the thrust were performed at the special-purpose test bench

  15. Influence of alpha-particles on parameters of plasma confined in open traps

    Chebotaev, P.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The numerical calculations of the longitudinal motion in multi-mirror reactor have shown that the energy contribution of α-particles has substantial influence on the gain factor (the given off thermonuclear energy/ the initial imparted energy) in the temperature region 5-7 keV. The numerical technique has been developed that takes into account the radial distribution of alpha particles caused by their drag on electrons. This effect is substantial for ρ α /R ≥ 1/2 (where ρ α is alpha particles gyro radius, R is plasma radius), e.g. for Gas-Dinamic trap. In a Tandem-Mirror reactor some part of fusion alpha particles have the probability to slow down to the plasma energy, that can lead to the 'poisoning' of the reactor by the thermonuclear reaction products. The fusion alpha particles can have a strong effect on accumulation of impurities with z ≤ 15 and thermal alpha particles in TMR. (orig.)

  16. Plasma parameters in the channel of a long leader in air

    Aleksandrov, N.L.; Konchakov, A. M.; Bazelyan, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    The time evolution of the electric field in the leader channel and other characteristics of the leader plasma in long air gaps are simulated. Calculations are performed in the one-dimensional time-dependent model with allowance for the time-varying energy deposition in the channel, the channel expansion, and the nonequilibrium ionization kinetics in the leader plasma. The calculations show that, at a gas temperature of 4500-6000 K, associative ionization becomes a dominant ionization mechanism in the leader channel; as a result, the electric field decreases to 100-200 V/cm in 10 -4 -10 -3 s under the conditions typical of the leader discharge. The calculated electric field agrees well with the data from the experimental modeling of long leaders by a spark discharge in short gaps

  17. Recent angina pectoris: plasma lipoprotein atherogenic parameters and coronary angiographic data

    Kuznetsova, G.V.; Shcherbakova, I.A.; Gratsianskij, N.A.; Perova, N.V.; Nikitina, N.A.; Nechaev, A.S.; Ozerova, I.N.; Zholus, N.N.

    1986-01-01

    Coronary angiography and the assessment of blood lipoproteins were carried out in 43 patients with recent (not more than three months old) angina. A rise in cholesterol above 270 mg/dl and/or triglycerids bove 200 mg/dl was demonstrated in 19. The level of α-cholesterol was below 35 mg/dl in 11 of 24 normolipidemic patients. The apoprotein B/apoprotein AI ratio was above 1.0 in 7 of 13 patients with normal cholesterol levels. Plasma phospholipid composition was disturbed in 4 of 6 patients with normal apoprotein B/apoprotein AI rations. Therefore atherogenic changes in plasma lipoprotein composition were found in 95% of patients with recent angina

  18. Plasma parameters and electromagnetic forces induced by the magneto hydro dynamic interaction in a hypersonic argon flow experiment

    Cristofolini, Andrea; Neretti, Gabriele; Borghi, Carlo A.

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes an experimental analysis on the magneto hydro dynamic (MHD) interaction induced by a magnetic test body immersed into a hypersonic argon flow. The characteristic plasma parameters are measured. They are related to the voltages arising in the Hall direction and to the variation of the fluid dynamic properties induced by the interaction. The tests have been performed in a hypersonic wind tunnel at Mach 6 and Mach 15. The plasma parameters are measured in the stagnation region in front of the nozzle of the wind tunnel and in the free stream region at the nozzle exit. The test body has a conical shape with the cone axis in the gas flow direction and the cone vertex against the flow. It is placed at the nozzle exit and is equipped with three permanent magnets. In the configuration adopted, the Faraday current flows in a closed loop completely immersed into the plasma of the shock layer. The electric field and the pressure variation due to MHD interaction have been measured on the test body walls. Microwave adsorption measurements have been used for the determination of the electron number density and the electron collision frequency. Continuum recombination radiation and line radiation emissions have been detected. The electron temperature has been determined by means of the spectroscopic data by using different methods. The electron number density has been also determined by means of the Stark broadening of H α and the H β lines. Optical imaging has been utilized to visualize the pattern of the electric current distribution in the shock layer around the test body. The experiments show a considerable effect of the electromagnetic forces produced by the MHD interaction acting on the plasma flow around the test body. A comparison of the experimental data with simulation results shows a good agreement.

  19. Investigation of the time evolution of plasma parameters in a pulsed magnetron discharge

    Straňák, V.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Adámek, P.; Blažek, J.; Tichý, M.; Špatenka, P.; Hippler, R.; Wrehde, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, - (2006), s. 1364-1370 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2242; GA ČR GA202/06/0776 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) SFB/TR 24 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : pulsed magnetron * time resolved measurements * Langmuir probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  20. Parameters of the plasma of a dc pulsating discharge in a supersonic air flow

    Shibkov, V. M., E-mail: shibkov@phys.msu.ru; Shibkova, L. V.; Logunov, A. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    A dc discharge in a cold (T = 200 K) supersonic air flow at a static pressure of 200–400 Torr was studied experimentally. The excited unsteady pulsating discharge has the form of a thin plasma channel with a diameter of ≤1 mm, stretched downstream the flow. Depending on the discharge current, the pulsation frequency varies from 800 to 1600 Hz and the electron temperature varies from 8000 to 15000 K.

  1. Monitoring of plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity and hematological parameters in pesticide sprayers

    Rastogi, S. K.; Singh, Vipul K.; Kesavachandran, C.; Jyoti,; Siddiqui, M. K. J.; Mathur, N.; Bharti, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the health impact of spraying organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), 34 male sprayers in the mango belt of Malihabad, a small town located 27 km from Lucknow in North India was selected. Plasma butyryl cholinesterase (PBChE) and complete blood count were assessed among sprayers after spraying pesticides and the findings obtained were compared with those determined in a reference group ( n = 18). The most common symptoms observed were burning sensation in the eyes (8.82%), it...

  2. Plasma analysis of different TiN PVD processes at various process parameters

    Strauss, G.N.; Schlichtherle, S.; Pulker, H.K.; Meyer, M.; Jehn, H.; Balzer, M.; Misiano, C.; Silipo, V.

    2002-01-01

    TiN coatings of some microns in thickness were deposited by different reactive plasma deposition technologies (Magnetron Sputtering Magnetically Assisted, Arc Source Ion Plating, Sputter Ion Plating Plasma Assisted) on various metal parts. The experiments were carried out in specially designed plants under variable vacuum and plasma conditions. The plasma properties of the different processes were investigated by mass spectrometry and the energy distribution of process relevant particles was additionally determined. The aim of this work was to find proper processes and conditions for a reliable low cost deposition of hard coatings at relatively high gas pressures. It was found that the magnetically forced and medium frequency pulsed biased dc magnetron sputter deposition variants, operating in the 10 -3 mbar gas pressure range, showed a relatively large amount of single and double charged positive ions with kinetic energies up to 55 and 95 eV, as consequence of the applied modifications. Cathodic arc deposition, in the same gas pressure range of 10 - 3 mbar, showed a very high number of such ions with energies up to more than 100 eV, depending on the value of the applied arc current. However, at constant distance between source and substrate the higher gas pressure increases also the number of energy reducing collisions of the coating-material vapour-species with the gas molecules. The arc source process, even when performed at high gas pressures of about 10 -1 mbar, showed a remarkable amount of ions with energies up to 75 eV resulting in high performance TiN films of quite proper 3D homogeneity. The arc source technique is able to increase film thickness uniformity up to 3 times with respect to the traditional coatings if the samples are mounted in a way that they do not influence each other. (nevyjel)

  3. Magnetosheath plasma stability and ULF wave occurrence as a function of location in the magnetosheath and upstream bow shock parameters

    Soucek, Jan; Escoubet, C. Philippe; Grison, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    We present the results of a statistical study of the distribution of mirror and Alfvén-ion cyclotron (AIC) waves in the magnetosheath together with plasma parameters important for the stability of ULF waves, specifically ion temperature anisotropy and ion beta. Magnetosheath crossings registered by Cluster spacecraft over the course of 2 years served as a basis for the statistics. For each observation we used bow shock, magnetopause, and magnetosheath flow models to identify the relative position of the spacecraft with respect to magnetosheath boundaries and local properties of the upstream shock crossing. A strong dependence of both plasma parameters and mirror/AIC wave occurrence on upstream ΘBn and MA is identified. We analyzed a joint dependence of the same parameters on ΘBn and fractional distance between shock and magnetopause, zenith angle, and length of the flow line. Finally, the occurrence of mirror and AIC modes was compared against the respective instability thresholds. We noted that AIC waves occurred nearly exclusively under mirror stable conditions. This is interpreted in terms of different characters of nonlinear saturation of the two modes.

  4. Determination of Stark parameters by cross-calibration in a multi-element laser-induced plasma

    Liu, Hao; Truscott, Benjamin S.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.

    2016-05-01

    We illustrate a Stark broadening analysis of the electron density Ne and temperature Te in a laser-induced plasma (LIP), using a model free of assumptions regarding local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The method relies on Stark parameters determined also without assuming LTE, which are often unknown and unavailable in the literature. Here, we demonstrate that the necessary values can be obtained in situ by cross-calibration between the spectral lines of different charge states, and even different elements, given determinations of Ne and Te based on appropriate parameters for at least one observed transition. This approach enables essentially free choice between species on which to base the analysis, extending the range over which these properties can be measured and giving improved access to low-density plasmas out of LTE. Because of the availability of suitable tabulated values for several charge states of both Si and C, the example of a SiC LIP is taken to illustrate the consistency and accuracy of the procedure. The cross-calibrated Stark parameters are at least as reliable as values obtained by other means, offering a straightforward route to extending the literature in this area.

  5. Bayesian uncertainty analysis for complex systems biology models: emulation, global parameter searches and evaluation of gene functions.

    Vernon, Ian; Liu, Junli; Goldstein, Michael; Rowe, James; Topping, Jen; Lindsey, Keith

    2018-01-02

    Many mathematical models have now been employed across every area of systems biology. These models increasingly involve large numbers of unknown parameters, have complex structure which can result in substantial evaluation time relative to the needs of the analysis, and need to be compared to observed data of various forms. The correct analysis of such models usually requires a global parameter search, over a high dimensional parameter space, that incorporates and respects the most important sources of uncertainty. This can be an extremely difficult task, but it is essential for any meaningful inference or prediction to be made about any biological system. It hence represents a fundamental challenge for the whole of systems biology. Bayesian statistical methodology for the uncertainty analysis of complex models is introduced, which is designed to address the high dimensional global parameter search problem. Bayesian emulators that mimic the systems biology model but which are extremely fast to evaluate are embeded within an iterative history match: an efficient method to search high dimensional spaces within a more formal statistical setting, while incorporating major sources of uncertainty. The approach is demonstrated via application to a model of hormonal crosstalk in Arabidopsis root development, which has 32 rate parameters, for which we identify the sets of rate parameter values that lead to acceptable matches between model output and observed trend data. The multiple insights into the model's structure that this analysis provides are discussed. The methodology is applied to a second related model, and the biological consequences of the resulting comparison, including the evaluation of gene functions, are described. Bayesian uncertainty analysis for complex models using both emulators and history matching is shown to be a powerful technique that can greatly aid the study of a large class of systems biology models. It both provides insight into model behaviour

  6. Profiles of plasma parameters and density of negative hydrogen ions by laser detachment measurements in RF-driven ion sources

    Christ-Koch, Sina

    2007-01-01

    This work shows the application of the Laserdetachment method for spatially resolved measurements of negative Hydrogen/Deuterium ion density. It was applied on a high power low pressure RF-driven ion source. The Laser detachment method is based on the measurement of electron currents on a positively biased Langmuir probe before and during/after a laser pulse. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons can be derived from the ratio of currents to the probe. The absolute density of negative ions can be obtained when the electron density is measured with the standard Langmuir probe setup. Measurements with the Langmuir probe additionally yield information about the floating and plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density of positive ions. The Laser detachment setup had to be adapted to the special conditions of the RF-driven source. In particular the existence of RF fields (1 MHz), high source potential (-20 kV), magnetic fields (∝ 7 mT) and caesium inside the source had to be considered. The density of negative ions could be identified in the range of n(H - )=1.10 17 1/m 3 , which is in the same order of magnitude as the electron density. Only the application of the Laser detachment method with the Langmuir probe measurements will yield spatially resolved plasma parameters and H- density profiles. The influence of diverse external parameters, such as pressure, RF-power, magnetic fields on the plasma parameters and their profiles were studied and explained. Hence, the measurements lead to a detailed understanding of the processes inside the source. (orig.)

  7. Effects of magnesium on erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport and some of plasma biochemical parameters in rabbit

    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnesium acts as an essential cofactor for the activity of many enzymes. It regulates the work of cardiovascular system. The activity of sodium–lithium countertransport (SLC and the concentrations of plasma biochemical parameters such as VLDL, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine are changed in cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of magnesium on SLC activity and some of the plasma biochemical parameters. Methods: New Zealand white rabbits (weighed 1350 ± 50g were chosen for these experiments. This study was conducted through two in vitro and in vivo techniques. Through in vitro method, the effects of different concentrations of magnesium on SLC activity were investigated. In order to conduct in vivo method, the rabbits were divided into two groups (5 /group. One group was treated by MgSo4 (40 mg/kg body weight through peritoneum for two weeks. For the second group, deionized water was used. The activity of SLC and mentioned biochemical parameters were determined. Results: The results of both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that magnesium can significantly decrease the SLC activity and also causes an increase in Km and decreased Vmax/Km of the system and plasma concentrations of VLDL, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly decreased. Conclusion: Magnesium may cause a reduction in blood pressure through decreasing the SLC activity and affecting the concentrations of VLDL, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides and so improvement the cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Plasma parameters in the vicinity of the quartz window of a low pressure surface wave discharge produced in O2

    Nakao, S.; Stamate, Eugen; Sugai, H.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma parameters in the vicinity of the dielectric window of a low density, microwave discharge produced in 0, at 915 N/FHz are investigated by a spherical probe and optical emission spectroscopy while the microwave field distribution is measured by a spectrum analyzer. The electron energy...... distribution function is found to be strongly dependent on the position with respect to the slot antenna, exhibiting a group of energetic electrons at locations where the electric field and the optical intensity exhibit maximum values. The density of energetic electrons decreases sharply just a few cm away...

  9. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Al-Marzoki JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jasim M Al-Marzoki1, Zainab W Al-Maaroof2, Ali H Kadhum31Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Pathology, Babylon Medical College, 3Babylon Gynecology and Pediatric Teaching Hospital, Hilla, IraqBackground: The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq.Methods: A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually.Results: Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3 g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6 × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472 × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count.Conclusion: Most results

  10. Correlation between the physical parameters of the i-nc-Si absorber layer grown by 27.12 MHz plasma with the nc-Si solar cell parameters

    Das, Debajyoti; Mondal, Praloy

    2017-09-01

    Growth of highly conducting nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films of optimum crystalline volume fraction, involving dominant crystallographic preferred orientation with simultaneous low fraction of microstructures at a low substrate temperature and high growth rate, is a challenging task for its promising utilization in nc-Si solar cells. Utilizing enhanced electron density and superior ion flux densities of the high frequency (∼27.12 MHz) SiH4 plasma, improved nc-Si films have been produced by simple optimization of H2-dilution, controlling the ion damage and enhancing supply of atomic-hydrogen onto the growing surface. Single junction nc-Si p-i-n solar cells have been prepared with i-nc-Si absorber layer and optimized. The physical parameters of the absorber layer have been systematically correlated to variations of the solar cell parameters. The preferred alignment of crystallites, its contribution to the low recombination losses for conduction of charge carriers along the vertical direction, its spectroscopic correlation with the dominant growth of ultra-nanocrystalline silicon (unc-Si) component and corresponding longer wavelength absorption, especially in the neighborhood of i/n-interface region recognize scientific and technological key issues that pave the ground for imminent advancement of multi-junction silicon solar cells.

  11. Global variables and impact parameter determination in nucleus-nucleus collisions below 100 MeV/u

    Peter, J.; Cussol, D.; Bizard, G.; Brou, R.; Louvel, M.; Patry, J.P.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Sullivan, J.P.; Tamain, B.; Cassagnou, Y.; Legrain, R.; Rosato, E.; Hagel, K.; Jin, G.M.; Crema, E.

    1990-03-01

    Several global variables are tested for determining the impact parameter in 4π measurements of charged products. For the system Ar+Al from 25 to 85 MeV/u, simulated reactions are used to study the correlation between the real impact parameter value and the experimentally determined one. Even with a perfect detector, the total multiplicity and the mid-rapidity charge give a poor correlation. Filtering through the acceptance of an actual detector (Mur+Tonneau at GANIL) provides a poor correlation with the total charge, and an acceptable one with the total perpendicular momentum. The average (mass weighted) parallel velocity V gives the best correlation and is less sensitive to the incident energy and to the mechanisms used in the simulation. Measurements extending to very forward angles are needed to accurately sort events by impact parameter. Real data are used to study the variation of other global variables versus V: they exhibit the expected average trend, with broad fluctuations. The excentricity and flow angle allow the evolution of central reactions with the incident energy to be followed. The proportion of relative motion transformed into energy perpendicular to the beam direction decreases when the incident energy increases; its absolute value, however, doubles from 25 to 65 MeV/u. In experimental studies where good separation between participant (pre-equilibrium) and spectator (equilibrium) particles is wanted in addition to good impact parameter sorting, the projectile mass should be in the range 1.2 - 2.5 times the target mass

  12. Getting Ready for BepiColombo: A Modeling Approach to Infer the Solar Wind Plasma Parameters Upstream of Mercury from Magnetic Field Observations

    Fatemi, S.; Poirier, N.; Holmström, M.; Wieser, M.; Barabash, S.

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a model to infer the solar wind plasma parameters upstream of Mercury from magnetic field observations in Mercury's magnetosphere. This is important for observations by MESSENGER and the future mission to Mercury, BepiColombo.

  13. Using global variables for impact parameter determination in nucleus-nucleus collisions below 100 MeV/u

    Peter, J.; Cussol, D.; Bizard, G.; Brou, R.; Louvel, M.; Patry, J.P.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Sullivan, J.P.; Tamain, B.; Motobayashi, T.; Cassagnou, Y.; Legrain, R.; Hagel, K.; Jin, G.M.; Crema, E.

    1990-04-01

    Several global variables are tested for determining the impact parameter in 4π measurements of charged products. For the system Ar+Al from 25 to 85 MeV/u, simulated reactions are used to study the correlation between the real impact parameter value and the experimentally determined one. Even with an imaginary perfect detector, the total multiplicity and the mid-rapidity charge give a poor correlation. Filtering through the acceptance of an actual detector (Mur+Tonneau at GANIL) provides a poor correlation with the total charge, and an acceptable one with the total perpendicular momentum. The average (mass weighted) parallel velocity V av gives the best correlation and is less sensitive to the incident energy and to the mechanisms used in the simulation. Measurements extending to very forward angles are needed to obtain a good impact parameter sorting. 5 figs

  14. The role of extreme orbits in the global organization of periodic regions in parameter space for one dimensional maps

    da Costa, Diogo Ricardo; Hansen, Matheus; Guarise, Gustavo; Medrano-T, Rene O.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-04-01

    We show that extreme orbits, trajectories that connect local maximum and minimum values of one dimensional maps, play a major role in the parameter space of dissipative systems dictating the organization for the windows of periodicity, hence producing sets of shrimp-like structures. Here we solve three fundamental problems regarding the distribution of these sets and give: (i) their precise localization in the parameter space, even for sets of very high periods; (ii) their local and global distributions along cascades; and (iii) the association of these cascades to complicate sets of periodicity. The extreme orbits are proved to be a powerful indicator to investigate the organization of windows of periodicity in parameter planes. As applications of the theory, we obtain some results for the circle map and perturbed logistic map. The formalism presented here can be extended to many other different nonlinear and dissipative systems.

  15. Uncertainty Quantification and Global Sensitivity Analysis of Subsurface Flow Parameters to Gravimetric Variations During Pumping Tests in Unconfined Aquifers

    Maina, Fadji Zaouna; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    We study the contribution of typically uncertain subsurface flow parameters to gravity changes that can be recorded during pumping tests in unconfined aquifers. We do so in the framework of a Global Sensitivity Analysis and quantify the effects of uncertainty of such parameters on the first four statistical moments of the probability distribution of gravimetric variations induced by the operation of the well. System parameters are grouped into two main categories, respectively, governing groundwater flow in the unsaturated and saturated portions of the domain. We ground our work on the three-dimensional analytical model proposed by Mishra and Neuman (2011), which fully takes into account the richness of the physical process taking place across the unsaturated and saturated zones and storage effects in a finite radius pumping well. The relative influence of model parameter uncertainties on drawdown, moisture content, and gravity changes are quantified through (a) the Sobol' indices, derived from a classical decomposition of variance and (b) recently developed indices quantifying the relative contribution of each uncertain model parameter to the (ensemble) mean, skewness, and kurtosis of the model output. Our results document (i) the importance of the effects of the parameters governing the unsaturated flow dynamics on the mean and variance of local drawdown and gravity changes; (ii) the marked sensitivity (as expressed in terms of the statistical moments analyzed) of gravity changes to the employed water retention curve model parameter, specific yield, and storage, and (iii) the influential role of hydraulic conductivity of the unsaturated and saturated zones to the skewness and kurtosis of gravimetric variation distributions. The observed temporal dynamics of the strength of the relative contribution of system parameters to gravimetric variations suggest that gravity data have a clear potential to provide useful information for estimating the key hydraulic

  16. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Spectroscopic investigation of thermodynamic parameters of a plasma plume formed by the action of cw CO2 laser radiation on a metal substrate

    Vasil'chenko, Zh V.; Azharonok, V. V.; Filatova, I. I.; Shimanovich, V. D.; Golubev, V. S.; Zabelin, A. M.

    1996-09-01

    Emission spectroscopy methods were used in an investigation of thermodynamic parameters of a surface plasma formed by the action of cw CO2 laser radiation of (2-5)×106 W cm-2 intensity on stainless steel in a protective He or Ar atmosphere. The spatiotemporal structure and pulsation characteristics of the plasma plume were used to determine the fields of the plasma electron density and temperature.

  17. Optimization of Terrestrial Ecosystem Model Parameters Using Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Data With the Global Carbon Assimilation System (GCAS)

    Chen, Zhuoqi; Chen, Jing M.; Zhang, Shupeng; Zheng, Xiaogu; Ju, Weiming; Mo, Gang; Lu, Xiaoliang

    2017-12-01

    The Global Carbon Assimilation System that assimilates ground-based atmospheric CO2 data is used to estimate several key parameters in a terrestrial ecosystem model for the purpose of improving carbon cycle simulation. The optimized parameters are the leaf maximum carboxylation rate at 25°C (Vmax25), the temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (Q10), and the soil carbon pool size. The optimization is performed at the global scale at 1° resolution for the period from 2002 to 2008. The results indicate that vegetation from tropical zones has lower Vmax25 values than vegetation in temperate regions. Relatively high values of Q10 are derived over high/midlatitude regions. Both Vmax25 and Q10 exhibit pronounced seasonal variations at middle-high latitudes. The maxima in Vmax25 occur during growing seasons, while the minima appear during nongrowing seasons. Q10 values decrease with increasing temperature. The seasonal variabilities of Vmax25 and Q10 are larger at higher latitudes. Optimized Vmax25 and Q10 show little seasonal variabilities at tropical regions. The seasonal variabilities of Vmax25 are consistent with the variabilities of LAI for evergreen conifers and broadleaf evergreen forests. Variations in leaf nitrogen and leaf chlorophyll contents may partly explain the variations in Vmax25. The spatial distribution of the total soil carbon pool size after optimization is compared favorably with the gridded Global Soil Data Set for Earth System. The results also suggest that atmospheric CO2 data are a source of information that can be tapped to gain spatially and temporally meaningful information for key ecosystem parameters that are representative at the regional and global scales.

  18. The effect of plasma arc process parameters on the properties of dissimilar AISI 1040/AISI 304 steel plate welds

    Kilic, Musa; Kirik, Ihsan; Orhan, Nuri [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey); Celik, Ferkan [Science Industry and Technology Ministry of Turkey (Turkey)

    2012-11-01

    In this study, 10 mm thick AISI 1040 and AISI 304 steel plates were welded in the butt position without pretreatment by plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding technique. Therefore, mechanical behaviour, microstructure, penetration depth and length were investigated. After welding, microstructural changes in the interface regions of the welded specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Micro-hardness as well as V-notch Charpy tests were performed to determine the mechanical properties of the welds. The influence of the welding parameters on the dimension and shape of the joints has been found out. From the results, it was derived that with the parameters used, a partly keyhole weld bead formed with a penetration depth of 10 mm and a width of 11 mm in butt position. (orig.)

  19. Determination of edge plasma parameters by a genetic algorithm analysis of spectral line shapes

    Marandet, Y.; Genesio, P.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Stamm, R.; Capes, H.; Guirlet, R.

    2003-01-01

    Comparing an experimental and a theoretical line shape can be achieved by a genetic algorithm (GA) based on an analogy to the mechanisms of natural selection. Such an algorithm is able to deal with complex non-linear models, and can avoid local minima. We have used this optimization tool in the context of edge plasma spectroscopy, for a determination of the temperatures and fractions of the various populations of neutral deuterium emitting the D α line in 2 configurations of Tore-Supra: ergodic divertor and toroidal pumped limiter. Using the GA fit, the neutral emitters are separated into up to 4 populations which can be identified as resulting from molecular dissociation reactions, charge exchange, or reflection. In all the edge plasmas studied, a significant fraction of neutrals emit in the line wings, leading to neutrals with a temperature up to a few hundreds eV if a Gaussian line shape is assumed. This conclusion could be modified if the line wing exhibits a non Gaussian behavior

  20. Optimization of plasma parameters for the production of silicon nano-crystals

    Chaabane, N; Vach, H; Cabarrocas, P R I

    2003-01-01

    We use silane-hydrogen plasmas to synthesize silicon nano-crystals in the gas phase and thermophoresis to collect them onto a cooled substrate. To distinguish between nano-crystals formed in the plasma and those grown on the substrate, as a result of surface and subsurface reactions, we have simultaneously deposited films on a conventional substrate heated at 250 deg. C and on a second substrate cooled down to 90 deg. C. A series of samples deposited at various discharge pressures, in the range of 400 mTorr to 1.2 Torr, have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy and ellipsometry. At low pressure (400-500 mTorr), the films are amorphous on the cold substrate and micro-crystalline on the hot one. As pressure increases, gas phase reactions lead to the formation of nano-crystalline particles which are attracted by the cold substrate due to thermophoresis. Consequently, we obtain nano-crystalline silicon thin films on the cold substrate and amorphous thin films on the heated one in the pressure range of 600-900...

  1. Monitoring of plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity and hematological parameters in pesticide sprayers.

    Rastogi, S K; Singh, Vipul K; Kesavachandran, C; Jyoti; Siddiqui, M K J; Mathur, N; Bharti, R S

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the health impact of spraying organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), 34 male sprayers in the mango belt of Malihabad, a small town located 27 km from Lucknow in North India was selected. Plasma butyryl cholinesterase (PBChE) and complete blood count were assessed among sprayers after spraying pesticides and the findings obtained were compared with those determined in a reference group (n = 18). The most common symptoms observed were burning sensation in the eyes (8.82%), itching/skin irritation (23.52%) and chest symptoms (32.35%) in the exposed workers. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase (PBChE) was significantly decreased in workers. The results indicated significant decrease in the mean value of hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets count; however, significantly higher count of leukocytes was also observed in the exposed group (sprayers) compared to that observed in the control group (P < 0.05). Monitoring of PBChE in pesticide sprayers could be useful to predict and prevent health hazards of OPs.

  2. Determination of edge plasma parameters by a genetic algorithm analysis of spectral line shapes

    Marandet, Y.; Genesio, P.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Stamm, R. [Universite de Provence (PIIM), Centre de Saint-Jerome, 13 - Marseille (France); Capes, H.; Guirlet, R. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2003-07-01

    Comparing an experimental and a theoretical line shape can be achieved by a genetic algorithm (GA) based on an analogy to the mechanisms of natural selection. Such an algorithm is able to deal with complex non-linear models, and can avoid local minima. We have used this optimization tool in the context of edge plasma spectroscopy, for a determination of the temperatures and fractions of the various populations of neutral deuterium emitting the D{sub {alpha}} line in 2 configurations of Tore-Supra: ergodic divertor and toroidal pumped limiter. Using the GA fit, the neutral emitters are separated into up to 4 populations which can be identified as resulting from molecular dissociation reactions, charge exchange, or reflection. In all the edge plasmas studied, a significant fraction of neutrals emit in the line wings, leading to neutrals with a temperature up to a few hundreds eV if a Gaussian line shape is assumed. This conclusion could be modified if the line wing exhibits a non Gaussian behavior.

  3. Edge transport barrier modification in the L-2M stellarator depending on the heating power and plasma parameters

    Voronov, G S; Voronova, E V; Akulina, D K; Gladkov, G A

    2006-01-01

    Boronization of the vacuum chamber of the L-2M stellarator has resulted in modification of the electron temperature profile. In particular, a well-defined jump in the electron temperature to T e ∼ 100 eV in a narrow region Δr/r ∼ 0.05 is observed in the temperature profile at the plasma edge. In the present paper, the value and shape of the jump in T e are studied at different values of plasma parameters and ECR heating power. A jump in T e is absent at a power of P ∼ 100 kW, whereas at P ∼ 200 kW the electron temperature drops from 150 eV to zero within Δr ∼ 0.5 cm. The value of threshold power for the formation of a jump in T e at n e ∼ 1.7 x 10 19 m -3 lies within the range P ∼ 100-160 kW. In terms of power per particle this power threshold is P/V/N e ∼ 0.2-0.3 Mw/m 3 /10 19 m -3 , the value of which coincides with threshold power for ETB formation found recently in the CHS stellarator. When the helical-field strength is 25% or 50% below its standard value, a jump in T e at the plasma edge in L-2M is absent

  4. Numerical simulation of dual frequency etching reactors: Influence of the external process parameters on the plasma characteristics

    Georgieva, V.; Bogaerts, A.

    2005-01-01

    A one-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo model is used to investigate Ar/CF 4 /N 2 discharges sustained in capacitively coupled dual frequency reactors, with special emphasis on the influence of the reactor parameters such as applied voltage amplitudes and frequencies of the two voltage sources. The presented calculation results include plasma density, ion current, average sheath potential and width, electron and ion average energies and energy distributions, and ionization rates. The simulations were carried out for high frequencies (HFs) of 27, 40, 60, and 100 MHz and a low frequency (LF) of 1 or 2 MHz, varying the LF voltage and keeping the HF voltage constant and vice versa. It is observed that the decoupling of the two sources is possible by increasing the applied HF to very high values (above 60 MHz) and it is not defined by the frequency ratio. Both voltage sources have influence on the plasma characteristics at a HF of 27 MHz and to some extent at 40 MHz. At HFs of 60 and 100 MHz, the plasma density and ion flux are determined only by the HF voltage source. The ion energy increases and the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) becomes broader with HF or LF voltage amplitude, when the other voltage is kept constant. The IEDF is broader with the increase of HF or the decrease of LF

  5. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Johanna M Walz

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements.Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD, cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal, type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle, time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array. Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model.The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes.VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  6. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Walz, Johanna M; Boehringer, Daniel; Deissler, Heidrun L; Faerber, Lothar; Goepfert, Jens C; Heiduschka, Peter; Kleeberger, Susannah M; Klettner, Alexa; Krohne, Tim U; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Ziemssen, Focke; Stahl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements. Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center) twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD), cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal), type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle), time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes) and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array). Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model. The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes. VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  7. Investigation of plasma parameters at BATMAN for variation of the Cs evaporation asymmetry and comparing two driver geometries

    Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.; Aza, E.; Jovović, J.; Kraus, W.; Mimo, A.; Schiesko, L.

    2017-08-01

    The Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) system for fusion devices like ITER and, beyond ITER, DEMO requires large scale sources for negative hydrogen ions. BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative ions) is a test facility attached with the prototype source for the ITER NBI (1/8 source size of the ITER source), dedicated to physical investigations due to its flexible access for diagnostics and exchange of source components. The required amount of negative ions is produced by surface conversion of hydrogen atoms or ions on caesiated surfaces. Several diagnostic tools (Optical Emission Spectroscopy, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy for H-, Langmuir probes, Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy for Cs) allow the determination of plasma parameters in the ion source. Plasma parameters for two modifications of the standard prototype source have been investigated: Firstly, a second Cs oven has been installed in the bottom part of the back plate in addition to the regularly used oven in the top part of the back plate. Evaporation from the top oven only can lead to a vertically asymmetric Cs distribution in front of the plasma grid. Using both ovens, a symmetric Cs distribution can be reached - however, in most cases no significant change of the extracted ion current has been determined for varying Cs symmetry if the source is well-conditioned. Secondly, BATMAN has been equipped with a much larger, racetrack-shaped RF driver (area of 32×58 cm2) instead of the cylindrical RF driver (diameter of 24.5 cm). The main idea is that one racetrack driver could substitute two cylindrical drivers in larger sources with increased reliability and power efficiency. For the same applied RF power, the electron density is lower in the racetrack driver due to its five times higher volume. The fraction of hydrogen atoms to molecules, however, is at a similar level or even slightly higher, which is a promising result for application in larger sources.

  8. Effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on sperm parameters, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress in men

    Meng Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental prospective study, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on the male reproductive organs, from the perspective of sperm parameters, semen plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress, to evaluate whether different frequencies of heat exposure cause different degrees of damage to spermatogenesis. Two groups of volunteers (10 per group received testicular warming in a 43°C water bath 10 times, for 30 min each time: group 1: 10 consecutive days; group 2: once every 3 days. Sperm parameters, epididymis and accessory sex gland function, semen plasma oxidative stress and serum sex hormones were tested before treatment and in the 16-week recovery period after treatment. At last, we found an obvious reversible decrease in sperm concentration (P = 0.005 for Group 1 and P= 0.008 for Group 2 when the minimums were compared with baseline levels, the same below, motility (P = 0.009 and 0.021, respectively, the hypoosmotic swelling test score (P = 0.007 and 0.008, respectively, total acrosin activity (P = 0.018 and 0.009, respectively, and an increase in the seminal plasma malondialdehyde concentration (P = 0.005 and 0.017, respectively. The decrease of sperm concentration was greater for Group 2 than for Group 1 (P = 0.031. We concluded that transient scrotal hyperthermia seriously, but reversibly, negatively affected the spermatogenesis, oxidative stress may be involved in this process. In addition, intermittent heat exposure more seriously suppresses the spermatogenesis compared to consecutive heat exposure. This may be indicative for clinical infertility etiology analysis and the design of contraceptive methods based on heat stress.

  9. Time-space distribution of laser-induced plasma parameters and its influence on emission spectra of the laser plumes

    Ershov-Pavlov, E.A.; Katsalap, K.Yu.; Stepanov, K.L.; Stankevich, Yu.A.

    2008-01-01

    A physical model is developed accounting for dynamics and radiation of plasma plumes induced by nanosecond laser pulses on surface of solid samples. The model has been applied to simulate emission spectra of the laser erosion plasma at the elemental analysis of metals using single- and double-pulse excitation modes. Dynamics of the sample heating and expansion of the erosion products are accounted for by the thermal conductivity and gas dynamic equations, respectively, supposing axial symmetry. Using the resulting time-space distributions of the plasma parameters, emission spectra of the laser plumes are evaluated by solving the radiation transfer equation. Particle concentration in consecutive ionization stages is described by the Saha equation in the Debye approximation. The population of excited levels is determined according to Boltzmann distribution. Local characteristics determining spectral emission and absorption coefficients are obtained point-by-point along an observation line. Voigt spectral line profiles are considered with main broadening mechanisms taken into account. The plasma dynamics and plume emission spectra have been studied experimentally and by the model. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm wavelength has been used to irradiate Al sample with the pulses of 15 ns and 50 mJ duration and energy, respectively. It has resulted in maximum power density of 0.8 MW/cm 2 on the sample surface. The laser plume emission spectra have been recorded at a side-on observation. Problems of the spectra contrast and of the elemental analysis efficiency are considered relying on a comparative study of the measurement and simulation results at the both excitation modes

  10. Effect of the resonant magnetic perturbation on the plasma parameters in COMPASS tokamak’s divertor region

    Dimitrova, M.; Cahyna, P.; Peterka, M.; Hasan, E.; Popov, Tsv K.; Ivanova, P.; Vasileva, E.; Panek, R.; Cavalier, J.; Seidl, J.; Markovic, T.; Havlicek, J.; Dejarnac, R.; Weinzettl, V.; Hacek, P.; Tomes, M.; the COMPASS Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2018-02-01

    The resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) has proven to be a useful way to suppress edge-localized modes that under certain conditions can damage the device by the large power fluxes carried from the bulk plasma to the wall. The effect of RMP on the L-mode plasma parameters in the divertor region of the COMPASS tokamak was studied using the array of 39 Langmuir probes embedded into the divertor target. The current-voltage (IV) probe characteristics were processed by the first-derivative probe technique to obtain the plasma potential and the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) which was approximated by a bi-Maxwellian EEDF with a low-energy (4-6 eV) fraction and a high-energy (11-35 eV) one, the both factions having similar electron density. Clear splitting was observed during the RMP pulse in the low-field-side scrape-off-layer profiles of the floating potential U fl and the ion saturation current density J sat; these two quantities were obtained both by direct continuous measurement and by evaluation of the IV characteristics of probes with swept bias. The negative peaks of U fl induced by RMP spatially overlaps with the local minima of J sat (and n e) rather than with its local maxima which is partly caused by the spatial variation of the plasma potential and partly by the changed shape of the EEDF. The effective temperature of the whole EEDF is not correlated with the negative peaks of U fl, and the profile of the parallel power flux density shows secondary maxima due to RMP which mimic those of J sat.

  11. The global equilibrium method and its hybrid implementation for identifying heterogeneous elastic material parameters

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2011-04-01

    New identification strategies have to be developed in order to perform the identification quickly and at very-low cost. A popular class of approaches relies on full-field measurement obtained through digital image correlation. We propose here a global equilibrium approach. It is based on the virtual field method in case specific virtual fields are used. It can also be seen as a generalization of the equilibrium gap method. This approach is easy to implement and we prove that it provides better or comparable results to the constitutive equation gap method that is known to be a very accurate reference. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Parameter Dependence of Inward Diffusion on Injected Electrons in Helical Non-Neutral Plasmas

    Wakabayashi, H.; Himura, H.; Fukao, M.; Yoshida, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental studies on an electron injection into a helical magnetic field and characteristics of non-neutral plasmas have been performed. It is found that the space potential φs has a weak dependence on the injection angle except for a narrow 'window' region in which φs significantly drops. A calculation shows that because of the electric field Eg of the electron gun (e-gun), the emitted electrons are launched quasi-parallel to the helical magnetic field B, regardless of α. This seems to agree with the observation. The 'window' seen in the data may be attributed to an current-driven instability which might result in the insufficient electron penetration or the degradation of electron confinement in the magnetic surface

  13. [Study on plasma parameters in diffuse discharge with semispherical electrod by optical emission spectrum].

    Dong, Li-Fang; Tong, Guo-Liang; Shen, Zhong-Kai; Liu, Liang; Ji, Ya-Fei; Zhao, Huan-Huan

    2012-06-01

    The diffuse discharge plasma in air was observed in a dielectric barrier discharge with two semispherical water electrodes. The variations of vibration temperature, rotation temperature, and average electron energy as the function of the applied voltage were studied by emission spectroscopy. The vibration temperature and the rotation temperature were calculated through the second positive band system (C3Pi(u)-->B3Pi(g)) of N2+ and the first negative band system (B2 Sigma(u+)-->Chi2Sigma(g+)) of N(2+) respectively. The average electron energy was studied by intensity ratio of 391.4 and 337.1 nm. It was found that the rotation temperature increases with the applied voltage increasing, while the vibration temperature and the electron energy decrease.

  14. [Measurement of plasma parameters in slot microplasma by optical emission spectrum].

    Dong, Li-Fang; Lü, Ying-Hui; Liu, Wei-Yuan; Yue, Han; Lu, Ning; Li, Xin-Chun

    2010-12-01

    Slot microplasma was generated in argon and air mixture by using dielectric barrier discharge device with two parallel water electrodes. The molecular vibrational temperature, molecular rotational temperature and average electron energy of the slot plasma were studied by optical emission spectrum. The molecular vibrational temperature was calculated using the second positive system of nitrogen molecules ( C3 pi(u) --> B3 pi(g)). The molecular rotational temperature was calculated using the first negative system of nitrogen molecular ions ( B 2sigma(u)+ --> X sigma(g)+). The relative intensities of the first negative system of nitrogen molecular ions (391.4 nm) and nitrogen molecules in the excitation level (337.1 nm) emission spectrum line were measured for studying the variations of electron energy. It was found that the molecular vibrational temperature, molecular rotational temperature and average electron energy decrease with gas pressure increasing.

  15. Optimization of the parameters of plasma liners with zero-dimensional models

    Oreshkin, V. I. [Siberian Division, Institute of High Current Electronics, RAS Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    The efficiency of conversion of the energy stored in the capacitor bank of a high-current pulse generator into the kinetic energy of an imploding plasma liner is analyzed. The analysis is performed by using a model consisting of LC circuit equations and equations of motion of a cylindrical shell. It is shown that efficient energy conversion can be attained only with a low-inductance generator. The mode of an 'ideal' load is considered where the load current at the final stage of implosion is close to zero. The advantages of this mode are, first, high efficiency of energy conversion (80%) and, second, improved stability of the shell implosion. In addition, for inertial confinement fusion realized by the scheme of a Z pinch dynamic hohlraum, not one but several fusion targets can be placed in the cavity on the pinch axis due to the large length of the liner.

  16. Electron density as the main parameter influencing the formation of fullerenes in a carbon plasma

    Churilov, G.N.; Bulina, N.V.; Novikov, P.V.; Lopatin, V.A.; Vnukova, N.G.; Bachilo, S.M.; Tsyboulski, D.; Weisman, R.B.

    2002-01-01

    Thermodynamic estimates are presented for the formation of spheroidal and flat carbon clusters from reactant species of different charges. Charge is shown to strongly influence the geometry and stability of flat clusters. Changes in the charge of flat clusters can promote both their folding to spheroidal structures and their dissociation. It is concluded that the fluctuations of electron concentration in carbon plasma can result in the accumulation of fullerene clusters and the dissociation of flat clusters. Computer simulations of fullerene C 60 formation from carbon clusters having different charges are carried out using the program HyperChem 5 to calculate the optimal geometry of molecules and their molecular dynamics at different temperatures [ru

  17. Influence of process parameters on plasma electrolytic surface treatment of tantalum for biomedical applications

    Sowa, Maciej, E-mail: maciej.sowa@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Woszczak, Maja; Kazek-Kęsik, Alicja [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Dercz, Grzegorz [Institute of Materials Science, University of Silesia, 75 Pułku Piechoty Street 1A, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland); Korotin, Danila M. [M.N. Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics of the Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, S. Kovalevskoi Street 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zhidkov, Ivan S. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kurmaev, Ernst Z. [M.N. Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics of the Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, S. Kovalevskoi Street 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Cholakh, Seif O. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Basiaga, Marcin [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Gen. de Gaulle’a Street 66, 41-800 Zabrze (Poland); Simka, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.simka@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • 2-step plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of tantalum was investigated. • PEO coatings surface composition were reflected by the composition of anodizing baths. • Hydrophobic surfaces were obtained from acetate and formate containing baths. • Bioactive phases were identified. - Abstract: This work aims to quantify the effect of anodization voltage and electrolyte composition used during DC plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), operated as a 2-step process, on the surface properties of the resulting oxide coatings on tantalum. The first step consisted of galvanostatic anodization (150 mA cm{sup −2}) of the tantalum workpiece up to several limiting voltages (200, 300, 400 and 500 V). After attaining the limiting voltage, the process was switched to voltage control, which resulted in a gradual decrease of the anodic current density. The anodic treatment was realized in a 0.5 M Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 2}){sub 2} solution, which was then modified by the addition of 1.15 M Ca(HCOO){sub 2} as well as 1.15 M and 1.5 M Mg(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}. The increasing voltage of anodization led to the formation of thicker coatings, with larger pores and enriched with electrolytes species to a higher extent. The solutions containing HCOO{sup −} and CH{sub 3}COO{sup −} ions caused the formation of coatings which were slightly hydrophobic (high contact angle). In the case of the samples anodized up to 500 V, scattered crystalline deposits were observed. Bioactive phases, such as hydroxyapatite, were detected in the treated oxide coatings by XRD and XPS.

  18. Statistics on the parameters of nonisothermal ionospheric plasma in large mesospheric electric fields

    Martynenko, S.; Rozumenko, V.; Tyrnov, O.; Manson, A.; Meek, C.

    The large V/m electric fields inherent in the mesosphere play an essential role in lower ionospheric electrodynamics. They must be the cause of large variations in the electron temperature and the electron collision frequency at D region altitudes, and consequently the ionospheric plasma in the lower part of the D region undergoes a transition into a nonisothermal state. This study is based on the databases on large mesospheric electric fields collected with the 2.2-MHz radar of the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Canada (52°N geographic latitude, 60.4°N geomagnetic latitude) and with the 2.3-MHz radar of the Kharkiv V. Karazin National University (49.6°N geographic latitude, 45.6°N geomagnetic latitude). The statistical analysis of these data is presented in Meek, C. E., A. H. Manson, S. I. Martynenko, V. T. Rozumenko, O. F. Tyrnov, Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, in press. The large mesospheric electric fields is experimentally established to follow a Rayleigh distribution in the interval 0 plasma.

  19. Statistical parameters of nonisothermal lower ionospheric plasma in the electrically active mesosphere

    Martynenko, S. I.; Rozumenko, V. T.; Tyrnov, O. F.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.

    The large V/m electric fields inherent in the lower mesosphere play an essential role in lower ionospheric electrodynamics. They must be the cause of large variations in the electron temperature and the electron collision frequency and consequently of the transition of the ionospheric plasma in the lower part of the D region into a nonisothermal state. This study is based on the datasets on large mesospheric electric fields collected with the 2.2-MHz radar of the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Canada (52°N geographic latitude, 60.4°N geomagnetic latitude), and with the 2.3-MHz radar of the Kharkiv V. Karazin National University, Ukraine (49.6°N geographic latitude, 45.6°N geomagnetic latitude). The statistical analysis of these data is presented by [Meek, C.E., Manson, A.H., Martynenko, S.I., Rozumenko, V.T., Tyrnov, O.F. Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 881-890, 2004. 10.1016/j.jastp.2004.02.002]. The large mesospheric electric fields in the 60-67-km altitude range are experimentally established to follow a Rayleigh distribution in the 0 < E < 2.5 V/m interval. These data have permitted the resulting differential distributions of relative disturbances in the electron temperature, θ, and the effective electron collision frequency, η, to be determined. The most probable θ and η values are found to be in the 1.4-2.2 interval, and hence the nonstationary state of the lower part of the D region needs to be accounted for in studying processes coupling the electrically active mesosphere and the lower ionospheric plasma.

  20. Effect of toroidal plasma flow and flow shear on global MHD modes

    Chu, M.S.; Greene, J.M.; Jensen, T.H.; Miller, R.L.; Bondeson, A.; Johnson, R.W.; Mauel, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of a subsonic toroidal flow on the linear magnetohydrodynamic stability of a tokamak plasma surrounded by an external resistive wall is studied. A complex non-self-adjoint eigenvalue problem for the stability of general kink and tearing modes is formulated, solved numerically, and applied to high β tokamaks. Results indicate that toroidal plasma flow, in conjunction with dissipation in the plasma, can open a window of stability for the position of the external wall. In this window, stable plasma beta values can significantly exceed those predicted by the Troyon scaling law with no wall. Computations utilizing experimental data indicate good agreement with observations

  1. Measurements of gas parameters in plasma-assisted supersonic combustion processes using diode laser spectroscopy

    Bolshov, Mikhail A; Kuritsyn, Yu A; Liger, V V; Mironenko, V R; Leonov, S B; Yarantsev, D A

    2009-01-01

    We report a procedure for temperature and water vapour concentration measurements in an unsteady-state combustion zone using diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The procedure involves measurements of the absorption spectrum of water molecules around 1.39 μm. It has been used to determine hydrogen combustion parameters in M = 2 gas flows in the test section of a supersonic wind tunnel. The relatively high intensities of the absorption lines used have enabled direct absorption measurements. We describe a differential technique for measurements of transient absorption spectra, the procedure we used for primary data processing and approaches for determining the gas temperature and H 2 O concentration in the probed zone. The measured absorption spectra are fitted with spectra simulated using parameters from spectroscopic databases. The combustion-time-averaged (∼50 ms) gas temperature and water vapour partial pressure in the hot wake region are determined to be 1050 K and 21 Torr, respectively. The large signal-to-noise ratio in our measurements allowed us to assess the temporal behaviour of these parameters. The accuracy in our temperature measurements in the probed zone is ∼40 K. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  2. Prebiotics, Prosynbiotics and Synbiotics: Can They Reduce Plasma Oxidative Stress Parameters? A Systematic Review.

    Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hariri, Mitra

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of presybiotics, prosybiotics and synbiotics on reducing serum oxidative stress parameters. PubMed/Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Science and SCOPUS were searched up to September 2016. English language randomized clinical trials reporting the effect of presybiotics, prosybiotics or synbiotic interventions on serum oxidative stress parameters in human adults were included. Twenty-one randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria for systematic review. Two studies investigated prebiotics, four studies synbiotics and fifteen studies probiotics. According to our systematic review, prebiotic could decrease malondialdehyde and increase superoxidative dismutase, but evidence is not enough. In comparison with fructo-oligosaccharide, inulin is much more useful for oxidative stress reduction. Using probiotics with dairy products could reduce oxidative stress significantly, but probiotic in form of supplementation did not have any effect on oxidative stress. There is limited but supportive evidence that presybiotics, prosybiotics and synbiotics are effective for reducing oxidative stress parameters. Further randomized clinical trials with longer duration of intervention especially on population with increased oxidative stress are needed to provide more definitive results before any recommendation for clinical use of these interventions.

  3. Global sensitivity analysis for identifying important parameters of nitrogen nitrification and denitrification under model uncertainty and scenario uncertainty

    Chen, Zhuowei; Shi, Liangsheng; Ye, Ming; Zhu, Yan; Yang, Jinzhong

    2018-06-01

    Nitrogen reactive transport modeling is subject to uncertainty in model parameters, structures, and scenarios. By using a new variance-based global sensitivity analysis method, this paper identifies important parameters for nitrogen reactive transport with simultaneous consideration of these three uncertainties. A combination of three scenarios of soil temperature and two scenarios of soil moisture creates a total of six scenarios. Four alternative models describing the effect of soil temperature and moisture content are used to evaluate the reduction functions used for calculating actual reaction rates. The results show that for nitrogen reactive transport problem, parameter importance varies substantially among different models and scenarios. Denitrification and nitrification process is sensitive to soil moisture content status rather than to the moisture function parameter. Nitrification process becomes more important at low moisture content and low temperature. However, the changing importance of nitrification activity with respect to temperature change highly relies on the selected model. Model-averaging is suggested to assess the nitrification (or denitrification) contribution by reducing the possible model error. Despite the introduction of biochemical heterogeneity or not, fairly consistent parameter importance rank is obtained in this study: optimal denitrification rate (Kden) is the most important parameter; reference temperature (Tr) is more important than temperature coefficient (Q10); empirical constant in moisture response function (m) is the least important one. Vertical distribution of soil moisture but not temperature plays predominant role controlling nitrogen reaction. This study provides insight into the nitrogen reactive transport modeling and demonstrates an effective strategy of selecting the important parameters when future temperature and soil moisture carry uncertainties or when modelers face with multiple ways of establishing nitrogen

  4. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  5. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  6. Interaction of Fast Ions with Global Plasma Modes in the C-2 Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    Smirnov, Artem; Dettrick, Sean; Clary, Ryan; Korepanov, Sergey; Thompson, Matthew; Trask, Erik; Tuszewski, Michel

    2012-10-01

    A high-confinement operating regime [1] with plasma lifetimes significantly exceeding past empirical scaling laws was recently obtained by combining plasma gun edge biasing and tangential Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) in the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment [2, 3]. We present experimental and computational results on the interaction of fast ions with the n=2 rotational and n=1 wobble modes in the C-2 FRC. It is found that the n=2 mode is similar to quadrupole magnetic fields in its detrimental effect on the fast ion transport due to symmetry breaking. The plasma gun generates an inward radial electric field, thus stabilizing the n=2 rotational instability without applying the quadrupole magnetic fields. The resultant FRCs are nearly axisymmetric, which enables fast ion confinement. The NBI further suppresses the n=2 mode, improves the plasma confinement characteristics, and increases the plasma configuration lifetime [4]. The n=1 wobble mode has relatively little effect on the fast ion transport, likely due to the approximate axisymmetry about the displaced plasma column. [4pt] [1] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012).[0pt] [2] M. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 045003 (2010).[0pt] [3] H.Y. Guo et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056110 (2011).[0pt] [4] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 056108 (2012)

  7. Boundedness and global robust stability analysis of delayed complex-valued neural networks with interval parameter uncertainties.

    Song, Qiankun; Yu, Qinqin; Zhao, Zhenjiang; Liu, Yurong; Alsaadi, Fuad E

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, the boundedness and robust stability for a class of delayed complex-valued neural networks with interval parameter uncertainties are investigated. By using Homomorphic mapping theorem, Lyapunov method and inequality techniques, sufficient condition to guarantee the boundedness of networks and the existence, uniqueness and global robust stability of equilibrium point is derived for the considered uncertain neural networks. The obtained robust stability criterion is expressed in complex-valued LMI, which can be calculated numerically using YALMIP with solver of SDPT3 in MATLAB. An example with simulations is supplied to show the applicability and advantages of the acquired result. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of Independent Associations of Plasma Lipidomic Parameters with Insulin Sensitivity Indices Using Data Mining Methodology.

    Steffi Kopprasch

    Full Text Available Glucolipotoxicity is a major pathophysiological mechanism in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. We aimed to detect subtle changes in the circulating lipid profile by shotgun lipidomics analyses and to associate them with four different insulin sensitivity indices.The cross-sectional study comprised 90 men with a broad range of insulin sensitivity including normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 33, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 32 and newly detected T2D (n = 25. Prior to oral glucose challenge plasma was obtained and quantitatively analyzed for 198 lipid molecular species from 13 different lipid classes including triacylglycerls (TAGs, phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen/ether (PC O-s, sphingomyelins (SMs, and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs. To identify a lipidomic signature of individual insulin sensitivity we applied three data mining approaches, namely least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO, Support Vector Regression (SVR and Random Forests (RF for the following insulin sensitivity indices: homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, glucose insulin sensitivity index (GSI, insulin sensitivity index (ISI, and disposition index (DI. The LASSO procedure offers a high prediction accuracy and and an easier interpretability than SVR and RF.After LASSO selection, the plasma lipidome explained 3% (DI to maximal 53% (HOMA-IR variability of the sensitivity indexes. Among the lipid species with the highest positive LASSO regression coefficient were TAG 54:2 (HOMA-IR, PC O- 32:0 (GSI, and SM 40:3:1 (ISI. The highest negative regression coefficient was obtained for LPC 22:5 (HOMA-IR, TAG 51:1 (GSI, and TAG 58:6 (ISI.Although a substantial part of lipid molecular species showed a significant correlation with insulin sensitivity indices we were able to identify a limited number of lipid metabolites of particular importance based on the LASSO approach. These few selected lipids with the closest

  9. Scenario and parameter studies on global deposition of radioactivity using the computer model GLODEP2

    Shapiro, C.S.

    1984-08-01

    The GLODEP2 computer code was utilized to determine biological impact to humans on a global scale using up-to-date estimates of biological risk. These risk factors use varied biological damage models for assessing effects. All the doses reported are the unsheltered, unweathered, smooth terrain, external gamma dose. We assume the unperturbed atmosphere in determining injection and deposition. Effects due to ''nuclear winter'' may invalidate this assumption. The calculations also include scenarios that attempt to assess the impact of the changing nature of the nuclear stockpile. In particular, the shift from larger to smaller yield nuclear devices significantly changes the injection pattern into the atmosphere, and hence significantly affects the radiation doses that ensue. We have also looked at injections into the equatorial atmosphere. In total, we report here the results for 8 scenarios. 10 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs

  10. How does the Redi parameter for mesoscale mixing impact global climate in an Earth System Model?

    Pradal, Marie-Aude; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2014-09-01

    A coupled climate model is used to examine the impact of an increase in the mixing due to mesoscale eddies on the global climate system. A sixfold increase in the Redi mixing coefficient ARedi, which is within the admissible range of variation, has the overall effect of warming the global-mean surface air and sea surface temperatures by more than 1°C. Locally, sea surface temperatures increase by up to 7°C in the North Pacific and by up to 4°C in the Southern Ocean, with corresponding impacts on the ice concentration and ice extent in polar regions. However, it is not clear that the changes in heat transport from tropics to poles associated with changing this coefficient are primarily responsible for these changes. We found that the changes in the transport of heat are often much smaller than changes in long-wave trapping and short-wave absorption. Additionally, changes in the advective and diffusive transport of heat toward the poles often oppose each other. However, we note that the poleward transport of salt increases near the surface as ARedi increases. We suggest a causal chain in which enhanced eddy stirring leads to increased high-latitude surface salinity reducing salt stratification and water column stability and enhancing convection, triggering two feedback loops. In one, deeper convection prevents sea ice formation, which decreases albedo, which increases SW absorption, further increasing SST and decreasing sea ice formation. In the other, increased SST and reduced sea ice allow for more water vapor in the atmosphere, trapping long-wave radiation. Destratifying the polar regions is thus a potential way in which changes in ocean circulation might warm the planet.

  11. Comparison of earthquake source parameters and interseismic plate coupling variations in global subduction zones (Invited)

    Bilek, S. L.; Moyer, P. A.; Stankova-Pursley, J.

    2010-12-01

    Geodetically determined interseismic coupling variations have been found in subduction zones worldwide. These coupling variations have been linked to heterogeneities in interplate fault frictional conditions. These connections to fault friction imply that observed coupling variations are also important in influencing details in earthquake rupture behavior. Because of the wealth of newly available geodetic models along many subduction zones, it is now possible to examine detailed variations in coupling and compare to seismicity characteristics. Here we use a large catalog of earthquake source time functions and slip models for moderate to large magnitude earthquakes to explore these connections, comparing earthquake source parameters with available models of geodetic coupling along segments of the Japan, Kurile, Kamchatka, Peru, Chile, and Alaska subduction zones. In addition, we use published geodetic results along the Costa Rica margin to compare with source parameters of small magnitude earthquakes recorded with an onshore-offshore network of seismometers. For the moderate to large magnitude earthquakes, preliminary results suggest a complex relationship between earthquake parameters and estimates of strongly and weakly coupled segments of the plate interface. For example, along the Kamchatka subduction zone, these earthquakes occur primarily along the transition between strong and weak coupling, with significant heterogeneity in the pattern of moment scaled duration with respect to the coupling estimates. The longest scaled duration event in this catalog occurred in a region of strong coupling. Earthquakes along the transition between strong and weakly coupled exhibited the most complexity in the source time functions. Use of small magnitude (0.5 earthquake spectra, with higher corner frequencies and higher mean apparent stress for earthquakes that occur in along the Osa Peninsula relative to the Nicoya Peninsula, mimicking the along-strike variations in

  12. Global set of quadrupole deformation parameters for even-even nuclei

    Raman, S.; Nestor, C.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of experimental results has been completed for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability [B(E2)up arrow] between the 0 + ground state and the first 2 + state in even-even nuclei. This compilation together with certain simple relationships noted by other authors can be used to make reasonable predictions of unmeasured B(E2)up arrow values. The quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 immediately follows, because β 2 is proportional to [B(E2)up arrow]/sup 1/2/. 8 refs., 7 figs

  13. A study of the asymmetrical distribution of solar activity features on solar and plasma parameters (1967-2016)

    El-Borie, M. A.; El-Taher, A. M.; Aly, N. E.; Bishara, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The impact of asymmetrical distribution of hemispheric sunspot areas (SSAs) on the interplanetary magnetic field, plasma, and solar parameters from 1967 to 2016 has been studied. The N-S asymmetry of solar-plasma activities based on SSAs has a northern dominance during solar cycles 20 and 24. However, it has a tendency to shift to the southern hemisphere in cycles 21, 22, and 23. The solar cycle 23 showed that the sorted southern SSAs days predominated over the northern days by ˜17%. Through the solar cycles 21-24, the SSAs of the southern hemisphere were more active. In contrast, the northern SSAs predominate over the southern one by 9% throughout solar cycle 20. On the other hand, the average differences of field magnitude for the sorted northern and southern groups during solar cycles 20-24 are statistically insignificant. Clearly, twenty years showed that the solar plasma ion density from the sorted northern group was denser than that of southern group and a highest northern dominant peak occurred in 1971. In contrast, seventeen out of fifty years showed the reverse. In addition, there are fifteen clear asymmetries of solar wind speed (SWS), with SWS (N) > SWS (S), and during the years 1972, 2002, and 2008, the SWS from the sorted northern group was faster than that of southern activity group by 6.16 ± 0.65 km/s, 5.70 ± 0.86 km/s, and 5.76 ± 1.35 km/s, respectively. For the solar cycles 20-24, the grand-averages of P from the sorted solar northern and southern have nearly the same parameter values. The solar plasma was hotter for the sorted northern activity group than the southern ones for 17 years out of 50. Most significant northern prevalent asymmetries were found in 1972 (5.76 ± 0.66 × 103 K) and 1996 (4.7 ± 0.8 × 103 K), while two significant equivalent dominant southern asymmetries (˜3.8 ± 0.3 × 103 K) occurred in 1978 and 1993. The grand averages of sunspot numbers have symmetric activity for the two sorted northern and southern hemispheres

  14. Global exponential stability of neutral high-order stochastic Hopfield neural networks with Markovian jump parameters and mixed time delays.

    Huang, Haiying; Du, Qiaosheng; Kang, Xibing

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a class of neutral high-order stochastic Hopfield neural networks with Markovian jump parameters and mixed time delays is investigated. The jumping parameters are modeled as a continuous-time finite-state Markov chain. At first, the existence of equilibrium point for the addressed neural networks is studied. By utilizing the Lyapunov stability theory, stochastic analysis theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, new delay-dependent stability criteria are presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities to guarantee the neural networks to be globally exponentially stable in the mean square. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the main results. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of the arc plasma parameters on the weld pool profile in TIG welding

    Toropchin, A; Frolov, V; Pipa, A V; Kozakov, R; Uhrlandt, D

    2014-01-01

    Magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of the arc and fluid simulations of the weld pool can be beneficial in the analysis and further development of arc welding processes and welding machines. However, the appropriate coupling of arc and weld pool simulations needs further improvement. The tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process is investigated by simulations including the weld pool. Experiments with optical diagnostics are used for the validation. A coupled computational model of the arc and the weld pool is developed using the software ANSYS CFX. The weld pool model considers the forces acting on the motion of the melt inside and on the surface of the pool, such as Marangoni, drag, electromagnetic forces and buoyancy. The experimental work includes analysis of cross-sections of the workpieces, highspeed video images and spectroscopic measurements. Experiments and calculations have been performed for various currents, distances between electrode and workpiece and nozzle diameters. The studies show the significant impact of material properties like surface tension dependence on temperature as well as of the arc structure on the weld pool behaviour and finally the weld seam depth. The experimental weld pool profiles and plasma temperatures are in good agreement with computational results

  16. Coagulation parameters as a guide for fresh frozen plasma transfusion practice: A tertiary hospital experience

    Wan Haslindawani W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The appropriate use of blood and blood products means the transfusion of safe blood products only to treat a condition leading to significant morbidity or mortality, which cannot be prevented or managed effectively by other means. The safety and effectiveness of transfusion depend on the appropriate clinical use of blood and blood products. This study was conducted to review the practice of fresh frozen plasma usage (FFP for transfusion, based on the coagulation profile, requested by various departments in the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM. Methodology: A retrospective review of blood bank records and coagulation profile results of the patients given FFP from October to December 2006, in Hospital USM was undertaken. The criteria set by the College of American Pathologists in 1994, were used as the guidelines. Results: One thousand six hundred and ninety-eight units of FFP were used during this study period. Only 806 (47.47% FFP units were deemed appropriate. 20.38% were based on studies without any coagulation tests prior to transfusion and 21.13% were transfused for mild prolongation of coagulation test results. About 6.41% requested FFP in the setting of normal coagulation results. Conclusion: Our results showed that a significant proportion of the FFP transfusion was not guided by the coagulation profile. We recommend that a continuous education on FFP transfusion may help to guide the appropriate request for FFP.

  17. Effects of fat supplementations on milk production and composition, ruminal and plasma parameters of dairy cows

    L. Bailoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on milk yield and quality caused by the same amount (325 g/d/cow of lipids provided by 3 different fat sources (hydrogenate palm fat, HF; calcium salt palm fat, CaSF; full-fat toasted soybean, TS, top dressed to a common total mixed ration, were investigated. Supplementations did not affect feed intake and milk yield, but markedly changed the acidic profile of milk fat. CaSF and TS significantly increased the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids of milk fat with respect to control and to HF. The 3 fat sources did not affect the concentrations of ammonia and VFA of rumen fluid. TS only slightly increased (P<0.10 plasma urea content because of a higher dietary protein supply, with respect to the other treatments. The use of a low amount of toasted and cracked full fat soybean seem to be interesting to increase the energy concentration of diets in replacement to commercial fat products and it can be use to modify the milk fat quality increasing the fraction with benefit effects on human health.

  18. Influence of the arc plasma parameters on the weld pool profile in TIG welding

    Toropchin, A.; Frolov, V.; Pipa, A. V.; Kozakov, R.; Uhrlandt, D.

    2014-11-01

    Magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of the arc and fluid simulations of the weld pool can be beneficial in the analysis and further development of arc welding processes and welding machines. However, the appropriate coupling of arc and weld pool simulations needs further improvement. The tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process is investigated by simulations including the weld pool. Experiments with optical diagnostics are used for the validation. A coupled computational model of the arc and the weld pool is developed using the software ANSYS CFX. The weld pool model considers the forces acting on the motion of the melt inside and on the surface of the pool, such as Marangoni, drag, electromagnetic forces and buoyancy. The experimental work includes analysis of cross-sections of the workpieces, highspeed video images and spectroscopic measurements. Experiments and calculations have been performed for various currents, distances between electrode and workpiece and nozzle diameters. The studies show the significant impact of material properties like surface tension dependence on temperature as well as of the arc structure on the weld pool behaviour and finally the weld seam depth. The experimental weld pool profiles and plasma temperatures are in good agreement with computational results.

  19. Parameter study of global and cluster synchronization in arrays of dry friction oscillators

    Marszal, Michał, E-mail: michal.marszal@p.lodz.pl; Stefański, Andrzej

    2017-04-18

    Highlights: • Synchronization properties in arrays of coupled dry friction oscillators are investigated. • Master stability function in form of two-oscillator probe is used for predicting synchronization thresholds. • Two network topologies are checked: open and closed nearest neighbor coupling. • Regions of complete and cluster synchronization are found in parameter space. - Abstract: We investigate synchronization thresholds in arrays of identical classic stick-slip dry friction oscillators connected in a nearest neighbor fashion in closed and open ring network. Friction force is modeled by smoothened Stribeck model. Arrays of different length are checked in two parameter space (i.e., coupling coefficient vs. excitation frequency) for complete synchronization as well as cluster synchronization. Synchronization thresholds obtained by brute force numerical integration are compared with possible synchronization regions using the concept called master stability function in the form of two-oscillator reference probe. The results show existence of both complete synchronization and cluster synchronization regions in the investigated systems and confirm that two-oscillator probe can be applied for prediction of synchronization thresholds in systems with stick-slip phenomenon.

  20. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Al-Marzoki, Jasim M; Al-Maaroof, Zainab W; Kadhum, Ali H

    2012-01-01

    Background The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq. Methods A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks) and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually. Results Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3) g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6) × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472) × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count. Conclusion Most results in the current study were within the reference range. The hematological reference values for Iraqi neonatal cord plasma need to be confirmed by larger numbers of blood samples and by collecting samples from

  1. Correlating neutron yield and reliability for selecting experimental parameters for a plasma focus machine

    Pross, G.

    Possibilities of optimizing focus machines with a given energy content in the sense of high neutron yield and high reliability of the discharges are investigated experimentally. For this purpose, a focus machine of the Mather type with an energy content of 12 kJ was constructed. The following experimental parameters were varied: the material of the insulator in the ignition zone, the structure of the outside electrode, the length of the inside electrode, the filling pressure and the amount and polarity of the battery voltage. An important part of the diagnostic program consists of measurements of the azimuthal and axial current distribution in the accelerator, correlated with short-term photographs of the luminous front as a function of time. The results are given. A functional schematic has been drafted for focus discharge as an aid in extensive optimization of focus machines, combining findings from theory and experiments. The schematic takes into account the multiparameter character of the discharge and clarifies relationships between the experimental parameters and the target variables neutron yield and reliability

  2. The role of extreme orbits in the global organization of periodic regions in parameter space for one dimensional maps

    Costa, Diogo Ricardo da, E-mail: diogo_cost@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Hansen, Matheus [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Univ. São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Cidade Universitária, 05314-970, São Paulo – SP (Brazil); Guarise, Gustavo [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Medrano-T, Rene O. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP – Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua São Nicolau, 210, Centro, 09913-030, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Leonel, Edson D. [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-04-22

    We show that extreme orbits, trajectories that connect local maximum and minimum values of one dimensional maps, play a major role in the parameter space of dissipative systems dictating the organization for the windows of periodicity, hence producing sets of shrimp-like structures. Here we solve three fundamental problems regarding the distribution of these sets and give: (i) their precise localization in the parameter space, even for sets of very high periods; (ii) their local and global distributions along cascades; and (iii) the association of these cascades to complicate sets of periodicity. The extreme orbits are proved to be a powerful indicator to investigate the organization of windows of periodicity in parameter planes. As applications of the theory, we obtain some results for the circle map and perturbed logistic map. The formalism presented here can be extended to many other different nonlinear and dissipative systems. - Highlights: • Extreme orbits and the organization of periodic regions in parameter space. • One-dimensional dissipative mappings. • The circle map and also a time perturbed logistic map were studied.

  3. The role of extreme orbits in the global organization of periodic regions in parameter space for one dimensional maps

    Costa, Diogo Ricardo da; Hansen, Matheus; Guarise, Gustavo; Medrano-T, Rene O.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-01-01

    We show that extreme orbits, trajectories that connect local maximum and minimum values of one dimensional maps, play a major role in the parameter space of dissipative systems dictating the organization for the windows of periodicity, hence producing sets of shrimp-like structures. Here we solve three fundamental problems regarding the distribution of these sets and give: (i) their precise localization in the parameter space, even for sets of very high periods; (ii) their local and global distributions along cascades; and (iii) the association of these cascades to complicate sets of periodicity. The extreme orbits are proved to be a powerful indicator to investigate the organization of windows of periodicity in parameter planes. As applications of the theory, we obtain some results for the circle map and perturbed logistic map. The formalism presented here can be extended to many other different nonlinear and dissipative systems. - Highlights: • Extreme orbits and the organization of periodic regions in parameter space. • One-dimensional dissipative mappings. • The circle map and also a time perturbed logistic map were studied.

  4. Calculating the jet quenching parameter in the plasma of noncommutative Yang-Mills theory from gauge/gravity duality

    Chakraborty, Somdeb; Roy, Shibaji

    2012-02-01

    A particular decoupling limit of the nonextremal (D1, D3) brane bound state system of type IIB string theory is known to give the gravity dual of space-space noncommutative Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature. We use a string probe in this background to compute the jet quenching parameter in a strongly coupled plasma of hot noncommutative Yang-Mills theory in (3+1) dimensions from gauge/gravity duality. We give expressions for the jet quenching parameter for both small and large noncommutativity. For small noncommutativity, we find that the value of the jet quenching parameter gets reduced from its commutative value. The reduction is enhanced with temperature as T7 for fixed noncommutativity and fixed ’t Hooft coupling. We also give an estimate of the correction due to noncommutativity at the present collider energies like in RHIC or in LHC and find it too small to be detected. We further generalize the results for noncommutative Yang-Mills theories in diverse dimensions.

  5. Robust and global delay-dependent stability for genetic regulatory networks with parameter uncertainties.

    Tian, Li-Ping; Wang, Jianxin; Wu, Fang-Xiang

    2012-09-01

    The study of stability is essential for designing or controlling genetic regulatory networks, which can be described by nonlinear differential equations with time delays. Much attention has been paid to the study of delay-independent stability of genetic regulatory networks and as a result, many sufficient conditions have been derived for delay-independent stability. Although it might be more interesting in practice, delay-dependent stability of genetic regulatory networks has been studied insufficiently. Based on the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, in this study we will present some delay-dependent stability conditions for genetic regulatory networks. Then we extend these results to genetic regulatory networks with parameter uncertainties. To illustrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results, gene repressilatory networks are analyzed .

  6. Parameters of the constricted plasma discharge produced by radio-frequency for atmospheric pressures

    Zambrano R, G.

    1987-01-01

    The main electrophysical characteristics of high-frequency discharge between two electrodes for pressures of the order of atmospheric pressure were investigated. The vibrational and kinetic temperatures of the discharge, and the possibilities for creating the conditions which using these type of discharge an instability between vibrational and kinetic temperatures can be obtained. For determining main characteristics of this type of discharge, argon gas, nitrogen gas and air, when oxygen and nitrogen are predominated, were used. The obtained electrical discharge parameters were: the high frequency voltage between electrocathodes, the current, the phase displacement between current and voltage, and the discharge power. The kinetic temperature distribution in the discharge region, and the vibrational temperature of the nitrogen molecules in discharge channel were also obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Solar wind parameters responsible for the plasma injection into the magnetospheric ring current region

    Bobrov, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Solar wind effect on the magnetospheric ring-current region has been considered. The correlations with solar wind parameters of the magnitude qsub(o) proportional to the total energy of particles being injected into the magnetospheric ring-current region per one hour are studied statistically and by comparison of time variations. The data on 8 sporadic geomagnetic storms of various intensity, from moderate to very severe one, are used. It is found that qsub(o) correlates not only with the magnitude and the direction of the solar-wind magnetic field component normal to the ecliptic plane, Bsub(z), but also with the variability, sigmasub(B), of the total magnetic-field strength vector. The solar-wind flux velocity ν influences the average storm intensity but the time variations of ν during any individual storm do not correlate with those of qsub(o)

  8. Production of aerosols by optical catapulting: Imaging, performance parameters and laser-induced plasma sampling rate

    Abdelhamid, M.; Fortes, F.J.; Fernández-Bravo, A.; Harith, M.A.; Laserna, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Optical catapulting (OC) is a sampling and manipulation method that has been extensively studied in applications ranging from single cells in heterogeneous tissue samples to analysis of explosive residues in human fingerprints. Specifically, analysis of the catapulted material by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a promising approach for the inspection of solid particulate matter. In this work, we focus our attention in the experimental parameters to be optimized for a proper aerosol generation while increasing the particle density in the focal region sampled by LIBS. For this purpose we use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. Shadowgraphic images were acquired for studying the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. Aluminum silicate particles (0.2–8 μm) were ejected from the substrate using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, while time-resolved images recorded the propagation of the generated aerosol. For LIBS analysis and shadowgraphy visualization, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm and 532 nm was employed, respectively. Several parameters such as the time delay between pulses and the effect of laser fluence on the aerosol production have been also investigated. After optimization, the particle density in the sampling focal volume increases while improving the aerosol sampling rate till ca. 90%. - Highlights: • Aerosol generation by optical catapulting has been successfully optimized. • We study the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. • We use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. • Effects of temporal conditions and laser fluence on the elevation of the aerosol cloud have been investigated. • The observed LIBS sampling rate increased from 50% reported before to approximately 90%

  9. Study on the effect of hydrogen addition on the variation of plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge for synthesis of TiO2 films

    Partha Saikia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of hydrogen addition on plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge plasma in the synthesis of H-doped TiO2 films. The parameters of the hydrogen-added Ar/O2 plasma influence the properties and the structural phases of the deposited TiO2 film. Therefore, the variation of plasma parameters such as electron temperature (Te, electron density (ne, ion density (ni, degree of ionization of Ar and degree of dissociation of H2 as a function of hydrogen content in the discharge is studied. Langmuir probe and Optical emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the plasma. On the basis of the different reactions in the gas phase of the magnetron discharge, the variation of plasma parameters and sputtering rate are explained. It is observed that the electron and heavy ion density decline with gradual addition of hydrogen in the discharge. Hydrogen addition significantly changes the degree of ionization of Ar which influences the structural phases of the TiO2 film.

  10. Temporal follow-up of plasma parameter in an nuclear grade aluminum laser induced plasma at different laser energies by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Karki, Vijay; Singh, Manjeet; Sarkar, Arnab

    2015-07-01

    We report spectroscopic studies of laser induced plasma (LIP) produced by ns – 532 nm - Nd:YAG laser light pulses for different laser energies (35, 45 and 60 mJ) on an nuclear grade aluminum sample in air at atmospheric pressure. The temporal history of the plasma is obtained by recording the emission features at predetermined delays and at a fixed gate width (2.5 ì s). The temporal profiles of excitation temperature (T e ), ionization temperature (T ion ) and electron number density (N e ) were determined from Boltzmann plot, Saha-Boltzmann equation and Stark broadening method, respectively. T e , T ion and N e , shows a power law decay pattern with increasing acquisition time delay. T e has a positive correlation with laser energy, but the T ion and N e differ negligibly from one laser energy to another. Again the rate of decay of T e increases with increasing laser energy but that of T ion is much slower and independent of laser energy. The follow up of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions were evaluated using both McWhirter criterion and T e /T ion ratio for different delays and different energies to determine the temporal range in which LTE is satisfied. Both the methods concluded very similar results except for very high energy and small delay conditions, where T e /T ion ratio deviates from unity indicating non-LTE condition. The relative transition probabilities of Al transition (3sp4s: 4 P 2/5 →3sp 2 : 4P 3/2,5/2 ) and (4s: 2 S 1/2 → 3p: 2 P 1/2,3/2 ) were estimated and are in excellent agreement with the Kurucz database. These investigations provide an insight to optimize various parameters during LIBS analysis of aluminum based matrices. (author)

  11. Systematic Investigation on the Influence of Spray Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Coatings

    Mutter, Markus; Mauer, Georg; Mücke, Robert; Guillon, Olivier; Vaßen, Robert

    2018-04-01

    In the atmospheric plasma spray (APS) process, micro-sized ceramic powder is injected into a thermal plasma where it is rapidly heated and propelled toward the substrate. The coating formation is characterized by the subsequent impingement of a large number of more or less molten particles forming the so-called splats and eventually the coating. In this study, a systematic investigation on the influence of selected spray parameters on the coating microstructure and the coating properties was conducted. The investigation thereby comprised the coating porosity, the elastic modulus, and the residual stress evolution within the coating. The melting status of the particles at the impingement on the substrate in combination with the substrate surface condition is crucial for the coating formation. Single splats were collected on mirror-polished substrates for selected spray conditions and evaluated by identifying different types of splats (ideal, distorted, weakly bonded, and partially molten) and their relative fractions. In a previous study, these splat types were evaluated in terms of their effect on the above-mentioned coating properties. The particle melting status, which serves as a measure for the particle spreading behavior, was determined by in-flight particle temperature measurements and correlated to the coating properties. It was found that the gun power and the spray distance have a strong effect on the investigated coating properties, whereas the feed rate and the cooling show minor influence.

  12. Therapeutic effects of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract on plasma biochemical parameters of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Banaee, Mahdi; Soleimany, Vahid; Nematdoost Haghi, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated preclinical and clinical safety of marshmallow ( Althaea officinalis L.) extract as a naturopathic medicine in common carp deliberately infected with Aeromonas hydrophila . The fish were fed 0 (control), 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 g of marshmallow extract for 60 days in a preclinical experiment and then, challenged with A. hydrophila for a 10-day experiment. Significant increases were observed in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activities and plasma creatinine levels in fish fed 10 g marshmallow extract per kg feed. However, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly decreased on day 60. The fish fed 2.50 g marshmallow extract per kg feed indicated increased levels of total protein and globulin. There were no significant changes in albumin levels ( p > 0.05). 2.50 and 5.00 g marshmallow significantly decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels and increased glucose levels ( p Marshmallow extract at 5.00 and 10.00 g can adjust plasma biochemical parameters in fish challenged with A. hydrophila . The results of preclinical studies and pharmaceutical toxicity of marshmallow extract revealed that dietary levels lower than 5.00 g were safe and effective. The results of this clinical study demonstrated that marshmallow extract (5.00 g kg -1 feed) can protect fish against A. hydrophila .

  13. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Plasma-Nitriding Parameters on the Properties of Low-Alloy Steel

    Zdravecká, Eva; Slota, Ján; Solfronk, Pavel; Kolnerová, Michaela

    2017-07-01

    This work is concerned with the surface treatment (ion nitriding) of different plasma-nitriding parameters on the characteristics of DIN 1.8519 low-alloy steel. The samples were nitrided from 500 to 570 °C for 5-40 h using a constant 25% N2-75% H2 gaseous mixture. Lower temperature (500-520 °C) favors the formation of compound layers of γ' and ɛ iron nitrides in the surface layers, whereas a monophase γ'-Fe4 N layer can be obtained at a higher temperature. The hardness of this layer can be obtained when nitriding is performed at a higher temperature, and the hardness decreases when the temperature increases to 570 °C. These results indicate that pulsed plasma nitriding is highly efficient at 550 °C and can form thick and hard nitrided layers with satisfactory mechanical properties. The results show the optimized nitriding process at 540 °C for 20 h. This process can be an interesting means of enhancing the surface hardness of tool steels to forge dies compared to stamped steels with zinc coating with a reduced coefficient of friction and improving the anti-sticking properties of the tool surface.

  14. Optical characteristics and parameters of gas-discharge plasma in a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with neon

    Malinina, A. A.; Malinin, A. N.

    2013-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the optical characteristics and parameters of plasma of a dielectric barrier discharge in a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with neon—the working medium of a non-coaxial exciplex gas-discharge emitter. The electron energy distribution function, the transport characteristics, the specific power losses for electron processes, the electron density and temperature, and the rate constants for the processes of elastic and inelastic electron scattering by the working mixture components are determined as functions of the reduced electric field. The rate constant of the process leading to the formation of exciplex mercury monobromide molecules is found to be 1.6 × 10 −14 m 3 /s for a reduced electric field of E/N = 15 Td, at which the maximum emission intensity in the blue-green spectral region (λ max = 502 nm) was observed in this experiment

  15. Optical characteristics and parameters of gas-discharge plasma in a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with neon

    Malinina, A. A.; Malinin, A. N.

    2013-12-01

    Results are presented from studies of the optical characteristics and parameters of plasma of a dielectric barrier discharge in a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with neon—the working medium of a non-coaxial exciplex gas-discharge emitter. The electron energy distribution function, the transport characteristics, the specific power losses for electron processes, the electron density and temperature, and the rate constants for the processes of elastic and inelastic electron scattering by the working mixture components are determined as functions of the reduced electric field. The rate constant of the process leading to the formation of exciplex mercury monobromide molecules is found to be 1.6 × 10-14 m3/s for a reduced electric field of E/ N = 15 Td, at which the maximum emission intensity in the blue-green spectral region (λmax = 502 nm) was observed in this experiment.

  16. Optical characteristics and parameters of gas-discharge plasma in a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with neon

    Malinina, A. A., E-mail: alexandr_malinin@rambler.ru; Malinin, A. N. [Uzhhorod National University (Ukraine)

    2013-12-15

    Results are presented from studies of the optical characteristics and parameters of plasma of a dielectric barrier discharge in a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with neon—the working medium of a non-coaxial exciplex gas-discharge emitter. The electron energy distribution function, the transport characteristics, the specific power losses for electron processes, the electron density and temperature, and the rate constants for the processes of elastic and inelastic electron scattering by the working mixture components are determined as functions of the reduced electric field. The rate constant of the process leading to the formation of exciplex mercury monobromide molecules is found to be 1.6 × 10{sup −14} m{sup 3}/s for a reduced electric field of E/N = 15 Td, at which the maximum emission intensity in the blue-green spectral region (λ{sub max} = 502 nm) was observed in this experiment.

  17. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  18. Population Structures in Russia: Optimality and Dependence on Parameters of Global Evolution

    Yuri Yegorov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to analytical investigation of the division of geographical space into urban and rural areas with application to Russia. Yegorov (2005, 2006, 2009 has suggested the role of population density on economics. A city has an attractive potential based on scale economies. The optimal city size depends on the balance between its attractive potential and the cost of living that can be approximated by equilibrium land rent and commuting cost. For moderate scale effects optimal population of a city depends negatively on transport costs that are related positively with energy price index. The optimal agricultural density of population can also be constructed. The larger is a land slot per peasant, the higher will be the output from one unit of his labour force applied to this slot. But at the same time, larger farm size results in increase of energy costs, related to land development, collecting the crop and bringing it to the market. In the last 10 years we have observed substantial rise of both food and energy prices at the world stock markets. However, the income of farmers did not grow as fast as food price index. This can shift optimal rural population density to lower level, causing migration to cities (and we observe this tendency globally. Any change in those prices results in suboptimality of existing spatial structures. If changes are slow, the optimal infrastructure can be adjusted by simple migration. If the shocks are high, adaptation may be impossible and shock will persist. This took place in early 1990es in the former USSR, where after transition to world price for oil in domestic markets existing spatial infrastructure became suboptimal and resulted in persistent crisis, leading to deterioration of both industry and agriculture. Russia is the largest country but this is also its problem. Having large resource endowment per capita, it is problematic to build sufficient infrastructure. Russia has too low population

  19. A global model for SF6 plasmas coupling reaction kinetics in the gas phase and on the surface of the reactor walls

    Kokkoris, George; Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos; Gogolides, Evangelos; Goodyear, Andy; Cooke, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Gas phase and reactor wall-surface kinetics are coupled in a global model for SF 6 plasmas. A complete set of gas phase and surface reactions is formulated. The rate coefficients of the electron impact reactions are based on pertinent cross section data from the literature, which are integrated over a Druyvesteyn electron energy distribution function. The rate coefficients of the surface reactions are adjustable parameters and are calculated by fitting the model to experimental data from an inductively coupled plasma reactor, i.e. F atom density and pressure change after the ignition of the discharge. The model predicts that SF 6 , F, F 2 and SF 4 are the dominant neutral species while SF 5 + and F - are the dominant ions. The fit sheds light on the interaction between the gas phase and the reactor walls. A loss mechanism for SF x radicals by deposition of a fluoro-sulfur film on the reactor walls is needed to predict the experimental data. It is found that there is a net production of SF 5 , F 2 and SF 6 , and a net consumption of F, SF 3 and SF 4 on the reactor walls. Surface reactions as well as reactions between neutral species in the gas phase are found to be important sources and sinks of the neutral species.

  20. River routing at the continental scale: use of globally-available data and an a priori method of parameter estimation

    P. Naden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Two applications of a river routing model based on the observed river network and a linearised solution to the convective-diffusion equation are presented. One is an off-line application to part of the Amazon basin (catchment area 2.15 M km2 using river network data from the Digital Chart of the World and GCM-generated runoff at a grid resolution of 2.5 degrees latitude and 3.75 degrees longitude. The other application is to the Arkansas (409,000 km2 and Red River (125,500 km2 basins as an integrated component of a macro-scale hydrological model, driven by observed meteorology and operating on a 17 km grid. This second application makes use of the US EPA reach data to construct the river network. In both cases, a method of computing parameter values a priori has been applied and shows some success, although some interpretation is required to derive `correct' parameter values and further work is needed to develop guidelines for use of the method. The applications, however, do demonstrate the possibilities for applying the routing model at the continental scale, with globally-available data and a priori parameter estimation, and its value for validating GCM output against observed flows.

  1. Plasma Fibrinolysis Parameters in Smokers and Non-smokers of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study.

    Delgado, Graciela E; Siekmeier, Rüdiger; Krämer, Bernhard K; März, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Parameters of coagulation and fibrinolysis are risk factors of CVD and might be affected by cigarette smoking. Aim of our study was to analyze the effect of cigarette smoking on parameters of fibrinolysis in active smokers (AS) and life-time non-smokers (NS) of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study as well as the use of these parameters for risk prediction. We determined plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator antigen (t-PA), protein C activity, and D-dimers in 3,316 LURIC patients. Smoking status was assessed by a questionnaire and measurement of plasma cotinine concentration. Cox regression was used to assess the effect of parameters on mortality. We found that of the 3,316 LURIC patients 777 were AS and 1,178 NS. Within the observation period of 10 years (median) 221 AS and 302 NS died. In male AS vs. NS, PAI-1 (19.0 (10.0-35.0) vs. 15.0 (9.0-29.0) U/ml; p=0.026) and t-PA antigen (12.7 (9.6-16.3) vs. 11.6 (8.9-14.6) μg/l; p=0.020) were slightly increased, while t-PA activity was slightly decreased (0.63 (0.30-1.05) vs. 0.68 (0.42-1.10) U/l; p=0.005). In female AS vs. NS, t-PA antigen (10.5 (8.3-13.9) vs. 11.5 (8.8-15.0) μg/l; p=0.025) and protein C (108.0±24.1% vs. 118.0±25.7%; p=0.004) were decreased. All parameters except for protein C were predictive for mortality in AS. Fully adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) were 1.14 (1.04-1.25), 1.19 (1.06-1.34), and 1.29 (1.11-1.49) per 1SD increase for D-dimer, t-PA, and PAI-1, respectively. Including fibrinolysis parameters in risk prediction models for mortality improved the area-under-the-curve (AUC) significantly compared with the conventional risk factors. In conclusion, we found alterations in the fibrinolytic system in smokers, which were more pronounced in male AS. PAI-1, t-PA and D-dimers were significant predictors of mortality in AS in LURIC and should be

  2. Global stability of plasmas with helical boundary deformation and net toroidal current against n=1,2 external modes

    Ardela, A.; Cooper, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we resume a numerical study of the global stability of plasma with helical boundary deformation and non null net toroidal current. The aim was to see whether external modes with n=1,2 (n toroidal mode number) can be stabilized at values of β inaccessible to the tokamak. L=2,3 configurations with several aspect ratios and different numbers of equilibrium field periods are considered. A large variety of toroidal current densities and different pressure profiles are taken into account. Mercier stability is also investigated. (author) 4 figs., 6 refs

  3. Measurement of macroscopic plasma parameters with a radio experiment: Interpretation of the quasi-thermal noise spectrum observed in the solar wind

    Couturier, P.; Hoang, S.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Steinberg, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The ISEE-3 SBH radio receiver has provided the first systematic observations of the quasi-thermal (plasma waves) noise in the solar wind plasma. The theoretical interpretation of that noise involves the particle distribution function so that electric noise measurements with long antennas provide a fast and independent method of measuring plasma parameters: densities and temperatures of a two component (core and halo) electron distribution function have been obtained in that way. The polarization of that noise is frequency dependent and sensitive to the drift velocity of the electron population. Below the plasma frequency, there is evidence of a weak noise spectrum with spectral index -1 which is not yet accounted for by the theory. The theoretical treatment of the noise associated with the low energy (thermal) proton population shows that the moving electrical antenna radiates in the surrounding plasma by Carenkov emission which becomes predominant at the low frequencies, below about 0.1 F sub P.

  4. Stability assessment and operating parameter optimization on experimental results in very small plasma focus, using sensitivity analysis

    Jafari, Hossein; Habibi, Morteza

    2018-04-01

    Regarding the importance of stability in small-scale plasma focus devices for producing the repeatable and strength pinching, a sensitivity analysis approach has been used for applicability in design parameters optimization of an actually very low energy device (84 nF, 48 nH, 8-9.5 kV, ∼2.7-3.7 J). To optimize the devices functional specification, four different coaxial electrode configurations have been studied, scanning an argon gas pressure range from 0.6 to 1.5 mbar via the charging voltage variation study from 8.3 to 9.3 kV. The strength and efficient pinching was observed for the tapered anode configuration, over an expanded operating pressure range of 0.6 to 1.5 mbar. The analysis results showed that the most sensitive of the pinch voltage was associated with 0.88 ± 0.8mbar argon gas pressure and 8.3-8.5 kV charging voltage, respectively, as the optimum operating parameters. From the viewpoint of stability assessment of the device, it was observed that the least variation in stable operation of the device was for a charging voltage range of 8.3 to 8.7 kV in an operating pressure range from 0.6 to 1.1 mbar.

  5. Association of Seminal Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde Levels With Sperm Parameters in Infertile Men With Varicocele

    Salimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Varicocele is one of the most common reasons for male infertility and could impair spermatogenesis through mechanisms that are not well known. Recently, oxidative stress has been introduced as a major reason for male infertility caused by varicocele. Objectives In the current study, we aimed to assess the TAC (total antioxidant capacity and MDA (malondialdehyde as stress oxidative markers in infertile men with varicocele and fertile men, and moreover, their correlation with sperm parameters. Patients and Methods This case control study was performed on 43 infertile men with varicocele and 46 men with proven fertility. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reaction methods were used for seminal plasma TAC and MDA assay, respectively. Results Lower TAC levels (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = 0.0004 and higher MDA levels (2.5 ± 1.1 vs. 5.8 ± 1.9 mmol/L, P < 0.0001 were observed in infertile men with varicocele compared to fertile men. There was no correlation between TAC and MDA in fertile men (r = 0.02, P = 0.9, however, a negative correlation was found between TAC and MDA levels in varicocele infertile men (r = −0.44, P = 0.003. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between sperm count and sperm motility with TAC levels in varicocele infertile men (r = 0.4, P = 0.02 and r = 0.6, P < 0.0001, respectively. There was a correlation between sperm motility and TAC levels in fertile men (r = 0.5, P = 0.001, but other parameters did not correlate with TAC in this group. A negative correlation was shown between semen volume, sperm count, total sperm, sperm motility, and sperm morphology with MDA levels in varicocele infertile men (r = 0.3, P = 0.045; r = −0.4, P = 0.009; r = −0.5, P = 0.002; r = −0.5, P = 0.001 and r = −0.4, P = 0.008, respectively. There was no correlation between these parameters and MDA in fertile men. Conclusions Our findings indicated that oxidative stress could

  6. The Role of Spraying Parameters and Inert Gas Shrouding in Hybrid Water-Argon Plasma Spraying of Tungsten and Copper for Nuclear Fusion Applications

    Matějíček, Jiří; Kavka, Tetyana; Bertolissi, Gabriele; Ctibor, Pavel; Vilémová, Monika; Mušálek, Radek; Nevrlá, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2013), s. 744-755 ISSN 1059-9630 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI2/702; GA TA ČR TA01010300 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * tungsten * copper * inert gas shrouding * water-argon plasma torch * gas shroud * hybrid plasma torch * influence of spray parameters * nuclear fusion * oxidation Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.491, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11666-013-9895-x.pdf

  7. Plasma Protein Turnover Rates in Rats Using Stable Isotope Labeling, Global Proteomics, and Activity-Based Protein Profiling

    Smith, Jordan N.; Tyrrell, Kimberly J.; Hansen, Joshua R.; Thomas, Dennis G.; Murphree, Taylor A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Luders, Teresa; Madden, James M.; Li, Yunying; Wright, Aaron T.; Piehowski, Paul D.

    2017-12-06

    Protein turnover is important for general health on cellular and organism scales providing a strategy to replace old, damaged, or dysfunctional proteins. Protein turnover also informs of biomarker kinetics, as a better understanding of synthesis and degradation of proteins increases the clinical utility of biomarkers. Here, turnover rates of plasma proteins in rats were measured in vivo using a pulse-chase stable isotope labeling experiment. During the pulse, rats (n=5) were fed 13C6-labeled lysine (“heavy”) feed for 23 days to label proteins. During the chase, feed was changed to an unlabeled equivalent feed (“light”), and blood was repeatedly sampled from rats over 10 time points for 28 days. Plasma samples were digested with trypsin, and analyzed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). MaxQuant was used to identify peptides and proteins, and quantify heavy:light lysine ratios. A system of ordinary differential equations was used to calculate protein turnover rates. Using this approach, 273 proteins were identified, and turnover rates were quantified for 157 plasma proteins with half-lives ranging 0.3-103 days. For the ~70 most abundant proteins, variability in turnover rates among rats was low (median coefficient of variation: 0.09). Activity-based protein profiling was applied to pooled plasma samples to enrich serine hydrolases using a fluorophosphonate (FP2) activity-based probe. This enrichment resulted in turnover rates for an additional 17 proteins. This study is the first to measure global plasma protein turnover rates in rats in vivo, measure variability of protein turnover rates in any animal model, and utilize activity-based protein profiling for enhancing measurements of targeted, low-abundant proteins, such as those commonly used as biomarkers. Measured protein turnover rates will be important for understanding of the role of protein turnover in cellular and organism health as well as increasing the utility of protein

  8. Global MHD modes excited by energetic ions in heliotron/torsatron plasmas

    Toi, K.; Takechi, M.; Takagi, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the CHS heliotron/torsatron, fishbone instabilities (FBs) and toroidal Alfven eigenmodes(TAEs) are observed for the first time, in NBI heated plasmas where small beam driven current is induced. Pulsed increase in energetic ion loss flux is detected by an escaping ion probe during the m=3/n=2 FBs(m,n:poloidal and toroidal mode numbers). The sawtooth crash is often induced by the m=2/n=1 FBs. The current driven internal kink mode and pressure driven interchange modes are thought to be relevant MHD instabilities to FBs. TAEs with n=1 and n=2 are identified, and localized near the plasma core region where fairly low magnetic shear would be realized by the small net plasma current. So far, the observed TAEs do not lead to enhanced loss of energetic ions because of low magnetic fluctuation level. (author)

  9. Global MHD modes excited by energetic ions in heliotron/torsatron plasmas

    Toi, K.; Takechi, M.; Takagi, S.

    2001-01-01

    In the CHS heliotron/torsatron, fishbone instabilities (FBs) and toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) are observed for the first time, in NBI heated plasmas where small beam driven current is induced. Pulsed increase in energetic ion loss flux is detected by an escaping ion probe during the m=3/n=2 FBs (m,n: poloidal and toroidal mode numbers). The sawtooth crash is often induced by the m=2/n=1 FBs. The current driven internal kink mode and pressure driven interchange modes are thought to be relevant MHD instabilities to FBs. TAEs with n=1 and n=2 are identified, and localized near the plasma core region where fairly low magnetic shear would be realized by the small net plasma current. So far, the observed TAEs do not lead to enhanced loss of energetic ions because of low magnetic fluctuation level. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Physico-chemical Parameters of Manchar Lake Water and Their Comparison with Other Global Published Values

    Muhammad Balal Arain

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of current study was to evaluate the status of the Manchar lake water with respect to different physico-chemical parameters (electric conductivity, pH, chloride, phosphate, sulfate, total alkalinity, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, cadmium, copper, arsenic, nickel, zinc, chromium lead and selenium in 2005-2007. Among the elemental investigation of Manchar Lake water except Co, Cr, Cu and Mn, other elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Fe, Mg, Na, K, Ni, Pb and Se have higher values as compared to the permissible level of these elements in drinking water. The results were compared with WHO water quality guidelines as well as with literature values reported for global lake water.

  11. Significance of uncertainties derived from settling tank model structure and parameters on predicting WWTP performance - A global sensitivity analysis study

    Ramin, Elham; Sin, Gürkan; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty derived from one of the process models – such as one-dimensional secondary settling tank (SST) models – can impact the output of the other process models, e.g., biokinetic (ASM1), as well as the integrated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) models. The model structure and parameter...... and from the last aerobic bioreactor upstream to the SST (Garrett/hydraulic method). For model structure uncertainty, two one-dimensional secondary settling tank (1-D SST) models are assessed, including a first-order model (the widely used Takács-model), in which the feasibility of using measured...... uncertainty of settler models can therefore propagate, and add to the uncertainties in prediction of any plant performance criteria. Here we present an assessment of the relative significance of secondary settling model performance in WWTP simulations. We perform a global sensitivity analysis (GSA) based...

  12. Globally Polarized Quark-gluon Plasma in Non-central A+ACollisions

    Liang, Zuo-tang; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2004-10-01

    Produced partons have large local relative orbital angular momentum along the direction opposite to the reaction plane in the early stage of non-central heavy-ion collisions. Parton scattering is shown to polarize quarks along the same direction due to spin-orbital coupling.Such global quark polarization will lead to many observable consequences,such as left-right asymmetry of hadron spectra, global transverse polarization of thermal photons, dileptons and hadrons. Hadrons from the decay of polarized resonances will have azimuthal asymmetry similar to the elliptic flow. Global hyperon polarization is predicted with indifferent hadronization scenarios and can be easily tested.

  13. High-resolution Thomson scattering system on the COMPASS tokamak: Evaluation of plasma parameters and error analysis

    Aftanas, Milan; Böhm, Petr; Bílková, Petra; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Zajac, Jaromír; Žáček, František; Stöckel, Jan; Hron, Martin; Pánek, Radomír; Scannell, R.; Walsh, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 10 (2012), 10E350-10E350 ISSN 0034-6748. [Topical Conference High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics/19./. Monterey, 06.05.2012-10.05.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1467; GA MŠk 7G10072 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : error analysis * Monte Carlo methods * plasma density * plasma diagnostics * plasma temperature * plasma toroidal confinement * Tokamak devices Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.602, year: 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4743956

  14. Correlation of Seminal Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde Levels With Sperm Parameters in Men With Idiopathic Infertility

    Fazeli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Recently, oxidative stress has been introduced as a major cause of male infertility. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA as markers of oxidative stress in relation to idiopathic male infertility and sperm parameters. Patients and Methods This case control study was conducted using 35 men with idiopathic infertility and 34 men with proven fertility. Seminal plasma TAC and MDA were measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reaction methods, respectively. Results Seminal TAC levels were significantly lower and seminal MDA levels were significantly higher in men with idiopathic infertility than in fertile men (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.004, respectively. A positive correlation was shown between sperm motility, sperm morphology, and TAC levels in men with idiopathic infertility (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002, respectively. In addition, there was a correlation between sperm motility and TAC levels in fertile men (P = 0.005. There was no correlation between sperm count and TAC levels in either men with idiopathic infertility or in fertile men. Negative correlations were observed between MDA levels and sperm motility, morphology, and sperm count only in men with idiopathic infertility (P = 0.003, P = 0.001, and P = 0.006, respectively. Conclusions Our results show that oxidative stress could play an important role in male infertility as well as in sperm motility and sperm morphology.

  15. Liver morphology and morphometry and plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats that received leaf infusion of Rudgea viburnoides Benth. (Rubiaceae

    Juliana Castro Monteiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rudgea viburnoides leaves are widely used in popular Brazilian medicine as a diuretic, antirheumatic, hypotensive and blood depurative tea. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of this infusion on the liver and on the plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats. Two groups received the R. viburnoides leaf infusion at a daily dose of 10 or 20g dry-leaves/L water, during 40 days. The histopathological analysis did not show degenerated areas or infiltration of leucocytes. Hepatic morphometry showed accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes of the treated groups. There was no significant change in the plasma levels of urea, creatinin, uric acid, direct bilirubin, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, gamma glutamyl tranferase (gamma-GT, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, chlorine, phosphate and calcium. A significant reduction in the plasma levels of triacylglycerol (TAG occurred in the group that received the higher dose.As folhas de Rudgea viburnoides Benth. são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, anti-reumáticas, depurativas do sangue e em regimes de emagrecimento. O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar o efeito da infusão das folhas de R. viburnoides nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos e na morfologia e morfometria hepática de ratos Wistar adultos. Dois grupos receberam a infusão das folhas, diariamente, nas dosagens de 10 e 20 g de folhas secas/L de água, durante 40 dias. O grupo controle recebeu a mesma quantidade de água. As análises histopatológicas não mostraram áreas degeneradas e infiltrados inflamatórios. A morfometria hepática mostrou acúmulo significativo de gordura nos hepatócitos dos animais tratados, principalmente no grupo que recebeu a maior dose da infusão (8,75% de gotículas lipídicas, comparado com 0,25% delas encontradas nos animais controles. Não foram observadas alterações nos níveis plasmáticos de uréia, creatinina,

  16. Effect of styrene exposure on plasma parameters, molecular mechanisms and gene expression in rat model islet cells.

    Niaz, Kamal; Hassan, Fatima Ismail; Mabqool, Faheem; Khan, Fazlullah; Momtaz, Saeideh; Baeeri, Maryam; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Rahimifard, Mahban; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Styrene is an aromatic hydrocarbon compound present in the environment and have primary exposure through plastic industry. The current study was designed to evaluate styrene-induced toxicity parameters in rat plasma fasting blood glucose (FBG) level, oral glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines in cellular and molecular levels. Styrene was dissolved in corn oil and administered at different doses (250, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000mg/kg/day and control) to each rat, for 42days. In treated groups, styrene significantly increased fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin (p<0.001) and glucose tolerance. Glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia were found to be the main consequences correlating gene expression of islet cells. Styrene caused a significant enhancement of oxidative stress markers (p<0.001) and inflammatory cytokines in a dose and concentration-dependent manner in plasma (p<0.001). Moreover, the activities of caspase-3 and -9 of the islet cells were significantly up-regulated by this compound at 1500 and 2000mg/kg/day styrene administrated groups (p<0.001). The relative fold change of GLUD1 was downregulated (p<0.05) and upregulated at 1500 and 2000mg/kg, respectively (p<0.01). The relative fold changes of GLUT2 were down regulated at 250 and 1000mg/kg and up regulated in 500, 1500 and 2000mg/kg doses of styrene (p<0.01). The expression level of GCK indicated a significant upregulation at 250mg/kg and downregulation of relative fold changes in the remaining doses of styrene, except for no change at 2000mg/kg of styrene for GCK. Targeting genes (GLUD1, GLUT2 and GCK) of the pancreatic islet cells in styrene exposed groups, disrupted gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis pathways and insulin secretory functions. The present study illustrated that fasting blood glucose, insulin pathway, oxidative balance, inflammatory cytokines, cell viability and responsible genes of glucose metabolism are susceptible to styrene

  17. Plasma in Saturn's nightside magnetosphere and the implications for global circulation

    Mcandrews, Hazel J.; Thomsen, Michelle F.; Wilson, Robert J.; Henderson, Michael G.; Tokar, Robert L.; Arridge, Chris S.; Jackman, Caitriona M.; Khurana, Krishan K.; Sittler, Edward C.; Coates, Andrew J.; Dougherty, Michele K.

    2008-01-01

    We present a bulk ion flow map from the nightside, equatorial region of Saturn's magnetosphere derived from the Cassini CAPS ion mass spectrometer data. The map clearly demonstrates the dominance of corotation flow over radial flow and suggests that the flux tubes sampled are still closed and attached to the planet up to distances of 50 RS. The plasma characteristics in the near-midnight region are described and indicate a transition between the region of the magnetosphere containing plasma on closed drift paths and that containing flux tubes which may not complete a full rotation around the planet. Data from the electron spectrometer reveal two plasma states of high and low density. These are attributed either to the sampling of mass-loaded and depleted flux tubes, respectively, or to the latitudinal structure of the plasma sheet. Depleted, returning flux tubes are not, in general, directly observed in the ions, although the electron observations suggest that such a process must take place in order to produce the low density population. An example of such a low-density interval containing hot electrons with a dipolarised, swept-forward field configuration is described and strongly suggests that reconnection must have occurred planetward of Cassini. Flux tube content is conserved below a limit defined by the mass-loading and magnetic field strength and indicates that the flux tubes sampled may survive their passage through the tail. The conditions for mass release are evaluated using measured densities, angular velocities and magnetic field strength. The results suggest that for the relatively dense ion populations detectable by IMS, the condition for flux-tube breakage has not yet been exceeded. However, the low-density regimes observed in the electron data suggest that loaded flux tubes at greater distances do exceed the threshold for mass loss and subsequently return to the inner magnetosphere significantly depleted of plasma.

  18. Plasma in Saturn's nightside magnetosphere and the implications for global circulation

    Mcandrews, Hazel J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henderson, M G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tokar, R L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackman, C M [IMPERIAL COLLEGE; Khurana, K K [UNIV OF CAL; Sittler, E C [NASA/GSFC; Coates, A J [MSSL; Dougherty, M K [IMPERIAL COLLEGE

    2009-01-01

    We present a bulk ion flow map from the nightside equatorial region of Saturn's magnetosphere derived from the Cassini CAPS ion mass spectrometer data. The map clearly demonstrates the dominance of corotation flow over radial flow and suggests that the flux tubes sampled are still closed and attached to the planet up to distances of 50 R{sub s}. The plasma characteristics in the near-midnight region are described and indicate a transition between the region of the magnetosphere containing plasma on closed drift paths and that containing flux tubes which may not complete a full rotation around the planet. Data from the electron spectrometer reveal two plasma states of high and low density. These are attributed either to the sampling of mass-loaded and depleted flux tubes, respectively, or to the latitudinal structure of the plasma sheet Depleted, returning flux tubes are not, in general, directly observed in the ions, although the electron observations suggest that such a process must take place in order to produce the low density population. Flux tube content is conserved below a limIt defined by the mass-loading and magnetic field strength and indicates that the flux tubes sampled may survive their passage through the tail. The conditions for mass release are evaluated using measured densities, angular velocities and magnetic field strength, The results suggest that for the relatively dense ion populations detectable by IMS, the condition for flux-tube breakage has not yet been exceeded, However, the low-density regimes observed in the electron data suggest that loaded flux tubes at greater distances do exceed the threshold for mass loss and subsequently return to the inner magnetosphere significantly depleted of plasma.

  19. Effects of spray parameters on the microstructure and property of Al2O3 coatings sprayed by a low power plasma torch with a novel hollow cathode

    Li Changjiu; Sun Bo

    2004-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 coating is deposited using a low power plasma torch with a novel hollow cathode through axial powder injection under a plasma power up to several kilowatts. The effects of the main processing parameters including plasma arc power, operating gas flow and spray distance on particle velocity during spraying, and the microstructure and property of the coating are investigated. The microstructure of the Al 2 O 3 coating is examined using optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The property of the coating is characterized by dry rubber wheel abrasive wear test. The velocity of in-flight particle is measured using a velocity/temperature measurement system for spray particle based on thermal radiation from the particle. The dependency of the microstructure and property of the coating on spray particle conditions are examined by comparing the particle velocity, and microstructure and abrasive wear weight loss of subsequent coating deposited by low power plasma spray with those of the coating by conventional plasma spray at a power one order higher. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating revealed that Al 2 O 3 particles during low power plasma spraying reach to sufficiently melting state prior to impact on the substrate with a velocity comparable to that in conventional plasma spraying. The experiment results have shown that processing parameters have significant influence on the particle conditions and performance of deposited Al 2 O 3 coating. The coating of comparable microstructure and properties to that deposited by conventional plasma spray can be produced under a power one order lower. From the present study, it can be suggested that a comparable coating can be produced despite plasma power level if the comparable particle velocity and molten state are achieved

  20. The effect of axial ion parameters on the properties of glow discharge polymer in T2B/H2 plasma

    Ai, Xing; He, Xiao-Shan; Huang, Jing-Lin; He, Zhi-Bing; Du, Kai; Chen, Guo

    2018-03-01

    Glow discharge polymer (GDP) films were fabricated using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The main purpose of this work was to explore the correlations of plasma parameters with the surface morphology and chemical structure of GDP films. The intensities of main positive ions and ion energy as functions of axial distances in T2B/H2 plasma were diagnosed using energy-resolved mass spectrometry. The surface morphology and chemical structure were characterized as functions of axial distances using a scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. As the axial distance increases, both the intensities of positive ions and high energy ions decreases, and dissociation weakens while polymerization enhances. This leads to the weakening of the cross-linking structure of GDP films and the formation of dome defects on films. Additionally, high energy ions could introduce a strong etching effect to form etching pits. Therefore, an axial distance of about 20 mm was found to be the optimal plasma parameter to prepare the defect-free GDP films. These results could help one to find the optimal plasma parameters for GDP film deposition.

  1. Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    Morks, M.F.; Kobayashi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings

  2. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  3. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  4. Limit on βp due to global modes in ignited plasmas

    Pegoraro, F.; Porcelli, F.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that fusion produced α-particles can lead to stable values of β p that are considerably larger than those predicted by the ideal MHD theory. The stabilising mechanism is effective if a combined criterion is met, involving among others, the area of the plasma cross-section where q is below unity and the ignition temperature. The implications of this criterion are discussed in terms of envisaged ignition scenarios. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs

  5. Low-latitude plasma drifts from a simulation of the global atmospheric dynamo

    Crain, D.J.; Heelis, R.A.; Bailey, G.J.; Richmond, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    The authors work with a dynamo model to address questions about plasma drifts in the E region, primarily at low latitudes. Tidal winds have been known to have a big influence on electric fields in the E region, and magnetic fields and ion drifts in the equatorial F region. Recent work has centered on self consistency in simulations, using realistic wind distributions, 3-D current distributions, and more accurate measures of the currents and conductivities. The wind dynamo in the ionosphere is well accepted as the main source of electric fields in the low and mid latitudes. The authors present a self consistent model of the plasma distribution and the dynamo driven electric potential distribution. Their results are compared with other simulations. A major concern in their model was reproducing ion drift observations in the equatorial region. Their conclusion is that the F region plays a significant role in the low latitude dyanamo effects, much larger than was previously assumed. When they build into their model realistic ionospheric conditions, allow for appropriate wind distributions, and allow a self consistent redistribution of plasma in the night, they find the model simulates measured ion drifts more closely. Their model is normalized against observations at Jicamarca. By allowing E x B drifts in the ionosphere, and F region zonal winds they can reproduce many of the night changes in the ion drifts at Jicamarca

  6. Optical characteristics and parameters of gas-discharge plasma in a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with argon

    Malinina, A. A.; Malinin, A. N.

    2015-03-01

    Results are presented from studies of the optical characteristics and parameters of the plasma of a dielectric barrier discharge in a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with argon—the working medium of an exciplex gas-discharge emitter. It is established that the partial pressures of mercury dibromide vapor and argon at which the average and pulsed emission intensities in the blue—green spectral region (λmax = 502 nm) reach their maximum values are 0.6 and 114.4 kPa, respectively. The electron energy distribution function, the transport characteristics, the specific power spent on the processes involving electrons, the electron density and temperature, and the rate constants for the processes of elastic and inelastic electron scattering from the molecules and atoms of the working mixture are determined by numerical simulation, and their dependences on the reduced electric field strength are analyzed. The rate constant of the process leading to the formation of exciplex mercury monobromide molecules for a reduced electric field of E/ N = 20 Td, at which the maximum emission intensity in the blue—green spectral region was observed in this experiment, is found to be 8.1 × 10-15 m3/s.

  7. Optical characteristics and parameters of gas-discharge plasma in a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with argon

    Malinina, A. A., E-mail: alexandr-malinin@rambler.ru; Malinin, A. N. [Uzhhorod National University (Ukraine)

    2015-03-15

    Results are presented from studies of the optical characteristics and parameters of the plasma of a dielectric barrier discharge in a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with argon—the working medium of an exciplex gas-discharge emitter. It is established that the partial pressures of mercury dibromide vapor and argon at which the average and pulsed emission intensities in the blue—green spectral region (λ{sub max} = 502 nm) reach their maximum values are 0.6 and 114.4 kPa, respectively. The electron energy distribution function, the transport characteristics, the specific power spent on the processes involving electrons, the electron density and temperature, and the rate constants for the processes of elastic and inelastic electron scattering from the molecules and atoms of the working mixture are determined by numerical simulation, and their dependences on the reduced electric field strength are analyzed. The rate constant of the process leading to the formation of exciplex mercury monobromide molecules for a reduced electric field of E/N = 20 Td, at which the maximum emission intensity in the blue—green spectral region was observed in this experiment, is found to be 8.1 × 10{sup −15} m{sup 3}/s.

  8. Optical characteristics and parameters of gas-discharge plasma in a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with argon

    Malinina, A. A.; Malinin, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the optical characteristics and parameters of the plasma of a dielectric barrier discharge in a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with argon—the working medium of an exciplex gas-discharge emitter. It is established that the partial pressures of mercury dibromide vapor and argon at which the average and pulsed emission intensities in the blue—green spectral region (λ max = 502 nm) reach their maximum values are 0.6 and 114.4 kPa, respectively. The electron energy distribution function, the transport characteristics, the specific power spent on the processes involving electrons, the electron density and temperature, and the rate constants for the processes of elastic and inelastic electron scattering from the molecules and atoms of the working mixture are determined by numerical simulation, and their dependences on the reduced electric field strength are analyzed. The rate constant of the process leading to the formation of exciplex mercury monobromide molecules for a reduced electric field of E/N = 20 Td, at which the maximum emission intensity in the blue—green spectral region was observed in this experiment, is found to be 8.1 × 10 −15 m 3 /s

  9. Optimization of digestion parameters for analysing the total sulphur of mine tailings by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    Alam, Raquibul; Shang, Julie Q; Cheng, Xiangrong

    2012-05-01

    The oxidation of sulphidic mine tailings and consequent acid generation poses challenges for the environment. Accurate and precise analysis of sulphur content is necessary for impact assessment and management of mine tailings. Here, the authors aim at developing a rapid and easy digestion procedure, which may analyse and measure the total amount of sulphur in mine tailings by using inductively coupled plasma. For evaluating effects of several variables, the researchers used a univariate (analysis of variance (ANOVA)) strategy and considered factors such as composition of the acid mixture, heating time, and refluxing device to optimize the performance. To do the experiment, the researchers have used two certified reference materials (KZK-1 and RTS-2) and samples of tailings from Musselwhite mine. ANOVA result shows that heating time is the most influencing factor on acid digestion of the reference materials whereas in case of a digestion of tailings sample, hydrochloric acid proved to be the most significant parameter. Satisfactory results between the measured and referenced values are found for all experiments. It is found that the aqua regia (1 ml HNO(3) + 3 ml HCl) digestion of 0.1 g of samples after only 40 min of heating at 95°C produced fast, safe, and accurate analytical results with a recovery of 97% for the selected reference materials.

  10. Plasma parameters of the cathode spot explosive electron emission cell obtained from the model of liquid-metal jet tearing and electrical explosion

    Tsventoukh, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    A model has been developed for the explosive electron emission cell pulse of a vacuum discharge cathode spot that describes the ignition and extinction of the explosive pulse. The pulse is initiated due to hydrodynamic tearing of a liquid-metal jet which propagates from the preceding cell crater boundary and draws the ion current from the plasma produced by the preceding explosion. Once the jet neck has been resistively heated to a critical temperature (˜1 eV), the plasma starts expanding and decreasing in density, which corresponds to the extinction phase. Numerical and analytical solutions have been obtained that describe both the time behavior of the pulse plasma parameters and their average values. For the cell plasma, the momentum per transferred charge has been estimated to be some tens of g cm/(s C), which is consistent with the known measurements of ion velocity, ion erosion rate, and specific recoil force. This supports the model of the pressure-gradient-driven plasma acceleration mechanism for the explosive cathode spot cells. The ohmic electric field within the explosive current-carrying plasma has been estimated to be some tens of kV/cm, which is consistent with the known experimental data on cathode potential fall and explosive cell plasma size. This supports the model that assumes the ohmic nature of the cathode potential fall in a vacuum discharge.

  11. Enhancing Global Land Surface Hydrology Estimates from the NASA MERRA Reanalysis Using Precipitation Observations and Model Parameter Adjustments

    Reichle, Rolf; Koster, Randal; DeLannoy, Gabrielle; Forman, Barton; Liu, Qing; Mahanama, Sarith; Toure, Ally

    2011-01-01

    The Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) is a state-of-the-art reanalysis that provides. in addition to atmospheric fields. global estimates of soil moisture, latent heat flux. snow. and runoff for J 979-present. This study introduces a supplemental and improved set of land surface hydrological fields ('MERRA-Land') generated by replaying a revised version of the land component of the MERRA system. Specifically. the MERRA-Land estimates benefit from corrections to the precipitation forcing with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project pentad product (version 2.1) and from revised parameters in the rainfall interception model, changes that effectively correct for known limitations in the MERRA land surface meteorological forcings. The skill (defined as the correlation coefficient of the anomaly time series) in land surface hydrological fields from MERRA and MERRA-Land is assessed here against observations and compared to the skill of the state-of-the-art ERA-Interim reanalysis. MERRA-Land and ERA-Interim root zone soil moisture skills (against in situ observations at 85 US stations) are comparable and significantly greater than that of MERRA. Throughout the northern hemisphere, MERRA and MERRA-Land agree reasonably well with in situ snow depth measurements (from 583 stations) and with snow water equivalent from an independent analysis. Runoff skill (against naturalized stream flow observations from 15 basins in the western US) of MERRA and MERRA-Land is typically higher than that of ERA-Interim. With a few exceptions. the MERRA-Land data appear more accurate than the original MERRA estimates and are thus recommended for those interested in using '\\-tERRA output for land surface hydrological studies.

  12. Global characteristics of an ATON stationary plasma thruster operating with krypton and xenon

    Bugrova, A.I.; Lipatov, A.S.; Solomatina, L.V.; Morozov, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    Paper contains the experimental results of operation of the ATON plasma thruster operating with krypton and xenon. It is shown that consumption of a working gas for consumption of a working gas the krypton base thrust is higher in contrast to xenon base one at lower efficiency. In case of krypton use one obtained the efficiency constituting ∼ 60% at specific pulse reaching 3000 s. Jet divergence in case of krypton use is ∼ ± 22 deg in contrast to ∼ ± 11 deg in case of xenon use [ru

  13. Topics in stability and transport in tokamaks: Dynamic transition to second stability with auxiliary heating; stability of global Alfven waves in an ignited plasma

    Fu, G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of access to the high-beta ballooning second-stability regime by means of auxiliary heating and the problem of the stability of global-shear Alfven waves in an ignited tokamak plasma are theoretically investigated. These two problems are related to the confinement of both the bulk plasma as well as the fusion-product alpha particles an dare fundamentally important to the operation of ignited tokamak plasma. First, a model that incorporates both transport and ballooning mode stability was developed in order to estimate the auxiliary heating power required for tokamak plasma to evolve in time self-consistently into a high-beta, globally self-stabilized equilibrium. The critical heating power needed for access to second stability is found to be proportional to the square root of the anomalous diffusivity induced by the ballooning instability. Next, the full effects of toroidicity are retained in a theoretical description of global-type-shear Alfven modes whose stability can be modified by the fusion-product alpha particles that will present in an ignited tokamak plasma. Toroidicity is found to induce mode coupling and to stabilize the so-called Global Alfven Eigenmodes (GAE)

  14. Incorporating doubly resonant $W^\\pm$ data in a global fit of SMEFT parameters to lift flat directions

    Berthier, Laure; Trott, Michael

    2016-09-27

    We calculate the double pole contribution to two to four fermion scattering through $W^{\\pm}$ currents at tree level in the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT). We assume all fermions to be massless, $\\rm U(3)^5$ flavour and $\\rm CP$ symmetry. Using this result, we update the global constraint picture on SMEFT parameters including LEPII data on these charged current processes, and also include modifications to our fit procedure motivated by a companion paper focused on $W^{\\pm}$ mass extractions. The fit reported is now to 177 observables and emphasises the need for a consistent inclusion of theoretical errors, and a consistent treatment of observables. Including charged current data lifts the two-fold degeneracy previously encountered in LEP (and lower energy) data, and allows us to set simultaneous constraints on 20 of 53 Wilson coefficients in the SMEFT, consistent with our assumptions. This allows the model independent inclusion of LEP data in SMEFT studies at LHC, which are projected into the S...

  15. Global metabolomic analysis of human saliva and plasma from healthy and diabetic subjects, with and without periodontal disease.

    Virginia M Barnes

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that periodontal disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus are bi-directionally associated. Identification of a molecular signature for periodontitis using unbiased metabolic profiling could allow identification of biomarkers to assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of both diabetes and periodontal disease. This cross-sectional study identified plasma and salivary metabolic products associated with periodontitis and/or diabetes in order to discover biomarkers that may differentiate or demonstrate an interaction of these diseases. Saliva and plasma samples were analyzed from 161 diabetic and non-diabetic human subjects with a healthy periodontium, gingivitis and periodontitis. Metabolite profiling was performed using Metabolon's platform technology. A total of 772 metabolites were found in plasma and 475 in saliva. Diabetics had significantly higher levels of glucose and α-hydroxybutyrate, the established markers of diabetes, for all periodontal groups of subjects. Comparison of healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis saliva samples within the non-diabetic group confirmed findings from previous studies that included increased levels of markers of cellular energetic stress, increased purine degradation and glutathione metabolism through increased levels of oxidized glutathione and cysteine-glutathione disulfide, markers of oxidative stress, including increased purine degradation metabolites (e.g. guanosine and inosine, increased amino acid levels suggesting protein degradation, and increased ω-3 (docosapentaenoate and ω-6 fatty acid (linoleate and arachidonate signatures. Differences in saliva between diabetic and non-diabetic cohorts showed altered signatures of carbohydrate, lipid and oxidative stress exist in the diabetic samples. Global untargeted metabolic profiling of human saliva in diabetics replicated the metabolite signature of periodontal disease progression in non-diabetic patients and revealed unique metabolic

  16. Current state-of-the-art for the measurement of non-Maxwellian plasma parameters with the EISCAT UHF Facility

    D. Hubert

    Full Text Available New results on the information that can be extracted from simulated non-Maxwellian incoherent radar spectra are presented. The cases of a pure ionosphere and of a composite ionosphere typical of a given altitude of the auroral F region are considered. In the case of a pure ionosphere of NO+ or O+ ions it has been shown that the electron temperature and the electron density can be derived from a Maxwellian analysis of radar spectra measured at aspect angles of 0° or 21° respectively; the ion temperature and ion temperature anisotropy can be derived from a non- constraining model such as the 1D Raman fitting of a complementary measurement made at an aspect angle larger than 0° for the NO+ ions, or at an aspect angle larger than 21° for the O+ ions. Moreover with such measurements at large aspect angles, the shape of the velocity ion distribution functions can simultaneously be inferred. The case of a composite ionosphere of atomic O+ and molecular NO+ ions is a difficult challenge which requires simultaneously a complementary measurement of the electron temperature to provide the ion composition and the electron density from the incoherent radar spectra at a specific aspect angle of 21°; hence, a model dependent routine is necessary to derive the ion temperatures and ion temperature anisotropies. In the case where the electron temperature is not given, a routine which depends on ion distribution models is required first: the better the ion distribution models are, the more accurately derived the plasma parameters will be. In both cases of a composite ionosphere, the 1D Raman fitting can be used to keep a check on the validity of the results provided by the ion distribution model dependent routine.

  17. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of global and regional magnetic resonance feature tracking derived strain parameters of the left and right ventricle

    Schmidt, Björn, E-mail: bjoernschmidt1989@gmx.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Dick, Anastasia, E-mail: anastasia-dick@web.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Treutlein, Melanie, E-mail: melanie-treutlein@web.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Schiller, Petra, E-mail: petra.schiller@uni-koeln.de [Institute of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Epidemiology, University of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Bunck, Alexander C., E-mail: alexander.bunck@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Maintz, David, E-mail: david.maintz@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany); Baeßler, Bettina, E-mail: bettina.baessler@uk-koeln.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, D-50937, Cologne (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Left and right ventricular CMR feature tracking is highly reproducible. • The only exception is radial strain and strain rate. • Sample size estimations are presented as a practical reference for future studies. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the reproducibility of regional and global strain and strain rate (SR) parameters of both ventricles and to determine sample sizes for all investigated strain and SR parameters in order to generate a practical reference for future studies. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 20 healthy individuals and 20 patients with acute myocarditis. Cine sequences in three horizontal long axis views and a stack of short axis views covering the entire left and right ventricle (LV, RV) were retrospectively analysed using a dedicated feature tracking (FT) software algorithm (TOMTEC). For intra-observer analysis, one observer analysed CMR images of all patients and volunteers twice. For inter-observer analysis, three additional blinded observers analysed the same datasets once. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were tested in all patients and controls using Bland-Altman analyses, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation. Results: Intra-observer reproducibility of global LV strain and SR parameters was excellent (range of ICCs: 0.81–1.00), the only exception being global radial SR with a poor reproducibility (ICC 0.23). On a regional level, basal and midventricular strain and SR parameters were more reproducible when compared to apical parameters. Inter-observer reproducibility of all LV parameters was slightly lower than intra-observer reproducibility, yet still good to excellent for all global and regional longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters (range of ICCs: 0.66–0.93). Similar to the LV, all global RV longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters showed an excellent reproducibility, (range of ICCs: 0.75–0

  18. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of global and regional magnetic resonance feature tracking derived strain parameters of the left and right ventricle

    Schmidt, Björn; Dick, Anastasia; Treutlein, Melanie; Schiller, Petra; Bunck, Alexander C.; Maintz, David; Baeßler, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Left and right ventricular CMR feature tracking is highly reproducible. • The only exception is radial strain and strain rate. • Sample size estimations are presented as a practical reference for future studies. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the reproducibility of regional and global strain and strain rate (SR) parameters of both ventricles and to determine sample sizes for all investigated strain and SR parameters in order to generate a practical reference for future studies. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 20 healthy individuals and 20 patients with acute myocarditis. Cine sequences in three horizontal long axis views and a stack of short axis views covering the entire left and right ventricle (LV, RV) were retrospectively analysed using a dedicated feature tracking (FT) software algorithm (TOMTEC). For intra-observer analysis, one observer analysed CMR images of all patients and volunteers twice. For inter-observer analysis, three additional blinded observers analysed the same datasets once. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were tested in all patients and controls using Bland-Altman analyses, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation. Results: Intra-observer reproducibility of global LV strain and SR parameters was excellent (range of ICCs: 0.81–1.00), the only exception being global radial SR with a poor reproducibility (ICC 0.23). On a regional level, basal and midventricular strain and SR parameters were more reproducible when compared to apical parameters. Inter-observer reproducibility of all LV parameters was slightly lower than intra-observer reproducibility, yet still good to excellent for all global and regional longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters (range of ICCs: 0.66–0.93). Similar to the LV, all global RV longitudinal and circumferential strain and SR parameters showed an excellent reproducibility, (range of ICCs: 0.75–0

  19. Spectral dependence, efficiency and localization of non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by global Alfven waves in tokamak plasmas

    Komoshvili, K.; Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences

    1997-04-01

    A systematic study of non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by global Alfven eigenmode (GAE) waves is carried out. For illustration, the first radial mode of the discrete resonant GAE spectrum is considered. The following aspects are given special attention: spectral analysis, radial dependence and efficiency - all of these functions of the characteristics of the waves launched by an external, concentric antenna (i.e. wave frequency and poloidal and toroidal wavenumbers). The tokamak plasma is simulated by a current-carrying cylindrical plasma column surrounded by a helical sheet current and situated inside a perfectly conducting shell, with incorporation of equilibrium (simulated) toroidal field, magnetic shear and a relatively large poloidal magnetic field component. Within the framework of low-{beta} MHD model equations and for typical tokamak physical parameters, the following basic results are obtained: (1) in the range of poloidal wavenumbers -3{<=} m {<=} 3 and toroidal wavenumbers -20{<=} n {<=}20, resonant GAE peaks below the Alfven continuum are found; (2) the power absorption (P), current drive (I) and corresponding frequency of the GAE modes depend strongly on the sets of (m,n) values considered; (3) the `net` current drive is positive (i.e. flows in the direction of the equilibrium current j{sub 0z} for m = -1, -2, -3 and -20 {<=} n {<=} -1 as well as for m +1, +2, +3 and n > 10); (4) in the cases m = -1, -2, -3, the efficiency of current drive, I/P, increases with /m/ and I/n/; (5) the radial localization of the current drive in each of the cases considered is determined and tabulated. (Author).

  20. Spectral dependence, efficiency and localization of non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by global Alfven waves in tokamak plasmas

    Komoshvili, K.; Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.

    1997-01-01

    A systematic study of non-inductive current drive via helicity injection by global Alfven eigenmode (GAE) waves is carried out. For illustration, the first radial mode of the discrete resonant GAE spectrum is considered. The following aspects are given special attention: spectral analysis, radial dependence and efficiency - all of these functions of the characteristics of the waves launched by an external, concentric antenna (i.e. wave frequency and poloidal and toroidal wavenumbers). The tokamak plasma is simulated by a current-carrying cylindrical plasma column surrounded by a helical sheet current and situated inside a perfectly conducting shell, with incorporation of equilibrium (simulated) toroidal field, magnetic shear and a relatively large poloidal magnetic field component. Within the framework of low-β MHD model equations and for typical tokamak physical parameters, the following basic results are obtained: (1) in the range of poloidal wavenumbers -3≤ m ≤ 3 and toroidal wavenumbers -20≤ n ≤20, resonant GAE peaks below the Alfven continuum are found; (2) the power absorption (P), current drive (I) and corresponding frequency of the GAE modes depend strongly on the sets of (m,n) values considered; (3) the 'net' current drive is positive (i.e. flows in the direction of the equilibrium current j 0z for m = -1, -2, -3 and -20 ≤ n ≤ -1 as well as for m +1, +2, +3 and n > 10; (4) in the cases m = -1, -2, -3, the efficiency of current drive, I/P, increases with /m/ and I/n/; (5) the radial localization of the current drive in each of the cases considered is determined and tabulated. (Author)

  1. Advantages of the first-derivative probe technique over the three- and four-parameter probe techniques in fusion plasmas diagnostics

    Hasan, E.; Dimitrova, Miglena; Popov, T.; Ivanova, P.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Stöckel, Jan; Pánek, Radomír

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2018), č. článku P04005. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma potential * electron temperature * bi-Maxwellian EEDF * Divertor Langmuir probes * three- and four-parameter probe techniques * first-derivative probe technique Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/13/04/P04005/meta

  2. Global metabolomic profiling reveals an association of metal fume exposure and plasma unsaturated fatty acids.

    Yongyue Wei

    Full Text Available Welding-associated air pollutants negatively affect the health of exposed workers; however, their molecular mechanisms in causing disease remain largely unclear. Few studies have systematically investigated the systemic toxic effects of welding fumes on humans.To explore the effects of welding fumes on the plasma metabolome, and to identify biomarkers for risk assessment of welding fume exposure.The two-stage, self-controlled exploratory study included 11 boilermakers from a 2011 discovery panel and 8 boilermakers from a 2012 validation panel. Plasma samples were collected pre- and post-welding fume exposure and analyzed by chromatography/mass spectrometry.Eicosapentaenoic or docosapentaenoic acid metabolic changes post-welding were significantly associated with particulate (PM2.5 exposure (p<0.05. The combined analysis by linear mixed-effects model showed that exposure was associated with a statistically significant decline in metabolite change of eicosapentaenoic acid [β(95% CI = -0.013(-0.022 ≈ -0.004; p = 0.005], docosapentaenoic acid n3 [β(95% CI = -0.010(-0.018 ≈ -0.002; p = 0.017], and docosapentaenoic acid n6 [β(95% CI = -0.007(-0.013 ≈ -0.001; p = 0.021]. Pathway analysis identified an association of the unsaturated fatty acid pathway with exposure (p Study-2011 = 0.025; p Study-2012 = 0.021; p Combined = 0.009. The functional network built by these fatty acids and their interactive genes contained significant enrichment of genes associated with various diseases, including neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases, and lipid metabolism disorders.High-dose exposure of metal welding fumes decreases unsaturated fatty acids with an exposure-response relationship. This alteration in fatty acids is a potential biological mediator and biomarker for exposure-related health disorders.

  3. Transport of super-thermal particles and their effect on the stability of global modes in fusion plasmas

    Schneller, Mirjam Simone

    2013-08-02

    In thermonuclear plasmas, a population of super-thermal particles generated by external heating methods or fusion reactions can lead to the excitation of global instabilities. The transport processes due to nonlinear wave-particle interactions and the consequential particle losses reduce the plasma heating and the efficiency of the fusion reaction rate. Furthermore, these energetic or fast particles may cause severe damages to the wall of the device. This thesis addresses the resonance mechanisms between these energetic particles and global MHD and kinetic MHD waves, employing the hybrid code HAGIS. A systematic investigation of energetic particles resonant with multiple modes (double-resonance) is presented for the first time. The double-resonant mode coupling is modeled for waves with different frequencies in various overlapping scenarios. It is found that, depending on the radial mode distance, double-resonance is able to significantly enhance, both the growth rates and the saturation amplitudes. Small radial mode distances, however can lead to strong nonlinear mode stabilization of a linear dominant mode. For the first time, simulations of experimental conditions in the ASDEX Upgrade fusion device are performed for different plasma equilibria (particularly for different q profiles). An understanding of fast particle behavior for non-monotonic q profiles is important for the development of advanced fusion scenarios. The numerical tool is the extended version of the HAGIS code, which computes the particle motion in the vacuum region between vessel wall in addition to the internal plasma volume. For this thesis, a consistent fast particle distribution function was implemented, to represent the fast particle population generated by the particular heating method (ICRH). Furthermore, HAGIS was extended to use more realistic eigenfunctions, calculated by the gyrokinetic eigenvalue solver LIGKA. One important aim of these simulations is to allow fast ion loss

  4. Transport of super-thermal particles and their effect on the stability of global modes in fusion plasmas

    Schneller, Mirjam Simone

    2013-01-01

    In thermonuclear plasmas, a population of super-thermal particles generated by external heating methods or fusion reactions can lead to the excitation of global instabilities. The transport processes due to nonlinear wave-particle interactions and the consequential particle losses reduce the plasma heating and the efficiency of the fusion reaction rate. Furthermore, these energetic or fast particles may cause severe damages to the wall of the device. This thesis addresses the resonance mechanisms between these energetic particles and global MHD and kinetic MHD waves, employing the hybrid code HAGIS. A systematic investigation of energetic particles resonant with multiple modes (double-resonance) is presented for the first time. The double-resonant mode coupling is modeled for waves with different frequencies in various overlapping scenarios. It is found that, depending on the radial mode distance, double-resonance is able to significantly enhance, both the growth rates and the saturation amplitudes. Small radial mode distances, however can lead to strong nonlinear mode stabilization of a linear dominant mode. For the first time, simulations of experimental conditions in the ASDEX Upgrade fusion device are performed for different plasma equilibria (particularly for different q profiles). An understanding of fast particle behavior for non-monotonic q profiles is important for the development of advanced fusion scenarios. The numerical tool is the extended version of the HAGIS code, which computes the particle motion in the vacuum region between vessel wall in addition to the internal plasma volume. For this thesis, a consistent fast particle distribution function was implemented, to represent the fast particle population generated by the particular heating method (ICRH). Furthermore, HAGIS was extended to use more realistic eigenfunctions, calculated by the gyrokinetic eigenvalue solver LIGKA. One important aim of these simulations is to allow fast ion loss

  5. Effect of driving voltages in dual capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma: A study by nonlinear global model

    Bora, B.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of nonlinear global model, a dual frequency capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma driven by 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz has been studied to investigate the influences of driving voltages on the generation of dc self-bias and plasma heating. Fluid equations for the ions inside the plasma sheath have been considered to determine the voltage-charge relations of the plasma sheath. Geometrically symmetric as well as asymmetric cases with finite geometrical asymmetry of 1.2 (ratio of electrodes area) have been considered to make the study more reasonable to experiment. The electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) and finite geometrical asymmetry is found to work differently in controlling the dc self-bias. The amount of EAE has been primarily controlled by the phase angle between the two consecutive harmonics waveforms. The incorporation of the finite geometrical asymmetry in the calculations shift the dc self-bias towards negative polarity direction while increasing the amount of EAE is found to increase the dc self-bias in either direction. For phase angle between the two waveforms ϕ = 0 and ϕ = π/2, the amount of EAE increases significantly with increasing the low frequency voltage, whereas no such increase in the amount of EAE is found with increasing high frequency voltage. In contrast to the geometrically symmetric case, where the variation of the dc self-bias with driving voltages for phase angle ϕ = 0 and π/2 are just opposite in polarity, the variation for the geometrically asymmetric case is different for ϕ = 0 and π/2. In asymmetric case, for ϕ = 0, the dc self-bias increases towards the negative direction with increasing both the low and high frequency voltages, but for the ϕ = π/2, the dc-self bias is increased towards positive direction with increasing low frequency voltage while dc self-bias increases towards negative direction with increasing high frequency voltage

  6. Estimation of Flow Channel Parameters for Flowing Gas Mixed with Air in Atmospheric-pressure Plasma Jets

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Saito, Hidetoshi

    2017-12-01

    When the working gas of an atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium (cold) plasma flows into free space, the diameter of the resulting flow channel changes continuously. The shape of the channel is observed through the light emitted by the working gas of the atmospheric-pressure plasma. When the plasma jet forms a conical shape, the diameter of the cylindrical shape, which approximates the conical shape, defines the diameter of the flow channel. When the working gas flows into the atmosphere from the inside of a quartz tube, the gas mixes with air. The molar ratio of the working gas and air is estimated from the corresponding volume ratio through the relationship between the diameter of the cylindrical plasma channel and the inner diameter of the quartz tube. The Reynolds number is calculated from the kinematic viscosity of the mixed gas and the molar ratio. The gas flow rates for the upper limit of laminar flow and the lower limit of turbulent flow are determined by the corresponding Reynolds numbers estimated from the molar ratio. It is confirmed that the plasma jet length and the internal plasma length associated with strong light emission increase with the increasing gas flow rate until the rate for the upper limit of laminar flow and the lower limit of turbulent flow, respectively. Thus, we are able to explain the increasing trend in the plasma lengths with the diameter of the flow channel and the molar ratio by using the cylindrical approximation.

  7. Determination by R/A of plasma cortisol levels as a parameter of adrenocortical function before and after radiotherapy of gynaecological genital carcinoma

    Freischem, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    rn 20 female patients with carcinoma of the genitals, day profiles of cortisol were established and ACTH stimulation tests carried out directly after radiotherapy and 6 months later. Plasma concentrations of cortisol were determined in a RIA as parameters of the adrenocortical function. The assumption of a change in adrenocortical activity after radiotherapy of gynaecological genital carcinoma could not be validated. Instead, there was a typical diurnal rhythm of plasma cortisol, with a peak in the early morning hours and a decrease until midnight. The same applies to the ACTH stimulation tests: In all cases, plasma cortisol levels were elevated after intravenous application of ACTH. This means that the 1976 findings of Samundzham and Butsan could not be proved. Since adrenal functions were absolutely normal in the observed cases, the adynamic clinical picture of patients after radiotherapy, which is rather infrequent, cannot be explained as being due to an impaired adrenocortical function. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Global reconnection topology as inferred from plasma observations inside Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices

    M. B. Bavassano Cattaneo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available During a long lasting period of northward interplanetary magnetic field and high solar wind speed (above 700 km/s, the Cluster spacecraft go across a number of very large rolled-up Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH vortices at the dusk magnetopause, close to the terminator. The peculiarity of the present event is a particular sequence of ions and electrons distribution functions observed repeatedly inside each vortex. In particular, whenever Cluster crosses the current layer inside the vortices, multiple field-aligned ion populations appear, suggesting the occurrence of reconnection. In addition, the ion data display a clear velocity filter effect both at the leading and at the trailing edge of each vortex. This effect is not present in the simultaneous electron data. Unlike other KH studies reported in the literature in which reconnection occurs within the vortices, in the present event the observations are not compatible with local reconnection, but are accounted for by lobe reconnection occurring along an extended X-line at the terminator in the Southern Hemisphere. The reconnected field lines "sink" across the magnetopause and then convect tailward-duskward where they become embedded in the vortices. Another observational evidence is the detected presence of solar wind plasma on the magnetospheric side of the vortices, which confirms unambiguously the occurrence of mass transport across the magnetopause already reported in the literature. The proposed reconnection scenario accounts for all the observational aspects, regarding both the transport process and the kinetic signatures.

  9. Numerical analysis of the impact of the ion threshold, ion stiffness and temperature pedestal on global confinement and fusion performance in JET and in ITER plasmas

    Baiocchi, B.; Mantica, P.; Tala, T.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of micro-instabilities on the global plasma performance is essential in order to make realistic predictions for relevant tokamak scenarios. The semi-empirical transport model CGM is a useful tool to this scope because it depends explicitly on the threshold and the stiffne...

  10. Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    :creatinine were significantly positively correlated to various OHCs (all: praptor chicks of Northern Scandinavia may impact blood plasma biochemistry in a way that indicates impacts on liver, kidney, bone...

  11. Analytical investigation on domain of decentered parameter for self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in collisional plasma

    Valkunde, Amol T.; Patil, Sandip D.; Vhanmore, Bandopant D.; Urunkar, Trupti U.; Gavade, Kusum M.; Takale, Mansing V.; Fulari, Vijay J.

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, an analytically investigated domain of decentered parameter and its effect on the self-focusing of Hermit-cosh-Gaussian (HChG) laser beams in a collisional plasma have been studied theoretically. The nonlinearity in the dielectric constant of plasma arising due to the nonuniform heating of carriers along the wavefront of the laser beam has been employed in the present investigation. The nonlinear differential equation of beam width parameter for various laser modes of HChG beam is obtained by following the standard Akhamanov's parabolic equation approach under Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and paraxial approximations. The analytical treatment has enabled us to define three distinct regions: self-focusing, self-trapping and defocusing, which are presented graphically.

  12. Modulation of plasma N-acylethanolamine levels and physiological parameters by dietary fatty acid composition in humans.

    Jones, Peter J H; Lin, Lin; Gillingham, Leah G; Yang, Haifeng; Omar, Jaclyn M

    2014-12-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid-signaling molecules involved in satiety and energetics; however, how diet impacts circulating NAE concentrations and their downstream metabolic actions in humans remains unknown. Objectives were to examine effects of diets enriched with high-oleic canola oil (HOCO) or HOCO blended with flaxseed oil (FXCO), compared with a Western diet (WD), on plasma NAE levels and the association with energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Using a randomized controlled crossover design, 36 hypercholesterolemic participants consumed three isoenergetic diets for 28 days, each containing 36% energy from fat, of which 70% was HOCO, FXCO, or WD. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-MS/MS was used to measure plasma NAE levels and indirect calorimetry to assess energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. After 28 days, compared with WD, plasma oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and alpha-linolenoyl ethanolamide (ALEA) levels were significantly increased in response to HOCO and FXCO (P = 0.002, P < 0.001), respectively. Correlation analysis demonstrated an inverse association between plasma OEA levels and percent body fat (r = -0.21, P = 0.04), and a positive association was observed between the plasma arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA)/OEA ratio and android:gynoid fat (r = 0.23, P = 0.02), respectively. Results suggest that plasma NAE levels are upregulated via their dietary lipid substrates and may modulate regional and total fat mass through lipid-signaling mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Global model of instabilities in low-pressure inductively coupled chlorine plasmas

    Despiau-Pujo, Emilie; Chabert, Pascal

    2009-10-01

    Experimental studies have shown that low-pressure inductive discharges operating with electronegative gases are subject to instabilities near the transition between capacitive (E) and inductive (H) modes. A global model, consisting of two particle balance equations and one energy balance equation, has been previously proposed to describe the instability mechanism in SF6/ArSF6 [1]. This model, which agrees qualitatively well with experimental observations, leaves significant quantitative differences. In this paper, the model is revisited with Cl2 as the feedstock gas. An alternative treatment of the inductive power deposition is evaluated and chlorine chemistry is included. Old and new models are systematically compared. The alternative inductive coupling description slightly modifies the results. The effect of gas chemistry is even more pronounced. The instability window is smaller in pressure and larger in absorbed power, the frequency is higher and the amplitudes of oscillations are reduced. The feedstock gas is weakly dissociated ( 16%) and Cl2^+ is the dominant positive ion, which is consistent with the moderate electron density during the instability cycle. [1] M.A. Lieberman, A.J. Lichtenberg, and A.M. Marakhtanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 (1999) 3617

  14. Nonequilibrium phenomena and determination of plasma parameters in the hot core of the cathode region in free-burning arc discharges

    Kuehn, Gerrit; Kock, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    We present spectroscopic measurements of plasma parameters (electron density n e , electron temperature T e , gas temperature T g , underpopulation factor b) in the hot-core region in front of the cathode of a low-current, free-burning arc discharge in argon under atmospheric pressure. The discharge is operated in the hot-core mode, creating a hot cathode region with plasma parameters similar to high-current arcs in spite of the fact that we use comparatively low currents (less than 20 A). We use continuum emission and (optically thin) line emission to determine n e and T e . We apply relaxation measurements based on a power-interruption technique to investigate deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). These measurements let us determine the gas temperature T g . All measurements are performed side-on with charge-coupled-device cameras as detectors, so that all measured plasma parameters are spatially resolved after an Abel inversion. This yields the first ever spatially resolved observation of the non-LTE phenomena of the hot core in the near-cathode region of free-burning arcs. The results only partly coincide with previously published predictions and measurements in the literature

  15. Dependence of current density and intensity of electric field on pulsation of thermodynamic parameters of plasma in the MHD generator

    Kapron, H.

    1976-01-01

    The investigations of pulsation in the MHD generators are described. The influence of termodynamic parameters pulsation on electric parameters of the MHD generator is presented using the method of little disturbances. The results of this investigation are formulas for momentary and average values of: electrical conductivity, the Hall parameter, current density and intensity of electrical field. Analitical investigations were verified by the experiments. (author)

  16. Influence of the laser parameters on the space and time characteristics of an aluminum laser-induced plasma

    Barthelemy, O.; Margot, J.; Chaker, M.; Sabsabi, M.; Vidal, F.; Johnston, T.W.; Laville, S.; Le Drogoff, B.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, an aluminum laser plasma produced in ambient air at atmospheric pressure by laser pulses at a fluence of 10 J/cm 2 is characterized by time- and space-resolved measurements of electron density and temperature. Varying the laser pulse duration from 6 ns to 80 fs and the laser wavelength from ultraviolet to infrared only slightly influences the plasma properties. The temperature exhibits a slight decrease both at the plasma edge and close to the target surface. The electron density is found to be spatially homogeneous in the ablation plume during the first microsecond. Finally, the plasma expansion is in good agreement with the Sedov's model during the first 500 ns and it becomes subsonic, with respect to the velocity of sound in air, typically 1 μs after the plasma creation. The physical interpretation of the experimental results is also discussed to the light of a one-dimensional fluid model which provides a good qualitative agreement with measurements

  17. Influence of operating parameters on surface properties of RF glow discharge oxygen plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET film for biomedical application

    Pandiyaraj, K. Navaneetha, E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L and T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Deshmukh, R.R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Mahendiran, R. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L and T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Su, Pi-G [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Yassitepe, Emre; Shah, Ismat [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, 208 Dupont Hall, Newark (United States); Perni, Stefano [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Prokopovich, Polina [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Institute of Medical Engineering and Medical Physics, School of Engineering, Cardiff University (United Kingdom); Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N., E-mail: Nadagouda.Mallikarjuna@epamail.epa.gov [The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NRMRL, WSWRD, 26W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a thin transparent titania (TiO{sub 2}) film was coated on the surface of flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using the sol–gel method. The surface properties of the obtained TiO{sub 2}/PET film were further improved by RF glow discharge oxygen plasma as a function of exposure time and discharge power. The changes in hydrophilicity of TiO{sub 2}/PET films were analyzed by contact angle measurements and surface energy. The influence of plasma on the surface of the TiO{sub 2}/PET films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as the change in chemical state and composition that were investigated by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). The cytotoxicity of the TiO{sub 2}/PET films was analyzed using human osteoblast cells and the bacterial eradication behaviors of TiO{sub 2}/PET films were also evaluated against Staphylococcus bacteria. It was found that the surface roughness and incorporation of oxygen containing polar functional groups of the plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET films increased substantially as compared to the untreated one. Moreover the increased concentration of Ti{sup 3+} on the surface of plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET films was due to the transformation of chemical states (Ti{sup 4+} → Ti{sup 3+}). These morphological and chemical changes are responsible for enhanced hydrophilicity of the TiO{sub 2}/PET films. Furthermore, the plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET film exhibited no citotoxicity against osteoblast cells and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus bacteria which can find application in manufacturing of biomedical devices. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism of plasma treatment on the surface of TiO{sub 2}/PET films. - Highlights: • Investigated the surface properties of TiO{sub 2}/PET films modified by O{sub 2} plasma • Studied the effect of operating parameters on surface properties of TiO{sub 2}/PET films • Mechanism of the plasma treatment on TiO{sub 2}/PET was clearly investigated.

  18. Determination of parameters of the arc plasma of electrodynamic macro-particle accelerator by the method of simulation of surface energy losses

    Djuric, Z.; Mihajlov, A.A. (Inst. of Physics, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

    1989-01-01

    In the paper we have presented the model method of calculating electrical arc parameters in the macroparticles' electrodynamic accelerator at the given rail width and the given width between them. The method is based on energy losses simulation at the arc's boundary surfaces and is a modification of the one-dimensional version of Powell and Batteh's method. It has been shown that the proposed method is adequate for operative use and that it enables the determination of both macroscopic arc parameters - acceleration, length, electroconductivity, mean temperature and density of particles etc., as well as local arc plasma parameters. The values of these parameters are determined by numerical solutions of the self-consistent system of magnetic-hydrodynamic, material and thermodynamic equations, at the arc's given mass and muzzle voltage between rails. It has also been shown that the proposed method allows the comparison of one-, two- and three-dimensional arc approximations. In the present paper we have used the method assuming that arc plasma is at most doubly ionized and produced exclusively by copper atoms. (orig.).

  19. A mathematical correlation between variations in solar radiation parameters. 2. Global radiation, air temperature and specific humidity

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-06-01

    We derive from first principles, an equation which expresses global radiation as a function of specific humidity and air temperature at screen height. The practical validity of this equation is tested by using humidity, air temperature and global radiation data from Tanzania. It is shown that global radiation values calculated on the basis of the derived equation agree with measured radiation values to within ± 8% as long as the prevalent (horizontal) winds are either calm or light. It is noted that the equation is equally valid at times of strong horizontal winds provided that the temperature and humidity measuring site is sufficiently shielded from the winds. This implies that meteorological stations that are (for some unavoidable reasons) unable to stock pyranometers can still procure reasonable estimates of local global radiation as long as they can, at least, stock the relatively cheaper barometers and wet- and dry-bulb psychrometers. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. Enhanced THz radiation generation by photo-mixing of tophat lasers in rippled density plasma with a planar magnetostatic wiggler and s-parameter

    Abedi-Varaki, M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the effects of planar magnetostatic wiggler and s-parameter on the terahertz (THz) radiation generation through rippled plasma have been investigated. Efficient THz radiation generation by photo-mixing of tophat lasers for rippled density plasma in the presence of the wiggler field has been presented. Fundamental equations for the analysis of the non-linear current density and THz radiation generation by wiggler magnetostatic field have been derived. It is shown that for the higher order of the tophat lasers, the values of THz amplitude are greater. In fact, the higher order of the tophat lasers has a sharp gradient in the intensity of lasers, which leads to a stronger nonlinear ponderomotive force and, consequently, a stronger current density. In addition, it is seen that by increasing s-parameter, the normalized transverse profile becomes more focused near the axis of y. Furthermore, it is observed that the normalized laser efficiency has a decreasing trend with increasing normalized THz frequency for different values of the wiggler field. Also, it is shown that by employing a greater order of the tophat lasers and a stronger wiggler field, the efficiency of order of 30% can be achieved. Moreover, it is found that we can control focus and intensity of THz radiation emitted in rippled plasma by choosing the appropriate order of the tophat lasers and tuning of the wiggler field.

  1. Influence of Plasma Transferred Arc Process Parameters on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Wear Resistive NiCrBSi-WC/Co Coatings

    Eitvydas GRUZDYS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-fluxing NiCrBSi and related coatings received considerable interest due to their good wear as well as corrosion resistance at moderate and elevated temperatures. Hard tungsten carbide (WC particles can be included in NiCrBSi for further increase of the coating hardness and abrasive wear resistance. Flame spray technique is widely used for fabrication of NiCrBSi films. However, in such a case, subsequent remelting of the deposited coatings by flame, arc discharge or high power laser beam is necessary. In present study NiCrBSi-WC/Co coatings were formed using plasma transferred arc process. By adjusting plasma parameters, such as current, plasma gas flow, shielding gas flow, a number of coatings were formed on steel substrates. Structure of the coatings was investigated using X-ray diffractometry. Microstructure of cross-sectioned coatings was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Hardness of the coating was evaluated by means of the Vickers hardness tests. Wear tests were also performed on specimens to determine resistance to abrasive wear. Acquired results allowed estimating the influence of the deposition process parameters on structure and mechanical properties of the coatings.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.482

  2. Investigation of the effect of laser parameters on the target, plume and plasma behavior during and after laser-solid interaction

    Stancalie, A.; Ciobanu, S. S.; Sporea, D.

    2017-09-01

    A detailed theoretical and experimental analysis is performed for a wide range of laser operating conditions, typical for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation (LA) experiments on copper metallic target. The plasma parameters were experimentally estimated from the line intensities ratio which reflects the relative population of neutral excited species in the plasma. In the case of LA experiments the highest temperature observed was 8210 ± 370 K. In case of LIBS measurements, a maximum temperature of 8123 K has been determined. The experimental results are in good agreement with a stationary, hydrodynamic model. We have theoretically investigated the plasma emission based on the generalized collisional-radiative model as implemented in the ADAS interconnected set of computer codes and data collections. The ionic population density distribution over the ground and excited states into the cooper plasma is graphically displayed as output from the code. The theoretical line intensity ratios are in good agreement with experimental values for the electron density and temperature range measured in our experiments.

  3. Comparison of the Carbon System Parameters at the Global CO2 Survey Crossover Locations in the North and South Pacific Ocean, 1990-1996

    Feely, Richard A [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Lamb, Marilyn F. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Greeley, Dana J. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Wanninkhof, Rik [NOAA, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML)

    1999-10-01

    As a collaborative program to measure global ocean carbon inventories and provide estimates of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (C02) uptake by the oceans. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy have sponsored the collection of ocean carbon measurements as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study cruises. The cruises discussed here occurred in the North and South Pacific from 1990 through 1996. The carbon parameters from these 30 crossover locations have been compared to ensure that a consistent global data set emerges from the survey cruises. !'he results indicate that for dissolved inorganic carbon. fugacity of C02• and pH. the a~:,rreements at most crossover locations are well within the design specifications for the global CO) survey: whereas. in the case of total alkaliniry. the agreement between crossover locations is not as close.

  4. Steady-state plasma and reactor parameters for elliptical cross section tokamaks with very large power ratings

    Usher, J.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1975-06-01

    In previous studies only circular cross section reactor plasmas were considered. The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of elliptical plasma cross sections. Several technological benefits have been determined. Maximum magnetic field strength requirements are 30 to 65 percent less than for 5000 MW (th) reactors and may be as much as 40 percent less than for circular cross section reactors of comparable size. Very large n tau values are found (10 15 to 10 17 sec/cm 3 ), which produce large burn-up fractions (15 to 60 percent). There is relatively little problem with impurity build-up. Long confinement times (60 to 500 seconds) are found. Finally, the elliptical cross section reactors exhibit a major toroidal radius reduction of as large as 30 percent over circular reactors operating at comparable power levels

  5. Effects of chromium-enriched bacillus subtilis KT260179 supplementation on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality.

    Yang, Jiajun; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yayuan; Wu, Yijing

    2016-11-08

    Both chromium (Cr) and probiotic bacillus own the virtues of regulating animal metabolism and meat quality. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of supplemental Cr and bacillus in the form of chromium-enriched Bacillus subtilis KT260179 (CEBS) on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality. Six hundred of 1-day-old Chinese Huainan Partridge chickens were divided into four groups randomly: Control, inorganic Cr, Bacillus subtilis, and CEBS. The feed duration was 56 days. After 28 days of treatment, broiler feed CEBS or normal B. subtilis had higher body weights than control broiler, and after 56 days, chickens given either CEBS or B. subtilis had greater body weights than control broiler or those given inorganic Cr. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels declined significantly in the CEBS group compared with the control, whereas plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly. The concentration of Cr in blood and breast muscle increased after CEBS and inorganic Cr supplementation. B. subtilis and CEBS supplementation caused a significant increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the caecum, while the numbers of Escherichia coli and Salmonella decreased significantly compared to the control. Feed adding CEBS increased the lightness, redness, and yellowness of breast meat, improved the water-holding capacity, decreased the shear force and cooking loss. In all, CEBS supplementation promoted body growth, improved plasma lipid parameters, increased tissue Cr concentrations, altered cecal bacterial composition and improved breast meat quality.

  6. Structure and properties of plasma sprayed BaTiO(3) coatings: Spray parameters versus structure and photocatalytic activity

    Ctibor, Pavel; Ageorges, H.; Štengl, Václav; Murafa, Nataliya; Píš, I.; Zahoranová, T.; Nehasil, V.; Pala, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2011), s. 2561-2567 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00430803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Spectroscopy * Optical properties * BaTiO3 * Plasma spraying * Photocatalysis Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272884211002173

  7. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters as biomarker endpoints for organohalogen contaminant exposure in Norwegian raptor nestlings

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan O.; Herzke, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Raptors are exposed to biomagnifying and toxic organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. To investigate how OHC exposure may affect biochemical pathways we collected blood plasma from Norwegian northern goshawk (n=56...... it is uncertain if such changes have any health effects. The OHC concentrations were below concentrations causing reproductive toxicity in adults of other raptor species but similar to those of concern for endocrine disruption of thyroid hormones in e.g., bald eagles....

  8. Optimization of laser parameters to obtain high-energy, high-quality electron beams through laser-plasma acceleration

    Samant, Sushil Arun; Sarkar, Deepangkar; Krishnagopal, Srinivas; Upadhyay, Ajay K.; Jha, Pallavi

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of an intense (a 0 =3), short-pulse (L∼λ p ) laser through a homogeneous plasma has been investigated. Using two-dimensional simulations for a 0 =3, the pulse-length and spot-size at three different plasma densities were optimized in order to get a better quality beam in laser wakefield accelerator. The study reveals that with increasing pulse-length the acceleration increases, but after a certain pulse-length (L>0.23λ p ) the emittance blows-up unacceptably. For spot-sizes less than that given by k p0 r s =2√(a 0 ), trapping is poor or nonexistent, and the optimal spot-size is larger. The deviation of the optimal spot-size from this formula increases as the density decreases. The efficacy of these two-dimensional simulations has been validated by running three-dimensional simulations at the highest density. It has been shown that good quality GeV-class beams can be obtained at plasma densities of ∼10 18 cm -3 . The quality of the beam can be substantially improved by selecting only the high-energy peak; in this fashion an energy-spread of better than 1% and a current in tens of kA can be achieved, which are important for applications such as free-electron lasers.

  9. Laser and Plasma Parameters for Laser Pulse Amplification by Stimulated Brillouin Backscattering in the Strong Coupling Regime

    Gangolf, Thomas; Blecher, Marius; Bolanos, Simon; Lancia, Livia; Marques, Jean-Raphael; Cerchez, Mirela; Prasad, Rajendra; Aurand, Bastian; Loiseau, Pascal; Fuchs, Julien; Willi, Oswald

    2017-10-01

    In the ongoing quest for novel techniques to obtain ever higher laser powers, plasma amplification has drawn much attention, benefiting from the fact that a plasma can sustain much higher energy densities than a solid state amplifier. As a plasma process, Stimulated Brillouin Backscattering in the strong coupling regime (sc-SBS) can be used to transfer energy from one laser pulse (pump) to another (seed), by a nonlinear ion oscillation forced by the pump laser. Here, we report on experimental results on amplification by sc-SBS using the ARCTURUS Ti:Sapphire multi-beam laser system at the University of Duesseldorf, Germany. Counter-propagating in a supersonic Hydrogen gas jet target, an ultrashort seed pulse with a pulse duration between 30 and 160 fs and an energy between 1 and 12 mJ was amplified by a high-energy pump pulse (1.7 ps, 700 mJ). For some of the measurements, the gas was pre-ionized with a separate laser pulse (780 fs, 460 mJ). Preliminary analysis shows that the amplification was larger for the longer seed pulses, consistent with theoretical predictions.

  10. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Model Parameters 16-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF/Albedo Model Parameters product (MCD43B1) contains three-dimensional (3D) data sets providing users...

  11. A global solution of the ICRH problem based on the combined use of a planar coupling model and hot-plasma ray-tracing in tokamak geometry

    Koch, R.; Bhatnagar, V.P.; Messiaen, A.M.; Eester, D. van

    1986-01-01

    The global solution of the theoretical problem of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating in tokamak plasmas is obtained by a subdivision of the problem into two simpler ones by virtue of the ''single pass absorption'' hypothesis. The coupling problem is solved in planar geometry, allowing computation of both the antenna electrical properties and the Radio-Frequency (RF) field distribution in the plasma facing the antenna. Starting from this field distribution, the initial conditions for ray-tracing are derived and the propagation and absorption of waves in the plasma bulk is solved in the geometric optics limit taking into account the full tokamak geometry and the kinetic wave description. In the minority heating, redistribution of the minority absorbed power to the other species is carred out using standard quasilinear theory. (orig.)

  12. Global model analysis of negative ion generation in low-pressure inductively coupled hydrogen plasmas with bi-Maxwellian electron energy distributions

    Huh, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Nam-Kyun; Jung, Bong-Ki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Yong-Seok; Kim, Gon-Ho

    2015-01-01

    A global model was developed to investigate the densities of negative ions and the other species in a low-pressure inductively coupled hydrogen plasma with a bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution. Compared to a Maxwellian plasma, bi-Maxwellian plasmas have higher populations of low-energy electrons and highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules that are generated efficiently by high-energy electrons. This leads to a higher reaction rate of the dissociative electron attachment responsible for negative ion production. The model indicated that the bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution at low pressures is favorable for the creation of negative ions. In addition, the electron temperature, electron density, and negative ion density calculated using the model were compared with the experimental data. In the low-pressure regime, the model results of the bi-Maxwellian electron energy distributions agreed well quantitatively with the experimental measurements, unlike those of the assumed Maxwellian electron energy distributions that had discrepancies

  13. MHD-model for low-frequency waves in a tokamak with toroidal plasma rotation and problem of existence of global geodesic acoustic modes

    Lakhin, V. P.; Sorokina, E. A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com, E-mail: vilkiae@gmail.com; Ilgisonis, V. I. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Konovaltseva, L. V. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A set of reduced linear equations for the description of low-frequency perturbations in toroidally rotating plasma in axisymmetric tokamak is derived in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The model suitable for the study of global geodesic acoustic modes (GGAMs) is designed. An example of the use of the developed model for derivation of the integral conditions for GGAM existence and of the corresponding dispersion relation is presented. The paper is dedicated to the memory of academician V.D. Shafranov.

  14. Comparison of the effects of an ICRF antenna with insulating side limiters with and without a Faraday screen on the edge parameters of a tokamak plasma

    Sorensen, J.; Diebold, D.A.; Majeski, R.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1993-01-01

    The PHAEDRUS-T tokamak was operated with radiofrequency power near the ion cyclotron frequency at 90 deg. C phasing between two current straps with and without a stainless steel Faraday screen covering the antenna. In both cases, the sides of the antenna were protected by insulating limiters. The plasma parameters in the scrape-off layer were measured and were shown to be essentially the same when radiofrequency power was applied from the Faraday screen covered antenna as compared with the antenna without a Faraday screen. The intensity of Fe(XVI) light dropped an order of magnitude after the screen was removed. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs

  15. Plasma parameter diagnosis using hydrogen emission spectra of a quartz-chamber 2.45 GHz ECRIS at Peking University

    Wu, WenBin; Ren, HaiTao; Peng, ShiXiang; Xu, Yuan; Wen, JiaMei; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, JingFeng; Zhang, AiLin; Sun, Jiang; Guo, ZhiYu; Chen, JiaEr

    2018-04-01

    A quartz-chamber 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) was designed for diagnostic purposes at Peking University [Patent Number: ZL 201110026605.4]. This ion source can produce a maximum 84 mA hydrogen ion beam at 50 kV with a duty factor of 10%. The root-mean-square (RMS) emittance of this beam is less than 0.12π mm mrad. In our initial work, the electron temperature and electron density inside the plasma chamber had been measured with the line intensity ratio of noble gases. Based on these results, the atomic and molecular emission spectra of hydrogen were applied to determine the dissociation degree of hydrogen and the vibrational temperature of hydrogen molecules in the ground state, respectively. Measurements were performed at gas pressures from 4×10-4 to 1×10-3 Pa and at input peak RF power ranging from 1000 to 1800 W. The dissociation degree of hydrogen in the range of 0.5%-10% and the vibrational temperature of hydrogen molecules in the ground state in the range of 3500-8500 K were obtained. The plasma processes inside this ECRIS chamber were discussed based on these results.

  16. Influence of processing parameters on the characteristics of surface layers of low temperature plasma nitrocarburized AISI 630 martensitic stainless steel

    Lee, Insup

    2017-11-01

    Plasma nitrocarburizing was performed on solution-treated AISI 630 martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel samples with a gas mixture of H2, N2, and CH4 with changing temperature, discharge voltage and amount of CH4. When nitrocarburized with increasing temperature from 380 °C to 430 °C at fixed 25% N2 and 6% CH4, the thickness of expanded martensite (α'N) layer and surface hardness increased up to 10 μm and 1323 HV0.05, respectively but the corrosion resistance decreased. Though the increase of discharge voltage from 400 V to 600 V increased α'N layer thickness and surface hardness (up to 13 μm and 1491 HV0.05, respectively), the treated samples still showed very poor corrosion behavior. Thus, to further improve the corrosion resistance, the influence of variation of the amount of CH4 in the nitrocarburizing process was investigated. Increasing the CH4 percentage aided higher corrosion resistance, although it decreased the α'N layer thickness. The most appropriate conditions for moderate α'N layer thickness, high surface hardness and better corrosion resistance than the solution-treated bare sample were established, which is plasma nitrocarburizing at 400 °C with 400 V discharge voltage and containing 25% N2 and 4% CH4.

  17. 3D numerical simulations of negative hydrogen ion extraction using realistic plasma parameters, geometry of the extraction aperture and full 3D magnetic field map

    Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Ruf, B.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.; Minea, T.

    2014-02-01

    Decreasing the co-extracted electron current while simultaneously keeping negative ion (NI) current sufficiently high is a crucial issue on the development plasma source system for ITER Neutral Beam Injector. To support finding the best extraction conditions the 3D Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collision electrostatic code ONIX (Orsay Negative Ion eXtraction) has been developed. Close collaboration with experiments and other numerical models allows performing realistic simulations with relevant input parameters: plasma properties, geometry of the extraction aperture, full 3D magnetic field map, etc. For the first time ONIX has been benchmarked with commercial positive ions tracing code KOBRA3D. A very good agreement in terms of the meniscus position and depth has been found. Simulation of NI extraction with different e/NI ratio in bulk plasma shows high relevance of the direct negative ion extraction from the surface produced NI in order to obtain extracted NI current as in the experimental results from BATMAN testbed.

  18. Effects of Hypertonic Saline Solution on Clinical Parameters, Serum Electrolytes and Plasma Volume in the Treatment of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in Buffaloes

    M. Arif Zafar*, G. Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal1 and M. Riaz2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of hypertonic saline solution (HSS along with antibiotic (ceftiofur HCl and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ketoprofen in the treatment of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffaloes. For this purpose, 50 buffaloes suffering from haemorrhagic septicaemia were randomly divided in two equal groups A and B. Group A served as control and was treated with ceftiofur HCl (IM and ketoprofen (IV @ 6 and 2 mg/Kg BW, respectively, for five days. Buffaloes of group B were administered with rapid intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline solution (7.5% NaCl @ 4 ml/Kg BW once in combination with ceftiofur HCl and ketoprofen. Animals were monitored for 24 hours after initiation of treatment. Clinical parameters, serum electrolytes, plasma volume and survival index were recorded at different intervals after treatment. Survival rate (80% in group B was significantly higher (P<0.05 than 48% in group A. The heart rate and respiration rate recovered more effectively in the buffaloes administered with treatment protocol B. Plasma volume was 98% which was almost normal within 24 hours after the infusion of hypertonic saline solution to the animals of group B. It was concluded from the study that hypertonic saline solution as an adjunct to antibiotic and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug more efficiently improved respiration and heart rates and effectively restored plasma volume in resuscitating the buffaloes from haemorrhagic septicaemia than the conventional treatment.

  19. Experimental determination of some equilibrium parameter of Damavand tokamak by magnetic probe measurements for representing a physical model for plasma vertical movement.

    Farahani, N Darestani; Davani, F Abbasi

    2015-10-01

    This investigation is about plasma modeling for the control of vertical instabilities in Damavand tokamak. This model is based on online magnetic measurement. The algebraic equation defining the vertical position in this model is based on instantaneous force-balance. Two parameters in this equation, including decay index, n, and lambda, Λ, have been considered as functions of time-varying poloidal field coil currents and plasma current. Then these functions have been used in a code generated for modeling the open loop response of plasma. The main restriction of the suitability analysis of the model is that the experiments always have to be performed in the presence of a control loop for stabilizing vertical position. As a result, open loop response of the system has been identified from closed loop experimental data by nonlinear neural network identification method. The results of comparison of physical model with identified open loop response from closed loop experiments show root mean square error percentage less than 10%. The results are satisfying that the physical model is useful as a Damavand tokamak vertical movement simulator.

  20. An linear matrix inequality approach to global synchronisation of non-parameter perturbations of multi-delay Hopfield neural network

    Shao Hai-Jian; Cai Guo-Liang; Wang Hao-Xiang

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a successful linear matrix inequality approach is used to analyse a non-parameter perturbation of multi-delay Hopfield neural network by constructing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. This paper presents the comprehensive discussion of the approach and also extensive applications

  1. Using Perturbed Physics Ensembles and Machine Learning to Select Parameters for Reducing Regional Biases in a Global Climate Model

    Li, S.; Rupp, D. E.; Hawkins, L.; Mote, P.; McNeall, D. J.; Sarah, S.; Wallom, D.; Betts, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the potential to reduce known summer hot/dry biases over Pacific Northwest in the UK Met Office's atmospheric model (HadAM3P) by simultaneously varying multiple model parameters. The bias-reduction process is done through a series of steps: 1) Generation of perturbed physics ensemble (PPE) through the volunteer computing network weather@home; 2) Using machine learning to train "cheap" and fast statistical emulators of climate model, to rule out regions of parameter spaces that lead to model variants that do not satisfy observational constraints, where the observational constraints (e.g., top-of-atmosphere energy flux, magnitude of annual temperature cycle, summer/winter temperature and precipitation) are introduced sequentially; 3) Designing a new PPE by "pre-filtering" using the emulator results. Steps 1) through 3) are repeated until results are considered to be satisfactory (3 times in our case). The process includes a sensitivity analysis to find dominant parameters for various model output metrics, which reduces the number of parameters to be perturbed with each new PPE. Relative to observational uncertainty, we achieve regional improvements without introducing large biases in other parts of the globe. Our results illustrate the potential of using machine learning to train cheap and fast statistical emulators of climate model, in combination with PPEs in systematic model improvement.

  2. The effects of size and period of administration of gold nanoparticles on rheological parameters of blood plasma of rats over a wide range of shear rates: In vivo

    Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood viscosity appears to be independent predictor of stroke, carotid intima-media thickening, atherosclerosis and most cardiovascular diseases. In an attempt to understand the toxicity and the potential threat of GNPs therapeutic and diagnostic use, an array of rheological parameters were performed to quantify the blood plasma response to different sizes and administration periods of GNPs over a wide range of shear rates. Methods Healthy, thirty male Wistar-Kyoto rats, 8-12 weeks old (approximately 250 g body weight were divided into control group (NG: n = 10, group 1 (G1A: intraperitoneal infusion of 10 nm GNPs for 3 days, n = 5 and G1B: intraperitoneal infusion of 10 nm GNPs for 7 days, n = 5, group 2 (G2A: intraperitoneal infusion of 50 nm GNPs for 3 days, n = 5 and G2B: intraperitoneal infusion of 50 nm GNPs for 7 days, n = 5. Dose of 100 μl of GNPs was administered to the animals via intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples of nearly 1 ml were obtained from each rat. Various rheological parameters such as torque, shear stress, shear rate, viscosity, plastic velocity, yield stress, consistency index (k and flow index (n were measured in the blood plasma of rats after the intraperitoneal administration of 10 and 50 nm GNP for 3 and 7 days using Brookfield LVDV-III Programmable rheometer. Results The relationship between shear stress and shear rate for control, G1A, G1B, G2A and G2B was linearly related. The plastic viscosity and the yield stress values for G1A, G1B, G2A and G2B significantly (p Conclusions At these particular shear rates, the estimated rheological parameters are not influenced by GNPs size and shape, number of NPs, surface area and administration period of GNPs. This study demonstrates that the highly decrease in blood plasma viscosity was accompanied with the smaller 10 nm GNPs compared with the 50 nm GNPs. The decrease in blood plasma viscosity induced with 10 and 50 nm GNPs may be attributed to

  3. TMRBAR: a code to calculate plasma parameters for tandem-mirror reactors operating in the MARS mode

    Campbell, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the plasma power balance model currently used by LLNL to calculate steady state operating points for tandem mirror reactors. The code developed from this model, TMRBAR, has been used to predict the performance and define supplementary heating requirements for drivers used in the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) and for the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) study. The equations solved included particle and energy balance for central cell and end cell species, quasineutrality at several cardinal points in the end cell region, as well as calculations of volumes, densities and average energies based on given constraints of beta profiles and fusion power output. Alpha particle ash is treated self-consistently, but no other impurity species is treated

  4. Parallel path nebulizer: Critical parameters for use with microseparation techniques combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    Four different, low flow parallel path Mira Mist CE nebulizers were evaluated and compared in support of an ongoing project related to the use of microseparation techniques interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantification of cobalamin species (Vitamin B12). For the characterization of the different Mira Mist CE nebulizers, the nebulizer orientation as well as the effect of methanol on analytical response was the focus of the study. The position of the gas outlet on the nebulizer which consistently provided the maximum signal was when it was rotated to the 11 o'clock position when the nebulizer is viewed end-on. With this orientation the increased signal may be explained by the fact that the cone angle of the aerosol is such that the largest percentage of the aerosol is directed to the center of the spray chamber and consequently into the plasma. To characterize the nebulizer's performance, the signal response of a multielement solution containing elements with a variety of ionization potentials was used. The selection of elements with varying ionization energies and degrees of ionization was essential for a better understanding of observed increases in signal enhancement when methanol was used. Two different phenomena contribute to signal enhancement when using methanol: the first is improved transport efficiency and the second is the 'carbon enhancement effect'. The net result was that as much as a 30-fold increase in signal was observed for As and Mg when using a make-up solution of 20% methanol at a 15 μL/min flow rate which is equivalent to a net volume of 3 μL/min of pure methanol

  5. Ellagitannins and Flavan-3-ols from Raspberry Pomace Modulate Caecal Fermentation Processes and Plasma Lipid Parameters in Rats.

    Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Sójka, Michał; Jurgoński, Adam; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2015-12-21

    Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs) with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2) characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively) and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively). Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.

  6. Ellagitannins and Flavan-3-ols from Raspberry Pomace Modulate Caecal Fermentation Processes and Plasma Lipid Parameters in Rats

    Bartosz Fotschki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2 characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively. Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.

  7. On the physical interpretation of torsion-rotation parameters in methanol and acetaldehyde: Comparison of global fit and ab initio results

    Xu, L.; Lees, R.M.; Hougen, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Equilibrium structural constants and certain torsion endash rotation interaction parameters have been determined for methanol and acetaldehyde from ab initio calculations using GAUSSIAN 94. The substantial molecular flexing which occurs in going from the bottom to the top of the torsional potential barrier can be quantitatively related to coefficients of torsion endash rotation terms having a (1-cos ampersand hthinsp;3γ) dependence on torsional angle γ. The barrier height, six equilibrium structural constants characterizing the bottom of the potential well, and six torsion endash rotation constants are all compared to experimental parameters obtained from global fits to large microwave and far-infrared data sets for methanol and acetaldehyde. The rather encouraging agreement between the Gaussian and global fit results for methanol seems both to validate the accuracy of ab initio calculations of these parameters, and to demonstrate that the physical origin of these torsion endash rotation interaction terms in methanol lies primarily in structural relaxation with torsion. The less satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment for acetaldehyde requires further study. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  8. Global sensitivity analysis of a model related to memory formation in synapses: Model reduction based on epistemic parameter uncertainties and related issues.

    Kulasiri, Don; Liang, Jingyi; He, Yao; Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2017-04-21

    We investigate the epistemic uncertainties of parameters of a mathematical model that describes the dynamics of CaMKII-NMDAR complex related to memory formation in synapses using global sensitivity analysis (GSA). The model, which was published in this journal, is nonlinear and complex with Ca 2+ patterns with different level of frequencies as inputs. We explore the effects of parameter on the key outputs of the model to discover the most sensitive ones using GSA and partial ranking correlation coefficient (PRCC) and to understand why they are sensitive and others are not based on the biology of the problem. We also extend the model to add presynaptic neurotransmitter vesicles release to have action potentials as inputs of different frequencies. We perform GSA on this extended model to show that the parameter sensitivities are different for the extended model as shown by PRCC landscapes. Based on the results of GSA and PRCC, we reduce the original model to a less complex model taking the most important biological processes into account. We validate the reduced model against the outputs of the original model. We show that the parameter sensitivities are dependent on the inputs and GSA would make us understand the sensitivities and the importance of the parameters. A thorough phenomenological understanding of the relationships involved is essential to interpret the results of GSA and hence for the possible model reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved delay-dependent globally asymptotic stability of delayed uncertain recurrent neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters

    Yan, Ji; Bao-Tong, Cui

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have improved delay-dependent stability criteria for recurrent neural networks with a delay varying over a range and Markovian jumping parameters. The criteria improve over some previous ones in that they have fewer matrix variables yet less conservatism. In addition, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the applicability of the result using the linear matrix inequality toolbox in MATLAB. (general)

  10. Seminal plasma induces global transcriptomic changes associated with cell migration, proliferation and viability in endometrial epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts.

    Chen, Joseph C; Johnson, Brittni A; Erikson, David W; Piltonen, Terhi T; Barragan, Fatima; Chu, Simon; Kohgadai, Nargis; Irwin, Juan C; Greene, Warner C; Giudice, Linda C; Roan, Nadia R

    2014-06-01

    How does seminal plasma (SP) affect the transcriptome of human primary endometrial epithelial cells (eEC) and stromal fibroblasts (eSF)? Exposure of eEC and eSF to SP in vitro increases expression of genes and secreted proteins associated with cellular migration, proliferation, viability and inhibition of cell death. Studies in both humans and animals suggest that SP can access and induce physiological changes in the upper female reproductive tract (FRT), which may participate in promoting reproductive success. This is a cross sectional study involving control samples versus treatment. SP (pooled from twenty donors) was first tested for dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on eEC and eSF (n = 4). As exposure of eEC or eSF to 1% SP for 6 h proved to be non-toxic, a second set of eEC/eSF samples (n = 4) was treated under these conditions for transcriptome, protein and functional analysis. With a third set of samples (n = 3), we further compared the transcriptional response of the cells to SP versus fresh semen. eEC and eSF were isolated from endometrial biopsies from women of reproductive age undergoing benign gynecologic procedures and maintained in vitro. RNA was isolated and processed for microarray studies to analyze global transcriptomic changes. Secreted factors in conditioned media from SP-treated cells were analyzed by Luminex and for the ability to stimulate migration of CD14+ monocytes and CD4+ T cells. Pathway identifications were determined using the Z-scoring system in Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (Z scores ≥|1.5|). SP induced transcriptomic changes (P reproductive success, female reproductive health and susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. The gene list provided by the transcriptome analysis reported here should prove a valuable resource for understanding the response of the upper FRT to SP exposure. This project was supported by NIH AI083050-04 (W.C.G./L.C.G.); NIH U54HD 055764 (L.C.G.); NIH 1F32HD074423-02 (J.C.C.); DOD W81XWH-11

  11. Global tilt and lumbar lordosis index: two parameters correlating with health-related quality of life scores-but how do they truly impact disability?

    Boissière, Louis; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Bourghli, Anouar; Vital, Jean-Marc; Pellisé, Ferran; Alanay, Ahmet; Yilgor, Caglar; Acaroglu, Emre; Perez-Grueso, Francisco Javier; Kleinstück, Frank; Obeid, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Many radiological parameters have been reported to correlate with patient's disability including sagittal vertical axis (SVA), pelvic tilt (PT), and pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI-LL). European literature reports other parameters such as lumbar lordosis index (LLI) and the global tilt (GT). If most parameters correlate with health-related quality of life scores (HRQLs), their impact on disability remains unclear. This study aimed to validate these parameters by investigating their correlation with HRQLs. It also aimed to evaluate the relationship between each of these sagittal parameters and HRQLs to fully understand the impact in adult spinal deformity management. A retrospective review of a multicenter, prospective database was carried out. The database inclusion criteria were adults (>18 years old) presenting any of the following radiographic parameters: scoliosis (Cobb ≥20°), SVA ≥5 cm, thoracic kyphosis ≥60° or PT ≥25°. All patients with complete data at baseline were included. Health-related quality of life scores, demographic variables (DVs), and radiographic parameters were collected at baseline. Differences in HRQLs among groups of each DV were assessed with analyses of variance. Correlations between radiographic variables and HRQLs were assessed using the Spearman rank correlation. Multivariate linear regression models were fitted for each of the HRQLs (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], Scoliosis Research Society-22 subtotal score, or physical component summaries) with sagittal parameters and covariants as independent variables. A p<.05 value was considered statistically significant. Among a total of 755 included patients (mean age, 52.1 years), 431 were non-surgical candidates and 324 were surgical candidates. Global tilt and LLI significantly correlated with HRQLs (r=0.4 and -0.3, respectively) for univariate analysis. Demographic variables such as age, gender, body mass index, past surgery, and surgical or non-surgical candidate

  12. Protective effect of ascorbic acid on netilmicin-induced lipid profile and peroxidation parameters in rabbit blood plasma.

    Devbhuti, Pritesh; Sikdar, Debasis; Saha, Achintya; Sengupta, Chandana

    2011-01-01

    A drug may cause alteration in blood-lipid profile and induce lipid peroxidation phenomena on administration in the body. Antioxidant may play beneficial role to control the negative alteration in lipid profile and lipid peroxidation. In view of this context, the present in vivo study was carried out to evaluate the role of ascorbic acid as antioxidant on netilmicin-induced alteration of blood lipid profile and peroxidation parameters. Rabbits were used as experimental animals and blood was collected to estimate blood-lipid profiles, such as total cholesterol (TCh), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-Ch), triglycerides (Tg), phospholipids (PL), and total lipids (TL), as well as peroxidation parameters, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO). The results revealed that netilmicin caused significant enhancement of MDA, HNE, TCh, LDL-Ch, VLDL-Ch, Tg levels and reduction in GSH, NO, HDL-Ch, PL, TL levels. On co-administration, ascorbic acid was found to be effective in reducing netilmicin-induced negative alterations of the above parameters.

  13. Relationship between plasma parameters and film microstructure in radio frequency magnetron sputter deposition of barium strontium titanate

    Panda, B.; Dhar, A.; Nigam, G. D.; Bhattacharya, D.; Ray, S. K.

    1998-01-01

    Radio frequency magnetron sputtered Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 thin films have been deposited on silicon and Si/SiO2/SiN/Pt substrates. The analysis of plasma discharge has been carried out using the Langmuir probe technique. Both the pressure and power have been found to influence the ion density and self-bias of the target. Introduction of oxygen into the discharge effectively decreases the ion density. The structural and electrical properties have been investigated using x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy of deposited films and capacitance-voltage, conductance-voltage, and current density-electric field characteristics of fabricated capacitors. The growth and orientation of the films have been found to depend upon the type of substrates and deposition temperatures. The texture in the film is promoted at a pressure 0.25 Torr with a moderately high value of ion density and low ion bombardment energy. Films deposited on Si/SiO2/SiN/Pt substrate have shown higher dielectric constant (191) and lower leakage current density (2.8×10-6 A/cm2 at 100 kV/cm) compared to that on silicon.

  14. Nanosecond barrier discharge in a krypton/helium mixture containing mercury dibromide: Optical emission and plasma parameters

    Malinina, A. A.; Starikovskaya, S. M.; Malinin, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral and electrical characteristics of atmospheric-pressure nanosecond barrier discharge plasma in a HgBr2/Kr/He mixture have been investigated. The discharge was initiated by positive 10-kV voltage pulses with a rise time of 4 ns and a half-amplitude duration of 28 ns. Emission from exciplex HgBr ( B 2Σ{1/2/+} - X 2Σ{1/2/+}) and KrBr ( B 2Σ{1/2/+} - X 2Σ{1/2/+}, C3/2-AΠ1/2, D1/2-AΠ1/2) molecules have been studied. From the time evolution of the B-X transition spectra of the HgBr molecule (502 nm) and KrBr molecule (207 nm), a mechanism of the formation of the exciplex molecules in the nanosecond discharge has been deduced. The distributions of the energies and rates of the processes responsible for emission from HgBr and KrBr molecules have been analyzed by numerically solving the Boltzmann equation for the electron distribution function. Experiments have confirmed the possibility of optimizing the voltage supply pulse for maximizing the efficiency of simultaneous emission in the UV and visible (green) spectral ranges from atmospheric-pressure discharge in the HgBr2/Kr/He mixture.

  15. The GTN-P Data Management System: A central database for permafrost monitoring parameters of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) and beyond

    Lanckman, Jean-Pierre; Elger, Kirsten; Karlsson, Ævar Karl; Johannsson, Halldór; Lantuit, Hugues

    2013-04-01

    Permafrost is a direct indicator of climate change and has been identified as Essential Climate Variable (ECV) by the global observing community. The monitoring of permafrost temperatures, active-layer thicknesses and other parameters has been performed for several decades already, but it was brought together within the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) in the 1990's only, including the development of measurement protocols to provide standardized data. GTN-P is the primary international observing network for permafrost sponsored by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS), and managed by the International Permafrost Association (IPA). All GTN-P data was outfitted with an "open data policy" with free data access via the World Wide Web. The existing data, however, is far from being homogeneous: it is not yet optimized for databases, there is no framework for data reporting or archival and data documentation is incomplete. As a result, and despite the utmost relevance of permafrost in the Earth's climate system, the data has not been used by as many researchers as intended by the initiators of the programs. While the monitoring of many other ECVs has been tackled by organized international networks (e.g. FLUXNET), there is still no central database for all permafrost-related parameters. The European Union project PAGE21 created opportunities to develop this central database for permafrost monitoring parameters of GTN-P during the duration of the project and beyond. The database aims to be the one location where the researcher can find data, metadata, and information of all relevant parameters for a specific site. Each component of the Data Management System (DMS), including parameters, data levels and metadata formats were developed in cooperation with the GTN-P and the IPA. The general framework of the GTN-P DMS is based on an object oriented model (OOM), open for as many parameters as possible, and

  16. Effect of intravenous sodium salicylate administration prior to castration on plasma cortisol and electroencephalography parameters in calves.

    Bergamasco, L; Coetzee, J F; Gehring, R; Murray, L; Song, T; Mosher, R A

    2011-12-01

    Nociception is an unavoidable consequence of many routine management procedures such as castration in cattle. This study investigated electroencephalography (EEG) parameters and cortisol levels in calves receiving intravenous sodium salicylate in response to a castration model. Twelve Holstein calves were randomly assigned to the following groups: (i) castrated, untreated controls, (ii) 50 mg/kg sodium salicylate IV precastration, were blood sampled at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 360, and 480 min postcastration. The EEG recording included baseline, castration, immediate recovery (0-5 min after castration), middle recovery (5-10 min after castration), and late recovery (10-20 min after castration). Samples were analyzed by competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay and fluorescence polarization immunoassay for cortisol and salicylate, respectively. EEG visual inspection and spectral analysis were performed. Statistical analyses included anova repeated measures and correlations between response variable. No treatment effect was noted between the two groups for cortisol and EEG measurements, namely an attenuation of acute cortisol response and EEG desynchronization in sodium salicylate group. Time effects were noted for EEG measurements, cortisol and salicylates levels. Significant correlations between cortisol and EEG parameters were noted. These findings have implications for designing effective analgesic regimens, and they suggest that EEG can be useful to monitor pain attributable to castration. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Spatial and temporal variations of small-scale plasma turbulence parameters in the equatorial electrojet: HF and VHF radar observational results

    G. Manju

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variations of various parameters associated with plasma wave turbulence in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ at the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N, 77° E; dip 0.5° N are studied for the first time, using co-located HF (18MHz and VHF (54.95MHz coherent backscatter radar observations (daytime in the altitude region of 95-110km, mostly on magnetically quiet days. The derived turbulence parameters are the mean electron density irregularity strength (δn/n, anomalous electron collision frequency (νe* and the corrected east-west electron drift velocity (Vey. The validity of the derived parameters is confirmed using radar data at two different frequencies and comparing with in-situ measurements. The behaviour of δn/n in relation to the backscattered power during weak and strong EEJ conditions is also examined to understand the growth and evolution of turbulence in the electrojet.

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of small-scale plasma turbulence parameters in the equatorial electrojet: HF and VHF radar observational results

    G. Manju

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variations of various parameters associated with plasma wave turbulence in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ at the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N, 77° E; dip 0.5° N are studied for the first time, using co-located HF (18MHz and VHF (54.95MHz coherent backscatter radar observations (daytime in the altitude region of 95-110km, mostly on magnetically quiet days. The derived turbulence parameters are the mean electron density irregularity strength (δn/n, anomalous electron collision frequency (νe* and the corrected east-west electron drift velocity (Vey. The validity of the derived parameters is confirmed using radar data at two different frequencies and comparing with in-situ measurements. The behaviour of δn/n in relation to the backscattered power during weak and strong EEJ conditions is also examined to understand the growth and evolution of turbulence in the electrojet.

  19. 27-day variation in solar-terrestrial parameters: Global characteristics and an origin based approach of the signals

    Poblet, Facundo L.; Azpilicueta, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    The Earth and the near interplanetary medium are affected by the Sun in different ways. Those processes generated in the Sun that induce perturbations into the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere system are called geoeffective processes and show a wide range of temporal variations, like the 11-year solar cycle (long term variations), the variation of ∼27 days (recurrent variations), solar storms enduring for some days, particle acceleration events lasting for some hours, etc. In this article, the periodicity of ∼27 days associated with the solar synodic rotation period is investigated. The work is mainly focused on studying the resulting 27-day periodic signal in the magnetic activity, by the analysis of the horizontal component of the magnetic field registered on a set of 103 magnetic observatories distributed around the world. For this a new method to isolate the periodicity of interest has been developed consisting of two main steps: the first one consists of removing the linear trend corresponding to every calendar year from the data series, and the second one of removing from the resulting series a smoothed version of it obtained by applying a 30-day moving average. The result at the end of this process is a data series in which all the signal with periods larger than 30 days are canceled. The most important characteristics observed in the resulting signals are two main amplitude modulations: the first and most prominent related to the 11-year solar cycle and the second one with a semiannual pattern. In addition, the amplitude of the signal shows a dependence on the geomagnetic latitude of the observatory with a significant discontinuity at approx. ±60°. The processing scheme was also applied to other parameters that are widely used to characterize the energy transfer from the Sun to the Earth: F10.7 and Mg II indices and the ionospheric vertical total electron content (vTEC) were considered for radiative interactions; and the solar wind velocity for the non

  20. Parametric uncertainty and global sensitivity analysis in a model of the carotid bifurcation: Identification and ranking of most sensitive model parameters.

    Gul, R; Bernhard, S

    2015-11-01

    In computational cardiovascular models, parameters are one of major sources of uncertainty, which make the models unreliable and less predictive. In order to achieve predictive models that allow the investigation of the cardiovascular diseases, sensitivity analysis (SA) can be used to quantify and reduce the uncertainty in outputs (pressure and flow) caused by input (electrical and structural) model parameters. In the current study, three variance based global sensitivity analysis (GSA) methods; Sobol, FAST and a sparse grid stochastic collocation technique based on the Smolyak algorithm were applied on a lumped parameter model of carotid bifurcation. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to identify and rank most sensitive parameters as well as to fix less sensitive parameters at their nominal values (factor fixing). In this context, network location and temporal dependent sensitivities were also discussed to identify optimal measurement locations in carotid bifurcation and optimal temporal regions for each parameter in the pressure and flow waves, respectively. Results show that, for both pressure and flow, flow resistance (R), diameter (d) and length of the vessel (l) are sensitive within right common carotid (RCC), right internal carotid (RIC) and right external carotid (REC) arteries, while compliance of the vessels (C) and blood inertia (L) are sensitive only at RCC. Moreover, Young's modulus (E) and wall thickness (h) exhibit less sensitivities on pressure and flow at all locations of carotid bifurcation. Results of network location and temporal variabilities revealed that most of sensitivity was found in common time regions i.e. early systole, peak systole and end systole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hardware and software systems for the determination of charged particle parameters in low pressure plasmas using impedance-tuned Langmuir probes

    Ye, Yuancai; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    1997-12-01

    A computer-controlled, impedance-tuned Langmuir probe data acquisition system and processing software package have been designed for the diagnostic study of low pressure plasmas. The combination of impedance-tuning and a wide range of applied potentials (± 100 V) provides a versatile system, applicable to a variety of analytical plasmas without significant modification. The automated probe system can be used to produce complete and undistorted current-voltage (i-V) curves with extremely low noise over the wide potential range. Based on these hardware and software systems, it is possible to determine all of the important charged particle parameters in a plasma; electron number density ( ne), ion number density ( ni), electron temperature ( Te), electron energy distribution function (EEDF), and average electron energy (). The complete data acquisition system and evaluation software are described in detail. A LabView (National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX) application program has been developed for the Apple Macintosh line of microcomputers to control all of the operational aspects of the Langmuir probe experiments. The description here is mainly focused on the design aspects of the acquisition system with the targets of extremely low noise and reduction of the influence of measurement noise in the calculation procedures. This is particularly important in the case of electron energy distribution functions where multiple derivatives are calculated from the obtained i-V curves. A separate C-language data processing program has been developed and is included here to allow the reader to evaluate data obtained with the described hardware, or any i-V data imported in tab separated variable format. Both of the software systems are included on a Macintosh formatted disk for their use in other laboratories desiring these capabilities.

  2. Optical characteristics and parameters of the plasma of a barrier discharge excited in a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with nitrogen and helium

    Malinina, A. A.; Guivan, N. N.; Shimon, L. L.; Shuaibov, A. K.

    2010-09-01

    Results are presented from experimental and theoretical studies of the optical characteristics and parameters of the plasma of an atmospheric-pressure barrier discharge excited in a HgBr2: N2: He mixture, which was used as the working medium of a small-size (with a radiation area of 8 cm2) exciplex gas-discharge radiation source. The mean radiation power of 87 mW was achieved at the radiation wavelength λmax = 502 nm. The electron energy distribution function, the transport characteristics, the specific energy lost in the processes involving electrons, the electron temperature and density, and the rate constants of elastic and inelastic electron scattering by the components of the working mixture were calculated as functions of the reduced field E/ N. The plasma of a discharge excited in a HgBr2: N2: He mixture can be used as the working medium of a small-size blue-green radiation source. Such a source can find application in biotechnology, photonics, and medicine and can also be used to manufacture gas-discharge display panels.

  3. Theoretical search for optimal pump parameters for observing spontaneous radiation amplification on the λ=41.8-nm transition of Xe IX in plasma

    Ivanova, E P; Ivanov, Arkadii L

    2004-01-01

    Based on a collisional-radiative model, an atomic-kinetic calculation of the gains on the 41.8-nm transitions of Pd-like xenon was performed for the plasma produced due to the interaction of a femtosecond laser pulse with gaseous xenon. The gains g(z,τ) averaged over the spatial and temporal coordinates were compared with the known gains which had been measured experimentally in Xe 8+ . The amplification was shown to occur under the conditions of ionisation of the working ions, and the time of output radiation saturation depends on the time of Xe 8+ transformation to higher-ionised ions. Our theoretical investigation enables determining the optimal pump parameters, at which the product of the gain g by the active medium length L is about 20, which exceeds the experimental gL value. (active media)

  4. Transport code calculations concerning the plasma parameters in the scrape-off layer of poloidal limiter and the possible advantage of high Z wall materials in the cool plasma blanket approach

    Nicolai, A.; Fuchs, G.

    1978-01-01

    The plasma parameters in the scrape-off layer (SoL) of a tokamak are calculated by introducing appropriate particles and energy loss terms into the six-regime version of Duechs code. These terms take secondary electron smission from the limiter surface and a potential sheath in front of it into account. In the SoL Bohn diffusion is assumed. Limiter materials with large secondary emission coefficients (SEC)(e.g. Mo) give lower potential steps (U = 90 V) than low SEC materials (e.g. Be) which cause (U = 250 V). The flux of the sputtered liner material and the resulting radiation losses can be decreased by neutral gas influx. When the same neutral gas influx and the same additional heating are used, it is found that radiation losses due to molybdenum are lower than those due to iron, although Mo is more toxic. (Auth.)

  5. Parametric studies in ohmically heated plasmas in Heliotron E

    Mutoh, T.; Besshou, S.; Ijiri, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Parametric studies of volume averaged electron temperature and global electron energy confinement time /tau/epsilon /SUB e/ of ohmically heated Heliotron E plasmas have been performed using a data acquisition computer system. The scaling laws α (I /SUB OH/ x B/n /SUB e/) /SUP 1/2/ and /tau/epsilon /SUB e/ α n /SUP -1/2/ /SUB e/ x B/I /SUP 3/2/ /SUB OH/ are obtained directly by a code which fits the exponents of the plasma parameters ponents of the plasma parameters to the electron temperature and confinement time. The ohmically heated plasma confinement time /tau/epsilon /SUB e/ is shown to be related to the drift parameters xi (= V /SUB De/ /V /SUB Te/). The dependences of the energy confinement time on other plasma parameters is also presented. An investigation is made of the correlation between MHD activity and the confinement

  6. Source Parameter Inversion for Recent Great Earthquakes from a Decade-long Observation of Global Gravity Fields

    Han, Shin-Chan; Riva, Ricccardo; Sauber, Jeanne; Okal, Emile

    2013-01-01

    We quantify gravity changes after great earthquakes present within the 10 year long time series of monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity fields. Using spherical harmonic normal-mode formulation, the respective source parameters of moment tensor and double-couple were estimated. For the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the gravity data indicate a composite moment of 1.2x10(exp 23)Nm with a dip of 10deg, in agreement with the estimate obtained at ultralong seismic periods. For the 2010 Maule earthquake, the GRACE solutions range from 2.0 to 2.7x10(exp 22)Nm for dips of 12deg-24deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the estimated scalar moments range from 4.1 to 6.1x10(exp 22)Nm, with dips of 9deg-19deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2012 Indian Ocean strike-slip earthquakes, the gravity data delineate a composite moment of 1.9x10(exp 22)Nm regardless of the centroid depth, comparing favorably with the total moment of the main ruptures and aftershocks. The smallest event we successfully analyzed with GRACE was the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake with M(sub 0) approx. 5.0x10(exp 21)Nm. We found that the gravity data constrain the focal mechanism with the centroid only within the upper and lower crustal layers for thrust events. Deeper sources (i.e., in the upper mantle) could not reproduce the gravity observation as the larger rigidity and bulk modulus at mantle depths inhibit the interior from changing its volume, thus reducing the negative gravity component. Focal mechanisms and seismic moments obtained in this study represent the behavior of the sources on temporal and spatial scales exceeding the seismic and geodetic spectrum.

  7. Spark Plasma Sintering constrained process parameters of sintered silver paste for connection in power electronic modules: Microstructure, mechanical and thermal properties

    Alayli, N. [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Propre de Recherche 3407, 99 avenue Jean Baptiste Clément, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris 06, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/INSU, Laboratoire Atmosphères Milieux Observations Spatiales-IPSL, Quartier des Garennes, 11 Boulevard d' Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France); Schoenstein, F., E-mail: frederic.schoenstein@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Propre de Recherche 3407, 99 avenue Jean Baptiste Clément, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Girard, A. [Office National d' Étude et de Recherches Aérospatiales, Laboratoire d' Étude des Microstructures, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 104, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc, F-92322 Châtillon (France); and others

    2014-11-14

    Processing parameters of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique were constrained to process nano sized silver particles bound in a paste for interconnection in power electronic devices. A novel strategy combining debinding step and consolidation processes (SPS) in order to elaborate nano-structured silver bulk material is investigated. Optimum parameters were sought for industrial power electronics packaging from the microstructural and morphological properties of the sintered material. The latter was studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine the density and the grain size of crystallites. Two types of samples, termed S1 (bulk) and S2 (multilayer) were elaborated and characterized. They are homogeneous with a low degree of porosity and a good adhesion to the substrate and the process parameters are compatible with industrial constraints. As the experimental results show, the mean crystallite size is between 60 nm and 790 nm with a density between 50% and 92% resulting in mechanical and thermal properties that are better than that of lead free solder. The best SPS sintering parameters, the applied pressure, the temperature and the processing time were determined as being 3 MPa, 300 °C and 1 min respectively when the desizing time of the preprocessing step was kept below 5 min at 150 °C. Using these processing parameters, acceptable for automotive packaging industry, a semi-conductor power chip was successfully connected to a metalized substrate by sintered silver with thermal and electrical properties better than those of current solders and with thermomechanical properties allowing absorption of thermoplastic stresses. - Highlights: • The sintered silver joints have nanometric structure. • The grain growth was controlled by the SPS sintering parameters. • New connection material improve thermal and electrical properties of current solders. • Interconnection's plastic strain can absorb thermo

  8. Plasma antioxidant capacity, sexual and thyroid hormones levels, sperm quantity and quality parameters in stressed male rats received nano-particle of selenium

    M Rezaeian-Tabrizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of nano-particle of selenium (nSe on plasma antioxidant capacity, sexual and thyroid hormones and spermatogenesis in male rats exposed to oxidative stress.Methods: Forty rats were randomly divided into four treatments with ten replicates. Treatment groups were: C, the control group received normal saline as gavage and injection (i.p.; OS, received tert-butyl hydroperoxide (0.2 mmol/kg body weight for inducing oxidative stress; nSe, received nSe (0.3 mg/kg body weight as gavage, and OS+nSe, received tert-butyl hydroperoxide and nSe. All groups were treated for 28 d and administrations were done each 48 h.Results: Oxidative stress decreased and gavage of nSe to stressed rats increased the antioxidant capacity and activities (P0.05 between rats exposed to oxidative stress and those in the control group for sperm quantity and quality. Gavage of nSe to stressed rats had no effect (P>0.05 on the sperm parameters, except increased viability and progressive percentages.Conclusions: Nano-particle of Selenium administration in stressed rats could ameliorate the negative effects of oxidative stress on the antioxidant capacity and activities, but not on the quantity and quality parameters of sperm.

  9. Serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A levels in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy: relation to newborn anthropometric parameters and maternal tobacco smoking.

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Gajewska, Joanna; Mazur, Joanna; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Maciejewski, Tomasz M; Leibschang, Jerzy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations of the first, second and third trimester serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) concentrations with neonatal anthropometric parameters. The effect of tobacco smoking during pregnancy on PAPP-A level was also studied. One hundred and fifty healthy pregnant women were divided into smoking and tobacco-abstinent groups. Serum PAPP-A level was measured with the KRYPTOR rapid random-access immunoassay analyzer. The relationship between PAPP-A and newborn related outcome as well as markers of estimated intensity of cigarette smoking was evaluated by univariate and multivariate linear regression. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A concentration was positively correlated with birth weight in the first (β = 31.6; p < 0.001), second (β = 10.6; p < 0.05), and third (β = 4.6; p < 0.001) trimester of gestation. A significant association between PAPP-A and birth body length and head circumference in the second (β = 0.02; p < 0.05) and third trimester (β = 0.01; p < 0.01) was also found. The serum PAPP-A levels were significantly lower in the smoking than in the tobacco-abstinent group in each trimester of pregnancy ( p < 0.001). The largest impact of the number of cigarettes smoked per day on PAPP-A level was found in the second (β = -1.2; p = 0.004) and third trimester (β = -2.6; p = 0.001). Maternal serum PAPP-A levels during gestation might be significant predictors for birth weight. Increased PAPP-A concentrations in the second and third trimester appeared to also be predictive for newborn body length and head circumference. Smoking alters maternal PAPP-A levels in all trimesters, with the greatest impact related to the number of cigarettes smoked per day.

  10. Profiling the metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins in plasma of female rats using (1) H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS global metabolomics approaches.

    Liu, Haiyan; Garrett, Timothy J; Tayyari, Fariba; Gu, Liwei

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to investigate the metabolome changes in female rats gavaged with partially purified cranberry procyanidins (PPCP) using (1) H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS metabolomics approaches, and to identify the contributing metabolites. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and administered PPCP or partially purified apple procyanidins (PPAP) for three times using a 250 mg extracts/kg body weight dose. Plasma was collected 6 h after the last gavage and analyzed using (1) H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS. No metabolome difference was observed using (1) H NMR metabolomics approach. However, LC-HRMS metabolomics data show that metabolome in the plasma of female rats administered PPCP differed from those gavaged with PPAP. Eleven metabolites were tentatively identified from a total of 36 discriminant metabolic features based on accurate masses and/or product ion spectra. PPCP caused a greater increase of exogenous metabolites including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, phenol, phenol-sulphate, catechol sulphate, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylvaleric acid, and 4'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-3'-O-beta-glucuronide in rat plasma. Furthermore, the plasma level of O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-O-glucuronide, 4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid-O-sulphate, 5-(hydroxyphenyl)-ϒ-valerolactone-O-sulphate, 4-hydroxydiphenylamine, and peonidin-3-O-hexose were higher in female rats administered with PPAP. The metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins were revealed using an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS global metabolomics approach. Exogenous and microbial metabolites were the major identified discriminate biomarkers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Profiling the Metabolome Changes Caused by Cranberry Procyanidins in Plasma of Female Rats using 1H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS Global Metabolomics Approaches

    Liu, Haiyan; Garrett, Timothy J.; Tayyari, Fariba; Gu, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    Scope The objective was to investigate the metabolome changes in female rats gavaged with partially purified cranberry procyanidins (PPCP) using 1H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS metabolomics approaches, and to identify the contributing metabolites. Methods and results Twenty four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and administered PPCP or partially purified apple procyanidins (PPAP) for 3 times using a 250 mg extracts/kg body weight dose. Plasma were collected six hours after the last gavage and analyzed using 1H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS. No metabolome difference was observed using 1H NMR metabolomics approach. However, LC-HRMS metabolomics data show that metabolome in plasma of female rats administered PPCP differed from those gavaged with PPAP. Eleven metabolites were tentatively identified from a total of 36 discriminant metabolic features based on accurate masses and/or product ion spectra. PPCP caused a greater increase of exogenous metabolites including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, phenol, phenol-sulfate, catechol sulphate, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylvaleric acid, and 4′-O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin-3′-O-beta-glucuronide in rat plasma. Furthermore, the plasma level of O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin-O-glucuronide, 4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid-O-sulphate, 5-(hydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone-O-sulphate, 4-hydroxydiphenylamine, and peonidin-3-O-hexose were higher in female rats administered with PPAP. Conclusion The metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins were revealed using an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS global metabolomics approach. Exogenous and microbial metabolites were the major identified discriminate biomarkers. PMID:26264887

  12. Evaluation of oxygen species during E-H transition in inductively coupled RF plasmas: combination of experimental results with global model

    Meichsner, Jürgen; Wegner, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Inductively coupled RF plasmas (ICP) in oxygen at low pressure have been intensively studied as a molecular and electronegative model system in the last funding period of the Collaborative Research Centre 24 "Fundamentals of Complex Plasmas". The ICP configuration consists of a planar coil inside a quartz cylinder as dielectric barrier which is immersed in a large stainless steel vacuum chamber. In particular, the E-H mode transition has been investigated, combining experimental results from comprehensive plasma diagnostics as input for analytical rate equation calculation of a volume averaged global model. The averaged density was determined for electrons, negative ions O-, molecular oxygen ground state O2(X3 Σg-) and singlet metastable state O2(a1 Δg) from line-integrated measurements using 160 GHz Gaussian beam microwave interferometry coupled with laser photodetachment experiment and VUV absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Taking into account the relevant elementary processes and rate coefficients from literature together with the measured temperatures and averaged density of electrons, O2(X3 Σg-) and O2(a1 Δg) the steady state density was calculated for O(3P), O2(b1 Σg+), O(1D), O(1S), O3, O-, O2-, and O3-, respectively. The averaged density of negative ions O- from the rate equation calculation is compared with the measured one. The normalized source and loss rates are discussed for O(3P), O2(b1 Σg+) and O-. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Fundamentals of Complex Plasmas", edited by Jürgen Meichsner, Michael Bonitz, Holger Fehske, Alexander Piel.

  13. Seminal plasma induces global transcriptomic changes associated with cell migration, proliferation and viability in endometrial epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts

    Chen, Joseph C.; Johnson, Brittni A.; Erikson, David W.; Piltonen, Terhi T.; Barragan, Fatima; Chu, Simon; Kohgadai, Nargis; Irwin, Juan C.; Greene, Warner C.; Giudice, Linda C.; Roan, Nadia R.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How does seminal plasma (SP) affect the transcriptome of human primary endometrial epithelial cells (eEC) and stromal fibroblasts (eSF)? SUMMARY ANSWER Exposure of eEC and eSF to SP in vitro increases expression of genes and secreted proteins associated with cellular migration, proliferation, viability and inhibition of cell death. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Studies in both humans and animals suggest that SP can access and induce physiological changes in the upper female reproductiv...

  14. Selección de los parámetros técnicos de los compensadores escalonados de potencia reactiva a nivel global; Selection of the technical parameters for the staggered compensators of reactive power at global level

    Davel Borges Vasconcellos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En los sistemas eléctricos industriales es muy frecuente la existencia de cargas variables. La compensacióndel factor de potencia en la mayoría de estos casos, se realiza por medio de dispositivos compensadoresestáticos que proporcionan una potencia reactiva diferente en función de las necesidades de los receptoresdel sistema.  Tales pueden ser: de compensación continua o de compensación discreta o escalonada.Estos últimos han sido ampliamente difundidos por sus ventajas. Sin embargo, los criterios para laselección de los parámetros técnicos del dispositivo, no siempre han sido adecuados. En el trabajo sepresenta un procedimiento a la hora de seleccionar dichos parámetros a nivel global en los mayormenteconocidos como compensadores automáticos del factor de potencia. Paralelamente se discute un ejemploreal de aplicación al sistema eléctrico de un pequeño taller de producción.  TIn the industrial electric systems it is very frequent the existence of variables loads. The power factorcompensation in most of these cases is carried out by means of static compensations devises thatprovide a different reactive power in function of the load demands.  Such they can be: of continuouscompensation or of discreet or staggered compensation. These last ones have been broadly diffused bytheir advantages. However, the approaches for the selection of the technical parameters they have notalways been adapted. A procedure is presented when selecting these parameters at global level in themostly well-known ones as automatic compensators of power factor. At the same time, a real example ofapplication is discusses to the electric system of a small production shop.

  15. Physics parameter space of tokamak ignition devices

    Selcow, E.C.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Uckan, N.A.; Houlberg, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to explore the physics parameter space of tokamak ignition experiments. A new physics systems code has been developed to perform the study. This code performs a global plasma analysis using steady-state, two-fluid, energy-transport models. In this paper, we discuss the models used in the code and their application to the analysis of compact ignition experiments. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. Global Sensitivity Analysis as Good Modelling Practices tool for the identification of the most influential process parameters of the primary drying step during freeze-drying.

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Corver, Jos; Nopens, Ingmar; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Pharmaceutical batch freeze-drying is commonly used to improve the stability of biological therapeutics. The primary drying step is regulated by the dynamic settings of the adaptable process variables, shelf temperature T s and chamber pressure P c . Mechanistic modelling of the primary drying step leads to the optimal dynamic combination of these adaptable process variables in function of time. According to Good Modelling Practices, a Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is essential for appropriate model building. In this study, both a regression-based and variance-based GSA were conducted on a validated mechanistic primary drying model to estimate the impact of several model input parameters on two output variables, the product temperature at the sublimation front T i and the sublimation rate ṁ sub . T s was identified as most influential parameter on both T i and ṁ sub , followed by P c and the dried product mass transfer resistance α Rp for T i and ṁ sub , respectively. The GSA findings were experimentally validated for ṁ sub via a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach. The results indicated that GSA is a very useful tool for the evaluation of the impact of different process variables on the model outcome, leading to essential process knowledge, without the need for time-consuming experiments (e.g., DoE). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The charge imbalance in ultracold plasmas

    Chen, Tianxing; Lu, Ronghua; Guo, Li; Han, Shensheng

    2016-01-01

    Ultracold plasmas are regarded as quasineutral but not strictly neutral. The results of charge imbalance in the expansion of ultracold plasmas are reported. The calculations are performed by a full molecular-dynamics simulation. The details of the electron velocity distributions are calculated without the assumption of electron global thermal equilibrium and Boltzmann distribution. Spontaneous evolutions of the charge imbalance from the initial states with perfect neutrality are given in the simulations. The expansion of outer plasma slows down with the charge imbalance. The influences of plasma size and parameters on the charge imbalance are discussed. The radial profiles of electron temperature are given for the first time, and the self-similar expansion can still occur even if there is no global thermal equilibrium. The electron disorder induced heating is also found in the simulation.

  18. The charge imbalance in ultracold plasmas

    Chen, Tianxing; Lu, Ronghua, E-mail: lurh@siom.ac.cn; Guo, Li; Han, Shensheng [Key Laboratory for Quantum Optics and Center for Cold Atom Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Ultracold plasmas are regarded as quasineutral but not strictly neutral. The results of charge imbalance in the expansion of ultracold plasmas are reported. The calculations are performed by a full molecular-dynamics simulation. The details of the electron velocity distributions are calculated without the assumption of electron global thermal equilibrium and Boltzmann distribution. Spontaneous evolutions of the charge imbalance from the initial states with perfect neutrality are given in the simulations. The expansion of outer plasma slows down with the charge imbalance. The influences of plasma size and parameters on the charge imbalance are discussed. The radial profiles of electron temperature are given for the first time, and the self-similar expansion can still occur even if there is no global thermal equilibrium. The electron disorder induced heating is also found in the simulation.

  19. Influences of spray parameters on the structure and corrosion resistance of stainless steel layers coated on carbon steel by plasma spray treatment

    Yeom, Kyong An; Lee, Sang Dong; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Shur, Dong Soo; Kim, Joung Soo

    1996-01-01

    Stainless steel powders were sprayed on the grit-blasted SM45C carbon steel substrates using a plasma spray method. The influences of the spray parameters on the structure and corrosion resistance of the layers coated on the carbon steel were investigated. Corrosion behavior of the layers were analyzed by the anodic polarization tests in deaerated 0.1 M NaCl + 0.01 M NaOH solution at 80 deg C. The surface roughness and porosity were observed to decrease with decreasing the particle size. The surface hardness of the coating was always higher than that of the matrix, SM45C, implying that the higher resistance of the coating to erosion-corrosion than that of matrix, and increased as the spray power and the spray distance increase. Stainless steel coats showed more corrosion resistance than the carbon steel did, due to their passivity. The corrosion resistance of the coats, however, were inferior to that of the bulk stainless steels due to the inherent defects formed in the coats. The defects such as rough surface and pores provided the occluded sites favorable for the initiation of localized corrosion, resulting in the conclusion that finer the powder is, higher the corrosion resistance is. And the Cr oxides formation resulting in Cr depletion around the oxides reduced the corrosion resistance of the coats. (author)

  20. Effect of deposition parameter on hardness of amorphous carbon film prepared by plasma immersion ion implantation using C2H2

    Mitsuo, A.; Uchida, S.; Morikawa, K.; Kawaguchi, M.; Shiotani, K.; Suzuki, H.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon films were deposited on a cemented carbide substrate and silicon wafer at various bias voltages, acetylene (C 2 H 2 ) pressures and process times by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). In order to investigate the substrate temperature, the tool steel substrate was also simultaneously treated. The final substrate temperature was estimated from the hardness of the tool steel substrate. The surface and cross-sectional morphology of the deposited films were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Depth profiles of the carbon were obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Raman spectroscopy was employed for the structural evaluation of the films. The hardness of the deposited films was measured using a nano-indenter with the maximum load of 0.5 mN. A variety of film hardnesses between 10 to 24 GPa was obtained. The hardness of the carbon films decreased with the increasing bias voltage, C 2 H 2 pressure and process time, although the intensity ratio of the disordered peak to graphitic peak in the Raman spectrum increased. It was considered that the decrease in the film hardness was caused by a stress reduction accompanied by a heating effect during the process as each PIII process parameter significantly influenced the substrate temperature

  1. Evaluation of Tumor Angiogenesis Using Dynamic Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Comparison of Plasma Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Hemodynamic, and Pharmacokinetic Parameters

    Ikeda, O.; Nishimura, R.; Miyayama, H.; Yasunaga, T.; Ozaki, Y.; Tuji, A.; Yamashita, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether tumor angiogenesis of breast cancers can be predicted on the basis of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: Seventy-one patients with 71 breast cancers underwent Gd-DTPA enhanced dynamic MRI. Two regions of interest measurements were obtained in the periphery and in the center of the breast cancers. Hemodynamic parameters obtained by dynamic MRI included peak time, contrast enhancement ratio (CE ratio), and washout ratio. The triexponential concentration curve of Gd-DTPA was fitted to a theoretical model based on compartmental analysis. The transfer constant (or permeability surface product per unit volume of compartment 'k') was obtained using this method. Tumor angiogenesis was assessed by plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (P-VEGF). Results: The P-VEGF was positive in 28 of 71 tumors (39%). The CE ratio, washout ratio, and k in the periphery in P-VEGF positive breast cancers (mean 178%, 18%, and 1.5x10 -2 (s-1)) were significantly greater (P -2 (s-1)). The peak time in the periphery in P-VEGF positive breast cancers was more marked than for P-VEGF negative breast cancers, but this difference was not significant. Conclusion: The hemodynamic and pharmacokinetic analysis of MRI provides valuable information about angiogenesis of breast cancers

  2. Assessing the kidney function parameters glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow with dynamic FDG-PET/MRI in healthy subjects.

    Geist, Barbara K; Baltzer, Pascal; Fueger, Barbara; Hamboeck, Martina; Nakuz, Thomas; Papp, Laszlo; Rasul, Sazan; Sundar, Lalith Kumar Shiyam; Hacker, Marcus; Staudenherz, Anton

    2018-05-09

    A method was developed to assess the kidney parameters glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) from 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) concentration behavior in kidneys, measured with positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Twenty-four healthy adult subjects prospectively underwent dynamic simultaneous PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Time activity curves (TACs) were obtained from the dynamic PET series, with the guidance of MR information. Patlak analysis was performed to determine the GFR, and based on integrals, ERPF was calculated. Results were compared to intra-individually obtained reference values determined from venous blood samples. Total kidney GFR and ERPF as estimated by dynamic PET/MRI were highly correlated to their reference values (r = 0.88/p dynamic FDG PET/MRI scans in healthy kidneys. This has advantages for patients getting a routine scan, where additional examinations for kidney function estimation could be avoided. Further studies are required for transferring this PET/MRI method to PET/CT applications.

  3. Dependence of Parameters of Laser-Produced Au Plasmas on the Incident Laser Energy of Sub-Nanosecond and Picosecond Laser Pulses

    Woryna, E.; Badziak, J.; Makowski, J.; Parys, P.; Vankov, A.B.; Wolowski, J.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Rohlena, K.

    2001-01-01

    The parameters of Au plasma as functions of laser energy for ps pulses are presented and compared with the ones for sub-ns pulses at nearly the same densities of laser energy. The experiments were performed at the IPPLM with the use of CPA (chirped pulse amplification) Nd:glass laser system. Thick Au foil targets were irradiated by normally incident focused laser beams with maximum intensities of 8x10 16 and 2x10 14 W/cm 2 for ps and sub-ns laser pulses, respectively. The characteristics of ion streams were investigated with the use of ion diagnostics methods based on the time-of flight technique. In these experiments the laser energies were changed in the range from 90 to 700 mJ and the measurements were performed at a given focus position FP = 0 and along the target normal for both the laser pulses. The charge carried by the ions, the maximum ion velocities of fast and thermal ion groups, the maximum ion current density as well as the area of photopeak in dependence on the incident laser energy for sub-ns and ps pulses were investigated and discussed. (author)

  4. Gas and plasma dynamics of RF discharge jet of low pressure in a vacuum chamber with flat electrodes and inside tube, influence of RF discharge on the steel surface parameters

    Khristoliubova, V. I.; Kashapov, N. F.; Shaekhov, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    Researches results of the characteristics of the RF discharge jet of low pressure and the discharge influence on the surface modification of high speed and structural steels are introduced in the article. Gas dynamics, power and energy parameters of the RF low pressure discharge flow in the discharge chamber and the electrode gap are studied in the presence of the materials. Plasma flow rate, discharge power, the concentration of electrons, the density of RF power, the ion current density, and the energy of the ions bombarding the surface materials are considered for the definition of basic properties crucial for the process of surface modification of materials as they were put in the plasma jet. The influence of the workpiece and effect of products complex configuration on the RF discharge jet of low pressure is defined. The correlation of the input parameters of the plasma unit on the characteristics of the discharge is established.

  5. The ASDEX Upgrade Parameter Server

    Neu, Gregor, E-mail: gregor.neu@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cole, Richard [Unlimited Computer Systems, Seeshaupter Str. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Gräter, Alex [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lüddecke, Klaus [Unlimited Computer Systems, Seeshaupter Str. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Rapson, Christopher J.; Raupp, Gerhard; Treutterer, Wolfgang; Zasche, Dietrich; Zehetbauer, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We describe our main tool in the plasma control configuration process. • Parameter access and computation are configurable with XML files. • Simple implementation of in situ tests by rerouting requests to test data. • Pulse specific overriding of parameters. - Abstract: Concepts for the configuration of plant systems and plasma control of modern devices such as ITER and W7-X are based on global data structures, or “pulse schedules” or “experiment programs”, which specify all physics characteristics (waveforms for controlled actuators and plasma quantities) and all technical characteristics of the plant systems (diagnostics and actuators operation settings) for a planned pulse. At ASDEX Upgrade we use different approach. We observed that the physics characteristics driving the discharge control system (DCS) are frequently modified on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Plant system operation, however, relies on technical standard settings, or “basic configurations” to provide guaranteed resources or services, which evolve according to longer term session or campaign operation schedules. This is why AUG manages technical configuration items separately from physics items. Consistent computation of the DCS configuration requires access to all this physics and technical data, which include the discharge programme (DP), settings of actuator systems and real-time diagnostics, the current system state and a database of static parameters. A Parameter Server provides a unified view on all these parameter sets and acts as the central point of access. We describe the functionality and architecture of the Parameter Server and its embedding into the control environment.

  6. Real time plasma control experiments using the JET auxiliary plasma heating systems as the actuator

    Zornig, N.H.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the Real Time Power Control system (RTPC) in the Joint European Torus (JET) is described in depth. The modes of operation are discussed in detail and a number of successful experiments are described. These experiments prove that RTPC can be used for a wide range of experiments, including: (1) Feedback control of plasma parameters in real time using Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) or Neutral Beam Heating (NBH) as the actuator in various JET operating regimes. It is demonstrated that in a multi-parameter space it is not sufficient to control one global plasma parameter in order to avoid performance limiting events. (2) Restricting neutron production and subsequent machine activation resulting from high performance pulses. (3) The simulation of α-particle heating effects in a DT-plasma in a D-only plasma. The heating properties of α-particles are simulated using ICRH-power, which is adjusted in real time. The simulation of α-particle heating in JET allows the effects of a change in isotopic mass to be separated from α-particle heating. However, the change in isotopic mass of the plasma ions appears to affect not only the global energy confinement time (τ E ) but also other parameters such as the electron temperature at the plasma edge. This also affects τ E , making it difficult to make a conclusive statement about any isotopic effect. (4) For future JET experiments a scheme has been designed which simulates the behaviour of a fusion reactor experimentally. The design parameters of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are used. In the proposed scheme the most relevant dimensionless plasma parameters are similar in JET and ITER. It is also shown how the amount of heating may be simulated in real time by RTPC using the electron temperature and density as input parameters. The results of two demonstration experiments are presented. (author)

  7. Study of the L-mode tokamak plasma “shortfall” with local and global nonlinear gyrokinetic δf particle-in-cell simulation

    Chowdhury, J.; Wan, Weigang; Chen, Yang; Parker, Scott E. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Groebner, Richard J. [General Atomics, Post Office Box 85068, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Howard, N. T. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The δ f particle-in-cell code GEM is used to study the transport “shortfall” problem of gyrokinetic simulations. In local simulations, the GEM results confirm the previously reported simulation results of DIII-D [Holland et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 052301 (2009)] and Alcator C-Mod [Howard et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 123011 (2013)] tokamaks with the continuum code GYRO. Namely, for DIII-D the simulations closely predict the ion heat flux at the core, while substantially underpredict transport towards the edge; while for Alcator C-Mod, the simulations show agreement with the experimental values of ion heat flux, at least within the range of experimental error. Global simulations are carried out for DIII-D L-mode plasmas to study the effect of edge turbulence on the outer core ion heat transport. The edge turbulence enhances the outer core ion heat transport through turbulence spreading. However, this edge turbulence spreading effect is not enough to explain the transport underprediction.

  8. Can the household sector reduce global warming mitigation costs? sensitivity to key parameters in a TIMES techno-economic energy model

    Astudillo, Miguel F.; Vaillancourt, Kathleen; Pineau, Pierre-Olivier; Amor, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An energy system model of Quebec is combined with building simulation software. •Greenhouse gas emission reductions efforts increase annual electricity peak demand. •Alternative heating tech. And building envelopes can effectively reduce peak demand. •Denser urban developments massively reduced costs of global warming mitigation. •CO 2 emissions from hydropower reservoirs are relevant in global warming mitigation. -- Abstract: The transition to low carbon societies may increase peak electricity demand, which can be costly to supply with renewable energy, whose availability is uncertain. Buildings are often the main cause of peak demand, and they are believed to hold a large unrealised energy-efficiency potential. If realised, this potential could considerably mitigate the transition costs to low carbon societies, reducing average and peak electricity demands. We explore this potential in several cost-optimal global warming (GW) mitigation scenarios using a multi-sector TIMES energy system model of the province of Quebec for the period 2011–2050. Heating and conservation measures in the residential sector are modelled using building simulations and parameters’ values from the literature. The intra-annual availability of renewable energy and electricity imports is derived from time-series analysis. Additionally, the influence of key parameters such as the projections of primary energy demand and emissions from reservoir impoundment is evaluated. Finally, we discuss some of the barriers that could hamper the energy transition and how they can be overcome. Results indicate that peak demand would rise by 30% due to GW mitigation efforts, but it can be effectively reduced by interventions in the residential sector. Heat pumps are the most cost effective heating technology, despite their lower efficiencies in cold climates. Better-insulated building envelopes have an important role in new houses, reducing by 14% the GW mitigation costs and

  9. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    1994-07-01

    40 papers are presented at this 21. conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics (JET). Titles are: effects of sawtooth crashes on beams ions and fusion product tritons; beta limits in H-modes and VH-modes; impurity induced neutralization of MeV energy protons in JET plasmas; lost α particle diagnostic for high-yield D-T fusion plasmas; 15-MeV proton emission from ICRF-heated plasmas; pulse compression radar reflectometry for density measurements; gamma-ray emission profile measurements during ICRH discharges; the new JET phase ICRH array; simulation of triton burn-up; parametric dependencies of JET electron temperature profiles; detached divertor plasmas; excitation of global Alfven Eigenmodes by RF heating; mechanisms of toroidal rotation; effect of shear in the radial electric field on confinement; plasma transport properties at the L-H transition; numerical study of plasma detachment conditions in JET divertor plasmas; the SOL width and the MHD interchange instability; non linear magnetic reconnection in low collisionality plasmas; topology and slowing down of high energy ion orbits; sawtooth crashes at high beta; fusion performances and alpha heating in future JET D-T plasmas; a stable route to high-beta plasmas with non-monotonic q-profiles; theory of propagation of changes to confinement; spatial distribution of gamma emissivity and fast ions during ICRF heating; multi-camera soft X-ray diagnostic; radiation phenomena and particle fluxes in the X-event; local measurement of transport parameters for laser injected trace impurities; impurity transport of high performance discharges; negative snakes and negative shear; neural-network charge exchange analysis; ion temperature anisotropy in helium neutral beam fuelling; impurity line emission due to thermal charge exchange in edge plasmas; control of convection by fuelling and pumping; VH mode accessibility and global H-mode properties; ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission; LHCD/ICRH synergy

  10. A mechanism for the formation and sustainment of the self-organized global profile and E   ×   B staircase in tokamak plasmas

    Wang, W.; Kishimoto, Y.; Imadera, K.; Li, J. Q.; Wang, Z. X.

    2018-05-01

    The mechanism for the formation and sustainment of a self-organized global profile and the ‘ E   ×   B staircase’ are investigated through simulations of a flux-driven ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence based on GKNET, a 5D global gyrokinetic code. The staircase is found to be initiated from the radially extended ITG mode structures with nearly up-down symmetry during the saturation phase, and is established as it evolves into a quasi-steady turbulence, leading to a self-organized global temperature profile and to meso-scale isomorphic profiles of the radial electric field and the temperature gradient. It is found that the quasi-regular E   ×   B shear flow pattern is primarily originated from an even-symmetrical zonal flow produced by the extended ITG mode, which flow pattern exhibits an in-phase relation with the mean flow variation induced by the temperature relaxation. Consequently, the staircase is initiated through the profiles of total electric field and temperature gradient with a self-organized manner. Since the sign of E   ×   B shear flow at the central part are opposite to that at both edges, it disintegrates the ITG mode into smaller scale eddies. Meanwhile, smaller scale eddies tend to be aligned radially by spontaneous phase matching, which can provide the growth of mode amplitude and the formation of radially extended mode structures, leading to the bursty heat transport. This process is repeated quasi-periodically, sustaining self-organized structures and the E   ×   B staircase. Moreover, the equilibrium mean field is found to be of specific importance in causing the structures and dynamics from meso- to macro scales in toroidal plasmas.

  11. Plasma Periostin Levels Are Increased in Chinese Subjects with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Are Positively Correlated with Glucose and Lipid Parameters.

    Luo, Yuanyuan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Wu, Jing; Duan, Yang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Huacong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relations among plasma periostin, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and inflammation in Chinese patients with obesity (OB), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma periostin levels in the T2DM group were significantly higher than the NGT group (P index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.05 or 0.001) and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TG, TNF-α, and HOMA-IR were independent related factors in influencing the levels of plasma periostin (P < 0.001). These results suggested that Chinese patients with obesity and T2DM had significantly higher plasma periostin levels. Plasma periostin levels were strongly associated with plasma TG, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance.

  12. Rapid dating of recent sediments in Loch Ness. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric measurements of global fallout plutonium

    Ketterer, Michael E.; Hafer, Kevin M.; Jones, Vivienne J.; Appleby, Peter G.

    2004-01-01

    The 239+240 Pu activity profile is determined for a sediment core collected from 170-m depth at Loch Ness, Scotland. These measurements use magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for rapid determination of Pu activities and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios. A 239+240 Pu detection limit of 0.1 Bq/kg is obtained for 2 g of acid-leached sediment; 242 Pu is used as a spike isotope. The Pu activity profile exhibits a maximum of 42.7±0.3 Bq/kg 239+240 Pu in the 9-10-cm depth interval. The position of this maximum coincides with peaks in the 241 Am and 137 Cs activity profiles. These peak activities are ascribed to the 1963/1964 peak fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios are in the range 0.15-0.20, in agreement with the expected range of 0.166-0.194 for Northern Hemisphere fallout, and do not suggest the presence of other contributing sources. This study demonstrates that ICPMS has considerable potential for rapid determination of the chronology of post-1950 sediments, and also for validating 210 Pb dates where chronologies over longer time-scales are needed

  13. Rapid dating of recent sediments in Loch Ness. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric measurements of global fallout plutonium

    Ketterer, Michael E.; Hafer, Kevin M. [Department of Chemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5698 (United States); Jones, Vivienne J. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom); Appleby, Peter G. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-25

    The {sup 239+240}Pu activity profile is determined for a sediment core collected from 170-m depth at Loch Ness, Scotland. These measurements use magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for rapid determination of Pu activities and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios. A {sup 239+240}Pu detection limit of 0.1 Bq/kg is obtained for 2 g of acid-leached sediment; {sup 242}Pu is used as a spike isotope. The Pu activity profile exhibits a maximum of 42.7{+-}0.3 Bq/kg {sup 239+240}Pu in the 9-10-cm depth interval. The position of this maximum coincides with peaks in the {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs activity profiles. These peak activities are ascribed to the 1963/1964 peak fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios are in the range 0.15-0.20, in agreement with the expected range of 0.166-0.194 for Northern Hemisphere fallout, and do not suggest the presence of other contributing sources. This study demonstrates that ICPMS has considerable potential for rapid determination of the chronology of post-1950 sediments, and also for validating {sup 210}Pb dates where chronologies over longer time-scales are needed.

  14. Measurement and modeling of plasma parameters in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of Ti in Ar/O.sub.2./sub. mixtures

    Čada, Martin; Lundin, D.; Hubička, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 17 (2017), s. 1-7, č. článku 171913. ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00863S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 608800 - HIPPOCAMP Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : reactive sputtering * HiPIMS * Langmuir probe * R-IRM model * plasma density * electron temperature Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.068, year: 2016

  15. Estimates of Water-Column Nutrient Concentrations and Carbonate System Parameters in the Global Ocean: A Novel Approach Based on Neural Networks

    Raphaëlle Sauzède

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A neural network-based method (CANYON: CArbonate system and Nutrients concentration from hYdrological properties and Oxygen using a Neural-network was developed to estimate water-column (i.e., from surface to 8,000 m depth biogeochemically relevant variables in the Global Ocean. These are the concentrations of three nutrients [nitrate (NO3−, phosphate (PO43−, and silicate (Si(OH4] and four carbonate system parameters [total alkalinity (AT, dissolved inorganic carbon (CT, pH (pHT, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2], which are estimated from concurrent in situ measurements of temperature, salinity, hydrostatic pressure, and oxygen (O2 together with sampling latitude, longitude, and date. Seven neural-networks were developed using the GLODAPv2 database, which is largely representative of the diversity of open-ocean conditions, hence making CANYON potentially applicable to most oceanic environments. For each variable, CANYON was trained using 80 % randomly chosen data from the whole database (after eight 10° × 10° zones removed providing an “independent data-set” for additional validation, the remaining 20 % data were used for the neural-network test of validation. Overall, CANYON retrieved the variables with high accuracies (RMSE: 1.04 μmol kg−1 (NO3−, 0.074 μmol kg−1 (PO43−, 3.2 μmol kg−1 (Si(OH4, 0.020 (pHT, 9 μmol kg−1 (AT, 11 μmol kg−1 (CT and 7.6 % (pCO2 (30 μatm at 400 μatm. This was confirmed for the eight independent zones not included in the training process. CANYON was also applied to the Hawaiian Time Series site to produce a 22 years long simulated time series for the above seven variables. Comparison of modeled and measured data was also very satisfactory (RMSE in the order of magnitude of RMSE from validation test. CANYON is thus a promising method to derive distributions of key biogeochemical variables. It could be used for a variety of global and regional applications ranging from data quality control

  16. GRAVIMETRIC-DETERMINATION OF THE WATER CONCENTRATION IN WHOLE-BLOOD, PLASMA AND ERYTHROCYTES AND CORRELATIONS WITH HEMATOLOGICAL AND CLINICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

    LIJNEMA, TH; HUIZENGA, [No Value; JAGER, J; MACKOR, AJ; GIPS, CH

    1993-01-01

    We have assessed gravimetric methods for determination of intravascular water, established whole blood-, plasma- and erythrocyte water reference values in a healthy volunteer group (n = 97, 48 females) and correlated these variables with 30 simultaneous hematological, clinicochemical and body

  17. Effect of intralesional platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment on clinical and ultrasonographic parameters in equine naturally occurring superficial digital flexor tendinopathies - a randomized prospective controlled clinical trial.

    Geburek, Florian; Gaus, Moritz; van Schie, Hans T M; Rohn, Karl; Stadler, Peter M

    2016-09-07

    Regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects on tendinopathies have been attributed to blood-derived biologicals. To date the evidence for the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment of naturally occurring equine tendinopathies is limited. The purpose of this placebo-controlled clinical trial was to describe the effect of a single treatment of equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) disease with PRP on clinical and ultrasonographic parameters. Twenty horses with naturally occurring tendinopathies of forelimb SDFTs were randomly assigned to the PRP-treated group (n = 10) or control group (n = 10) after clinical and ultrasonographic examination. The SDFTs received an intralesional treatment with autologous PRP or were injected with saline, respectively (day 0). All horses participated in a standardized exercise programme and were re-examined clinically, with B-mode ultrasonography (5 times at regular intervals) and ultrasound tissue characterization (week 12 and 24 after treatment) until week 24. Long-term performance was estimated via telephone inquiry. Compared to day 0, lameness decreased significantly by week 8 after treatment with PRP and by week 12 in the control group. Ultrasonographically there was no difference in the summarized cross sectional area between the groups at any time point. Ultrasound tissue characterization showed that echo types representing disorganized matrix decreased significantly throughout the observation period in the PRP-treated group. Echo type II, representing discontinuous fascicles, not yet aligned into lines of stress was significantly higher 24 weeks after PRP treatment. Eighty percent of the PRP treated horses reached their previous or a higher level of performance after 12 months compared to 50 % in the CG. After 24 months these proportions were 60 % and 50 %, respectively. A single intralesional treatment with PRP up to 8 weeks after onset of clinical signs of tendinopathy contributes

  18. Effect of a microbial phytase on growth performance, plasma parameters and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in Youxian Sheldrake fed a low-phosphorus corn-soybean diet

    Shaoping He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the effect of microbial phytase supplementation on growth performance, tibia ash, plasma parameters, apparent ileal digestibility (AID of amino acid (AA and apparent digestibility of nutrients in Youxian Sheldrakes fed with low-phosphorus (P corn-soybean diets. Methods A total of 350 Youxian Sheldrakes (7d old were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: positive control (PC group has adequate available P diet (0.42% and 0.38%, starter and grower, negative control (NC group were deficient in available P (0.32% and 0.28%, starter and grower and NC diet was supplemented with 3 levels of microbial phytase (500, 750, and 1,000 U/kg. Results Dietary supplementation of phytase in NC diet improved the average daily gain, increased the levels of serum calcium (Ca, tibia Ca and P, AID of AA and apparent digestibility of energy and Ca in starter stage (p<0.05. There was an increased (p<0.001 in the utilization of P from 17.3% to 23.9%. Phytase supplementation (1,000 U/kg has shown that the AID of His, Thr, Val, indispensable AA, Glu, Pro, and dispensable AA was higher (p<0.05 than that of NC. Moreover, phytase supplementation improved (p<0.05 serum and tibia Ca and P, AID of AA and apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, energy, P and Ca, and reduced (p<0.05 feed to gain ratio (F/G and the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase in grower stage. Likewise, an increase (p<0.001 in the utilization of P was noticed from 12.6% to 17.2%. Supplement phytase at 750 U/kg improved the AID of His, Thr, Asp, Cys, Pro, and Ser (p<0.05. Conclusion The microbial phytase supplement could improve growth performance, AID of some AA and apparent utilization of other nutrients in Youxian Sheldrakes, and reduce excreta P load to environment.

  19. Angular dependence of plasma parameters and film properties during high power impulse magnetron sputtering for deposition of Ti and TiO.sub.2./sub. layers

    Hippler, R.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Čada, Martin; Kšírová, Petra; Wulff, H.; Helm, C.A.; Straňák, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 17 (2017), s. 1-9, č. článku 171906. ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00863S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : HiPIMS * Langmuir probe * titanium dioxide * angular dependence * XRD * SEM Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.068, year: 2016

  20. Particle balance in diverted plasmas in TEXT-U

    Rowan, W.L.; Bengtson, R.D.; Bonnin, X.; Edmonds, P.H.; Hurwitz, P.D.; Solano, E.R.; Tsui, H.Y.W.; Uglum, J.R.; Wootton, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Tokamak plasmas in an open divertor configuration with the X-point at the inner equator were compared with plasmas limited by an inner toroidal belt. This paper describes and compares the particle balance in these two types of discharge. The plasma parameters n e (r), φ(r), T e (r), n e , and φ were measured in the scrape-off layer and in the plasma periphery at one poloidal location and mapped onto the rest of the plasma by assuming constancy on flux surfaces. Emission from neutral hydrogen was measured throughout the plasma. The particle source and then the global particle confinement were inferred from these measurements using a 3-D neutral transport simulation. The SOL profiles are significantly steeper in the diverted discharge. Both the source measurements and estimates from the SOL profiles indicate significantly better confinement in the diverted discharge. ((orig.))